Science.gov

Sample records for 3-tesla imager body

  1. Programmable infusion pump and catheter: evaluation using 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Shellock, Frank G; Crivelli, Rocco; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna

    2008-07-01

    Objective.  This study assessed 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) issues for a programmable infusion pump and associated catheters. Methods.  A programmable infusion pump and associated catheters (MedStream Programmable Infusion Pump, 40 mL; SureStream TI Coil-Reinforced Intraspinal Catheter; SureStream TI Connector; and SureStream Silicone Catheter; Codman and Shurtleff Inc., a Johnson & Johnson Company, Raynham, MA, USA) underwent evaluation for magnetic field interactions (deflection angle and torque), heating (transmit/receive body radiofrequency coil; whole-body averaged specific absorption rate, 3 W/kg for 15 min), functional changes (before and after MRI using eight different MRI conditions), and artifacts (T1-weighted spin-echo and gradient-echo pulse sequences) at 3-Tesla. Results.  The programmable infusion pump and associated catheters exhibited minor magnetic field interactions. Heating was not excessive (≤ 1.9°), especially considering the experimental conditions used for this evaluation (ie, relatively high radiofrequency power/specific absorption rate level and use of a nonperfused phantom). The function of three out of six pumps was temporarily altered by exposures to 3-Tesla MRI conditions. Reset was achieved in each case. Artifacts were relatively large for the pump and minor for the catheter. Conclusions.  The programmable infusion pump and catheters will not pose increased risk to a patient examined using 3-Tesla MRI as long as specific safety guidelines are followed, which includes interrogation of the pump post-MRI to ensure proper settings. Artifacts for the programmable infusion pump may impact the diagnostic use of MRI if the area of interest is in the same area or near the device.

  2. High resolution spectroscopic imaging of GABA at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Edden, Richard A E; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Barker, Peter B

    2011-03-01

    A spin echo-based MRSI sequence was developed to acquire edited spectra of γ-aminobutyric acid in an entire slice. Water and lipid signals were suppressed by a dual-band presaturation sequence, which included integrated outer volume suppression pulses for additional lipid suppression. Experiments in three normal volunteers were performed at 3 T using a 32-channel head coil. High signal-to-noise ratio spectra and metabolic images of γ-aminobutyric acid were acquired from nominal 4.5 cm3 voxels (estimated actual voxel size 7.0 cm3) in a scan time of 17 min. The sequence is also expected to co-edit homocarnosine and macromolecules, giving a composite γ-aminobutyric acid+ resonance. The γ-aminobutyric acid+ to water ratio was measured using a companion water MRSI scan and was found to correlate linearly with the % gray matter (GM) of each voxel (γ-aminobutyric acid+/water=(1.5×GM+3.2)×10(-5), R=0.27), with higher γ-aminobutyric acid+ levels in gray matter compared with white. In conclusion, high signal-to-noise ratio γ-aminobutyric acid-MRSI is possible at 3 T within clinically feasible scan times.

  3. High Resolution Spectroscopic Imaging of GABA at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, He; Edden, Richard A. E.; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Barker, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    A spin echo-based MRSI sequence was developed to acquire edited spectra of γ-aminobutyric acid in an entire slice. Water and lipid signals were suppressed by a dual-band presaturation sequence, which included integrated outer volume suppression pulses for additional lipid suppression. Experiments in three normal volunteers were performed at 3 T using a 32-channel head coil. High signal-to-noise ratio spectra and metabolic images of γ-aminobutyric acid were acquired from nominal 4.5 cm3 voxels (estimated actual voxel size 7.0 cm3) in a scan time of 17 min. The sequence is also expected to co-edit homocarnosine and macromolecules, giving a composite γ-aminobutyric acid+ resonance. The γ-aminobutyric acid+ to water ratio was measured using a companion water MRSI scan and was found to correlate linearly with the % gray matter (GM) of each voxel (γ-aminobutyric acid+/water = (1.5 × GM + 3.2) × 10−5, R = 0.27), with higher γ-aminobutyric acid+ levels in gray matter compared with white. In conclusion, high signal-to-noise ratio γ-aminobutyric acid-MRSI is possible at 3 T within clinically feasible scan times. PMID:21337399

  4. Practical Methods for Improving B1+ Homogeneity in 3 Tesla Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Simone A.; Rutt, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To improve image contrast and B1+ field homogeneity in 3 Tesla (T) breast MR. Materials and Methods Two practical B1+ shimming methods for 3T breast MR are presented; low-cost passive shimming using local pads of high dielectric permittivity (εr from 0 to 100), and two-channel radiofrequency (RF) shimming (adjusting Q-I amplitude ratios and phase differences of 0 to −4 dB and 90 to 45 degrees), as well as a combination of both methods. The technique has been studied both in simulation using a numerical body model with added mammary tissue and in vivo in six subjects. Results Large improvements are observed with both methods, leading to a decrease in left–right B1+ asymmetry ratio of 1.24 to 1.00 (simulation) and from 1.26 to 1.01 (in vivo). RF safety was not adversely affected. Conclusion Both RF shimming and dielectric shimming were shown to improve inhomogeneity in the B1+ field in 3T breast MR. PMID:24723508

  5. [Examination of upper abdominal region in high spatial resolution diffusion-weighted imaging using 3-Tesla MRI].

    PubMed

    Terada, Masaki; Matsushita, Hiroki; Oosugi, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuyasu; Yaegashi, Taku; Anma, Takeshi

    2009-03-20

    The advantage of the higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-Tesla) has the possibility of contributing to the improvement of high spatial resolution without causing image deterioration. In this study, we compared SNR and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with 3-Tesla as the condition in the diffusion-weighted image (DWI) parameter of the 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (1.5-Tesla) and we examined the high spatial resolution images in the imaging method [respiratory-triggering (RT) method and breath free (BF) method] and artifact (motion and zebra) in the upper abdominal region of DWI at 3-Tesla. We have optimized scan parameters based on phantom and in vivo study. As a result, 3-Tesla was able to obtain about 1.5 times SNR in comparison with the 1.5-Tesla, ADC value had few differences. Moreover, the RT method was effective in correcting the influence of respiratory movement in comparison with the BF method, and image improvement by the effective acquisition of SNR and reduction of the artifact were provided. Thus, DWI of upper abdominal region was a useful sequence for the high spatial resolution in 3-Tesla.

  6. Chemical exchange saturation transfer MR imaging of Parkinson’s disease at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei; Peng, Shuai; Wang, Rui; Chen, Haibo; Su, Wen; Zhao, Xuna; Zhou, Jinyuan; Chen, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the feasibility of using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging to detect Parkinson’s disease (PD) in patients at 3 Tesla. Methods Twenty-seven PD patients (17 men and 10 women; age range, 54–77 years) and 22 age-matched normal controls (13 men and 9 women; age range, 55–73 years) were examined on a 3-Tesla MRI system. Magnetization transfer spectra with 31 different frequency offsets (−6 to 6 ppm) were acquired at two transverse slices of the head, including the basal ganglia and midbrain. One-way analysis of variance tests was used to compare the differences in CEST imaging signals between PD patients and normal controls. Results Total CEST signal between the offsets of 0 and 4 ppm in the substantia nigra was significantly lower in PD patients than in normal controls (P=0.006), which could be associated with the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Protein-based CEST imaging signals at the offset of 3.5 ppm in the globus pallidus, putamen and caudate were significantly increased in PD patients, compared to normal controls (P<0.001, P=0.003, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions CEST imaging signals could potentially serve as imaging biomarkers to aid in the non-invasive molecular diagnosis of PD. PMID:25038850

  7. GRASE imaging at 3 Tesla with template interactive phase-encoding.

    PubMed

    Jovicich, J; Norris, D G

    1998-06-01

    A new method for ordering the phase-encoding gradient is proposed, and an application for short effective TE gradient- and spin-echo (GRASE) imaging is demonstrated. The proposed method calculates the phase-encoding order from the signal decay of a template scan (hence "template interactive phase-encoding" or TIPE). Computer simulations are used to compare the point spread functions of different phase-encoding orders giving short effective echo times (kb centric GRASE, centric GRASE, centric TIPE). The conventional centric phase-encoding order is also considered for GRASE. The conventional centric method is sensitive to both amplitude and phase modulation of the signal in k-space. The centric TIPE method gives the least amplitude modulation artifacts but is vulnerable to phase artifacts. The TIPE experiment was implemented on a 3 Tesla system. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first in vivo GRASE images at this field strength.

  8. Partial epilepsy: A pictorial review of 3 TESLA magnetic resonance imaging features

    PubMed Central

    Abud, Lucas Giansante; Thivard, Lionel; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Nakiri, Guilherme Seizem; dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Dormont, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a disease with serious consequences for patients and society. In many cases seizures are sufficiently disabling to justify surgical evaluation. In this context, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most valuable tools for the preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci. Because these lesions show a large variety of presentations (including subtle imaging characteristics), their analysis requires careful and systematic interpretation of MRI data. Several studies have shown that 3 Tesla (T) MRI provides a better image quality than 1.5 T MRI regarding the detection and characterization of structural lesions, indicating that high-field-strength imaging should be considered for patients with intractable epilepsy who might benefit from surgery. Likewise, advanced MRI postprocessing and quantitative analysis techniques such as thickness and volume measurements of cortical gray matter have emerged and in the near future, these techniques will routinely enable more precise evaluations of such patients. Finally, the familiarity with radiologic findings of the potential epileptogenic substrates in association with combined use of higher field strengths (3 T, 7 T, and greater) and new quantitative analytical post-processing techniques will lead to improvements regarding the clinical imaging of these patients. We present a pictorial review of the major pathologies related to partial epilepsy, highlighting the key findings of 3 T MRI. PMID:26375569

  9. Comparison of radiofrequency body coils for MRI at 3 Tesla: a simulation study using parallel transmission on various anatomical targets

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaotong; Tian, Jinfeng; Schmitter, Sebastian; Hanna, Brian; Strupp, John; Pfeuffer, Josef; Hamm, Michael; Wang, Dingxin; Nistler, Juergen; He, Bin; Vaughan, J. Thomas; Ugurbil, Kamil; Van de Moortele, Pierre-Francois

    2015-01-01

    The performance of multichannel transmit coil layouts and parallel transmission (pTx) radiofrequency (RF) pulse design was evaluated with respect to transmit B1 (B1+) homogeneity and Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) at 3 Tesla for a whole body coil. Five specific coils were modeled and compared: a 32-rung birdcage body coil (driven either in a fixed quadrature mode or a two-channel transmit mode), two single-ring stripline arrays (with either 8 or 16 elements), and two multi-ring stripline arrays (with 2 or 3 identical rings, stacked in the z-axis and each comprising eight azimuthally distributed elements). Three anatomical targets were considered, each defined by a 3D volume representative of a meaningful region of interest (ROI) in routine clinical applications. For a given anatomical target, global or local SAR controlled pTx pulses were designed to homogenize RF excitation within the ROI. At the B1+ homogeneity achieved by the quadrature driven birdcage design, pTx pulses with multichannel transmit coils achieved up to ~8 fold reduction in local and global SAR. When used for imaging head and cervical spine or imaging thoracic spine, the double-ring array outperformed all coils including the single-ring arrays. While the advantage of the double-ring array became much less pronounced for pelvic imaging with a substantially larger ROI, the pTx approach still provided significant gains over the quadrature birdcage coil. For all design scenarios, using the 3-ring array did not necessarily improve the RF performance. Our results suggest that pTx pulses with multichannel transmit coils can reduce local and global SAR substantially for body coils while attaining improved B1+ homogeneity, particularly for a “z-stacked” double-ring design with coil elements arranged on two transaxial rings. PMID:26332290

  10. Human brain diffusion tensor imaging at submillimeter isotropic resolution on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Sundman, Mark; Petit, Laurent; Guhaniyogi, Shayan; Chu, Mei-Lan; Petty, Christopher; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-kuei

    2015-09-01

    The advantages of high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been demonstrated in a recent post-mortem human brain study (Miller et al., NeuroImage 2011;57(1):167-181), showing that white matter fiber tracts can be much more accurately detected in data at a submillimeter isotropic resolution. To our knowledge, in vivo human brain DTI at a submillimeter isotropic resolution has not been routinely achieved yet because of the difficulty in simultaneously achieving high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in DTI scans. Here we report a 3D multi-slab interleaved EPI acquisition integrated with multiplexed sensitivity encoded (MUSE) reconstruction, to achieve high-quality, high-SNR and submillimeter isotropic resolution (0.85×0.85×0.85mm(3)) in vivo human brain DTI on a 3Tesla clinical MRI scanner. In agreement with the previously reported post-mortem human brain DTI study, our in vivo data show that the structural connectivity networks of human brains can be mapped more accurately and completely with high-resolution DTI as compared with conventional DTI (e.g., 2×2×2mm(3)).

