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Sample records for 3-tesla imager body

  1. Three-dimensional ultrashort echo time imaging of solid polymers on a 3-Tesla whole-body MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Springer, Fabian; Martirosian, Petros; Schwenzer, Nina F; Szimtenings, Michael; Kreisler, Peter; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz

    2008-11-01

    With the introduction of ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequences solid polymeric materials might become visible on clinical whole-body magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. The aim of this study was to characterize solid polymeric materials typically used for instruments in magnetic resonance guided interventions and implants. Relaxation behavior and signal yield were evaluated on a 3-Tesla whole-body MR unit. Nine different commonly used solid polymeric materials were investigated by means of a 3-dimensional (3D) UTE sequence with radial k-space sampling. The investigated polymeric samples with cylindrical shape (length, 150 mm; diameter, 30 mm) were placed in a commercial 8-channel knee coil. For assessment of transverse signal decay (T2*) images with variable echo times (TE) ranging from 0.07 milliseconds to 4.87 milliseconds were recorded. Spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) was calculated for all MR visible polymers with transverse relaxation times higher than T2* = 300 mus using an adapted method applying variable flip angles. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated at the shortest achievable echo time (TE = 0.07 milliseconds) for standardized sequence parameters. All relaxation times and SNR data are given as arithmetic mean values with standard deviations derived from 5 axially oriented slices placed around the isocenter of the coil and magnet. Six of the 9 investigated solid polymers were visible at TE = 0.07 milliseconds. Visible solid polymers showed markedly different SNR values, ie, polyethylene SNR = 1146 +/- 41, polypropylene SNR = 60 +/- 6. Nearly mono-exponential echo time dependent signal decay was observed: Transverse relaxation times differed from T2*=36 +/- 5 mus for polycarbonate to T2*=792 +/- 7 mus for polyvinylchloride (PVC). Two of the investigated solid polymers were applicable to T1 relaxation time calculation. Polyurethane had a spin-lattice relaxation time of T1 = 172 +/- 1 milliseconds, whereas PVC had T1 = 262 +/- 7 milliseconds

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Fries, Peter; Runge, Val M; Kirchin, Miles A; Watkins, David M; Buecker, Arno; Schneider, Guenther

    2008-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has developed dramatically in the 25 years since its clinical introduction. Advances in hardware design have included the development of high field magnets and more sophisticated and sensitive coils. Improvements in sequences, data sampling, and postprocessing software have benefited the attainable spatial and temporal resolution to the point at which the fine depiction of anatomical structure and pathological processes is now routine. As in other radiological areas, the most recent advances in MRI have proven highly valuable in the field of musculoskeletal radiology where the lack of radiation, high soft tissue contrast, and capacity for multiplanar or three-dimensional imaging have made MRI the imaging modality of choice. Particular benefits are seen in diagnostic imaging of the spine where MRI is clearly superior to both conventional radiography and computed tomography. In this article, we discuss the impact of the most recent technological advance in MRI, namely the advent of 3 Tesla (3-T) imaging, on diagnostic imaging of the spine. Comparisons are drawn with imaging at 1.5 T, and emphasis is placed on MR physics and on the benefits and principal difficulties associated with spine imaging at high field strength.

  3. Programmable infusion pump and catheter: evaluation using 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Shellock, Frank G; Crivelli, Rocco; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna

    2008-07-01

    Objective.  This study assessed 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) issues for a programmable infusion pump and associated catheters. Methods.  A programmable infusion pump and associated catheters (MedStream Programmable Infusion Pump, 40 mL; SureStream TI Coil-Reinforced Intraspinal Catheter; SureStream TI Connector; and SureStream Silicone Catheter; Codman and Shurtleff Inc., a Johnson & Johnson Company, Raynham, MA, USA) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions (deflection angle and torque), heating (transmit/receive body radiofrequency coil; whole-body averaged specific absorption rate, 3 W/kg for 15 min), functional changes (before and after MRI using eight different MRI conditions), and artifacts (T1-weighted spin-echo and gradient-echo pulse sequences) at 3-Tesla. Results.  The programmable infusion pump and associated catheters exhibited minor magnetic field interactions. Heating was not excessive (≤ 1.9°), especially considering the experimental conditions used for this evaluation (ie, relatively high radiofrequency power/specific absorption rate level and use of a nonperfused phantom). The function of three out of six pumps was temporarily altered by exposures to 3-Tesla MRI conditions. Reset was achieved in each case. Artifacts were relatively large for the pump and minor for the catheter. Conclusions.  The programmable infusion pump and catheters will not pose increased risk to a patient examined using 3-Tesla MRI as long as specific safety guidelines are followed, which includes interrogation of the pump post-MRI to ensure proper settings. Artifacts for the programmable infusion pump may impact the diagnostic use of MRI if the area of interest is in the same area or near the device.

  4. Using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-operative evaluation of tongue carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Moreno, K F; Cornelius, R S; Lucas, F V; Meinzen-Derr, J; Patil, Y J

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in predicting tongue tumour thickness via direct and reconstructed measures, and their correlations with corresponding histological measures, nodal metastasis and extracapsular spread. A prospective study was conducted of 25 patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and pre-operative 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging from 2009 to 2012. Correlations between 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and histological measures of tongue tumour thickness were assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient: r values were 0.84 (p < 0.0001) and 0.81 (p < 0.0001) for direct and reconstructed measurements, respectively. For magnetic resonance imaging, direct measures of tumour thickness (mean ± standard deviation, 18.2 ± 7.3 mm) did not significantly differ from the reconstructed measures (mean ± standard deviation, 17.9 ± 7.2 mm; r = 0.879). Moreover, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging had 83 per cent sensitivity, 82 per cent specificity, 82 per cent accuracy and a 90 per cent negative predictive value for detecting cervical lymph node metastasis. In this cohort, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging measures of tumour thickness correlated highly with the corresponding histological measures. Further, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging was an effective method of detecting malignant adenopathy with extracapsular spread.

  5. Intraindividual comparison of image quality in MR urography at 1.5 and 3 tesla in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Regier, M; Nolte-Ernsting, C; Adam, G; Kemper, J

    2008-10-01

    Experimental evaluation of image quality of the upper urinary tract in MR urography (MRU) at 1.5 and 3 Tesla in a porcine model. In this study four healthy domestic pigs, weighing between 71 and 80 kg (mean 73.6 kg), were examined with a standard T1w 3D-GRE and a high-resolution (HR) T1w 3D-GRE sequence at 1.5 and 3 Tesla. Additionally, at 3 Tesla both sequences were performed with parallel imaging (SENSE factor 2). The MR urographic scans were performed after intravenous injection of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg body weight (bw)) and low-dose furosemide (0.1 mg/kg bw). Image evaluation was performed by two independent radiologists blinded to sequence parameters and field strength. Image analysis included grading of image quality of the segmented collecting system based on a five-point grading scale regarding anatomical depiction and artifacts observed (1: the majority of the segment (>50%) was not depicted or was obscured by major artifacts; 5: the segment was visualized without artifacts and had sharply defined borders). Signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios were determined. Statistical analysis included kappa-statistics, Wilcoxon and paired student t-test. The mean scores for MR urographies at 1.5 Tesla were 2.83 for the 3D-GRE and 3.48 for the HR3D-GRE sequence. Significantly higher values were determined using the corresponding sequences at 3 Tesla, averaging 3.19 for the 3D-GRE (p = 0.047) and 3.92 for the HR3D-GRE (p = 0,023) sequence. Delineation of the pelvicaliceal system was rated significantly higher at 3 Tesla compared to 1.5 Tesla (3D-GRE: p = 0.015; HR3D-GRE: p = 0.006). At 3 Tesla the mean SNR and CNR were significantly higher (p < 0.05). A kappa of 0.67 indicated good interobserver agreement. In an experimental setup, MR urography at 3 Tesla allowed for significantly higher image quality and SNR compared to 1.5 Tesla, particularly for the visualization of the pelvicaliceal system.

  6. 3 Tesla turbo-FLASH magnetic resonance imaging of deglutition.

    PubMed

    Amin, Milan R; Lazarus, Cathy L; Pai, Vinay M; Mulholland, Thomas P; Shepard, Timothy; Branski, Ryan C; Wang, Edwin Y

    2012-04-01

    In this article we describe a methodology for obtaining high-quality dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences of the swallow sequence in healthy volunteers. The study includes comparison to previous work done in our lab using a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnet. Case series. Three healthy volunteers underwent turbo-fast low angle shot MRI at 3T while swallowing liquid boluses delivered via intravenous tubing to the oral cavity. Imaging was performed in the sagittal and axial planes. Imaging provided by this sequence provided high temporal resolution, with the ability to depict deglutition in the axial and sagittal planes. Comparison with imaging at 1.5 T demonstrated benefits in temporal resolution and signal-to-noise. Anatomic information provided differed from comparative videofluoroscopy. MRI of swallowing using the described technique is reliable and provides a unique evaluation of the swallowing sequence. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Analyzing 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging units for implementation in radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Mack, Andreas; Wolff, Robert; Scheib, Stefan; Rieker, Marcus; Weltz, Dirk; Mack, G; Kreiner, Hans-Jürg; Pilatus, Ulrich; Zanella, Friedhelm E; Böttcher, Heinz D; Seifert, Volker

    2005-01-01

    The limiting factor affecting accuracy during gamma knife surgery is image quality. The new generation of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging units with field strength up to 3 teslas promise superior image quality for anatomical resolution and contrast. There are, however, questions about chemical shifts or susceptibility effects, which are the subject of this paper. The 3-tesla MR imaging unit (Siemens Trio) was analyzed and compared with a 1-tesla unit (Siemens Magnetom Expert) and to a 1.5-tesla unit (Philips Gyroscan). Evaluation of the magnitude of error was performed within transverse slices in two orientations (axial/coronal) by using a cylindrical phantom with an embedded grid. Deviations were determined for 21 targets in a slab phantom with known geometrical positions within the stereotactic frame. Distortions caused by chemical shift and/or susceptibility effects were analyzed in a head phantom. Inhouse software was used for data analyses. The mean deviation was less than 0.3 mm in axial and less than 0.4 mm in coronal orientations. For the known targets the maximum deviation was 1.16 mm. By optimizing these parameters in the protocol these inaccuracies could be reduced to less than 1.1 mm. Due to inhomogeneities a shift in the z direction of up to 1.5 mm was observed for a dataset, which was shown to be compressed by 1.2 mm. The 3-tesla imaging unit showed superior anatomical contrast and resolution in comparison with the established 1-tesla and 1.5-tesla units; however, due to the high field strength the field within the head coil is very sensitive to inhomogeneities and therefore 3-tesla imaging data will have be handled with care.

  8. High resolution spectroscopic imaging of GABA at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Edden, Richard A E; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Barker, Peter B

    2011-03-01

    A spin echo-based MRSI sequence was developed to acquire edited spectra of γ-aminobutyric acid in an entire slice. Water and lipid signals were suppressed by a dual-band presaturation sequence, which included integrated outer volume suppression pulses for additional lipid suppression. Experiments in three normal volunteers were performed at 3 T using a 32-channel head coil. High signal-to-noise ratio spectra and metabolic images of γ-aminobutyric acid were acquired from nominal 4.5 cm3 voxels (estimated actual voxel size 7.0 cm3) in a scan time of 17 min. The sequence is also expected to co-edit homocarnosine and macromolecules, giving a composite γ-aminobutyric acid+ resonance. The γ-aminobutyric acid+ to water ratio was measured using a companion water MRSI scan and was found to correlate linearly with the % gray matter (GM) of each voxel (γ-aminobutyric acid+/water=(1.5×GM+3.2)×10(-5), R=0.27), with higher γ-aminobutyric acid+ levels in gray matter compared with white. In conclusion, high signal-to-noise ratio γ-aminobutyric acid-MRSI is possible at 3 T within clinically feasible scan times. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. High Resolution Spectroscopic Imaging of GABA at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, He; Edden, Richard A. E.; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Barker, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    A spin echo-based MRSI sequence was developed to acquire edited spectra of γ-aminobutyric acid in an entire slice. Water and lipid signals were suppressed by a dual-band presaturation sequence, which included integrated outer volume suppression pulses for additional lipid suppression. Experiments in three normal volunteers were performed at 3 T using a 32-channel head coil. High signal-to-noise ratio spectra and metabolic images of γ-aminobutyric acid were acquired from nominal 4.5 cm3 voxels (estimated actual voxel size 7.0 cm3) in a scan time of 17 min. The sequence is also expected to co-edit homocarnosine and macromolecules, giving a composite γ-aminobutyric acid+ resonance. The γ-aminobutyric acid+ to water ratio was measured using a companion water MRSI scan and was found to correlate linearly with the % gray matter (GM) of each voxel (γ-aminobutyric acid+/water = (1.5 × GM + 3.2) × 10−5, R = 0.27), with higher γ-aminobutyric acid+ levels in gray matter compared with white. In conclusion, high signal-to-noise ratio γ-aminobutyric acid-MRSI is possible at 3 T within clinically feasible scan times. PMID:21337399

  10. Practical Methods for Improving B1+ Homogeneity in 3 Tesla Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Simone A.; Rutt, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To improve image contrast and B1+ field homogeneity in 3 Tesla (T) breast MR. Materials and Methods Two practical B1+ shimming methods for 3T breast MR are presented; low-cost passive shimming using local pads of high dielectric permittivity (εr from 0 to 100), and two-channel radiofrequency (RF) shimming (adjusting Q-I amplitude ratios and phase differences of 0 to −4 dB and 90 to 45 degrees), as well as a combination of both methods. The technique has been studied both in simulation using a numerical body model with added mammary tissue and in vivo in six subjects. Results Large improvements are observed with both methods, leading to a decrease in left–right B1+ asymmetry ratio of 1.24 to 1.00 (simulation) and from 1.26 to 1.01 (in vivo). RF safety was not adversely affected. Conclusion Both RF shimming and dielectric shimming were shown to improve inhomogeneity in the B1+ field in 3T breast MR. PMID:24723508

  11. [Examination of upper abdominal region in high spatial resolution diffusion-weighted imaging using 3-Tesla MRI].

    PubMed

    Terada, Masaki; Matsushita, Hiroki; Oosugi, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuyasu; Yaegashi, Taku; Anma, Takeshi

    2009-03-20

    The advantage of the higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-Tesla) has the possibility of contributing to the improvement of high spatial resolution without causing image deterioration. In this study, we compared SNR and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with 3-Tesla as the condition in the diffusion-weighted image (DWI) parameter of the 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (1.5-Tesla) and we examined the high spatial resolution images in the imaging method [respiratory-triggering (RT) method and breath free (BF) method] and artifact (motion and zebra) in the upper abdominal region of DWI at 3-Tesla. We have optimized scan parameters based on phantom and in vivo study. As a result, 3-Tesla was able to obtain about 1.5 times SNR in comparison with the 1.5-Tesla, ADC value had few differences. Moreover, the RT method was effective in correcting the influence of respiratory movement in comparison with the BF method, and image improvement by the effective acquisition of SNR and reduction of the artifact were provided. Thus, DWI of upper abdominal region was a useful sequence for the high spatial resolution in 3-Tesla.

  12. Chemical exchange saturation transfer MR imaging of Parkinson’s disease at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei; Peng, Shuai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Haibo; Su, Wen; Zhao, Xuna; Zhou, Jinyuan; Chen, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the feasibility of using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging to detect Parkinson’s disease (PD) in patients at 3 Tesla. Methods Twenty-seven PD patients (17 men and 10 women; age range, 54–77 years) and 22 age-matched normal controls (13 men and 9 women; age range, 55–73 years) were examined on a 3-Tesla MRI system. Magnetization transfer spectra with 31 different frequency offsets (−6 to 6 ppm) were acquired at two transverse slices of the head, including the basal ganglia and midbrain. One-way analysis of variance tests was used to compare the differences in CEST imaging signals between PD patients and normal controls. Results Total CEST signal between the offsets of 0 and 4 ppm in the substantia nigra was significantly lower in PD patients than in normal controls (P=0.006), which could be associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Protein-based CEST imaging signals at the offset of 3.5 ppm in the globus pallidus, putamen and caudate were significantly increased in PD patients, compared to normal controls (P<0.001, P=0.003, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions CEST imaging signals could potentially serve as imaging biomarkers to aid in the non-invasive molecular diagnosis of PD. PMID:25038850

  13. Value of 3 Tesla diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for assessing liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Papalavrentios, Lavrentios; Sinakos, Emmanouil; Chourmouzi, Danai; Hytiroglou, Prodromos; Drevelegas, Konstantinos; Constantinides, Manos; Drevelegas, Antonios; Talwalkar, Jayant; Akriviadis, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly the new generation 3 Tesla technology, and especially diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in predicting liver fibrosis. The aim of our pilot study was to assess the clinical performance of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of liver parenchyma for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). 18 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD underwent DWI with 3 Tesla MRI. DWI was performed with single-shot echo-planar technique at b values of 0-500 and 0-1000 s/mm(2). ADC was measured in four locations in the liver and the mean ADC value was used for analysis. Staging of fibrosis was performed according to the METAVIR system. The median age of patients was 52 years (range 23-73). The distribution of patients in different fibrosis stages was: 0 (n=1), 1 (n=7), 2 (n=1), 3 (n=5), 4 (n=4). Fibrosis stage was poorly associated with ADC at b value of 0-500 s/mm(2) (r= -0.30, P=0.27). However it was significantly associated with ADC at b value of 0-1000 s/mm(2) (r= -0.57, P=0.01). For this b value (0-1000 s/mm(2)) the area under receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.93 for fibrosis stage ≥3 and the optimal ADC cut-off value was 1.16 ×10(-3) mm(2)/s. 3 Tesla DWI can possibly predict the presence of advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

  14. GRASE imaging at 3 Tesla with template interactive phase-encoding.

    PubMed

    Jovicich, J; Norris, D G

    1998-06-01

    A new method for ordering the phase-encoding gradient is proposed, and an application for short effective TE gradient- and spin-echo (GRASE) imaging is demonstrated. The proposed method calculates the phase-encoding order from the signal decay of a template scan (hence "template interactive phase-encoding" or TIPE). Computer simulations are used to compare the point spread functions of different phase-encoding orders giving short effective echo times (kb centric GRASE, centric GRASE, centric TIPE). The conventional centric phase-encoding order is also considered for GRASE. The conventional centric method is sensitive to both amplitude and phase modulation of the signal in k-space. The centric TIPE method gives the least amplitude modulation artifacts but is vulnerable to phase artifacts. The TIPE experiment was implemented on a 3 Tesla system. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first in vivo GRASE images at this field strength.

  15. 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction with relevance to clinical staging.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Soldatos, Theodoros; Chalian, Majid; Faridian-Aragh, Neda; Fritz, Jan; Fayad, Laura M; Carrino, John A; Schon, Lew

    2011-01-01

    The posterior tibial tendon (PTT) is the most important dynamic stabilizer of the medial ankle and longitudinal arch of the foot. PTT dysfunction is a degenerative disorder of the tendon, which secondarily involves multiple ligaments, joint capsules, fascia, articulations, and bony structures of the ankle, hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot. When the tendon progressively attenuates, the patient develops a painful, progressive collapsed flatfoot or pes planovalgus deformity. This comprehensive review illustrates the 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3T MRI) features of PTT dysfunction. In addition, the reader will gain knowledge of the expected pathologic findings on MRI, as they are related to clinical staging of PTT dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Partial epilepsy: A pictorial review of 3 TESLA magnetic resonance imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Abud, Lucas Giansante; Thivard, Lionel; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Dormont, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a disease with serious consequences for patients and society. In many cases seizures are sufficiently disabling to justify surgical evaluation. In this context, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most valuable tools for the preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci. Because these lesions show a large variety of presentations (including subtle imaging characteristics), their analysis requires careful and systematic interpretation of MRI data. Several studies have shown that 3 Tesla (T) MRI provides a better image quality than 1.5 T MRI regarding the detection and characterization of structural lesions, indicating that high-field-strength imaging should be considered for patients with intractable epilepsy who might benefit from surgery. Likewise, advanced MRI postprocessing and quantitative analysis techniques such as thickness and volume measurements of cortical gray matter have emerged and in the near future, these techniques will routinely enable more precise evaluations of such patients. Finally, the familiarity with radiologic findings of the potential epileptogenic substrates in association with combined use of higher field strengths (3 T, 7 T, and greater) and new quantitative analytical post-processing techniques will lead to improvements regarding the clinical imaging of these patients. We present a pictorial review of the major pathologies related to partial epilepsy, highlighting the key findings of 3 T MRI. PMID:26375569

  17. Comparison of radiofrequency body coils for MRI at 3 Tesla: a simulation study using parallel transmission on various anatomical targets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaotong; Tian, Jinfeng; Schmitter, Sebastian; Hanna, Brian; Strupp, John; Pfeuffer, Josef; Hamm, Michael; Wang, Dingxin; Nistler, Juergen; He, Bin; Vaughan, J. Thomas; Ugurbil, Kamil; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois

    2015-01-01

    The performance of multichannel transmit coil layouts and parallel transmission (pTx) radiofrequency (RF) pulse design was evaluated with respect to transmit B1 (B1+) homogeneity and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) at 3 Tesla for a whole body coil. Five specific coils were modeled and compared: a 32-rung birdcage body coil (driven either in a fixed quadrature mode or a two-channel transmit mode), two single-ring stripline arrays (with either 8 or 16 elements), and two multi-ring stripline arrays (with 2 or 3 identical rings, stacked in the z-axis and each comprising eight azimuthally distributed elements). Three anatomical targets were considered, each defined by a 3D volume representative of a meaningful region of interest (ROI) in routine clinical applications. For a given anatomical target, global or local SAR controlled pTx pulses were designed to homogenize RF excitation within the ROI. At the B1+ homogeneity achieved by the quadrature driven birdcage design, pTx pulses with multichannel transmit coils achieved up to ~8 fold reduction in local and global SAR. When used for imaging head and cervical spine or imaging thoracic spine, the double-ring array outperformed all coils including the single-ring arrays. While the advantage of the double-ring array became much less pronounced for pelvic imaging with a substantially larger ROI, the pTx approach still provided significant gains over the quadrature birdcage coil. For all design scenarios, using the 3-ring array did not necessarily improve the RF performance. Our results suggest that pTx pulses with multichannel transmit coils can reduce local and global SAR substantially for body coils while attaining improved B1+ homogeneity, particularly for a “z-stacked” double-ring design with coil elements arranged on two transaxial rings. PMID:26332290

  18. Human brain diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter isotropic resolution on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Sundman, Mark; Petit, Laurent; Guhaniyogi, Shayan; Chu, Mei-Lan; Petty, Christopher; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-09-01

    The advantages of high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been demonstrated in a recent post-mortem human brain study (Miller et al., NeuroImage 2011;57(1):167-181), showing that white matter fiber tracts can be much more accurately detected in data at a submillimeter isotropic resolution. To our knowledge, in vivo human brain DTI at a submillimeter isotropic resolution has not been routinely achieved yet because of the difficulty in simultaneously achieving high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in DTI scans. Here we report a 3D multi-slab interleaved EPI acquisition integrated with multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) reconstruction, to achieve high-quality, high-SNR and submillimeter isotropic resolution (0.85×0.85×0.85mm(3)) in vivo human brain DTI on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner. In agreement with the previously reported post-mortem human brain DTI study, our in vivo data show that the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be mapped more accurately and completely with high-resolution DTI as compared with conventional DTI (e.g., 2×2×2mm(3)).

  19. 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging of the occipitoatlantoaxial region in the normal horse.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Crespo, Beatriz; Kircher, Patrick R; Carrera, Ines

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the appearance of the ligamentous structures of the occipitoatlantoaxial (OAA) region in the normal horse by 3 tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI images of the longitudinal odontoid ligament, tectorial membrane, dorsal and ventral atlantoaxial ligaments, dorsal atlantooccipital membrane with its reinforcing ligaments, and the lateral atlantooccipital ligaments of 10 horse cadavers were evaluated. All ligaments and membranes were identified in all planes, except for the lateral atlantooccipital ligament in the sagittal plane due to its cranioventrolateral course. All were iso to mildly hypointense to musculature of the neck in T1W with the exception of the tectorial membrane that was moderately hypointense; moderately hypointense in PD-SPIR, and markedly hypointense (isointense to cortical bone) in T2W. The PD-SPIR was the best sequence to identify all ligaments and membranes from their cranial and caudal attachments. The longitudinal odontoid ligament, ventral atlantoaxial ligament, and reinforcing bands of the dorsal atlantooccipital membrane presented a characteristic striped heterogeneous signal behavior thought to be due to fibrocartilaginous content. The remaining ligaments and membranes showed homogeneous signal intensity. Special anatomical features in this species such as the fan-shaped longitudinal odontoid ligament, absence of the transverse ligament and presence of the ventral atlantoaxial ligament were documented. Ligamentous structures that stabilize the equine OAA region were described with MRI in this study and these findings could serve as an anatomic reference for those cases where instability of this region is suspected.

  20. Horizontal nystagmus and multiple sclerosis using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Iyer, P M; Fagan, A J; Meaney, J F; Colgan, N C; Meredith, S D; Driscoll, D O; Curran, K M; Bradley, D; Redmond, J

    2016-11-01

    Nystagmus in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is generally attributed to brainstem disease. Lesions in other regions may result in nystagmus. The identification of these other sites is enhanced by using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3TMRI) due to increased signal-to-noise ratio. We sought to evaluate the distribution of structural lesions and disruption of tracts in patients with horizontal nystagmus secondary to MS using 3TMRI. Twenty-four patients (20 women, 4 men; age range 26-55 years) with horizontal nystagmus secondary to MS underwent 3TMRI brain scans; and 18 patients had diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for tractography. Nystagmus was bidirectional in 11, right-sided in 6 and left-sided in 7. We identified 194 lesions in 20 regions within the neural integrator circuit in 24 patients; 140 were within the cortex and 54 were within the brainstem. Only two patients had no lesions in the cortex, and 9 had no lesions in the brainstem. There was no relationship between side of lesion and direction of nystagmus. Thirteen of 18 (72 %) had tract disruption with fractional anisotropy (FA) values below 0.2. FA was significantly lower in bidirectional compared to unidirectional nystagmus (p = 0.006). In MS patients with horizontal nystagmus, lesions in all cortical eye fields and their descending connections were evident. Technical improvements in tractography may help identify the specific site(s) resulting in nystagmus in MS.

  1. Potential heating caused by intraparenchymal intracranial pressure transducers in a 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging system using a body radiofrequency resonator: assessment of the Codman MicroSensor Transducer.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Virginia F J; Hawkes, Robert C; Harding, Sally G; Willcox, Roslyn; Brock, Sarah; Hutchinson, Peter J; Menon, David K; Carpenter, T Adrian; Coles, Jonathan P

    2008-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy may provide important clinical information in the acute stages of brain injury. For this to occur it must be ensured that intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring devices are safe to bring into the MR imaging suite. The authors tested a Codman MicroSensor ICP Transducer (Codman & Shurtleff, Inc.) within a 3-T MR imaging system using the transmit body coil and receive-only coils and the transmit-and-receive head coil. Extreme and rapid heating of 64 degrees C was noted with the transducer wire in certain positions when using the transmit body coil and receive-only head coil. This is consistent with the phenomenon of resonance, and the probe was shown to have a distinct resonant response when coupled to HP 4195A Network Analyzer (Hewlett Packard). Coiling some of the transducer wire outside of the receive-only head coil reduced the generated current and so stopped the thermogenesis. This may be due to the introduction of a radiofrequency choke. The ICP transducer performed within clinically acceptable limits in both the static magnetic field and during imaging with high radiofrequency power when the excess wire was in this configuration. No heating was observed when a transmit-and-receive head coil was used. This study has shown when using a high-field magnet, the Codman ICP probe is MR conditional. That is, in the authors' system, it can be safely used with the transmit-and-receive head coil, but when using the transmit body coil the transducer wire must be coiled into concentric loops outside of the receive-only head coil.

  2. 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study of the normal canine femoral and sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Sievert, Christine; Richter, Henning; Gascho, Dominic; Kircher, Patrick R; Carrera, Inés

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the normal course and optimizing visualization of the canine peripheral nerves of the lumbar plexus, in particular the sciatic and the femoral nerves, is essential when interpreting images of patients with suspected peripheral neuropathies such as inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The purpose of this prospective, anatomic study was to describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anatomy of the normal canine femoral and sciatic nerves and to define the sequences in which the nerves are best depicted. A preliminary postmortem cadaver study was performed to determine optimal sequences and imaging protocol. In a second step the optimized technique was implemented on 10 healthy Beagle dogs, included in the study. The applied protocol included the following sequences: T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2-Spectral Attenuated Inversion Recovery, T1-weighted postcontrast and T1-Spectral Presaturated Inversion Recovery postcontrast. All sequences had satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio and contrast resolution in all patients. The sciatic and femoral nerves were seen in all images. They were symmetric and of homogeneous signal intensity, being iso- to mildly hyperintense to muscle on T2-weighted, mildly hyperintense in T2-Spectral Attenuated Inversion Recovery, and iso- to mildly hypointense in T1-weighted images. No evidence of contrast enhancement in T1-weighted and T1-Spectral Presaturated Inversion Recovery postcontrast sequences was observed. The anatomic landmarks helpful to identify the course of the femoral and sciatic nerves are described in detail. This study may be used as an anatomical reference, depicting the normal canine femoral and sciatic nerves at 3 Tesla MRI. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  3. Diffusion kurtosis imaging of the liver at 3 Tesla: in vivo comparison to standard diffusion-weighted imaging.

    PubMed

    Budjan, Johannes; Sauter, Elke A; Zoellner, Frank G; Lemke, Andreas; Wambsganss, Jens; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Attenberger, Ulrike I

    2017-01-01

    Background Functional techniques like diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are gaining more and more importance in liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced technique that might help to overcome current limitations of DWI. Purpose To evaluate DKI for the differentiation of hepatic lesions in comparison to conventional DWI at 3 Tesla. Material and Methods Fifty-six consecutive patients were examined using a routine abdominal MR protocol at 3 Tesla which included DWI with b-values of 50, 400, 800, and 1000 s/mm(2). Apparent diffusion coefficient maps were calculated applying a standard mono-exponential fit, while a non-Gaussian kurtosis fit was used to obtain DKI maps. ADC as well as Kurtosis-corrected diffusion ( D) values were quantified by region of interest analysis and compared between lesions. Results Sixty-eight hepatic lesions (hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC] [n = 25]; hepatic adenoma [n = 4], cysts [n = 18]; hepatic hemangioma [HH] [n = 18]; and focal nodular hyperplasia [n = 3]) were identified. Differentiation of malignant and benign lesions was possible based on both DWI ADC as well as DKI D-values ( P values were in the range of 0.04 to < 0.0001). Conclusion In vivo abdominal DKI calculated using standard b-values is feasible and enables quantitative differentiation between malignant and benign liver lesions. Assessment of conventional ADC values leads to similar results when using b-values below 1000 s/mm(2) for DKI calculation.

  4. Evaluation of optimal echo time for 1H-spectroscopic imaging of brain tumors at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Hattingen, Elke; Pilatus, Ulrich; Franz, Kea; Zanella, Friedhelm E; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2007-08-01

    To compare the spectral quality of short echo time (TE) MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI, TE = 30 msec) with long-TE MRSI (TE = 144 msec) at 3 Tesla in normal brain and tumor tissue. Spectroscopic imaging (chemical-shift imaging (CSI)) data of 32 patients with histopathological confirmed brain lesions were acquired at 3 Tesla (3T) using TEs of 30 msec and 144 msec. Tumor-relevant metabolites (trimethylamine (TMA), creatine compounds (tCr), and N-acetylated compounds (tNAA)) were analyzed with LCModel software, which applies prior knowledge by performing a frequency domain fit using a linear combination of model spectra. Short-TE spectra provided up to twice the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to TE = 144 msec. The estimated fitting error was improved up to 30% for TMA and tCr, but was slightly reduced (10%) for tNAA. Quantification in terms of absolute concentrations was consistent at both TEs. Since other metabolites observable at TE < 30 msec may be of diagnostic relevance, short-TE MRSI should be the preferred method at 3T for the evaluation of focal lesions in brain tissue; however, TE = 144 msec can serve as an option for MRS in regions with potential baseline problems. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of 100 brain examinations using a 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator-safety, handling, and image quality.

    PubMed

    Sirin, Selma; Goericke, Sophia L; Huening, Britta M; Stein, Anja; Kinner, Sonja; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Schweiger, Bernd

    2013-10-01

    Several studies have revealed the importance of brain imaging in term and preterm infants. The aim of this retrospective study was to review safety, handling, and image quality of MR brain imaging using a new 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator. Between 02/2011 and 05/2012 100 brain MRIs (84 infants, mean gestational age 32.2 ± 4.7 weeks, mean postmenstrual age at imaging 40.6 ± 3.4 weeks) were performed using a 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator with dedicated, compatible head coil. Seventeen examinations (13 infants, mean gestational age 35.1 ± 5.4 weeks, mean postmenstrual age at imaging 47.8 ± 7.4 weeks) with a standard head coil served as a control. Image analysis was performed by a neuroradiologist and a pediatric radiologist in consensus. All but two patients with known apnea were transferred to the MR unit and scanned without problems. Handling was easier and faster with the incubator; relevant motion artifacts (5.9 vs. 10.8%) and the need for repetitive sedation (43.0 vs. 86.7%) were reduced. Considering only images not impaired by motion artifacts, image quality (4.8 ± 0.4 vs. 4.3 ± 0.8, p = 0.047) and spatial resolution (4.7 ± 0.4 vs. 4.2 ± 0.6, p = 0.011) of T2-weighted images were scored significantly higher in patients imaged with the incubator. SNR increased significantly (171.6 ± 54.5 vs. 80.5 ± 19.8, p < 0.001) with the use of the incubator. Infants can benefit from the use of a 3 Tesla MR-compatible incubator because of its safety, easier, and faster handling (compared to standard imaging) and possibility to obtain high-quality MR images even in unstable patients.

  6. Impairment of chondrocyte biosynthetic activity by exposure to 3-tesla high-field magnetic resonance imaging is temporary.

    PubMed

    Sunk, Ilse-Gerlinde; Trattnig, Siegfried; Graninger, Winfried B; Amoyo, Love; Tuerk, Birgit; Steiner, Carl-Walter; Smolen, Josef S; Bobacz, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The influence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices at high field strengths on living tissues is unknown. We investigated the effects of a 3-tesla electromagnetic field (EMF) on the biosynthetic activity of bovine articular cartilage. Bovine articular cartilage was obtained from juvenile and adult animals. Whole joints or cartilage explants were subjected to a pulsed 3-tesla EMF; controls were left unexposed. Synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) was measured by using [35S]sulfate incorporation; mRNA encoding the cartilage markers aggrecan and type II collagen, as well as IL-1beta, were analyzed by RT-PCR. Furthermore, effects of the 3-tesla EMF were determined over the course of time directly after exposure (day 0) and at days 3 and 6. In addition, the influence of a 1.5-tesla EMF on cartilage sGAG synthesis was evaluated. Chondrocyte cell death was assessed by staining with Annexin V and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Exposure to the EMF resulted in a significant decrease in cartilage macromolecule synthesis. Gene expression of both aggrecan and IL-1beta, but not of collagen type II, was reduced in comparison with controls. Staining with Annexin V and TUNEL revealed no evidence of cell death. Interestingly, chondrocytes regained their biosynthetic activity within 3 days after exposure, as shown by proteoglycan synthesis rate and mRNA expression levels. Cartilage samples exposed to a 1.5-tesla EMF remained unaffected. Although MRI devices with a field strength of more than 1.5 T provide a better signal-to-noise ratio and thereby higher spatial resolution, their high field strength impairs the biosynthetic activity of articular chondrocytes in vitro. Although this decrease in biosynthetic activity seems to be transient, articular cartilage exposed to high-energy EMF may become vulnerable to damage.

  7. Impairment of chondrocyte biosynthetic activity by exposure to 3-tesla high-field magnetic resonance imaging is temporary

    PubMed Central

    Sunk, Ilse-Gerlinde; Trattnig, Siegfried; Graninger, Winfried B; Amoyo, Love; Tuerk, Birgit; Steiner, Carl-Walter; Smolen, Josef S; Bobacz, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The influence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices at high field strengths on living tissues is unknown. We investigated the effects of a 3-tesla electromagnetic field (EMF) on the biosynthetic activity of bovine articular cartilage. Bovine articular cartilage was obtained from juvenile and adult animals. Whole joints or cartilage explants were subjected to a pulsed 3-tesla EMF; controls were left unexposed. Synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) was measured by using [35S]sulfate incorporation; mRNA encoding the cartilage markers aggrecan and type II collagen, as well as IL-1β, were analyzed by RT–PCR. Furthermore, effects of the 3-tesla EMF were determined over the course of time directly after exposure (day 0) and at days 3 and 6. In addition, the influence of a 1.5-tesla EMF on cartilage sGAG synthesis was evaluated. Chondrocyte cell death was assessed by staining with Annexin V and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Exposure to the EMF resulted in a significant decrease in cartilage macromolecule synthesis. Gene expression of both aggrecan and IL-1β, but not of collagen type II, was reduced in comparison with controls. Staining with Annexin V and TUNEL revealed no evidence of cell death. Interestingly, chondrocytes regained their biosynthetic activity within 3 days after exposure, as shown by proteoglycan synthesis rate and mRNA expression levels. Cartilage samples exposed to a 1.5-tesla EMF remained unaffected. Although MRI devices with a field strength of more than 1.5 T provide a better signal-to-noise ratio and thereby higher spatial resolution, their high field strength impairs the biosynthetic activity of articular chondrocytes in vitro. Although this decrease in biosynthetic activity seems to be transient, articular cartilage exposed to high-energy EMF may become vulnerable to damage. PMID:16831232

  8. Comparison of Deep Brain Stimulation Lead Targeting Accuracy and Procedure Duration between 1.5- and 3-Tesla Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Systems: An Initial 12-Month Experience.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Derek G; Narvid, Jared A; Martin, Alastair J; Qasim, Salman E; Starr, Philip A; Larson, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    Interventional magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) allows deep brain stimulator lead placement under general anesthesia. While the accuracy of lead targeting has been described for iMRI systems utilizing 1.5-tesla magnets, a similar assessment of 3-tesla iMRI procedures has not been performed. To compare targeting accuracy, the number of lead targeting attempts, and surgical duration between procedures performed on 1.5- and 3-tesla iMRI systems. Radial targeting error, the number of targeting attempts, and procedure duration were compared between surgeries performed on 1.5- and 3-tesla iMRI systems (SmartFrame and ClearPoint systems). During the first year of operation of each system, 26 consecutive leads were implanted using the 1.5-tesla system, and 23 consecutive leads were implanted using the 3-tesla system. There was no significant difference in radial error (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.26), number of lead placements that required multiple targeting attempts (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.59), or bilateral procedure durations between surgeries performed with the two systems (p = 0.15). Accurate DBS lead targeting can be achieved with iMRI systems utilizing either 1.5- or 3-tesla magnets. The use of a 3-tesla magnet, however, offers improved visualization of the target structures and allows comparable accuracy and efficiency of placement at the selected targets. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Knee implant imaging at 3 Tesla using high-bandwidth radiofrequency pulses.

    PubMed

    Bachschmidt, Theresa J; Sutter, Reto; Jakob, Peter M; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Nittka, Mathias

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the impact of high-bandwidth radiofrequency (RF) pulses used in turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences or combined with slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) on artifact reduction at 3 Tesla in the knee in the presence of metal. Local transmit/receive coils feature increased maximum B1 amplitude, reduced SAR exposition and thus enable the application of high-bandwidth RF pulses. Susceptibility-induced through-plane distortion scales inversely with the RF bandwidth and the view angle, hence blurring, increases for higher RF bandwidths, when SEMAC is used. These effects were assessed for a phantom containing a total knee arthroplasty. TSE and SEMAC sequences with conventional and high RF bandwidths and different contrasts were tested on eight patients with different types of implants. To realize scan times of 7 to 9 min, SEMAC was always applied with eight slice-encoding steps and distortion was rated by two radiologists. A local transmit/receive knee coil enables the use of an RF bandwidth of 4 kHz compared with 850 Hz in conventional sequences. Phantom scans confirm the relation of RF bandwidth and through-plane distortion, which can be reduced up to 79%, and demonstrate the increased blurring for high-bandwidth RF pulses. In average, artifacts in this RF mode are rated hardly visible for patients with joint arthroplasties, when eight SEMAC slice-encoding steps are applied, and for patients with titanium fixtures, when TSE is used. The application of high-bandwidth RF pulses by local transmit coils substantially reduces through-plane distortion artifacts at 3 Tesla. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Improving quality of arterial spin labeling MR imaging at 3 Tesla with a 32-channel coil and parallel imaging.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Petr, Jan; Bannier, Elise; Barillot, Christian; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves

    2012-05-01

    To compare 12-channel and 32-channel phased-array coils and to determine the optimal parallel imaging (PI) technique and factor for brain perfusion imaging using Pulsed Arterial Spin labeling (PASL) at 3 Tesla (T). Twenty-seven healthy volunteers underwent 10 different PASL perfusion PICORE Q2TIPS scans at 3T using 12-channel and 32-channel coils without PI and with GRAPPA or mSENSE using factor 2. PI with factor 3 and 4 were used only with the 32-channel coil. Visual quality was assessed using four parameters. Quantitative analyses were performed using temporal noise, contrast-to-noise and signal-to-noise ratios (CNR, SNR). Compared with 12-channel acquisition, the scores for 32-channel acquisition were significantly higher for overall visual quality, lower for noise and higher for SNR and CNR. With the 32-channel coil, artifact compromise achieved the best score with PI factor 2. Noise increased, SNR and CNR decreased with PI factor. However mSENSE 2 scores were not always significantly different from acquisition without PI. For PASL at 3T, the 32-channel coil at 3T provided better quality than the 12-channel coil. With the 32-channel coil, mSENSE 2 seemed to offer the best compromise for decreasing artifacts without significantly reducing SNR, CNR. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Diffusion weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient in 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging of breast lesions.

    PubMed

    Caivano, Rocchina; Villonio, Antonio; D' Antuono, Felice; Gioioso, Matilde; Rabasco, Paola; Iannelli, Giancarlo; Zandolino, Alexis; Lotumolo, Antonella; Dinardo, Giuseppina; Macarini, Luca; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Cammarota, Aldo

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the utility of diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) and apparent-diffusion-coefficient (ADC) in a 3T magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) study of breast cancer. In particular, the study aims to classify ADC-values according to histology either for benign or malignant lesions. 110 Breast MRI with MRI-DWI sequences and quantitative evaluation of the ADC were retrospectively reviewed. Results obtained with MRI-DWI and with biopsy were analyzed and ADC values were compared to histological results. MRI showed a 95.5% sensitivity and a 83.7% specificity. The mean ADC values of benign and malignant lesions were 2.06 ± 0.19 and 1.03 ± 0.07 mm(2)/s, respectively (p < .05). DWI and ADC-values could help distinguishing malignant and benign breast masses.

  12. Local Multi-Channel RF Surface Coil versus Body RF Coil Transmission for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance at 3 Tesla: Which Configuration Is Winning the Game?

    PubMed

    Weinberger, Oliver; Winter, Lukas; Dieringer, Matthias A; Els, Antje; Oezerdem, Celal; Rieger, Jan; Kuehne, Andre; Cassara, Antonino M; Pfeiffer, Harald; Wetterling, Friedrich; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using local four-channel RF coil transmission and benchmark it against large volume body RF coil excitation. Electromagnetic field simulations are conducted to detail RF power deposition, transmission field uniformity and efficiency for local and body RF coil transmission. For both excitation regimes transmission field maps are acquired in a human torso phantom. For each transmission regime flip angle distributions and blood-myocardium contrast are examined in a volunteer study of 12 subjects. The feasibility of the local transceiver RF coil array for cardiac chamber quantification at 3 Tesla is demonstrated. Our simulations and experiments demonstrate that cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using four-channel surface RF coil transmission is competitive versus current clinical CMR practice of large volume body RF coil transmission. The efficiency advantage of the 4TX/4RX setup facilitates shorter repetition times governed by local SAR limits versus body RF coil transmission at whole-body SAR limit. No statistically significant difference was found for cardiac chamber quantification derived with body RF coil versus four-channel surface RF coil transmission. Our simulation also show that the body RF coil exceeds local SAR limits by a factor of ~2 when driven at maximum applicable input power to reach the whole-body SAR limit. Pursuing local surface RF coil arrays for transmission in cardiac MR is a conceptually appealing alternative to body RF coil transmission, especially for patients with implants.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation after implantation of a titanium cervical disc prosthesis: a comparison of 1.5 and 3 Tesla magnet strength.

    PubMed

    Sundseth, Jarle; Jacobsen, Eva A; Kolstad, Frode; Nygaard, Oystein P; Zwart, John A; Hol, Per K

    2013-10-01

    Cervical disc prostheses induce significant amount of artifact in magnetic resonance imaging which may complicate radiologic follow-up after surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate as to what extent the artifact, induced by the frequently used Discover(®) cervical disc prosthesis, impedes interpretation of the MR images at operated and adjacent levels in 1.5 and 3 Tesla MR. Ten subsequent patients were investigated in both 1.5 and 3 Tesla MR with standard image sequences one year following anterior cervical discectomy with arthroplasty. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the images by consensus. Emphasis was made on signal changes in medulla at all levels and visualization of root canals at operated and adjacent levels. A "blur artifact ratio" was calculated and defined as the height of the artifact on T1 sagittal images related to the operated level. The artifacts induced in 1.5 and 3 Tesla MR were of entirely different character and evaluation of the spinal cord at operated level was impossible in both magnets. Artifacts also made the root canals difficult to assess at operated level and more pronounced in the 3 Tesla MR. At the adjacent levels however, the spinal cord and root canals were completely visualized in all patients. The "blur artifact" induced at operated level was also more pronounced in the 3 Tesla MR. The artifact induced by the Discover(®) titanium disc prosthesis in both 1.5 and 3 Tesla MR, makes interpretation of the spinal cord impossible and visualization of the root canals difficult at operated level. Adjusting the MR sequences to produce the least amount of artifact is important.

  14. Usefulness of 3-Tesla cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of aortic stenosis severity in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Levy, Franck; Iacuzio, Laura; Civaia, Filippo; Rusek, Stephane; Dommerc, Carine; Hugues, Nicolas; Alexandrescu, Clara; Dor, Vincent; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Dreyfus, Gilles

    2016-11-01

    Recently, 1.5-Tesla cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was reported to provide a reliable alternative to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for the quantification of aortic stenosis (AS) severity. Few data are available using higher magnetic field strength MRI systems in this context. To evaluate the feasibility and reproducibility of the assessment of aortic valve area (AVA) using 3-Tesla CMR in routine clinical practice, and to assess concordance between TTE and CMR for the estimation of AS severity. Ninety-one consecutive patients (60 men; mean age 74±10years) with known AS documented by TTE were included prospectively in the study. All patients underwent comprehensive TTE and CMR examination, including AVA estimation using the TTE continuity equation (0.81±0.18cm(2)), direct CMR planimetry (CMRp) (0.90±0.22cm(2)) and CMR using Hakki's formula (CMRhk), a simplified Gorlin formula (0.70±0.19cm(2)). Although significant agreement with TTE was found for CMRp (r=0.72) and CMRhk (r=0.66), CMRp slightly overestimated (bias=0.11±0.18cm(2)) and CMRhk slightly underestimated (bias=-0.11±0.17cm(2)) AVA compared with TTE. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibilities of CMR measurements were excellent (r=0.72 and r=0.74 for CMRp and r=0.88 and r=0.92 for peak aortic velocity, respectively). 3-Tesla CMR is a feasible, radiation-free, reproducible imaging modality for the estimation of severity of AS in routine practice, knowing that CMRp tends to overestimate AVA and CMRhk to underestimate AVA compared with TTE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of three commercially available radio frequency coils for human brain imaging at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Mekle, Ralf; van der Zwaag, Wietske; Joosten, Andreas; Gruetter, Rolf

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate a transverse electromagnetic (TEM), a circularly polarized (CP) (birdcage), and a 12-channel phased array head coil at the clinical field strength of B0 = 3T in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), signal homogeneity, and maps of the effective flip angle alpha. SNR measurements were performed on low flip angle gradient echo images. In addition, flip angle maps were generated for alpha(nominal) = 30 degrees using the double angle method. These evaluation steps were performed on phantom and human brain data acquired with each coil. Moreover, the signal intensity variation was computed for phantom data using five different regions of interest. In terms of SNR, the TEM coil performs slightly better than the CP coil, but is second to the smaller 12-channel coil for human data. As expected, both the TEM and the CP coils show superior image intensity homogeneity than the 12-channel coil, and achieve larger mean effective flip angles than the combination of body and 12-channel coil with reduced radio frequency power deposition. At 3T the benefits of TEM coil design over conventional lumped element(s) coil design start to emerge, though the phased array coil retains an advantage with respect to SNR performance.

  16. Sensitivity of an eight-element phased array coil in 3 Tesla MR imaging: a basic analysis.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Yoshiyasu; Miki, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Keiichi; Kiriyama, Ikuko; Mochizuki, Teruhito; Takahashi, Shizue; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the performance advantages of an 8-element phased array head coil (8 ch coil) over a conventional quadrature-type birdcage head coil (QD coil) with regard to the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and image uniformity in 3 Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We scanned a phantom filled with silicon oil using an 8 ch coil and a QD coil in a 3T MR imaging system and compared the SNR and image uniformity obtained from T(1)-weighted spin echo (SE) images and T(2)-weighted fast SE images between the 2 coils. We also visually evaluated images from 4 healthy volunteers. The SNR with the 8 ch coil was approximately twice that with the QD coil in the region of interest (ROI), which was set as 75% of the area in the center of the phantom images. With regard to the spatial variation of sensitivity, the SNR with the 8 ch coil was lower at the center of the images than at the periphery, whereas the SNR with the QD coil exhibited an inverse pattern. At the center of the images with the 8 ch coil, the SNR was somewhat lower, and that distribution was relatively flat compared to that in the periphery. Image uniformity varied less with the 8 ch coil than with the QD coil on both imaging sequences. The 8 ch phased array coil was useful for obtaining high quality 3T images because of its higher SNR and improved image uniformity than those obtained with conventional quadrature-type birdcage head coil.

  17. Predicting response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer: diffusion-weighted 3 Tesla MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Jung, Se Hee; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Shin, Sang Soo; Soung, Min-Gyu; Kim, Heong Rok; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on 3 Tesla (T) MR imaging to predict the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Thirty-five patients who underwent neoadjuvant CRT and subsequent surgical resection were included. Tumor volume was measured on T2-weighted MR images before and after neoadjuvant CRT and the percentage of tumor volume reduction was calculated. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was measured on the DWI before and after neoadjuvant CRT, and the change of ADC (Δ ADC) was calculated. The histopathologic response was categorized either as a responder to CRT or as a nonresponder. The relationship between the ADC parameters and the percentage of tumor volume reduction or histopathologic response was then evaluated. There was a significant correlation between tumor volume reduction and pre-CRT ADC and Δ ADC, respectively (r = -0.352, r = 0.615). Pre-CRT ADC of the histopathologic responders was significantly lower than that of the histopathologic nonresponders (P = 0.034). Δ ADC of the histopathologic responders was significantly higher than that of the histopathologic nonresponders (P < 0.005). DWI on 3T MR imaging may be a promising technique for helping to predict and monitor the treatment response to neoadjuvant CRT in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Differences in Velopharyngeal Structure during Speech among Asians Revealed by 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Movie Mode

    PubMed Central

    Nunthayanon, Kulthida; Honda, Ei-ichi; Shimazaki, Kazuo; Ohmori, Hiroko; Inoue-Arai, Maristela Sayuri; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Ono, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Different bony structures can affect the function of the velopharyngeal muscles. Asian populations differ morphologically, including the morphologies of their bony structures. The purpose of this study was to compare the velopharyngeal structures during speech in two Asian populations: Japanese and Thai. Methods. Ten healthy Japanese and Thai females (five each) were evaluated with a 3-Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner while they produced vowel-consonant-vowel syllable (/asa/). A gradient-echo sequence, fast low-angle shot with segmented cine and parallel imaging technique was used to obtain sagittal images of the velopharyngeal structures. Results. MRI was carried out in real time during speech production, allowing investigations of the time-to-time changes in the velopharyngeal structures. Thai subjects had a significantly longer hard palate and produced shorter consonant than Japanese subjects. The velum of the Thai participants showed significant thickening during consonant production and their retroglossal space was significantly wider at rest, whereas the dimensional change during task performance was similar in the two populations. Conclusions. The 3 T MRI movie method can be used to investigate velopharyngeal function and diagnose velopharyngeal insufficiency. The racial differences may include differences in skeletal patterns and soft-tissue morphology that result in functional differences for the affected structures. PMID:26273584

  19. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  20. Differences in Velopharyngeal Structure during Speech among Asians Revealed by 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Movie Mode.