  11. Impairment of chondrocyte biosynthetic activity by exposure to 3-tesla high-field magnetic resonance imaging is temporary.

    PubMed

    Sunk, Ilse-Gerlinde; Trattnig, Siegfried; Graninger, Winfried B; Amoyo, Love; Tuerk, Birgit; Steiner, Carl-Walter; Smolen, Josef S; Bobacz, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    The influence of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices at high field strengths on living tissues is unknown. We investigated the effects of a 3-tesla electromagnetic field (EMF) on the biosynthetic activity of bovine articular cartilage. Bovine articular cartilage was obtained from juvenile and adult animals. Whole joints or cartilage explants were subjected to a pulsed 3-tesla EMF; controls were left unexposed. Synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) was measured by using [35S]sulfate incorporation; mRNA encoding the cartilage markers aggrecan and type II collagen, as well as IL-1beta, were analyzed by RT-PCR. Furthermore, effects of the 3-tesla EMF were determined over the course of time directly after exposure (day 0) and at days 3 and 6. In addition, the influence of a 1.5-tesla EMF on cartilage sGAG synthesis was evaluated. Chondrocyte cell death was assessed by staining with Annexin V and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL). Exposure to the EMF resulted in a significant decrease in cartilage macromolecule synthesis. Gene expression of both aggrecan and IL-1beta, but not of collagen type II, was reduced in comparison with controls. Staining with Annexin V and TUNEL revealed no evidence of cell death. Interestingly, chondrocytes regained their biosynthetic activity within 3 days after exposure, as shown by proteoglycan synthesis rate and mRNA expression levels. Cartilage samples exposed to a 1.5-tesla EMF remained unaffected. Although MRI devices with a field strength of more than 1.5 T provide a better signal-to-noise ratio and thereby higher spatial resolution, their high field strength impairs the biosynthetic activity of articular chondrocytes in vitro. Although this decrease in biosynthetic activity seems to be transient, articular cartilage exposed to high-energy EMF may become vulnerable to damage.

  12. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study.

  13. Differences in Velopharyngeal Structure during Speech among Asians Revealed by 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Movie Mode

    PubMed Central

    Nunthayanon, Kulthida; Honda, Ei-ichi; Shimazaki, Kazuo; Ohmori, Hiroko; Inoue-Arai, Maristela Sayuri; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Ono, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Different bony structures can affect the function of the velopharyngeal muscles. Asian populations differ morphologically, including the morphologies of their bony structures. The purpose of this study was to compare the velopharyngeal structures during speech in two Asian populations: Japanese and Thai. Methods. Ten healthy Japanese and Thai females (five each) were evaluated with a 3-Tesla (3 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner while they produced vowel-consonant-vowel syllable (/asa/). A gradient-echo sequence, fast low-angle shot with segmented cine and parallel imaging technique was used to obtain sagittal images of the velopharyngeal structures. Results. MRI was carried out in real time during speech production, allowing investigations of the time-to-time changes in the velopharyngeal structures. Thai subjects had a significantly longer hard palate and produced shorter consonant than Japanese subjects. The velum of the Thai participants showed significant thickening during consonant production and their retroglossal space was significantly wider at rest, whereas the dimensional change during task performance was similar in the two populations. Conclusions. The 3 T MRI movie method can be used to investigate velopharyngeal function and diagnose velopharyngeal insufficiency. The racial differences may include differences in skeletal patterns and soft-tissue morphology that result in functional differences for the affected structures. PMID:26273584

  14. Local Multi-Channel RF Surface Coil versus Body RF Coil Transmission for Cardiac Magnetic Resonance at 3 Tesla: Which Configuration Is Winning the Game?

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Lukas; Dieringer, Matthias A.; Els, Antje; Oezerdem, Celal; Rieger, Jan; Kuehne, Andre; Cassara, Antonino M.; Pfeiffer, Harald; Wetterling, Friedrich; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using local four-channel RF coil transmission and benchmark it against large volume body RF coil excitation. Methods Electromagnetic field simulations are conducted to detail RF power deposition, transmission field uniformity and efficiency for local and body RF coil transmission. For both excitation regimes transmission field maps are acquired in a human torso phantom. For each transmission regime flip angle distributions and blood-myocardium contrast are examined in a volunteer study of 12 subjects. The feasibility of the local transceiver RF coil array for cardiac chamber quantification at 3 Tesla is demonstrated. Results Our simulations and experiments demonstrate that cardiac MR at 3 Tesla using four-channel surface RF coil transmission is competitive versus current clinical CMR practice of large volume body RF coil transmission. The efficiency advantage of the 4TX/4RX setup facilitates shorter repetition times governed by local SAR limits versus body RF coil transmission at whole-body SAR limit. No statistically significant difference was found for cardiac chamber quantification derived with body RF coil versus four-channel surface RF coil transmission. Our simulation also show that the body RF coil exceeds local SAR limits by a factor of ~2 when driven at maximum applicable input power to reach the whole-body SAR limit. Conclusion Pursuing local surface RF coil arrays for transmission in cardiac MR is a conceptually appealing alternative to body RF coil transmission, especially for patients with implants. PMID:27598923

  15. Multiparametric 3-Tesla Endorectal MR Imaging after External Beam Radiation Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Westphalen, Antonio C.; Reed, Galen D.; Vinh, Phillip P.; Sotto, Christopher; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kurhanewicz, John

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine the best combination of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging parameters for the detection of locally recurrent prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy. Materials and Methods Our IRB approved this study with a waiver of informed consent. Twenty-six patients with suspected recurrence due to biochemical failure were part of this research. The MR protocol included T2-weighted, MR spectroscopic, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy was the standard of reference. We used logistic regression to model the probability of a positive outcome and generalized estimating equations to account for clustering. The diagnostic performance of imaging was described using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The area under the ROC curve of MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) was 83.0% (95% CI = 75.5 to 89.1). The combination of all MR techniques did not significantly improve the performance of imaging beyond the accuracy of MRSI alone, but a trend towards improved discrimination was noted (86.9%; 95% CI = 77.6 to 93.4; P = 0.09). Conclusion In conclusion, incorporation of MRSI to T2-weighted and/or diffusion-weighted MR imaging significantly improves the assessment of patients with suspected recurrence after radiotherapy and a combined approach with all three modalities may have the best diagnostic performance. PMID:22535708

  16. Dual-Band Water and Lipid Suppression for MR Spectroscopic Imaging at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, He; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Barker, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    A dual-band water and lipid suppression sequence was developed for multislice sensitivity-encoded proton MR spectroscopic imaging of the human brain. The presaturation scheme consisted of five dual-band frequency-modulated radiofrequency pulses based on hypergeometric functions integrated with eight outer volume suppression (OVS) pulses. The flip angles of the dual-band pulses were optimized through computer simulations to maximize suppression factors over a range of transmitter amplitude of radiofrequency field and water and lipid T1 values. The resulting hypergeometric dual band with OVS (HGDB + OVS) sequence was implemented at 3 T in a multislice sensitivity-encoded proton MR spectroscopic imaging experiment and compared to a conventional water suppression scheme (variable pulse power and optimized relaxation delays (VAPOR)) with OVS. The HGDB sequence was significantly shorter than the VAPOR sequence (230 versus 728 msec). Both HGDB + OVS and VAPOR + OVS produced good water suppression, while lipid suppression with the HGDB + OVS sequence was far superior. In sensitivity-encoded proton MR spectroscopic imaging data, artifacts from extracranial lipid signals were significantly lower with HGDB + OVS. The shorter duration of HGDB compared to VAPOR also allows reduced pulse repetition time values in the multislice acquisition. PMID:20512851

  17. Dual-band water and lipid suppression for MR spectroscopic imaging at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Zhu, He; Ouwerkerk, Ronald; Barker, Peter B

    2010-06-01

    A dual-band water and lipid suppression sequence was developed for multislice sensitivity-encoded proton MR spectroscopic imaging of the human brain. The presaturation scheme consisted of five dual-band frequency-modulated radiofrequency pulses based on hypergeometric functions integrated with eight outer volume suppression (OVS) pulses. The flip angles of the dual-band pulses were optimized through computer simulations to maximize suppression factors over a range of transmitter amplitude of radiofrequency field and water and lipid T(1) values. The resulting hypergeometric dual band with OVS (HGDB + OVS) sequence was implemented at 3 T in a multislice sensitivity-encoded proton MR spectroscopic imaging experiment and compared to a conventional water suppression scheme (variable pulse power and optimized relaxation delays (VAPOR)) with OVS. The HGDB sequence was significantly shorter than the VAPOR sequence (230 versus 728 msec). Both HGDB + OVS and VAPOR + OVS produced good water suppression, while lipid suppression with the HGDB + OVS sequence was far superior. In sensitivity-encoded proton MR spectroscopic imaging data, artifacts from extracranial lipid signals were significantly lower with HGDB + OVS. The shorter duration of HGDB compared to VAPOR also allows reduced pulse repetition time values in the multislice acquisition.