    PubMed

    Nunthayanon, Kulthida; Honda, Ei-ichi; Shimazaki, Kazuo; Ohmori, Hiroko; Inoue-Arai, Maristela Sayuri; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Ono, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Different bony structures can affect the function of the velopharyngeal muscles. Asian populations differ morphologically, including the morphologies of their bony structures. The purpose of this study was to compare the velopharyngeal structures during speech in two Asian populations: Japanese and Thai. Ten healthy Japanese and Thai females (five each) were evaluated with a 3-Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner while they produced vowel-consonant-vowel syllable (/asa/). A gradient-echo sequence, fast low-angle shot with segmented cine and parallel imaging technique was used to obtain sagittal images of the velopharyngeal structures. MRI was carried out in real time during speech production, allowing investigations of the time-to-time changes in the velopharyngeal structures. Thai subjects had a significantly longer hard palate and produced shorter consonant than Japanese subjects. The velum of the Thai participants showed significant thickening during consonant production and their retroglossal space was significantly wider at rest, whereas the dimensional change during task performance was similar in the two populations. The 3 T MRI movie method can be used to investigate velopharyngeal function and diagnose velopharyngeal insufficiency. The racial differences may include differences in skeletal patterns and soft-tissue morphology that result in functional differences for the affected structures.

  1. Local Multi-Channel RF Surface Coil versus Body RF Coil Transmission for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance at 3 Tesla: Which Configuration Is Winning the Game?

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Lukas; Dieringer, Matthias A.; Els, Antje; Oezerdem, Celal; Rieger, Jan; Kuehne, Andre; Cassara, Antonino M.; Pfeiffer, Harald; Wetterling, Friedrich; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using local four-channel RF coil transmission and benchmark it against large volume body RF coil excitation. Methods Electromagnetic field simulations are conducted to detail RF power deposition, transmission field uniformity and efficiency for local and body RF coil transmission. For both excitation regimes transmission field maps are acquired in a human torso phantom. For each transmission regime flip angle distributions and blood-myocardium contrast are examined in a volunteer study of 12 subjects. The feasibility of the local transceiver RF coil array for cardiac chamber quantification at 3 Tesla is demonstrated. Results Our simulations and experiments demonstrate that cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using four-channel surface RF coil transmission is competitive versus current clinical CMR practice of large volume body RF coil transmission. The efficiency advantage of the 4TX/4RX setup facilitates shorter repetition times governed by local SAR limits versus body RF coil transmission at whole-body SAR limit. No statistically significant difference was found for cardiac chamber quantification derived with body RF coil versus four-channel surface RF coil transmission. Our simulation also show that the body RF coil exceeds local SAR limits by a factor of ~2 when driven at maximum applicable input power to reach the whole-body SAR limit. Conclusion Pursuing local surface RF coil arrays for transmission in cardiac MR is a conceptually appealing alternative to body RF coil transmission, especially for patients with implants. PMID:27598923

  2. A novel computerized algorithm to detect microstructural brainstem pathology in Parkinson's disease using standard 3 Tesla MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Boelmans, Kai; Spies, Lothar; Sedlacik, Jan; Fiehler, Jens; Jahn, Holger; Gerloff, Christian; Münchau, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Increased deposition of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease (PD) is known to be prominent in the brainstem and discussed to be clinically relevant for motor and non-motor features. Whether structural magnetic resonance imaging is capable to detect degraded tissue microstructure caused by increased deposition of α-synuclein at this predilection site in PD remains unclear. We hypothesize that microstructural degradation in the brainstem leads to a reduced T1 contrast provoking standard tissue segmentation engines to misclassify tissue as additional grey matter in regions predominantly composed of white matter. High-resolution T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) imaging at 3 Tesla in fifty-two PD patients with mild-to-moderate disease severity and in forty age- and gender-matched healthy controls was performed. A dedicated computerized algorithm that comprises standard tissue segmentation in combination with a statistical test was set up that evaluates grey matter composition on voxel level. The algorithm detected a single significant cluster of voxels with enhanced grey matter (cluster volume is 1,368 mm(3), p < 0.05 corrected for false discovery rate) in the pontomedullary junction of the brainstem in PD patients as compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, absolute grey matter volume was significantly higher in the brainstem of the PD group compared to healthy controls. We conclude that this cluster may reflect α-synuclein induced microstructural brainstem pathology in PD.

  3. 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging obtained 4 hours after intravenous gadolinium injection in patients with sudden deafness.

    PubMed

    Tagaya, Mitsuhiko; Teranishi, Masaaki; Naganawa, Shinji; Iwata, Tomoyuki; Yoshida, Tadao; Otake, Hironao; Nakata, Seiichi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    3 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 4 h after intravenous gadolinium (Gd) injection provides sufficient anatomic resolution of the inner ear fluid spaces in sudden deafness. The signal intensity ratio (SIR) between the cochlea and cerebellum may be a good indicator of disruption of the blood-labyrinthine barrier. We evaluated the inner ear 4 h after intravenous Gd injection to determine whether 3T MRI enables the acquisition of images of the affected inner ear in sudden deafness. Ten patients underwent 3T MRI scanning 4 h after intravenous Gd injection. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) MRI was performed. The SIR varied from 0.45 to 2.17 in 11 affected ears and from 0.43 to 1.48 in 9 unaffected ears. The difference of contrast (affected ear vs unaffected ear) could be detected in five of the nine patients with unilateral sudden deafness. The Gd distribution was recognized in the vestibule of 10 affected ears and in the cochlea of 5 affected ears, in which no significant hydrops was observed. In the remaining vestibules and cochleas of affected ears, the Gd enhancement was too faint to evaluate the endolymphatic hydrops.

  4. Distinction between pyogenic brain abscess and necrotic brain tumour using 3-tesla MR spectroscopy, diffusion and perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Chiang, I-C; Hsieh, T-J; Chiu, M-L; Liu, G-C; Kuo, Y-T; Lin, W-C

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of relative cerebral blood volume, apparent diffusion coefficient and spectroscopic imaging in differentiating between cerebral abscesses and necrotic tumours. In the prospective study, a 3-tesla MR unit was used to perform proton MR spectroscopy, diffusion and perfusion imaging in 20 patients with cerebral abscesses and 26 patients who had solitary brain tumours (14 high-grade gliomas and 12 metastases). We found the mean apparent diffusion coefficient value at the central cavities of the cerebral abscesses to be significantly lower than in necrotic tumours. The mean relative cerebral blood volume values of the necrotic tumour wall were statistically significantly higher than the mean relative cerebral blood volume values of the cerebral abscess wall by the Student's t-test. The proton spectra obtained revealed amino acids only in the cerebral abscesses. Although the conventional MRI characteristics of cerebral abscesses and necrotic tumours may sometimes be similar, diffusion, perfusion-weighted and spectroscopic MRI enables distinction between the two.

  5. Hip imaging of avascular necrosis at 7 Tesla compared with 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Theysohn, J M; Kraff, O; Theysohn, N; Orzada, S; Landgraeber, S; Ladd, M E; Lauenstein, T C

    2014-05-01

    To compare ultra-high field, high-resolution bilateral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hips at 7 Tesla (T) with 3 T MRI in patients with avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head by subjective image evaluations, contrast measurements, and evaluation of the appearance of imaging abnormalities. Thirteen subjects with avascular necrosis treated using advanced core decompression underwent MRI at both 7 T and 3 T. Sequence parameters as well as resolution were kept identical for both field strengths. All MR images (MEDIC, DESS, PD/T2w TSE, T1w TSE, and STIR) were evaluated by two radiologists with regard to subjective image quality, soft tissue contrasts, B1 homogeneity (four-point scale, higher values indicating better image quality) and depiction of imaging abnormalities of the femoral heads (three-point scale, higher values indicating the superiority of 7 T). Contrast ratios of soft tissues were calculated and compared with subjective data. 7-T imaging of the femoral joints, as well as 3-T imaging, achieved "good" to "very good" quality in all sequences. 7 T showed significantly higher soft tissue contrasts for T2w and MEDIC compared with 3 T (cartilage/fluid: 2.9 vs 2.2 and 3.6 vs 2.6), better detailed resolution for cartilage defects (PDw, T2w, T1w, MEDIC, DESS > 2.5) and better visibility of joint effusions (MEDIC 2.6; PDw/T2w 2.4; DESS 2.2). Image homogeneity compared with 3 T (3.9-4.0 for all sequences) was degraded, especially in TSE sequences at 7 T through signal variations (7 T: 2.1-2.9); to a lesser extent also GRE sequences (7 T: 2.9-3.5). Imaging findings related to untreated or treated AVN were better delineated at 3 T (≤1.8), while joint effusions (2.2-2.6) and cartilage defects (2.5-3.0) were better visualized at 7 T. STIR performed much more poorly at 7 T, generating large contrast variations (1.5). 7-T hip MRI showed comparable results in hip joint imaging compared with 3 T with slight advantages in contrast detail

  6. [Reproducibility and accuracy in the morphometric and mechanical quantification of trabecular bone from 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images].

    PubMed

    Alberich-Bayarri, A; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Sanz-Requena, R; Sánchez-González, J; Hervás Briz, V; García-Martí, G; Pérez, M Á

    2014-01-01

    We used an animal model to analyze the reproducibility and accuracy of certain biomarkers of bone image quality in comparison to a gold standard of computed microtomography (μCT). We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and μCT to study the metaphyses of 5 sheep tibiae. The MR images (3 Teslas) were acquired with a T1-weighted gradient echo sequence and an isotropic spatial resolution of 180μm. The μCT images were acquired using a scanner with a spatial resolution of 7.5μm isotropic voxels. In the preparation of the images, we applied equalization, interpolation, and thresholding algorithms. In the quantitative analysis, we calculated the percentage of bone volume (BV/TV), the trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), the trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), the trabecular index (Tb.N), the 2D fractal dimension (D(2D)), the 3D fractal dimension (D(3D)), and the elastic module in the three spatial directions (Ex, Ey and Ez). The morphometric and mechanical quantification of trabecular bone by MR was very reproducible, with percentages of variation below 9% for all the parameters. Its accuracy compared to the gold standard (μCT) was high, with errors less than 15% for BV/TV, D(2D), D(3D), and E(app)x, E(app)y and E(app)z. Our experimental results in animals confirm that the parameters of BV/TV, D(2D), D(3D), and E(app)x, E(app)y and E(app)z obtained by MR have excellent reproducibility and accuracy and can be used as imaging biomarkers for the quality of trabecular bone. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Modern 3D and 2D MR Imaging Sequences of the Wrist at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Rehnitz, C; Klaan, B; von Stillfried, F; Amarteifio, E; Burkholder, I; Kauczor, H U; Weber, M A

    2016-08-01

    To compare the image quality of modern 3 D and 2 D sequences for dedicated wrist imaging at 3 Tesla (T) MRI. At 3 T MRI, 18 patients (mean age: 36.2 years) with wrist pain and 16 healthy volunteers (mean age: 26.4 years) were examined using 2 D proton density-weighted fat-saturated (PDfs), isotropic 3 D TrueFISP, 3 D MEDIC, and 3 D PDfs SPACE sequences. Image quality was rated on a five-point scale (0 - 4) including overall image quality (OIQ), visibility of important structures (cartilage, ligaments, TFCC) and degree of artifacts. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of cartilage/bone/muscle/fluid as well as the mean overall SNR/CNR were calculated using region-of-interest analysis. ANOVA, paired t-, and Wilcoxon-signed-rank tests were applied. The image quality of all tested sequences was superior to 3 D PDfs SPACE (p < 0.01). 3 D TrueFISP had the highest combined cartilage score (mean: 3.4) and performed better in cartilage comparisons against 3 D PDfs SPACE in both groups and 2 D PDfs in volunteers (p < 0.05). 3 D MEDIC performed better in 7 of 8 comparisons (p < 0.05) regarding ligaments and TFCC. 2 D PDfs provided constantly high scores. The mean overall SNR/CNR for 2 D PDfs, 3 D PDfs SPACE, 3 D TrueFISP, and 3 D MEDIC were 68/65, 32/27, 45/47, and 57/45, respectively. 2 D PDfs performed best in most SNR/CNR comparisons (p < 0.05) and 3 D MEDIC performed best within the 3 D sequences (p < 0.05). Except 3 D PDfs SPACE, all tested 3 D and 2 D sequences provided high image quality. 3 D TrueFISP was best for cartilage imaging, 3 D MEDIC for ligaments and TFCC and 2 D PDfs for general wrist imaging. • 3 D TrueFISP is recommended for cartilage imaging of the wrist at 3 T.• 3 D MEDIC is recommended for ligaments and TFCC.• Robust 2 D PDfs should be used in routine protocols. 3 D sequences may be added depending on the clinical question

  8. Multiparametric 3-Tesla Endorectal MR Imaging after External Beam Radiation Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Westphalen, Antonio C.; Reed, Galen D.; Vinh, Phillip P.; Sotto, Christopher; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the best combination of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters for the detection of locally recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy. Materials and Methods Our IRB approved this study with a waiver of informed consent. Twenty-six patients with suspected recurrence due to biochemical failure were part of this research. The MR protocol included T2-weighted, MR spectroscopic, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy was the standard of reference. We used logistic regression to model the probability of a positive outcome and generalized estimating equations to account for clustering. The diagnostic performance of imaging was described using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The area under the ROC curve of MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) was 83.0% (95% CI = 75.5 to 89.1). The combination of all MR techniques did not significantly improve the performance of imaging beyond the accuracy of MRSI alone, but a trend towards improved discrimination was noted (86.9%; 95% CI = 77.6 to 93.4; P = 0.09). Conclusion In conclusion, incorporation of MRSI to T2-weighted and/or diffusion-weighted MR imaging significantly improves the assessment of patients with suspected recurrence after radiotherapy and a combined approach with all three modalities may have the best diagnostic performance. PMID:22535708

  9. Visual language and handwriting movement: functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 tesla during generation of ideographic characters.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, K; Kato, C; Tanaka, S; Sugio, T; Matsuzawa, M; Inui, T; Moriya, T; Glover, G H; Nakai, T

    2001-07-01

    A functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment at 3 tesla was performed to investigate the collaborative mechanism between visuospatial processing and motor execution in performing visual language generation tasks. Japanese Kanji, ideographic characters, were utilized to design tasks. The bilateral border portions between the inferior parietal lobule and the occipital lobe were involved during a Kanji puzzle task, which required subjects to combine several parts into a Kanji. The higher motor areas, such as the premotor areas and the pre-supplementary motor areas, were also activated bilaterally during the puzzle task. The parieto-occipital activation may be related to analysis of configuration or segmentation/integration of Kanji figures. Activation in the higher motor areas may be induced by cognitive components related to motor function to perform the visuospatial language task, such as intense reference for displayed characters and finding a proper character for puzzle solution. A collaborative mechanism in these areas may explain the effectiveness of tactile reading in letter recognition by patients with pure alexia or kinesthetic facilitation by Kanji users when recalling difficult Kanji.

  10. Peripheral nerve tractography in soft tissue tumors: a preliminary 3-tesla diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Kasprian, Gregor; Amann, Gabriele; Panotopoulos, Joannis; Schmidt, Manfred; Dominkus, Martin; Trattnig, Siegfried; Windhager, Reinhard; Prayer, Daniela; Nöbauer-Huhmann, Iris

    2015-03-01

    This diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) study aimed to clarify the relationship of peripheral nerves and soft tissue tumors (STTs) in 3D to optimize subsequent treatment. Twenty-six consecutive STT patients (histologically malignant, n=10; intermediate, n=3; and benign, n=13) underwent 3-Tesla MRI using an echoplanar DTI sequence. Deterministic tractography was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured within peritumoral and distant regions of interest. Tractography depicted the 3D course of the sciatic (n=12), femoral (n=2), tibial (n=7), fibular (n=2), median (n=1), musculocutaneous (n=1), and ulnar (n=1) nerves in a regular (n=8 of 18, 44.4%) or thinned (n=7 of 18, 38.9%) fashion. The lowest peritumoral FA values, abrupt thinning, and/or complete discontinuity of trajectories were found in 2 cases with histologically proven tumoral nerve infiltration. DTI clarifies the 3D topography between major peripheral nerves and STTs and may be helpful in the assessment of peripheral nerve infiltration by malignant tumors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Endometrium evaluation with high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging in patients submitted to uterine leiomyoma embolization

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Monica Amadio Piazza; Nasser, Felipe; Zlotnik, Eduardo; Messina, Marcos de Lorenzo; Baroni, Ronaldo Hueb

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the endometrial alterations related to embolization of uterine arteries for the treatment of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis (pelvic pain and/or uterine bleeding) by means of high-field (3-Tesla) magnetic resonance. Methods: This is a longitudinal and prospective study that included 94 patients with a clinical and imaging diagnosis of symptomatic uterine leiomyomatosis, all of them treated by embolization of the uterine arteries. The patients were submitted to evaluations by high-field magnetic resonance of the pelvis before and 6 months after the procedure. Specific evaluations were made of the endometrium on the T2-weighted sequences, and on the T1-weighted sequences before and after the intravenous dynamic infusion of the paramagnetic contrast. In face of these measures, statistical analyses were performed using Student's t test for comparison of the results obtained before and after the procedure. Results: An average increase of 20.9% was noted in the endometrial signal on T2-weighted images obtained after the uterine artery embolization procedure when compared to the pre-procedure evaluation (p=0.0004). In the images obtained with the intravenous infusion of paramagnetic contrast, an average increase of 18.7% was noted in the post-embolization intensity of the endometrial signal, compared to the pre-embolization measure (p<0.035). Conclusion: After embolization of the uterine arteries, there was a significant increase of the endometrial signal on the T2-weighted images and on the post-contrast images, inferring possible edema and increased endometrial flow. Future studies are needed to assess the clinical impact of these findings. PMID:23579745

  12. HASTE diffusion-weighted 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of primary and relapsing cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Pizzini, Francesca B; Barbieri, Franco; Beltramello, Alberto; Alessandrini, Franco; Fiorino, Francesco

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the value of half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (HASTE DW MRI) using a 3-Tesla (3T) unit in the diagnosis of primary and relapsing cholesteatoma. Retrospective observational investigation. Tertiary referral center. Seventeen patients suspected of having a primary cholesteatoma without clear clinical evidence of the lesion, and 13 patients who were candidates to a second-stage tympanoplasty to rule out a relapsing cholesteatoma or reconstruct the ossicular chain were investigated. All patients were scanned in a 3T scanner with a 4-channel head coil using T2 HASTE DW MRI technique sequences in axial and coronal planes covering the middle ear and mastoid regions. Images were considered positive for cholesteatoma in the presence of a hyperintense, patchy-like lesion in the petrous bone. Images showed a high signal intensity suggestive of primary cholesteatoma in 10 of 17 patients and of relapsing cholesteatoma in 7 of 13 patients. Of the 17 subjects, 15 with positive MRI findings were operated on, and the presence of cholesteatoma (ranging from 2 to 20 mm in size) was confirmed at surgery. Of the 13 subjects shown to be negative on HASTE DW MRI for cholesteatoma, 11 were operated on and were all confirmed to be cholesteatoma-free. Half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging technique, using a 3T unit, may be a diagnostic tool for a rapid and highly reliable discrimination between cholesteatomatous and noncholesteatomatous tissue in the middle ear, with 100% of positive and negative predictive values.

  13. Stereotactic biopsy in gliomas guided by 3-tesla 1H-chemical-shift imaging of choline.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Elvis J; Hattingen, Elke; Krauss, Joachim K; Marquardt, Gerhard; Pilatus, Ulrich; Franz, Kea; Setzer, Matthias; Gasser, Thomas; Tews, Dominique S; Zanella, Friedhelm E; Seifert, Volker; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2008-01-01

    To investigate chemical-shift imaging (CSI) to guide stereotactic biopsy of the choline 'hot spot' in cerebral lesions suggestive of low-grade glioma. Nine patients with hyperintense lesions on T(2)-weighted images of standard magnetic resonance imaging without contrast enhancement underwent advanced magnetic resonance studies. These studies included 3-dimensional T(1)-weighted sequences with contrast enhancement and 2-dimensional (1)H-CSI spectroscopy at 3 T. Signal intensity maps with relative signal intensities for choline were generated. The region with the highest choline signal intensity (the hot spot) was chosen as the target for stereotactic biopsy. The histopathological results were correlated with the increase in choline. All spectroscopic data were of sufficient quality. In 5 instances the neuropathological diagnosis was grade II glioma, according to the WHO classification, and in 4 instances it was grade III glioma. According to the CSI criteria, all grade III gliomas and 4 of the 5 grade II gliomas were classified correctly. One grade II glioma was overestimated by CSI as a high-grade glioma. (1)H-CSI-guided stereotactic biopsy may offer advantages as compared to conventional stereotactic biopsy. The biopsy of the choline hot spot in suggestive low-grade gliomas may help to identify focal points of higher tumor malignancy independent of contrast enhancement. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Dual-Band Water and Lipid Suppression for MR Spectroscopic Imaging at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, He; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Barker, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    A dual-band water and lipid suppression sequence was developed for multislice sensitivity-encoded proton MR spectroscopic imaging of the human brain. The presaturation scheme consisted of five dual-band frequency-modulated radiofrequency pulses based on hypergeometric functions integrated with eight outer volume suppression (OVS) pulses. The flip angles of the dual-band pulses were optimized through computer simulations to maximize suppression factors over a range of transmitter amplitude of radiofrequency field and water and lipid T1 values. The resulting hypergeometric dual band with OVS (HGDB + OVS) sequence was implemented at 3 T in a multislice sensitivity-encoded proton MR spectroscopic imaging experiment and compared to a conventional water suppression scheme (variable pulse power and optimized relaxation delays (VAPOR)) with OVS. The HGDB sequence was significantly shorter than the VAPOR sequence (230 versus 728 msec). Both HGDB + OVS and VAPOR + OVS produced good water suppression, while lipid suppression with the HGDB + OVS sequence was far superior. In sensitivity-encoded proton MR spectroscopic imaging data, artifacts from extracranial lipid signals were significantly lower with HGDB + OVS. The shorter duration of HGDB compared to VAPOR also allows reduced pulse repetition time values in the multislice acquisition. PMID:20512851

  15. Dual-band water and lipid suppression for MR spectroscopic imaging at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Barker, Peter B

    2010-06-01

    A dual-band water and lipid suppression sequence was developed for multislice sensitivity-encoded proton MR spectroscopic imaging of the human brain. The presaturation scheme consisted of five dual-band frequency-modulated radiofrequency pulses based on hypergeometric functions integrated with eight outer volume suppression (OVS) pulses. The flip angles of the dual-band pulses were optimized through computer simulations to maximize suppression factors over a range of transmitter amplitude of radiofrequency field and water and lipid T(1) values. The resulting hypergeometric dual band with OVS (HGDB + OVS) sequence was implemented at 3 T in a multislice sensitivity-encoded proton MR spectroscopic imaging experiment and compared to a conventional water suppression scheme (variable pulse power and optimized relaxation delays (VAPOR)) with OVS. The HGDB sequence was significantly shorter than the VAPOR sequence (230 versus 728 msec). Both HGDB + OVS and VAPOR + OVS produced good water suppression, while lipid suppression with the HGDB + OVS sequence was far superior. In sensitivity-encoded proton MR spectroscopic imaging data, artifacts from extracranial lipid signals were significantly lower with HGDB + OVS. The shorter duration of HGDB compared to VAPOR also allows reduced pulse repetition time values in the multislice acquisition.

  16. Prostate magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla: Is administration of hyoscine-N-butyl-bromide mandatory?

    PubMed Central

    Roethke, Matthias C; Kuru, Timur H; Radbruch, Alexander; Hadaschik, Boris; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the value of administration of hyoscine-N-butyl-bromide (HBB) for image quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate. METHODS: Seventy patients were retrospectively included in the study. Thirty-five patients were examined with administration of 40 milligrams of HBB (Buscopan®; Boehringer, Ingelheim, Germany); 35 patients were examined without HBB. A multiparametric MRI protocol was performed on a 3.0 Tesla scanner without using an endorectal coil. The following criteria were evaluated independently by two experienced radiologists on a five-point Likert scale: anatomical details (delineation between peripheral and transitional zone of the prostate, visualisation of the capsule, depiction of the neurovascular bundles); visualisation of lymph nodes; motion related artefacts; and overall image quality. RESULTS: Comparison of anatomical details between the two cohorts showed no statistically significant difference (3.9 ± 0.7 vs 4.0 ± 0.9, P = 0.54, and 3.8 ± 0.7 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.07) for both readers. There was no significant advantage regarding depiction of local and iliac lymph nodes (3.9 ± 0.6 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.07, and 3.8 ± 0.9 vs 4.1 ± 0.8, P = 0.19). Motion artefacts were rated as “none” to “few” in both groups and showed no statistical difference (2.3 ± 1.0 vs 1.9 ± 0.9, P = 0.19, and 2.3 ± 1.1 vs 1.9 ± 0.7, P = 0.22). Overall image quality was rated “good” in average for both cohorts without significant difference (4.0 ± 0.6 vs 4.0 ± 0.9, P = 0.78, and 3.8 ± 0.8 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, P = 0.09). CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated no significant effect of HBB administration on image quality. The study suggests that use of HBB is not mandatory for MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla. PMID:23908696

  17. Pediatric cardiovascular interventional devices: effect on CMR images at 1.5 and 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To predict the type and extent of CMR artifacts caused by commonly used pediatric trans-catheter devices at 1.5 T and 3 T as an aid to clinical planning and patient screening. Methods Eleven commonly used interventional, catheter-based devices including stents, septal occluders, vascular plugs and embolization coils made from either stainless steel or nitinol were evaluated ex-vivo at both 1.5T and 3T. Pulse sequences and protocols commonly used for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were evaluated, including 3D high-resolution MR angiography (MRA), time-resolved MRA, 2D balanced-SSFP cine and 2D phase-contrast gradient echo imaging (GRE). We defined the signal void amplification factor (F) as the ratio of signal void dimension to true device dimension. F1 and F2 were measured in the long axis and short axes respectively of the device. We defined F3 as the maximum extent of the off-resonance dark band artifact on SSFP measured in the B0direction. The effects of field strength, sequence type, orientation, flip angle and phase encode direction were tested. Clinical CMR images in 3 patients with various indwelling devices were reviewed for correlation with the in-vitro findings. Results F1 and F2 were higher (p<0.05) at 3T than at 1.5T for all sequences except 3D-MRA. Stainless steel devices produced greater off-resonance artifact on SSFP compared to nitinol devices (p<0.05). Artifacts were most severe with the stainless steel Flipper detachable embolization coil (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN), with F1 and F2 10 times greater than with stainless steel stents. The orientation of stents changed the size of off-resonance artifacts by up to two fold. Sequence type did influence the size of signal void or off-resonance artifact (p<0.05). Varying the flip angle and phase encode direction did not affect image artifact. Conclusion Stainless steel embolization coils render large zones of anatomy uninterpretable, consistent with predictions based on ex

  18. High resolution neurography of the brachial plexus by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cejas, C; Rollán, C; Michelin, G; Nogués, M

    2016-01-01

    The study of the structures that make up the brachial plexus has benefited particularly from the high resolution images provided by 3T magnetic resonance scanners. The brachial plexus can have mononeuropathies or polyneuropathies. The mononeuropathies include traumatic injuries and trapping, such as occurs in thoracic outlet syndrome due to cervical ribs, prominent transverse apophyses, or tumors. The polyneuropathies include inflammatory processes, in particular chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, granulomatous diseases, and radiation neuropathy. Vascular processes affecting the brachial plexus include diabetic polyneuropathy and the vasculitides. This article reviews the anatomy of the brachial plexus and describes the technique for magnetic resonance neurography and the most common pathologic conditions that can affect the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Brain iron deposition in essential tremor: a quantitative 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Novellino, Fabiana; Cherubini, Andrea; Chiriaco, Carmelina; Morelli, Maurizio; Salsone, Maria; Arabia, Gennarina; Quattrone, Aldo

    2013-02-01

    Studies have demonstrated brain iron deposition in neurodegenerative disease and in normal aging. Data on this topic are lacking in essential tremor (ET). The aim of our study was to investigate brain iron content in patients with ET, using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2*-relaxometry. We enrolled 24 patients with ET and 25 age-matched healthy controls. Subjects were examined using a 3T MRI scanner. The protocol included conventional MRI sequences and quantitative T2*-relaxometry. Whole-brain voxel-based analyses showed significant differences in T2* values in bilateral globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and in right dentate nucleus (P < .001 uncorrected). In the bilateral pallidum, differences survived family-wise-error (FWE) correction for multiple comparisons (P < .05). The present study provides the first evidence of increased brain iron accumulation in ET patients. Our results are suggestive of a possible involvement of motor systems outside of the cerebellum/cerebellar pathway and, more specifically, of the globus pallidus. Copyright © 2012 Movement Disorders Society.

  20. [Magnetic resonance imaging of stents: quantitative in vitro examination at 3 Tesla].

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Julia; Nguyen-Trong, Thien-Hoa; Hähnel, Stefan; Bellemann, Matthias E; Heiland, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively study MR artifacts of various stents on the basis of in vitro experiments. We were particularly interested whether sequence type and orientation of the stent with respect to the static magnetic field influences the artifact. We examined 18 stents of different material (nitinol, stainless steel, cobalt alloy), different design of the stent meshes (AccuLink, OmniLink, DynaLink, Xact, Protoge, Wallstent Monorail), different diameter (5-10mm) and different length (18-58 mm) with a turbo spin echo (TSE), a 2D-fast low angle shot (FLASH) and a 3D-FLASH sequence. The MR images were examined qualitatively with respect to possible artifacts. Furthermore we examined the MR data quantitatively: The contrast-noise-ratio (CNR) was determined both within the stent and outside (within the tube); based on these values we calculated the transparency factor P, furthermore we calculated the apparent vascular lumen within the tube and within the stent. The stents made of stainless steel and cobalt alloy displayed severe susceptibility artifacts. Therefore the vessel lumen within the stent could not be assessed. The nitinol stents showed different artifact patterns: The AccuLink and DynaLink stents showed less artifacts compared to the Xact and Protoge stents. Besides the susceptibility artifacts we found artifacts due to RF shielding by the stent mesh, particularly in TSE sequences. A MR control of patients after stenting is possible and may yield diagnostic information when using the AccuLink or DynaLink stents. However, it is important to make sure that the stent is MR safe for the field strength used for the examination.

  1. Volumetric analysis of hippocampal sub-regions in late onset depression: a 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Palanimuthu T; Kalmady, Sunil V; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Bharath, Srikala; Reddy, Nalini N; Rao, Naren P; Kovoor, Jerry M E; Jain, Sanjeev; Varghese, Mathew

    2015-02-01

    While many studies have reported reduced volume of hippocampus in late onset depression (LOD), the status of hippocampus sub-regions (anterior/posterior) is yet to be explored. Evaluating hippocampal sub-regions might facilitate better elucidation of the neurobiological basis of LOD. Twenty five elderly subjects with LOD (mean age=65.28yr, SD=5.73, 15 females) and 20 healthy controls (mean age=65.35yr, SD=5.67, 7 females) were examined using 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). They were also evaluated with Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Hindi Mental State Examination (HMSE). We examined the difference in volume of Hippocampal sub-regions between the LOD group and control group controlling for the age, sex and intracranial volume. Left posterior hippocampus volume was significantly smaller in LOD group than the control group (1.01±0.19ml vs 1.16±0.25ml, F=7.50, p=0.009). There was a similar trend for the right posterior hippocampus (1.08±0.19ml vs 1.18±0.27ml, F=3.18, p=0.082). Depression severity (mean MADRS score=20.64±8.99) had a significant negative correlation with volumes of right posterior hippocampus (r=-0.37, p=0.012) and left posterior hippocampus (r=-0.46, p=0.001) in the LOD group. Specific reduction of posterior hippocampus volume and its relationship with depression severity indicates sub region specific hippocampal volumetric abnormalities in LOD. Future studies need to evaluate sub region specific hippocampal volume in LOD longitudinally for better understanding of the pathogenesis of LOD in view of the functional differences between anterior and posterior hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative T2* imaging of metastatic human breast cancer to brain in the nude rat at 3-Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ho-Taek; Jordan, Elaine K.; Lewis, Bobbi K.; Gold, Eric; Liu, Wei; Frank, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses quantitative T2* imaging to track ferumoxides-protamine sulfate (FEPro) labeled MDA-MB-231BRL human breast cancer cells (231BRL) that metastasize to the nude rat brain. Four cohorts of nude rats were intracardiac (IC) injected with either FEPro labeled, unlabeled, TRIAL treated (to induce apoptosis) 231BRL cells or saline in order to develop metastatic breast cancer in the brain. The rat heads were imaged serially over 3-4 weeks using a gradient multi-echo and turbo spin echo pulse sequences at 3 Tesla with a solenoid receive only 4cm diameter coil. Quantitative T2* maps of whole brain were obtained by applying single exponential fitting to the signal intensity of T2* images and the distribution of T2* values in brain voxels were calculated. MRI findings were correlated with Prussian blue (PB) stain and immunohistochemical stain for iron in breast cancer and macrophages. Quantiative analysis of T2* from the brain voxels demonstrated a significant shift to lower values following IC injection of FEPro labeled 231BRL cells as compared to animals that received unlabeled cells or apoptotic cells or saline. Quartile analysis based on the T2* distribution obtained from brain voxels demonstrated significant differences (p<0.0083) in number of voxels with T2* values between 10-35 (Q1), 36-60 (Q2) and 61-86 (Q3) milliseconds from day 1 to 3 weeks post infusion of labeled 231BRL cells compared to baseline scans. There was no significant differences in the distribution of T2* obtained from serial MRI in rats receiving unlabeled or TRIAL treated cells or saline. Histological analysis demonstrated isolated PB positive breast cancer cells scattered in brains of rats that received labeled cells compared to animals that received unlabeled or apoptotic cells. Quantitative T2* analysis of FEPro labeled metastasized cancer cells was possible even after the hypointense voxels are no longer visible on T2*-weighted images. PMID:20949637

  3. Accuracy of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of intra-articular knee injuries in children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Schub, David L; Altahawi, Faysal; F Meisel, Adam; Winalski, Carl; Parker, Richard D; M Saluan, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a commonly used tool for the diagnosis of intra-articular knee pathologies. Although many studies have reported the accuracy of MRI in the adult population, fewer studies have investigated these tests in younger patients. Furthermore, these studies have shown a higher variability in both the sensitivity and the specificity of MRI for these knee injuries in this age group. Advancements in MRI technology, such as the 3-Tesla (3T) MRI magnet, have shown promising results for musculoskeletal injury diagnosis in adults. This study aims to evaluate 3 T MRI for the diagnosis of intra-articular knee pathologies in a pediatric and adolescent patient population. The records of 116 patients (119 knees) under the age of 20 years who underwent 3 T MRI studies of the knee and subsequent knee arthroscopy were reviewed retrospectively. The MRI report from the musculoskeletal radiology staff, the interpretation from the staff orthopedic surgeon, and the operative note dictations were compared, with a focus on meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) pathologies. Seventeen orthopedic staff reads were not obtainable. Arthroscopy was used as the gold standard for diagnosis. The average age at MRI exam was 16.0 years and at surgery was 16.2 years. Using the musculoskeletal radiologist interpretation, the sensitivity and the specificity of 3 T MRI were 81.0% and 90.9% for medial meniscus injuries, 68.8% and 93% for lateral meniscus injuries, and 97.9% and 98.6% for ACL injuries, respectively. The orthopedic surgeon's interpretation of 3 T MRI had a sensitivity and specificity of 75.7% and 92.4% for medial meniscus injuries, 69.8% and 98.3% for lateral meniscus injuries, and 100% and 98.6% for ACL injuries, respectively. Posterior horn tears had the greatest discrepancies. When performed on pediatric and adolescent patients, newer 3 T MRI studies have excellent accuracy for diagnosing ACL tears. These studies also show a higher accuracy for the

  4. Combination of integrated dynamic shimming and readout-segmented echo planar imaging for diffusion weighted MRI of the head and neck region at 3Tesla.

    PubMed

    Walter, Sven S; Liu, Wei; Stemmer, Alto; Martirosian, Petros; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Gatidis, Sergios

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the performance of combined integrated slice-by-slice shimming and readout-segmented EPI (irsEPI) for diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of the neck at 3Tesla. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. An anthropometric phantom of the head/neck region incorporating compartments with different diffusivities was constructed. In vivo measurements were performed in 10 healthy volunteers. DWI of the phantom and volunteers was performed on a 3Tesla MR scanner using single shot EPI (sEPI), a prototype single shot EPI with integrated slice-by-slice shimming (iEPI), readout segmented EPI (rsEPI) and a prototype readout segmented EPI with integrated shimming irsEPI. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) and spatial distortions of phantom compartments were quantified. For phantom and volunteer measurements, the presence of geometric distortions, signal losses, ghosting artifacts as well as overall image quality were visually assessed on a 4-point scale by two radiologists in consensus. In addition, failure of fat saturation was assessed in volunteer data. Quantification of ADC within the phantom compartments was comparable using the different EPI techniques without significant variations. Using irsEPI, spatial distortions in phase-encoding direction were markedly reduced compared to iEPI, rsEPI and especially sEPI. irsEPI yielded significantly better overall image quality compared to sEPI, iEPI and rsEPI in phantom data as well as volunteer measurements. Markedly reduced geometric distortions and signal loss as well as better fat saturation were observed using irsEPI. The use of irsEPI significantly improves image quality and reduces artifacts caused by magnetic field inhomogeneities in EPI based DWI of the head/neck at 3Tesla. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Bilateral breast MRI by use of dual-source parallel radiofrequency excitation and image-based shimming at 3 Tesla: improvement in homogeneity on fat-suppression imaging.

    PubMed

    Ishizaka, Kinya; Kato, Fumi; Terae, Satoshi; Mito, Suzuko; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Nakanishi, Mitsuhiro; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Hamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare fat-suppression homogeneity on breast MR imaging by using dual-source parallel radiofrequency excitation and image-based shimming (DS-IBS) with single-source radiofrequency excitation with volume shim (SS-Vol) at 3 Tesla. Twenty patients were included. Axial three-dimensional T1-weighted turbo-field-echo breast images with DS-IBS and SS-Vol were obtained. Fat suppression was scored with four grade points. The contrast of the pectoral muscle and the fat in each breast area was obtained in the head medial, head lateral, foot medial, and foot lateral areas. The axillary space was calculated and compared between DS-IBS and SS-Vol. The average DS-IBS score was significantly higher than that of SS-Vol. The mean contrasts of fat in the foot lateral areas and axillary spaces on DS-IBS images were significantly higher than on SS-Vol images.

  6. The Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Prostate Cancer Imaging and Staging at 1.5 and 3 Tesla : The Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, B. Nicolas; Lenkinski, Robert. E.; Rofsky, Neil M.

    2009-01-01

    Management decisions for patients with prostate cancer present a dilemma for both patients and their clinicians because prostate cancers demonstrate a wide range in biologic activity, with the majority of cases not leading to a prostate cancer related death. Furthermore, the current treatment options have significant side effects, such as incontinence, rectal injury and impotence. Key elements for guiding appropriate treatment include: distinction of organ-confined disease from extracapsular extension (ECE); and determination of tumor volume and tumor grade, none of which have been satisfactorily accomplished in today’s pre-treatment paradigm. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the capability to assess prostate tissue, both functionally and morphologically. MRI as a staging tool has not shown enough consistency or sufficient accuracy for widespread adoption in clinical practice; yet, recent technical developments in MRI have yielded improved results. At our institution we have combined the use of new endorectal 3 Tesla MRI technology, T2-weighted, and high spatial resolution dynamic-contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI to non-invasively assess the prostate with higher signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution than previously achieved. This approach allows assessment of prostate-tissue morphology and kinetics, thus providing a non-invasive tool for tumor detection and staging and, consequently, directing biopsy and treatment specifically to diseased areas for a pre-treatment evaluation that can assist in the rational selection of patients for appropriate prostate cancer therapy. PMID:18957714

  7. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of listening comprehension of languages in human at 3 tesla-comprehension level and activation of the language areas.

    PubMed

    Nakai, T; Matsuo, K; Kato, C; Matsuzawa, M; Okada, T; Glover, G H; Moriya, T; Inui, T

    1999-03-19

    Passive listening comprehension of native and non-native language was investigated using high resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at a static magnetic field strength of 3 tesla. Wernicke's area was activated by comprehensive and non-comprehensive languages indicating that this area is associated with common phonological processing of language. The task with comprehensive but non-native language activated Broca's area and angular gyrus most frequently. The activations in these areas may be related to demand in semantic and syntactic processing in listening comprehension. Supplementary motor area and pre-motor area were activated by comprehensive languages but not by non-comprehensive language. These motor controlling areas may be involved in semantic processing. Listening to comprehensive but non-native language seems to demand more networked co-processing.

  8. Whole-Body Magnetic Resonance Angiography at 3 Tesla Using a Hybrid Protocol in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Yousef W.; Eiberg, Jonas P.; Logager, Vibeke B.; Schroeder, Torben V.; Just, Sven; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic performance of 3T whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (WB-MRA) using a hybrid protocol in comparison with a standard protocol in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In 26 consecutive patients with PAD two different protocols were used for WB-MRA: a standard sequential protocol (n = 13) and a hybrid protocol (n = 13). WB-MRA was performed using a gradient echo sequence, body coil for signal reception, and gadoterate meglumine as contrast agent (0.3 mmol/kg body weight). Two blinded observers evaluated all WB-MRA examinations with regard to presence of stenoses, as well as diagnostic quality and degree of venous contamination in each of the four stations used in WB-MRA. Digital subtraction angiography served as the method of reference. Sensitivity for detecting significant arterial disease (luminal narrowing {>=} 50%) using standard-protocol WB-MRA for the two observers was 0.63 (95%CI: 0.51-0.73) and 0.66 (0.58-0.78). Specificities were 0.94 (0.91-0.97) and 0.96 (0.92-0.98), respectively. In the hybrid protocol WB-MRA sensitivities were 0.75 (0.64-0.84) and 0.70 (0.58-0.8), respectively. Specificities were 0.93 (0.88-0.96) and 0.95 (0.91-0.97). Interobserver agreement was good using both the standard and the hybrid protocol, with {kappa} = 0.62 (0.44-0.67) and {kappa} = 0.70 (0.59-0.79), respectively. WB-MRA quality scores were significantly higher in the lower leg using the hybrid protocol compared to standard protocol (p = 0.003 and p = 0.03, observers 1 and 2). Distal venous contamination scores were significantly lower with the hybrid protocol (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, observers 1 and 2). In conclusion, hybrid-protocol WB-MRA shows a better diagnostic performance than standard protocol WB-MRA at 3 T in patients with PAD.

  9. The susceptibility vessel sign containing two compositions on 3-tesla T2*-weighted image and single corticosubcortical infarct on diffusion-weighted image are associated with cardioembolic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuaki; Satomi, Junichiro; Yamamoto, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Furukawa, Takahiro; Tada, Yoshiteru; Harada, Masafumi; Izumi, Yuishin; Nagahiro, Shinji; Kaji, Ryuji

    2015-12-15

    Although accurate diagnosis of the ischemic stroke subtype is one of the most important factors for selection of therapeutic approach, it is sometimes difficult at the time of admission. We previously reported that susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) with two layers (termed two-layered SVS) on 3-tesla-T2*-weighted image (T2*-WI) might be useful to predict cardioembolic stroke in patients with cerebral major vessel occlusion. We studied about biomarkers on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including two-layered SVS for diagnosing cardioembolic stroke. We included 132 ischemic stroke patients within 24h from onset who suffered internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery occlusion due to cardioembolic stroke (group CE) or large artery atherosclerosis (group LAA). We studied about biomarkers on MRI such as two-layered SVS and abnormal finding patterns of diffusion-weighted image (DWI) for diagnosis of cardioembolic stroke in addition to laboratory data, physiological examination, and clinical findings. In this study, 132 patients (72 men and 60 women, age 74.5 ± 12.1 years) were included. Of these, 63 (47.7%) were cardioembolic stroke. In univariate analysis, frequency of comorbid atrial fibrillation, presence of two-layered SVS on T2*-WI and that of single corticosubcortical infarct on DWI, intima-media thickness were significantly higher in group CE. In multivariate analysis, the presence of two-layered SVS and single corticosubcortical infarct were associated with cardioembolic stroke (odds ratio, two-layered SVS, 30.08, p<0.001; single corticosubcortical infarct, 15.78, p<0.001). Biomarkers associated with cardioembolic stroke may be two-layered SVS on T2*-WI and single corticosubcortical infarct on DWI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of safety and interference issues of radio frequency identification devices in 0.3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Periyasamy, M; Dhanasekaran, R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two issues regarding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including device functionality and image artifacts for the presence of radio frequency identification devices (RFID) in association with 0.3 Tesla at 12.7 MHz MRI and computed tomography (CT) scanning. Fifteen samples of RFID tags with two different sizes (wristband and ID card types) were tested. The tags were exposed to several MR-imaging conditions during MRI examination and X-rays of CT scan. Throughout the test, the tags were oriented in three different directions (axial, coronal, and sagittal) relative to MRI system in order to cover all possible situations with respect to the patient undergoing MRI and CT scanning, wearing a RFID tag on wrist. We observed that the tags did not sustain physical damage with their functionality remaining unaffected even after MRI and CT scanning, and there was no alternation in previously stored data as well. In addition, no evidence of either signal loss or artifact was seen in the acquired MR and CT images. Therefore, we can conclude that the use of this passive RFID tag is safe for a patient undergoing MRI at 0.3 T/12.7 MHz and CT Scanning.

  11. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Uterine Zones Related to the Menstrual Cycle and Menopausal Status at 3 Tesla MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kılıçkesmez, Özgür; Fırat, Zeynep; Oygen, Ayşegül; Bozkurt, Duygu Kara; Güzelbey, Tevfik; Gürses, Bengi; Taşdelen, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    Background Diffusion and diffusion tensor imaging techniques (DTI) are widely available and used both in central nervous system and body imaging, including gynecological diseases. Aims The aims of this study were to assess the capability of DTI of uterine zones in relation to the menstrual cycle and ascertain the normal apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy values at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Study Design Prospective clinical study. Methods A total of 13 young reproductive and 12 postmenopausal healthy volunteers were included in the study. MRI examination included sagittal T2-weighted and single-shot echo planar imaging DTI obtained under free breathing. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the endometrium, junctional zone, and myometrium were determined. Results The median (minimum-maximum) FA of the endometrium, myometrium, and junctional zone of the reproductive group were 0.31 (0.260–0.465), 0.42 (0.302–0.664), and 0.58 (0.420–0.745), respectively, in the proliferative phase and 0.26 (0.180–0.413), 0.48 (0.357–0.656), and 0.59 (0.490–0.675)], respectively, in the secretory phase. In the postmenopausal group, the FA values of the endometrium, myometrium, and junctional zone were 0.275 (0.136–0.425), 0.255 (0.191–0.553), and 0.27 (0.129–0.397), respectively. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the endometrium, myometrium, and junctional zone of the reproductive group were 1.25±0.254 (0.970–1.463), 1.67 (1.213–1.854), and 1.23 (0.853–1.301), respectively, in the proliferative phase and 1.32±0.283 (1.165–1.706), 1.55 (1.360–1.791), and 1.17 (1.163–1.705), respectively, in the secretory phase. In the postmenopausal group, the ADC values of the endometrium, myometrium, and junctional zone were measured as 1.100±0.192 (0.850–1.302), 1.14 (0.864–1.283), and 1.09 (0.912–1.291). The FA values of the endometrium and myometrium were lower in the secretory phase of the reproductive group, while

  12. Olfactory bulb ventricles as a frequent finding--a myth or reality? Evaluation using high resolution 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, H P; Bitter, T; Baltzer, P A T; Dietzel, M; Guntinas-Lichius, O; Gudziol, H; Kaiser, W A

    2011-01-13

    Data on the prevalence of persistent olfactory bulb ventricles (OBV) in humans remain contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis of large cystic-like OBVs filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a frequent finding in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifty normosmic volunteers (25 men and 25 women, mean 40 years) underwent 3 Tesla MRI of the anterior skull base. Normal smell function was determined by testing of the odor threshold discrimination identification score using the Sniffin' Sticks test kit. The voxel size of the constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence was 0.4×0.4×0.4 mm (TR 12.18 ms, TE 6.09 ms) using a 12-channel head coil. Image quality was rated by three observers according to predefined criteria on an ordinal scale. Additionally, contrast-to-noise (CNR) and signal-to-noise (SNR) ratios were calculated. Quantitative signal intensity (SI) measurement of olfactory bulb (OB) structures and small Virchow-Robin spaces (VRS) was performed using multi planar reconstruction mode. Ninety-one OBs were eligible for evaluation. Image quality was rated as adequate in 55% and as excellent in 36% of cases. CNR and SNR calculations resulted in values of 21.59 and 19.06, respectively. Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed significant higher SI values for OB center compared to OB surface (P<0.001) and to OB base (P<0.001) but also significant lower SI values compared to small VRS (P<0.001) in 94.5%. In 5.5%, SI measurement revealed signs for CSF-filled structures in the OB. High-resolution 3 Tesla MRI did not verify the hypothesis of large cystic CSF-filled OBVs as a frequent finding although evidence is growing that the hyperintense signal in the center of OBs might be associated with interstitial or finely dispersed CSF/fluid or with tiny, histologically detectable remnants of OBVs. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of the WARP-turbo spin echo sequence for 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging of stifle joints in dogs with stainless steel tibial plateau leveling osteotomy implants.

    PubMed

    Simpler, Renee E; Kerwin, Sharon C; Eichelberger, Bunita M; Wall, Corey R; Thompson, James A; Padua, Abraham; Purdy, David; Griffin, John F

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility artifacts caused by ferromagnetic implants compromise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the canine stifle after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) procedures. The WARP-turbo spin echo sequence is being developed to mitigate artifacts and utilizes slice encoding for metal artifact reduction. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the WARP-turbo spin echo sequence for imaging post TPLO canine stifle joints. Proton density weighted images of 19 canine cadaver limbs were made post TPLO using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Susceptibility artifact sizes were recorded and compared for WARP vs. conventional turbo spin echo sequences. Three evaluators graded depiction quality for the tibial tuberosity, medial and lateral menisci, tibial osteotomy, and caudal cruciate ligament as sufficient or insufficient to make a diagnosis. Artifacts were subjectively smaller and local structures were better depicted in WARP-turbo spin echo images. Signal void area was also reduced by 75% (sagittal) and 49% (dorsal) in WARP vs. conventional turbo spin echo images. Evaluators were significantly more likely to grade local anatomy depiction as adequate for making a diagnosis in WARP-turbo spin echo images in the sagittal but not dorsal plane. The proportion of image sets with anatomic structure depiction graded adequate to make a diagnosis ranged from 28 to 68% in sagittal WARP-turbo spin echo images compared to 0-19% in turbo spin echo images. Findings indicated that the WARP-turbo spin echo sequence reduces the severity of susceptibility artifacts in canine stifle joints post TPLO. However, variable depiction of local anatomy warrants further refinement of the technique.