  18. Pediatric cardiovascular interventional devices: effect on CMR images at 1.5 and 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To predict the type and extent of CMR artifacts caused by commonly used pediatric trans-catheter devices at 1.5 T and 3 T as an aid to clinical planning and patient screening. Methods Eleven commonly used interventional, catheter-based devices including stents, septal occluders, vascular plugs and embolization coils made from either stainless steel or nitinol were evaluated ex-vivo at both 1.5T and 3T. Pulse sequences and protocols commonly used for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) were evaluated, including 3D high-resolution MR angiography (MRA), time-resolved MRA, 2D balanced-SSFP cine and 2D phase-contrast gradient echo imaging (GRE). We defined the signal void amplification factor (F) as the ratio of signal void dimension to true device dimension. F1 and F2 were measured in the long axis and short axes respectively of the device. We defined F3 as the maximum extent of the off-resonance dark band artifact on SSFP measured in the B0direction. The effects of field strength, sequence type, orientation, flip angle and phase encode direction were tested. Clinical CMR images in 3 patients with various indwelling devices were reviewed for correlation with the in-vitro findings. Results F1 and F2 were higher (p<0.05) at 3T than at 1.5T for all sequences except 3D-MRA. Stainless steel devices produced greater off-resonance artifact on SSFP compared to nitinol devices (p<0.05). Artifacts were most severe with the stainless steel Flipper detachable embolization coil (Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN), with F1 and F2 10 times greater than with stainless steel stents. The orientation of stents changed the size of off-resonance artifacts by up to two fold. Sequence type did influence the size of signal void or off-resonance artifact (p<0.05). Varying the flip angle and phase encode direction did not affect image artifact. Conclusion Stainless steel embolization coils render large zones of anatomy uninterpretable, consistent with predictions based on ex

  19. High resolution neurography of the brachial plexus by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cejas, C; Rollán, C; Michelin, G; Nogués, M

    2016-01-01

    The study of the structures that make up the brachial plexus has benefited particularly from the high resolution images provided by 3T magnetic resonance scanners. The brachial plexus can have mononeuropathies or polyneuropathies. The mononeuropathies include traumatic injuries and trapping, such as occurs in thoracic outlet syndrome due to cervical ribs, prominent transverse apophyses, or tumors. The polyneuropathies include inflammatory processes, in particular chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, granulomatous diseases, and radiation neuropathy. Vascular processes affecting the brachial plexus include diabetic polyneuropathy and the vasculitides. This article reviews the anatomy of the brachial plexus and describes the technique for magnetic resonance neurography and the most common pathologic conditions that can affect the brachial plexus.

  20. Bilateral breast MRI by use of dual-source parallel radiofrequency excitation and image-based shimming at 3 Tesla: improvement in homogeneity on fat-suppression imaging.

    PubMed

    Ishizaka, Kinya; Kato, Fumi; Terae, Satoshi; Mito, Suzuko; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Nakanishi, Mitsuhiro; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Hamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare fat-suppression homogeneity on breast MR imaging by using dual-source parallel radiofrequency excitation and image-based shimming (DS-IBS) with single-source radiofrequency excitation with volume shim (SS-Vol) at 3 Tesla. Twenty patients were included. Axial three-dimensional T1-weighted turbo-field-echo breast images with DS-IBS and SS-Vol were obtained. Fat suppression was scored with four grade points. The contrast of the pectoral muscle and the fat in each breast area was obtained in the head medial, head lateral, foot medial, and foot lateral areas. The axillary space was calculated and compared between DS-IBS and SS-Vol. The average DS-IBS score was significantly higher than that of SS-Vol. The mean contrasts of fat in the foot lateral areas and axillary spaces on DS-IBS images were significantly higher than on SS-Vol images.

  1. Measurement of the weighted peak level for occupational exposure to gradient magnetic fields for 1.5 and 3 Tesla MRI body scanners.

    PubMed

    Bonutti, F; Tecchio, M; Maieron, M; Trevisan, D; Negro, C; Calligaris, F

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to give a contribution to the construction of a comprehensive knowledge of the exposure levels to gradient magnetic fields (GMF) in terms of the weighed peak (WP), especially for 3 Tesla scanners for which there are still few works available in the literature. A new generation probe for the measurement of electromagnetic fields in the range of 1 Hz-400 kHz was used to assess the occupational exposure levels to the GMF for 1.5 and 3.0 Tesla MRI body scanners, using the method of the WP according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) approach. The probe was placed at a height of 1.1 m, close to the MRI scanners, where operators could stay during some medical procedures with particular issues. The measurements were performed for a set of typical acquisition sequences for body (liver) and head exams. The measured values of WP were in compliance with ICNIRP 2010 reference levels for occupational exposures.

  2. Assessment of safety and interference issues of radio frequency identification devices in 0.3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Periyasamy, M; Dhanasekaran, R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate two issues regarding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including device functionality and image artifacts for the presence of radio frequency identification devices (RFID) in association with 0.3 Tesla at 12.7 MHz MRI and computed tomography (CT) scanning. Fifteen samples of RFID tags with two different sizes (wristband and ID card types) were tested. The tags were exposed to several MR-imaging conditions during MRI examination and X-rays of CT scan. Throughout the test, the tags were oriented in three different directions (axial, coronal, and sagittal) relative to MRI system in order to cover all possible situations with respect to the patient undergoing MRI and CT scanning, wearing a RFID tag on wrist. We observed that the tags did not sustain physical damage with their functionality remaining unaffected even after MRI and CT scanning, and there was no alternation in previously stored data as well. In addition, no evidence of either signal loss or artifact was seen in the acquired MR and CT images. Therefore, we can conclude that the use of this passive RFID tag is safe for a patient undergoing MRI at 0.3 T/12.7 MHz and CT Scanning.

  3. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Uterine Zones Related to the Menstrual Cycle and Menopausal Status at 3 Tesla MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kılıçkesmez, Özgür; Fırat, Zeynep; Oygen, Ayşegül; Bozkurt, Duygu Kara; Güzelbey, Tevfik; Gürses, Bengi; Taşdelen, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    Background Diffusion and diffusion tensor imaging techniques (DTI) are widely available and used both in central nervous system and body imaging, including gynecological diseases. Aims The aims of this study were to assess the capability of DTI of uterine zones in relation to the menstrual cycle and ascertain the normal apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy values at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Study Design Prospective clinical study. Methods A total of 13 young reproductive and 12 postmenopausal healthy volunteers were included in the study. MRI examination included sagittal T2-weighted and single-shot echo planar imaging DTI obtained under free breathing. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values of the endometrium, junctional zone, and myometrium were determined. Results The median (minimum-maximum) FA of the endometrium, myometrium, and junctional zone of the reproductive group were 0.31 (0.260–0.465), 0.42 (0.302–0.664), and 0.58 (0.420–0.745), respectively, in the proliferative phase and 0.26 (0.180–0.413), 0.48 (0.357–0.656), and 0.59 (0.490–0.675)], respectively, in the secretory phase. In the postmenopausal group, the FA values of the endometrium, myometrium, and junctional zone were 0.275 (0.136–0.425), 0.255 (0.191–0.553), and 0.27 (0.129–0.397), respectively. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the endometrium, myometrium, and junctional zone of the reproductive group were 1.25±0.254 (0.970–1.463), 1.67 (1.213–1.854), and 1.23 (0.853–1.301), respectively, in the proliferative phase and 1.32±0.283 (1.165–1.706), 1.55 (1.360–1.791), and 1.17 (1.163–1.705), respectively, in the secretory phase. In the postmenopausal group, the ADC values of the endometrium, myometrium, and junctional zone were measured as 1.100±0.192 (0.850–1.302), 1.14 (0.864–1.283), and 1.09 (0.912–1.291). The FA values of the endometrium and myometrium were lower in the secretory phase of the reproductive group, while

  4. Evaluation of the WARP-turbo spin echo sequence for 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging of stifle joints in dogs with stainless steel tibial plateau leveling osteotomy implants.

    PubMed

    Simpler, Renee E; Kerwin, Sharon C; Eichelberger, Bunita M; Wall, Corey R; Thompson, James A; Padua, Abraham; Purdy, David; Griffin, John F

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility artifacts caused by ferromagnetic implants compromise magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the canine stifle after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) procedures. The WARP-turbo spin echo sequence is being developed to mitigate artifacts and utilizes slice encoding for metal artifact reduction. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the WARP-turbo spin echo sequence for imaging post TPLO canine stifle joints. Proton density weighted images of 19 canine cadaver limbs were made post TPLO using a 3 Tesla MRI scanner. Susceptibility artifact sizes were recorded and compared for WARP vs. conventional turbo spin echo sequences. Three evaluators graded depiction quality for the tibial tuberosity, medial and lateral menisci, tibial osteotomy, and caudal cruciate ligament as sufficient or insufficient to make a diagnosis. Artifacts were subjectively smaller and local structures were better depicted in WARP-turbo spin echo images. Signal void area was also reduced by 75% (sagittal) and 49% (dorsal) in WARP vs. conventional turbo spin echo images. Evaluators were significantly more likely to grade local anatomy depiction as adequate for making a diagnosis in WARP-turbo spin echo images in the sagittal but not dorsal plane. The proportion of image sets with anatomic structure depiction graded adequate to make a diagnosis ranged from 28 to 68% in sagittal WARP-turbo spin echo images compared to 0-19% in turbo spin echo images. Findings indicated that the WARP-turbo spin echo sequence reduces the severity of susceptibility artifacts in canine stifle joints post TPLO. However, variable depiction of local anatomy warrants further refinement of the technique.

  5. Investigation of Parallel Radiofrequency Transmission for the Reduction of Heating in Long Conductive Leads in 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    McElcheran, Clare E.; Yang, Benson; Anderson, Kevan J. T.; Golenstani-Rad, Laleh; Graham, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is increasingly used to treat a variety of brain diseases by sending electrical impulses to deep brain nuclei through long, electrically conductive leads. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients pre- and post-implantation is desirable to target and position the implant, to evaluate possible side-effects and to examine DBS patients who have other health conditions. Although MRI is the preferred modality for pre-operative planning, MRI post-implantation is limited due to the risk of high local power deposition, and therefore tissue heating, at the tip of the lead. The localized power deposition arises from currents induced in the leads caused by coupling with the radiofrequency (RF) transmission field during imaging. In the present work, parallel RF transmission (pTx) is used to tailor the RF electric field to suppress coupling effects. Electromagnetic simulations were performed for three pTx coil configurations with 2, 4, and 8-elements, respectively. Optimal input voltages to minimize coupling, while maintaining RF magnetic field homogeneity, were determined for all configurations using a Nelder-Mead optimization algorithm. Resulting electric and magnetic fields were compared to that of a 16-rung birdcage coil. Experimental validation was performed with a custom-built 4-element pTx coil. In simulation, 95-99% reduction of the electric field at the tip of the lead was observed between the various pTx coil configurations and the birdcage coil. Maximal reduction in E-field was obtained with the 8-element pTx coil. Magnetic field homogeneity was comparable to the birdcage coil for the 4- and 8-element pTx configurations. In experiment, a temperature increase of 2±0.15°C was observed at the tip of the wire using the birdcage coil, whereas negligible increase (0.2±0.15°C) was observed with the optimized pTx system. Although further research is required, these initial results suggest that the concept of optimizing pTx to reduce DBS

  6. Microvascular obstruction assessed by 3-tesla magnetic resonance imaging in acute myocardial infarction is correlated with plasma troponin I levels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microvascular obstruction (MVO) at the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with poor prognosis. We aimed to evaluate the correlation between plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) at the acute phase of MI and extent of no-reflow, as assessed by 3-T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Secondly, we defined a cut-off value for cTnI predictive of no-reflow. Methods 51 consecutive patients with no previous history of cardiovascular disease, presenting ST elevation MI within <12 h. Infarct size and extent of no-reflow were evaluated by 3-T MRI at day 5. Extent of no-reflow at 15 minutes (MVO) was correlated with cTnI at admission, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. At 6 months, MRI was performed to evaluate the impact of MVO on LV remodeling. Results MVO was diagnosed in 29 patients (57%). Extent of MVO was significantly correlated to peak troponin, cTnI (except admission values) and area under the curve. Using Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, a cut-off cTnI value >89 ng/mL at 12 h seemed to best predict presence of early MVO (sensitivity 63%, specificity 88%). At 6 months, MVO was associated with left ventricular (LV) remodeling, resulting in higher LV volumes. Conclusion There is a relationship between cTnI at the acute phase of AMI and extent of MVO as assessed by 3-T cardiac MRI. A cut-off cTnI value of 89 ng/mL at 12 h seems to best predict presence of MVO, which contributes to LV remodeling. PMID:24886208