  14. Pulmonary vein morphology by free-breathing whole heart magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla versus breathhold multi-detector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Fodi, Eszter; McAreavey, Dorothea; Abd-Elmoniem, Khaled Z; Ohayon, Jacques; Saba, Magdi; Elagha, Abdalla; Pettigrew, Roderic I; Gharib, Ahmed M

    2013-04-01

    To compare pulmonary vein and left atrial anatomy using three-dimensional free-breathing whole-heart magnetic resonance imaging (MR) at 3 Tesla (T) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). Thirty-three subjects (19 male, age 49 ± 12 years) underwent free-breathing 3T MR and contrast-enhanced MDCT during inspiratory breath hold. Pulmonary vein parameters (ostial areas, diameters, angles) were measured. All pulmonary veins and anomalies were identified by 3T MR and by MDCT. The right-sided pulmonary veins were directed more posteriorly, the right superior pulmonary vein more inferiorly, and the right inferior pulmonary vein more superiorly by 3T MR when compared with MDCT. The cross-sectional area, perimeters and minimum diameters of right-sided pulmonary vein ostia were significantly larger by MR, as were the maximum diameters of right and left inferior pulmonary veins. There were no significant differences between techniques in distance to first pulmonary vein branch. Pulmonary vein measurements demonstrated significant differences in angulations and dimensions when 3T MR is compared with MDCT. These differences likely represent hemodynamic and respiratory variation during free-breathing with MR versus breath-holding with MDCT. MR imaging at 3T during free-breathing offers an alternate method to define pulmonary vein and left atrial anatomy without exposure to radiation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the normal human uterus in vivo at 3 tesla: comparison of DTI parameters in the different uterine layers.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Koji; Kido, Aki; Okada, Tomohisa; Uchikoshi, Masato; Togashi, Kaori

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the differences in the fiber architecture and related diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters among different uterine layers of the normal human uterus in vivo at 3 Tesla (T). DTI of the uterus was performed for nine healthy women of reproductive age on a 3T scanner. A volume of interest (VOI) was drawn for the outer myometrium (OM), junctional zone (JZ), and endometrium (EM). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), and maximum fiber length were compared using paired Student's t-tests. Fibers were classified into four groups and were visually evaluated. ADC (×10(-3) mm(2) /s) was highest for OM (1.12), followed by EM (0.97) and JZ (0.83) (OM versus JZ, P < 0.0001; JZ versus EM, P = 0.0001; OM versus EM, P = 0.0057). FA was highest for JZ (0.297), followed by OM (0.257) and EM (0.186) (OM versus JZ, P = 0.0002; JZ versus EM, P < 0.0001; OM versus EM, P < 0.0001). Fibers were longest in OM (42.0 mm), followed by JZ (34.2 mm) and EM (20.0 mm). Circularly oriented fibers were observed in 69% in OM and in 70% in JZ. DTI of the uterus in vivo revealed layer-wise differences in the microstructure of the uterus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Rat model of metastatic breast cancer monitored by MRI at 3 tesla and bioluminescence imaging with histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Song, Ho-Taek; Jordan, Elaine K; Lewis, Bobbi K; Liu, Wei; Ganjei, Justin; Klaunberg, Brenda; Despres, Daryl; Palmieri, Diane; Frank, Joseph A

    2009-10-20

    Establishing a large rodent model of brain metastasis that can be monitored using clinically relevant magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is challenging. Non-invasive imaging of brain metastasis in mice usually requires high field strength MR units and long imaging acquisition times. Using the brain seeking MDA-MB-231BR transfected with luciferase gene, a metastatic breast cancer brain tumor model was investigated in the nude rat. Serial MRI and bioluminescence imaging (BLI) was performed and findings were correlated with histology. Results demonstrated the utility of multimodality imaging in identifying unexpected sights of metastasis and monitoring the progression of disease in the nude rat. Brain seeking breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231BR transfected with firefly luciferase (231BRL) were labeled with ferumoxides-protamine sulfate (FEPro) and 1-3 x 106 cells were intracardiac (IC) injected. MRI and BLI were performed up to 4 weeks to monitor the early breast cancer cell infiltration into the brain and formation of metastases. Rats were euthanized at different time points and the imaging findings were correlated with histological analysis to validate the presence of metastases in tissues. Early metastasis of the FEPro labeled 231BRL were demonstrated on T2*-weighted MRI and BLI within 1 week post IC injection of cells. Micro-metastatic tumors were detected in the brain on T2-weighted MRI as early as 2 weeks post-injection in greater than 85% of rats. Unexpected skeletal metastases from the 231BRL cells were demonstrated and validated by multimodal imaging. Brain metastases were clearly visible on T2 weighted MRI by 3-4 weeks post infusion of 231BRL cells, however BLI did not demonstrate photon flux activity originating from the brain in all animals due to scattering of the photons from tumors. A model of metastatic breast cancer in the nude rat was successfully developed and evaluated using multimodal imaging including MRI and BLI providing the ability to

  17. Delineation of alar ligament morphology: comparison of magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 and 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Peter; Mayer, Thomas E; Drescher, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Rupture of the alar and transverse ligaments due to whiplash injury can lead to upper cervical spine instability and subsequent neurological deterioration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the normal anatomical variability of the alar ligaments in asymptomatic individuals with 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare the findings with standard 1.5-T examinations. Thirty-six participants underwent 3-T and 1.5-T MRIs. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were analyzed by classifying the alar ligaments with regard to the features detectability, signal intensity compared with muscle tissue, homogeneity, shape, spatial orientation, and symmetry. Delineation of the alar ligaments was significantly better on 3-T images, which were subjectively preferred for evaluation. The alar ligaments showed great variability. In the majority of participants, the alar ligaments were hypointense to muscle tissue, inhomogeneous, and different in shape and orientation. A statistically significantly higher number of ligaments appeared symmetric on 3-T imaging, indicating that 1.5-T imaging may underestimate the proportion of patients with normal, symmetric ligaments. This study demonstrates that high-field 3-T MRI provides better visualization of the alar ligaments compared with 1.5-T MRI. The higher signal-to-noise ratio allows detection of small signal changes. A great interindividual variety of the MRI morphology of the alar ligaments was found in participants with no history of neck trauma. Further studies with more participants are necessary to evaluate alar ligament pathologies in patients with a history of whiplash injury. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Nonenhanced ECG-gated quiescent-interval single shot MRA: image quality and stenosis assessment at 3 tesla compared with contrast-enhanced MRA and digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, Jan; Morelli, John N; Michaely, Henrik J; Riester, Thomas; Budjan, Johannes; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Attenberger, Ulrike I

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a nonenhanced electrocardiograph-gated quiescent-interval single shot MR-angiography (QISS-MRA) at 3 Tesla with contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) serving as reference standard. Following institutional review board approval, 16 consecutive patients with peripheral arterial disease underwent a combined peripheral MRA protocol consisting of a large field-of-view QISS-MRA, continuous table movement MRA, and an additional time-resolved MRA of the calves. DSA correlation was available in eight patients. Image quality and degree of stenosis was assessed. Sensitivity and specificity of QISS-MRA was evaluated with CE-MRA and DSA serving as the standards of reference and compared using the Fisher exact test. With the exception of the calf station, image quality with QISS-MRA was rated statistically significantly less than that of CE-MRA (P < 0.05, P = 0.17, and P = 0.6, respectively). A greater percentage of segments were not accessible with QISS-MRA (19.5-20.1%) in comparison to CE-MRA (10.9%). Relative to DSA, sensitivity for QISS-MRA was high (100% versus 91.2% for CE-MRA, P = 0.24) in the evaluated segments; however, specificity (76.5%) was substantially less than that of CE-MRA (94.6%, P = 0.003). Overall image quality and specificity of QISS-MRA at 3T are diminished relative to CE-MRA. However, when image quality is adequate, QISS-MRA has high sensitivity and, thus, has potential use in patients with contraindications to gadolinium. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Reproducibility of tract-specific magnetization transfer and diffusion tensor imaging in the cervical spinal cord at 3 tesla.

    PubMed

    Smith, Seth A; Jones, Craig K; Gifford, Aliya; Belegu, Visar; Chodkowski, BettyAnn; Farrell, Jonathan A D; Landman, Bennett A; Reich, Daniel S; Calabresi, Peter A; McDonald, John W; van Zijl, Peter C M

    2010-02-01

    Damage to specific white matter tracts within the spinal cord can often result in the particular neurological syndromes that characterize myelopathies such as traumatic spinal cord injury. Noninvasive visualization of these tracts with imaging techniques that are sensitive to microstructural integrity is an important clinical goal. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)- and magnetization transfer (MT)-derived quantities have shown promise in assessing tissue health in the central nervous system. In this paper, we demonstrate that DTI of the cervical spinal cord can reliably discriminate sensory (dorsal) and motor (lateral) columns. From data derived from nine healthy volunteers, two raters quantified column-specific parallel (lambda(||)) and perpendicular (lambda(perpendicular)) diffusivity, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and MT-weighted signal intensity relative to cerebrospinal fluid (MTCSF) over two time-points separated by more than 1 week. Cross-sectional means and standard deviations of these measures in the lateral and dorsal columns were as follows: lambda(||): 2.13 +/- 0.14 and 2.14 +/- 0.11 microm(2)/ms; lambda(perpendicular): 0.67 +/- 0.16 and 0.61 +/- 0.09 microm(2)/ms; MD: 1.15 +/- 0.15 and 1.12 +/- 0.08 microm(2)/ms; FA: 0.68 +/- 0.06 and 0.68 +/- 0.05; MTCSF: 0.52 +/- 0.05 and 0.50 +/- 0.05. We examined the variability and interrater and test-retest reliability for each metric. These column-specific MR measurements are expected to enhance understanding of the intimate structure-function relationship in the cervical spinal cord and may be useful for the assessment of disease progression. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Investigation of Parallel Radiofrequency Transmission for the Reduction of Heating in Long Conductive Leads in 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    McElcheran, Clare E.; Yang, Benson; Anderson, Kevan J. T.; Golenstani-Rad, Laleh; Graham, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is increasingly used to treat a variety of brain diseases by sending electrical impulses to deep brain nuclei through long, electrically conductive leads. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients pre- and post-implantation is desirable to target and position the implant, to evaluate possible side-effects and to examine DBS patients who have other health conditions. Although MRI is the preferred modality for pre-operative planning, MRI post-implantation is limited due to the risk of high local power deposition, and therefore tissue heating, at the tip of the lead. The localized power deposition arises from currents induced in the leads caused by coupling with the radiofrequency (RF) transmission field during imaging. In the present work, parallel RF transmission (pTx) is used to tailor the RF electric field to suppress coupling effects. Electromagnetic simulations were performed for three pTx coil configurations with 2, 4, and 8-elements, respectively. Optimal input voltages to minimize coupling, while maintaining RF magnetic field homogeneity, were determined for all configurations using a Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm. Resulting electric and magnetic fields were compared to that of a 16-rung birdcage coil. Experimental validation was performed with a custom-built 4-element pTx coil. In simulation, 95-99% reduction of the electric field at the tip of the lead was observed between the various pTx coil configurations and the birdcage coil. Maximal reduction in E-field was obtained with the 8-element pTx coil. Magnetic field homogeneity was comparable to the birdcage coil for the 4- and 8-element pTx configurations. In experiment, a temperature increase of 2±0.15°C was observed at the tip of the wire using the birdcage coil, whereas negligible increase (0.2±0.15°C) was observed with the optimized pTx system. Although further research is required, these initial results suggest that the concept of optimizing pTx to reduce DBS

  1. Contributors to contrast between glioma and brain tissue in chemical exchange saturation transfer sensitive imaging at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Scheidegger, Rachel; Wong, Eric T; Alsop, David C

    2015-01-01

    Off-resonance saturation transfer images have shown intriguing differences in intensity in glioma compared to normal brain tissues. Interpretation of these differences is complicated, however, by the presence of multiple sources of exchanging magnetization including amide, amine, and hydroxyl protons, asymmetric magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) from macromolecules, and various protons with resonances in the aliphatic spectral region. We report a study targeted at separating these components and identifying their relative contributions to contrast in glioma. Off-resonance z-spectra at several saturation powers and durations were obtained from 6 healthy controls and 8 patients with high grade glioma. Results indicate that broad macromolecular MTC in normal brain tissue is responsible for the majority of contrast with glioma. Amide exchange could be detected with lower saturation power than has previously been reported in glioma, but it was a weak signal source with no detectable contrast from normal brain tissue. At higher saturation powers, amine proton exchange was a major contributor to the observed signal but showed no significant difference from normal brain. Robust acquisition strategies that effectively isolate the contributions of broad macromolecular MTC asymmetry from amine exchange were demonstrated that may provide improved contrast between glioma and normal tissue. PMID:24857712

  2. Surgical Accuracy of 3-Tesla Versus 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    van Laar, Peter Jan; Oterdoom, D L Marinus; Ter Horst, Gert J; van Hulzen, Arjen L J; de Graaf, Eva K L; Hoogduin, Hans; Meiners, Linda C; van Dijk, J Marc C

    2016-09-01

    In deep brain stimulation (DBS), accurate placement of the lead is critical. Target definition is highly dependent on visual recognition on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We prospectively investigated whether the 7-T MRI enabled better visualization of targets and led to better placement of leads compared with the 1.5-T and the 3-T MRI. Three patients with PD (mean, 55 years) were scanned on 1.5-, 3-, and 7-T MRI before surgery. Tissue contrast and signal-to-noise ratio were measured. Target coordinates were noted on MRI and during surgery. Differences were analyzed with post-hoc analysis of variance. The 7-T MRI demonstrated a significant improvement in tissue visualization (P < 0.005) and signal-to-noise ratio (P < 0.005). However, no difference in the target coordinates was found between the 7-T and the 3-T MRI. Although the 7-T MRI enables a significant better visualization of the DBS target in patients with PD, we found no clinical benefit for the placement of the DBS leads. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Microvascular obstruction assessed by 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging in acute myocardial infarction is correlated with plasma troponin I levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microvascular obstruction (MVO) at the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with poor prognosis. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) at the acute phase of MI and extent of no-reflow, as assessed by 3-T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Secondly, we defined a cut-off value for cTnI predictive of no-reflow. Methods 51 consecutive patients with no previous history of cardiovascular disease, presenting ST elevation MI within <12 h. Infarct size and extent of no-reflow were evaluated by 3-T MRI at day 5. Extent of no-reflow at 15 minutes (MVO) was correlated with cTnI at admission, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. At 6 months, MRI was performed to evaluate the impact of MVO on LV remodeling. Results MVO was diagnosed in 29 patients (57%). Extent of MVO was significantly correlated to peak troponin, cTnI (except admission values) and area under the curve. Using Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, a cut-off cTnI value >89 ng/mL at 12 h seemed to best predict presence of early MVO (sensitivity 63%, specificity 88%). At 6 months, MVO was associated with left ventricular (LV) remodeling, resulting in higher LV volumes. Conclusion There is a relationship between cTnI at the acute phase of AMI and extent of MVO as assessed by 3-T cardiac MRI. A cut-off cTnI value of 89 ng/mL at 12 h seems to best predict presence of MVO, which contributes to LV remodeling. PMID:24886208

  4. Susceptibility Imaging in Glial Tumor Grading; Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance (MR) System and 32 Channel Head Coil.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Omer; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2017-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a velocity compensated, high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo sequence that uses magnitude and filtered-phase data. SWI seems to be a valuable tool for non-invasive evaluation of central nervous system gliomas. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) ratio is one of the best noninvasive methods for glioma grading. Degree of intratumoral susceptibility signal (ITSS) on SWI correlates with rCBV ratio and histopathological grade. This study investigated the effectiveness of ITSS grading and rCBV ratio in preoperative assessment. Thirty-one patients (17 males and 14 females) with histopathogical diagnosis of glial tumor undergoing routine cranial MRI, SWI, and perfusion MRI examinations between October 2011 and July 2013 were retrospectively enrolled. All examinations were performed using 3T apparatus with 32-channel head coil. We used ITSS number for SWI grading. Correlations between SWI grade, rCBV ratio, and pathological grading were evaluated. ROC analysis was performed to determine the optimal rCBV ratio to distinguish between high-grade and low-grade glial tumors. There was a strong positive correlation between both pathological and SWI grading. We determined the optimal rCBV ratio to discriminate between high-grade and low-grade tumors to be 2.21. In conclusion, perfusion MRI and SWI using 3T MR and 32-channel head coil may provide useful information for preoperative glial tumor grading. SWI can be used as an accessory to perfusion MR technique in preoperative tumor grading.

  5. Susceptibility Imaging in Glial Tumor Grading; Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance (MR) System and 32 Channel Head Coil

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Omer; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a velocity compensated, high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo sequence that uses magnitude and filtered-phase data. SWI seems to be a valuable tool for non-invasive evaluation of central nervous system gliomas. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) ratio is one of the best noninvasive methods for glioma grading. Degree of intratumoral susceptibility signal (ITSS) on SWI correlates with rCBV ratio and histopathological grade. This study investigated the effectiveness of ITSS grading and rCBV ratio in preoperative assessment. Material/Methods Thirty-one patients (17 males and 14 females) with histopathogical diagnosis of glial tumor undergoing routine cranial MRI, SWI, and perfusion MRI examinations between October 2011 and July 2013 were retrospectively enrolled. All examinations were performed using 3T apparatus with 32-channel head coil. We used ITSS number for SWI grading. Correlations between SWI grade, rCBV ratio, and pathological grading were evaluated. ROC analysis was performed to determine the optimal rCBV ratio to distinguish between high-grade and low-grade glial tumors. Results There was a strong positive correlation between both pathological and SWI grading. We determined the optimal rCBV ratio to discriminate between high-grade and low-grade tumors to be 2.21 Conslusions In conclusion, perfusion MRI and SWI using 3T MR and 32-channel head coil may provide useful information for preoperative glial tumor grading. SWI can be used as an accessory to perfusion MR technique in preoperative tumor grading. PMID:28439322

  6. Pathologic correlation of transperineal in-bore 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging-guided prostate biopsy samples with radical prostatectomy specimen.

    PubMed

    Velez, Erik; Fedorov, Andriy; Tuncali, Kemal; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Allard, Christopher B; Kibel, Adam S; Tempany, Clare M

    2017-08-01

    To determine the accuracy of in-bore transperineal 3-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided prostate biopsies for predicting final Gleason grades in patients who subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). A retrospective review of men who underwent transperineal MR imaging-guided prostate biopsy (tpMRGB) with subsequent radical prostatectomy within 1 year was conducted from 2010 to 2015. All patients underwent a baseline 3-T multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) with endorectal coil and were selected for biopsy based on MR findings of a suspicious prostate lesion and high degree of clinical suspicion for cancer. Spearman correlation was performed to assess concordance between tpMRGB and final RP pathology among patients with and without previous transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsies. A total of 24 men met all eligibility requirements, with a median age of 65 years (interquartile range [IQR] 11.7). The median time from biopsy to RP was 85 days (IQR 50.5). Final pathology revealed Gleason 3 + 4 = 7 in 12 patients, 4 + 3 = 7 in 10 patients, and 4 + 4 = 8 in 2 patients. A strong correlation (ρ: +0.75, p < 0.001) between tpMRGB and RP results was observed, with Gleason scores concordant in 17 cases (71%). 16 of the 24 patients underwent prior TRUS biopsies. Subsequent tpMRGB revealed Gleason upgrading in 88% of cases, which was concordant with RP Gleason scores in 69% of cases (ρ: +0.75, p < 0.001). Final Gleason scores diagnosed by tpMRGB at 3-T correlate strongly with final RP surgical pathology. This may facilitate prostate cancer diagnosis, particularly in patients with negative or low-grade TRUS biopsy results in whom clinically significant cancer is suspected or detected on mpMRI.

  7. [Optimal imaging parameters and the advantage of cerebrospinal fluid flow image using time-spatial labeling inversion pulse at 3 tesla magnetic resonance imaging: comparison of image quality for 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance imaging].

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Masaya; Yahata, Seiji; Yoshida, Ayako; Takeyama, Mamoru; Eshima, Mitsuhiro; Shinohara, Maiko; Yamamoto, Takao; Abe, Kayoko

    2014-12-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) imaging by time-spatial labeling inversion pulse (Time-SLIP) technique is labeled by CSF with a selective inversion recovery (IR) pulse as internal tracer, thus making it possible to visualize CSF dynamics non-invasively. The purpose of this study was to clarify labeled CSF signals during various black blood time to inversion (BBTI) values at 3 tesla (T) and 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to determine appropriate CSF imaging parameters at 3 T MRI in 10 healthy volunteers. To calculate optimal BBTI values, ROIs were set in untagged cerebral parenchyma and CSF on the image of the CSF flow from the aqueduct to the fourth ventricle in 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. Visual evaluation of CSF flow also was assessed with changes of matrix and echo time (TE) at 3 T MRI. The mean BBTI value at null point of untagged CSF in 3 T MRI was longer than that of 1.5 T. The MR conditions of the highest visual evaluation were FOV, 14 cm×14 cm; Matrix, 192×192; and TE, 117 ms. CSF imaging using Time-SLIP at 3 T MRI is expected visualization of CSF flow and clarification of CSF dynamics in more detail by setting the optimal conditions because 3 T MRI has the advantage of high contrast and high signal-to-noise ratio.

  8. Impact of preoperative and postoperative membranous urethral length measured by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging on urinary continence recovery after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wan; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Choi, Han Yong; Lee, Hyun Moo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We sought to investigate the impact of preoperative and postoperative membranous urethral length (MUL) on urinary continence using 3 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods Between 2008 and 2013, 190 men with RARP underwent preoperative and postoperative MRI. Patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy or who were lost to followup were excluded, leaving 186 patients eligible for analysis. Preoperative MUL was estimated from the prostate apex to the penile bulb, while postoperative MUL was estimated from the bladder neck to penile bulb. Patients with no pads or protection were considered to have complete continence. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors associated with urinary incontinence at six and 12 months. Results Age was commonly associated with urinary incontinence at six and 12 months. In addition, diabetes mellitus (DM) was another factor associated with urinary incontinence at 12 months. When adjusting these variables, preoperative MUL ≤16 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.14; p=0.022), postoperative MUL ≤14 mm (95% CI 1.16–9.80; p=0.025) and percent change of MUL >18% (95% CI 1.17–7.23; p=0.021) were significantly associated with urinary incontinence at six months. However, at 12 months, preoperative MUL ≤13.5 mm (95% CI 1.85–19.21; p=0.003) and postoperative MUL ≤13 mm (95% CI 1.24–13.84; p=0.021) had impacts on urinary incontinence, but not percent change of MUL. Conclusions Preoperative and postoperative MUL were significantly associated with urinary continence recovery after RARP. Therefore, efforts to preserve MUL are highly recommended during surgery for optimal continence outcomes after RARP. PMID:28360954

  9. Early detection of pulp necrosis and dental vitality after traumatic dental injuries in children and adolescents by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Assaf, Alexandre T; Zrnc, Tomislav A; Remus, Chressen C; Khokale, Arun; Habermann, Christian R; Schulze, Dirk; Fiehler, Jens; Heiland, Max; Sedlacik, Jan; Friedrich, Reinhard E

    2015-09-01

    More than 50% of all children suffer a traumatic dental injury (TDI) during childhood. In many cases, dentists apply root canal treatment (RCT), which is performed on an average of 7-10 days after replantation. Our aim was to evaluate whether RCT is necessary in many cases, and whether revitalization of affected teeth is possible and measurable by visualization using 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seven healthy children with TDI were treated by repositioning of the affected teeth and reduction of alveolar process fractures followed by splinting. Two weeks after initial treatment, splints were removed. After 6 weeks, all children received 3-Tesla (3T), three-dimensional, high-resolution MRI with a 20-channel standard head and neck coil. The mean age of the children (male/female = 5:2) was 10.8 years (range, 8-17 years). In addition, all children received conventional dental examination for tooth vitality and dental sensitivity to cold and tenderness on percussion. 3T MRI provided excellent images that allowed fine discrimination between dental pulp and adjacent tooth. Using four in-house optimized, non-contrast-enhanced sequences, including panoramic reconstruction, the assessment and analysis of the dental pulp was sufficiently feasible. We could demonstrate reperfusion and thus vitality of the affected teeth in 11 sites. In one child, MRI was able to detect nonreperfusion after TDI of the affected tooth. MRI results were confirmed by clinical examination in all cases. As a consequence of this expectant management and proof of reperfusion and tooth vitality by 3T MRI, only one child had to be treated by RCT. 3T MRI is a very promising tool for visualization and detection in the field of dental and oromaxillofacial diseases. By using new 3T MRI sequences in children with TDI, we could demonstrate that RCT are not necessary in every case, and thus could prevent unnecessary treatment of children in the future. Larger studies should follow to confirm the

  10. Breath-hold imaging of the coronary arteries using Quiescent-Interval Slice-Selective (QISS) magnetic resonance angiography: pilot study at 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Robert R; Giri, S; Pursnani, A; Botelho, M P F; Li, W; Koktzoglou, I

    2015-11-23

    Coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is usually obtained with a free-breathing navigator-gated 3D acquisition. Our aim was to develop an alternative breath-hold approach that would allow the coronary arteries to be evaluated in a much shorter time and without risk of degradation by respiratory motion artifacts. For this purpose, we implemented a breath-hold, non-contrast-enhanced, quiescent-interval slice-selective (QISS) 2D technique. Sequence performance was compared at 1.5 and 3 Tesla using both radial and Cartesian k-space trajectories. The left coronary circulation was imaged in six healthy subjects and two patients with coronary artery disease. Breath-hold QISS was compared with T2-prepared 2D balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) and free-breathing, navigator-gated 3D bSSFP. Approximately 10 2.1-mm thick slices were acquired in a single ~20-s breath-hold using two-shot QISS. QISS contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was 1.5-fold higher at 3 Tesla than at 1.5 Tesla. Cartesian QISS provided the best coronary-to-myocardium CNR, whereas radial QISS provided the sharpest coronary images. QISS image quality exceeded that of free-breathing 3D coronary MRA with few artifacts at either field strength. Compared with T2-prepared 2D bSSFP, multi-slice capability was not restricted by the specific absorption rate at 3 Tesla and pericardial fluid signal was better suppressed. In addition to depicting the coronary arteries, QISS could image intra-cardiac structures, pericardium, and the aortic root in arbitrary slice orientations. Breath-hold QISS is a simple, versatile, and time-efficient method for coronary MRA that provides excellent image quality at both 1.5 and 3 Tesla. Image quality exceeded that of free-breathing, navigator-gated 3D MRA in a much shorter scan time. QISS also allowed rapid multi-slice bright-blood, diastolic phase imaging of the heart, which may have complementary value to multi-phase cine imaging. We conclude that, with further clinical

  11. Sodium-23 MRI of whole spine at 3 Tesla using a 5-channel receive-only phased-array and a whole-body transmit resonator.

    PubMed

    Malzacher, Matthias; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Konstandin, Simon; Haneder, Stefan; Schad, Lothar R

    2016-03-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging ((23)Na MRI) is a unique and non-invasive imaging technique which provides important information on cellular level about the tissue of the human body. Several applications for (23)Na MRI were investigated with regard to the examination of the tissue viability and functionality for example in the brain, the heart or the breast. The (23)Na MRI technique can also be integrated as a potential monitoring instrument after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The main contribution in this work was the adaptation of (23)Na MRI for spine imaging, which can provide essential information on the integrity of the intervertebral disks with respect to the early detection of disk degeneration. In this work, a transmit-only receive-only dual resonator system was designed and developed to cover the whole human spine using (23)Na MRI and increase the receive sensitivity. The resonator system consisted of an already presented (23)Na whole-body resonator and a newly developed 5-channel receive-only phased-array. The resonator system was first validated using bench top and phantom measurements. A threefold SNR improvement at the depth of the spine (∼7cm) over the whole-body resonator was achieved using the spine array. (23)Na MR measurements of the human spine using the transmit-only receive-only resonator system were performed on a healthy volunteer within an acquisition time of 10minutes. A density adapted 3D radial sequence was chosen with 6mm isotropic resolution, 49ms repetition time and a short echo time of 540μs. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify the tissue sodium concentration in the intervertebral discs in the lumbar region (120ms repetition time) using this setup.

  12. Brain tumor enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging at 3 tesla: intraindividual comparison of two high relaxivity macromolecular contrast media with a standard extracellular gd-chelate in a rat brain tumor model.

    PubMed

    Fries, Peter; Runge, Val M; Bücker, Arno; Schürholz, Hellmut; Reith, Wolfgang; Robert, Philippe; Jackson, Carney; Lanz, Titus; Schneider, Günther

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate lesion enhancement (LE) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) properties of P846, a new intermediate sized, high relaxivity Gd-based contrast agent at 3 Tesla in a rat brain glioma model, and to compare this contrast agent with a high relaxivity, macromolecular compound (P792), and a standard extracellular Gd-chelate (Gd-DOTA). Seven rats with experimental induced brain glioma were evaluated using 3 different contrast agents, with each MR examination separated by at least 24 hours. The time between injections assured sufficient clearance of the agent from the tumor, before the next examination. P792 (Gadomelitol, Guerbet, France) and P846 (a new compound from Guerbet Research) are macromolecular and high relaxivity contrast agents with no protein binding, and were compared with the extracellular agent Gd-DOTA (Dotarem, Guerbet, France). T1w gradient echo sequences (TR/TE 200 milliseconds/7.38 milliseconds, flip angle = 90 degrees , acquisition time: 1:42 minutes:sec, voxel size: 0.2 x 0.2 x 2.0 mm, FOV = 40 mm, acquisition matrix: 256 x 256) were acquired before and at 5 consecutive time points after each intravenous contrast injection in the identical slice orientation, using a dedicated 4-channel head array animal coil. The order of contrast media injection was randomized, with however Gd-DOTA used either as the first or second contrast agent. Contrast agent dose was adjusted to compensate for the different T1 relaxivities of the 3 agents. Signal-to-noise ratio, CNR, and LE were evaluated using region-of-interest analysis. A veterinary histopathologist confirmed the presence of a glioma in each subject, after completion of the imaging study. P792 showed significantly less LE as compared with Gd-DOTA within the first 7 minutes after contrast agent injection (P < 0.05) with, however, reaching comparable LE values at 9 minutes after injection (P = 0.07). However, P792 provided significantly less CNR as compared with Gd-DOTA (P < 0

  13. Diagnostic usefulness of 3 tesla MRI of the brain for cushing disease in a child.

    PubMed

    Ono, Erina; Ozawa, Ayako; Matoba, Kaori; Motoki, Takanori; Tajima, Asako; Miyata, Ichiro; Ito, Junko; Inoshita, Naoko; Yamada, Syozo; Ida, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-01

    It is sometimes difficult to confirm the location of a microadenoma in Cushing disease. Recently, we experienced an 11-yr-old female case of Cushing disease with hyperprolactinemia. She was referred to our hospital because of decrease of height velocity with body weight gain. On admission, she had typical symptoms of Cushing syndrome. Although no pituitary microadenomas were detected on 1.5 Tesla MRI of the brain, endocrinological examinations including IPS and CS sampling were consistent with Cushing disease with hyperprolactinemia. Oral administration of methyrapone instead of neurosurgery was started after discharge, but subsequent 3 Tesla MRI of the brain clearly demonstrated a 3-mm less-enhanced lesion in the left side of the pituitary gland. Finally, transsphenoidal surgery was performed, and a 3.5-mm left-sided microadenoma was resected. Compared with 1.5 Tesla MRI, 3 Tesla MRI offers the advantage of a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR), which provides higher resolution and proper image quality. Therefore, 3 Tesla MRI is a very useful tool to localize microadenomas in Cushing disease in children as well as in adults. It will be the first choice of radiological examinations in suspected cases of Cushing disease.

  14. Signal-to-noise ratio enhancement of intermolecular double-quantum coherence MR spectroscopy in inhomogeneous fields with phased array coils on a 3 Tesla whole-body scanner.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong; Zhong, Jianhui

    2011-03-01

    To improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of intermolecular double-quantum coherence (iDQC) MRS on a 3 Tesla (T) whole-body scanner. A 32-channel phased array coil was used to acquire iDQC signal of a MRS phantom in the presence of large field inhomogeneity. The obtained individual spectra from the array elements were combined together in the time domain using a multichannel nonparametric singular value decomposition algorithm. The results were compared quantitatively with those acquired with a circularly polarized (CP) head coil. The achieved gain in SNR ranges from 1.63 to 2.10 relative to the CP coil, mainly depending on the relative position between the surface of the phased array coil and the voxel of acquisition. SNR enhancement of iDQC MRS in inhomogeneous fields on a 3T whole-body scanner is feasible with phased array coils. This can facilitate iDQC applications of high-resolution in vivo spectroscopy in the presence of field inhomogeneity for potential disease diagnosis in humans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Clinical Benefit of 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Rescanning in Patients With Focal Epilepsy and Negative 1.5 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ladino, Lady D; Balaguera, Pedro; Rascovsky, Simon; Delgado, Jorge; Llano, Juan; Hernández-Ronquillo, Lizbeth; Gómez-Arias, Bety; Téllez-Zenteno, José F

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is an essential tool in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Our aim was to assess the value of re-imaging patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy. Thirty patients with negative or non-conclusive 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging were rescanned with 1.5T and 3T. All of them had previous 1.5 scans with no seizure protocol in a non-specialized center. Two neuroradiologists who were blinded to prior imaging results randomly reviewed the magnetic resonance images. Kappa score was used to assess the reliability. Mean age of patients was 30 (SD ± 11) years. The intra-observer agreement for the first radiologist was 0.74 for 1.5T and 0.71 for 3T. In the second radiologist it was 0.82 and 0.66, respectively. Three lesions (10%) were identified by general radiologists in non-specialized centers using a 1.5T standard protocol. In our center a consensus between two neuroradiologists using epilepsy protocol identified seven lesions (23%) using 1.5T and 10 (33%) using 3T (p < 0.01). In 28% of patients this additional information resulted in a change in clinical management. 3T magnetic resonance imaging rescanning improves the diagnostic yield in patients with focal epilepsy and previous negative 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging. Use of 3T magnetic resonance imaging, epilepsy protocols, and interpretation by experienced neuroradiologists is highly recommended.

  16. A look‐locker acquisition scheme for quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging with FAIR arterial spin labeling in humans at 3 tesla

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Christopher T.; Chappell, Michael A.; Robson, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A novel method for quantitative measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF) using arterial spin labeling (ASL) in a single breath‐hold is presented, evaluated by simulations, phantom studies and in vivo studies and tested for reproducibility and variability. Methods A flow‐sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL method with Look‐Locker readout (LL‐FAIR‐ASL) was implemented at 3 tesla. Scans were performed on 10 healthy volunteers and MBF measured in three slices. The method was investigated for reproducibility by Bland‐Altman analysis and statistical measures, the coefficients of reproducibility (CR) and variation (CV) are reported. Results The MBF values for the basal, mid, and apical slices were 1.04 ± 0.40, 1.06 ± 0.46, and 1.06 ± 0.38 ml/g/min, respectively (mean ± SD), which compare well with literature values. The CV across all scans, 43%, was greater than the between‐session and within‐session values, at 16 and 13%, respectively, for the mid‐ventricular slice. The change in MBF required for detection, from the CR, was 61% between‐session and 53% within‐session for the mid‐ventricle. Conclusion This study shows the feasibility of the LL‐FAIR‐ASL method for the quantification of MBF. The statistical measures reported will allow the planning of future clinical research studies involving rest and stress measurements. Magn Reson Med 78:541–549, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:27604183

  17. A look-locker acquisition scheme for quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging with FAIR arterial spin labeling in humans at 3 tesla.

    PubMed

    Keith, Graeme A; Rodgers, Christopher T; Chappell, Michael A; Robson, Matthew D

    2017-08-01

    A novel method for quantitative measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF) using arterial spin labeling (ASL) in a single breath-hold is presented, evaluated by simulations, phantom studies and in vivo studies and tested for reproducibility and variability. A flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL method with Look-Locker readout (LL-FAIR-ASL) was implemented at 3 tesla. Scans were performed on 10 healthy volunteers and MBF measured in three slices. The method was investigated for reproducibility by Bland-Altman analysis and statistical measures, the coefficients of reproducibility (CR) and variation (CV) are reported. The MBF values for the basal, mid, and apical slices were 1.04 ± 0.40, 1.06 ± 0.46, and 1.06 ± 0.38 ml/g/min, respectively (mean ± SD), which compare well with literature values. The CV across all scans, 43%, was greater than the between-session and within-session values, at 16 and 13%, respectively, for the mid-ventricular slice. The change in MBF required for detection, from the CR, was 61% between-session and 53% within-session for the mid-ventricle. This study shows the feasibility of the LL-FAIR-ASL method for the quantification of MBF. The statistical measures reported will allow the planning of future clinical research studies involving rest and stress measurements. Magn Reson Med 78:541-549, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney's test was applied. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson's linear correlation or Spearman's correlation were used. In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR.

  19. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. Methods This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student’s t test and Mann-Whitney’s test was applied. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s correlation were used. Results In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). Conclusions 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR. PMID:28129354

  20. Functional imaging in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: correlation of PET/CT and diffusion-weighted imaging at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Fruehwald-Pallamar, Julia; Czerny, Christian; Mayerhoefer, Marius E; Halpern, Benjamin S; Eder-Czembirek, Christina; Brunner, Markus; Schuetz, Matthias; Weber, Michael; Fruehwald, Laura; Herneth, Andreas M

    2011-06-01

    The purposes of this study were: (a) to prospectively assess the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCC); and (b) to assess ADC and SUVmax values in relation to different tumour grades and stages in our patient population. The study group comprised 31 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who were examined using a 3T MRI scanner with a 16-channel head and neck coil. In addition to routine sequences, axial (DWIBS) and sagittal (DW-EPI) diffusion-weighted sequences were obtained using b-values of 0 mm(2)/s and 800 mm(2)/s. The ADC maps were calculated automatically. The ADC values of the tumours were measured with three regions of interest (ROIs) of standard size, and an ROI covering the entire tumour. In all patients, contrast-enhanced, whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed within 2 weeks of the MRI examination. SUVmax was measured for every tumour using a 3-D freehand ROI that covered the entire tumour. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used for group comparisons. The Spearman rank correlation test was performed for ADC values. Mean ADC values in the 31 SCC were 0.902 (± 0.134) with a ROI of standard size, and 0.928 (± 0.160) with the large ROI measurements on the axial DWIBS sequence. The ADC values of the tumours were significantly higher when measured with the sagittal DW-EPI sequence: 1.051 (± 0.211) and 1.082 (± 0.208). We observed no significant differences in ADC values and SUVmax between the various T stages or histological grades of the tumours. SUVmax values (26.5 ± 12) did not correlate with ADC values on DWIBS or EPI. There is no correlation between the FDG uptake and the ADC value in head and neck SCC. The three different tumour grades and four tumour stages present in our study population could not be differentiated based on ADC values or SUV.

  1. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computer-aided Tomography (CT) images are often complementary. In most cases, MRI is good for viewing soft tissue but not bone, while CT images are good for bone but not always good for soft tissue discrimination. Physicians and engineers in the Department of Radiology at the University of Michigan Hospitals are developing a technique for combining the best features of MRI and CT scans to increase the accuracy of discriminating one type of body tissue from another. One of their research tools is a computer program called HICAP. The program can be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue in body images.

  2. Dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Kelle, S; Hamdan, A; Schnackenburg, B; Köhler, U; Klein, C; Nagel, E; Fleck, E

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of inducible wall motion abnormalities during high-dose dobutamine-stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DCMR) is well established for the identification of myocardial ischemia at 1.5 Tesla. Its feasibility at higher field strengths has not been reported. The present study was performed to prospectively determine the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of DCMR at 3 Tesla for depicting hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis (≥ 50% diameter stenosis) in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods Thirty consecutive patients (6 women) (66 ± 9.3 years) were scheduled for DCMR between January and May 2007 for detection of coronary artery disease. Patients were examined with a Philips Achieva 3 Tesla system (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands), using a spoiled gradient echo cine sequence. Technical parameters were: spatial resolution 2 × 2 × 8 mm3, 30 heart phases, spoiled gradient echo TR/TE: 4.5/2.6 msec, flip angle 15°. Images were acquired at rest and stress in accordance with a standardized high-dose dobutamine-atropine protocol during short breath-holds in three short and three long-axis views. Dobutamine was administered using a standard protocol (10 μg increments every 3 minutes up to 40 μg dobutamine/kg body weight/minute plus atropine if required to reach target heart rate). The study protocol included administration of 0.1 mmol/kg/body weight Gd-DTPA before the cine images at rest were acquired to improve the image quality. The examination was terminated if new or worsening wall-motion abnormalities or chest pain occurred or when > 85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate was reached. Myocardial ischemia was defined as new onset of wall-motion abnormality in at least one segment. In addition, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was performed. Images were evaluated by two blinded readers. Diagnostic accuracy was determined with coronary angiography as the reference

  3. Integrating structural and functional imaging for computer assisted detection of prostate cancer on multi-protocol in vivo 3 Tesla MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Satish; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Rosen, Mark; Chappelow, Jonathan; Toth, Robert; Rofsky, Neil; Lenkinski, Robert; Genega, Elizabeth; Kalyanpur, Arjun; Madabhushi, Anant

    2009-02-01

    Screening and detection of prostate cancer (CaP) currently lacks an image-based protocol which is reflected in the high false negative rates currently associated with blinded sextant biopsies. Multi-protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers high resolution functional and structural data about internal body structures (such as the prostate). In this paper we present a novel comprehensive computer-aided scheme for CaP detection from high resolution in vivo multi-protocol MRI by integrating functional and structural information obtained via dynamic-contrast enhanced (DCE) and T2-weighted (T2-w) MRI, respectively. Our scheme is fully-automated and comprises (a) prostate segmentation, (b) multimodal image registration, and (c) data representation and multi-classifier modules for information fusion. Following prostate boundary segmentation via an improved active shape model, the DCE/T2-w protocols and the T2-w/ex vivo histological prostatectomy specimens are brought into alignment via a deformable, multi-attribute registration scheme. T2-w/histology alignment allows for the mapping of true CaP extent onto the in vivo MRI, which is used for training and evaluation of a multi-protocol MRI CaP classifier. The meta-classifier used is a random forest constructed by bagging multiple decision tree classifiers, each trained individually on T2-w structural, textural and DCE functional attributes. 3-fold classifier cross validation was performed using a set of 18 images derived from 6 patient datasets on a per-pixel basis. Our results show that the results of CaP detection obtained from integration of T2-w structural textural data and DCE functional data (area under the ROC curve of 0.815) significantly outperforms detection based on either of the individual modalities (0.704 (T2-w) and 0.682 (DCE)). It was also found that a meta-classifier trained directly on integrated T2-w and DCE data (data-level integration) significantly outperformed a decision-level meta

  4. In vitro assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a breast tissue expander with a remote port.

    PubMed

    Linnemeyer, Hannah; Shellock, Frank G; Ahn, Christina Y

    2014-04-01

    A patient with a breast tissue expander may require a diagnostic assessment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To ensure patient safety, this type of implant must undergo in vitro MRI testing using proper techniques. Therefore, this investigation evaluated MRI issues (i.e., magnetic field interactions, heating, and artifacts) at 3-Tesla for a breast tissue expander with a remote port. A breast tissue expander with a remote port (Integra Breast Tissue Expander, Model 3612-06 with Standard Remote Port, PMT Corporation, Chanhassen, MN) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions (translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. Heating was evaluated by placing the implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom and MRI was performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged specific absorption rate of 2.9-W/kg. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted and GRE pulse sequences. Magnetic field interactions were not substantial and, thus, will not pose a hazard to a patient in a 3-Tesla or less MRI environment. The highest temperature rise was 1.7°C, which is physiologically inconsequential. Artifacts were large in relation to the remote port and metal connector of the implant but will only present problems if the MR imaging area of interest is where these components are located. A patient with this breast tissue expander with a remote port may safely undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less under the conditions used for this investigation. These findings are the first reported at 3-Tesla for a tissue expander. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In vivo prostate magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 Tesla using a transceive pelvic phased array coil: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Won; Buckley, David L; Peterson, David M; Duensing, G Randy; Caserta, Jim; Fitzsimmons, Jeffrey; Blackband, Stephen J

    2003-07-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) systems operating at 3 Telsa (T) and above have demonstrated considerable potential in human studies, offering improved signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution. However, because of radiofrequency limitations and concerns, and the lack of large volume body coils, most studies have been limited to the head. In this study we describe the design and construction of a transceive pelvic phased array coil with which MR images and spectra of the human prostate at 3 T have been obtained. Comparison with 1.5 T instruments with different hardware configurations is difficult; however, in a preliminary comparison the signal-to-noise ratio is improved in phantoms and humans when compared with a 1.5 T receive-only pelvic phased array coil, and high quality spectral resolution is demonstrated through the delineation of the citrate quadruplet in localized 1H prostate spectra. Higher fields offer the potential for MR prostate studies without the use of an endorectal coil.

  6. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images. In this photograph, a patient undergoes an open MRI.

  7. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  8. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  9. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images. In this photograph, a patient undergoes an open MRI.

  10. The Role of 3 Tesla Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Benign versus Malignant Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pranno, Nicola; Sartori, Alessandro; Gigli, Silvia; Lo Mele, Luigi; Marsella, Luigi Tonino

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to validate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 Tesla in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant laterocervical lymph nodes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and Methods. Before undergoing surgery, 80 patients, with biopsy proven HNSCC, underwent a magnetic resonance exam. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Spe) of conventional criteria and DWI in detecting laterocervical lymph node metastases were calculated. Histological results from neck dissection were used as standard of reference. Results. In the 239 histologically proven metastatic lymphadenopathies, the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was 0.903 × 10−3 mm2/sec. In the 412 pathologically confirmed benign lymph nodes, an average ADC value of 1.650 × 10−3 mm2/sec was found. For differentiating between benign versus metastatic lymph nodes, DWI showed Se of 97% and Spe of 93%, whereas morphological criteria displayed Se of 61% and Spe of 98%. DWI showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.964, while morphological criteria displayed an AUC of 0.715. Conclusions. In a DWI negative neck for malignant lymph nodes, the planned dissection could be converted to a wait-and-scan policy, whereas DWI positive neck would support the decision to perform a neck dissection. PMID:25003115

  11. Assessment of Safety and Interference Issues of Radio Frequency Identification Devices in 0.3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Periyasamy, M.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two issues regarding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including device functionality and image artifacts for the presence of radio frequency identification devices (RFID) in association with 0.3 Tesla at 12.7 MHz MRI and computed tomography (CT) scanning. Fifteen samples of RFID tags with two different sizes (wristband and ID card types) were tested. The tags were exposed to several MR-imaging conditions during MRI examination and X-rays of CT scan. Throughout the test, the tags were oriented in three different directions (axial, coronal, and sagittal) relative to MRI system in order to cover all possible situations with respect to the patient undergoing MRI and CT scanning, wearing a RFID tag on wrist. We observed that the tags did not sustain physical damage with their functionality remaining unaffected even after MRI and CT scanning, and there was no alternation in previously stored data as well. In addition, no evidence of either signal loss or artifact was seen in the acquired MR and CT images. Therefore, we can conclude that the use of this passive RFID tag is safe for a patient undergoing MRI at 0.3 T/12.7 MHz and CT Scanning. PMID:24701187

  12. Enhancement characteristics and impact on image quality of two gadolinium chelates at equimolar doses for time-resolved 3-Tesla MR-angiography of the calf station.

    PubMed

    Hansmann, Jan; Michaely, Henrik J; Morelli, John N; Luckscheiter, André; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Attenberger, Ulrike I

    2014-01-01

    To compare enhancement characteristics and image quality of two macrocyclic gadolinium chelates, gadoterate meglumine and gadobutrol, in low-dose, time-resolved MRA of the calf station. 100 consecutive patients with peripheral arterial disease (stages II-IV) were retrospectively analysed. Fifty patients were included in each group - 32 men and 18 women for gadobutrol (mean age 67 years) and 34 men, 16 women for gadoterate meglumine (mean age 64 years). 0.03 mmol/kg bw of either gadobutrol or gadoterate meglumine was injected. Gadobutrol was diluted 1 ∶ 1 with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) to provide similar injection volume and bolus geometry compared to the undiluted 0.5 M dose of gadoterate meglumine. Signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) and image quality were analysed and compared between the two groups. Mean SNR ranged from 83.0 ± 46.7 (peroneal artery) to 96.4 ± 64.5 (anterior tibial artery) for gadobutrol, and from 37.6 ± 13.8 (peroneal artery) to 45.3 ± 16.4 (anterior tibial artery) for the gadoterate meglumine group (p<0.0001). CNR values ranged from 30.1 ± 20.1 (peroneal artery) to 37.6 ± 26.0 (anterior tibial artery) for gadobutrol and from 14.9 ± 8.0 (peroneal artery) to 18.6 ± 16.4 (anterior tibial artery) for gadoterate meglumine (p<0.0001). No significant difference in image quality was found except for the peroneal arteries (p = 0.006 and p = 0.04). Interreader agreement was excellent (kappa 0.87-0.93). The significantly better enhancement as assessed by SNR and CNR provided by gadobutrol compared to gadoterate meglumine does not translate into substantial differences in image quality in an equimolar, low-dose, time-resolved MRA protocol of the calves.

  13. Can magnetic resonance imaging be an alternative to computed tomography in immunocompromised patients with suspected fungal infections? Feasibility of a speed optimized examination protocol at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Sebastian Niko; Wyschkon, Sebastian; Schwartz, Stefan; Hamm, Bernd; Elgeti, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    To prospectively evaluate a short MRI examination protocol for the detection of nodular pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompromised patients with hematologic diseases and suspected invasive fungal infections. Patients with nodular infiltrates on CT scans were examined on a 3T MRI scanner. The standardized protocol included axial T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) sequences +/- fat saturation (FS), and axial T1-weighted gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Long and short axis diameters of nodular infiltrates and visibility were assessed on MR images at least six months after the CT scan, blinded to patient and examination data. Inter- and intra-reader reliability was assessed in two patients. Statistical testing included Wilcoxon-test, Cohen's kappa, and intra-class correlation coefficients. Bland-Altman plots were created to visualize differences in the measurements. In all 13 patients MRI examinations were completed successfully (average examination time 12 min and maximum breath-hold time of 8s). CT detected 409 nodules. Sensitivity of MRI was 93.2% when using all sequences in combination; considering nodules >5mm, sensitivity increased to 97.9%. Reliability analysis showed excellent correlations with an intra-class correlation coefficient of at least 0.89 for T2 FSE (95% CI 0.79-0.93, p<0.01) images for the intra-, and the lowest of 0.77 for T2 FSE (95% CI 0.55-0.89, p<0.01) images for the inter-reader comparison. Agreement on nodule visibility was at least kappa=0.95 (p<0.01) for the intra- and 0.72 (p<0.01) for the inter-reader analysis. With an average examination time of 12 min, pulmonary MRI at 3T is feasible in immunocompromised patients with hematologic diseases and suspected invasive fungal infections. MRI might serve as an alternative diagnostic tool during follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dapsone improves functional deficit and diminishes brain damage evaluated by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance image after transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Mondragón-Lozano, Rodrigo; Heras-Romero, Yessica; Mendez-Armenta, Marisela; Osorio-Rico, Laura; Nava-Ruiz, Concepción; Ríos, Camilo

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is a frequent cause of death and the first of disability in the world population. We have shown that dapsone acts as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic agent after brain Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in rats; however, its therapeutic efficacy, measured by imaging has not been characterized. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dapsone by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to correlate imaging markers with motor function and oxidative stress after transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). We used male rats throughout the experiment. Functional deficit after I/R was assessed by using Longa scale. The area of brain tissue damage was measured by histology. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Finally, difussion tensor MRI was employed to measure the fractional anisotropy (FA), as a MRI marker of the pathophysiologic brain status. Results showed a better functional recovery and less damaged tissue in animals treated with dapsone vs control group. The values of FA were higher in animals receiving treatment, indicating a better preservation of brain structure. At early stages of the damage, dapsone was able to reduce both oxidative markers (Nrf-2 and ROS). Our findings provide new evidence for the efficacy of dapsone when administered during the acute phase after I/R and that quantitative sequences of MRI are useful for characterizing its potential therapeutic benefits after stroke. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancement Characteristics and Impact on Image Quality of Two Gadolinium Chelates at Equimolar Doses for Time-Resolved 3-Tesla MR-Angiography of the Calf Station

    PubMed Central

    Hansmann, Jan; Michaely, Henrik J.; Morelli, John N.; Luckscheiter, André; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Attenberger, Ulrike I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare enhancement characteristics and image quality of two macrocyclic gadolinium chelates, gadoterate meglumine and gadobutrol, in low-dose, time-resolved MRA of the calf station. Materials and Methods 100 consecutive patients with peripheral arterial disease (stages II-IV) were retrospectively analysed. Fifty patients were included in each group - 32 men and 18 women for gadobutrol (mean age 67 years) and 34 men, 16 women for gadoterate meglumine (mean age 64 years). 0.03 mmol/kg bw of either gadobutrol or gadoterate meglumine was injected. Gadobutrol was diluted 1∶1 with normal saline (0.9% NaCl) to provide similar injection volume and bolus geometry compared to the undiluted 0.5 M dose of gadoterate meglumine. Signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) and image quality were analysed and compared between the two groups. Results Mean SNR ranged from 83.0±46.7 (peroneal artery) to 96.4±64.5 (anterior tibial artery) for gadobutrol, and from 37.6±13.8 (peroneal artery) to 45.3±16.4 (anterior tibial artery) for the gadoterate meglumine group (p<0.0001). CNR values ranged from 30.1±20.1 (peroneal artery) to 37.6±26.0 (anterior tibial artery) for gadobutrol and from 14.9±8.0 (peroneal artery) to 18.6±16.4 (anterior tibial artery) for gadoterate meglumine (p<0.0001). No significant difference in image quality was found except for the peroneal arteries (p = 0.006 and p = 0.04). Interreader agreement was excellent (kappa 0.87–0.93) Conclusion The significantly better enhancement as assessed by SNR and CNR provided by gadobutrol compared to gadoterate meglumine does not translate into substantial differences in image quality in an equimolar, low-dose, time-resolved MRA protocol of the calves. PMID:24893292

  16. Comparison between functional magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 and 3 Tesla: effect of increased field strength on 4 paradigms used during presurgical work-up.

    PubMed

    Tieleman, Ann; Vandemaele, Pieter; Seurinck, Ruth; Deblaere, Karel; Achten, Eric

    2007-02-01

    We sought to evaluate the benefit of 3 T compared with 1.5 T during presurgical functional magnetic resonance imaging. Six participants performed a motor, a visual, and 2 language paradigms both at 1.5 and 3 T. The number of activated voxels, mean t-value, and assessment of language dominancy were compared between both field strengths. Group analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of field strength on the cortical language activation patterns. The number of activated voxels and mean t-values were significantly higher at 3 T for all paradigms. Using the same statistical threshold, language activation was significantly less lateralized, and more activation zones were depicted at 3 T compared with 1.5 T. Sensitivity associated with visual, motor and language functional magnetic resonance imaging increased significantly at 3 T. Additional cortical areas were depicted during language processing at 3 T. For assessment of language dominancy, usage of more stringent statistical thresholds at 3 T is suggested.

  17. Is the Susceptibility Vessel Sign on 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance T2*-Weighted Imaging a Useful Tool to Predict Recanalization in Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator?

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Satomi, J; Harada, M; Izumi, Y; Nagahiro, S; Kaji, R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the independent factors associated with the absence of recanalization approximately 24 h after intravenous administration of tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV TPA). The previous studies have been conducted using 1.5-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied whether the characteristics of 3-T MRI findings were useful to predict outcome and recanalization after IV tPA. Patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) (horizontal portion, M1; Sylvian portion, M2) occlusion and treated by IV tPA were enrolled. We studied whether the presence of susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) at M1 and low clot burden score on T2*-weighted imaging (T2*-CBS) on 3-T MRI were associated with the absence of recanalization. A total of 49 patients were enrolled (27 men; mean age, 73.9 years). MR angiography obtained approximately 24 h after IV tPA revealed recanalization in 21 (42.9 %) patients. Independent factors associated with the absence of recanalization included ICA or proximal M1 occlusion (odds ratio, 69.6; 95 % confidence interval, 5.05-958.8, p = 0.002). In this study, an independent factor associated with the absence of recanalization may be proximal occlusion of the cerebral arteries rather than SVS in the MCA or low T2*-CBS on 3-T MRI.

  18. Molecular MRI differentiation between primary central nervous system lymphomas and high-grade gliomas using endogenous protein-based amide proton transfer MR imaging at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shanshan; Yu, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Lu, Shilong; Li, Yufa; Feng, Lyujin; Zhang, Yi; Heo, Hye-Young; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Zhou, Jinyuan; Wen, Zhibo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To show the ability of using the amide-proton-transfer-weighted (APTW) MRI signals as imaging biomarkers to differentiate primary central-nervous-system lymphomas (PCNSLs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Methods Eleven patients with lymphomas and 21 patients with HGGs were examined. Magnetization-transfer (MT) spectra over an offset range of ±6 ppm and the conventional MT ratio (MTR) at 15.6 ppm were acquired. The APTW signals, total chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer signal (integral between 0 and 5 ppm, CESTtotal), and MTR signal were obtained and compared between PCNSLs and HGGs. The diagnostic performance was assessed with the receiver-operating-characteristic-curve analysis. Results The PCNSLs usually showed more homogeneous APTW hyperintensity (spatially compared to the normal brain tissue) than the HGGs. The APTWmax, APTWmax-min, and CESTtotal signal intensities were significantly lower (P < 0.05, 0.001, and 0.05, respectively), while the APTWmin and MTR were significantly higher (both P < 0.01) in PCNSL lesions than in HGG lesions. The APTW values in peritumoral oedema were significantly lower for PCNSLs than for HGGs (P < 0.01). APTWmax-min had the highest area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (0.963) and accuracy (94.1%) in differentiating PCNSLs from HGGs. Conclusions The protein-based APTW signal would be a valuable MRI biomarker by which to identify PCNSLs and HGGs presurgically. PMID:25925361

  19. Tumor Detection at 3 Tesla with an Activatable Cell Penetrating Peptide Dendrimer (ACPPD-Gd), a T1 Magnetic Resonance (MR) Molecular Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Christopher D.; Olson, Emilia S.; Mattrey, Robert F.; Jiang, Tao; Tsien, Roger Y.; Nguyen, Quyen T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The ability to detect small malignant lesions with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited by inadequate accumulations of Gd with standard chelate agents. To date, no T1-targeted agents have proven superiority to Gd chelates in their ability to detect small tumors at clinically relevant field strengths. Activatable cell-penetrating peptides and their Gd-loaded dendrimeric form (ACPPD-Gd) have been shown to selectively accumulate in tumors. In this study we compared the performance of ACPPD-Gd vs. untargeted Gd chelates to detect small tumors in rodent models using a clinical 3T-MR system. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional-Animal Care-and-Use Committee. 2 of 4 inguinal breast fat pads of 16 albino-C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with tumor Py8119 cells and the other 2 with saline at random. MRI at 3T was performed at 4, 9, and 14 days after inoculation on 8 mice 24-hours after injection of 0.036mmol Gd/kg (ACPPD-Gd), and before and 2–3 minutes after 0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol on the other 8 mice. T1-weighted (T1w) tumor signal normalized to muscle, was compared among the non-contrast, gadobutrol, and ACPPD-Gd groups using ANOVA. Experienced and trainee readers blinded to experimental conditions assessed for the presence of tumor in each of the 4 breast regions. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and area-under-curve (AUC) values were constructed and analyzed. Results Tumors ≥1mm3 were iso-intense to muscle without contrast on T1w sequences. They enhanced diffusely and homogeneously by 57±20% (p<0.001) 24 hours after ACPPD-Gd and by 25±13% (p<0.001) immediately after gadobutrol. The nearly 2-fold difference was similar for small tumors (1-5mm3) (45±19% vs. 19±18%, p = 0.03). ACPPD-Gd tended to improve tumor detection by an experienced reader (AUC 0.98 vs 0.91) and significantly more for a trainee (0.93 vs. 0.82, p = 0.02) compared to gadobutrol. This improvement was more pronounced when obvious tumors (>5mm3

  20. Meralgia paresthetica: 3-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Del Grande, Filippo; Soldatos, Theodoros; Chalian, Majid; Belzberg, Allan J; Williams, Eric H; Jalali, Farahani S; Thawait, Gaurav K; Eng, John; Carrino, John A

    2013-06-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy and observer performance of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) in the evaluation of meralgia paresthetica (MP). Two independent readers were blinded to the clinical diagnosis and evaluated the MRN studies of the pelvis of 11 patients with MP and 28 control participants. In each study, the lateral femoral cutaneous nerves were assessed for signal alteration and/or neuroma formation, indicating lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy, at various levels along their course. Intra- and inter-observer reliability was evaluated. Both readers exhibited substantial intraobserver agreement in detecting signal alterations and neuroma formation of the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN). The readers demonstrated moderate interobserver agreement in detecting signal alteration of the LFCN and poor interobserver agreement in diagnosing neuroma formation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of LFCN neuropathy diagnosis were ≥ 71 % and ≥ 94 % for both readers respectively. The diagnostic test accuracy was ≥ 90 % for both readers. 3-Tesla MRN provides reliable and accurate diagnostic evaluation of meralgia paresthetica.

  1. Quantitative assessment of amide proton transfer (APT) and nuclear overhauser enhancement (NOE) imaging with extrapolated semisolid magnetization transfer reference (EMR) signals: II. Comparison of three EMR models and application to human brain glioma at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Heo, Hye-Young; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Shanshan; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the use of three extrapolated semisolid magnetization transfer reference (EMR) methods to quantify amide proton transfer (APT) and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) signals in human glioma. Eleven patients with high-grade glioma were scanned at 3 Tesla. aEMR(2) (asymmetric magnetization-transfer or MT model to fit two-sided, wide-offset data), sEMR(2) (symmetric MT model to fit two-sided, wide-offset data), and sEMR(1) (symmetric MT model to fit one-sided, wide-offset data) were assessed. ZEMR and experimental data at 3.5 ppm and -3.5 ppm were subtracted to calculate the APT and NOE signals (APT(#) and NOE(#)), respectively. The aEMR(2) and sEMR(1) models provided quite similar APT(#) signals, while the sEMR(2) provided somewhat lower APT(#) signals. The aEMR(2) had an erroneous NOE(#) quantification. Calculated APT(#) signal intensities of glioma (∼4%), much larger than the values reported previously, were significantly higher than those of edema and normal tissue. Compared with normal tissue, gadolinium-enhancing tumor cores were consistently hyperintense on the APT(#) maps and slightly hypointense on the NOE(#) maps. The sEMR(1) model is the best choice for accurately quantifying APT and NOE signals. The APT-weighted hyperintensity in the tumor was dominated by the APT effect, and the MT asymmetry at 3.5 ppm is a reliable and valid metric for APT imaging of gliomas at 3T. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Correlation of structural abnormalities of the wrist and metacarpophalangeal joints evaluated by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and conventional radiographs in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chan Hee; Srikhum, Waraporn; Burghardt, Andrew J; Virayavanich, Warapat; Imboden, John B; Link, Thomas M; Li, Xiaojuan

    2015-07-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) hands, we applied high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and 3 Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which are new methods for erosion detection and bone marrow edema (BME) quantification. We compared the erosion measurements between these techniques with conventional radiographs (CR) in order to examine their significance for evaluating structural abnormalities. In 16 RA patients, HR-pQCT of metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints, 3 T MRI of wrist joints, as well as CR in both hands and feet were performed. Ten patients had 1-year follow-up CR. CRs were graded according to the modified Sharp score (MSS). Bone erosions were evaluated in HR-pQCT and MRI. BME pattern was quantified from MRI for volume, signal change and total burden. The erosion detection sensitivity of MRI was 85.7% and CR was 60.9% when HR-pQCT was considered as a reference method. The smallest dimensions of erosion detected by HR-pQCT, MRI and CR were 0.09, 0.14 and 0.66 cm, respectively. Baseline total MSS was correlated with HR-pQCT erosion measures, MRI erosion measures and MRI BME volume (P < 0.05). The mean difference between baseline and 1-year follow-up MSS (delta MSS) was 1.2. A trend was observed toward a correlation between delta MSS and MRI BME volume and burden. This study demonstrates that HR-pQCT detects more and smaller bone erosions compared to MRI and CR. In addition, 3 T MRI can provide quantitative measurement of BME. Combination of HR-pQCT and MRI modalities may provide powerful tools to evaluate joint inflammation and bone damage in RA. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. [3 Tesla MRI: successful results with higher field strengths].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, F; Grosu, D; Mohr, C; Purdy, D; Salem, K; Scott, K T; Stoeckel, B

    2004-01-01

    The recent development of 3 Tesla MRI (3T MRI) has been fueled by promise of increased signal-to-noise ratio(SNR). Many are excited about the opportunity to not only use the increased SNR for clearer images, but also the chance to exchange it for better resolution or faster scans. These possibilities have caused a rapid increase in the market for 3T MRI, where the faster scanning tips an already advantageous economic outlook in favor of the user. As a result, the global market for 3T has grown from a research only market just a few years ago to an ever-increasing clinically oriented customer base. There are, however, significant obstacles to 3T MRI presented by the physics at higher field strengths. For example, the T1 relaxation times are prolonged with increasing magnet field strength. Further, the increased RF-energy deposition (SAR), the larger the chemical shift and the stronger susceptibility effect have to be considered as challenges. It is critical that one looks at both the advantages and disadvantages of using 3T. While there are many issues to address aand a number of different methods for doing so, to properly tackle each of these concerns will take time and effort on the part od researchers and clinicians. The optimization of 3T MRI scanning will have to be a combined effort, though much of the work to date has been in neuroimaging. Multiple applications have been explored in addition to clinical anatomical imaging, where resolution is improved showing structure in the brain never seen before in human MRI. Body and cardiac imaging provide a great challenge but are also achievable at 3T. As an example, the full range of clinical applications currently achieved on today's state-of-the-art 1.5T cardiac MR scanners has also been demonstrated at 3T. In the body, the full range of contrast is available over large fields of view allowing whole liver studies in the clinic or, as needed, one may choose a smaller field of view for high-resolution imaging of the

  4. Rapid Parametric Mapping of the Longitudinal Relaxation Time T1 Using Two-Dimensional Variable Flip Angle Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Dieringer, Matthias A.; Deimling, Michael; Santoro, Davide; Wuerfel, Jens; Madai, Vince I.; Sobesky, Jan; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Visual but subjective reading of longitudinal relaxation time (T1) weighted magnetic resonance images is commonly used for the detection of brain pathologies. For this non-quantitative measure, diagnostic quality depends on hardware configuration, imaging parameters, radio frequency transmission field (B1+) uniformity, as well as observer experience. Parametric quantification of the tissue T1 relaxation parameter offsets the propensity for these effects, but is typically time consuming. For this reason, this study examines the feasibility of rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angles (VFA) approach at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla. These efforts include validation in phantom experiments and application for brain T1 mapping. Methods T1 quantification included simulations of the Bloch equations to correct for slice profile imperfections, and a correction for B1+. Fast gradient echo acquisitions were conducted using three adjusted flip angles for the proposed T1 quantification approach that was benchmarked against slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and an inversion-recovery spin-echo based reference method. Brain T1 mapping was performed in six healthy subjects, one multiple sclerosis patient, and one stroke patient. Results Phantom experiments showed a mean T1 estimation error of (-63±1.5)% for slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and (0.2±1.4)% for the proposed approach compared to the reference method. Scan time for single slice T1 mapping including B1+ mapping could be reduced to 5 seconds using an in-plane resolution of (2×2) mm2, which equals a scan time reduction of more than 99% compared to the reference method. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angle approach is feasible at 1.5T/3T/7T. It represents a valuable alternative for rapid T1 mapping due to the gain in speed versus conventional approaches. This progress may serve to enhance the capabilities of

  5. Rapid parametric mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 using two-dimensional variable flip angle magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Dieringer, Matthias A; Deimling, Michael; Santoro, Davide; Wuerfel, Jens; Madai, Vince I; Sobesky, Jan; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    Visual but subjective reading of longitudinal relaxation time (T1) weighted magnetic resonance images is commonly used for the detection of brain pathologies. For this non-quantitative measure, diagnostic quality depends on hardware configuration, imaging parameters, radio frequency transmission field (B1+) uniformity, as well as observer experience. Parametric quantification of the tissue T1 relaxation parameter offsets the propensity for these effects, but is typically time consuming. For this reason, this study examines the feasibility of rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angles (VFA) approach at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla. These efforts include validation in phantom experiments and application for brain T1 mapping. T1 quantification included simulations of the Bloch equations to correct for slice profile imperfections, and a correction for B1+. Fast gradient echo acquisitions were conducted using three adjusted flip angles for the proposed T1 quantification approach that was benchmarked against slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and an inversion-recovery spin-echo based reference method. Brain T1 mapping was performed in six healthy subjects, one multiple sclerosis patient, and one stroke patient. Phantom experiments showed a mean T1 estimation error of (-63±1.5)% for slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and (0.2±1.4)% for the proposed approach compared to the reference method. Scan time for single slice T1 mapping including B1+ mapping could be reduced to 5 seconds using an in-plane resolution of (2×2) mm2, which equals a scan time reduction of more than 99% compared to the reference method. Our results demonstrate that rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angle approach is feasible at 1.5T/3T/7T. It represents a valuable alternative for rapid T1 mapping due to the gain in speed versus conventional approaches. This progress may serve to enhance the capabilities of parametric MR based lesion detection and

  6. [3-Tesla MRI vs. arthroscopy for diagnostics of degenerative knee cartilage diseases: preliminary clinical results].

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, L V; Schmitz, A; Burian, B; Pennekamp, P H; Schild, H H; Kraft, C N; von Falkenhausen, M

    2008-09-01

    The literature contains only a few studies investigating the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostics of degenerative cartilage diseases. Studies on MRI diagnostics of the cartilage using field strengths of 3-Tesla demonstrate promising results. To assess the value of 3-Tesla MRI for decision making regarding conservative or operative treatment possibilities, this study focused on patients with degenerative cartilage diseases. Thirty-two patients with chronic knee pain, a minimum age of 40 years, a negative history of trauma, and at least grade II degenerative cartilage disease were included. Cartilage abnormalities detected at preoperative 3-Tesla MRI (axial/koronar/sagittal PD-TSE-SPAIR, axial/sagittal 3D-T1-FFE, axial T2-FFE; Intera 3.0T, Philips Medical Systems) were classified (grades I-IV) and compared with arthroscopic findings. Thirty-six percent (70/192) of the examined cartilage surfaces demonstrated no agreement between MRI and arthroscopic grading. In most of these cases, grades II and III cartilage lesions were confounded with each other. Regarding the positive predictive values, the probability that a positive finding in MRI would be exactly confirmed by arthroscopy was 39-72%. In contrast, specificities and negative predictive values of different grades of cartilage diseases were 85-95%. Regarding the high specificities and negative predictive values, 3-Tesla MRI is a reliable method for excluding even slight cartilage degeneration. In summary, in degenerative cartilage diseases, 3-Tesla MRI is a supportive, noninvasive method for clinical decision making regarding conservative or operative treatment possibilities. However, the value of diagnostic arthroscopy for a definitive assessment of the articular surfaces and for therapeutic planning currently cannot be replaced by 3-Tesla MRI. This applies especially to treatment options in which a differentiation between grade II and III cartilage lesions is of interest.

  7. Body Image

    MedlinePlus

    ... spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Over-exercising ... conditions? Visit our Mental health section. Fact sheets Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Cosmetics and ...

  8. Adolescence and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  9. Adolescence and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  10. [Body image and body image distortion].

    PubMed

    Ábrahám, Ildikó; Jambrik, Máté; John, Balázs; Németh, Adrienn Réka; Franczia, Nóra; Csenki, Laura

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this literature review is to integrate the results of various studies regarding body image and body image distortion into a unified framework. The concept of body image is complex and can be interpreted from multiple points of view. The first part of the study touches upon different age characteristics, attentional focus on the body, the early and important role of the body in identity formation, specific features in adolescence, gender differences, and the often-observed stability of body image (distortion), which may be present as a (trait) marker throughout the lifespan. The second part focuses on the organization of body image. The results of different studies on cognitive information processing are reviewed, the question of perceptual accuracy is addressed and the concepts of embodiment are examined. The third topic is body image distortion. First, the concept is contextualized along different continua, then discussed in a clinical sense along with the complexity of diagnostic methods, as well as the state and trait aspects of body image distortion. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(19): 723-730.

  11. Feasibility of in vivo quantitative magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion weighted imaging, T2-weighted relaxometry, and diffusion tensor imaging in a clinical 3 tesla magnetic resonance scanner for the acute traumatic spinal cord injury of rats: technical note.

    PubMed

    Mondragon-Lozano, Rodrigo; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Ríos, Camilo; Olayo Gonzalez, Roberto; Favila, Rafael; Salgado-Ceballos, Hermelinda; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2013-09-15

    Prospective longitudinal study. To verify the feasibility of performing in vivo quantitative magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of moderate traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats using a clinical 3T scanner. Animal models of human diseases are essential for translational medicine. Potential treatments of SCI are evaluated in 2 ways: anatomical and functional. Advanced magnetic resonance sequences allow a noninvasive assessment of the spinal cord depicting both. This study describes and validates a very reproducible, feasible, affordable, and reliable method, designed to be applied in commercial 3T equipment, using a novel stereotactic device for spinal cord, leading to a readily available assessment of the progression of damage generated after traumatic SCI in rats. Four Long-Evans female rats were injured with a New York University weight-drop device to produce the SCI by contusion at thoracic level 10. All animals were placed in a fixation system, using a commercial wrist antenna to obtain magnetic resonance imaging data of the relaxometry time, apparent diffusion coefficient, and fractional anisotropy. Three sets of data obtained before SCI and 1 and 4 weeks after injury were compared. The data showed a progressive decline in fractional anisotropy measurements after SCI comparing baseline versus the 1-week period (P < 0.001) and baseline versus the 4-week period (P < 0.019), with a significant progressive increase in apparent diffusion coefficient values and T2 after SCI only in the baseline versus the 4-week period (P < 0.045 and P < 0.024, respectively). Our results helped us to validate a novel method to acquire highly reproducible and reliable quantitative biomarkers of traumatic SCI in vivo by using a 3T clinical MR scanner coupled with a novel stereotactic device for rats. N/A.

  12. 3-Tesla MRI: Beneficial visualization of the meniscofemoral ligaments?

    PubMed

    Ebrecht, Johanna; Krasny, Andrej; Hartmann, Dinah Maria; Rückbeil, Marcia Viviane; Ritz, Thomas; Prescher, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Recent investigations have confirmed an important stabilizing and protective function of the meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) to the knee joint and suggest a clinical relevance. Concerning their incidences, however, there have been discrepancies between data acquired from cadaveric studies and MRI data using 0.3- to 1.5-Tesla field strengths probably due to lower resolution. This study aims to investigate whether imaging with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-T MRI) is beneficial in gaining information regarding the ligaments' incidence, length, width and anatomic variation. 3-T MRI images of 448 patients (224 males, 224 females, with, respectively, 32 patients of each sex in the age groups: 0-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, >70years) were retrospectively reviewed. The influence of the parameters 'sex' and 'age' was determined. Whereas 71% of the patients had at least one MFL, 22% had an anterior MFL (aMFL), 53% had a posterior MFL (pMFL) and five percent had coexisting ligaments. The pMFLs were more likely to be present in female patients (P<0.05) but if so, they were longer in the males (P<0.05). The pMFL was categorized according to its insertion on the medial femoral condyle. 3-T MRI enables an excellent illustration of the anatomic variations of pMFLs. By modifying an anatomic classification for radiological use we measured lengths and widths of the MFLs without any difficulties. Despite its increased resolution, 3-T MRI lends no diagnostic benefit in visualizing the course of the aMFL or filigree coexisting ligaments as compared to MRI at lower field strengths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of MRI Issues at 3 Tesla for a New Metallic Tissue Marker.

    PubMed

    Cronenweth, Charlotte M; Shellock, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the MRI issues at 3 Tesla for a metallic tissue marker used to localize removal areas of tissue abnormalities. Materials and Methods. A newly designed, metallic tissue marker (Achieve Marker, CareFusion, Vernon Hills, IL) used to mark biopsy sites, particularly in breasts, was assessed for MRI issues which included standardized tests to determine magnetic field interactions (i.e., translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts at 3 Tesla. Temperature changes were determined for the marker using a gelled-saline-filled phantom. MRI was performed at a relatively high specific absorption rate (whole body averaged SAR, 2.9-W/kg). MRI artifacts were evaluated using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results. The marker displayed minimal magnetic field interactions (2-degree deflection angle and no torque). MRI-related heating was only 0.1°C above background heating (i.e., the heating without the tissue marker present). Artifacts seen as localized signal loss were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the marker. Conclusions. Based on the findings, the new metallic tissue marker is acceptable or "MR Conditional" (using current labeling terminology) for a patient undergoing an MRI procedure at 3 Tesla or less.

  14. Assessment of MRI Issues at 3 Tesla for a New Metallic Tissue Marker

    PubMed Central

    Cronenweth, Charlotte M.; Shellock, Frank G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the MRI issues at 3 Tesla for a metallic tissue marker used to localize removal areas of tissue abnormalities. Materials and Methods. A newly designed, metallic tissue marker (Achieve Marker, CareFusion, Vernon Hills, IL) used to mark biopsy sites, particularly in breasts, was assessed for MRI issues which included standardized tests to determine magnetic field interactions (i.e., translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts at 3 Tesla. Temperature changes were determined for the marker using a gelled-saline-filled phantom. MRI was performed at a relatively high specific absorption rate (whole body averaged SAR, 2.9-W/kg). MRI artifacts were evaluated using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results. The marker displayed minimal magnetic field interactions (2-degree deflection angle and no torque). MRI-related heating was only 0.1°C above background heating (i.e., the heating without the tissue marker present). Artifacts seen as localized signal loss were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the marker. Conclusions. Based on the findings, the new metallic tissue marker is acceptable or “MR Conditional” (using current labeling terminology) for a patient undergoing an MRI procedure at 3 Tesla or less. PMID:26266051

  15. Evaluation of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for a transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) bioprosthesis.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Mahrad; Thomas, Asish; Shellock, Frank G

    2015-05-01

    Replacement of the aortic heart valve typically requires open-heart surgery. A new transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) bioprosthesis made from metallic material was recently developed that is an advantageous alternative insofar as it is implanted using a minimally invasive procedure. Because of the presence of metal, there are safety issues related to MRI. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use standardized testing techniques to evaluate MRI issues for this TAVR bioprosthesis in association with a 3-Tesla MR system. The TAVR bioprosthesis (Hydra Aortic Valve, Percutaneous Heart Valve Prosthesis, Vascular Innovations Company, Ltd, Thailand) was evaluated for magnetic field interactions (translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating at a relative high specific absorption rate level (whole body average SAR, 2.9-W/kg), and artifacts (T1-weighted, spin echo, and gradient echo pulse sequences) at 3-Tesla. The TAVR bioprosthesis demonstrated negligible magnetic field interactions (deflection angle, 3-degrees; torque, 0) and minimal heating (maximum temperature rise, 2.5°C; background temperature rise, 1.7°C). Artifacts were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the implant. The TAVR bioprosthesis that was evaluated in this investigation is acceptable, or using current MRI terminology "MR Conditional", for a patient undergoing MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Media and Body Image

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight/body are not helpful.” What are the warning signs of an unhealthy body image? You may ... Legislative Priorities GR & Outreach State Advocacy Underserved Women Global Women's Health Council on Patient Safety For Patients ...

  17. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Breakfasts Shyness A Guy's Guide to Body Image KidsHealth > For Teens > A Guy's Guide to Body ... image can be a problem. Why Is Body Image Important? Body image is a person's opinions, thoughts, ...

  18. Inter-observer agreement and diagnostic accuracy of myocardial perfusion reserve quantification by cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3 Tesla in comparison to quantitative coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Ikuye, Katharina; Buckert, Dominik; Schaaf, Lisa; Walcher, Thomas; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Peter

    2013-03-27

    Quantification of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) at 1.5 Tesla has been shown to correlate to invasive evaluation of coronary artery disease (CAD) and to yield good inter-observer agreement. However, little is known about quantitative adenosine-perfusion CMR at 3 Tesla and no data about inter-observer agreement is available. Aim of our study was to evaluate inter-observer agreement and to assess the diagnostic accuracy in comparison to quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). Fifty-three patients referred for coronary x-ray angiography were previously examined in a 3 Tesla whole-body scanner. Adenosine and rest perfusion CMR were acquired for the quantification of MPR in all segments. Two blinded and independent readers analyzed all images. QCA was performed in case of coronary stenosis. QCA data was used to assess diagnostic accuracy of the MPR measurements. Inter-observer agreement was high for all myocardial perfusion territories (ρ = 0.92 for LAD, ρ = 0.93 for CX and RCA perfused segments). Compared to QCA receiver-operating characteristics yielded an area under the curve of 0.78 and 0.73 for RCA, 0.66 and 0.69 for LAD, and 0.52 and 0.53 for LCX perfused territories. Inter-observer agreement of MPR quantification at 3 Tesla CMR is very high for all myocardial segments. Diagnostic accuracy in comparison to QCA yields good values for the RCA and LAD perfused territories, but moderate values for the posterior LCX perfused myocardial segments.

  19. Evaluation of MRI artifacts at 3 Tesla for 38 commonly used cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Escher, Kirin; Shellock, Frank G

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate MRI artifacts at 3-Tesla for 38 commonly used cosmetics. Thirty-eight cosmetics (16, nail polishes; 5, eyeliners; 3, mascaras; 10, eye shadows; 1, lip gloss; 1, body lotion; 1, body glitter, and 1, hair loss concealer) underwent evaluation for MRI artifacts at 3-Tesla. The cosmetics were applied a copper-sulfate-filled, phantom and initially assessed using a "screening" gradient echo (GRE) pulse sequence. Of the 38 different cosmetics, 14 (37%) exhibited artifacts. For these 14 cosmetics, additional characterization of artifacts was performed using a GRE pulse sequence. A qualitative scale was applied to characterize the artifact size. Artifacts were observed, as follows: 2, nail polishes; 5, eyeliners; 3, mascaras; 3, eye shadows; 1, hair loss concealer. Artifact size ranged from small (eye shadow) to very large (hair loss concealer) and tended to be associated with the presence of iron oxide or other metal-based ingredient. Commonly used cosmetics caused artifacts that may create issues if the area of interest is the same as where the cosmetic was applied or if its presence was unknown, thus, potentially causing it to be construed as pathology. Therefore, these findings have important implications for patients referred for MRI examinations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  1. Craniocervical Pseudomeningocele Following Cerebellar Meningioma Resection: Demonstration of Neck of Pseudomeningocele With Three-Dimensional Isotropic T2-Weighted SPACE Sequence at 3 Tesla (3T) Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ayyildiz, Veysel; Ogul, Hayri

    2017-10-11

    Postoperative pseudomeningocele is an uncommon complication of craniospinal surgery. Diagnosis is reached on a postoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Demonstration of the location and dimension of the dural defect before surgical therapy is a very important. T1- and T2-weighted MR images revealed a significant pseudomeningocele extending from left cervicooccipital region. Magnitude and phase-contrast-MR images showed a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow into pseudomeningocele, but they no revealed dural defect. Three-dimensional isotropic T2-weighted SPACE sequence revealed a signal void indicating CSF flow into pseudomeningocele and location and exact size of dural tear. Three-dimensional isotropic T2-weighted SPACE sequence is certainly the noninvasive and optimal method for demonstrating postoperative pseudomeningocele sacs. It demonstrates a pseudomeningocele regardless of an existing communication with the dural membrane.

  2. Body image inflexibility mediates the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Serafino G

    2016-03-01

    Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations.

  3. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 3 Tesla in patients with advanced peripheral arterial occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Thierfelder, Kolja M; Meimarakis, Georgios; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Sommer, Wieland H; Schmitt, Peter; Kazmierczak, Philipp M; Reiser, Maximilian F; Theisen, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of ECG-gated non-contrast-enhanced quiescent interval single-shot (QISS) magnetic resonance angiography at a magnetic field strength of 3 Tesla in patients with advanced peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). A total of 21 consecutive patients with advanced PAOD (Fontaine stage IIb and higher) referred for peripheral magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were included. Imaging was performed on a 3 T whole body MR. Image quality and stenosis diameter were evaluated in comparison to contrast-enhanced continuous table and TWIST MRA (CE-MRA) as standard of reference. QISS images were acquired with a thickness of 1.5 mm each (high-resolution QISS, HR-QISS). Two blinded readers rated the image quality and the degree of stenosis for both HR-QISS and CE-MRA in 26 predefined arterial vessel segments on 5-point Likert scales. With CE-MRA as the reference standard, HR-QISS showed high sensitivity (94.1%), specificity (97.8%), positive (95.1%), and negative predictive value (97.2%) for the detection of significant (≥ 50%) stenosis. Interreader agreement for stenosis assessment of both HR-QISS and CE-MRA was excellent (κ-values of 0.951 and 0.962, respectively). As compared to CR-MRA, image quality of HR-QISS was significantly lower for the distal aorta, the femoral and iliac arteries (each with p<0.01), while no significant difference was found in the popliteal (p = 0.09) and lower leg arteries (p = 0.78). Non-enhanced ECG-gated HR-QISS performs very well in subjects with severe PAOD and is a good alternative for patients with a high risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

  4. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    PubMed

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  5. Body Image Satisfaction among Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustat, Jeanette; Carton, Thomas W.; Shahien, Amir A.; Andersen, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Satisfaction with body image is a factor related to health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and body size perception in an urban, Black community sample in New Orleans, Louisiana. Only 42.2% of respondents were satisfied with their body image and 44.1% correctly perceived their body…

  6. Body Image Satisfaction among Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustat, Jeanette; Carton, Thomas W.; Shahien, Amir A.; Andersen, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Satisfaction with body image is a factor related to health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and body size perception in an urban, Black community sample in New Orleans, Louisiana. Only 42.2% of respondents were satisfied with their body image and 44.1% correctly perceived their body…

  7. Is the Ellipsoid Formula the New Standard for 3-Tesla MRI Prostate Volume Calculation without Endorectal Coil?

    PubMed

    Haas, Matthias; Günzel, Karsten; Miller, Kurt; Hamm, Bernd; Cash, Hannes; Asbach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Prostate volume in multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is of clinical importance. For 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil, there is no distinctive standard for volume calculation. We tested the accuracy of the ellipsoid formula with planimetric volume measurements as reference and investigated the correlation of gland volume and cancer detection rate on MRI/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided biopsy. One hundred forty-three patients with findings on 3-Tesla mpMRI suspicious of cancer and subsequent MRI/US fusion-guided targeted biopsy and additional systematic biopsy were analyzed. T2-weighted images were used for measuring the prostate diameters and for planimetric volume measurement by a segmentation software. Planimetric and calculated prostate volumes were compared with clinical data. The median prostate volume was 48.1 ml (interquartile range (IQR) 36.9-62.1 ml). Volume calculated by the ellipsoid formula showed a strong concordance with planimetric volume, with a tendency to underestimate prostate volume (median volume 43.1 ml (IQR 31.2-58.8 ml); r = 0.903, p < 0.001). There was a moderate, significant inverse correlation of prostate volume to a positive biopsy result (r = -0.24, p = 0.004). The ellipsoid formula gives sufficient approximation of prostate volume on 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil. It allows a fast, valid volume calculation in prostate MRI datasets.

  8. Implementation of fast macromolecular proton fraction mapping on 1.5 and 3 Tesla clinical MRI scanners: preliminary experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarnykh, V.; Korostyshevskaya, A.

    2017-08-01

    Macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) is a biophysical parameter describing the amount of macromolecular protons involved into magnetization exchange with water protons in tissues. MPF represents a significant interest as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarker of myelin for clinical applications. A recent fast MPF mapping method enabled clinical translation of MPF measurements due to time-efficient acquisition based on the single-point constrained fit algorithm. However, previous MPF mapping applications utilized only 3 Tesla MRI scanners and modified pulse sequences, which are not commonly available. This study aimed to test the feasibility of MPF mapping implementation on a 1.5 Tesla clinical scanner using standard manufacturer’s sequences and compare the performance of this method between 1.5 and 3 Tesla scanners. MPF mapping was implemented on 1.5 and 3 Tesla MRI units of one manufacturer with either optimized custom-written or standard product pulse sequences. Whole-brain three-dimensional MPF maps obtained from a single volunteer were compared between field strengths and implementation options. MPF maps demonstrated similar quality at both field strengths. MPF values in segmented brain tissues and specific anatomic regions appeared in close agreement. This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of fast MPF mapping using standard sequences on 1.5 T and 3 T clinical scanners.

  9. Imaging body armor.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H Theodore; Schauer, David A; Harris, Robert M; Campman, Steven C; Lonergan, Gael J

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of performing radiographic studies on patients wearing standard-issue body armor. The Kevlar helmet, fragmentation vest, demining suit sleeve, and armor plate were studied with plain film and computed tomography in a simulated casualty situation. We found that the military helmet contains metal screws and metal clips in the headband, but diagnostic computed tomographic images can be obtained. Kevlar, the principal component of soft armor, has favorable photon attenuation characteristics. Plate armor of composite material also did not limit radiographic studies. Therefore, when medically advantageous, patients can be examined radiographically while wearing standard military body armor. Civilian emergency rooms should be aware of these observations because law enforcement officers wear similar protective armor.

  10. Comparison of T1-weighted 2D TSE, 3D SPGR, and two-point 3D Dixon MRI for automated segmentation of visceral adipose tissue at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Fallah, Faezeh; Machann, Jürgen; Martirosian, Petros; Bamberg, Fabian; Schick, Fritz; Yang, Bin

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate and compare conventional T1-weighted 2D turbo spin echo (TSE), T1-weighted 3D volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE), and two-point 3D Dixon-VIBE sequences for automatic segmentation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume at 3 Tesla by measuring and compensating for errors arising from intensity nonuniformity (INU) and partial volume effects (PVE). The body trunks of 28 volunteers with body mass index values ranging from 18 to 41.2 kg/m(2) (30.02 ± 6.63 kg/m(2)) were scanned at 3 Tesla using three imaging techniques. Automatic methods were applied to reduce INU and PVE and to segment VAT. The automatically segmented VAT volumes obtained from all acquisitions were then statistically and objectively evaluated against the manually segmented (reference) VAT volumes. Comparing the reference volumes with the VAT volumes automatically segmented over the uncorrected images showed that INU led to an average relative volume difference of -59.22 ± 11.59, 2.21 ± 47.04, and -43.05 ± 5.01 % for the TSE, VIBE, and Dixon images, respectively, while PVE led to average differences of -34.85 ± 19.85, -15.13 ± 11.04, and -33.79 ± 20.38 %. After signal correction, differences of -2.72 ± 6.60, 34.02 ± 36.99, and -2.23 ± 7.58 % were obtained between the reference and the automatically segmented volumes. A paired-sample two-tailed t test revealed no significant difference between the reference and automatically segmented VAT volumes of the corrected TSE (p = 0.614) and Dixon (p = 0.969) images, but showed a significant VAT overestimation using the corrected VIBE images. Under similar imaging conditions and spatial resolution, automatically segmented VAT volumes obtained from the corrected TSE and Dixon images agreed with each other and with the reference volumes. These results demonstrate the efficacy of the signal correction methods and the similar accuracy of TSE and Dixon imaging for automatic volumetry of VAT at 3 Tesla.

  11. Novel 16-channel receive coil array for accelerated upper airway MRI at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Chul; Hayes, Cecil E; Narayanan, Shrikanth S; Nayak, Krishna S

    2011-06-01

    Upper airway MRI can provide a noninvasive assessment of speech and swallowing disorders and sleep apnea. Recent work has demonstrated the value of high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and dynamic two-dimensional imaging and the importance of further improvements in spatio-temporal resolution. The purpose of the study was to describe a novel 16-channel 3 Tesla receive coil that is highly sensitive to the human upper airway and investigate the performance of accelerated upper airway MRI with the coil. In three-dimensional imaging of the upper airway during static posture, 6-fold acceleration is demonstrated using parallel imaging, potentially leading to capturing a whole three-dimensional vocal tract with 1.25 mm isotropic resolution within 9 sec of sustained sound production. Midsagittal spiral parallel imaging of vocal tract dynamics during natural speech production is demonstrated with 2 × 2 mm(2) in-plane spatial and 84 ms temporal resolution. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. High resolution MRI anatomy of the cat brain at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Gray-Edwards, Heather L; Salibi, Nouha; Josephson, Eleanor M; Hudson, Judith A; Cox, Nancy R; Randle, Ashley N; McCurdy, Victoria J; Bradbury, Allison M; Wilson, Diane U; Beyers, Ronald J; Denney, Thomas S; Martin, Douglas R

    2014-04-30

    Feline models of neurologic diseases, such as lysosomal storage diseases, leukodystrophies, Parkinson's disease, stroke and NeuroAIDS, accurately recreate many aspects of human disease allowing for comparative study of neuropathology and the testing of novel therapeutics. Here we describe in vivo visualization of fine structures within the feline brain that were previously only visible post mortem. 3Tesla MR images were acquired using T1-weighted (T1w) 3D magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequence (0.4mm isotropic resolution) and T2-weighted (T2w) turbo spin echo (TSE) images (0.3mm×0.3mm×1mm resolution). Anatomic structures were identified based on feline and canine histology. T2w high resolution MR images with detailed structural identification are provided in transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes. T1w MR images are provided electronically in three dimensions for unrestricted spatial evaluation. Many areas of the feline brain previously unresolvable on MRI are clearly visible in three orientations, including the dentate, interpositus and fastigial cerebellar nuclei, cranial nerves, lateral geniculate nucleus, optic radiation, cochlea, caudal colliculus, temporal lobe, precuneus, spinocerebellar tract, vestibular nuclei, reticular formation, pyramids and rostral and middle cerebral arteries. Additionally, the feline brain is represented in three dimensions for the first time. These data establish normal appearance of detailed anatomical structures of the feline brain, which provide reference when evaluating neurologic disease or testing efficacy of novel therapeutics in animal models. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Body Image Satisfaction Among Blacks.

    PubMed

    Gustat, Jeanette; Carton, Thomas W; Shahien, Amir A; Andersen, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Satisfaction with body image is a factor related to health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and body size perception in an urban, Black community sample in New Orleans, Louisiana. Only 42.2% of respondents were satisfied with their body image and 44.1% correctly perceived their body size. Most respondents chose an ideal image in the normal body mass index range with over half choosing an ideal image smaller than their actual size. Misperception was greatest among the heaviest respondents. Females, those who overestimated their size, those with an education beyond high school, and those who were active in order to lose weight were less likely to be satisfied ( p < .001). Those who were active but not trying to lose weight were more likely to be satisfied ( p < .001). This suggests that perception of and satisfaction with body size may play a role in health behavior decisions.

  14. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image) was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only. PMID:26500567

  15. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image) was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only.

  16. Single-row vs. double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: clinical and 3 Tesla MR arthrography results.

    PubMed

    Tudisco, Cosimo; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Savarese, Eugenio; Fiori, Roberto; Bartolucci, Dario A; Masala, Salvatore; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-01-27

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become popular in the last few years because it avoids large skin incisions and deltoid detachment and dysfunction. Earlier arthroscopic single-row (SR) repair methods achieved only partial restoration of the original footprint of the tendons of the rotator cuff, while double-row (DR) repair methods presented many biomechanical advantages and higher rates of tendon-to-bone healing. However, DR repair failed to demonstrate better clinical results than SR repair in clinical trials. MR imaging at 3 Tesla, especially with intra-articular contrast medium (MRA), showed a better diagnostic performance than 1.5 Tesla in the musculoskeletal setting. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and 3 Tesla MRA results in two groups of patients operated on for a medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear with two different techniques. The first group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the SR technique; the second group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the DR technique. All patients were evaluated at a minimum of 3 years after surgery. The primary end point was the re-tear rate at 3 Tesla MRA. The secondary end points were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, surgical time and implant expense. The mean follow-up was 40 months in the SR group and 38.9 months in the DR group. The mean postoperative CMS was 70 in the SR group and 68 in the DR group. The mean SST score was 9.4 in the SR group and 10.1 in the DR group. The re-tear rate was 60% in the SR group and 25% in the DR group. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in all patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3 Tesla MRA in the evaluation of two different techniques of rotator cuff repair. DR repair resulted in a statistically significant lower re-tear rate, with longer surgical time and higher implant expense, despite no difference in clinical outcomes. We think that

  17. The older woman's body image.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2010-02-01

    Body image is an important concept that has a significant effect on a person's self-esteem and self-confidence. Appreciating how the older body is perceived by a woman is an important first step to understanding how nurses might support patient dignity. This article reviews the latest literature on ageing and body image and suggests practical dialogues that nurses and patients can share.

  18. Fast T2*-Weighted MRI of the Prostate at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Rulon L.; El-Merhi, Fadi; Jung, Adam J.; Ware, Steve; Thompson, Ian M.; Friel, Harry T.; Peng, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe a rapid T2*-weighted (T2*W), three-dimensional (3D) echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence and its application in mapping local magnetic susceptibility variations in 3 Tesla (T) prostate MRI. To compare the sensitivity of T2*W EPI with routinely used T1-weighted turbo-spin echo sequence (T1W TSE) in detecting hemorrhage and the implications on sequences sensitive to field inhomogeneities such as MR spectroscopy (MRS). Materials and Methods B0 susceptibility weighted mapping was performed using a 3D EPI sequence featuring a 2D spatial excitation pulse with gradients of spiral k-space trajectory. A series of 11 subjects were imaged using 3T MRI and combination endorectal (ER) and six-channel phased array cardiac coils. T1W TSE and T2*W EPI sequences were analyzed quantitatively for hemorrhage contrast. Point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS MRS) was performed and data quality was analyzed. Results Two types of susceptibility variation were identified: hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic T2*W-positive areas. Post-biopsy hemorrhage lesions showed on average five times greater contrast on the T2*W images than T1W TSE images. Six nonhemorrhage regions of severe susceptibility artifact were apparent on the T2*W images that were not seen on standard T1W or T2W images. All nonhemorrhagic susceptibility artifact regions demonstrated compromised spectral quality on 3D MRS. Conclusion The fast T2*W EPI sequence identifies hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic areas of susceptibility variation that may be helpful in prostate MRI planning at 3.0T. PMID:21448956

  19. Magnetic Field Interactions of Military and Law Enforcement Bullets at 1.5 and 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Idris; Auffret, Mathieu; Attar, Lakdar; Bouvard, Elise; Rousset, Jean; Ben Salem, Douraied

    2016-07-01

    There are significant numbers of military and law enforcement bullets containing ferromagnetic materials. This study aimed to assess the magnetic field interactions for a representative sample of military and law enforcement ballistic objects at 1.5 and 3 tesla (T) to create a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatibility database. Twenty-nine different bullets underwent MRI evaluation. The deflection angle method and a qualitative torque scale were used. The samples were representative of those commonly used in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military forces (e.g., 5.56 mm NATO), law enforcement agencies (e.g., 9 mm Parabellum), and encountered in war injuries and crime-related trauma (e.g., 7.62 mm Kalashnikov). At all static magnetic field strengths, all non-nickel- and nonsteel-containing bullets exhibited no movement (deflection angle = 0°; torque = 0), whereas eight bullets containing steel core, steel jacket, or nickel jacket exhibited substantial magnetic field interactions over and above what might be regarded as safe in vivo (deflection angle = 90°; torque = 4+). Military and law enforcement non-nickel- or nonsteel-containing bullets appear to be safe for patients in MRI system at 1.5 and 3 T. On the other hand, nickel- and steel-containing bullets exhibit movements that are considered potentially unsafe for patients in an MRI environment. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Clinical Evaluation of Stereotactic Target Localization Using 3-Tesla MRI for Radiosurgery Planning

    SciTech Connect

    MacFadden, Derek; Zhang Beibei; Brock, Kristy K.; Hodaie, Mojgan; Laperriere, Normand; Schwartz, Michael; Tsao, May; Stainsby, Jeffrey; Lockwood, Gina; Mikulis, David; Menard, Cynthia

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Increasing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) field strength can improve image resolution and quality, but concerns remain regarding the influence on geometric fidelity. The objectives of the present study were to spatially investigate the effect of 3-Tesla (3T) MRI on clinical target localization for stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A total of 39 patients were enrolled in a research ethics board-approved prospective clinical trial. Imaging (1.5T and 3T MRI and computed tomography) was performed after stereotactic frame placement. Stereotactic target localization at 1.5T vs. 3T was retrospectively analyzed in a representative cohort of patients with tumor (n = 4) and functional (n = 5) radiosurgical targets. The spatial congruency of the tumor gross target volumes was determined by the mean discrepancy between the average gross target volume surfaces at 1.5T and 3T. Reproducibility was assessed by the displacement from an averaged surface and volume congruency. Spatial congruency and the reproducibility of functional radiosurgical targets was determined by comparing the mean and standard deviation of the isocenter coordinates. Results: Overall, the mean absolute discrepancy across all patients was 0.67 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.83), significantly <1 mm (p < .010). No differences were found in the overall interuser target volume congruence (mean, 84% for 1.5T vs. 84% for 3T, p > .4), and the gross target volume surface mean displacements were similar within and between users. The overall average isocenter coordinate discrepancy for the functional targets at 1.5T and 3T was 0.33 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.48), with no patient-specific differences between the mean values (p >.2) or standard deviations (p >.1). Conclusion: Our results have provided clinically relevant evidence supporting the spatial validity of 3T MRI for use in stereotactic radiosurgery under the imaging conditions used.

  1. High resolution MRI anatomy of the cat brain at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Gray-Edwards, Heather L.; Salibi, Nouha; Josephson, Eleanor M.; Hudson, Judith A.; Cox, Nancy R.; Randle, Ashley N.; McCurdy, Victoria J.; Bradbury, Allison M.; Wilson, Diane U.; Beyers, Ronald J.; Denney, Thomas S.; Martin, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline models of neurologic diseases, such as lysosomal storage diseases, leukodystrophies, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and NeuroAIDS, accurately recreate many aspects of human disease allowing for comparative study of neuropathology and the testing of novel therapeutics. Here we describe in vivo visualization of fine structures within the feline brain that were previously only visible post mortem. New Method 3 Tesla MR images were acquired using T1-weighted (T1w) 3D magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequence (0.4mm isotropic resolution) and T2-weighted (T2w) turbo spin echo (TSE) images (0.3×0.3×1 mm3 resolution). Anatomic structures were identified based on feline and canine histology. Results T2w high resolution MR images with detailed structural identification are provided in transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes. T1w MR images are provided electronically in three dimensions for unrestricted spatial evaluation. Comparison with Existing Methods Many areas of the feline brain previously unresolvable on MRI are clearly visible in three orientations, including the dentate, interpositus and fastigial cerebellar nuclei, cranial nerves, lateral geniculate nucleus, optic radiation, cochlea, caudal colliculus, temporal lobe, precuneus, spinocerebellar tract, vestibular nuclei, reticular formation, pyramids and rostral and middle cerebral arteries. Additionally, the feline brain is represented in 3 dimensions for the first time. Conclusions These data establish normal appearance of detailed anatomical structures of the feline brain, which provide reference when evaluating neurologic disease or testing efficacy of novel therapeutics in animal models. PMID:24525327

  2. Body image in adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zaltzman, Alina; Falcon, Bani; Harrison, Megan E

    2015-04-01

    To review the existing literature on body image in adolescent pregnancy and explore concepts about the relationship between the two. A systematic review. Peer-reviewed articles were identified through MEDLINE (1946-present) and PsycINFO (1806-November 2013), conducted in any setting. Pregnant and postpartum adolescents ages 13-19 y. None. The outcome measures used in the studies reviewed varied: themes from focus groups, diary entry analysis, Pregnancy and weight gain attitude scale, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Parenting stress index, Eating disorder inventory, Tennessee self concept scale. The search yielded a total of 149 studies, of which 6 were relevant to the specific topic and age group. The very limited research shows a dichotomy in body image perception during pregnancy in adolescence; some studies show an increase in body image disturbance and dissatisfaction during pregnancy in adolescents, and other studies reviewed found that the majority of pregnant adolescents had positive body image and positive attitudes towards weight gain. A bidirectional link between depression and negative body image in adolescent pregnancy is suggested. The current research exploring the relationshp between body image and pregnancy in adolescence is limited, both in quality and quantity. Future research is needed to evaluate longitudinal models that will better inform about potential risk factors for body dissatisfaction during pregnancy in adolescence, including the possible role of depression. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Obesity: stigmatization, discrimination, body image].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with multifactorial genesis (genetic predisposition, life-style, psychosocial situation), but there is a relatively homogeneous negative stereotype of obese individuals, because overweight and obesity are seen as self-inflicted disorders caused by physical inactivity and disorderd eating behavior. Obese individuals are confronted with far-reaching stigmatization and discrimination. Typical stereotypes are laziness, unattractiveness, work refusal. This negative image by the environment contributes to negative self-awareness and self-stigmatization, accompanied by a poor self-esteem and feelings of poor self-control and reduced self-efficacy, resulting in poor constructive coping strategies for overweight reduction. In addition, a disturbed body image combined with deep dissatisfaction with their own body is often found in many obese individuals. There is not always a close connection between body weight and body dissatisfaction. Young women and individuals with a binge eating disorder often show an increased body dissatisfaction as well.