  7. Impact of preoperative and postoperative membranous urethral length measured by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging on urinary continence recovery after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wan; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Seo, Seong Il; Jeon, Seong Soo; Choi, Han Yong; Lee, Hyun Moo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We sought to investigate the impact of preoperative and postoperative membranous urethral length (MUL) on urinary continence using 3 Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Methods Between 2008 and 2013, 190 men with RARP underwent preoperative and postoperative MRI. Patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy or who were lost to followup were excluded, leaving 186 patients eligible for analysis. Preoperative MUL was estimated from the prostate apex to the penile bulb, while postoperative MUL was estimated from the bladder neck to penile bulb. Patients with no pads or protection were considered to have complete continence. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors associated with urinary incontinence at six and 12 months. Results Age was commonly associated with urinary incontinence at six and 12 months. In addition, diabetes mellitus (DM) was another factor associated with urinary incontinence at 12 months. When adjusting these variables, preoperative MUL ≤16 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.14; p=0.022), postoperative MUL ≤14 mm (95% CI 1.16–9.80; p=0.025) and percent change of MUL >18% (95% CI 1.17–7.23; p=0.021) were significantly associated with urinary incontinence at six months. However, at 12 months, preoperative MUL ≤13.5 mm (95% CI 1.85–19.21; p=0.003) and postoperative MUL ≤13 mm (95% CI 1.24–13.84; p=0.021) had impacts on urinary incontinence, but not percent change of MUL. Conclusions Preoperative and postoperative MUL were significantly associated with urinary continence recovery after RARP. Therefore, efforts to preserve MUL are highly recommended during surgery for optimal continence outcomes after RARP. PMID:28360954

  8. Sodium-23 MRI of whole spine at 3 Tesla using a 5-channel receive-only phased-array and a whole-body transmit resonator.

    PubMed

    Malzacher, Matthias; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Konstandin, Simon; Haneder, Stefan; Schad, Lothar R

    2016-03-01

    Sodium magnetic resonance imaging ((23)Na MRI) is a unique and non-invasive imaging technique which provides important information on cellular level about the tissue of the human body. Several applications for (23)Na MRI were investigated with regard to the examination of the tissue viability and functionality for example in the brain, the heart or the breast. The (23)Na MRI technique can also be integrated as a potential monitoring instrument after radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The main contribution in this work was the adaptation of (23)Na MRI for spine imaging, which can provide essential information on the integrity of the intervertebral disks with respect to the early detection of disk degeneration. In this work, a transmit-only receive-only dual resonator system was designed and developed to cover the whole human spine using (23)Na MRI and increase the receive sensitivity. The resonator system consisted of an already presented (23)Na whole-body resonator and a newly developed 5-channel receive-only phased-array. The resonator system was first validated using bench top and phantom measurements. A threefold SNR improvement at the depth of the spine (∼7cm) over the whole-body resonator was achieved using the spine array. (23)Na MR measurements of the human spine using the transmit-only receive-only resonator system were performed on a healthy volunteer within an acquisition time of 10minutes. A density adapted 3D radial sequence was chosen with 6mm isotropic resolution, 49ms repetition time and a short echo time of 540μs. Furthermore, it was possible to quantify the tissue sodium concentration in the intervertebral discs in the lumbar region (120ms repetition time) using this setup.

  9. Diagnostic usefulness of 3 tesla MRI of the brain for cushing disease in a child.

    PubMed

    Ono, Erina; Ozawa, Ayako; Matoba, Kaori; Motoki, Takanori; Tajima, Asako; Miyata, Ichiro; Ito, Junko; Inoshita, Naoko; Yamada, Syozo; Ida, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-01

    It is sometimes difficult to confirm the location of a microadenoma in Cushing disease. Recently, we experienced an 11-yr-old female case of Cushing disease with hyperprolactinemia. She was referred to our hospital because of decrease of height velocity with body weight gain. On admission, she had typical symptoms of Cushing syndrome. Although no pituitary microadenomas were detected on 1.5 Tesla MRI of the brain, endocrinological examinations including IPS and CS sampling were consistent with Cushing disease with hyperprolactinemia. Oral administration of methyrapone instead of neurosurgery was started after discharge, but subsequent 3 Tesla MRI of the brain clearly demonstrated a 3-mm less-enhanced lesion in the left side of the pituitary gland. Finally, transsphenoidal surgery was performed, and a 3.5-mm left-sided microadenoma was resected. Compared with 1.5 Tesla MRI, 3 Tesla MRI offers the advantage of a higher signal to noise ratio (SNR), which provides higher resolution and proper image quality. Therefore, 3 Tesla MRI is a very useful tool to localize microadenomas in Cushing disease in children as well as in adults. It will be the first choice of radiological examinations in suspected cases of Cushing disease.

  10. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. Methods This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student’s t test and Mann-Whitney’s test was applied. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s correlation were used. Results In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). Conclusions 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR. PMID:28129354

  11. Dobutamine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Kelle, S; Hamdan, A; Schnackenburg, B; Köhler, U; Klein, C; Nagel, E; Fleck, E

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The assessment of inducible wall motion abnormalities during high-dose dobutamine-stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (DCMR) is well established for the identification of myocardial ischemia at 1.5 Tesla. Its feasibility at higher field strengths has not been reported. The present study was performed to prospectively determine the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of DCMR at 3 Tesla for depicting hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis (≥ 50% diameter stenosis) in patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD). Materials and methods Thirty consecutive patients (6 women) (66 ± 9.3 years) were scheduled for DCMR between January and May 2007 for detection of coronary artery disease. Patients were examined with a Philips Achieva 3 Tesla system (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands), using a spoiled gradient echo cine sequence. Technical parameters were: spatial resolution 2 × 2 × 8 mm3, 30 heart phases, spoiled gradient echo TR/TE: 4.5/2.6 msec, flip angle 15°. Images were acquired at rest and stress in accordance with a standardized high-dose dobutamine-atropine protocol during short breath-holds in three short and three long-axis views. Dobutamine was administered using a standard protocol (10 μg increments every 3 minutes up to 40 μg dobutamine/kg body weight/minute plus atropine if required to reach target heart rate). The study protocol included administration of 0.1 mmol/kg/body weight Gd-DTPA before the cine images at rest were acquired to improve the image quality. The examination was terminated if new or worsening wall-motion abnormalities or chest pain occurred or when > 85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate was reached. Myocardial ischemia was defined as new onset of wall-motion abnormality in at least one segment. In addition, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was performed. Images were evaluated by two blinded readers. Diagnostic accuracy was determined with coronary angiography as the reference

  12. Integrating structural and functional imaging for computer assisted detection of prostate cancer on multi-protocol in vivo 3 Tesla MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Satish; Bloch, B. Nicolas; Rosen, Mark; Chappelow, Jonathan; Toth, Robert; Rofsky, Neil; Lenkinski, Robert; Genega, Elizabeth; Kalyanpur, Arjun; Madabhushi, Anant

    2009-02-01

    Screening and detection of prostate cancer (CaP) currently lacks an image-based protocol which is reflected in the high false negative rates currently associated with blinded sextant biopsies. Multi-protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers high resolution functional and structural data about internal body structures (such as the prostate). In this paper we present a novel comprehensive computer-aided scheme for CaP detection from high resolution in vivo multi-protocol MRI by integrating functional and structural information obtained via dynamic-contrast enhanced (DCE) and T2-weighted (T2-w) MRI, respectively. Our scheme is fully-automated and comprises (a) prostate segmentation, (b) multimodal image registration, and (c) data representation and multi-classifier modules for information fusion. Following prostate boundary segmentation via an improved active shape model, the DCE/T2-w protocols and the T2-w/ex vivo histological prostatectomy specimens are brought into alignment via a deformable, multi-attribute registration scheme. T2-w/histology alignment allows for the mapping of true CaP extent onto the in vivo MRI, which is used for training and evaluation of a multi-protocol MRI CaP classifier. The meta-classifier used is a random forest constructed by bagging multiple decision tree classifiers, each trained individually on T2-w structural, textural and DCE functional attributes. 3-fold classifier cross validation was performed using a set of 18 images derived from 6 patient datasets on a per-pixel basis. Our results show that the results of CaP detection obtained from integration of T2-w structural textural data and DCE functional data (area under the ROC curve of 0.815) significantly outperforms detection based on either of the individual modalities (0.704 (T2-w) and 0.682 (DCE)). It was also found that a meta-classifier trained directly on integrated T2-w and DCE data (data-level integration) significantly outperformed a decision-level meta

  13. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computer-aided Tomography (CT) images are often complementary. In most cases, MRI is good for viewing soft tissue but not bone, while CT images are good for bone but not always good for soft tissue discrimination. Physicians and engineers in the Department of Radiology at the University of Michigan Hospitals are developing a technique for combining the best features of MRI and CT scans to increase the accuracy of discriminating one type of body tissue from another. One of their research tools is a computer program called HICAP. The program can be used to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue in body images.

  14. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images. In this photograph, a patient undergoes an open MRI.

  15. Body Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  16. The Role of 3 Tesla Diffusion-Weighted Imaging in the Differential Diagnosis of Benign versus Malignant Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pranno, Nicola; Sartori, Alessandro; Gigli, Silvia; Lo Mele, Luigi; Marsella, Luigi Tonino

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to validate the role of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 Tesla in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant laterocervical lymph nodes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Materials and Methods. Before undergoing surgery, 80 patients, with biopsy proven HNSCC, underwent a magnetic resonance exam. Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Spe) of conventional criteria and DWI in detecting laterocervical lymph node metastases were calculated. Histological results from neck dissection were used as standard of reference. Results. In the 239 histologically proven metastatic lymphadenopathies, the mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was 0.903 × 10−3 mm2/sec. In the 412 pathologically confirmed benign lymph nodes, an average ADC value of 1.650 × 10−3 mm2/sec was found. For differentiating between benign versus metastatic lymph nodes, DWI showed Se of 97% and Spe of 93%, whereas morphological criteria displayed Se of 61% and Spe of 98%. DWI showed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.964, while morphological criteria displayed an AUC of 0.715. Conclusions. In a DWI negative neck for malignant lymph nodes, the planned dissection could be converted to a wait-and-scan policy, whereas DWI positive neck would support the decision to perform a neck dissection. PMID:25003115

  17. Dapsone improves functional deficit and diminishes brain damage evaluated by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance image after transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Mondragón-Lozano, Rodrigo; Heras-Romero, Yessica; Mendez-Armenta, Marisela; Osorio-Rico, Laura; Nava-Ruiz, Concepción; Ríos, Camilo

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is a frequent cause of death and the first of disability in the world population. We have shown that dapsone acts as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic agent after brain Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) in rats; however, its therapeutic efficacy, measured by imaging has not been characterized. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dapsone by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to correlate imaging markers with motor function and oxidative stress after transient cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). We used male rats throughout the experiment. Functional deficit after I/R was assessed by using Longa scale. The area of brain tissue damage was measured by histology. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Finally, difussion tensor MRI was employed to measure the fractional anisotropy (FA), as a MRI marker of the pathophysiologic brain status. Results showed a better functional recovery and less damaged tissue in animals treated with dapsone vs control group. The values of FA were higher in animals receiving treatment, indicating a better preservation of brain structure. At early stages of the damage, dapsone was able to reduce both oxidative markers (Nrf-2 and ROS). Our findings provide new evidence for the efficacy of dapsone when administered during the acute phase after I/R and that quantitative sequences of MRI are useful for characterizing its potential therapeutic benefits after stroke.