  4. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  5. Clinical correlates of thalamus volume deficits in anti-psychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients: A 3-Tesla MRI study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Naren P; Kalmady, Sunil; Arasappa, Rashmi; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2010-07-01

    Thalamus, the sensory and motor gateway to the cortex, plays an important role in cognitive and perceptual disturbances in schizophrenia. Studies examining the volume of the thalamus in schizophrenia have reported conflicting findings due to the presence of potential confounding factors such as low-resolution imaging and anti-psychotics. The thalamus volume in anti-psychotic-naïve patients determined using high-resolution 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not yet been examined. Using 3-Tesla MRI, this study for the first time examined anti-psychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients (n=18; M:F:11:7) in comparison with healthy controls (n=19;M:F:9:10) group-matched for age, sex, handedness, education, and socioeconomic status. The volume of the thalamus was measured using a three-dimensional, interactive, semi-automated analysis with good inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Psychopathology was assessed using the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). Right, left, and total thalamus volumes of patients were significantly smaller than those of controls after controlling for the potential confounding effect of intracranial volume. Thalamus volumes had significant positive correlation with positive symptoms score (SAPS) and significant negative correlation with negative symptoms score (SANS). Thalamus volume deficits in anti-psychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients support a neurodevelopmental pathogenesis. The contrasting correlation of thalamus volume deficits with psychopathology scores suggests that contrasting pruning aberrations underlie symptom genesis in schizophrenia.

  6. The Body-Image of Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cratty, Bryant J.; Sams, Theressa A.

    To develop an assessment device for the evaluation of body image, to evaluate the body image of blind children, to make comparisons between subgroups (sex, age, IQ) and to derive sequences of tasks related to body image training, 91 children (mean age 10.06 years, mean IQ 88.32) were evaluated by a body image survey form. Analysis of the data…

  7. Calculating body frame size (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Images ... boned category. Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. Women: Height under 5'2" Small = wrist size less ...

  8. The "Body Beautiful": English Adolescents' Images of Ideal Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Helga; Lloyd, Barbara; Dugan, Shaun; Halliwell, Emma; Jacobs, Neil; Cramer, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examine qualities capturing adolescents' images of ideal bodies for both genders. Data from questionnaires and discussions of photographs indicate that body-image ideals are multidimensional, show systematic gender differences, and become more conventional with age. Adolescents' own body mass links systematically to body-image…

  9. Body Image in the Dance Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Although some research has shown that dance enhances body image and self-esteem, other research shows that it sometimes has the opposite effect and causes dancers to develop a negative body image and even eating disorders. In dance, body image is not only about maintaining a certain weight; it can also refer to specific perceived body flaws.…

  10. Body Image in the Dance Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Although some research has shown that dance enhances body image and self-esteem, other research shows that it sometimes has the opposite effect and causes dancers to develop a negative body image and even eating disorders. In dance, body image is not only about maintaining a certain weight; it can also refer to specific perceived body flaws.…

  11. Diagnosis of rotator cuff tears using 3-Tesla MRI versus 3-Tesla MRA: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, Ciaran; Harb, Ziad; Smith, Christian; Houghton, Russell; Corbett, Steven; Ajuied, Adil

    2016-02-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 2-dimensional magnetic resonance arthrogram (MRA) and 3-dimensional isotropic MRA in the diagnosis of rotator cuff tears when performed exclusively at 3-T. A systematic review was undertaken of the Cochrane, MEDLINE and PubMed databases in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Studies comparing 3-T MRI or 3-T MRA (index tests) to arthroscopic surgical findings (reference test) were included. Methodological appraisal was performed using QUADAS 2. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were calculated and summary receiver-operating curves generated. Kappa coefficients quantified inter-observer reliability. Fourteen studies comprising 1332 patients were identified for inclusion. Twelve studies were retrospective and there were concerns regarding index test bias and applicability in nine and six studies respectively. Reference test bias was a concern in all studies. Both 3-T MRI and 3-T MRA showed similar excellent diagnostic accuracy for full-thickness supraspinatus tears. Concerning partial-thickness supraspinatus tears, 3-T 2D MRA was significantly more sensitive (86.6 vs. 80.5 %, p = 0.014) but significantly less specific (95.2 vs. 100 %, p < 0.001). There was a trend towards greater accuracy in the diagnosis of subscapularis tears with 3-T MRA. Three-Tesla 3D isotropic MRA showed similar accuracy to 3-T conventional 2D MRA. Three-Tesla MRI appeared equivalent to 3-T MRA in the diagnosis of full- and partial-thickness tears, although there was a trend towards greater accuracy in the diagnosis of subscapularis tears with 3-T MRA. Three-Tesla 3D isotropic MRA appears equivalent to 3-T 2D MRA for all types of tears.

  12. [Body image as a process or object and body satisfaction].

    PubMed

    Zarek, Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    This work focused on categorization of elements of body image viewed as an object or process, as well as on the relationship between body satisfaction and manner of perceiving the body. The study was carried out in 177 subjects aged 19 to 53 years (148 females and 29 males). Body image was measured with the Body Image Questionnaire based on the Body Cathexis Scale of P.F. Secord and S.J. Jourard. Participation was anonymous. The procedure of attributing an element of the body to the function scale or body parts scale was based on the method described by S. Franzoi. Elements of body image recognized as body parts were characterized in the context of appearance (static object), while elements of body image recognized as body functions were considered in the context of operation (dynamic process). This relationship, however, was not symmetrical as elements of the body not characterized as body functions could also be evaluated in the context of operation. The level of body satisfaction was associated with perception of an element of the body in the aspect of appearance or operation, whereas its perception as body part or body function was of lesser importance.

  13. Cortical microinfarcts detected in vivo on 3 Tesla MRI: clinical and radiological correlates.

    PubMed

    van Dalen, Jan Willem; Scuric, Eva E M; van Veluw, Susanne J; Caan, Matthan W A; Nederveen, Aart J; Biessels, Geert Jan; van Gool, Willem A; Richard, Edo

    2015-01-01

    Cortical microinfarcts (CMIs) are a common postmortem finding associated with vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, and dementia. Recently, CMIs identified in vivo on 7 Tesla MRI also proved retraceable on 3 Tesla MRI. We evaluated CMIs on 3 Tesla MRI in a population-based cohort of 194 nondemented older people (72-80 years) with systolic hypertension. Using a case-control design, participants with and without CMIs were compared on age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and white matter hyperintensity volume. We identified 23 CMIs in 12 participants (6%). CMIs were associated with older age, higher diastolic blood pressure, and a history of recent stroke. There was a trend for a higher white matter hyperintensity volume in participants with CMIs. We found an association of CMIs with clinical parameters, including age and cardiovascular risk factors. Although the prevalence of CMIs is relatively low, our results suggest that the study of CMIs in larger clinical studies is possible using 3 Tesla MRI. This opens the possibility of large-scale prospective investigation of the clinical relevance of CMIs in older people. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  15. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  16. [Body image and low back pain].

    PubMed

    Levenig, C G; Hasenbring, M I; Kleinert, J; Kellmann, M

    2016-10-01

    Many factors seem to be causal for non-specific low back pain and are sometimes controversially discussed. Some years ago the concept of subjective body image attracted attention but due to the inconsistent use of terms and concepts it is difficult to classify publications in the literature. Studies confirmed a difference between the body images of patients with low back pain and healthy controls so that an inclusion of body image concepts could be relevant for causation and therapy. This article presents an overview of the current state of research on the association between body image and low back pain and with respect to the allocation of body image in psychosocial concepts of low back pain. Relevant studies on body image and low back pain were reviewed and are discussed with respect to the different use of terms and concepts of body image. Moreover, an approach for integration of the body image into current psychosocial concepts and therapy of low back pain is presented. Finally, it is discussed whether consideration of the body image could be of value in the therapy of low back pain. Studies have shown that low back pain patients have a more negative body image compared to healthy controls. There is a lack of studies on clinical evidence for the application and effectiveness of interventions that influence the body image in low back pain. Further studies are necessary which include body image concepts as a possible psychosocial risk factor, in particular studies on the mechanism of body image procedures.

  17. Assessment of MRI issues at 3-Tesla for metallic surgical implants: findings applied to 61 additional skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Metallic skin closure staples and vessel ligation clips should be tested at 3-Tesla to characterize MRI issues in order to ensure patient safety. Therefore, metallic surgical implants were assessed at 3-Tesla for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts. Methods A skin closure staple (Visistat Skin Stapler, staple, Polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, coated 316L/316LVM stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) and a vessel ligation clip (Hemoclip Traditional, stainless steel; Teleflex Medical, Durham, NC) that represented the largest metallic sizes made from materials with the highest magnetic susceptibilities (i.e., based on material information) among 61 other surgical implants (52 metallic implants, 9 nonmetallic implants) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions, MRI-related heating, and artifacts using standardized techniques. MRI-related heating was assessed by placing each implant in a gelled-saline-filled phantom with MRI performed using a transmit/receive RF body coil at an MR system reported, whole body averaged SAR of 2.9-W/kg for 15-min. Artifacts were characterized using T1-weighted, SE and GRE pulse sequences. Results Each surgical implant showed minor magnetic field interactions (20- and 27-degrees, which is acceptable from a safety consideration). Heating was not substantial (highest temperature change, ≤ 1.6°C). Artifacts may create issues if the area of interest is in the same area or close to the respective surgical implant. Conclusions The results demonstrated that it would be acceptable for patients with these metallic surgical implants to undergo MRI at 3-Tesla or less. Because of the materials and dimensions of the surgical implants that underwent testing, these findings pertain to 61 additional similar implants. PMID:22230200

  18. Workshop on Body Image: Creating or Reinventing a Positive Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Christine

    This paper examines the culturization of body image and the impact of body image on women and men, noting that the strict definition of body size has made many women and men dissatisfied with their bodies. The first section defines body image and culturization, explaining how the current media images put tremendous pressure on men and women that…

  19. Body Talk: Body Image Commentary on Queerty.com.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph; Grimm, Josh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we conducted a content analysis of 243 photographic images of men published on the gay male-oriented blog Queerty.com. We also analyzed 435 user-generated comments from a randomly selected 1-year sample. Focusing on images' body types, we found that the range of body types featured on the blog was quite narrow-the vast majority of images had very low levels of body fat and very high levels of muscularity. Users' body image-related comments typically endorsed and celebrated images; critiques of images were comparatively rare. Perspectives from objectification theory and social comparison theory suggest that the images and commentary found on the blog likely reinforce unhealthy body image in gay male communities.

  20. Avatar body dimensions and men's body image.

    PubMed

    Cacioli, Jon-Paul; Mussap, Alexander J

    2014-03-01

    Two online surveys examined the significance of the visual analogues, or 'avatars', men (total N=266) create and use online. Two-dimensional (adiposity×muscle) somatomorphic matrices revealed that avatars are generally thinner than their creator's actual body and similar to their ideal, but more muscular than either their actual or ideal. Men's ratings of the importance of their avatar's appearance correlated with their actual weight and muscle concerns, and disparity between their avatar and actual body dimensions predicted their offline context body change concerns additional to that accounted for by disparity between their ideal and actual bodies. Together with the observation that men also reported higher self-esteem, less social interaction anxiety and less social phobia while online (which correlated with the time they spent online), these results suggest that the physical dimensions of avatars used in social interactions online may serve a compensatory function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Dimensionality of Body Image Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galgan, Richard J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined personality variables in 75 male and 75 female college students. Found two dimensions underlying body image disturbance variables, one loading on body image dissatisfaction and one loading on body image disturbance. Low negative correlation between two factors suggests that distortion and dissatisfaction are fairly distinct and that body…

  2. Fetal lung apparent diffusion coefficient measurement using diffusion-weighted MRI at 3 Tesla: Correlation with gestational age.

    PubMed

    Afacan, Onur; Gholipour, Ali; Mulkern, Robert V; Barnewolt, Carol E; Estroff, Judy A; Connolly, Susan A; Parad, Richard B; Bairdain, Sigrid; Warfield, Simon K

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) to assess the fetal lung apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) at 3 Tesla (T). Seventy-one pregnant women (32 second trimester, 39 third trimester) were scanned with a twice-refocused Echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging sequence with 6 different b-values in 3 orthogonal diffusion orientations at 3T. After each scan, a region-of-interest (ROI) mask was drawn to select a region in the fetal lung and an automated robust maximum likelihood estimation algorithm was used to compute the ADC parameter. The amount of motion in each scan was visually rated. When scans with unacceptable levels of motion were eliminated, the lung ADC values showed a strong association with gestational age (P < 0.01), increasing dramatically between 16 and 27 weeks and then achieving a plateau around 27 weeks. We show that to get reliable estimates of ADC values of fetal lungs, a multiple b-value acquisition, where motion is either corrected or considered, can be performed. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1650-1655. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Body image and media use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Bayer, Angela M

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on body image and media use among adolescents. We begin by defining body image and how it is constructed, especially among young people. We then offer information on when one's body image perception is askew with one's perception of personal ideal, which can result in disordered eating, including obesity, anorexia, and bulimia. Next, we describe the research literature on media use and its relationship to adolescents' body image perceptions and discuss content analyses and correlational, experimental, and qualitative studies. Lastly, we recommend, beyond conducting further and improved research studies, interventions and policies that may have an impact on body image and media use.

  4. Hyperemic stress myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance in mice at 3 Tesla: initial experience and validation against microspheres.

    PubMed

    Jogiya, Roy; Makowski, Markus; Phinikaridou, Alkystsis; Patel, Ashish S; Jansen, Christian; Zarinabad, Niloufar; Chiribiri, Amedeo; Botnar, Rene; Nagel, Eike; Kozerke, Sebastian; Plein, Sven

    2013-07-21

    Dynamic first pass contrast-enhanced myocardial perfusion is the standard CMR method for the estimation of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MBF reserve in man, but it is challenging in rodents because of the high temporal and spatial resolution requirements. Hyperemic first pass myocardial perfusion CMR during vasodilator stress in mice has not been reported. Five C57BL/6 J mice were scanned on a clinical 3.0 Tesla Achieva system (Philips Healthcare, Netherlands). Vasodilator stress was induced via a tail vein catheter with an injection of dipyridamole. Dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging (Gadobutrol 0.1 mmol/kg) was based on a saturation recovery spoiled gradient echo method with 10-fold k-space and time domain undersampling (k-t PCA). One week later the mice underwent repeat anaesthesia and LV injections of fluorescent microspheres at rest and at stress. Microspheres were analysed using confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Mean MBF at rest measured by Fermi-function constrained deconvolution was 4.1 ± 0.5 ml/g/min and increased to 9.6 ± 2.5 ml/g/min during dipyridamole stress (P = 0.005). The myocardial perfusion reserve was 2.4 ± 0.54. The mean count ratio of stress to rest microspheres was 2.4 ± 0.51 using confocal microscopy and 2.6 ± 0.46 using fluorescence. There was good agreement between cardiovascular magnetic resonance CMR and microspheres with no significant difference (P = 0.84). First-pass myocardial stress perfusion CMR in a mouse model is feasible at 3 Tesla. Rest and stress MBF values were consistent with existing literature and perfusion reserve correlated closely to microsphere analysis. Data were acquired on a 3 Tesla scanner using an approach similar to clinical acquisition protocols, potentially facilitating translation of imaging findings between rodent and human studies.

  5. Hyperemic stress myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance in mice at 3 Tesla: initial experience and validation against microspheres

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dynamic first pass contrast-enhanced myocardial perfusion is the standard CMR method for the estimation of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MBF reserve in man, but it is challenging in rodents because of the high temporal and spatial resolution requirements. Hyperemic first pass myocardial perfusion CMR during vasodilator stress in mice has not been reported. Methods Five C57BL/6 J mice were scanned on a clinical 3.0 Tesla Achieva system (Philips Healthcare, Netherlands). Vasodilator stress was induced via a tail vein catheter with an injection of dipyridamole. Dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging (Gadobutrol 0.1 mmol/kg) was based on a saturation recovery spoiled gradient echo method with 10-fold k-space and time domain undersampling (k-t PCA). One week later the mice underwent repeat anaesthesia and LV injections of fluorescent microspheres at rest and at stress. Microspheres were analysed using confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Results Mean MBF at rest measured by Fermi-function constrained deconvolution was 4.1 ± 0.5 ml/g/min and increased to 9.6 ± 2.5 ml/g/min during dipyridamole stress (P = 0.005). The myocardial perfusion reserve was 2.4 ± 0.54. The mean count ratio of stress to rest microspheres was 2.4 ± 0.51 using confocal microscopy and 2.6 ± 0.46 using fluorescence. There was good agreement between cardiovascular magnetic resonance CMR and microspheres with no significant difference (P = 0.84). Conclusion First-pass myocardial stress perfusion CMR in a mouse model is feasible at 3 Tesla. Rest and stress MBF values were consistent with existing literature and perfusion reserve correlated closely to microsphere analysis. Data were acquired on a 3 Tesla scanner using an approach similar to clinical acquisition protocols, potentially facilitating translation of imaging findings between rodent and human studies. PMID:23870734

  6. Personality and body image: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Walter, Emma E

    2016-12-01

    This study systematically reviewed the evidence for personality as a correlate of body image. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched in May 2016 for studies reporting an association between at least one dimension of personality and at least one component of negative body image. Twenty-six studies (33 discrete samples) met inclusion criteria. Sixteen samples were coded as medium-high quality. The results indicated that negative body image was associated with higher levels of Neuroticism and lower levels of Extraversion. Agreeableness was not related to body image, and findings for Conscientiousness and Openness were indeterminate. After taking study quality into account, negative body image was also associated with lower levels of Conscientiousness. Neuroticism was associated with negative body image in both women and men. Sex moderation effects for Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness were indeterminate. Large-sample, prospective studies of personality and body image are recommended.

  7. Future directions for positive body image research.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Emma

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of positive body image research during the last 10 years represents an important shift in the body image literature. The existing evidence provides a strong empirical basis for the study of positive body image and research has begun to address issues of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, development, and intervention in relation to positive body image. This article briefly reviews the existing evidence before outlining directions for future research. Specifically, six areas for future positive body image research are outlined: (a) conceptualization, (b) models, (c) developmental factors, (d) social interactions, (e) cognitive processing style, and (f) interventions. Finally, the potential role of positive body image as a protective factor within the broader body image literature is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in health screening of general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Richter, Antje; Karlinger, Kinga; Berczi, Viktor; Pickuth, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) and angiography (WB-MRA) has become increasingly popular in population-based research. We evaluated retrospectively the frequency of potentially relevant incidental findings throughout the body. Materials and methods 22 highly health-conscious managers (18 men, mean age 47±9 years) underwent WB-MRI and WB-MRA between March 2012 and September 2013 on a Discovery MR750w wide bore 3 Tesla device (GE Healthcare) using T1 weighted, short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) acquisitions according to a standardized protocol. Results A suspicious (pararectal) malignancy was detected in one patient which was confirmed by an endorectal sonography. Incidental findings were described in 20 subjects, including hydrocele (11 patients), benign bony lesion (7 patients) and non-specific lymph nodes (5 patients). Further investigations were recommended in 68% (ultrasound: 36%, computed tomography: 28%, mammography: 9%, additional MRI: 9%). WB-MRA were negative in 16 subjects. Vascular normal variations were reported in 23%, and a 40% left proximal common carotid artery stenosis were described in one subject. Conclusions WB-MRI and MRA lead to the detection of clinically relevant diseases and unexpected findings in a cohort of healthy adults that require further imaging or surveillance in 68%. WB-MR imaging may play a paramount role in health screening, especially in the future generation of (epi)genetic based screening of malignant and atherosclerotic disorders. Our study is the first which involved a highly selected patient group using a high field 3-T wide bore magnet system with T1, STIR, MRA and whole-body DWI acquisitions as well. PMID:25810696

  9. Gender, Gender Role, and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.; And Others

    This study examined the importance of gender and gender role in understanding self-perceptions of body image. Male and female college students (N=166) who differed in gender role as measured by the Bem Sex Role Inventory completed the Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, a new measure of body image containing 140 items which fit a 3 x 3 matrix that…

  10. Body Image Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cok, Figen

    1990-01-01

    Examined body image satisfaction in Turkish adolescents. Findings from 269 female and 286 male secondary school students revealed that males were more satisfied with their bodies than were females, early-maturing males and late-maturing females had higher levels of body image satisfaction, and participants in physical activities were more…

  11. 3D calculations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 3 Tesla magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Lari, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A 20 TeV Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) proton accelerator is being proposed by the High Energy Physics Community. One proposal would consist of a ring of magnets 164 km in circumference with a field strength of 3 Tesla and would cost 2.7 billion dollars. The magnet consists of stacked steel laminations with superconducting coils. The desired field uniformity is obtained for all fields from 0.2 to 3 Tesla by using three (or more) different pole shapes. These three different laminations are stacked in the order 1-2-3-1-2-3-... creating a truly three dimensional geometry. A three laminated stack 1-2-3 with periodic boundary conditions at 1 and 3 was assigned about 5000 finite elements per lamination and solved using the computer program TOSCA. To check the TOSCA results, the field of each of the three different shaped laminations was calculated separately using periodic boundary conditions and compared to the two dimensional field calculations using TRIM. This was done for a constant permeability of 2000 and using the B-H table for fully annealed 1010 steel. The difference of the field calculations in the region of interest was always less than +-.2%

  12. Investigating adolescent stress and body image.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kristen M; Byrne, Don G; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades 7 to 10. Results indicated that stress accounts for a sizeable proportion of variance in body image, and the best exploratory model included stress, self-esteem, and gender. Further, specific domains of stressors related to body image differently: peer pressure and school attendance were significant correlates of body image in both genders, while future uncertainty and romantic relationships were significant for males alone. Grade differences in primary variables were also evident for females. This study helps to elucidate the role of adolescent stress in dysfunctional body image and provides insight for future prevention and intervention programs in schools.

  13. Adolescent body image and psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Davison, Tanya E; McCabe, Marita P

    2006-02-01

    Researchers have highlighted the significance of a poor body image in the development of dysfunctional eating but have systematically investigated few other outcomes. The authors examined the relationships between different aspects of body image and psychosocial functioning. Participants were 245 boys and 173 girls from Grades 8 and 9 (M age = 13.92 years, SD = 0.69 years). Respondents completed measures of physical attractiveness, body satisfaction, body image importance, body image behaviors, appearance comparison, social physique anxiety, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and same-sex and opposite-sex relations. Whereas girls tended to report a more negative body image than did boys, the relevance of body image to self-esteem was similar for boys and girls. Concern about others' evaluation of their bodies was especially important in understanding low female self-esteem, whereas for boys, ratings of general attractiveness most strongly predicted self-esteem. The authors found a negative body image to be unrelated to symptoms of negative affect but to be strongly associated with poor opposite-sex peer relationships, especially among boys. A negative body image also affected same-sex relations among girls.

  14. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations. © 2013.

  15. Clinical functional MRI of sensorimotor cortex using passive motor and sensory stimulation at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Blatow, Maria; Reinhardt, Julia; Riffel, Katharina; Nennig, Ernst; Wengenroth, Martina; Stippich, Christoph

    2011-08-01

    To establish a passive motor paradigm for clinical functional MRI (fMRI) that could be beneficial for patients with motor or attention deficits who are not able to perform active motor tasks. A novel standardized sensorimotor fMRI protocol was applied in 16 healthy volunteers at 3 Tesla (T) using active and passive motor tasks as well as sensory stimulation of hands and feet. Data analysis was carried out individually using a dynamic thresholding routine. Active motor tasks yielded time efficient and robust blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals in primary motor cortex. Noteworthy, it was possible to achieve equal activation levels within identical anatomical localization for passive and active motor tasks with these paradigms. Patients unable to perform active movements can benefit from paradigms with passive motor and sensory stimulation. Therefore, we recommend these paradigms for functional somatotopic mapping of the central region at 3T in clinical routine. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  17. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  18. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  19. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  20. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  1. Body Image Change and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Judith M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the temporal association between body image and depressive symptoms in African American, Asian American, Hispanic American, and white adolescents. Found that girls were more influenced by body image change than boys. Compared to other ethnic groups, African American girls experienced a greater increase in psychological distress as body…

  2. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  3. [Eating disorders, body image and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Alba, Patricio; Kes, Mariana Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders are a growing problem in healthcare. Altered eating behaviors are a consequence of cognitions and emotions generated by low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with body image and schema. It is possible, that a negative body image, and in many cases, distorted, may be the most difficult feature to approach and improve in this disorders. But the dissatisfaction to one's own body would not be related only to altered eating behaviors. Several studies show that body image and one's own body perception are an essential feature in sexual experiences, especially in women's sexuality. This article describes the relation and influences between body image and women's sexuality, and the sexuality in women with eating disorders.

  4. Sexual Abuse and Body Image Distortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byram, Victoria; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Female undergraduates (n=100) were surveyed concerning body percept and past experience with sexual abuse. Body size overestimation was greater in noneating-disordered women who had relatively unhealthy eating attitudes. Overall findings suggested that age at time of abuse and body image are only associated where there is a degree of eating…

  5. The Image of the Performing Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    This essay discusses the manner in which the human body is developed and transformed into an aesthetically expressive medium. This process entails capitalizing on functions performed by the body schema and, more specifically, on using the perceptual experience (or "image") of the body to consciously form motor schemata. Since this process is…

  6. Body image construct of Sri Lankan adolescents

    PubMed

    Goonapienuwala, B L; Agampodi, S B; Kalupahana, N S; Siribaddana, S

    2017-03-31

    Body image” is more than the visual perception of size and it is probably multidimensional. It is known to influence eating behaviors and self-esteem of adolescents. Although widely studied in developed countries, it has been studied little in Sri Lanka. This study was designed to translate and culturally adapt a tool to assess dimensions of body image in Sri Lankan adolescents. The study was carried out in the Anuradhapura District on school going children in grades nine to eleven. A multidimensional body image questionnaire was translated to Sinhalese language using the nominal group consensus method. The translated version was administered to 278 (114 boys) students after content validation and pre-testing. To assess test-retest reliability, the same questionnaire was administered to the same sample after two weeks. Psychometric properties were assessed using exploratory factor analysis. Three-factor model emerged when dimensions in body image were analysed. Both boys and girls had almost identical factor structure. The three dimensions identified were “affective body image”, “body perception” and “orientation on body size”. All factors had good internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha > 0.76 and explained more than 56% of the total variance in both sexes. The translated body image questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool which can be used in Sri Lankan adolescents. Both genders had a similar, multidimensional body image construct.

  7. Recurrent ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow: Correlation of surgical findings and 3-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thakkar, Rashmi S; Carrino, John A; Dellon, A Lee

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the correlation between 3-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) and surgical findings in two patients who underwent multiple previous failed ulnar nerve surgeries. MRN correctly localized the site of the abnormality. Prospectively observed MRN findings of perineural fibrosis, ulnar nerve re-entrapment abnormalities, medial antebrachial cutaneous neuroma and additional median nerve entrapment were confirmed surgically.

  8. Pediatric Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Goyal, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging modality with excellent contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Since ionizing radiation is an important concern in the pediatric population, MRI serves as a useful alternative to computed tomography (CT) and also provides additional clues to diagnosis, not discernible on other investigations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), urography, angiography, enterography, dynamic multiphasic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging provide wealth of information. The main limitations include, long scan time, need for sedation/anesthesia, cost and lack of widespread availability. With the emergence of newer sequences and variety of contrast agents, MRI has become a robust modality and may serve as a one-stop shop for both anatomical and functional information.

  9. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  10. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  11. Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality After Amputation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the field of rehabilitation psychology. Translated from Altered States - Our Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality http://www.amputee-coalition.org/first_step_2005/altered_states.html Back to Top Last updated: 12/31/ ...

  12. Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... capitis ), or the pubic area ( Phthirus pubis ). Some body lice may carry diseases such as epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, or trench fever. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  13. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your ... KidsHealth > For Teens > A Guy's Guide to ...

  14. Sociocultural context of women's body image.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Marie-Claude; Raine, Kim

    2004-09-01

    In our society, women's bodies are the locus of both increasing rates of obesity and body dissatisfaction. While these trends may seem contradictory or to result from each other, an alternative explanation is that they are both the products of an unfavourable sociocultural environment in the area of food and weight. Both body dissatisfaction and excess weight can seriously impact women's physical and emotional health. The strong cultural value placed on thinness, especially for women, unfortunately may take precedence over health. To effectively address the impact of women's body image dissatisfaction requires an understanding of the multiple contexts of women's lives. This study used a naturalistic paradigm to explore how women's personal and sociocultural context influences their body image. Forty-four non-eating disordered women ranging from 21 to 61 years old were interviewed twice using a semi-structured interview guide. Women's narratives revealed that body image is not a static construct, but is dynamic and fluctuates as women encounter new experiences and re-interpret old ones. The powerful and unconscious impact of the media on body image was mediated by women's internal contexts (self-confident and self-critical) and their relationships with others, such as partners and other women. Body image was not so much influenced by the nature of others' comments but interpretation of their meaning. However, health professionals' comments were typically not reinterpreted due to the health context in which they were given. While some women's narratives expressed their internalized sociocultural norms, others' described acceptance of their bodies following a process of reflection and empowerment. In light of these findings, efforts to improve women's body image, and by extension their health, can no longer only focus on diminishing the tangible power of industry and media, but must include transforming the social ties, practices and conventions in everyday

  15. Body image satisfaction among female college students.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Shweta; Sachdeva, Sandeep; Sachdeva, Ruchi

    2012-07-01

    To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception (P<0.001), current general health status (P<0.001) and self weight assessment (P<0.001). Mother's education had a statistically significant (P=0.004) but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)) had a significantly higher (85.71%) prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m(2)) had a significantly higher (54.54%) prevalence of dissatisfaction (P<0.001). High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style.

  16. Body image satisfaction among female college students

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Shweta; Sachdeva, Sandeep; Sachdeva, Ruchi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine body image satisfaction among newly entrant women students in a professional institution. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI) and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Height, weight, hip and waist circumference measurement was carried out using standard protocol. Data collection was carried through personal interview using pre-designed, pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule by female investigators during August-September 2010 and analysis carried out by computing percentages and Chi-square test. Results: Out of 96 study samples, 16.66%, 51.04%, and 32.29% girl students perceived their body image as fair, good and excellent, respectively while overall 13.54% were dissatisfied with their body image. The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with image perception (P<0.001), current general health status (P<0.001) and self weight assessment (P<0.001). Mother's education had a statistically significant (P=0.004) but negative relationship with outcome variable. Students with low weight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) had a significantly higher (85.71%) prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students (BMI≤23 kg/m2) had a significantly higher (54.54%) prevalence of dissatisfaction (P<0.001). Discussion: High body image satisfaction is reported in this study and was found to be significantly related to anthropometric measurements. On an encouraging note, this level needs to be preserved for overall mental and healthy development of students. Proactive preventive measures could be initiated on personality development, acceptance of self and individual differences while maintaining optimum weight and active life style. PMID:24250055

  17. Body image and eating patterns among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pich, Jordi; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2013-12-01

    Data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns among adolescents are scarce. This study assessed the association between body image and eating patterns among normal-weight, overweight and obese adolescents. A cross-sectional survey (n = 1231; 12-17 years old) was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Anthropometry, body image, socio-economic determinants, and food consumption were studied. Fifty-one percent of boys and sixty percent of girls that wished to be thinner had less than or equal to 3 eating occasions per day. Overfat girls that wish to be thinner skipped breakfast more frequently than normal-fat girls. Overfat boys and girls that wished a thinner body reported lower consumption of several food groups than normal-fat adolescents and overfat boys satisfied with their own body image (i.e. breakfast cereals, pasta and rice dishes, other oils and fats, high fat foods, soft drinks and chocolates in boys; and dairy products and chocolates in girls).A restriction of Western diet foods and energy intake was associated with a wish to be thinner among overfat adolescents. Many overfat boys were satisfied with their body image while practically all overfat girls reported wishing a thinner body. Meal patterns and food consumption were associated with body dissatisfaction and overfat status among adolescents.

  18. Body image and eating patterns among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns among adolescents are scarce. This study assessed the association between body image and eating patterns among normal-weight, overweight and obese adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n = 1231; 12–17 years old) was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Anthropometry, body image, socio-economic determinants, and food consumption were studied. Results Fifty-one percent of boys and sixty percent of girls that wished to be thinner had less than or equal to 3 eating occasions per day. Overfat girls that wish to be thinner skipped breakfast more frequently than normal-fat girls. Overfat boys and girls that wished a thinner body reported lower consumption of several food groups than normal-fat adolescents and overfat boys satisfied with their own body image (i.e. breakfast cereals, pasta and rice dishes, other oils and fats, high fat foods, soft drinks and chocolates in boys; and dairy products and chocolates in girls).A restriction of Western diet foods and energy intake was associated with a wish to be thinner among overfat adolescents. Conclusions Many overfat boys were satisfied with their body image while practically all overfat girls reported wishing a thinner body. Meal patterns and food consumption were associated with body dissatisfaction and overfat status among adolescents. PMID:24289180

  19. Beyond differences between the body schema and the body image: insights from body hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Pitron, Victor; de Vignemont, Frédérique

    2017-08-01

    The distinction between the body schema and the body image has become the stock in trade of much recent work in cognitive neuroscience and philosophy. Yet little is known about the interactions between these two types of body representations. We need to account not only for their dissociations in rare cases, but also for their convergence most of the time. Indeed in our everyday life the body we perceive does not conflict with the body we act with. Are the body image and the body schema then somehow reshaping each other or are they relatively independent and do they only happen to be congruent? On the basis of the study of bodily hallucinations, we consider which model can best account for the body schema/body image interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The "mirror-neuron system" in MS: A 3 tesla fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Rocca, M A; Tortorella, P; Ceccarelli, A; Falini, A; Tango, D; Scotti, G; Comi, G; Filippi, M

    2008-01-22

    The mirror neuron system (MNS) is an observation-execution matching system activated, in humans, during action observation, motor learning, and imitation of action. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate the properties of the MNS in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Using a 3 tesla scanner, we acquired fMRI in 16 right-handed patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 14 controls. Two motor tasks were studied. The first consisted of repetitive flexion-extension of the last four fingers of the right hand (simple task) alternated to epochs of rest; the second (MNS task) consisted of observation of a movie showing the hand of another subject while performing the same task. During the simple task, compared to controls, patients with MS had more significant activations of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex and supplementary motor area. During the MNS task, both groups showed the activation of several visual areas, the infraparietal sulcus, and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilaterally. The IFG and the visual areas were significantly more active in patients than controls. The between-group interaction analysis showed that in patients with MS, part of the regions of the MNS were more active also during the simple task. This study suggests increased activation of the mirror neuron system in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) with a normal level of function and widespread CNS damage. The potentialities of this system in facilitating clinical recovery in patients with MS and other neurologic conditions should be investigated.

  1. Sensitivity-enhanced 13C MR spectroscopy of the human brain at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Klomp, D W J; Renema, W K J; van der Graaf, M; de Galan, B E; Kentgens, A P M; Heerschap, A

    2006-02-01

    A new coil design for sensitivity-enhanced 13C MR spectroscopy (MRS) of the human brain is presented. The design includes a quadrature transmit/receive head coil optimized for 13C MR sensitivity. Loss-less blocking circuits inside the coil conductors allow this coil to be used inside a homogeneous circularly polarized 1H B1 field for 1H decoupled 13C MRS. A quadrature 1H birdcage coil optimized for minimal local RF heating makes broadband 1H decoupling in the entire human brain possible at 3 Tesla while remaining well within international safety guidelines for RF absorption. Apart from a substantial increase in sensitivity compared to conventional small linear coils, the quadrature 13C coil combined with the quadrature 1H birdcage coil allows efficient cross polarization (CP) in the brain, resulting in an additional 3.5-fold sensitivity improvement compared to direct 13C measurements without nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) or polarization transfer. Combined with the gain in power efficiency, this setup allows broadband 1H to 13C CP over large areas of the brain. Clear 13C resonances from glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), aspartate (Asp), lactate (Lac), and gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) carbon spins in the human brain demonstrate the quality of 13C MR spectra obtained in vivo with this coil setup. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. 3-Tesla MR spectroscopy in patients subjected to bone marrow transplantation: clinical correlations.

    PubMed

    Sergiacomi, G; Gaspari, E; Taglieri, A; Meschini, A; Gisone, V; Cudillo, L; Arcese, W; Simonetti, G

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Twelve NHL patients who were candidates for BMT underwent three MR examinations of the lumbosacral spine: before ablative therapy for BMT, 15±4 days and 54±24 days after BMT. The MR study was supplemented by spectroscopic analysis. The lipid content was calculated and expressed as a percentage of lipid signal intensity relative to total signal intensity [fat fraction (FF)]. In the first MR study, the FF was 62.5±7%, in the second it was 70.75±5% and in the third it was 75±1%. We observed a statistically significant difference between FF values calculated at the various MR studies (p=0.02) and between red blood cell count (p=0.017), platelet count (p=0.003) and haematocrit (p<0.001) at the three MR studies. FF had a statistically significant correlation with the number of circulating platelets (p<0.01) MR spectroscopy of the bone marrow of NHL patients undergoing BMT is noninvasive and highly sensitive for characterising and monitoring bone marrow after BMT.

  3. Blood oxygen-level dependent functional assessment of cerebrovascular reactivity: Feasibility for intraoperative 3 Tesla MRI.

    PubMed

    Fierstra, Jorn; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; van Niftrik, Christiaan Hendrik Bas; Piccirelli, Marco; Pangalu, Athina; Kocian, Roman; Neidert, Marian Christoph; Valavanis, Antonios; Regli, Luca; Bozinov, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of functional blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) MRI to evaluate intraoperative cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) at 3 Tesla field strength. Ten consecutive neurosurgical subjects scheduled for a clinical intraoperative MRI examination were enrolled in this study. In addition to the clinical protocol a BOLD sequence was implemented with three cycles of 44 s apnea to calculate CVR values on a voxel-by-voxel basis throughout the brain. The CVR range was then color-coded and superimposed on an anatomical volume to create high spatial resolution CVR maps. Ten subjects (mean age 34.8 ± 13.4; 2 females) uneventfully underwent the intraoperative BOLD protocol, with no complications occurring. Whole-brain CVR for all subjects was (mean ± SD) 0.69 ± 0.42, whereas CVR was markedly higher for tumor subjects as compared to vascular subjects, 0.81 ± 0.44 versus 0.33 ± 0.10, respectively. Furthermore, color-coded functional maps could be robustly interpreted for a whole-brain assessment of CVR. We demonstrate that intraoperative BOLD MRI is feasible in creating functional maps to assess cerebrovascular reactivity throughout the brain in subjects undergoing a neurosurgical procedure. Magn Reson Med 77:806-813, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Measurement and evaluation of the acoustic noise of a 3 Tesla MR scanner.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    We measured the sound level and frequencies of the acoustic noise generated by a 3 Tesla (T) MR scanner, and investigated the subjective sound level for 30 healthy volunteers with either earplugs, headphones or both. The sound level of 3T was found to be higher than that of 1.5T in all sequences. The peak sound pressure level of 3T ranged from 125.7 dB for MR angiography to 130.7 dB for single shot EPI on the linear scale. The equivalent noise level was from 110.0 dB for FLAIR to 115.8 dB for T1-IR on the A-weighted scale, which exceeded 99 dB, the level regulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The study of the subjective sound level showed that the effect of noise reduction was not significantly different between earplugs and headphones. However, the use of both devices could reduce the subjective sound level significantly better than either one alone (P < 0.01). Thus we propose wearing both devices for ear-protection during 3T examinations.

  5. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    PubMed

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use.

  6. Male body image following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Howes, Hannah; Edwards, Stephen; Benton, David

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate body image concerns and psycho-emotional health in males with acquired brain injury (ABI). Using a between subjects study of 25 males with ABI and 25 matched controls, variables were analysed using correlations and 2 x 2 analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with head injury and injury type as independent variables. Body image and psycho-emotional health were evaluated using self-report questionnaires. Disability and cognitive impairment were measured using a mixture of self-report, cognitive testing and clinical notes. Results indicated that males with ABI had significantly lower self-esteem and body dissatisfaction on a number of items relating to physical and sexual functioning. There were significant differences in body image between stroke and TBI, but there was no corresponding relationship with psycho-emotional health. These body image differences might be explained by age. The finding that ABI has a negative effect on body image and that this relates to psycho-emotional health should be investigated further, perhaps being included in future rehabilitation strategies.

  7. Body image concerns after colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Claire

    Body image is understood to be a person's perception of his or her own physical appearance although, as this article highlights, it embraces a greater range of bodily attributes than is often appreciated. It can be significantly affected by a diagnosis of colorectal cancer and subsequent treatment, which may modify the way the body looks, feels and functions. One of the major aesthetic and functional consequences of colorectal cancer surgery is the possibility of stoma formation, which is of particular concern to many. However, the range of other bodily effects following surgery should not be overlooked, not least because of they may result in distress. While concerns about changes in body image generally decrease over time, people recovering from cancer treatment often feel their relationship with their body has been permanently altered. Specialist support is often required when adjusting to any changes in bodily appearance and function. Care outcomes can be improved by having a sound understanding of the body image concerns likely to arise following treatment, as well as the skills to identify and support patients at risk of altered body image. This article provides guidance to nurses caring for individuals who may be experiencing distress over how their body is now perceived by themselves and others following colorectal cancer surgery.

  8. Superconducting 72-pole Indirect Cooling 3Tesla Wiggler for CLIC Damping Ring and ANKA Image Beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragin, A.; Gusev, Ye.; Khrushchev, S.; Mezentsev, N.; Shkaruba, V.; Syrovatin, V.; Tarasenko, O.; Tsukanov, V.; Volkov, A.; K. Zolotarev; Zorin, A.

    One of the directions of BINP activity is the creation of multipole superconducting wigglers with the magnetic field levels from 2 T to 7.5 T which are installed on many SR sources. Special efforts were made by BINP to develop the cryogenic system with zero liquid helium consumption. The next significant step became the design and creation of superconducting full size prototype of damping wiggler for CLIC project where supposed the installation of 104 wigglers. For operation of CLIC damping wiggler it is required the magnetic field of 3 T and the period about 50 mm with a beam vertical aperture of 13 mm. Design features of the wiggler which was proposed and created by BINP is the application of the indirect cooling method. In this case Nb-Ti magnet with the length of 1.9 m and the weight of 700 kg is located in a vacuum and is cooled by four Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. To maintain the temperature about 4.2 K on the magnet it is used the tubes with circulating liquid helium as the heat conducting elements. To increase the efficiency of pre-cooling down of the magnet it is used nitrogen-based heat pipes of siphon type. The features of the magnetic and cryogenic systems of CLIC damping wiggler full size prototype and test results are presented in this article.

  9. Sacrotuberous Ligament Healing following Surgical Division during Transgluteal Pudendal Nerve Decompression: A 3-Tesla MR Neurography Study

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Jan; Fritz, Benjamin; Dellon, A. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic pain due to chronic pudendal nerve (PN) compression, when treated surgically, is approached with a transgluteal division of the sacrotuberous ligament (STL). Controversy exists as to whether the STL heals spontaneously or requires grafting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine how surgically divided and unrepaired STL heal. A retrospective evaluation of 10 patients who had high spatial resolution 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3T MRI) exams of the pelvis was done using an IRB-approved protocol. Each patient was referred for residual pelvic pain after a transgluteal STL division for chronic pudendal nerve pain. Of the 10 patients, 8 had the STL divided and not repaired, while 2 had the STL divided and reconstructed with an allograft tendon. Of the 8 that were left unrepaired, 6 had bilateral surgery. Outcome variables included STL integrity and thickness. Normative data for the STL were obtained through a control group of 20 subjects. STL integrity and thickness were measured directly on 3 T MR Neurography images, by two independent Radiologists. The integrity and thickness of the post-surgical STL was evaluated 39 months (range, 9–55) after surgery. Comparison was made with the native contra-lateral STL in those who had unilateral STL division, and with normal, non-divided STL of subjects of the control group. The normal STL measured 3 mm (minimum and maximum of absolute STL thickness, 2–3 mm). All post-operative STL were found to be continuous regardless of the surgical technique used. Measured at level of Alcock’s canal in the same plane as the obturator internus tendon posterior to the ischium, the mean anteroposterior STL diameter was 5 mm (range, 4–5 mm) in the group of prior STL division without repair and 8 mm (range, 8–9 mm) in the group with the STL reconstructed with grafts (p<0.05). The group of healed STLs were significantly thicker than the normal STL (p<0.05). We conclude that a surgically divided STL will heal

  10. Simultaneous quantification of glutamate and glutamine by J-modulated spectroscopy at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Shen, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The echo time (TE) averaged spectrum is the one-dimensional (1D) cross-section of the J-resolved spectrum at J = 0. In multiecho TE-averaged spectroscopy, glutamate (Glu) is differentiated from glutamine (Gln) at 3 Tesla (T). This method, however, almost entirely suppresses Gln resonance lines around 2.35 ppm, leaving Gln undetermined. This study presents a novel method for quantifying both Glu and Gln using multi-echo spectral data. A 1D cross-section of J-resolved spectroscopy at J = 7.5 Hz-referred to as J-modulated spectroscopy-was developed to simultaneously quantify Glu and Gln levels in the human brain. The transverse relaxation times (T2 s) of metabolites were first determined using conventional TE-averaged spectroscopy with different starting echo time and then incorporated into the spectral model for fitting J-modulated data. Simulation and in vivo data showed that the resonance signals of Glu and Gln were clearly separated around 2.35 ppm in J-modulated spectroscopy. In the anterior cingulate cortex, both Glu and Gln levels were found to be significantly higher in gray matter than in white matter in healthy subjects (P < 10(-10) and < 10(-5) , respectively). Gln resonances can be clearly separated from Glu and N-acetyl-aspartate around 2.35 ppm using J-modulated spectroscopy. This method can be used to quantitatively measure Glu and Gln simultaneously at 3T. Magn Reson Med 76:725-732, 2016. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Feminist identity, body image, and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, Hannah M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors.

  12. Feminist identity, body image, and disordered eating

    PubMed Central

    Borowsky, Hannah M.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors. PMID:26694553

  13. Body image disturbance and skin bleaching.

    PubMed

    Charles, Christopher A D; McLean, Shua-Kym

    2017-02-24

    This study looks at body image disturbance among Jamaicans who bleach their skin. The hypothesis states that there is a positive relationship between skin bleaching and body image disturbance. The study used a convenience sample of 160 participants with a skin bleaching group (n = 80) and a non-bleaching comparison group (n = 80). The instrument included demographic questions, the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ), and questions about skin bleaching. The results of a t-test revealed that the skin bleaching group (M = 1.5255, SD = 0.42169) was not significantly different from the non-bleaching group (M = 1.4938, SD = 0.74217) in terms of body image disturbance, t(158) = 0.333, p = .740. The participants who bleached did not suffer from body image disturbance. Self-reports revealed that they bleached to acquire beauty, attract a partner, elude the police, and market skin bleaching products. The practice was fashionable and popular and it made some participants feel good, while others were fans of a popular musical artiste who bleached his skin. The majority of participants bleached because of the perceived personal, social, and entrepreneurial benefits of the practice and not because they suffered emotional distress, anxiety, and functional impairment because of their skin colour. However, there was some level of BID among the minority of participants who argued that they bleached because they wanted to be pretty so they were emotionally distressed about there body image and experienced functional impairment.

  14. From the body's viscera to the body's image: Is there a link between interoception and body image concerns?

    PubMed

    Badoud, Deborah; Tsakiris, Manos

    2017-06-01

    Interoception, the sense of the physiological condition of the body originating from within its internal organs, and body image, namely the perception, feelings and attitudes one has about one's body, are two fundamental components of our sense of personal identity and overall well-being. However, the relation between interoception and body image remains poorly understood. We here review recent behavioural and neuroimaging evidence from non-clinical and clinical populations (e.g. eating disorders) to propose that basic interoceptive processes and interoceptive awareness may crucially contribute to the complex formation of body image, as well as to its disturbances. In particular, lower interoceptive accuracy and awareness are associated with body-image concerns. We provide a potential mechanistic explanation of the link between interoception and body image, which aims to integrate interoceptive and exteroceptive representations of the body. The suggested link between interoception and body image can inform new empirically testable hypotheses on the underlying neurocognitive processes that are central to body image concerns and disturbances, and motivate relevant clinical implications. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. [Body image of adolescents in rural cities].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Laus, Maria Fernanda; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate the body image of adolescents from rural cities and its relationship with nutritional status, sex and the adolescent phase. Adolescents of both sexes participated in the cross-sectional study. Body image was evaluated through the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS) for adolescents. Weight and height were measured for the evaluation of body mass index (BMI). Stages of adolescence were classified by age. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Four hundred and forty-five adolescents (190 boys and 255 girls), with a mean age of 16.44 comprised the sample. Higher risk of body dissatisfaction was found among overweight and obese participants (BSQ: OR = 3.359 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 1.572 p = 0.387) and the female sex (BSQ: OR = 3.694 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 0.922, p = 0.840). Participants from the intermediary and final stages of adolescence revealed a lesser risk of dissatisfaction compared to those from the initial phase. Body dissatisfaction was related to overweight and obesity, to the female sex and to the initial period of adolescence. Intervention research is required to control the factors that influence excessive adolescent body dissatisfaction.

  16. A 128-Channel Receive-Only Cardiac Coil for Highly Accelerated Cardiac MRI at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Melanie; Potthast, Andreas; Sosnovik, David E.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Wiggins, Graham C.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2008-01-01

    A 128-channel receive-only array coil is described and tested for cardiac imaging at 3T. The coil is closely contoured to the body with a “clam-shell” geometry with 68 posterior and 60 anterior elements, each 75 mm in diameter, and arranged in a continuous overlapped array of hexagonal symmetry to minimize nearest neighbor coupling. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification for parallel imaging (G-factor) were evaluated in phantom and volunteer experiments. These results were compared to those of commercially available 24-channel and 32-channel coils in routine use for cardiac imaging. The in vivo measurements with the 128-channel coil resulted in SNR gains compared to the 24-channel coil (up to 2.2-fold in the apex). The 128- and 32-channel coils showed similar SNR in the heart, likely dominated by the similar element diameters of these coils. The maximum G-factor values were up to seven times better for a seven-fold acceleration factor (R = 7) compared to the 24-channel coil and up to two-fold improved compared to the 32-channel coil. The ability of the 128-channel coil to facilitate highly accelerated cardiac imaging was demonstrated in four volunteers using acceleration factors up to seven-fold (R = 7) in a single spatial dimension. PMID:18506789

  17. Body Image Disturbance in Selected Groups of Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosemore, Douglas J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined satisfaction with body image in sample of 18 male college hockey players, 18 male college body builders, and 18 college students in a psychology class using measures of body image distortion and body image dissatisfaction. Found marked levels of distortion and dissatisfaction in body builders, but not in other two groups. (Author/ABL)

  18. 3 Tesla multiparametric MRI for GTV-definition of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions in patients with Prostate Cancer – an interobserver variability study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the interobserver variability of gross tumor volume (GTV) - delineation of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions (DIPL) in patients with prostate cancer using published MRI criteria for multiparametric MRI at 3 Tesla by 6 different observers. Material and methods 90 GTV-datasets based on 15 multiparametric MRI sequences (T2w, diffusion weighted (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)) of 5 patients with prostate cancer were generated for GTV-delineation of DIPL by 6 observers. The reference GTV-dataset was contoured by a radiologist with expertise in diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer using MRI. Subsequent GTV-delineation was performed by 5 radiation oncologists who received teaching of MRI-features of primary prostate cancer before starting contouring session. GTV-datasets were contoured using Oncentra Masterplan® and iplan® Net. For purposes of comparison GTV-datasets were imported to the Artiview® platform (Aquilab®), GTV-values and the similarity indices or Kappa indices (KI) were calculated with the postulation that a KI > 0.7 indicates excellent, a KI > 0.6 to < 0.7 substantial and KI > 0.5 to < 0.6 moderate agreement. Additionally all observers rated difficulties of contouring for each MRI-sequence using a 3 point rating scale (1 = easy to delineate, 2 = minor difficulties, 3 = major difficulties). Results GTV contouring using T2w (KI-T2w = 0.61) and DCE images (KI-DCE = 0.63) resulted in substantial agreement. GTV contouring using DWI images resulted in moderate agreement (KI-DWI = 0.51). KI-T2w and KI-DCE was significantly higher than KI-DWI (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003). Degree of difficulty in contouring GTV was significantly lower using T2w and DCE compared to DWI-sequences (both p < 0.0001). Analysis of delineation differences revealed inadequate comparison of functional (DWI, DCE) to anatomical sequences (T2w) and lack of awareness of non-specific imaging findings as a source of erroneous

  19. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  20. Enabling patients to manage altered body image.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-12-14

    The author presented a model in the 1990s to explain altered body image, which has been used to characterise the difficulties encountered by patients who experience body change as a result of illness, injury or disability. However, it remains a challenge for nurses to establish care plans that can assist patients to manage the psychological adjustments associated with disfigurement. This article presents some simple questions to help patients narrate their psychological experiences and needs, and proposes a model of psychological change, based on the work of Kübler-Ross, to enable nurses to anticipate patient requirements that might arise at different stages of the individual's recovery and rehabilitation. Body-image rehabilitation may be protracted. Therefore, it is essential for nurses to understand what the patient is thinking and feeling throughout the rehabilitation process and which stage of psychological change the patient is working through.

  1. Electromagnetic imaging of crustal magma bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsworth, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Magma bodies are the location of a number of important processes that have formed the crust. In a magma chamber, a parent magma differentiates to produce magmas with a range of compositions that may either be erupted, or crystallize to form intrusions. Geological studies of erupted lavas and crystallized magma bodies exposed at the surface have given valuable information about processes occurring in magma bodies. Numerical modelling has given important insights into the complex processes occurring in these bodies. Geophysical studies complement geological observations and give real time images of magma bodies. Seismic studies have delineated a number of magma bodies and can constrain the melt fraction through studies of velocity and attenuation, while geodetic data have detected time variations in size through the associated surface deformation. Electromagnetic (EM) methods offer an alternative view of crustal magmatism. Both magma bodies and associated hydrothermal systems are characterized by electrical resistivity values that are much lower than the surrounding crystalline rock. Magnetotellurics (MT) is one of the most widely used EM methods and can image the subsurface resistivity structure in 3-D using natural EM signals. The resistivity of the magma body depends on the amount, geometry and composition of the melt. Interpretation of the electrical resistivity of partially molten zones was previously quite non-unique. However, when resistivity models are combined with (1) other geophysical data, (2) petrological constrains of melt composition and (3) laboratory measurements of the resistivity of partial melts, the non-uniqueness can be greatly reduced. This presentation will review what can be determined about crustal magma bodies using EM methods. The MT method will be reviewed with an emphasis on which resistivity model features of magmatic and hydrothermal are well resolved by EM surveys. The approach outlined above to reduce the uncertainty in resistivity

  2. Reclaiming body image: the hidden burn.

    PubMed

    Willis-Helmich, J J

    1992-01-01

    At the age of 4, I incurred a major burn injury that left 45% of my body with permanent scars. Normal clothing covers most of the scars. I was able to reclaim a positive body image through a gradual process of verbal and "body" disclosure. As an adult, I joined a burn survivors' self-help group; as a result of talking with other burn survivors, my self expectations increased. Later, I joined a facilitated group in which nudity and personal growth were the norm. In this group, I was the only person who had experienced a major physical trauma. I replaced my strongly held beliefs that others could not accept my unclothed, burn-injured body with the belief that some persons can, and I came to a personal understanding of why others could not. Fun, exercise, and relaxation led to a reclamation of positive feelings about my unclothed body and allowed my femininity and the character of my body image to emerge and become integrated.

  3. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; Conti, Maria Aparecida; de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique B.; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST) were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females). The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ) to 78.9% (SST). Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001). Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05). Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents. PMID:24676192

  4. Body image in persons with gender dysphoria.

    PubMed

    Rabito Alcón, María Frenzi; Rodríguez Molina, José Miguel

    2015-05-15

    For subjects with gender dysphoria, body image is an important aspect of their condition. These people sometimes exhibit a strong desire to change their primary and secondary sexual characteristics. In addition, idealization of beauty has grown in importance and it may increase body dissatisfaction. The aim of this paper is to analyze whether body dissatisfaction in people with gender dysphoria is similar to that in clinical population or if it is more similar to that which may appear in general population. We also looked at gender differences in body dissatisfaction. A set of questionnaires was administered to patients with gender dysphoria: Eating Attitudes Test (EAT- 26), body dissatisfaction sub-scale of Eating disorder inventory-two (EDI-2) and IMAGEN questionnaire. In the case of body dissatisfaction subscale of Eating disorder inventory-two with a cut-off 11; body dissatisfaction in our sample was close to the level presented in clinical population. However, using cut-off points 14 and 16, they exhibited a body dissatisfaction level that was similar to the general population. The same occurred for the IMAGEN questionnaire. No gender differences were found when looking at the level of dissatisfaction. The data seem to indicate that people with gender dysphoria would be at an intermediate point in relation to body dissatisfaction between general population and clinical population; in both female and male transsexuals. It seems that some level of body dissatisfaction may be perceived in relation to the ideal of beauty, but this dissatisfaction is significantly lower than in clinical populations.

  5. Body image, regret, and satisfaction following colpocleisis.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Catrina C; Book, Nicole M; Smith, Aimee L; Cunkelman, Jacqueline A; Mishan, Vivian; Treszezamsky, Alejandro D; Adams, Sonia R; Apostolis, Costas; Lowenstein, Lior; Pauls, Rachel N

    2013-11-01

    Colpocleisis is a definitive surgical treatment for prolapse resulting in vaginal obliteration. We sought to evaluate body image, regret, satisfaction, and pelvic floor symptoms following this procedure. This was a prospective multicenter study through the Fellows' Pelvic Research Network. All women electing colpocleisis for management of pelvic organ prolapse were screened for enrollment. The Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, and the modified Body Image Scale (BIS) were completed preoperatively and 6 weeks following surgery. Additionally, the Decision Regret Scale and the Satisfaction with Decision Scale were administered at the 6-week postoperative visit. A sample size of 88 subjects was calculated to evaluate change in the BIS score. In all, 87 patients were analyzed. Mean age was 79 years (SD 5.8) with a mean body mass index of 27 (SD 5.3). The majority (89.3%) was Caucasian. Six weeks after surgery, significant improvements were noted in all parameters. Mean BIS scores decreased from 4.8 to 1.2 (P < .001), signifying improved body image. Indeed, the overall number of subjects with BIS scores in the normal range doubled after surgery. Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire scores decreased significantly (P < .001 and P < .001), suggesting a positive impact on bladder, bowel, and prolapse symptoms. Finally, low levels of regret (mean score 1.35) and concurrent high satisfaction (mean score 4.73) were documented. Colpocleisis improves body image and pelvic floor symptoms while giving patients a definitive surgical option that results in low regret and high satisfaction. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Body image, body mass index, and body composition in young adults.

    PubMed

    Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both p<0.001), and were inversely associated with body image, particularly Weight Esteem. After adjustment for physical activity, BMI and %FM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all p<0.05) and <5% for men (NS). Clinicians should be aware that as their clients' BMI and %FM increase, body image decreases, particularly in women.

  7. RIGHT-LEFT GRADIENTS IN BODY IMAGE, BODY REACTIVITY, AND PERCEPTION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    between modes of right-left body image and body reactivity differentiation and patterns of sex role identification; (3) to ascertain whether there are...links between modes of right-left body image and body reactivity differentiation and indices relating to the individual’s maturity, and his freedom to...differentiation in body image and body reactivity. These goals were pursued by studying 36 men and 42 women with a battery which embraced a wide variety of body

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of the body

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.B.; Hricak, H.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides reference to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the body. Beginning with explanatory chapters on the physics, instrumentation, and interpretation of MRI, it proceeds to the normal anatomy of the neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Other chapters cover magnetic resonance imaging of blood flow, the larynx, the lymph nodes, and the spine, as well as MRI in obstetrics. The text features detailed coverage of magnetic resonance imaging of numerous disorders and disease states, including neck disease, thoracic disease; breast disease; congenital and acquired heart disease; vascular disease; diseases of the liver, pancreas, and spleen; diseases of the kidney, adrenals, and retroperitoneum; diseases of the male and female pelvis; and musculoskeletal diseases. Chapters on the biological and environmental hazards of MRI, the current clinical status of MRI in comparison to other imaging modalities, and economic considerations are also included.

  9. Toward a Theoretical Model of Women's Body Image Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses women's body image resilience. Body image dissatisfaction is prevalent among girls and women. Girls as young as 6 years old experience negative body image, and there is evidence that women struggle with body concerns throughout the life cycle (Lewis & Cachelin, 2001; Smolak, 2002; Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002). In fact,…

  10. Toward a Theoretical Model of Women's Body Image Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses women's body image resilience. Body image dissatisfaction is prevalent among girls and women. Girls as young as 6 years old experience negative body image, and there is evidence that women struggle with body concerns throughout the life cycle (Lewis & Cachelin, 2001; Smolak, 2002; Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002). In fact,…

  11. Comparison of Interventions for Women Experiencing Body Image Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Sari H.; Kerr, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the effects of three counseling interventions on women's body image and self-concept (cognitive therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, and reflective therapy), using Secord and Jourard's Body-Cathexis and Self-Cathexis Scales. All participants improved in body image and self-concept. Cognitive therapy was most effective for body image,…

  12. Body Image in Female Professional and Amateur Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollatou, Elisana; Bakali, Nikoleta; Theodorakis, Yannis; Goudas, Marios

    2010-01-01

    Body image is considered to be an obscure, mental representation of body shape, size and form which is influenced by a variety of factors that operate over varying time spans. Research has shown that professional female dancers may face preoccupations with their body image and weight. The present study aimed to investigate how body image was…

  13. Body Image in Female Professional and Amateur Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollatou, Elisana; Bakali, Nikoleta; Theodorakis, Yannis; Goudas, Marios

    2010-01-01

    Body image is considered to be an obscure, mental representation of body shape, size and form which is influenced by a variety of factors that operate over varying time spans. Research has shown that professional female dancers may face preoccupations with their body image and weight. The present study aimed to investigate how body image was…

  14. Body image, compulsory heterosexuality, and internalized homophobia.

    PubMed

    Pitman, G E

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body dissatisfaction in lesbians is a subject which has traditionally been ignored in the psychological literature on body image and eating disorders. Early feminist theorists and researchers argued that body dissatisfaction in women developed as a way of dealing with the oppression and misogyny they are faced with on a daily basis. However, these theories failed to take issues of race, class, and sexual orientation into account, thereby excluding the experiences of a diversity of women. This article focuses specifically on the lesbian experience and explores how cultural messages about thinness, femininity, and heterosexuality shape lesbians' feelings about their sexuality and about their bodies. Through the inevitable process of internalizing homophobia and fat hatred, both of which are institutionalized ways of keeping heterosexuality and female oppression in place, lesbians may begin to believe that there is something inherently wrong with them and with their bodies. This article explores how the impact of racism, classism, sexism, and homophobia on women may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the cultural forces behind women's dissatisfaction with their bodies.

  15. Body Image and Sexuality in Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Ruth; Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie; Miller, Janis M.

    2010-01-01

    Body image, including how a woman views her genitals, has been shown to impact sexuality. Currently, there are no valid and reliable questionnaires to assess body image specific to women with genital changes from pelvic organ prolapse. The purpose of this study was to assess implementation of a body image questionnaire in women with pelvic organ prolapse. The Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem Scale showed utility and potential for demonstrating change in body image after prolapse surgery. PMID:19718939

  16. Electronic imaging of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Michael W.; Yates, Randall E.; Whitestone, Jennifer J.

    1992-09-01

    The Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory (USAF); the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology; the Washington University School of Medicine; and the Lister-Hill National Center for Biomedical Communication, National Library of Medicine are sponsoring a working group on electronic imaging of the human body. Electronic imaging of the surface of the human body has been pursued and developed by a number of disciplines including radiology, forensics, surgery, engineering, medical education, and anthropometry. The applications range from reconstructive surgery to computer-aided design (CAD) of protective equipment. Although these areas appear unrelated, they have a great deal of commonality. All the organizations working in this area are faced with the challenges of collecting, reducing, and formatting the data in an efficient and standard manner; storing this data in a computerized database to make it readily accessible; and developing software applications that can visualize, manipulate, and analyze the data. This working group is being established to encourage effective use of the resources of all the various groups and disciplines involved in electronic imaging of the human body surface by providing a forum for discussing progress and challenges with these types of data.

  17. Body image, media, and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Derenne, Jennifer L; Beresin, Eugene V

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The authors attempt to explain the historical context of the problem and explore potential avenues for change. The authors review changes in ideal female body type throughout history, comment on current attitudes toward shape and weight in both men and women, and outline interventions aimed at increasing healthy habits and fostering self-esteem in youth. Throughout history, the ideal of beauty has been difficult to achieve and has been shaped by social context. Current mass media is ubiquitous and powerful, leading to increased body dissatisfaction among both men and women. Parents need to limit children's exposure to media, promote healthy eating and moderate physical activity, and encourage participation in activities that increase mastery and self-esteem. Funding for high-quality, visible advertising campaigns promoting healthy life styles may increase awareness.

  18. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  19. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of a short-duration 3 Tesla magnetic resonance protocol for diagnosing stifle joint lesions in dogs with non-traumatic cranial cruciate ligament rupture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the preferred diagnostic tool to evaluate internal disorders of many joints in humans; however, the usefulness of MR imaging in the context of osteoarthritis, and joint disease in general, has yet to be characterized in veterinary medicine. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of short-duration 3 Tesla MR imaging for the evaluation of cranial and caudal cruciate ligament, meniscal and cartilage damage, as well as the degree of osteoarthritis, in dogs affected by non-traumatic, naturally-occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). Diagnoses made from MR images were compared to those made during surgical exploration. Twenty-one client-owned dogs were included in this study, and one experienced evaluator assessed all images. Results All cranial cruciate ligaments were correctly identified as ruptured. With one exception, all caudal cruciate ligaments were correctly identified as intact. High sensitivities and specificities were obtained when diagnosing meniscal rupture. MR images revealed additional subclinical lesions in both the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments and in the menisci. There was a “clear” statistical (kappa) agreement between the MR and the surgical findings for both cartilage damage and degree of osteoarthritis. However, the large 95% confidence intervals indicated that evaluation of cartilage damage and of degree of osteoarthritis is not clinically satisfactory. Conclusions The presence of cruciate ligament damage and meniscal tears could be accurately assessed using the MR images obtained with our protocol. However, in the case of meniscal evaluation, occasional misdiagnosis did occur. The presence of cartilage damage and the degree of osteoarthritis could not be properly evaluated. PMID:23448526

  1. How do you define body image? Exploring conceptual gaps in understandings of body image at an exercise facility.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy

    2017-09-05

    The definition of body image has evolved within research; however, less is known about the layperson's understanding of the construct. This study explored how members and student trainees of an exercise facility (designed for older adults, people with physical disability, and those with cardiac complications) defined body image. Nineteen participants completed a one-on-one interview, and seven of those participants took part in six additional focus group meetings. The following main themes were found: stereotypical assumptions about body image (e.g., it is solely a person's weight or merely a woman's issue), body image continua for positive and negative body image, degree of complexity of body image dimensions, broad considerations of body image (e.g., it is self-esteem), and limited knowledge about body image. These findings suggest a need for knowledge translation between researchers and the general public which informs future body image program design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Body dissatisfaction, engagement in body change behaviors and sociocultural influences on body image among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Mellor, David; Kiehne, Melanie; Ricciardelli, Lina A; McCabe, Marita P; Xu, Yangang

    2010-03-01

    Body dissatisfaction and body image disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent in developing non-Western countries such as China, but there is a lack of research examining the sociocultural factors that in other contexts have been associated with these problems. The current study investigated body dissatisfaction, engagement in body change behaviors, and sociocultural pressures on body image, and the relationships between these variables among 517 adolescent males (N=219) and females (N=298) in China. Females reported greater body dissatisfaction than males, and males reported using strategies to increase their muscle bulk more often than females. Males reported pressure from a variety of sociocultural sources to increase their muscles or weight, while females reported pressure from the media to lose weight. For males body dissatisfaction was predicted by pressure from peers to increase their muscle bulk, while for females pressure to lose weight from peers, adult relatives, and the media was likely to increase body dissatisfaction. Pressure from the media and adult relatives was also predictive of body change behaviors in both males and females. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research in both Western and non-Western contexts. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Imaging Body Fat: Techniques and Cardiometabolic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H.; Chen, Y. E; Eitzman, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide epidemic and is associated with multiple comorbidities. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and adverse health outcomes remain poorly understood. This may be due to several factors including the crude measures used to estimate adiposity, the striking heterogeneity between adipose tissue depots, and the influence of fat accumulation in multiple organs. In order to advance our understanding of fat stores and associated co-morbidities in humans, it will be necessary to image adiposity throughout the body and ultimately also assess its functionality. Large clinical studies are demonstrating the prognostic importance of adipose tissue imaging. Newer techniques capable of imaging fat metabolism and other functions of adipose tissue may provide additional prognostic utility and may be useful in guiding therapeutic interventions. PMID:25147343

  4. Relationships Between Body Image, Body Composition, Sexual Functioning, and Sexual Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the association between body image and body-image self-consciousness on sexual satisfaction, accounting for relationships between body fat and body image, and between sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction, while controlling for relationship satisfaction. Participants were 143, 18-25 year-old Caucasian men and women in heterosexual monogamous relationships, recruited from the University of Guelph and surrounding community in Ontario, Canada. Various domains of body image, body-image self-consciousness, sexual satisfaction and functioning, and relationship satisfaction data were collected by questionnaires. Body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body image was positively associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Men with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer behavioral and affective body image. Only body image specific to the sexual encounter influenced sexual functioning. Among women, no domain of body image was associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Women with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer affective and sexual-encounter-specific body image. As percent total fat increased, sexual functioning decreased. Our results suggest a complex pattern of relationships exists among body image and body composition constructs and sexual and relationship variable; and that these relationships are not the same for men and women.

  5. Preoperative imaging diagnosis of carotid body tumors.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ojeda, Luis A; Martínez-Viteri, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    Carotid body tumors (CBTs) are relatively frequent lesions encountered at high altitudes, such in as the Andean Mountains. A correct preoperative diagnosis is essential for surgical planning and performance. For this reason, we have reviewed the evolution of our experience in the imaging diagnosis of these tumors. Between 1980 and June 2008, 160 CBTs were diagnosed. A total of 138 tumors were operated on, 4 are waiting for surgery, and 18 were not operated on because of age, medical conditions, or patient refusal. We have reviewed retrospectively the modalities of imaging diagnosis in our patients who underwent operation. Among the 138 tumors operated on, a correct preoperative diagnosis was done in 127 cases (92%). The preoperative diagnosis of the remaining 11 patients was unspecified benign tumor for 6 patients and neck lymph node for 5 patients. The imaging methods performed by different radiologists were conventional ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, carotid conventional angiography (CA), axial tomography, magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance angiography, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Most patients had more than one image study. Review of radiologist reports revealed a correct diagnosis in all carotid CA, magnetic resonance studies, and CTA. Additionally, CTA appeared to be a valuable method to predict the Shamblin group. Clinical suspicion and current image techniques permit a correct diagnosis in practically all cases of CBT.

  6. Internet addiction symptoms, disordered eating, and body image avoidance.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Melioli, Tiffany; Laconi, Stéphanie; Bui, Eric; Chabrol, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction is an increasing concern among young adults. Self-presentational theory posits that the Internet offers a context in which individuals are able to control their image. Little is known about body image and eating concerns among pathological Internet users. The aim of this study was to explore the association between Internet addiction symptoms, body image esteem, body image avoidance, and disordered eating. A sample of 392 French young adults (68 percent women) completed an online questionnaire assessing time spent online, Internet addiction symptoms, disordered eating, and body image avoidance. Fourteen men (11 percent) and 26 women (9.7 percent) reported Internet addiction. Body image avoidance was associated with Internet addiction symptoms among both genders. Controlling for body-mass index, Internet addiction symptoms, and body image avoidance were both significant predictors of disordered eating among women. These findings support the self-presentational theory of Internet addiction and suggest that body image avoidance is an important factor.

  7. Distortion of body image among elite female dancers.

    PubMed

    Pierce, E F; Daleng, M L

    1998-12-01

    To examine body image and possible distortion of body image among elite female dancers 10 members of a professional ballet company rated both current and ideal body shape. In addition, an objective measure of body composition was obtained via skinfold techniques. t tests indicated that the mean rating for current body image was significantly higher than the rating for ideal, despite the fact that body-composition measures for all subjects were in an "ideal" range according to normative standards. Analysis indicated a high distortion of body image among these dancers and support psychophysiological concerns previously raised.

  8. DANTE-prepared three-dimensional FLASH: A fast isotropic-resolution MR approach to morphological evaluation of the peripheral arterial wall at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guoxi; Zhang, Nan; Xie, Yibin; Nguyen, Christopher; Deng, Zixin; Bi, Xiaoming; Fan, Zhanming; Liu, Xin; Li, Debiao; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2016-02-01

    To develop and assess a sequence using DANTE dark-blood preparation combined with FLASH readout (DANTE-FLASH) for rapid isotropic-resolution three-dimensional (3D) peripheral vessel wall imaging at 3 Tesla (T). Numerical simulations were first conducted to optimize imaging parameters for maximizing the wall-lumen contrast. The sequence, implemented at 3T, was then assessed in the bilateral superficial femoral arteries of eight healthy volunteers and three patients who were undergoing non-contrast-enhanced MRA due to known peripheral artery disease. Conventional 2D dark-blood turbo spin echo (DB-TSE) was performed as a reference in all subjects. Image quality on a 5-point scale, apparent wall signal-to-noise ratio, apparent wall-lumen contrast-to-noise ratio, wall thickness, wall area and lumen area were assessed or measured in all healthy subjects. Additionally, the agreement in the depiction of wall thickening or luminal stenosis between DANTE-FLASH and DB-TSE, or MRA was assessed using a 4-point scale in the patient study. DANTE-FLASH allowed for a 30-cm-long coverage within 4 min, whereas DB-TSE took approximately 7 min for a 9-cm-long coverage. Good image quality was obtained by DANTE-FLASH (score > 3). The wall thickness, wall area, and lumen area were all comparable (t-test; P = 0.334, 0.224 and 0.136) and showed excellent agreement between DANTE-FLASH and DB-TSE (intra-class correlation = 0.81, 0.85, and 0.98). The atherosclerotic plaques and luminal stenosis identified by DANTE-FLASH were in accordance with the findings by 2D DB-TSE or MRA. DANTE-FLASH is a 3D dark-blood MR sequence allowing for rapid isotropic-resolution imaging of the peripheral vessel wall at 3T. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Women's Body-Image Dissatisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butters, Jonathan W.; Cash, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Assigned college women with a significant level of body-image dissatisfaction to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) program or to a waiting-list control group. The CBT program successfully improved affective body image, weakened maladaptive body-image cognitions, and enhanced social self-esteem and feelings about physical fitness and…

  10. Social Cognitive Predictors of Body Image in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Gustitus, Cheryl; Leitzel-Schwalm, Jamie

    2001-01-01

    Examined predictors of body image in preschool children, including models, verbal messages, physiological factors, and experience of competence related to body image. Data from child interviews and parent and teacher questionnaires indicated that there were no gender differences in children's body image. Messages from the mother to "be bigger"…

  11. Understanding the Social Basis of Adolescent Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornholt, L. J.

    It is apparent from current research and professional experience that body image has a strong social basis, but the form of such comparisons is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine likely forms of the social basis of adolescent body image. This study compares two approaches to the social basis of body image to ask to what extent…

  12. Body Image of Anorexic, Obese, and Normal Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Crystal; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated disturbances in body image perception with anorexic, obese and control groups. Significant difference was found among the groups in perception of present-self body image, body image at plus 10 pounds, and minus 10 pounds. A directional trend was noted in anorexic overestimation and obese underestimation on the total concept of body…

  13. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Women's Body-Image Dissatisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butters, Jonathan W.; Cash, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Assigned college women with a significant level of body-image dissatisfaction to a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) program or to a waiting-list control group. The CBT program successfully improved affective body image, weakened maladaptive body-image cognitions, and enhanced social self-esteem and feelings about physical fitness and…

  14. Light on Body Image Treatment: Acceptance Through Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of body image has to be multifaceted and should be directed toward the treatment of the whole individual - body, mind, and spirit - with an ultimate culmination of acceptance and compassion for the self. This article presents information on a mindful approach to the treatment of body image as it pertains to concerns with body size…

  15. Light on Body Image Treatment: Acceptance Through Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of body image has to be multifaceted and should be directed toward the treatment of the whole individual - body, mind, and spirit - with an ultimate culmination of acceptance and compassion for the self. This article presents information on a mindful approach to the treatment of body image as it pertains to concerns with body size…

  16. Resection and Resolution of Bone Marrow Lesions Associated with an Improvement of Pain after Total Knee Replacement: A Novel Case Study Using a 3-Tesla Metal Artefact Reduction MRI Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, Brett; Pearson, Richard G.; Scammell, Brigitte E.

    2016-01-01

    We present our case report using a novel metal artefact reduction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence to observe resolution of subchondral bone marrow lesions (BMLs), which are strongly associated with pain, in a patient after total knee replacement surgery. Large BMLs were seen preoperatively on the 3-Tesla MRI scans in a patient with severe end stage OA awaiting total knee replacement surgery. Twelve months after surgery, using a novel metal artefact reduction MRI sequence, we were able to visualize the bone-prosthesis interface and found complete resection and resolution of these BMLs. This is the first reported study in the UK to use this metal artefact reduction MRI sequence at 3-Tesla showing that resection and resolution of BMLs in this patient were associated with an improvement of pain and function after total knee replacement surgery. In this case it was associated with a clinically significant improvement of pain and function after surgery. Failure to eradicate these lesions may be a cause of persistent postoperative pain that is seen in up to 20% of patients following TKR surgery. PMID:27648327

  17. The Development of Body Image and Weight Bias in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R

    2017-01-01

    Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Do children emotionally rehearse about their body image?

    PubMed

    Ling, Fiona C M; McManus, Alison M; Knowles, Gemma; Masters, Rich S W; Polman, Remco C J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the association between propensity for emotional rehearsal, body image self-perception and weight status in Chinese Hong Kong pre-adolescents. Children 8-12 years of age (n = 278) completed measurement of body mass index, body image and emotional rehearsal. Multinomial regression analyses revealed that body mass index was positively associated with body image dissatisfaction and a significant predictor of body size estimation. However, only body size underestimation was associated with lower rehearsal tendencies. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and body size estimation was also reported for this population. Future research is suggested for greater understanding of emotional coping in body image dissatisfaction in young children. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Body Image and its Relation with Body Mass Index among Indian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vaishali R; Kulkarni, Aditi A

    2017-08-24

    To evaluate association of body mass index with perception and attitude towards body weight, shape and body image among adolescents. This cross sectional study was done on 1811 adolescents. Attitude towards body image was assessed by using a self-administered Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Perceived body shape was measured using the Stunkard scale. Adolescents showed significant difference (P<0.005) in perceptions and behaviors related to appearance, fitness, health, body areas and weight in various body mass index and socioeconomic categories. Girls articulated significantly higher (P<0.005) body dissatisfaction than boys. Adolescents have major concerns regarding body image. Attitudes and perceptions towards body image differ with sex, body mass index and socioeconomic class.

  20. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  1. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  2. Body image concern among Australian adolescent girls: the role of body comparisons with models and peers.

    PubMed

    Carey, Renee N; Donaghue, Ngaire; Broderick, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential mediating roles of body comparisons with peers and models in the relationship between the internalization of thinness norms and body image concern. A total of 224 Western Australian girls aged 14-15 completed questionnaires assessing their endorsement of thinness norms, body image concerns, and frequency of body comparisons with peers and with models. Both targets of body comparisons were found to significantly mediate the relationship between the endorsement of thinness norms and body image concern, with body comparison with peers a stronger mediator than comparison with models. These findings show that body comparison with peers, in particular, plays a significant role in the experience of body image concerns among adolescent girls, and should be given a higher profile in programs designed to prevent or reduce body image concern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing

    2016-10-01

    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  4. Body image and quality of life in post massive weight loss body contouring patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Angela Y; Rubin, J Peter; Thomas, Veena; Dudas, Jason R; Marra, Kacey G; Fernstrom, Madelyn H

    2006-09-01

    Because post-bariatric surgery patients undergo massive weight loss, the resulting skin excess can lead to both functional problems and profound dissatisfaction with appearance. Correcting skin excess could improve all these corollaries, including body image. Presently, few data are available documenting body image and weight-related quality of life in this population. Eighteen patients who underwent both bariatric surgery and body contouring completed our study. Both established surveys and new surveys designed specifically for the study were used to assess body perception and ideals, quality of life, and mood. Patients were surveyed at the following time-points: pre-body contouring (after massive weight loss) and both 3 and 6 month post-body contouring. Statistical testing was performed using Student's t test and ANOVA. The mean age of the patients was 46 +/- 10 years (standard deviation). Quality of life improved after obesity surgery and was significantly enhanced after body contouring. Three months after body contouring, subjects ascribed thinner silhouettes to both current appearance and ideal body image. Body image also improved with body contouring surgery. Mood remained stable over 6 months. Body contouring after surgical weight loss improved both quality-of-life measurements and body image. Initial body dissatisfaction did not correlate with mood. Body contouring improved body image but produced dissatisfaction with other parts of the body, suggesting that as patients become closer to their ideal, these ideals may shift. We further developed several new assessment methods that may prove useful in understanding these post-surgical weight loss patients.

  5. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  6. Assessing positive body image: Contemporary approaches and future directions.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L; Tylka, Tracy L

    2015-06-01

    Empirical and clinical interest in positive body image has burgeoned in recent years. This focused attention is generating various measures and methods for researchers and psychotherapists to assess an array of positive body image constructs in populations of interest. No resource to date has integrated the available measures and methods for easy accessibility and comparison. Therefore, this article reviews contemporary scales for the following positive body image constructs: body appreciation, positive rational acceptance, body image flexibility, body functionality, attunement (body responsiveness, mindful self-care), positive/self-accepting body talk, body pride, body sanctification, broad conceptualization of beauty, and self-perceived body acceptance by others. Guidelines for the qualitative assessment of positive body image and recommendations for integrating positive body image assessment within psychotherapy and applied research settings are also offered. The article concludes with articulating broad future directions for positive body image assessment, including ideas for expanding its available measures, methods, and dynamic expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  8. The body image scale: a simple and valid tool for assessing body image dissatisfaction in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Edel; Moloney, Jenny; Rafter, Niamh; Keegan, Denise; Byrne, Kathryn; Doherty, Glen A; Cullen, Garret; Malone, Kevin; Mulcahy, Hugh E

    2014-02-01

    Body image refers to a persons' sense of their own physical appearance. This can be negatively influenced by a number of factors including disease states and treatments. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) carries a distinct psychosocial and a physical burden, but body image has not been formally assessed in patients with IBD, nor is there a validated body image questionnaire. Our aim was to assess and validate a body image questionnaire for patients with IBD. Three hundred thirty-eight ambulatory patients (median age, 36; 174 male) completed a questionnaire that included the Hopwood body image scale adapted from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Study Group. Data from another scale, the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire, were also collected in addition to demographic and clinical data. Factor analysis resulted in a single factor solution explaining 65% of the variance. Internal consistency of the body image scale was demonstrated with a Cronbach alpha of 0.93. Convergent validity was established with a correlation coefficient of 0.64 (P < 0.001) with the Cash Body Image Disturbance Questionnaire. Females (P < 0.001) and those who had undergone either stoma or nonstoma forming surgery experienced more body image dissatisfaction (P = 0.002), indicating predictive validity. Reliability was confirmed with a test-retest correlation of 0.82 (P < 0.001). The modified body image scale is a valid tool for assessing body image in patients with IBD.

  9. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  10. Evaluation of preoperative high magnetic field motor functional MRI (3 Tesla) in glioma patients by navigated electrocortical stimulation and postoperative outcome.

    PubMed

    Roessler, K; Donat, M; Lanzenberger, R; Novak, K; Geissler, A; Gartus, A; Tahamtan, A R; Milakara, D; Czech, T; Barth, M; Knosp, E; Beisteiner, R

    2005-08-01

    The validity of 3 Tesla motor functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with gliomas involving the primary motor cortex was investigated by intraoperative navigated motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Twenty two patients (10 males, 12 females, mean age 39 years, range 10-65 years) underwent preoperative fMRI studies, performing motor tasks including hand, foot, and mouth movements. A recently developed high field clinical fMRI technique was used to generate pre-surgical maps of functional high risk areas defining a motor focus. Motor foci were tested for validity by intraoperative motor cortex stimulation (MCS) employing image fusion and neuronavigation. Clinical outcome was assessed using the Modified Rankin Scale. FMRI motor foci were successfully detected in all patients preoperatively. In 17 of 22 patients (77.3%), a successful stimulation of the primary motor cortex was possible. All 17 correlated patients showed 100% agreement on MCS and fMRI motor focus within 10 mm. Technical problems during stimulation occurred in three patients (13.6%), no motor response was elicited in two (9.1%), and MCS induced seizures occurred in three (13.6%). Combined fMRI and MCS mapping results allowed large resections in 20 patients (91%) (gross total in nine (41%), subtotal in 11 (50%)) and biopsy in two patients (9%). Pathology revealed seven low grade and 15 high grade gliomas. Mild to moderate transient neurological deterioration occurred in six patients, and a severe hemiparesis in one. All patients recovered within 3 months (31.8% transient, 0% permanent morbidity). The validation of clinically optimised high magnetic field motor fMRI confirms high reliability as a preoperative and intraoperative adjunct in glioma patients selected for surgery within or adjacent to the motor cortex.

  11. Nonenhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the calf arteries at 3 Tesla: intraindividual comparison of 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA and 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Gesine; Lauff, Marie-Teres; Hirsch, Sebastian; Schwenke, Carsten; Hamm, Bernd; Wagner, Moritz

    2016-12-01

    To prospectively compare 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA vs. 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA for assessment of the calf arteries at 3 Tesla. Forty-two patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease underwent nonenhanced MRA of calf arteries at 3 Tesla with 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA (fast spin echo sequence; 3D-FSE-MRA) and 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA (balanced steady-state-free-precession sequence; 2D-bSSFP-MRA). Moreover, all patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) as standard-of-reference. Two readers performed a per-segment evaluation for image quality (4 = excellent to 0 = non-diagnostic) and severity of stenosis. Image quality scores of 2D-bSSFP-MRA were significantly higher compared to 3D-FSE-MRA (medians across readers: 4 vs. 3; p < 0.0001) with lower rates of non-diagnostic vessel segments on 2D-bSSFP-MRA (reader 1: <1 % vs. 15 %; reader 2: 1 % vs. 29 %; p < 0.05). Diagnostic performance of 2D-bSSFP-MRA and 3D-FSE-MRA across readers showed sensitivities of 89 % (214/240) vs. 70 % (168/240), p = 0.0153; specificities: 91 % (840/926) vs. 63 % (585/926), p < 0.0001; and diagnostic accuracies of 90 % (1054/1166) vs. 65 % (753/1166), p < 0.0001. 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA (2D-bSSFP-MRA) is a robust nonenhanced MRA technique for assessment of the calf arteries at 3 Tesla with significantly higher image quality and diagnostic accuracy compared to 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA (3D-FSE-MRA). • 2D flow-independent non-subtractive MRA (2D-bSSFP-MRA) is a robust NE-MRA technique at 3T • 2D-bSSFP-MRA outperforms 3D flow-dependent subtractive MRA (3D-FSE-MRA) as NE-MRA of calf arteries • 2D-bSSFP-MRA is a promising alternative to CE-MRA for calf PAOD evaluation.

  12. The role of scar origin in shaping men's body image.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Anne; Mayer-Eckhard, Lennart; White, Andrew J; Alpers, Georg W

    2015-03-01

    Men generally have a more positive body image than women. However, the extent to which scars negatively influence men's body image is uncertain. The aim of the current study was to assess body image in men with and without scars while taking scar origin into account (nonsuicidal self-harming injuries [NSSI] vs. accidents or surgery). One hundred and nine men (n = 19 with NSSI) and 185 women (n = 96 with NSSI) filled in multidimensional body image questionnaires. Results indicate that on most clinical subscales women had a significantly more negative body image compared with men. However, within a subsample whose scars resulted from NSSI, gender differences vanished. Among men, scar origin was significantly associated with negative body image after partialling out scar characteristics, age, and borderline symptomatology. The visibility of scars was not associated with more severe body image disturbances. The results of our study indicate that self-inflicted scars adversely affect body image. Although women generally reported having a more negative body image, disturbances in body image should not be neglected among men, especially in those who have self-inflicted scars.

  13. Body image flexibility mediates the effect of body image-related victimization experiences and shame on binge eating and weight.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2016-12-01

    The current study examined a path model testing the indirect effect of negative body-image related memories of being teased and bullied in childhood and adolescence on binge eating severity symptoms, via its effect on current body image shame and body image flexibility. Participants were 853 Portuguese women from the general community who completed a set of self-report measures of body image-related bullying and teasing experiences in childhood and adolescence, current body image shame, body image flexibility, binge eating symptoms, body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms. The path model accounted for 40% of the variance of binge eating symptoms and 14% of the variance of BMI, and revealed a very good fit. Findings corroborated the plausibility of the hypothesized associations suggesting that negative body image-related memories and emotional experiences are significantly associated with binge eating symptoms and BMI, and that body image flexibility is a significant mediator of these associations. The examined relationships were preserved after controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms. The current study's findings contribute to clarify the role that body image-related memories and emotional experiences may play on individuals' difficulties in regulating eating behaviour and weight, and provides preliminary support for the potential effect of body image flexibility as a self-regulatory process that operates in these associations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Attractive celebrity and peer images on Instagram: Effect on women's mood and body image.

    PubMed

    Brown, Zoe; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-12-01

    A large body of research has documented that exposure to images of thin fashion models contributes to women's body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of attractive celebrity and peer images on women's body image. Participants were 138 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of celebrity images, a set of equally attractive unknown peer images, or a control set of travel images. All images were sourced from public Instagram profiles. Results showed that exposure to celebrity and peer images increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction relative to travel images, with no significant difference between celebrity and peer images. This effect was mediated by state appearance comparison. In addition, celebrity worship moderated an increased effect of celebrity images on body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that exposure to attractive celebrity and peer images can be detrimental to women's body image.

  15. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  16. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  17. Body image among victims of sexual and physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.

  18. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  19. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  20. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  1. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  2. BOLD MRI of the human cervical spinal cord at 3 tesla.

    PubMed

    Stroman, P W; Nance, P W; Ryner, L N

    1999-09-01

    The feasibility of functional MRI of the spinal cord was investigated by carrying out blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) imaging of the human cervical spinal cord at a field of 3 T. BOLD imaging of the cervical spinal cord showed an average intensity increase of 7.0% during repeated exercise with the dominant hand with a return to baseline during rest periods. The areas of activation were predominantly on the same side of the spinal cord as the hand performing the exercise, between the levels of the sixth cervical and first thoracic spinal cord segments. The direct correspondence between these areas and those involved with the transmission of motor impulses to the hand, and reception of sensory information from the hand, demonstrates that spinal functional magnetic resonance imaging is feasible. Magn Reson Med 42:571-576, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Mindfulness, body image, and drive for muscularity in men.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Gratz, Kim L; Anderson, Drew A

    2012-03-01

    Studies have shown that dispositional mindfulness, a construct characterized by awareness and attention to present moment experiences, is associated with body image constructs in women. However, little is known about the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and body image among men. Therefore, this study examined the unique associations between dispositional mindfulness and three body image variables in men: overall appearance evaluation, satisfaction with distinct body areas, and drive for muscularity. Undergraduate men (N=296) completed the Multidimensional Body Self-Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales, the Drive for Muscularity Scale, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. A series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mindfulness was uniquely associated with all three body image variables after accounting for body mass index and negative affect. Results are discussed with regard to the potential role of dispositional mindfulness in body dissatisfaction among men.

  4. Pre-biopsy 3-Tesla MRI and targeted biopsy of the index prostate cancer: correlation with robot-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Uday; Dasgupta, Prokar; Challacombe, Ben; Cahill, Declan; Brown, Christian; Patel, Roshnee; Kirby, Roger

    2017-01-01

    To study whether pre-biopsy 3-Tesla prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with targeted biopsy allows accurate anatomical and oncological characterization of the index prostate tumour, and whether this translates into improved positive surgical margin (PSM) rates after radical prostatectomy. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all men (n = 201) who underwent robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) between July 2012 and July 2014. Patients were divided into a study group (n = 63) who had undergone pre-biopsy 3-Tesla MRI, followed by visual targeted and systematic prostate biopsy, and a control group (n = 138) who had undergone systematic biopsy alone. The two groups were well matched regarding patient and cancer characteristics. The primary study objective was to assess the accuracy of pre-biopsy MRI for localizing the index tumour. Secondary study objectives were to assess the accuracy of MRI in assessing the maximum tumour diameter (MTD) of the index tumour focus and accuracy of the targeted biopsy in determining the Gleason score and primary Gleason grade of the index tumour focus and whether PSMs were improved after RARP. The reference standard was whole-gland pathology of the resected prostate gland. Continuous variables and proportions were compared using the t-test and Mann-Whitney test or contingency tables, respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare measurement of MTD. The MRI accurately located the index tumour focus in 73% of patients. Accuracies, stratified according to use of the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) categories 5, 4 and 3, were 94, 75 and 60% respectively. Accuracies stratified according to MTD of ≤0.7, ≤1 and >1 cm were 50, 57 and 79%, respectively. There was a positive linear correlation between MRI and histological MTD (r = 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.63; P = 0.002), but MRI generally underestimated the MTD: the mean MRI-measured MTD was 1

  5. The Association Between Sexual Satisfaction and Body Image in Women

    PubMed Central

    Pujols, Yasisca; Meston, Cindy M.; Seal, Brooke N.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although sexual functioning has been linked to sexual satisfaction, it only partially explains the degree to which women report being sexually satisfied. Other factors include quality of life, relational variables, and individual factors such as body image. Of the few studies that have investigated the link between body image and sexual satisfaction, most have considered body image to be a single construct and have shown mixed results. Aim The present study assessed multiple body image variables in order to better understand which aspects of body image influence multiple domains of sexual satisfaction, including sexual communication, compatibility, contentment, personal concern, and relational concern in a community sample of women. Methods Women between the ages of 18 and 49 years in sexual relationships (N = 154) participated in an Internet survey that assessed sexual functioning, five domains of sexual satisfaction, and several body image variables. Main Outcome Measures Body image variables included the sexual attractiveness, weight concern, and physical condition subscales of the Body Esteem Scale, the appearance-based subscale of the Cognitive Distractions During Sexual Activity Scale, and body mass index. Total score of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women was the main outcome measure. Sexual functioning was measured by a modified Female Sexual Function Index. Results Consistent with expectations, correlations indicated significant positive relationships between sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and all body image variables. A multiple regression analysis revealed that sexual satisfaction was predicted by high body esteem and low frequency of appearance-based distracting thoughts during sexual activity, even after controlling for sexual functioning status. Conclusion Several aspects of body image, including weight concern, physical condition, sexual attractiveness, and thoughts about the body during sexual activity predict sexual

  6. The association between sexual satisfaction and body image in women.

    PubMed

    Pujols, Yasisca; Seal, Brooke N; Meston, Cindy M

    2010-02-01

    Although sexual functioning has been linked to sexual satisfaction, it only partially explains the degree to which women report being sexually satisfied. Other factors include quality of life, relational variables, and individual factors such as body image. Of the few studies that have investigated the link between body image and sexual satisfaction, most have considered body image to be a single construct and have shown mixed results. The present study assessed multiple body image variables in order to better understand which aspects of body image influence multiple domains of sexual satisfaction, including sexual communication, compatibility, contentment, personal concern, and relational concern in a community sample of women. Women between the ages of 18 and 49 years in sexual relationships (N = 154) participated in an Internet survey that assessed sexual functioning, five domains of sexual satisfaction, and several body image variables. Body image variables included the sexual attractiveness, weight concern, and physical condition subscales of the Body Esteem Scale, the appearance-based subscale of the Cognitive Distractions During Sexual Activity Scale, and body mass index. Total score of the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women was the main outcome measure. Sexual functioning was measured by a modified Female Sexual Function Index. Consistent with expectations, correlations indicated significant positive relationships between sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, and all body image variables. A multiple regression analysis revealed that sexual satisfaction was predicted by high body esteem and low frequency of appearance-based distracting thoughts during sexual activity, even after controlling for sexual functioning status. Several aspects of body image, including weight concern, physical condition, sexual attractiveness, and thoughts about the body during sexual activity predict sexual satisfaction in women. The findings suggest that women who experience

  7. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body.

  8. Body Image in Younger Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Carly; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Tofthagen, Cindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image is a complex issue with the potential to impact many aspects of cancer survivorship, particularly for the younger breast cancer survivor. Objective The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current state of the science for body image in younger women with breast cancer. Intervention/Methods Combinations of the terms “body image,” “sexuality intervention,” “women,” “younger women,” and “breast cancer” were searched in the PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases through January 2014. Inclusion criteria for this review were: 1) original research; 2) published in English from the year 2000 forward; 3) measuring body image as an outcome variable; and 4) results included reporting of age-related outcomes. Results Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, with extensive variation in body image assessment tools. Age and treatment type had a significant impact on body image, and poorer body image was related to physical and psychological distress, sex and intimacy, and the partnered relationship among younger women. Only one intervention study found a significant improvement in body image post-intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest body image is a complex post-treatment concern for breast cancer survivors, particularly younger women. The findings of this review are limited by the high level of variation in the methods for assessing body image. Implications for Practice Further research of interventions to address body image concerns following treatment for breast cancer is warranted. Improvement of body image may improve the quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors. PMID:25881807

  9. Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?

    PubMed

    Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C

    2017-09-01

    Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not

  10. 96-Channel receive-only head coil for 3 Tesla: design optimization and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Graham C; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Potthast, Andreas; Schmitt, Melanie; Alagappan, Vijay; Wald, Lawrence L

    2009-09-01

    The benefits and challenges of highly parallel array coils for head imaging were investigated through the development of a 3T receive-only phased-array head coil with 96 receive elements constructed on a close-fitting helmet-shaped former. We evaluated several designs for the coil elements and matching circuitry, with particular attention to sources of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss, including various sources of coil loading and coupling between the array elements. The SNR and noise amplification (g-factor) in accelerated imaging were quantitatively evaluated in phantom and human imaging and compared to a 32-channel array built on an identical helmet-shaped former and to a larger commercial 12-channel head coil. The 96-channel coil provided substantial SNR gains in the distal cortex compared to the 12- and 32-channel coils. The central SNR for the 96-channel coil was similar to the 32-channel coil for optimum SNR combination and 20% lower for root-sum-of-squares combination. There was a significant reduction in the maximum g-factor for 96 channels compared to 32; for example, the 96-channel maximum g-factor was 65% of the 32-channel value for acceleration rate 4. The performance of the array is demonstrated in highly accelerated brain images.

  11. 96-Channel Receive-Only Head Coil for 3 Tesla: Design Optimization and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Graham C.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Potthast, Andreas; Schmitt, Melanie; Alagappan, Vijay; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and challenges of highly parallel array coils for head imaging were investigated through the development of a 3T receive-only phased-array head coil with 96 receive elements constructed on a close-fitting helmet-shaped former. We evaluated several designs for the coil elements and matching circuitry, with particular attention to sources of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss, including various sources of coil loading and coupling between the array elements. The SNR and noise amplification (g-factor) in accelerated imaging were quantitatively evaluated in phantom and human imaging and compared to a 32-channel array built on an identical helmet-shaped former and to a larger commercial 12-channel head coil. The 96-channel coil provided substantial SNR gains in the distal cortex compared to the 12- and 32-channel coils. The central SNR for the 96-channel coil was similar to the 32-channel coil for optimum SNR combination and 20% lower for root-sum-of-squares combination. There was a significant reduction in the maximum g-factor for 96 channels compared to 32; for example, the 96-channel maximum g-factor was 65% of the 32-channel value for acceleration rate 4. The performance of the array is demonstrated in highly accelerated brain images. PMID:19623621

  12. Study of Body Image in Fertile and Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Dadkhah, Asghar; Bagherpour, Ahmad; Ardakani, Zohreh Behjati; Kamali, Kourosh; Binaafar, Sima; Kosari, Haleh; Ghorbani, Behzad

    2011-01-01

    Background Body Image as a multidimensional entity is related to both physical and psychological aspects of the image one has of his or her own body. Lack/absence of an acceptable body image is one of the reasons of mental distress in infertile individuals. Methods In this study, an equal number (No=120) of fertile and infertile men attending Avicenna Infertility Clinic (AIC) were enrolled. The participants were compared in regard to body image variables based on the "Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ)" consisting of 10 subscales. Data was analyzed by SPSS, version 11.5, using Chi square and independent t-tests. Results Fertile men had a more positive body image as compared to infertile individuals. Significant statistical differences were observed when body image subscales were compared in both groups; in other words appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, Novy, health evaluation, health orientation, illness orientation, body satisfaction, overweight preoccupation and self-classified weight showed differences, while no significant difference was observed in regard to fitness orientation. Conclusion It seems that the ability and efficiency of body image is affected by infertility leading to dissatisfaction of one's body image. PMID:23926517

  13. An investigation into potential gender-specific differences in myocardial triglyceride content assessed by 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy at 3Tesla.

    PubMed

    Petritsch, Bernhard; Köstler, Herbert; Gassenmaier, Tobias; Kunz, Andreas S; Bley, Thorsten A; Horn, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decade, myocardial triglyceride content has become an accepted biomarker for chronic metabolic and cardiac disease. The purpose of this study was to use proton (hydrogen 1)-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) at 3Tesla (3 T) field strength to assess potential gender-related differences in myocardial triglyceride content in healthy individuals. Cardiac MR imaging was performed to enable accurate voxel placement and obtain functional and morphological information. Double triggered (i.e., ECG and respiratory motion gating) (1)H-MRS was used to quantify myocardial triglyceride levels for each gender. Two-sample t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analyses. In total, 40 healthy volunteers (22 male, 18 female; aged >18 years and age matched) were included in the study. Median myocardial triglyceride content was 0.28% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.17-0.42%) in male and 0.24% (IQR 0.14-0.45%) in female participants, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the genders. Furthermore, no gender-specific difference in ejection fraction was observed, although on average, male participants presented with a higher mean ± SD left ventricular mass (136.3 ± 25.2 g) than female participants (103.9 ± 16.1 g). The study showed that (1)H-MRS is a capable, noninvasive tool for acquisition of myocardial triglyceride metabolites. Myocardial triglyceride concentration was shown to be unrelated to gender in this group of healthy volunteers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Managing body image difficulties of adult cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Cororve Gingeret, Michelle; Teo, Irene; Epner, Daniel E

    2014-03-01

    Body image is a critical psychosocial issue for patients with cancer because they often undergo significant changes to appearance and functioning. The primary purpose of this review article was to identify empirically-supported approaches to treat body image difficulties of adult cancer patients that can be incorporated into high-quality comprehensive cancer care. An overview was provided of theoretical models of body image relevant to cancer patients, and findings were presented from published literature on body image and cancer from 2003 to 2013. These data were integrated with information from the patient-doctor communication literature to delineate a practical approach for assessing and treating body image concerns of adult cancer patients. Body image difficulties were found across patients with diverse cancer sites, and were most prevalent in the immediate postoperative and treatment period. Age, body mass index, and specific cancer treatments have been identified as potential risk factors for body image disturbance in cancer patients. Current evidence supports the use of time-limited cognitive behavioral therapy interventions for addressing these difficulties. Other intervention strategies also show promise but require further study. Potential indicators of body image difficulties were identified to alert health care professionals when to refer patients for psychosocial care, and a framework was proposed for approaching conversations about body image that can be used by the oncologic treatment team. Body image issues affect a wide array of cancer patients. Providers can use available evidence combined with information from the health care communication literature to develop practical strategies for treating body image concerns of patients with cancer. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  15. 3D spiral cardiac/respiratory ordered fMRI data acquisition at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Stenger, V A; Peltier, S; Boada, F E; Noll, D C

    1999-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D), multi-shot functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquisitions are desirable because of higher resolution and reduced susceptibility artifacts, due to shorter readouts and thinner slices. However, 3D multi-shot techniques are more susceptible to physiological noise, which can increase inter-image variance and lead to inaccurate assessment of activation. This work presents a 3D spiral fMRI data acquisition method at 3 T in which the acquisition of views was ordered to match the phase of either the respiratory or the cardiac cycle. For the acquisition timing parameters used in this work, cardiac ordering was found to reduce inter-image variance by 19%. Cardiac ordered data acquisitions showed the same reduction in variance as sequentially ordered data with cardiac contributions estimated and removed using an externally acquired reference prior to reconstruction. Respiratory ordering showed no reduction in fluctuation noise due to poor alignment of views to the respiratory phase.