  18. Is the Susceptibility Vessel Sign on 3-Tesla Magnetic Resonance T2*-Weighted Imaging a Useful Tool to Predict Recanalization in Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator?

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, N; Satomi, J; Harada, M; Izumi, Y; Nagahiro, S; Kaji, R

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the independent factors associated with the absence of recanalization approximately 24 h after intravenous administration of tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV TPA). The previous studies have been conducted using 1.5-Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We studied whether the characteristics of 3-T MRI findings were useful to predict outcome and recanalization after IV tPA. Patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) (horizontal portion, M1; Sylvian portion, M2) occlusion and treated by IV tPA were enrolled. We studied whether the presence of susceptibility vessel sign (SVS) at M1 and low clot burden score on T2*-weighted imaging (T2*-CBS) on 3-T MRI were associated with the absence of recanalization. A total of 49 patients were enrolled (27 men; mean age, 73.9 years). MR angiography obtained approximately 24 h after IV tPA revealed recanalization in 21 (42.9 %) patients. Independent factors associated with the absence of recanalization included ICA or proximal M1 occlusion (odds ratio, 69.6; 95 % confidence interval, 5.05-958.8, p = 0.002). In this study, an independent factor associated with the absence of recanalization may be proximal occlusion of the cerebral arteries rather than SVS in the MCA or low T2*-CBS on 3-T MRI.

  19. Molecular MRI differentiation between primary central nervous system lymphomas and high-grade gliomas using endogenous protein-based amide proton transfer MR imaging at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shanshan; Yu, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Lu, Shilong; Li, Yufa; Feng, Lyujin; Zhang, Yi; Heo, Hye-Young; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Zhou, Jinyuan; Wen, Zhibo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To show the ability of using the amide-proton-transfer-weighted (APTW) MRI signals as imaging biomarkers to differentiate primary central-nervous-system lymphomas (PCNSLs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs). Methods Eleven patients with lymphomas and 21 patients with HGGs were examined. Magnetization-transfer (MT) spectra over an offset range of ±6 ppm and the conventional MT ratio (MTR) at 15.6 ppm were acquired. The APTW signals, total chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer signal (integral between 0 and 5 ppm, CESTtotal), and MTR signal were obtained and compared between PCNSLs and HGGs. The diagnostic performance was assessed with the receiver-operating-characteristic-curve analysis. Results The PCNSLs usually showed more homogeneous APTW hyperintensity (spatially compared to the normal brain tissue) than the HGGs. The APTWmax, APTWmax-min, and CESTtotal signal intensities were significantly lower (P < 0.05, 0.001, and 0.05, respectively), while the APTWmin and MTR were significantly higher (both P < 0.01) in PCNSL lesions than in HGG lesions. The APTW values in peritumoral oedema were significantly lower for PCNSLs than for HGGs (P < 0.01). APTWmax-min had the highest area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (0.963) and accuracy (94.1%) in differentiating PCNSLs from HGGs. Conclusions The protein-based APTW signal would be a valuable MRI biomarker by which to identify PCNSLs and HGGs presurgically. PMID:25925361

  20. Tumor Detection at 3 Tesla with an Activatable Cell Penetrating Peptide Dendrimer (ACPPD-Gd), a T1 Magnetic Resonance (MR) Molecular Imaging Agent

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Christopher D.; Olson, Emilia S.; Mattrey, Robert F.; Jiang, Tao; Tsien, Roger Y.; Nguyen, Quyen T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The ability to detect small malignant lesions with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited by inadequate accumulations of Gd with standard chelate agents. To date, no T1-targeted agents have proven superiority to Gd chelates in their ability to detect small tumors at clinically relevant field strengths. Activatable cell-penetrating peptides and their Gd-loaded dendrimeric form (ACPPD-Gd) have been shown to selectively accumulate in tumors. In this study we compared the performance of ACPPD-Gd vs. untargeted Gd chelates to detect small tumors in rodent models using a clinical 3T-MR system. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the Institutional-Animal Care-and-Use Committee. 2 of 4 inguinal breast fat pads of 16 albino-C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with tumor Py8119 cells and the other 2 with saline at random. MRI at 3T was performed at 4, 9, and 14 days after inoculation on 8 mice 24-hours after injection of 0.036mmol Gd/kg (ACPPD-Gd), and before and 2–3 minutes after 0.1 mmol/kg gadobutrol on the other 8 mice. T1-weighted (T1w) tumor signal normalized to muscle, was compared among the non-contrast, gadobutrol, and ACPPD-Gd groups using ANOVA. Experienced and trainee readers blinded to experimental conditions assessed for the presence of tumor in each of the 4 breast regions. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and area-under-curve (AUC) values were constructed and analyzed. Results Tumors ≥1mm3 were iso-intense to muscle without contrast on T1w sequences. They enhanced diffusely and homogeneously by 57±20% (p<0.001) 24 hours after ACPPD-Gd and by 25±13% (p<0.001) immediately after gadobutrol. The nearly 2-fold difference was similar for small tumors (1-5mm3) (45±19% vs. 19±18%, p = 0.03). ACPPD-Gd tended to improve tumor detection by an experienced reader (AUC 0.98 vs 0.91) and significantly more for a trainee (0.93 vs. 0.82, p = 0.02) compared to gadobutrol. This improvement was more pronounced when obvious tumors (>5mm3

  1. [3 Tesla MRI: successful results with higher field strengths].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, F; Grosu, D; Mohr, C; Purdy, D; Salem, K; Scott, K T; Stoeckel, B

    2004-01-01

    The recent development of 3 Tesla MRI (3T MRI) has been fueled by promise of increased signal-to-noise ratio(SNR). Many are excited about the opportunity to not only use the increased SNR for clearer images, but also the chance to exchange it for better resolution or faster scans. These possibilities have caused a rapid increase in the market for 3T MRI, where the faster scanning tips an already advantageous economic outlook in favor of the user. As a result, the global market for 3T has grown from a research only market just a few years ago to an ever-increasing clinically oriented customer base. There are, however, significant obstacles to 3T MRI presented by the physics at higher field strengths. For example, the T1 relaxation times are prolonged with increasing magnet field strength. Further, the increased RF-energy deposition (SAR), the larger the chemical shift and the stronger susceptibility effect have to be considered as challenges. It is critical that one looks at both the advantages and disadvantages of using 3T. While there are many issues to address aand a number of different methods for doing so, to properly tackle each of these concerns will take time and effort on the part od researchers and clinicians. The optimization of 3T MRI scanning will have to be a combined effort, though much of the work to date has been in neuroimaging. Multiple applications have been explored in addition to clinical anatomical imaging, where resolution is improved showing structure in the brain never seen before in human MRI. Body and cardiac imaging provide a great challenge but are also achievable at 3T. As an example, the full range of clinical applications currently achieved on today's state-of-the-art 1.5T cardiac MR scanners has also been demonstrated at 3T. In the body, the full range of contrast is available over large fields of view allowing whole liver studies in the clinic or, as needed, one may choose a smaller field of view for high-resolution imaging of the

  2. Rapid Parametric Mapping of the Longitudinal Relaxation Time T1 Using Two-Dimensional Variable Flip Angle Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Dieringer, Matthias A.; Deimling, Michael; Santoro, Davide; Wuerfel, Jens; Madai, Vince I.; Sobesky, Jan; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Visual but subjective reading of longitudinal relaxation time (T1) weighted magnetic resonance images is commonly used for the detection of brain pathologies. For this non-quantitative measure, diagnostic quality depends on hardware configuration, imaging parameters, radio frequency transmission field (B1+) uniformity, as well as observer experience. Parametric quantification of the tissue T1 relaxation parameter offsets the propensity for these effects, but is typically time consuming. For this reason, this study examines the feasibility of rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angles (VFA) approach at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla. These efforts include validation in phantom experiments and application for brain T1 mapping. Methods T1 quantification included simulations of the Bloch equations to correct for slice profile imperfections, and a correction for B1+. Fast gradient echo acquisitions were conducted using three adjusted flip angles for the proposed T1 quantification approach that was benchmarked against slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and an inversion-recovery spin-echo based reference method. Brain T1 mapping was performed in six healthy subjects, one multiple sclerosis patient, and one stroke patient. Results Phantom experiments showed a mean T1 estimation error of (-63±1.5)% for slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and (0.2±1.4)% for the proposed approach compared to the reference method. Scan time for single slice T1 mapping including B1+ mapping could be reduced to 5 seconds using an in-plane resolution of (2×2) mm2, which equals a scan time reduction of more than 99% compared to the reference method. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angle approach is feasible at 1.5T/3T/7T. It represents a valuable alternative for rapid T1 mapping due to the gain in speed versus conventional approaches. This progress may serve to enhance the capabilities of

  3. Body Image

    MedlinePlus

    ... spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Over-exercising ... conditions? Visit our Mental health section. Fact sheets Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Cosmetics and ...

  4. Adolescence and Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  5. Assessment of MRI Issues at 3 Tesla for a New Metallic Tissue Marker.

    PubMed

    Cronenweth, Charlotte M; Shellock, Frank G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the MRI issues at 3 Tesla for a metallic tissue marker used to localize removal areas of tissue abnormalities. Materials and Methods. A newly designed, metallic tissue marker (Achieve Marker, CareFusion, Vernon Hills, IL) used to mark biopsy sites, particularly in breasts, was assessed for MRI issues which included standardized tests to determine magnetic field interactions (i.e., translational attraction and torque), MRI-related heating, and artifacts at 3 Tesla. Temperature changes were determined for the marker using a gelled-saline-filled phantom. MRI was performed at a relatively high specific absorption rate (whole body averaged SAR, 2.9-W/kg). MRI artifacts were evaluated using T1-weighted, spin echo and gradient echo pulse sequences. Results. The marker displayed minimal magnetic field interactions (2-degree deflection angle and no torque). MRI-related heating was only 0.1°C above background heating (i.e., the heating without the tissue marker present). Artifacts seen as localized signal loss were relatively small in relation to the size and shape of the marker. Conclusions. Based on the findings, the new metallic tissue marker is acceptable or "MR Conditional" (using current labeling terminology) for a patient undergoing an MRI procedure at 3 Tesla or less.

  6. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Breakfasts Shyness A Guy's Guide to Body Image KidsHealth > For Teens > A Guy's Guide to Body ... image can be a problem. Why Is Body Image Important? Body image is a person's opinions, thoughts, ...

  7. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  8. Is the Ellipsoid Formula the New Standard for 3-Tesla MRI Prostate Volume Calculation without Endorectal Coil?

    PubMed

    Haas, Matthias; Günzel, Karsten; Miller, Kurt; Hamm, Bernd; Cash, Hannes; Asbach, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Prostate volume in multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) is of clinical importance. For 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil, there is no distinctive standard for volume calculation. We tested the accuracy of the ellipsoid formula with planimetric volume measurements as reference and investigated the correlation of gland volume and cancer detection rate on MRI/ultrasound (MRI/US) fusion-guided biopsy. One hundred forty-three patients with findings on 3-Tesla mpMRI suspicious of cancer and subsequent MRI/US fusion-guided targeted biopsy and additional systematic biopsy were analyzed. T2-weighted images were used for measuring the prostate diameters and for planimetric volume measurement by a segmentation software. Planimetric and calculated prostate volumes were compared with clinical data. The median prostate volume was 48.1 ml (interquartile range (IQR) 36.9-62.1 ml). Volume calculated by the ellipsoid formula showed a strong concordance with planimetric volume, with a tendency to underestimate prostate volume (median volume 43.1 ml (IQR 31.2-58.8 ml); r = 0.903, p < 0.001). There was a moderate, significant inverse correlation of prostate volume to a positive biopsy result (r = -0.24, p = 0.004). The ellipsoid formula gives sufficient approximation of prostate volume on 3-Tesla mpMRI without endorectal coil. It allows a fast, valid volume calculation in prostate MRI datasets.