  16. Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A

    2010-01-01

    The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescent Body Image Distortion: A Consideration of Immigrant Generational Status, Immigrant Concentration, Sex and Body Dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Melissa; Georgiades, Katholiki; Couturier, Jennifer; Jack, Susan M; Wahoush, Olive

    2015-11-01

    Immigrant adolescents represent a significant and growing proportion of the population in the United States. Yet, little is known about their experiences of body image distortion. This is particularly concerning given that body image distortion has been identified as a significant and modifiable risk factor for a number of mental illnesses, including depression and eating disorders. This study uses multi-level modeling to examine the associations between immigrant generational status, neighborhood immigrant concentration, sex, body dissatisfaction and risk for body image distortion. Data come from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and includes 10,962 11-19 year olds (49.6 % female). First generation immigrant females were significantly more likely than 3rd generation-or-later adolescents to experience underweight body image distortion. There was no association between neighborhood immigrant concentration and risk for body image distortion. Body dissatisfaction was associated with greater risk for underweight and overweight body image distortion, with the magnitude of underweight distortion risk significantly greater among 1st generation immigrants. Interventions that encourage the development of a healthy body image have the potential to reduce the onset and duration of body image distortion among immigrant and non-immigrant adolescents.

  18. Body image and sexuality in women with pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Ruth; Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie; Miller, Janis M

    2009-01-01

    The effect of physical changes associated with pelvic organ prolapse on a woman's body image and how that may influence sexuality has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to assess the implementation and utility of a body image questionnaire in women with pelvic organ prolapse. Two research questions were asked: (1) What is the impact of pelvic organ prolapse on women's body image and how does this affect their sexual health?, and (2) Does the Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem (VSBE) Scale show utility for use in assessing body image and sexual health in women with pelvic organ prolapse? A qualitative design was used for this study. Telephone interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire and an adapted body image and sexuality questionnaire specific to genital body image. Thirteen women with pelvic organ prolapse completed the study. Eight women were classified as sexually active, and 5 women were not sexually active. Data showed women with pelvic organ prolapse, classified as sexually active, scored significantly lower on the VSBE scale than women who were not sexually active. There was a positive correlation between severity of prolapse and VSBE scores. The VSBE scale questionnaire showed utility and potential for demonstrating change in body image in women with pelvic organ prolapse. This tool may assist clinicians in a more thorough assessment of body image and sexuality in this population of women.

  19. Sociocultural influences on body image and body changes among adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2003-02-01

    In 2 studies, the authors evaluated the role of parents, peers, and the media in body image and body-change strategies among adolescent boys and girls. The respondents for Study 1 (423 boys and 377 girls) completed the Body Image and Body Change Inventory (L. A. Ricciardelli & M. P. McCabe, 2002) and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire (M. P. McCabe & L. A. Ricciardelli, 2001b). Body mass index and age were also included in the analyses. Regression analyses demonstrated that sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best male friend were important predictors for all body-change strategies among boys. For girls, sociocultural influences and feedback from the participant's best female friend and mother were important predictors for body-change strategies. The most consistent predictor of weight loss, weight gain, and strategies to increase muscles was body-image importance. In Study 2, the authors examined the influence of the same sociocultural variables, as well as negative affect and puberty on body image and body-change strategies among a second group of 199 boys and 267 girls. The results demonstrated that a broad range of sociocultural influences predicted body-change strategies for boys and girls, with negative affect also having a unique influence for boys but not for girls. Puberty played a minor role, once other sociocultural variables were entered into the regression equation. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)

  1. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  2. Body image distortions in bulimia nervosa: investigating body size overestimation and body size satisfaction by fMRI.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Harald Matthias; Röder, Christian; Zimmermann, Jan; Hummel, Dennis; Negele, Alexa; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2011-06-01

    Body image distortion is a key symptom of eating disorders. In behavioral research two components of body image have been defined: attitudes towards the body and body size estimation. Only few fMRI-studies investigated the neural correlates of body image in bulimia; those are constrained by the lack of a direct distinction between these different body image components. The present study investigates the neural correlates of two aspects of the body image using fMRI: satisfaction rating and size estimation of distorted own body photographs in bulimia nervosa patients (15) and controls (16). Patients were less satisfied with their current body shape than controls and preferred to be thinner. The amount of insula activity reflects the pattern of the satisfaction rating for patients and controls. Patients also overestimated their own body size. For control subjects, an activated cluster in lateral occipital cortex was sensitive for body size distortions, whereas bulimic patients did not demonstrate such a modulation. Furthermore, bulimic subjects did not recruit the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in contrast to controls during the body size estimation task, maybe indicating a reduced spatial manipulation capacity. Therefore, this activation pattern of lateral occipital cortex and MFG might be responsible for body size overestimation in bulimia. The present results show that bulimic patients exhibit two distinct deficits in body image representations similar to anorectic patients and that specifically associated neuronal correlates can be identified. Concludingly, our study support psychotherapeutic strategies specifically targeting these two aspects of body image distortions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of exposure to images of ideal bodies on male body dissatisfaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Blond, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Research suggests that young men's body dissatisfaction increases when they see images of attractive muscular men. This article provides the first extensive review of experimental studies exposing men to advertisements or commercials featuring idealized male bodies. Impacts on body dissatisfaction were evaluated by calculating and analyzing effect sizes from 15 studies. The effect sizes indicate that exposure to images of idealized male bodies has a small but statistically significant negative impact on men's body dissatisfaction. Three studies suggest that young men who are dissatisfied with their bodies are at increased risk for negative self-evaluations when exposed to idealized images. Two studies suggest that men who are satisfied with their bodies may be protected against negative impacts from seeing such images.

  4. Non-contrast-enhanced MR portography and hepatic venography with time-spatial labeling inversion pulses: comparison at 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Furuta, Akihiro; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-05-01

    A 3 Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance (MR) scanner is a promising tool for upper abdominal MR angiography. However, there is no report focused on the image quality of non-contrast-enhanced MR portography and hepatic venography at 3 T. To compare and evaluate images of non-contrast-enhanced MR portography and hepatic venography with time-spatial labeling inversion pulses (Time-SLIP) at 1.5 Tesla (1.5 T) and 3 T. Twenty-five healthy volunteers were examined using respiratory-triggered three-dimensional balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) with Time-SLIP. For portography, we used one tagging pulse (selective inversion recovery) and one non-selective inversion recovery pulse; for venography, two tagging pulses were used. The relative signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were quantified, and the quality of visualization was evaluated. The CNRs of the main portal vein, right portal vein, and left portal vein at 3 T were better than at 1.5 T. The image quality scores for the portal branches of segment 4, 5, and 8 were significantly higher at 3 T than at 1.5 T. The CNR of the right hepatic vein (RHV) at 3 T was significantly lower than at 1.5 T. The image quality scores of RHV and the middle hepatic vein were higher at 1.5 T than at 3 T. For RHV visualization, the difference was statistically significant. Non-contrast-enhanced MR portography with Time-SLIP at 3 T significantly improved visualization of the peripheral branch in healthy volunteers compared with1.5 T. Non-contrast-enhanced MR hepatic venography at 1.5 T was better than at 3 T.

  5. Interoceptive sensitivity, body image dissatisfaction, and body awareness in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Emanuelsen, Lene; Drew, Raechel; Köteles, Ferenc

    2015-04-01

    Relationships among interoceptive sensitivity (IS), body image dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported body awareness were investigated in a cross-sectional study. Eighty-two Norwegian high school students and 70 Hungarian undergraduate university students participated in the study. Subjects completed two questionnaires (Body Image Ideals Questionnaire - BIQ; Body Awareness Questionnaire - BAQ) followed by the assessment of interoceptive sensitivity using the Mental Tracking Method (MTM). An inverse, medium-level relationship between body image dissatisfaction and IS was found in both the Norwegian and the Hungarian samples. The relationships between IS and self-reported body awareness, and between body image dissatisfaction and BMI were uniformly non-significant in both samples. Predictors of body image dissatisfaction were resting heart rate, gender, and IS in the regression analysis after controlling for BMI, age, and nationality. The negative relationship between IS and body image dissatisfaction described in patients with anorexia nervosa also exists in healthy individuals. There is no direct connection between IS and self-reported body awareness. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years.

    PubMed

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-07-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research.

  7. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years

    PubMed Central

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research. PMID:26052476

  8. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Stenzel, Lucia Marques; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles

    2013-01-01

    To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF), among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6%) and 23 athletes (14.7%), respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001). Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0 ± 5.2% and 9.8 ± 4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106). However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6 ± 5.9% and 9.7 ± 3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034). There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  9. Gender Attitudes, Feminist Identity, and Body Images among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Thomas F.; Ancis, Julie R.; Strachan, Melissa D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines how women's body-image experiences relate to their own gender attitudes and ideologies. Responses from 122 undergraduate women reveal minimal relationships between body-image attitudes and either feminist identity or adherence to traditional gender beliefs at individual/stereotypic or societal levels. Male-female social interactions…

  10. Body image and adolescence: A behavioral impairment model.

    PubMed

    Senín-Calderón, Cristina; Rodríguez-Testal, Juan F; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Perpiñá, Conxa

    2017-02-01

    Adolescence is a period marked by important physical and social changes that can lead to a negative body image. The purpose of this study was to find a model enabling the appearance of behavioral impairment related to body image (restrictions, avoidance, and checking) to be predicted by body image attitudes (concern or Appearance Orientation, and dissatisfaction or Appearance Evaluation), Gender, emotional symptomatology, self-consciousness, ideas of reference (IR) and age. A total of 661 participants (67.47% girls) with an average age of 17.14 years (SD=2.34) filled in the GHQ-28, SCS on self-consciousness, REF referential thinking scale, MBSRQ (AO and AE), and BIAQ. A partial mediation model was found for IR, age and depressive symptomatology between dissatisfaction and concern about body image and Gender, to behavioral impairment related to body image. The results found suggest that age, depressive symptomatology, and IR may be mediator variables in the relationship between dissatisfaction and concern about body image, on body image behavioral impairment. This relationship implies a severity to be considered in intervention and monitoring of body image behavioral impairments in adolescents.

  11. Battling Body Image: Confessions of a Health Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasberry, Catherine N.

    2008-01-01

    As a college health educator, the author knows much about healthy behaviors. In spite of this, however, the author discusses finding herself struggling with the same problems of body image that her students express. With a variety of influences tied to negative body image, it is important that college health professionals create a plan of action…

  12. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  13. Treatment of Body Image Dissatisfaction among Women with Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwers, Mariette

    1990-01-01

    Sees body image dissatisfaction as contributing to development and maintenance of bulimia nervosa and bulimic's desire for thinness breeding low self-esteem, feelings of inadequacy, and resistance to recovery. Offers treatment suggestions for body image dissatisfaction as it relates to bulimia. Advises counselors to be satisfied with their own…

  14. Body-Image, Physiological Reactivity and Avoidance Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The utility of the Barrier index of body image in predicting conductance and heart rate reactivity, exploratory behavior, and avoidance behavior was...investigated. Results indicated how the body image schema operated in predicting exploratory behavior and avoidance responding. High Barrier Ss

  15. Treatment of Body Image Dissatisfaction among Women with Bulimia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouwers, Mariette

    1990-01-01

    Sees body image dissatisfaction as contributing to development and maintenance of bulimia nervosa and bulimic's desire for thinness breeding low self-esteem, feelings of inadequacy, and resistance to recovery. Offers treatment suggestions for body image dissatisfaction as it relates to bulimia. Advises counselors to be satisfied with their own…

  16. Adolescent Attitudes Toward Body Image and Anorexic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carol Lee; Fodor, Iris Goldstein

    1986-01-01

    Explored the relationship between anorexic behavior and selected dimensions of body image predictor variables, selected dimensions of body image, physical attractiveness, self-esteem, and physical effectiveness). Results indicated that the dimension of self-esteem was the major factor in the prediction of anorexic behaviors as measured by the…

  17. Adolescent Male Athletes: Body Image, Diet, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Pamela S. McKay; Read, Marsha H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates and compares football players' (n=44) and cross-country runners' (n=30) body image concerns, attitudes toward eating, and reasons for exercising. Results revealed significant differences. Football players reported a more positive body image, whereas runners indicated a greater concern for weight control and more disordered eating…

  18. Battling Body Image: Confessions of a Health Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasberry, Catherine N.

    2008-01-01

    As a college health educator, the author knows much about healthy behaviors. In spite of this, however, the author discusses finding herself struggling with the same problems of body image that her students express. With a variety of influences tied to negative body image, it is important that college health professionals create a plan of action…

  19. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  20. Adolescent Attitudes Toward Body Image and Anorexic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carol Lee; Fodor, Iris Goldstein

    1986-01-01

    Explored the relationship between anorexic behavior and selected dimensions of body image predictor variables, selected dimensions of body image, physical attractiveness, self-esteem, and physical effectiveness). Results indicated that the dimension of self-esteem was the major factor in the prediction of anorexic behaviors as measured by the…

  1. Body Image and Self-Esteem in Normal Weight Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleghorn, Alice A.; Penner, Louis A.

    Research suggests that, in clinical samples, body image disturbances are related to severe eating disorders and problems with self-concept and self-esteem. There have been relatively few studies, however, which have empirically investigated the relation between body image and personality characteristics among normal women. This study investigated…

  2. Gender Attitudes, Feminist Identity, and Body Images among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Thomas F.; Ancis, Julie R.; Strachan, Melissa D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines how women's body-image experiences relate to their own gender attitudes and ideologies. Responses from 122 undergraduate women reveal minimal relationships between body-image attitudes and either feminist identity or adherence to traditional gender beliefs at individual/stereotypic or societal levels. Male-female social interactions…

  3. Cross-Cultural Examination of Women's Body Image Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, R. John; And Others

    The media's portrayal of the ideal body image has been shown to be a large determinant of one's body image perception. The desire to be excessively thin can be conceived of as an artifact of White-American culture largely due to the media's influence. This study looks at cultures that have had limited exposure to the American ideal and examines…

  4. BodiMojo: effective Internet-based promotion of positive body image in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Franko, Debra L; Cousineau, Tara M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Roehrig, James P

    2013-09-01

    This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based health promotion program, BodiMojo, designed to promote positive body image in adolescents. Participants were 178 students (mean age 15.2 years, 67.6% ethnic minority) in three public high schools. Intervention groups used BodiMojo for four weekly health class periods, while controls participated in their usual health curriculum. Body image measures were given at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months. Girls reported decreased body dissatisfaction (p<.05), decreased physical appearance comparison (p<.05), and increased appearance satisfaction (p<.05), relative to controls. Effects were not maintained at 3-month follow-up. No significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups with boys. Moderation analyses suggested positive effects for diverse adolescents as well as those who were overweight or indicated baseline high body dissatisfaction. BodiMojo appears to be modestly effective in decreasing body image concerns among adolescent girls in the short term.

  5. Body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Zhao, Liming; Torigian, Drew A.

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid growth of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-based medical applications, body-wide anatomy recognition on whole-body PET/CT images becomes crucial for quantifying body-wide disease burden. This, however, is a challenging problem and seldom studied due to unclear anatomy reference frame and low spatial resolution of PET images as well as low contrast and spatial resolution of the associated low-dose CT images. We previously developed an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system [15] whose applicability was demonstrated on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images in different body regions on 35 objects. The aim of the present work is to investigate strategies for adapting the previous AAR system to low-dose CT and PET images toward automated body-wide disease quantification. Our adaptation of the previous AAR methodology to PET/CT images in this paper focuses on 16 objects in three body regions - thorax, abdomen, and pelvis - and consists of the following steps: collecting whole-body PET/CT images from existing patient image databases, delineating all objects in these images, modifying the previous hierarchical models built from diagnostic CT images to account for differences in appearance in low-dose CT and PET images, automatically locating objects in these images following object hierarchy, and evaluating performance. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the performance of the AAR approach on low-dose CT images achieves object localization accuracy within about 2 voxels, which is comparable to the accuracies achieved on diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT images. Object recognition on low-dose CT images from PET/CT examinations without requiring diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT seems feasible.

  6. Evaluation of Iron Deposition in the Adrenal Glands of β Thalassemia Major Patients Using 3-Tesla MRI.

    PubMed

    Guzelbey, Tevfik; Gurses, Bengi; Ozturk, Erman; Ozveren, Olcay; Sarsilmaz, Aysegul; Karasu, Ebru

    2016-07-01

    Beta-thalassemia major (β-TM) patients need blood transfusions, which result in iron deposition. To regulate chelation therapy, iron load has to be measured. With MRI, the amount of signal loss and T2* decay time shortening are used for iron quantification. The aim was to measure adrenal iron load with T2* relaxometry using MRI, and to compare it with liver and cardiac iron and serum ferritin, and to find out whether adrenal iron could be predicted from those parameters. Between October 2014 and March 2015, MRI was performed in 21 patients with β-TM, recieving blood transfusions and chelation therapy. The control group (n = 11) included healthy volunteers with no known history of adrenal, hematologic, chronic disease, and blood transfusion. Among patients, there was no significant correlation between plasma ferritin and adrenal T2*. Significant difference was detected among T2* values of adrenals between the patient and control groups. There was no significant correlation between adrenal gland and liver T2* in β-TM patients, moderate correlation was detected between adrenal T2* and cardiac T2*. Adrenal iron in β-TM can be reliably measured in 3 Tesla MRI. The results highlight the absence of correlation between adrenal iron deposition both with serum ferritin and hepatic iron.

  7. T1 and T2 values of human neonatal blood at 3 Tesla: Dependence on hematocrit, oxygenation, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peiying; Chalak, Lina F; Krishnamurthy, Lisa C; Mir, Imran; Peng, Shin-lei; Huang, Hao; Lu, Hanzhang

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of blood T1 and T2 is of major importance in many applications of MRI in neonates. However, to date, there has not been a systematic study to examine neonatal blood T1/T2 relaxometry. This present study aims to investigate this topic. Using freshly collected blood samples from human umbilical cord, we performed in vitro experiments under controlled physiological conditions to measure blood T1 and T2 at 3 Tesla (T) and their dependence on several factors, including hematocrit (Hct), oxygenation (Y) and temperature. The arterial T1 in neonates was 1825 ± 184 ms (Hct = 0.42 ± 0.08), longer than that of adult blood. Neonatal blood T1 was strongly dependent on Hct (P < 0.001) and Y (P = 0.005), and the dependence of T1 on Y was more prominent at higher Hct. The arterial T2 of neonatal blood was 191 ms at an Hct of 0.42, which was also longer than adult blood. Neonatal blood T2 was positively associated with blood oxygenation and negatively associated with hematocrit level, and can be characterized by an exchange model. Neonatal blood T1 was also positively associated with temperature (P < 0.001). The values provided in this report may provide important reference and calibration information for sequence optimization and quantification of in vivo neonatal MRI studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care.

  9. Dental MRI using a dedicated RF-coil at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Prager, Marcel; Heiland, Sabine; Gareis, Daniel; Hilgenfeld, Tim; Bendszus, Martin; Gaudino, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    To assess the benefit of a dedicated surface coil to visualize dental structures in comparison to standard head/neck coil. Measurements were performed using the standard head/neck coil and a dedicated array coil for dental MRI at 3 T. As MRI methods, we used a T1-weighted spin-echo sequence with and without spectral fat saturation, a T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence and a 3-dimensional T2-weighted SPACE sequence. Measurements were performed in a phantom to examine sensitivity profiles. Then the signal gain in dental structures was examined in volunteers and in a patient. As expected for a surface coil, the signal gain of the dental coil was highest at the surface of the phantom and decreased with increasing distance to the coil; it was >120% even at a depth of 30 mm, measured from the centre of the coil. The signal gain within the pulp of the volunteers ranged between 236 and 413%. The dedicated array coil offers a significantly higher signal within the region of interest for dental MR imaging thus allowing for better depiction of pathologies within the periodontium and for delineation and tracking of the branches of the maxillary and mandibular nerves. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of body mass index on body image dimensions: results from a body-image questionnaire designed for dancers.

    PubMed

    Milavic, Boris; Miletic, Alen; Miletic, Durdica

    2012-06-01

    This investigation was conducted to test the reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Body Image Questionnaire (MBIQD) designed for dancers. The newly constructed MBIQD was administered to 393 female and male participants (average age 21.8 yrs) from three European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Serbia). The scale consisted of 43 items in a 5-point response scale. Factorial analysis yielded eight factors (attractiveness, strength, joy, bad health/weakness, flexibility, body efficacy, nervousness, and masculinity) and explained 56.6% of the total variance. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of the items assigned to each of the eight MBIQD subscales was high and satisfactory (from 0.71 to 0.89). The second aim was to identify gender differences within the MBIQD subscales. According to independent-sample t-tests, female dancers showed significantly higher results on the MBIQD scales of joy and flexibility, while male dancers scored significantly higher on the masculinity scale. The third aim was to identify differences between the group of dancers defined by body mass index (BMI) and the eight MBIQD subscales separately by gender. According to the Wilks test, there was a significant multivariate effect for female subjects (F = 2.06, p<0.01) and for male subjects (F = 3.05, p<0.00). According to post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant differences in BMI groups among female dancers were found in attractiveness, strength, and masculinity MBIQD scales, while the male dancers, divided by BMI, showed significant differences in bad health/weakness, body efficacy, and flexibility MBIQD scales. This is the first research that has reported specific gender differences in body image self-perception among dancers.

  11. Fat talk and its relationship with body image disturbance.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jacqueline; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Although past studies have highlighted fat talk as relevant to body image disturbance, the majority of these have only investigated the link between fat talk and body esteem, to the exclusion of other body image constructs. One hundred and ninety-nine women completed an online survey measuring levels of appearance-based comparisons, body surveillance, thin ideal internalization, body esteem, and fat talk (FT-body concerns and FT-body comparisons). Results showed that fat talk made a significant contribution in explaining additional variance in body esteem above the other three body image factors, with FT-body concerns in particular making the highest unique contribution. Hierarchical regression analyses suggest that fat talk should be viewed as an independent psychosocial predictor of body esteem in both theoretical and therapeutic contexts. Future research should explore these relationships from a longitudinal perspective, and also clarify the nuances in the relationships by investigating the nature of women's everyday body image experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristic imaging features of body packers: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Ab Hamid, Suzana; Abd Rashid, Saiful Nizam; Mohd Saini, Suraini

    2012-06-01

    The drug-trafficking business has risen tremendously because of the current increased demand for illegal narcotics. The smugglers conceal the drugs in their bodies (body packers) in order to bypass the tight security at international borders. A suspected body packer will normally be sent to the hospital for imaging investigations to confirm the presence of drugs in the body. Radiologists, therefore, need to be familiar with and able to identify drug packets within the human body because they shoulder the legal responsibilities. This pictorial essay describes the characteristic imaging features of drug packets within the gastrointestinal tract.

  13. Body image satisfaction among male military veterans with cancer.

    PubMed

    Raggio, Greer A; Naik, Aanand D; Moye, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Impaired body satisfaction is commonly reported among cancer patients. This study prospectively evaluated body image disturbance among male military veterans with head and neck or colorectal cancer. Patients ( N = 109) completed measures at three points post-diagnosis. Results showed about one-third of participants reporting body-related concerns. Endorsement did not change significantly during the study period. Predictors of worse body satisfaction included younger age, lower education, less social support, and weight loss. Results indicate a substantial minority of men with cancer endorsing body image disturbance, and highlight psychosocial circumstances and weight change as key considerations.

  14. Depression and body image among women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Himelein, Melissa J; Thatcher, Samuel S

    2006-07-01

    Common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction and obesity, can be highly distressing. We compared 40 women with PCOS to women with infertility but not PCOS, and to women with neither PCOS nor infertility, on measures of depression and body image. Women with PCOS reported higher depression scores and greater body dissatisfaction (p < .001) than comparison group women. Body image was strongly associated with depression overall, even after controlling body mass. Among women with PCOS, body dissatisfaction measures and education explained 66 percent of the variance in depression, suggesting explanations of the PCOS-depression link should consider the role of potentially mediating psychosocial variables.

  15. Body talk and body-related co-rumination: associations with body image, eating attitudes, and psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Rudiger, Jonathan A; Winstead, Barbara A

    2013-09-01

    Talk about physical appearance and body image is common among young women. We investigated how body talk (negative, positive/self-accepting, and co-ruminative) is related to body image, body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, psychological adjustment, and friendship quality via hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for social desirability and body mass index). In a sample of young adult women (N=203), negative body talk was, as predicted, negatively related to body satisfaction and self-esteem and positively related to appearance investment, body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, and depression, but not friendship quality. Self-accepting/positive body talk was negatively related to body-related cognitive distortions and positively related to body satisfaction, self-esteem, and friendship quality. Body-related co-rumination demonstrated adjustment trade-offs, being related to body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, and higher friendship quality. Results indicated no advantage to negative body talk, both individual and relationship benefits from positive/self-accepting body talk, and mixed outcomes for body-related co-rumination.

  16. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prenatal assessment of cerebellar vermian lobulation: fetal MRI with 3 Tesla post-mortem correlation.

    PubMed

    Dovjak, Gregor O; Brugger, Peter C; Gruber, Gerlinde M; Song, Jae W; Weber, Michael; Langs, Georg; Bettelheim, Dieter; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor

    2017-08-06

    To optimize the imaging assessment of fetal hindbrain malformations, this observational MRI study aimed to provide quantitative biometric data in normal vermian development in human fetal brains in vivo. In this retrospective, review board approved study, 78 fetuses (18-32 gestational weeks (GW)) scanned prenatally at 1.5T, and seven fetuses (16-30GW), scanned within 24 hours post-mortem at 3T,were included. All fetal brains were segmented on a T2-weighted midline sagittal slice. The mean relative area contribution (MRAC, proportion of the lobule relative to total vermian area) of all discernable vermian lobules was determined. Inter- and intrarater variability of a representative selection (22 cases) was determined with the Intraclass correlation coefficient based on voxel based differences. Furthermore, a linear regression model was used to assess the correlation between vermian lobules and gestational age. After 22GW 7 of 9 vermian lobules could be reliably discriminated. MRAC showed a mean difference of 2.89 ± 3.01% between in vivo and post-mortem measurements. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of voxel based interrater differences was 0.91 ± 0.05 and intrarater ICC was 0.95 ± 0.03. Growth of cerebellar lobules was non-uniform - the MRAC of Culmen and DFT (Declive + Folium + Tuber) increased with gestational age, whereas Lingula, Centralis, Pyramis and Nodulus decreased. Vermian lobulation can be accurately and reliably assessed prenatally, on exact midsagittal T2-weighted sequences after 22GW. Fetal vermian lobules show non-uniform growth, with an expansion of DFT and Culmen at the expense of spinocerebellar structures. An evaluation of vermian lobulation could supply a better characterization of fetuses with hindbrain malformations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. "But I Like My Body": Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young-adult women.

    PubMed

    Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L; Tylka, Tracy L; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L

    2010-03-01

    Extant body image research has provided a rich understanding of negative body image but a rather underdeveloped depiction of positive body image. Thus, this study used Grounded Theory to analyze interviews from 15 college women classified as having positive body image and five body image experts. Many characteristics of positive body image emerged, including appreciating the unique beauty and functionality of their body, filtering information (e.g., appearance commentary, media ideals) in a body-protective manner, defining beauty broadly, and highlighting their body's assets while minimizing perceived imperfections. A holistic model emerged: when women processed mostly positive and rejected negative source information, their body investment decreased and body evaluation became more positive, illustrating the fluidity of body image. Women reciprocally influenced these sources (e.g., mentoring others to love their bodies, surrounding themselves with others who promote body acceptance, taking care of their health), which, in turn, promoted increased positive source information. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Factors that Influence Body Image Representations of Black Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants’ views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women. PMID:18384923

  20. Computerized assessment of body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: comparison with standardized body image assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Caspi, Asaf; Amiaz, Revital; Davidson, Noa; Czerniak, Efrat; Gur, Eitan; Kiryati, Nahum; Harari, Daniel; Furst, Miriam; Stein, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Body image disturbances are a prominent feature of eating disorders (EDs). Our aim was to test and evaluate a computerized assessment of body image (CABI), to compare the body image disturbances in different ED types, and to assess the factors affecting body image. The body image of 22 individuals undergoing inpatient treatment with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN-R), 22 with binge/purge AN (AN-B/P), 20 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 41 healthy controls was assessed using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), the CABI, which simulated the participants' self-image in different levels of weight changes, and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2-Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-2-BD) scale. Severity of depression and anxiety was also assessed. Significant differences were found among the three scales assessing body image, although most of their dimensions differentiated between patients with EDs and controls. Our findings support the use of the CABI in the comparison of body image disturbances in patients with EDs vs.

  1. More than just body weight: the role of body image in psychological and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2013-09-01

    The current study examined BMI and body image dissatisfaction as predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and psychosocial functioning in a sample of 414 undergraduate students (mean age=21.5, SD=4.9; mean BMI=23.6, SD=5.2). In men and women, higher BMI was correlated with body image dissatisfaction and physical HRQL, but not with any measures of psychosocial functioning, whereas higher body image dissatisfaction was associated with poorer physical HRQL and psychosocial functioning. Furthermore, body image dissatisfaction was observed to mediate the relationship between BMI and physical HRQL in men and women. Interestingly, in this model, higher BMI predicted increased self-esteem. These findings suggest that body image dissatisfaction may be an important target for health interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of a healthy body image program among adolescent boys on body image, negative affect, and body change strategies.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Karantzas, Gery

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a healthy body image program. In total, 421 adolescent boys completed a five-session intervention program or a wait list control group. There were no differences between the intervention and the control group at post-intervention or any of the follow-up times. Boys in the intervention group who were one standard deviation above the mean on body dissatisfaction at baseline, demonstrated a reduction in negative affect in the intervention group at post-test and 6 months follow-up. Prevention programs need to target boys who are at risk of adopting health risk behaviors, rather than being universally applied. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Body image of anorexic, obese, and normal females.

    PubMed

    Bell, C; Kirkpatrick, S W; Rinn, R C

    1986-05-01

    This study investigated disturbances in body image perception with anorexic, obese and control groups (N = 24). Each group was comprised of 8 female subjects matched for age. An original silhouette chart and chi squares were employed, and a significant difference was found among the groups in the perception of the present-self body image (chi 2 (8) = 24.19, p less than .01), body image at plus 10 pounds (chi 2 (6) = 27.63, p less than .01), and body image at minus 10 pounds (chi 2 (8) = 26.05, p less than .01). No differences among the groups appeared in perceived ideal-self body image or in their perception of the body image that was expected from their families. A directional trend was noted in anorexic overestimation and obese underestimation on the total concept of body image. Significant differences among the groups as judged via a semantic differential technique were found for personality descriptions of happy/sad, active/passive, popular/unpopular, effective/ineffective, competent/incompetent, smart/stupid, and cold/warm.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of body image dissatisfaction in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Rebecca L; Tinker, Lesley; Liu, Jingmin; Gray, James; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolis, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with one's body image is widespread and can have serious health consequences; however, research about its prevalence and correlates in older women is limited. We analyzed data from 75,256 women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a longitudinal study of postmenopausal women's health. Measures used in the study were collected at baseline and/or the third year of follow-up between 1993 and 2002. The majority of participants (83%) in this study were dissatisfied with their bodies because they perceived themselves as heavier than their ideal. Overall, the multiple and significant correlates of body image dissatisfaction explained 36.2% of the variance in the body image dissatisfaction score, with body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI being the two most important contributors to explaining the variance. The results of this study suggest future research should focus on the utility of interventions to reduce dissatisfaction with body image in postmenopausal women that target either maintenance of a lower BMI through diet and exercise, and/or body acceptance. Further, future research should aim to identify factors in addition to body size that drive body image dissatisfaction.

  6. Safety and EEG data quality of concurrent high-density EEG and high-speed fMRI at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Foged, Mette Thrane; Lindberg, Ulrich; Vakamudi, Kishore; Larsson, Henrik B W; Pinborg, Lars H; Kjær, Troels W; Fabricius, Martin; Svarer, Claus; Ozenne, Brice; Thomsen, Carsten; Beniczky, Sándor; Paulson, Olaf B; Posse, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent EEG and fMRI is increasingly used to characterize the spatial-temporal dynamics of brain activity. However, most studies to date have been limited to conventional echo-planar imaging (EPI). There is considerable interest in integrating recently developed high-speed fMRI methods with high-density EEG to increase temporal resolution and sensitivity for task-based and resting state fMRI, and for detecting interictal spikes in epilepsy. In the present study using concurrent high-density EEG and recently developed high-speed fMRI methods, we investigate safety of radiofrequency (RF) related heating, the effect of EEG on cortical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in fMRI, and assess EEG data quality. The study compared EPI, multi-echo EPI, multi-band EPI and multi-slab echo-volumar imaging pulse sequences, using clinical 3 Tesla MR scanners from two different vendors that were equipped with 64- and 256-channel MR-compatible EEG systems, respectively, and receive only array head coils. Data were collected in 11 healthy controls (3 males, age range 18-70 years) and 13 patients with epilepsy (8 males, age range 21-67 years). Three of the healthy controls were scanned with the 256-channel EEG system, the other subjects were scanned with the 64-channel EEG system. Scalp surface temperature, SNR in occipital cortex and head movement were measured with and without the EEG cap. The degree of artifacts and the ability to identify background activity was assessed by visual analysis by a trained expert in the 64 channel EEG data (7 healthy controls, 13 patients). RF induced heating at the surface of the EEG electrodes during a 30-minute scan period with stable temperature prior to scanning did not exceed 1.0° C with either EEG system and any of the pulse sequences used in this study. There was no significant decrease in cortical SNR due to the presence of the EEG cap (p > 0.05). No significant differences in the visually analyzed EEG data quality were found between EEG

  7. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    PubMed

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  8. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  9. Body Image, Food Addiction, Depression, and Body Mass Index in University Students.

    PubMed

    Şanlier, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu; Toka, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body image, depression, food addiction and body mass index (BMI) and differences in these variables due to gender and field of education have not been studied extensively. This study was conducted on a total of 793 university students (20.19 ± 1.90 years). The Beck Depression Inventory, Yale Food Addiction, and Body Image Scale were used. It was determined that body image scores of females and individuals enrolled in health sciences programs were lower compared to those of males and those enrolled in the social sciences. There was a negative relationship between body image and depression and food addiction scores. There was a positive relationship between food addiction and depression scores, in addition to a positive relationship between food addiction and BMI.

  10. My changed body: breast cancer, body image, distress and self-compassion.

    PubMed

    Przezdziecki, Astrid; Sherman, Kerry A; Baillie, Andrew; Taylor, Alan; Foley, Elizabeth; Stalgis-Bilinski, Kellie

    2013-08-01

    Bodily changes after breast cancer treatment can lead to long-term distress. Self-compassion, the ability to be kind to oneself, is an internal resource that may enhance a woman's ability to adjust to cancer-related bodily changes. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that self-compassion mediates the relationship between body image and distress, controlling for alternate plausible mediators. Members of a nationwide breast cancer consumer network were invited to participate. A total of 279 women who had finished active cancer treatment completed the online survey. Assessments included the Body Image Scale; Self-compassion Scale; Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and items measuring perceived normative pressure and comfort with one's weight. Possible mediating effects of proposed variables on the body image-distress relationship were assessed. Tests using a bootstrapping approach with multiple mediators were significant for self-compassion on distress. Body image disturbance was indirectly associated with distress through low self-compassion. Body image disturbance and lower self-compassion were associated with increased psychological distress among these breast cancer survivors. This study provides preliminary evidence for a mediating role of self-compassion between body image disturbance and psychological distress, suggesting a potentially protective effect of higher levels of self-compassion for women at risk of experiencing body image disturbance. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Germine H.; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S.; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women. PMID:26778866

  12. The Body Image Psychological Inflexibility Scale: development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Glenn M; Sandoz, Emily K; Darrow, Sabrina M; Feeney, Timothy K

    2015-03-30

    Body image disturbance and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been researched from a variety of psychological approaches. Psychological inflexibility, or avoidance of one's own cognitive and affective states at a cost to personal values, may be a useful construct to understand these problems. In an effort to clarify the role of psychological inflexibility in body image disturbance and BDD, a measure was created based on the principles of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The scale was developed by generating new items to represent the construct and revising items from an existing scale measuring aspects of body image psychological inflexibility. The study was conducted with an ethnically diverse undergraduate population using three samples during the validation process. Participants completed multiple assessments to determine the validity of the measure and were interviewed for BDD. The 16-item scale has internal consistency (α = 0.93), a single factor solution, convergent validity, and test re-test reliability (r = 0.90). Data demonstrate a relationship between psychological inflexibility and body image disturbance indicating empirical support for an ACT conceptualization of body image problems and the use of this measure for body image disturbance and BDD.

  13. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women.

    PubMed

    Awad, Germine H; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women.

  14. Optoacoustic imaging: application to the detection of foreign bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D.; Barsalou, Norman; Branstetter, Ron; Thompson, Scott

    2009-02-01

    Detection of non-radio-opaque foreign bodies can be difficult. Current imaging modalities employed for detection of foreign bodies include: X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound. Successful diagnosis of the presence of foreign bodies is variable because of the difficulty of differentiating them from soft tissue, gas, and bone. We are applying laser-induced optoacoustic imaging to the detection of foreign bodies. Tissue-simulating phantoms containing various common foreign bodies have been constructed. Images of these phantoms were generated by two laser-based optoacoustic methods utilizing different detection modalities. A pre-commercial imager developed by Seno Medical Instruments (San Antonio), incorporated an ultrasound transducer to detect induced optoacoustic responses, while a laboratory-built imaging system utilized an optical probe beam deflection technique (PBDT) to detect the optoacoustic responses. The laboratory-built unit also included an optical parametric oscillator as the pump, providing tunable wavelength output to optimize the optoacoustic measurements by probing the foreign bodies at their maximum optical absorption. Results to date have been encouraging; both methodologies have allowed us to reconstruct successfully the image of foreign-body containing phantoms. In preliminary work the PBDT approach appeared to produce higher resolution than did the ultrasound detector, possibly because PBDT is not constrained by the lower bandwidth limit imposed on the ultrasound transducer necessary to increase imaging depth. During the research in progress, we will compare the optoacoustic images to those generated by MRI, CT, and ultrasound, and continue to improve the resolution of the technique by using multiple detection sensors, and to improve image contrast by scanning foreign bodies over a range of wavelengths.

  15. Optoacoustic multispectral imaging of radiolucent foreign bodies in tissue.

    PubMed

    Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D

    2013-01-01

    Optoacoustic imaging is an emerging medical technology that uniquely combines the absorption contrast of optical imaging and the penetration depth of ultrasound. While it is not currently employed as a clinical imaging modality, the results of current research strongly support the use of optoacoustic-based methods in medical imaging. One such application is the diagnosis of the presence of soft tissue foreign bodies. Because many radiolucent foreign bodies have sufficient contrast for imaging in the optical domain, laser-induced optoacoustic imaging could be advantageous for the detection of such objects. Common foreign bodies have been scanned over a range of visible and near infrared wavelengths by using an optoacoustic method to obtain the spectroscopic properties of the materials commonly associated with these foreign bodies. The derived optical absorption spectra compared quite closely to the absorption spectra generated when using a conventional spectrophotometer. By using the probe-beam deflection technique, a novel, pressure-wave detection method, we successfully generated optoacoustic spectroscopic plots of a wooden foreign body embedded in a tissue phantom, which closely resembled the spectrum of the same object obtained in isolation. A practical application of such spectra is to assemble a library of spectroscopic data for radiolucent materials, from which specific characteristic wavelengths can be selected for use in optimizing imaging instrumentation and provide a basis for the identification of the material properties of particular foreign bodies.

  16. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  17. Threat of the thin-ideal body image and body malleability beliefs: effects on body image self-discrepancies and behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Arciszewski, Thomas; Berjot, Sophie; Finez, Lucie

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the effect of the threat aroused by the perception of thin-ideal images combined with beliefs about the malleability of the body on perceived/objective, ideal/objective and ought/objective body image self-discrepancies. An experimental computer program enabled women (N=82) to artificially increase or decrease the shape of their own body (previously photographed) in response to questions about their "actual", "ideal" and "ought" body self-perceptions. As predicted, results showed that women had greater body self-discrepancies when confronted with threatening thin ideals, regardless of their body mass index. The size of this trend depended on the way they were made to think of their body (malleable vs. fixed). Findings also suggested a possible relationship between body self-representations and eating behaviors or intentions. The impact of thin-ideal threats and body malleability beliefs on body perception is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescents and Body Image: A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mannat M; Ashok, Lena; Binu, V S; Parsekar, Shradha S; Bhumika, T V

    2015-12-01

    To assess proportion of adolescents perceiving their body image as normal and to study association between body shape, self-esteem and body mass index; each with body image perception. A cross sectional study was conducted among pre university college (PUC) students of Udupi taluk. A total of 550 students in the age group of 15-19y were randomly selected from 11 PUC's: four were taken from government and unaided strata respectively and three from aided. The PUC's were selected based on proportional allocation from a total of 48 PUC's. From each PUC a class was randomly chosen as a cluster; all students in the class were included. Body shape questionnaire and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used to assess body shape concerns and self-esteem respectively. Height and weight was measured and body mass index was calculated. SPSS version 15 has been used for analysis. Results were tabulated using frequency distribution and proportions. Multinomial logistic regression was done. About 38 % of the respondents perceived their body image as normal. Body shape [OR = 0.48,95 % CI: 0.305, 0.76], self-esteem [OR = 6.12,95 % CI: 2.76, 13.9] and body mass index [OR = 4.65,95 % CI: 2.13,10.12] were found to be independently associated with body image perception. Educational institutes are a major component of adolescent's lives; the identified factors for body image perception should be taken into consideration and appropriate educational efforts to be incorporated into the routine curriculum.

  19. Body image and health behaviors: is there a relationship between lifestyles and positive body image?

    PubMed

    Zanon, A; Tomassoni, R; Gargano, M; Granai, M G

    2016-01-01

    The study illustrates a research on the relationship between body image and lifestyles in a sample of 262 young amateur athletes that have a regular attendance of a gym in Cassino (Central Italy). The following questionnaires were used: Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ34), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Short form 12 items (SF12). The participants were 257 (response rate 98.1%) mainly of young age (18-24 years, 63.8%), single (72%), with a senior high school diploma (57.2%), students (63%). For almost all the BSQ-34 questionnaire items differences for gender were found, with Females more worried than males. 187 (72.8%) reported some vigorous activity during a week, 207 (80.5%) some moderate activity, and 229 (89.1%) walking. The participants had a median PCS score of 54.2 (range: 24.5-64.8) and a median MCS score of 43.8 (range: 9.3 - 58.7). The mean score of the Mediterranean diet was 4.8 (median = 5; Range = 1-8), and only 72 individuals (11.7%) had optimal score (over or equal to 6).

  20. A Visual Arts Program for Enhancement of the Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Chiara, Edith

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether a visual arts program related to the human figure would enhance the body image of 20 elementary grade children with learning disabilities. (Author/SW)

  1. Body Image and Self-Esteem (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop healthier thinking. previous continue Where Can I Go if I Need Help? Sometimes low self-esteem ... and lose interest in activities or friends. Some go on to develop eating disorders or body image ...

  2. The effects of body exposure on self-body image and esthetic appreciation in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Cazzato, Valentina; Mian, Emanuel; Mele, Sonia; Tognana, Giulia; Todisco, Patrizia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Repeated exposures to thin-idealized body shapes may alter women's perceptions of what normal (e.g., accepted) and ideal (e.g., desired) bodies in a cultural environment look like. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to thin and round body shapes may change the subsequent esthetic appreciation of others' bodies and the perceptual and cognitive-affective dimensions of self-body image in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN). Thirteen AN patients and 13 matched healthy controls were exposed to pictures of either thin or round unfamiliar body models and, before and after exposure, they were required to either express liking judgments about round and slim figures of unfamiliar bodies (esthetic task) or to adjust distorted pictures of their own body to their perceptual (How do you see yourself?), affective (How do you feel yourself?), metacognitive (How do others see you?) and ideal (How would you like to look like?) body image (self-body adjustment task). Brief exposures to round models increased liking judgments of round figures in both groups. However, only in AN patients, exposure to round models induced an increase in thin figures liking, which positively correlated with their preoccupation with dieting. Furthermore, exposure to round bodies in AN patients, but not in controls, increased the distortion for the perceptual body image and decreased the size of the ideal one. No differences between the two groups were obtained after adaptation to thin models. Our results suggest that AN patients' perception of their own and others' body is more easily malleable by exposure to round figures as compared to controls. Crucially, this mechanism may strongly contribute to the development and maintenance of self-body image disturbances.

  3. Regional and whole-body imaging in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2011-05-01

    The goals of tumor imaging include tumor detection, tumor characterization and differential diagnosis, imaging-guided biopsy, evaluation of tumor extent and staging, assessment of treatment responses, and surveillance for residual tumor or tumor recurrence. In clinical practice, various combinations of imaging modalities are used to achieve these goals. Recently introduced tumor imaging methods, such as diffusion MRI, perfusion MRI, whole-body MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET-CT), have shown promising results. Depending on tumor type and management plan, imaging protocols for children should be individually optimized to achieve the shortest examination time, the highest image quality, the lowest risk, and maximum clinical benefits. In this article, the roles of regional and whole-body tumor imaging will be reviewed, and several important issues related to recent technical developments will be discussed.

  4. Relationship between perceived body image and recorded body mass index among Kuwaiti female university students.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Yearul; Zafar, Tasleem A; Waslien, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The associations between body image and attitudes toward obesity and thinness and their associations with measured body mass index (BMI) among female students of Kuwait University (n = 137) was examined in 2008. The body image perceptions were assessed using nine female silhouettes figures. The difference between current perceived body image (PBI) and ideal body image (IBI) was used as a measure of body image dissatisfaction (BID). Students tended to have a bigger PBI and smaller IBI than would be expected from their BMI category, leading to high levels of BID in each BMI category. PBI, IBI, BID, RBI were highly correlated with each other, and BMI was significantly correlated with each of them. The coefficients of these associations were not significantly altered in multiple regression analysis by the addition of potential confounding variables, such as age, marital status, physical activity, dieting behavior, parental education, and family size. These results suggest that PBI and a desire to be thinner were strongly related to BID and that thinness is becoming more desired in Kuwaiti society than the plump body image of the past.

  5. Agreement and association between different indicators of body image and body mass index in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla Fernandez Dos; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.

  6. The impact of anal sphincter injury on perceived body image.

    PubMed

    Iles, David; Khan, Rabia; Naidoo, Kristina; Kearney, Rohna; Myers, Jenny; Reid, Fiona

    2017-05-01

    Obstetric anal sphincter injury is common but the effect on body image is unreported. The aim of this study was to explore patient perceived changes in body image and other psychological aspects in women attending a perineal follow-up clinic. This retrospective study analysed women's responses to a self-reported questionnaire. Consecutive women with anal sphincter injury who attended a United Kingdom Maternity Hospital perineal follow-up clinic between January 1999 and January 2012 were identified and the records obtained and reviewed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine variables influencing self-reported change in body image. Questionnaires and operation notes were analysed from 422 women who attended at a median of four months after delivery. 222 (53%) reported a change in body image with 80 (19%) reporting lower self-esteem and 75 (18%) a change in their personality due to the change in body image. 248 (59%) perceived an anatomical change due to the delivery. Factors associated with increased likelihood of reporting a change in body image were reporting a perceived change in anatomy due to the delivery, adjusted OR 6.11 (3.56-10.49), anal incontinence, OR 1.97 (1.16-3.36), and delivery by forceps, OR 2.59 (1.23-5.43). This is the first study to quantify body image changes in women after anal sphincter injury sustained in childbirth. These were found to be very common, affecting up to 50% of women. The study has several limitations but it does highlight the significant psychosocial problems of negative self-esteem and personality changes associated with a perceived change in body image that has not previously been reported. It also outlines the further research questions that need to be addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 3 Tesla proton MRI for the diagnosis of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia: initial results in comparison to HRCT.

    PubMed

    Attenberger, U I; Morelli, J N; Henzler, T; Buchheidt, D; Fink, C; Schoenberg, S O; Reichert, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 3 Tesla proton MRI for the assessment of pneumonia/lung infiltrates in neutropenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia. In a prospective study, 3 Tesla MRI was performed in 19 febrile neutropenic patients (5 women, 14 men; mean age 61 years ± 14.2; range 23-77 years). All patients underwent high-resolution CT less than 24h prior to MRI. The MRI protocol (Magnetom Tim Trio, Siemens) included a T2-weighted HASTE sequence (TE/TR: 49 ms/∞, slice thickness 6mm) and a high-resolution 3D VIBE sequence with an ultra-short TE<1 ms (TE/TR 0.8/2.9 ms, slice thickness 2mm). The VIBE sequence was examined before and after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg gadoterate meglumine (Dotarem, Guerbet). The presence of pulmonary abnormalities, their location within the lung, and lesion type (nodules, consolidations, glass opacity areas) were analyzed by one reader and compared to the findings of HRCT, which was evaluated by a second independent radiologist who served as the reference standard. The findings were compared per lobe in each patient and rated as true positive (TP) findings if all three characteristics (presence, location, and lesion type) listed above were concordant to HRCT. Pulmonary abnormalities were characterized by 3 Tesla MRI with a sensitivity of 82.3% and a specificity of 78.6%, resulting in an overall accuracy of 88% (NPV/PPV 66.7%/89.5%). In 51 lobes (19 of 19 patients), pulmonary abnormalities visualized by MR were judged to be concordant in their location and in the lesion type identified by both readers. In 22 lobes (11 of 19 patients), no abnormalities were present on either MR or HRCT (true negative). In 6 lobes (5 of 19 patients), ground glass opacity areas were detected on MRI but were not visible on HRCT (false positives). In 11 lobes (7 of 19 patients), MRI failed to detect ground glass opacity areas identified by HRCT. However, since the abnormalities were disseminated in these patients, accurate treatment

  8. [Sex differences in body image, weight control and Body Mass Index of Spanish adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ramos Valverde, Pilar; Rivera de Los Santos, Francisco; Moreno Rodríguez, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    Sex differences in body image, weight control and Body Mass Index of Spanish adolescents. This research paper studied the differences among 21,811 adolescents (between the ages of 11 and 18) in key variables in the development of eating disorders, including the Body Mass Index, the perception of and satisfaction with their body image, and the behaviours used to control weight. In spite of the fact that the girls had a better adjusted BMI and a lesser degree of overweight and obesity, we found that they perceived themselves as being fatter, were less satisfied with body image, and the ones who dieted the most to lose weight. On the other hand, we found that the main reason for boys and girls to diet in an effort to lose weight was not their real body weight, but rather their perception of their own bodies, followed by just how satisfied they were with their bodies. Therefore, important differences are revealed between boys and girls in this article, which must be taken into consideration in the design and development of the various programs that are aimed at the prevention of problems with body image and diet behaviour.