  9. Body image inflexibility mediates the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Serafino G

    2016-03-01

    Body image inflexibility, the unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions, is associated with negative body image and eating disorder symptoms. The present study investigated whether body image inflexibility mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies (appearance-fixing and experiential avoidance) in a college and community sample comprising 156 females aged 18-51 years (M=22.76, SD=6.96). Controlling for recruitment source (college vs. community), body image inflexibility fully mediated the relationship between body image evaluation and maladaptive body image coping strategies. Results indicated that an unwillingness to experience negative appearance-related thoughts and emotions is likely responsible for negative body image evaluation's relationship to appearance-fixing behaviours and experiential avoidance. Findings support extant evidence that interventions that explicitly target body image inflexibility, such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, may have utility in treating body dissatisfaction in nonclinical populations.

  10. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image].

    PubMed

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu

    2007-06-01

    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  11. Body Image Satisfaction among Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustat, Jeanette; Carton, Thomas W.; Shahien, Amir A.; Andersen, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Satisfaction with body image is a factor related to health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and body size perception in an urban, Black community sample in New Orleans, Louisiana. Only 42.2% of respondents were satisfied with their body image and 44.1% correctly perceived their body…

  12. Imaging body armor.

    PubMed

    Harcke, H Theodore; Schauer, David A; Harris, Robert M; Campman, Steven C; Lonergan, Gael J

    2002-04-01

    This study examined the feasibility of performing radiographic studies on patients wearing standard-issue body armor. The Kevlar helmet, fragmentation vest, demining suit sleeve, and armor plate were studied with plain film and computed tomography in a simulated casualty situation. We found that the military helmet contains metal screws and metal clips in the headband, but diagnostic computed tomographic images can be obtained. Kevlar, the principal component of soft armor, has favorable photon attenuation characteristics. Plate armor of composite material also did not limit radiographic studies. Therefore, when medically advantageous, patients can be examined radiographically while wearing standard military body armor. Civilian emergency rooms should be aware of these observations because law enforcement officers wear similar protective armor.

  13. Implicit beliefs about ideal body image predict body image dissatisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Niclas; Spruyt, Adriaan; De Houwer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether implicit measures of actual and ideal body image can be used to predict body dissatisfaction in young female adults. Participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures (IRAPs) to examine their implicit beliefs concerning actual (e.g., I am thin) and desired ideal body image (e.g., I want to be thin). Body dissatisfaction was examined via self-report questionnaires and rating scales. As expected, differences in body dissatisfaction exerted a differential influence on the two IRAP scores. Specifically, the implicit belief that one is thin was lower in participants who exhibited a high degree of body dissatisfaction than in participants who exhibited a low degree of body dissatisfaction. In contrast, the implicit desire to be thin (i.e., thin ideal body image) was stronger in participants who exhibited a high level of body dissatisfaction than in participants who were less dissatisfied with their body. Adding further weight to the idea that both IRAP measures captured different underlying constructs, we also observed that they correlated differently with body mass index, explicit body dissatisfaction, and explicit measures of actual and ideal body image. More generally, these findings underscore the advantage of using implicit measures that incorporate relational information relative to implicit measures that allow for an assessment of associative relations only. PMID:26500567

  14. High resolution MRI anatomy of the cat brain at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Gray-Edwards, Heather L.; Salibi, Nouha; Josephson, Eleanor M.; Hudson, Judith A.; Cox, Nancy R.; Randle, Ashley N.; McCurdy, Victoria J.; Bradbury, Allison M.; Wilson, Diane U.; Beyers, Ronald J.; Denney, Thomas S.; Martin, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline models of neurologic diseases, such as lysosomal storage diseases, leukodystrophies, Parkinson’s disease, stroke and NeuroAIDS, accurately recreate many aspects of human disease allowing for comparative study of neuropathology and the testing of novel therapeutics. Here we describe in vivo visualization of fine structures within the feline brain that were previously only visible post mortem. New Method 3 Tesla MR images were acquired using T1-weighted (T1w) 3D magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequence (0.4mm isotropic resolution) and T2-weighted (T2w) turbo spin echo (TSE) images (0.3×0.3×1 mm3 resolution). Anatomic structures were identified based on feline and canine histology. Results T2w high resolution MR images with detailed structural identification are provided in transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes. T1w MR images are provided electronically in three dimensions for unrestricted spatial evaluation. Comparison with Existing Methods Many areas of the feline brain previously unresolvable on MRI are clearly visible in three orientations, including the dentate, interpositus and fastigial cerebellar nuclei, cranial nerves, lateral geniculate nucleus, optic radiation, cochlea, caudal colliculus, temporal lobe, precuneus, spinocerebellar tract, vestibular nuclei, reticular formation, pyramids and rostral and middle cerebral arteries. Additionally, the feline brain is represented in 3 dimensions for the first time. Conclusions These data establish normal appearance of detailed anatomical structures of the feline brain, which provide reference when evaluating neurologic disease or testing efficacy of novel therapeutics in animal models. PMID:24525327

  15. Clinical Evaluation of Stereotactic Target Localization Using 3-Tesla MRI for Radiosurgery Planning

    SciTech Connect

    MacFadden, Derek; Zhang Beibei; Brock, Kristy K.; Hodaie, Mojgan; Laperriere, Normand; Schwartz, Michael; Tsao, May; Stainsby, Jeffrey; Lockwood, Gina; Mikulis, David; Menard, Cynthia

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: Increasing the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) field strength can improve image resolution and quality, but concerns remain regarding the influence on geometric fidelity. The objectives of the present study were to spatially investigate the effect of 3-Tesla (3T) MRI on clinical target localization for stereotactic radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A total of 39 patients were enrolled in a research ethics board-approved prospective clinical trial. Imaging (1.5T and 3T MRI and computed tomography) was performed after stereotactic frame placement. Stereotactic target localization at 1.5T vs. 3T was retrospectively analyzed in a representative cohort of patients with tumor (n = 4) and functional (n = 5) radiosurgical targets. The spatial congruency of the tumor gross target volumes was determined by the mean discrepancy between the average gross target volume surfaces at 1.5T and 3T. Reproducibility was assessed by the displacement from an averaged surface and volume congruency. Spatial congruency and the reproducibility of functional radiosurgical targets was determined by comparing the mean and standard deviation of the isocenter coordinates. Results: Overall, the mean absolute discrepancy across all patients was 0.67 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.51-0.83), significantly <1 mm (p < .010). No differences were found in the overall interuser target volume congruence (mean, 84% for 1.5T vs. 84% for 3T, p > .4), and the gross target volume surface mean displacements were similar within and between users. The overall average isocenter coordinate discrepancy for the functional targets at 1.5T and 3T was 0.33 mm (95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.48), with no patient-specific differences between the mean values (p >.2) or standard deviations (p >.1). Conclusion: Our results have provided clinically relevant evidence supporting the spatial validity of 3T MRI for use in stereotactic radiosurgery under the imaging conditions used.

  16. The older woman's body image.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2010-02-01

    Body image is an important concept that has a significant effect on a person's self-esteem and self-confidence. Appreciating how the older body is perceived by a woman is an important first step to understanding how nurses might support patient dignity. This article reviews the latest literature on ageing and body image and suggests practical dialogues that nurses and patients can share.

  17. [Obesity: stigmatization, discrimination, body image].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with multifactorial genesis (genetic predisposition, life-style, psychosocial situation), but there is a relatively homogeneous negative stereotype of obese individuals, because overweight and obesity are seen as self-inflicted disorders caused by physical inactivity and disorderd eating behavior. Obese individuals are confronted with far-reaching stigmatization and discrimination. Typical stereotypes are laziness, unattractiveness, work refusal. This negative image by the environment contributes to negative self-awareness and self-stigmatization, accompanied by a poor self-esteem and feelings of poor self-control and reduced self-efficacy, resulting in poor constructive coping strategies for overweight reduction. In addition, a disturbed body image combined with deep dissatisfaction with their own body is often found in many obese individuals. There is not always a close connection between body weight and body dissatisfaction. Young women and individuals with a binge eating disorder often show an increased body dissatisfaction as well.

  18. Very Young Children's Body Image: Bodies and Minds under Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birbeck, David; Drummond, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In recent years research has recognised that notions of body image, body image ideals and body dissatisfaction develop much earlier than was once thought. Forty-seven children (25 male; 22 female) aged between 5 and 6 years were interviewed on three occasions over 12 months regarding their perceptions of body image. The interviews revealed…

  19. The "Body Beautiful": English Adolescents' Images of Ideal Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Helga; Lloyd, Barbara; Dugan, Shaun; Halliwell, Emma; Jacobs, Neil; Cramer, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examine qualities capturing adolescents' images of ideal bodies for both genders. Data from questionnaires and discussions of photographs indicate that body-image ideals are multidimensional, show systematic gender differences, and become more conventional with age. Adolescents' own body mass links systematically to body-image…

  20. Body Image in the Dance Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Although some research has shown that dance enhances body image and self-esteem, other research shows that it sometimes has the opposite effect and causes dancers to develop a negative body image and even eating disorders. In dance, body image is not only about maintaining a certain weight; it can also refer to specific perceived body flaws.…

  1. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  2. Workshop on Body Image: Creating or Reinventing a Positive Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Christine

    This paper examines the culturization of body image and the impact of body image on women and men, noting that the strict definition of body size has made many women and men dissatisfied with their bodies. The first section defines body image and culturization, explaining how the current media images put tremendous pressure on men and women that…

  3. Body Talk: Body Image Commentary on Queerty.com.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph; Grimm, Josh

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we conducted a content analysis of 243 photographic images of men published on the gay male-oriented blog Queerty.com. We also analyzed 435 user-generated comments from a randomly selected 1-year sample. Focusing on images' body types, we found that the range of body types featured on the blog was quite narrow-the vast majority of images had very low levels of body fat and very high levels of muscularity. Users' body image-related comments typically endorsed and celebrated images; critiques of images were comparatively rare. Perspectives from objectification theory and social comparison theory suggest that the images and commentary found on the blog likely reinforce unhealthy body image in gay male communities.

  4. 3D calculations of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 3 Tesla magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Lari, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A 20 TeV Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) proton accelerator is being proposed by the High Energy Physics Community. One proposal would consist of a ring of magnets 164 km in circumference with a field strength of 3 Tesla and would cost 2.7 billion dollars. The magnet consists of stacked steel laminations with superconducting coils. The desired field uniformity is obtained for all fields from 0.2 to 3 Tesla by using three (or more) different pole shapes. These three different laminations are stacked in the order 1-2-3-1-2-3-... creating a truly three dimensional geometry. A three laminated stack 1-2-3 with periodic boundary conditions at 1 and 3 was assigned about 5000 finite elements per lamination and solved using the computer program TOSCA. To check the TOSCA results, the field of each of the three different shaped laminations was calculated separately using periodic boundary conditions and compared to the two dimensional field calculations using TRIM. This was done for a constant permeability of 2000 and using the B-H table for fully annealed 1010 steel. The difference of the field calculations in the region of interest was always less than +-.2%

  5. Body image and media use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Bayer, Angela M

    2005-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on body image and media use among adolescents. We begin by defining body image and how it is constructed, especially among young people. We then offer information on when one's body image perception is askew with one's perception of personal ideal, which can result in disordered eating, including obesity, anorexia, and bulimia. Next, we describe the research literature on media use and its relationship to adolescents' body image perceptions and discuss content analyses and correlational, experimental, and qualitative studies. Lastly, we recommend, beyond conducting further and improved research studies, interventions and policies that may have an impact on body image and media use.

  6. Future directions for positive body image research.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Emma

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of positive body image research during the last 10 years represents an important shift in the body image literature. The existing evidence provides a strong empirical basis for the study of positive body image and research has begun to address issues of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, development, and intervention in relation to positive body image. This article briefly reviews the existing evidence before outlining directions for future research. Specifically, six areas for future positive body image research are outlined: (a) conceptualization, (b) models, (c) developmental factors, (d) social interactions, (e) cognitive processing style, and (f) interventions. Finally, the potential role of positive body image as a protective factor within the broader body image literature is discussed.

  7. Personality and body image: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Walter, Emma E

    2016-12-01

    This study systematically reviewed the evidence for personality as a correlate of body image. Electronic databases and reference lists were searched in May 2016 for studies reporting an association between at least one dimension of personality and at least one component of negative body image. Twenty-six studies (33 discrete samples) met inclusion criteria. Sixteen samples were coded as medium-high quality. The results indicated that negative body image was associated with higher levels of Neuroticism and lower levels of Extraversion. Agreeableness was not related to body image, and findings for Conscientiousness and Openness were indeterminate. After taking study quality into account, negative body image was also associated with lower levels of Conscientiousness. Neuroticism was associated with negative body image in both women and men. Sex moderation effects for Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness were indeterminate. Large-sample, prospective studies of personality and body image are recommended.

  8. Optimizing texture measures quantifying bone structures as well as MR-sequences at 3 Tesla: an integrative statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeth, Christoph W.; Mueller, Dirk; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Link, Thomas M.; Vogel, Mika; Koenig, Hartmut; Boehm, Holger; Monetti, Roberto

    2006-03-01

    High resolution MR-scanners working with magnetic field strengths of 3 Tesla are clinically available nowadays. They offer the possibility to obtain 3D images with unprecedented spatial resolution and/or signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) allowing for an accurate visualization of the trabecular bone structure. It has been demonstrated that scaling indices are well suited to quantify these structures, especially to discriminate between plate-like and rod-like structural elements, which is crucial for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Until now image quality has mainly been assessed by visual impression or by measures based on the SNR. In this work we present a methodology to assess different MR-sequences with respect to the texture measure that is used later in the image analysis. We acquired for a bone specimen HR-MR-sequences with different spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio. For these data sets we selected two volumes of interest (VOI) of same size located in the trabecular bone and in the background of the image. For both VOIs the scaling indices are calculated for different scale parameters. Subsequently the 'texture contrast' between structure and background is calculated by comparing the probability distributions of the scaling indices using a quadratic distance measure. By means of the contrast the optimal set of scale parameters is determined. By comparing the contrast for the different MR sequences the best suited ones are determined. It turns out that sequences with slightly lower spatial resolution but better signal to noise ration yield a better texture contrast than sequences with the best spatial resolution. The presented methodology offers the possibility to optimize simultaneously texture measures and MR-sequences, which will allow for an adapted and thus optimized analysis of image structures, e.g. trabecular bone, in the HR-MR data.

  9. Clinical value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in health screening of general adult population

    PubMed Central

    Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Richter, Antje; Karlinger, Kinga; Berczi, Viktor; Pickuth, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) and angiography (WB-MRA) has become increasingly popular in population-based research. We evaluated retrospectively the frequency of potentially relevant incidental findings throughout the body. Materials and methods 22 highly health-conscious managers (18 men, mean age 47±9 years) underwent WB-MRI and WB-MRA between March 2012 and September 2013 on a Discovery MR750w wide bore 3 Tesla device (GE Healthcare) using T1 weighted, short tau inversion recovery (STIR) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) acquisitions according to a standardized protocol. Results A suspicious (pararectal) malignancy was detected in one patient which was confirmed by an endorectal sonography. Incidental findings were described in 20 subjects, including hydrocele (11 patients), benign bony lesion (7 patients) and non-specific lymph nodes (5 patients). Further investigations were recommended in 68% (ultrasound: 36%, computed tomography: 28%, mammography: 9%, additional MRI: 9%). WB-MRA were negative in 16 subjects. Vascular normal variations were reported in 23%, and a 40% left proximal common carotid artery stenosis were described in one subject. Conclusions WB-MRI and MRA lead to the detection of clinically relevant diseases and unexpected findings in a cohort of healthy adults that require further imaging or surveillance in 68%. WB-MR imaging may play a paramount role in health screening, especially in the future generation of (epi)genetic based screening of malignant and atherosclerotic disorders. Our study is the first which involved a highly selected patient group using a high field 3-T wide bore magnet system with T1, STIR, MRA and whole-body DWI acquisitions as well. PMID:25810696

  10. Investigating adolescent stress and body image.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kristen M; Byrne, Don G; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades 7 to 10. Results indicated that stress accounts for a sizeable proportion of variance in body image, and the best exploratory model included stress, self-esteem, and gender. Further, specific domains of stressors related to body image differently: peer pressure and school attendance were significant correlates of body image in both genders, while future uncertainty and romantic relationships were significant for males alone. Grade differences in primary variables were also evident for females. This study helps to elucidate the role of adolescent stress in dysfunctional body image and provides insight for future prevention and intervention programs in schools.

  11. Adolescent body image and psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Davison, Tanya E; McCabe, Marita P

    2006-02-01

    Researchers have highlighted the significance of a poor body image in the development of dysfunctional eating but have systematically investigated few other outcomes. The authors examined the relationships between different aspects of body image and psychosocial functioning. Participants were 245 boys and 173 girls from Grades 8 and 9 (M age = 13.92 years, SD = 0.69 years). Respondents completed measures of physical attractiveness, body satisfaction, body image importance, body image behaviors, appearance comparison, social physique anxiety, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and same-sex and opposite-sex relations. Whereas girls tended to report a more negative body image than did boys, the relevance of body image to self-esteem was similar for boys and girls. Concern about others' evaluation of their bodies was especially important in understanding low female self-esteem, whereas for boys, ratings of general attractiveness most strongly predicted self-esteem. The authors found a negative body image to be unrelated to symptoms of negative affect but to be strongly associated with poor opposite-sex peer relationships, especially among boys. A negative body image also affected same-sex relations among girls.

  12. Body image distortions in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Christina T; Longo, Matthew R; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Distortions of body image have often been investigated in clinical disorders. Much of this literature implicitly assumes healthy adults maintain an accurate body image. We recently developed a novel, implicit, and quantitative measure of body image - the Body Image Task (BIT). Here, we report a large-scale analysis of performance on this task by healthy adults. In both an in-person and an online version of the BIT, participants were presented with an image of a head as an anchoring stimulus on a computer screen, and told to imagine that the head was part of a mirror image of themselves in a standing position. They were then instructed to judge where, relative to the head, each of several parts of their body would be located. The relative positions of each landmark can be used to construct an implicit perceptual map of bodily structure. We could thus measure the internally-stored body image, although we cannot exclude contributions from other representations. Our results show several distortions of body image. First, we found a large and systematic over-estimation of width relative to height. These distortions were similar for both males and females, and did not closely track the idiosyncrasies of individual participant's own bodies. Comparisons of individual body parts showed that participants overestimated the width of their shoulders and the length of their upper arms, relative to their height, while underestimating the lengths of their lower arms and legs. Principal components analysis showed a clear spatial structure to the distortions, suggesting spatial organisation and segmentation of the body image into upper and lower limb components that are bilaterally integrated. These results provide new insight into the body image of healthy adults, and have implications for the study and rehabilitation of clinical populations.

  13. Recurrent ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow: Correlation of surgical findings and 3-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Thakkar, Rashmi S; Carrino, John A; Dellon, A Lee

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe the correlation between 3-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) and surgical findings in two patients who underwent multiple previous failed ulnar nerve surgeries. MRN correctly localized the site of the abnormality. Prospectively observed MRN findings of perineural fibrosis, ulnar nerve re-entrapment abnormalities, medial antebrachial cutaneous neuroma and additional median nerve entrapment were confirmed surgically.

  14. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  15. Investigating Adolescent Stress and Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Kristen M.; Byrne, Don G.; Rieger, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent stress is clearly implicated in the development of mental health problems. However, its role in dysfunctional body image, which rises markedly in adolescence, has not been investigated. The present study examined the link between stress and body image, as well as self-esteem and depressive symptoms, in 533 high school students in grades…

  16. Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…

  17. The Image of the Performing Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Eric C.

    2008-01-01

    This essay discusses the manner in which the human body is developed and transformed into an aesthetically expressive medium. This process entails capitalizing on functions performed by the body schema and, more specifically, on using the perceptual experience (or "image") of the body to consciously form motor schemata. Since this process is…

  18. Measurement and evaluation of the acoustic noise of a 3 Tesla MR scanner.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    We measured the sound level and frequencies of the acoustic noise generated by a 3 Tesla (T) MR scanner, and investigated the subjective sound level for 30 healthy volunteers with either earplugs, headphones or both. The sound level of 3T was found to be higher than that of 1.5T in all sequences. The peak sound pressure level of 3T ranged from 125.7 dB for MR angiography to 130.7 dB for single shot EPI on the linear scale. The equivalent noise level was from 110.0 dB for FLAIR to 115.8 dB for T1-IR on the A-weighted scale, which exceeded 99 dB, the level regulated by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The study of the subjective sound level showed that the effect of noise reduction was not significantly different between earplugs and headphones. However, the use of both devices could reduce the subjective sound level significantly better than either one alone (P < 0.01). Thus we propose wearing both devices for ear-protection during 3T examinations.

  19. Pediatric Body Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Goyal, Ankur; Sharma, Raju; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a radiation-free imaging modality with excellent contrast resolution and multiplanar capabilities. Since ionizing radiation is an important concern in the pediatric population, MRI serves as a useful alternative to computed tomography (CT) and also provides additional clues to diagnosis, not discernible on other investigations. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), urography, angiography, enterography, dynamic multiphasic imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging provide wealth of information. The main limitations include, long scan time, need for sedation/anesthesia, cost and lack of widespread availability. With the emergence of newer sequences and variety of contrast agents, MRI has become a robust modality and may serve as a one-stop shop for both anatomical and functional information.

  20. Media Images: Do They Influence College Students' Body Image?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Gina Jarman

    2009-01-01

    Body image perception and body mass index (BMI) among college students exposed and not exposed to photographs of models were compared. Classes were assigned to receive a presentation with or without photographs of models incorporated. Students (n = 184) completed a survey about body/weight satisfaction, height, weight, and the Contour Drawing…

  1. Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality After Amputation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the field of rehabilitation psychology. Translated from Altered States - Our Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality http://www.amputee-coalition.org/first_step_2005/altered_states.html Back to Top Last updated: 12/31/ ...