  9. Perceptions of body image among Malaysian male and female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Khor, G L; Zalilah, M S; Phan, Y Y; Ang, M; Maznah, B; Norimah, A K

    2009-03-01

    Body image concerns are common among adolescents as they undergo rapid physical growth and body shape changes. Having a distorted body image is a risk factor for the development of disordered eating behaviours and eating disorders. This study was undertaken to investigate body image concerns among Malaysian male and female adolescents aged 11-15 years. A total of 2,050 adolescents (1,043 males and 1,007 females) with a mean age of 13.1 +/- 0.8 years from secondary schools in Kedah and Pulau Pinang were included in the study. Questionnaires were used to collect socioeconomic data and body image indicators. The majority (87 percent) of the adolescents were concerned with their body shape. While the majority of underweight, normal weight and overweight male and female subjects perceived their body weight status correctly according to their body mass index (BMI), a noteworthy proportion in each category misjudged their body weight. About 35.4 percent of the males and 20.5 percent of the females in the underweight category perceived themselves as having a normal weight, while 29.4 percent and 26.7 percent of the overweight males and females respectively also perceived that they had a normal weight. A higher proportion of the females (20 percent) than males (9 percent) with a normal BMI perceived themselves as fat. Most of the male (78-83 percent) and female subjects (69-74 percent) in all the BMI categories desired to be taller than their current height. An appreciable proportion of both the males (41.9 percent) and females (38.2 percent) preferred to remain thin, or even to be thinner (23.7 percent of males and 5.9 percent of females). Females had a significantly higher mean body dissatisfaction score than males, indicating their preference for a slimmer body shape. More males (49.1 percent) preferred a larger body size while more females (58.3 percent) idealised a smaller body size. Compared to normal weight and underweight subjects, overweight males and females

  10. MR visualization of the inner ear structures: comparison of 1.5 Tesla and 3 Tesla images.

    PubMed

    Graf, H; Schick, F; Claussen, C D; Seemann, M D

    2004-01-01

    To compare high resolution MRI examinations of inner ear structures at 1.5 T and at 3 T. Temporal bones were measured bilaterally in 3 healthy volunteers in a 1.5 T and in a 3 T MR-scanner using the respective one channel head coil (quadrature detection) of the manufacturer. The same steady-state gradient echo sequence (3D-CISS) was employed at a voxel size of 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.4 mm(3). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was determined quantitatively. An SNR of 8 could be achieved for the measurements at 3 T in 7:37 min. The SNR at 3 T was, on average, a factor of 1.34 higher than that at 1.5 T despite the fact that the excitation angle had to be drastically reduced (alpha = 42 degrees instead of alpha = 70 degrees at 1.5 T) due to the limit of the specific absorption rate (SAR). The MR representation of the inner ear is clearly improved at 3 T. To obtain the same SNR at 1.5 T approximately the double measuring time would be required, connected with reduced patient comfort and an increased risk for a displacement of the head during the high resolution measurement.

  11. [Sociodemographic factors and body image among high school students].

    PubMed

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Claumann, Gaia Salvador; Sacomori, Cinara; Daronco, Luciane Sanchotene Etchepare; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this article is to investigate associations between body image dissatisfaction and sociodemographic indicators among adolescents. Participants included 1126 high school students in the city of Santa Maria in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Aspects regarding body image dissatisfaction and sociodemographic indicators were analyzed. Association analyses were performed using crude Poisson regression duly adjusted for sex and age. Boys were found to be dissatisfied due to slimness and girls due to excess weight. Adolescents where the parents had less schooling, as well as those from lower socioeconomic classes and with lower income were found to be more likely to have body image dissatisfaction due to slimness. However, those where the parents had completed higher education and those living in the downtown area were more likely to have body image dissatisfaction due to excess weight. Sociodemographic indicators are closely associated with body image dissatisfaction. Body image dissatisfaction due to slimness can be explained by the lower level of schooling of the parents, lower socioeconomic class and lower income. Dissatisfaction due to excess weight can be explained by the higher schooling of the parents and the fact of living in the downtown area.

  12. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  13. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  14. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  15. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  16. Gender Differences in Effects of Mood on Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between experimental mood alteration and body image among college students who experienced mood induction by reading self-descriptive statements. Analysis of participant responses indicated that the more elated they felt, the lighter they felt, regardless of gender. However, the manipulation did not alter body ideal…

  17. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  18. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  19. Gender Differences in Effects of Mood on Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between experimental mood alteration and body image among college students who experienced mood induction by reading self-descriptive statements. Analysis of participant responses indicated that the more elated they felt, the lighter they felt, regardless of gender. However, the manipulation did not alter body ideal…

  20. Body Image and Body Change: Predictive Factors in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted. PMID:24049621

  1. Study of cenesthesias and body image aberration in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rajender, Gaurav; Kanwal, Krishna; Rathore, Dinesh M.; Chaudhary, Deepa

    2009-01-01

    Background: Abnormal body sensations are reported frequently by schizophrenic patients. Cenesthesias are infrequently recognized and diagnosis of cenesthopathic schizophrenia is rarely made. There are very few studies regarding the same. Aims and Objectives: To assess cenesthesias and different aspects of body image aberration and their relationship with psychopathology in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Seventy patients of paranoid schizophrenia meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed with Positive and Negative Symptom Scale(PANSS) for psychopathology, Bonn Scale for Assessment of Basic Symptoms/Category D ‘Cenesthesias’ (BSABS), Image-Marking Procedure(IMP), alteration of body size and body cathexis. Assessments were made at baseline and after two weeks and assessed with SPSS 12.0. Results: The most commonly endorsed items on BSABS were depersonalization, motor weakness, abnormal pain, numbness and stiffness. Patients underestimated lower extremities and feelings of body size change which was positively correlated with PANSS-scores and improved on reassessment. Cenesthesias were positively correlated with disturbances of body concept and were present at onset in 40% and change form in 75.7%. Conclusions: Cenesthesias and body image aberrations are common in paranoid schizophrenia. They are present from onset in few, change form and improve on treatment. Cenesthesias and disturbances of body concept are correlated and body size is associated with other psychopathology. PMID:19881047

  2. Automatic nonrigid registration of whole body CT mice images.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Peterson, Todd E; Gore, John C; Dawant, Benoit M

    2008-04-01

    Three-dimensional intra- and intersubject registration of image volumes is important for tasks that include quantification of temporal/longitudinal changes, atlas-based segmentation, computing population averages, or voxel and tensor-based morphometry. While a number of methods have been proposed to address this problem, few have focused on the problem of registering whole body image volumes acquired either from humans or small animals. These image volumes typically contain a large number of articulated structures, which makes registration more difficult than the registration of head images, to which the majority of registration algorithms have been applied. This article presents a new method for the automatic registration of whole body computed tomography (CT) volumes, which consists of two main steps. Skeletons are first brought into approximate correspondence with a robust point-based method. Transformations so obtained are refined with an intensity-based nonrigid registration algorithm that includes spatial adaptation of the transformation's stiffness. The approach has been applied to whole body CT images of mice, to CT images of the human upper torso, and to human head and neck CT images. To validate the authors method on soft tissue structures, which are difficult to see in CT images, the authors use coregistered magnetic resonance images. They demonstrate that the approach they propose can successfully register image volumes even when these volumes are very different in size and shape or if they have been acquired with the subjects in different positions.

  3. Examination of body checking, body image dissatisfaction, and negative affect using Ecological momentary assessment.

    PubMed

    Stefano, Emily C; Hudson, Danae L; Whisenhunt, Brooke L; Buchanan, Erin M; Latner, Janet D

    2016-08-01

    Research has shown that non-clinical women, particularly those with high body concern, engage in frequent body checking behaviors. The purpose of this study was to use ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine the frequency and correlates of body checking behavior, including its association with body image dissatisfaction and negative affect, in non-clinical women with high body concern. Undergraduate female participants with high body concern (n=22) were assessed five times per day for five days via text messages sent to their smart phones. During each assessment, participants reported the number of times they engaged in eight different body checking behaviors and their current level of negative affect and body dissatisfaction. After aggregation, a total of 3064 body checking behaviors were reported by the sample during the five-day period. All participants reported engaging in body checking at least once per day, with a mean of 27.85 checking behaviors per day. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that body checking significantly predicted both body dissatisfaction and negative affect. These results provide preliminary support for the cognitive behavioral theory of eating disorders, suggesting that as women engage in more frequent body checking behaviors, they also experience higher levels of body dissatisfaction and negative affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Body image, body satisfaction, and unsafe anal intercourse among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Welles, Seth L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Ross, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Using survey results from the 1998 Twin Cities Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Pride Festival (N = 535), we explored associations between body image and unsafe anal intercourse (UAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM), and evaluated whether body satisfaction mediated this association. MSM who reported underweight body image had lower odds than those who reported average weight of UAI (AOR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.13, 0.85); body satisfaction was not found to mediate this association. 13.3% of men who reported overweight/obese body image had engaged in UAI compared with 21.6% of those who reported average weight and 8.2% of those who reported underweight (p < .05). Compared with MSM in exclusive relationships, MSM in non exclusive relationships had increased odds of UAI (AOR = 5.78; 95% CI = 2.96, 11.29) as did men who were not partnered (AOR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.72, 5.93). These findings highlight the importance of including body image in sexual behavior models of MSM to better understand body image's role in influencing sexual risk and sexually transmitted infections (STI)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission.

  5. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  6. Body image and correlation with body composition and attrition rate in the TIGER study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Body image can be a very important part of determining an individual's outlook and behavior. Previous research has shown that the degree of satisfaction women have with their bodies may vary across race and may have a significant impact on an individual's motivation and commitment to a regular exer...

  7. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  8. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  9. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  10. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  11. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  12. Body image flexibility as a protective factor against disordered eating behavior for women with lower body mass index.

    PubMed

    Hill, Mary L; Masuda, Akihiko; Latzman, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility would be uniquely and significantly associated with disordered eating behavior. In addition, the study examined if body mass index (BMI) moderated the relationships between each of the body image related variables and disordered eating. Two-hundred-fifty-eight female participants completed the web-based survey. Body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility were significantly related to disordered eating behavior, after controlling for ethnicity and BMI, and BMI moderated the relation between body image flexibility and disordered eating. Specifically, for those with low BMI, greater body image flexibility was associated with reduced disordered eating behavior. Body image flexibility was not associated with disordered eating behavior among those with average or high BMI. These results suggest that greater body image flexibility may serve as a protective factor against disordered eating behaviors for those with low BMI.

  13. Body image and subjective well-being in Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look.

  14. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  15. Optical Diagnostic Imaging Of Surface Topography And Body Deformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windischbauer, Gerhard

    1989-04-01

    Modern diagnostic imaging techniques are providing three-dimensional images by the combination of analog sensing devices, powerful digital processors and graphic displays. Computer based optical imaging systems are used for detection and tracking of body deformities in Orthopaedics. To establish a morphometric data-base means for comparing and averaging similar shapes have to be prepared. Assuming fast technological advancements use at present and prospective applications are given.

  16. Swimsuit issues: promoting positive body image in young women's magazines.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Elizabeth Reid; Moncrieff-Boyd, Jessica

    2011-08-01

    This preliminary study reviews the promotion of healthy body image to young Australian women, following the 2009 introduction of the voluntary Industry Code of Conduct on Body Image. The Code includes using diverse sized models in magazines. A qualitative content analysis of the 2010 annual 'swimsuit issues' was conducted on 10 Australian young women's magazines. Pictorial and/or textual editorial evidence of promoting diverse body shapes and sizes was regarded as indicative of the magazines' upholding aspects of the voluntary Code of Conduct for Body Image. Diverse sized models were incorporated in four of the seven magazines with swimsuit features sampled. Body size differentials were presented as part of the swimsuit features in three of the magazines sampled. Tips for diverse body type enhancement were included in four of the magazines. All magazines met at least one criterion. One magazine displayed evidence of all three criteria. Preliminary examination suggests that more than half of young women's magazines are upholding elements of the voluntary Code of Conduct for Body Image, through representation of diverse-sized women in their swimsuit issues.

  17. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-06-01

    To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents' feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects' context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents' self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem.

  18. A Portable Stereo Vision System for Whole Body Surface Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a whole body surface imaging system based on stereo vision technology. We have adopted a compact and economical configuration which involves only four stereo units to image the frontal and rear sides of the body. The success of the system depends on a stereo matching process that can effectively segment the body from the background in addition to recovering sufficient geometric details. For this purpose, we have developed a novel sub-pixel, dense stereo matching algorithm which includes two major phases. In the first phase, the foreground is accurately segmented with the help of a predefined virtual interface in the disparity space image, and a coarse disparity map is generated with block matching. In the second phase, local least squares matching is performed in combination with global optimization within a regularization framework, so as to ensure both accuracy and reliability. Our experimental results show that the system can realistically capture smooth and natural whole body shapes with high accuracy.

  19. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator. 13 figs.

  20. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung.

  1. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-12

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. 12 figs.

  2. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator.

  3. Body Image and Body Satisfaction Differ by Race in Overweight Postpartum Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Bastian, Lori A.; Revels, Jessica; Durham, Holiday; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Amamoo, M. Ahinee; Ostbye, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Body image (BI) and body satisfaction may be important in understanding weight loss behaviors, particularly during the postpartum period. We assessed these constructs among African American and white overweight postpartum women. Methods The sample included 162 women (73 African American and 89 white) in the intervention arm 6 months into the Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP) Study, a nutritional and physical activity weight loss intervention. BIs, self-reported using the Stunkard figure rating scale, were compared assessing mean values by race. Body satisfaction was measured using body discrepancy (BD), calculated as perceived current image minus ideal image (BD<0: desire to be heavier; BD>0: desire to be lighter). BD was assessed by race for: BDIdeal (current image minus the ideal image) and BDIdeal Mother (current image minus ideal mother image). Results Compared with white women, African American women were younger and were less likely to report being married, having any college education, or residing in households with annual incomes >$30,000 (all p < 0.01). They also had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04), although perceived current BI did not differ by race (p = 0.21). African Americans had higher mean ideal (p = 0.07) and ideal mother (p = 0.001) BIs compared with whites. African Americans' mean BDs (adjusting for age, BMI, education, income, marital status, and interaction terms) were significantly lower than those of whites, indicating greater body satisfaction among African Americans (BDIdeal: 1.7 vs. 2.3, p = 0.005; BDIdeal Mother: 1.1 vs. 1.8, p = 0.0002). Conclusions Racial differences exist in postpartum weight, ideal images, and body satisfaction. Healthcare providers should consider tailored messaging that accounts for these racially different perceptions and factors when designing weight loss programs for overweight mothers. PMID:20113143

  4. Body image and body satisfaction differ by race in overweight postpartum mothers.

    PubMed

    Carter-Edwards, Lori; Bastian, Lori A; Revels, Jessica; Durham, Holiday; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Amamoo, M Ahinee; Ostbye, Truls

    2010-02-01

    Body image (BI) and body satisfaction may be important in understanding weight loss behaviors, particularly during the postpartum period. We assessed these constructs among African American and white overweight postpartum women. The sample included 162 women (73 African American and 89 white) in the intervention arm 6 months into the Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP) Study, a nutritional and physical activity weight loss intervention. BIs, self-reported using the Stunkard figure rating scale, were compared assessing mean values by race. Body satisfaction was measured using body discrepancy (BD), calculated as perceived current image minus ideal image (BD<0: desire to be heavier; BD>0: desire to be lighter). BD was assessed by race for: BD(Ideal) (current image minus the ideal image) and BD(Ideal Mother) (current image minus ideal mother image). Compared with white women, African American women were younger and were less likely to report being married, having any college education, or residing in households with annual incomes >$30,000 (all p < 0.01). They also had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04), although perceived current BI did not differ by race (p = 0.21). African Americans had higher mean ideal (p = 0.07) and ideal mother (p = 0.001) BIs compared with whites. African Americans' mean BDs (adjusting for age, BMI, education, income, marital status, and interaction terms) were significantly lower than those of whites, indicating greater body satisfaction among African Americans (BD(Ideal): 1.7 vs. 2.3, p = 0.005; BD(Ideal Mother): 1.1 vs. 1.8, p = 0.0002). Racial differences exist in postpartum weight, ideal images, and body satisfaction. Healthcare providers should consider tailored messaging that accounts for these racially different perceptions and factors when designing weight loss programs for overweight mothers.

  5. Influence of yoga on body image satisfaction in men.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Mary

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of yoga practice on body image satisfaction in men. Male Figure Drawings were used to explore body image satisfaction in yoga beginners (n = 26, M age = 40.3 yr., SD = 11.6), experienced yoga practitioners (n = 22, M age = 46.4 yr., SD = 11.6), and non-yoga practicing aerobic and weight training exercisers (n = 34, M age = 41.2 yr., SD = 11.9). Satisfaction was significantly higher among the yoga groups than the exercisers. There was no statistical difference between the body satisfaction scores of the experienced yoga group and the beginner yoga students. This may suggest that individuals drawn to yoga have greater body satisfaction than exercisers, and that regular yoga practice possibly further increases body satisfaction.

  6. Body image assessment in oncology: an update review.

    PubMed

    Muzzatti, Barbara; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta

    2017-03-01

    Body image is a psychological dimension of the experience of cancer, which varies along the clinical features of the disease itself and in its phases, as well as its effects in terms of functioning and quality of life. In 2012, Supportive Care in Cancer published a review addressing the relevance, application, and instruments of body image assessment for oncological settings. Since then, many research papers have been published on this topic and new questionnaires for assessing body image in oncology are now available. This contribution aims to offer both researchers and clinicians an updated review of body image assessment tools. We searched PubMed, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and Scopus databases, which allowed us to identify pertinent papers, classified according to the body image tool to which they refer. We then extracted the characteristics and the psychometric properties from each study. From the 657 initial records, 23 papers met the selection criteria referring to 8 body image measurements. Although increasing in number and being the subject of a growing number of studies, these papers are still not exhaustive with respect to the verified psychometric properties. In particular, it is worth noting that their applicability to all types of cancer is limited and that a focus on women with breast cancer prevails. A complete validation (including a study of all types of validity and reliability) and an indication of the case results are not currently available for any of the eight instruments described. However, studies designed to apply body image assessment tools to patients other than those experiencing breast cancer as well to cultural contexts other than English-speaking countries, are increasing.

  7. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population

    PubMed Central

    Lobera, Ignacio Jáuregui; Ríos, Patricia Bolaños

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP) as well as its test–retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyze different relationships with key dimensions of psychosocial functioning (ie, self-esteem, presence of psychopathological symptoms, eating and body image-related problems, and perceived stress) and to evaluate differences in body image quality of life due to gender. Patients and methods The sample comprised 417 students without any psychiatric history, recruited from the Pablo de Olavide University and the University of Seville. There were 140 men (33.57%) and 277 women (66.43%), and the mean age was 21.62 years (standard deviation = 5.12). After obtaining informed consent from all participants, the following questionnaires were administered: BIQLI, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Results The BIQLI-SP shows adequate psychometric properties, and it may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different physical conditions. A more positive body image quality of life is associated with better self-esteem, better psychological wellbeing, and fewer eating-related dysfunctional attitudes, this being more evident among women. Conclusion The BIQLI-SP may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different contexts with regard to dermatology, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and endocrinology, among others. In these fields of study, a new trend has emerged to assess body image-related quality of life. PMID:21403794

  8. Impact of Apolipoprotein E4 Polymorphism on the Gray Matter Volume and the White Matter Integrity in Subjective Memory Impairment without White Matter Hyperintensities: Voxel-Based Morphometry and Tract-Based Spatial Statistics Study under 3-Tesla MRI.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Min; Ha, Ji-Kyung; Park, Je-Min; Lee, Byung-Dae; Moon, EunSoo; Chung, Young-In; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Hak-Jin; Mun, Chi-Woong; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare gray matter (GM) volume and white matter (WM) integrity in Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE ε4) carriers with that of ApoE ε4 noncarriers using the voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the effect of the ApoE ε4 on brain structures in subjective memory impairment (SMI) without white matter hyperintensities (WMH). Altogether, 26 participants with SMI without WMH were finally recruited from the Memory impairment clinics of Pusan National University Hospital in Korea. All participants were ApoE genotyped (ApoE ε4 carriers: n = 13, matched ApoE ε4 noncarriers: n = 13) and underwent 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including 3-dimensional volumetric images for GM volume and DTI for WM integrity. ApoE ε4 carriers compared with noncarriers in SMI without WMH showed the atrophy of GM in inferior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, anterior cingulum, middle frontal gyrus, and precentral gyrus and significantly lower fractional anisotropy WM values in the splenium of corpus callosum and anterior corona radiate. Our findings suggest that the ApoE ε4 is associated with both atrophy of GM volume and disruption of WM integrity in SMI without WMH. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  9. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  10. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  11. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Weight status and the perception of body image in men.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%-7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  13. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  14. A Virtual Reality Full Body Illusion Improves Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Keizer, Anouk; van Elburg, Annemarie; Helms, Rossa; Dijkerman, H. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a persistent distorted experience of the size of their body. Previously we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion improves hand size estimation in this group. Here we investigated whether a Full Body Illusion (FBI) affects body size estimation of body parts more emotionally salient than the hand. In the FBI, analogue to the RHI, participants experience ownership over an entire virtual body in VR after synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of the actual and virtual body. Methods and Results We asked participants to estimate their body size (shoulders, abdomen, hips) before the FBI was induced, directly after induction and at ~2 hour 45 minutes follow-up. The results showed that AN patients (N = 30) decrease the overestimation of their shoulders, abdomen and hips directly after the FBI was induced. This effect was strongest for estimates of circumference, and also observed in the asynchronous control condition of the illusion. Moreover, at follow-up, the improvements in body size estimation could still be observed in the AN group. Notably, the HC group (N = 29) also showed changes in body size estimation after the FBI, but the effect showed a different pattern than that of the AN group. Conclusion The results lead us to conclude that the disturbed experience of body size in AN is flexible and can be changed, even for highly emotional body parts. As such this study offers novel starting points from which new interventions for body image disturbance in AN can be developed. PMID:27711234

  15. Relationship of body image and creative dance movement.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R N; Scannell, E D

    1995-08-01

    Findings supporting the proposition that dance movement improves a person's body image have been contradictory. Previous work focussed on styles such as ballet, jazz, and modern dance but it is arguable that creative dance movement, with its less structured approach and absence of predetermined performance standards, will have a positive influence on body image. This study examine scores on the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire of 112 women between 18 and 69 years who had been actively participating in creative dance movement courses for periods ranging from two weeks to 16.5 years. Subjects experienced in creative dance movement were more satisfied with their appearance, fitness, and body parts than subjects with less than five years of experience. Differences in evaluation of health were not clearly established. Given this analysis and the potential for wide-spread clinical use of creative dance movement with people having body-image disturbances, empirical research on the relationship between creative dance movement and body image is warranted.

  16. Poor body image and alcohol use in women.

    PubMed

    Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Zenner, Ashley; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2016-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the association between body image and alcohol use. Of interest was the extent to which alcohol outcome expectancies act as a moderator in this relationship, particularly in women. In Study 1, 421 college students (175 men, 246 women) provided self-report data on body image, social expressiveness expectancies, and average weekly alcohol use; the data were examined using a moderation model. Results showed that women with poor body image and high social expressiveness expectancies reported a significantly greater amount of average weekly alcohol consumption, whereas no such interaction was observed for men. Study 2 tested the same moderation model with 67 female participants; however, this second study utilized an in-lab behavioral measure of alcohol consumption as the outcome variable. The second study replicated results from Study 1, showing that women with overweight body image and alcohol-related high social expressiveness expectancies consumed significantly more beer during a taste rating task than women with other combinations of these variables. Taken together, the results of Studies 1 and 2 indicate that, specifically for women, an overweight body image and positive expectancies about the social, confidence-enhancing benefits of alcohol act as risk factors for excessive drinking. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Body Image Screening for Cancer Patients Undergoing Reconstructive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Nipomnick, Summer; Guindani, Michele; Baumann, Donald; Hanasono, Matthew; Crosby, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Body image is a critical issue for cancer patients undergoing reconstructive surgery, as they can experience disfigurement and functional impairment. Distress related to appearance changes can lead to various psychosocial difficulties, and patients are often reluctant to discuss these issues with their healthcare team. Our goals were to design and evaluate a screening tool to aid providers in identifying patients who may benefit from referral for specialized psychosocial care to treat body image concerns. Methods We designed a brief 4-item instrument and administered it at a single time point to cancer patients who were undergoing reconstructive treatment. We used simple and multinomial regression models to evaluate whether survey responses, demographic, or clinical variables predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Results Over 95% of the sample (n = 248) endorsed some concerns, preoccupation, or avoidance due to appearance changes. Approximately one-third of patients were interested in obtaining counseling or additional information to assist with body image distress. Each survey item significantly predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Concern about future appearance changes was the single best predictor of counseling enrollment. Sex, age, and cancer type were not predictive of counseling interest or enrollment. Conclusions We present initial data supporting use of the Body Image Screener for Cancer Reconstruction. Our findings suggest benefits of administering this tool to patients presenting for reconstructive surgery. It is argued that screening and treatment for body image distress should be provided to this patient population at the earliest possible time point. PMID:25066586

  18. Body Image and Risk Behaviors in Youth with HIV.

    PubMed

    Dallas, Ronald H; Loew, Megan M; Wilkins, Megan L; Sun, Yilun; Tang, Li; Porter, Jerlym S; Gaur, Aditya H

    2017-04-01

    Body image concerns are common among people living with HIV. Among adults with HIV, body image concerns have been shown to be related to risky sexual behaviors; little research has been conducted among youth living with HIV (YLWH). The current study examined the predictors, including body image, of sexual risk behaviors among YLWH. Adolescents from a single clinic (n = 143; age range, 16-24 years; 69% male; 95% African American) completed a computerized self-report survey to assess demographic, behavioral, and body image domains. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from the medical record. Logistic regression analyses assessed associations between risk factors and risky sexual behaviors. Results indicated that YLWH who reported less favorable body image perceptions (p = 0.04) and more sexual partners (p = 0.05) were less likely to use condoms during their last sexual encounter. YLWH with six or more sexual partners were more likely to use drugs or alcohol during their last sexual encounter (p = 0.03). A belief that their HIV medications changed their body physically (p = 0.05), history of HIV-related complications (p = 0.03), an undetectable viral load at their most recent clinical laboratory draw (p = 0.01), and having a high school diploma or equivalent (p = 0.001) were independently associated with disclosure of participant's HIV status to a romantic/sexual partner. Findings suggest that body image perceptions may influence risky sexual behavior in YLWH. Further study is warranted to understand and intervene upon this relationship to improve individual and public health outcomes.

  19. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  20. Body image after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    McGaughey, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) can reduce a woman's risk for breast cancer by 80%. Thus, women who are at high risk for familial breast cancer are increasingly opting for BPM as a preventative option. Research indicates that there are psychological benefits to BPM, including a reduction in anxiety about developing breast cancer. The purpose of this integrative review is to summarize the research that has examined the effect of prophylactic mastectomy on women's subsequent body image. Thirteen studies were reviewed. The majority of women were satisfied with their decision. However, the majority of studies indicate that up to one-half of the women suffer a negative effect on body image and changes in sexuality. Knowledge of these findings can improve the practitioner's ability to counsel women regarding this radical decision. Further research, particularly prospective studies, are needed to examine women's body image prior to BPM so that the impact of prophylactic mastectomy can be examined more thoroughly.

  1. Body image and dieting behaviors among elite figure skaters.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, P J; Khoo, C S; Sherr, B; Nelson, J A; Larson, W M; Drewnowski, A

    1998-12-01

    This study explored links among body image, dieting behavior, and nutritional status among 40 nationally ranked junior figure skaters. Questionnaires were provided to 40 junior skaters (range 12.9-22.9 years) during a skaters' camp. Food intakes were recorded over 4 consecutive days and blood samples were drawn. Nutritional status was assessed using food intake records and selected biomarker data. Data suggested that these athletes dieted despite relative satisfaction with body image. Although biochemical measures of nutritional status were all within normal range, inadequate energy intakes and delayed menarche (in women) were widespread in this athlete sample. Data dispute common theories of dieting being linked to dissatisfaction with body image. The article also cautions against overreliance on biochemical assessment as a marker of nutritional inadequacy.

  2. [Images and representations of the female body in Brazilian magazines].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Márcia Rebeca Rocha; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; do Nascimento, Enilda Rosendo; Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana

    2013-06-01

    This documentary, qualitative, descriptive study has the objective to analyze images and representations of the female body and their relation to drug use in the content of articles published in four magazines with national circulation (Veja, Isto E, Boa Forma, Claúdia). The articles selected were submitted to the technique of content analysis, with three thematic groups identified: the body as an incentive to use drugs; risks to the body resulting from drug use; and the search for the perfect body through drug use. The data showed that the media reproduces rigid aesthetic standards, exposing women to social and health offenses that stimulate drug use, either autonomously or by prescription. The search for beauty and the appeal to feminine eroticism, published through the communication channels analyzed limit the social importance of women by using images that link them to the status of sexual object.

  3. Predictors of changes in body image concerns of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-08-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern in addition to demographics, internalization of attractiveness ideals, negative affect, and appearance pressure, teasing, and comparison at baseline and nine-month follow-up. For girls, initial levels of social comparison, and internalized attractiveness ideals predicted decreases in body esteem over time. Time 1 negative affect contributed to changes in both appearance esteem and weight esteem for boys. Baseline level of stature concerns and reported height were the only predictors of later stature concerns within each sex. In sum, this study suggests specific factors previously implicated in Western accounts also have utility for understanding body image concerns of adolescents in China.

  4. Relationship Between Body Image Discrepancy and Intuitive Eating.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Kesha Dorsey; Madanat, Hala

    2016-04-01

    Dieting is widespread among college women despite being ineffective and harmful long term. Intuitive eating is a dieting alternative that teaches eating in response to hunger and satiety cues. It has been associated with improved physical and psychological health and studied in association with various body image dimensions. A sample of college first years completed baseline measurements during an intuitive eating intervention to test the association between intuitive eating and body image discrepancy (BID). BID represents whether a respondent believes her current body is larger or smaller than ideal. Greater BID was negatively associated with intuitive eating (p ≤ .05); participants who believed that their current bodies were larger than ideal were less likely to attend to hunger and satiety cues than participants who expressed little or no BID. These women should be targeted in future weight management interventions in order to avoid negative health outcomes of dieting.

  5. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients.

    PubMed

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P < 0.001; total mastectomy patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.172, P = 0.002). They also did not differ significantly in terms of self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  6. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-08-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients.

  7. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy*

    PubMed Central

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). CONCLUSIONS: Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients. PMID:22279481

  8. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños Ríos, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED) clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body image quality of life would have a stronger negative association with specific ED-related variables than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, mainly among ED patients. On the basis of previous studies, the influence of gender on the results was explored, too. Patients and methods: The final sample comprised 70 ED patients (mean age 22.65 ± 7.76 years; 59 women and 11 men); 106 were patients with other psychiatric disorders (mean age 28.20 ± 6.52; 67 women and 39 men), and 135 were university students (mean age 21.57 ± 2.58; 81 women and 54 men), with no psychiatric history. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Image Quality of Life Inventory-Spanish version (BIQLI-SP), Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Results: The ED patients’ ratings on the BIQLI-SP were the lowest and negatively scored (BIQLI-SP means: +20.18, +5.14, and −6.18, in the student group, the non-ED patient group, and the ED group, respectively). The effect of body image on quality of life was more negative in the ED group in all items of the BIQLI-SP. Body image quality of life was negatively associated with specific ED-related variables, more than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, but not especially among ED patients. Conclusion: Body image quality of life was affected not only by specific pathologies related to body image disturbances, but also by other psychopathological syndromes. Nevertheless, the greatest effect was related to ED, and seemed to be more negative among men. This finding is the

  9. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern

    PubMed Central

    Duncum, Anna J. F.; Mundy, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  10. Imaging spectrometry of the Earth and other solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry is a relatively new tool for remote sensing of the Earth and other bodies of the solar system. The technique dates back to the late 1970's and early 1980's. It is a natural extension of the earlier multi-spectral imagers developed for remote sensing that acquire images in a few, usually broad spectral bands. Imaging spectrometers combine aspects of classical spectrometers and imaging systems, making it possible to acquire literally hundreds of images of an object, each image in a separate, narrow spectral band. It is thus possible to perform spectroscopy on a pixel-by-pixel basis with the data acquired with an imaging spectrometer. Two imaging spectrometers have flown in space and several others are planned for future Earth and planetary missions. The French-built Phobos Infrared Spectrometer (ISM) was part of the payload of the Soviet Mars mission in 1988, and the JPL-built Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is currently en route to Jupiter aboard the Galileo spacecraft. Several airborne imaging spectrometers have been built in the past decade including the JPL-built Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is the only such sensor that covers the full solar reflected portion of the spectrum in narrow, contiguous spectral bands. NASA plans two imaging spectrometers for its Earth Observing System, the Moderate and the High Resolution Imaging Spectrometers (MODIS and HIRIS). A brief overview of the applications of imaging spectrometry to Earth science will be presented to illustrate the value of the tool to remote sensing and indicate the types of measurements that are required. The system design for AVIRS and a planetary imaging spectrometer will be presented to illustrate the engineering considerations and challenges that must be met in building such instruments. Several key sensor technology areas will be discussed in which miniaturization and/or enhanced performance through micromachining and nanofabrication may

  11. Imaging spectrometry of the Earth and other solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry is a relatively new tool for remote sensing of the Earth and other bodies of the solar system. The technique dates back to the late 1970's and early 1980's. It is a natural extension of the earlier multi-spectral imagers developed for remote sensing that acquire images in a few, usually broad spectral bands. Imaging spectrometers combine aspects of classical spectrometers and imaging systems, making it possible to acquire literally hundreds of images of an object, each image in a separate, narrow spectral band. It is thus possible to perform spectroscopy on a pixel-by-pixel basis with the data acquired with an imaging spectrometer. Two imaging spectrometers have flown in space and several others are planned for future Earth and planetary missions. The French-built Phobos Infrared Spectrometer (ISM) was part of the payload of the Soviet Mars mission in 1988, and the JPL-built Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is currently en route to Jupiter aboard the Galileo spacecraft. Several airborne imaging spectrometers have been built in the past decade including the JPL-built Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is the only such sensor that covers the full solar reflected portion of the spectrum in narrow, contiguous spectral bands. NASA plans two imaging spectrometers for its Earth Observing System, the Moderate and the High Resolution Imaging Spectrometers (MODIS and HIRIS). A brief overview of the applications of imaging spectrometry to Earth science will be presented to illustrate the value of the tool to remote sensing and indicate the types of measurements that are required. The system design for AVIRS and a planetary imaging spectrometer will be presented to illustrate the engineering considerations and challenges that must be met in building such instruments. Several key sensor technology areas will be discussed in which miniaturization and/or enhanced performance through micromachining and nanofabrication may

  12. Body Image in Anorexia Nervosa: Body Size Estimation Utilising a Biological Motion Task and Eyetracking.

    PubMed

    Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Troje, Nikolaus Friedrich; Abel, Larry Allen

    2016-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric condition characterised by a distortion of body image. However, whether individuals with AN can accurately perceive the size of other individuals' bodies is unclear. In the current study, 24 women with AN and 24 healthy control participants undertook two biological motion tasks while eyetracking was performed: to identify the gender and to indicate the walkers' body size. Anorexia nervosa participants tended to 'hyperscan' stimuli but did not demonstrate differences in how visual attention was directed to different body areas, relative to controls. Groups also did not differ in their estimation of body size. The hyperscanning behaviours suggest increased anxiety to disorder-relevant stimuli in AN. The lack of group difference in the estimation of body size suggests that the AN group was able to judge the body size of others accurately. The findings are discussed in terms of body image distortion specific to oneself in AN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Multimodal Correlative Preclinical Whole Body Imaging and Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Dafni, Hagit; Addadi, Yoseph; Biton, Inbal; Avni, Reut; Brenner, Yafit; Neeman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation. We demonstrate results showing segmentation of mice images into several structures including the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, vena cava, bladder, tumor, and skeleton structures. Experimental validation on a large set of mice and organs, indicated that our system outperforms alternative state of the art approaches. The system proposed can be generalized to various tissues and imaging modalities to produce automatic atlas-free segmentation, thereby enabling a wide range of applications in preclinical studies of small animal imaging. PMID:27325178

  14. Body image, body dissatisfaction, and eating attitudes in midlife and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D M; Cachelin, F M

    2001-01-01

    Cohort differences in body image, drive for thinness, and eating attitudes in middle-aged and elderly women were examined. Participants were 125 women between the ages of 50 and 65 (middle-aged group), and 125 women 66 years old and older (elderly group). Instruments used were figure ratings (Stunkard, Sorensen, & Schulsinger, 1983), and scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI; Garner,Olmstead, & Polivy, 1983). Items were developed to assess fear of aging. The middle-aged group, as compared to the elderly group, had more drive for thinness, disinhibited eating, and interoceptive confusion. The elderly group reported body size preferences and levels of body dissatisfaction that were similar to the younger women. There was a positive relationship between fear of aging and disordered eating. Sociocultural standards of body image and pressures toward thinness affect different generations of older women in similar ways.

  15. Should women be "All About That Bass?": Diverse body-ideal messages and women's body image.

    PubMed

    Betz, Diana E; Ramsey, Laura R

    2017-09-01

    While most body image research emphasizes the thin ideal, a wider variety of body-ideal messages pervade U.S. popular culture today, including those promoting athleticism or curves. Two studies assessed women's reactions to messages conveying thin, athletic, and curvy ideals, compared to a control message that emphasized accepting all body types. Study 1 (N=192) surveyed women's responses to these messages and found they perceived body-acceptance and athletic messages most favorably, curvy messages more negatively, and thin messages most negatively. Further, greatest liking within each message category came from women who identified with that body type. Study 2 (N=189) experimentally manipulated exposure to these messages, then measured self-objectification and body satisfaction. Messages promoting a body-ideal caused more self-objectification than body-acceptance messages. Also, athletic messages caused more body dissatisfaction than thin messages. Together, these findings reveal the complexity of women's responses to diverse messages they receive about ideal bodies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Intraorbital glass foreign body missed on CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Figueira, Edwin C; Francis, Ian C; Wilcsek, Geoffrey A

    2007-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman presented with a 7-week history of foreign body sensation in the superior right orbit after orbital trauma sustained during an accidental face-down fall onto a broken drinking glass. CT identified a 10.35 x 3.91-mm radiopaque foreign body in the right orbit superolateral to the globe. Orbital exploration superficial to the levator palpebrae superioris aponeurosis in close proximity to the site occupied by the CT-identified foreign body revealed an additional glass intraorbital foreign body, 4.0 x 2.5 x 0.25 mm in dimension. The second glass foreign body was entirely missed on the preoperative, 1-mm axial scans combined with sagittal and coronal reconstructed images and plain radiography.

  17. Dieting practices and body image perception among Lebanese university students.

    PubMed

    Yahia, Najat; El-Ghazale, Hiba; Achkar, Alice; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Dieting is becoming a popular phenomenon among university students to achieve or maintain a healthy weight. The purpose of this study is to obtain a preliminary understanding of what dieting practices university students use in order to achieve their desirable body weight and to determine the magnitude of body dissatisfaction in relation to weight status among a sample of students (n=252) from the Lebanese American University in Beirut, Lebanon. Students filled out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their dieting and physical activity practices in addition to the body shape questionnaire (BSQ). Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index. Percentage body fat was measured using Tanita scale body fat analyzer 300A. The outcome of this study showed that smoking and unhealthy dieting practices were not common among students (only 26% reported smoking, 8% reported taking laxatives and 4% taking diet pills). Half of the students reported practicing regular physical activity. Multivitamin intake was also not popular among students. BSQ scores indicate that the majority of students were not worried about their body image perception (64% reported not being worried, 19% were slightly worried, 12% were moderately worried and 5% were extremely worried). A gender difference was observed in the BSQ scores, as 89% of the "extremely worried" students were females. Collectively, results indicate that unhealthy dieting practices are uncommon among students. However, developing health promotion awareness' programs to promote good self image within the concept of a realistic healthy weight will be beneficial, especially among females.

  18. Body image satisfaction in heterosexual, gay, and lesbian adults.

    PubMed

    Peplau, Letitia Anne; Frederick, David A; Yee, Curtis; Maisel, Natalya; Lever, Janet; Ghavami, Negin

    2009-10-01

    Does the prevalence and degree of body dissatisfaction differ among heterosexual and homosexual men and women? Some theorists have suggested that, compared to their heterosexual peers, gay men are at greater risk for body dissatisfaction and lesbians at lower risk. Past studies examining this issue have generally relied on small samples recruited from gay or lesbian groups. Further, these studies have sometimes produced conflicting results, particularly for comparisons of lesbian and heterosexual women. In the present research, we compared body satisfaction and comfort with one's body during sexual activity among lesbian women, gay men, heterosexual women, and heterosexual men through two large online studies (Ns = 2,512 and 54,865). Compared to all other groups, heterosexual men reported more positive evaluations of their appearance, less preoccupation with their weight, more positive effects of their body image on their quality of life and the quality of their sex life, more comfort wearing a swimsuit in public, and greater willingness to reveal aspects of their body to their partner during sexual activity. Few significant differences were found among gay men, lesbian women, and heterosexual women. Many gay men (42%) reported that their feelings about their body had negative effects on the quality of their sex life, as did some lesbian women (27%), heterosexual women (30%), and heterosexual men (22%). Overall, the findings supported the hypothesis that gay men are at greater risk than heterosexual men for experiencing body dissatisfaction. There was little evidence that lesbian women experience greater body satisfaction than heterosexual women.

  19. Medical imaging feasibility in body fluids using Markov chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehrad, M.; Armstrong, A. D.

    2017-02-01

    A relatively wide field-of-view and high resolution imaging is necessary for navigating the scope within the body, inspecting tissue, diagnosing disease, and guiding surgical interventions. As the large number of modes available in the multimode fibers (MMF) provides higher resolution, MMFs could replace the millimeters-thick bundles of fibers and lenses currently used in endoscopes. However, attributes of body fluids and obscurants such as blood, impose perennial limitations on resolution and reliability of optical imaging inside human body. To design and evaluate optimum imaging techniques that operate under realistic body fluids conditions, a good understanding of the channel (medium) behavior is necessary. In most prior works, Monte-Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) algorithm has been used to analyze the channel behavior. This task is quite numerically intensive. The focus of this paper is on investigating the possibility of simplifying this task by a direct extraction of state transition matrices associated with standard Markov modeling from the MCRT computer simulations programs. We show that by tracing a photon's trajectory in the body fluids via a Markov chain model, the angular distribution can be calculated by simple matrix multiplications. We also demonstrate that the new approach produces result that are close to those obtained by MCRT and other known methods. Furthermore, considering the fact that angular, spatial, and temporal distributions of energy are inter-related, mixing time of Monte- Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) for different types of liquid concentrations is calculated based on Eigen-analysis of the state transition matrix and possibility of imaging in scattering media are investigated. To this end, we have started to characterize the body fluids that reduce the resolution of imaging [1].

  20. Towards Whole-Body Fluorescence Imaging in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Sophie K.; Habermehl, Christina; Schmitz, Christoph H.; Kuebler, Wolfgang M.; Obrig, Hellmuth; Steinbrink, Jens; Mehnert, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (DNIF) whole-body imaging of small animals has become a popular tool in experimental biomedical research. In humans, however, the field of view has been limited to body parts, such as rheumatoid hands, diabetic feet or sentinel lymph nodes. Here we present a new whole-body DNIF-system suitable for adult subjects. We explored whether this system (i) allows dynamic whole-body fluorescence imaging and (ii) can detect modulations in skin perfusion. The non-specific fluorescent probe indocyanine green (ICG) was injected intravenously into two subjects, and fluorescence images were obtained at 5 Hz. The in- and out-flow kinetics of ICG have been shown to correlate with tissue perfusion. To validate the system, skin perfusion was modulated by warming and cooling distinct areas on the chest and the abdomen. Movies of fluorescence images show a bolus passage first in the face, then in the chest, abdomen and finally in the periphery (∼10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds, respectively). When skin perfusion is augmented by warming, bolus arrives about 5 seconds earlier than when the skin is cooled and perfusion decreased. Calculating bolus arrival times and spatial fitting of basis time courses extracted from different regions of interest allowed a mapping of local differences in subcutaneous skin perfusion. This experiment is the first to demonstrate the feasibility of whole-body dynamic fluorescence imaging in humans. Since the whole-body approach demonstrates sensitivity to circumscribed alterations in skinperfusion, it may be used to target autonomous changes in polyneuropathy and to screen for peripheral vascular diseases. PMID:24391820

  1. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects’ context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. RESULTS Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. CONCLUSIONS The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents’ self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem. PMID:25119938

  2. Three-dimensional coherence of the conscious body image.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    We experience our body as a coherent object in the three-dimensional (3-D) world. In contrast, the body is represented in somatosensory cortex as a fragmented collection of two-dimensional (2-D) maps. Recent results have suggested that some forms of higher level body representations maintain this fragmentation, for example by showing different patterns of distortion for two surfaces of a single body part, such as the palmar and dorsal hand surfaces. This study investigated the 3-D coherence of the conscious body image of the hand by comparing perceptual biases of perceived hand shape on the dorsal and palmar surfaces. Participants made forced-choice judgements of whether observed hand images were thinner or wider than their own left or right hand, and perceptual distortions of the hand image were assessed by fitting psychometric functions. The results suggested that the hand is consciously represented as a fully coherent, 3-D object. Specifically: (a) Similar overall levels of distortion were found on the palmar and dorsal hand surfaces, (b) comparable laterality effects were found on both surfaces (left hand represented as wider than right hand), and (c) the magnitude of distortions were strongly correlated across the two surfaces. Whereas other recent results have suggested that perceptual abilities such as position sense, tactile size perception, and tactile localization may rely on fragmented, 2-D representations of individual skin surfaces, the present results suggest that, in striking contrast, the conscious body image represents the body (or, at least the hand) as a coherent, 3-D object.

  3. Self-Concept and Body Image of Turkish High School Male Athletes and Nonathletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asci, F. Hulya; Gokment, Hulya; Tiryaki, Gul; Asci, Alper

    1997-01-01

    Examines differences in self-concept and body image satisfaction and the relation between self-concept and body image among high school athletes (n=174) and nonathletes (n=174). Results suggest that those exhibiting a positive body image were more confident in school, athletic events, and general life than those with a negative body image. (RJM)

  4. Encouraging Lifelong Healthy Habits for a Positive Body Image in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Christine

    This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…

  5. Effect of Body Image on Pregnancy Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ushma J.; Herring, Amy H.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of women gain more weight during pregnancy than what is recommended. Since gestational weight gain is related to short and long-term maternal health outcomes, it is important to identify women at greater risk of not adhering to guidelines. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between body image and gestational weight gain. The Body Image Assessment for Obesity tool was used to measure ideal and current body sizes in 1,192 women participating in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study. Descriptive and multivariable techniques were used to assess the effects of ideal body size and discrepancy score (current—ideal body sizes), which reflected the level of body dissatisfaction, on gestational weight gain. Women who preferred to be thinner had increased risk of excessive gain if they started the pregnancy at a BMI ≤26 kg/m2 but a decreased risk if they were overweight or obese. Comparing those who preferred thin body silhouettes to those who preferred average size silhouettes, low income women had increased risk of inadequate weight gain [RR = 1.76 (1.08, 2.88)] while those with lower education were at risk of excessive gain [RR = 1.11 (1.00, 1.22)]. Our results revealed that body image was associated with gestational weight gain but the relationship is complex. Identifying factors that affect whether certain women are at greater risk of gaining outside of guidelines may improve our ability to decrease pregnancy-related health problems. PMID:20204481

  6. Tattoos, body experience, and body image boundary among violent male offenders.

    PubMed

    Harry, B

    1987-01-01

    The author compared a measure of body image boundary and medically significant bodily experiences between 21 tattooed and 24 nontattooed men incarcerated for violent crimes. Although the tattooed and nontattooed subjects had no significant differences in their body boundary concepts or most other bodily experiences, the tattooed men were found to have a different distribution of scars on their bodies. Upon more detailed examination, it seemed that these different distributions could be explained by the observation that the tattooed subjects were the only ones with self-inflicted cuts. This finding further supports the notion that tattoos, despite their ostensibly decorative quality, may be a form of self-mutilation.

  7. Female Wheelchair Athletes and Changes to Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert Thomas; Wettenhall, Robyn Sandra

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a psychological intervention program on attitudes of body image of six national female wheelchair basketball players was examined. As a result of the cognitive behavioral intervention program, physical self-perception increased for the wheelchair athletes and for 50 percent of the athletes on multidimensional components of body…

  8. Ecological Strategies to Promote Healthy Body Image among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Retta R.; Roy, Jane; Geiger, Brian F.; Werner, Karen A.; Burnett, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personal habits of children and adolescents related to healthy body image (BI) are influenced by various determinants in the micro- and macroenvironment. These include attitudes and behaviors about eating; exercise and physical appearance modeled by parents, teachers, and peers; as well as opportunities to learn new habits and social…

  9. Body Image Disorder in Adolescent Males: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Eric J.; Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, men have been bombarded with images in society that depict the "ideal" male: strong, muscular, lean, with perfect features. What many adolescents do not realize is that most of the male bodies that they idealize can be acquired only with the use of anabolic steroids. Thus, many adolescent boys find themselves pursuing a body…

  10. Body Image Disorder in Adolescent Males: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Eric J.; Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, men have been bombarded with images in society that depict the "ideal" male: strong, muscular, lean, with perfect features. What many adolescents do not realize is that most of the male bodies that they idealize can be acquired only with the use of anabolic steroids. Thus, many adolescent boys find themselves pursuing a body…

  11. Female Wheelchair Athletes and Changes to Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert Thomas; Wettenhall, Robyn Sandra

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a psychological intervention program on attitudes of body image of six national female wheelchair basketball players was examined. As a result of the cognitive behavioral intervention program, physical self-perception increased for the wheelchair athletes and for 50 percent of the athletes on multidimensional components of body…

  12. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Rama, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first…

  13. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  14. Body Image Boundaries and Small Group Seating Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Les R.

    1976-01-01

    This study examined the effects of body image boundaries on preferred and avoided seating choices in small groups and the personal meanings associated with these measures of spatial behavior. The findings indicate a tendency toward greater defensive distancing by the boundary-indefinite subjects. (Author)

  15. Body Image and Physical Activity in British Secondary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Jones, Marc V.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between children's body image and physical activity and examined any variation in these variables. Two hundred and seventy seven British secondary school children aged 11 to 14 (mean age [plus or minus] SD = 12.5 [plus or minus] 0.8 years) participated in this study. Results indicated no significant…

  16. Adolescent Girls: Factors Influencing Low and High Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Lynn; Mahle Lutter, Judy

    1995-01-01

    Past research on women has indicated that a fear of becoming fat emerges during adolescence and continues into adulthood. This study focused on factors associated with negative or positive body image, such as weight, physical activity, teasing, comparison to others and racial identity. Data was drawn from an eight-page questionnaire completed by…

  17. Self-Esteem and Body-Image Concept in Paraplegics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Marian; Gruver, Gene Gary

    1978-01-01

    Paraplegics, hospitalized tuberculosis patients, and nonhospitalized normal people were compared to ascertain the relationship between body image and self-concept. There were no significant differences between paraplegics and nonhospitalized normal people. Between the hospitalized tuberculosis patients and the other two groups, however, the…

  18. Self-Esteem and Body-Image Concept in Paraplegics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Marian; Gruver, Gene Gary

    1978-01-01

    Paraplegics, hospitalized tuberculosis patients, and nonhospitalized normal people were compared to ascertain the relationship between body image and self-concept. There were no significant differences between paraplegics and nonhospitalized normal people. Between the hospitalized tuberculosis patients and the other two groups, however, the…

  19. The Vulnerability of Female Body Image to Weight Related Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, DeAnna L.; Morey, Leslie

    A central component of anorexia nervosa is a body image disturbance (BID). BID, as it is experienced in anorexia nervosa, is defined as an inability to recognize how thin one really is and is exhibited by a sense of feeling overweight in spite of severe emaciation. Several researchers have recognized a relationship between depressive personality…

  20. Ecological Strategies to Promote Healthy Body Image among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Retta R.; Roy, Jane; Geiger, Brian F.; Werner, Karen A.; Burnett, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personal habits of children and adolescents related to healthy body image (BI) are influenced by various determinants in the micro- and macroenvironment. These include attitudes and behaviors about eating; exercise and physical appearance modeled by parents, teachers, and peers; as well as opportunities to learn new habits and social…