  2. Lice, body with stool (Pediculus humanus) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... capitis ), or the pubic area ( Phthirus pubis ). Some body lice may carry diseases such as epidemic typhus, relapsing fever, or trench fever. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  3. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your ... KidsHealth > For Teens > A Guy's Guide to ...

  4. Superconducting 72-pole Indirect Cooling 3Tesla Wiggler for CLIC Damping Ring and ANKA Image Beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragin, A.; Gusev, Ye.; Khrushchev, S.; Mezentsev, N.; Shkaruba, V.; Syrovatin, V.; Tarasenko, O.; Tsukanov, V.; Volkov, A.; K. Zolotarev; Zorin, A.

    One of the directions of BINP activity is the creation of multipole superconducting wigglers with the magnetic field levels from 2 T to 7.5 T which are installed on many SR sources. Special efforts were made by BINP to develop the cryogenic system with zero liquid helium consumption. The next significant step became the design and creation of superconducting full size prototype of damping wiggler for CLIC project where supposed the installation of 104 wigglers. For operation of CLIC damping wiggler it is required the magnetic field of 3 T and the period about 50 mm with a beam vertical aperture of 13 mm. Design features of the wiggler which was proposed and created by BINP is the application of the indirect cooling method. In this case Nb-Ti magnet with the length of 1.9 m and the weight of 700 kg is located in a vacuum and is cooled by four Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers. To maintain the temperature about 4.2 K on the magnet it is used the tubes with circulating liquid helium as the heat conducting elements. To increase the efficiency of pre-cooling down of the magnet it is used nitrogen-based heat pipes of siphon type. The features of the magnetic and cryogenic systems of CLIC damping wiggler full size prototype and test results are presented in this article.

  5. Sacrotuberous Ligament Healing following Surgical Division during Transgluteal Pudendal Nerve Decompression: A 3-Tesla MR Neurography Study

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Jan; Fritz, Benjamin; Dellon, A. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic pain due to chronic pudendal nerve (PN) compression, when treated surgically, is approached with a transgluteal division of the sacrotuberous ligament (STL). Controversy exists as to whether the STL heals spontaneously or requires grafting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine how surgically divided and unrepaired STL heal. A retrospective evaluation of 10 patients who had high spatial resolution 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3T MRI) exams of the pelvis was done using an IRB-approved protocol. Each patient was referred for residual pelvic pain after a transgluteal STL division for chronic pudendal nerve pain. Of the 10 patients, 8 had the STL divided and not repaired, while 2 had the STL divided and reconstructed with an allograft tendon. Of the 8 that were left unrepaired, 6 had bilateral surgery. Outcome variables included STL integrity and thickness. Normative data for the STL were obtained through a control group of 20 subjects. STL integrity and thickness were measured directly on 3 T MR Neurography images, by two independent Radiologists. The integrity and thickness of the post-surgical STL was evaluated 39 months (range, 9–55) after surgery. Comparison was made with the native contra-lateral STL in those who had unilateral STL division, and with normal, non-divided STL of subjects of the control group. The normal STL measured 3 mm (minimum and maximum of absolute STL thickness, 2–3 mm). All post-operative STL were found to be continuous regardless of the surgical technique used. Measured at level of Alcock’s canal in the same plane as the obturator internus tendon posterior to the ischium, the mean anteroposterior STL diameter was 5 mm (range, 4–5 mm) in the group of prior STL division without repair and 8 mm (range, 8–9 mm) in the group with the STL reconstructed with grafts (p<0.05). The group of healed STLs were significantly thicker than the normal STL (p<0.05). We conclude that a surgically divided STL will heal

  6. Imaging of drug smuggling by body packing.

    PubMed

    Sica, Giacomo; Guida, Franco; Bocchini, Giorgio; Iaselli, Francesco; Iadevito, Isabella; Scaglione, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    Body packing, pushing, and stuffing are hazardous practices with complex medicolegal and social implications. A radiologist plays both a social and a medicolegal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location so as to prevent any package remains in the body packer. Radiologists must also be able to recognize the complications associated with these risky practices. Imaging assessment of body packing is performed essentially through plain abdominal X-ray and computed tomography scans. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, although with some advantages, actually have a limited use.

  7. Male body image following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Howes, Hannah; Edwards, Stephen; Benton, David

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate body image concerns and psycho-emotional health in males with acquired brain injury (ABI). Using a between subjects study of 25 males with ABI and 25 matched controls, variables were analysed using correlations and 2 x 2 analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with head injury and injury type as independent variables. Body image and psycho-emotional health were evaluated using self-report questionnaires. Disability and cognitive impairment were measured using a mixture of self-report, cognitive testing and clinical notes. Results indicated that males with ABI had significantly lower self-esteem and body dissatisfaction on a number of items relating to physical and sexual functioning. There were significant differences in body image between stroke and TBI, but there was no corresponding relationship with psycho-emotional health. These body image differences might be explained by age. The finding that ABI has a negative effect on body image and that this relates to psycho-emotional health should be investigated further, perhaps being included in future rehabilitation strategies.

  8. Body image concerns after colorectal cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Claire

    Body image is understood to be a person's perception of his or her own physical appearance although, as this article highlights, it embraces a greater range of bodily attributes than is often appreciated. It can be significantly affected by a diagnosis of colorectal cancer and subsequent treatment, which may modify the way the body looks, feels and functions. One of the major aesthetic and functional consequences of colorectal cancer surgery is the possibility of stoma formation, which is of particular concern to many. However, the range of other bodily effects following surgery should not be overlooked, not least because of they may result in distress. While concerns about changes in body image generally decrease over time, people recovering from cancer treatment often feel their relationship with their body has been permanently altered. Specialist support is often required when adjusting to any changes in bodily appearance and function. Care outcomes can be improved by having a sound understanding of the body image concerns likely to arise following treatment, as well as the skills to identify and support patients at risk of altered body image. This article provides guidance to nurses caring for individuals who may be experiencing distress over how their body is now perceived by themselves and others following colorectal cancer surgery.

  9. A 128-Channel Receive-Only Cardiac Coil for Highly Accelerated Cardiac MRI at 3 Tesla

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Melanie; Potthast, Andreas; Sosnovik, David E.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Wiggins, Graham C.; Triantafyllou, Christina; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2008-01-01

    A 128-channel receive-only array coil is described and tested for cardiac imaging at 3T. The coil is closely contoured to the body with a “clam-shell” geometry with 68 posterior and 60 anterior elements, each 75 mm in diameter, and arranged in a continuous overlapped array of hexagonal symmetry to minimize nearest neighbor coupling. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise amplification for parallel imaging (G-factor) were evaluated in phantom and volunteer experiments. These results were compared to those of commercially available 24-channel and 32-channel coils in routine use for cardiac imaging. The in vivo measurements with the 128-channel coil resulted in SNR gains compared to the 24-channel coil (up to 2.2-fold in the apex). The 128- and 32-channel coils showed similar SNR in the heart, likely dominated by the similar element diameters of these coils. The maximum G-factor values were up to seven times better for a seven-fold acceleration factor (R = 7) compared to the 24-channel coil and up to two-fold improved compared to the 32-channel coil. The ability of the 128-channel coil to facilitate highly accelerated cardiac imaging was demonstrated in four volunteers using acceleration factors up to seven-fold (R = 7) in a single spatial dimension. PMID:18506789

  10. 3 Tesla multiparametric MRI for GTV-definition of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions in patients with Prostate Cancer – an interobserver variability study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the interobserver variability of gross tumor volume (GTV) - delineation of Dominant Intraprostatic Lesions (DIPL) in patients with prostate cancer using published MRI criteria for multiparametric MRI at 3 Tesla by 6 different observers. Material and methods 90 GTV-datasets based on 15 multiparametric MRI sequences (T2w, diffusion weighted (DWI) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)) of 5 patients with prostate cancer were generated for GTV-delineation of DIPL by 6 observers. The reference GTV-dataset was contoured by a radiologist with expertise in diagnostic imaging of prostate cancer using MRI. Subsequent GTV-delineation was performed by 5 radiation oncologists who received teaching of MRI-features of primary prostate cancer before starting contouring session. GTV-datasets were contoured using Oncentra Masterplan® and iplan® Net. For purposes of comparison GTV-datasets were imported to the Artiview® platform (Aquilab®), GTV-values and the similarity indices or Kappa indices (KI) were calculated with the postulation that a KI > 0.7 indicates excellent, a KI > 0.6 to < 0.7 substantial and KI > 0.5 to < 0.6 moderate agreement. Additionally all observers rated difficulties of contouring for each MRI-sequence using a 3 point rating scale (1 = easy to delineate, 2 = minor difficulties, 3 = major difficulties). Results GTV contouring using T2w (KI-T2w = 0.61) and DCE images (KI-DCE = 0.63) resulted in substantial agreement. GTV contouring using DWI images resulted in moderate agreement (KI-DWI = 0.51). KI-T2w and KI-DCE was significantly higher than KI-DWI (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003). Degree of difficulty in contouring GTV was significantly lower using T2w and DCE compared to DWI-sequences (both p < 0.0001). Analysis of delineation differences revealed inadequate comparison of functional (DWI, DCE) to anatomical sequences (T2w) and lack of awareness of non-specific imaging findings as a source of erroneous

  11. Body image disturbance and skin bleaching.

    PubMed

    Charles, Christopher A D; McLean, Shua-Kym

    2017-02-24

    This study looks at body image disturbance among Jamaicans who bleach their skin. The hypothesis states that there is a positive relationship between skin bleaching and body image disturbance. The study used a convenience sample of 160 participants with a skin bleaching group (n = 80) and a non-bleaching comparison group (n = 80). The instrument included demographic questions, the body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ), and questions about skin bleaching. The results of a t-test revealed that the skin bleaching group (M = 1.5255, SD = 0.42169) was not significantly different from the non-bleaching group (M = 1.4938, SD = 0.74217) in terms of body image disturbance, t(158) = 0.333, p = .740. The participants who bleached did not suffer from body image disturbance. Self-reports revealed that they bleached to acquire beauty, attract a partner, elude the police, and market skin bleaching products. The practice was fashionable and popular and it made some participants feel good, while others were fans of a popular musical artiste who bleached his skin. The majority of participants bleached because of the perceived personal, social, and entrepreneurial benefits of the practice and not because they suffered emotional distress, anxiety, and functional impairment because of their skin colour. However, there was some level of BID among the minority of participants who argued that they bleached because they wanted to be pretty so they were emotionally distressed about there body image and experienced functional impairment.

  12. [Body image of adolescents in rural cities].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Valter Paulo Neves; Conti, Maria Aparecida; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Laus, Maria Fernanda; Almeida, Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2014-06-01

    The scope of this article is to evaluate the body image of adolescents from rural cities and its relationship with nutritional status, sex and the adolescent phase. Adolescents of both sexes participated in the cross-sectional study. Body image was evaluated through the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Figure Rating Scale (FRS) for adolescents. Weight and height were measured for the evaluation of body mass index (BMI). Stages of adolescence were classified by age. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Four hundred and forty-five adolescents (190 boys and 255 girls), with a mean age of 16.44 comprised the sample. Higher risk of body dissatisfaction was found among overweight and obese participants (BSQ: OR = 3.359 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 1.572 p = 0.387) and the female sex (BSQ: OR = 3.694 p < 0.001; ESA: OR = 0.922, p = 0.840). Participants from the intermediary and final stages of adolescence revealed a lesser risk of dissatisfaction compared to those from the initial phase. Body dissatisfaction was related to overweight and obesity, to the female sex and to the initial period of adolescence. Intervention research is required to control the factors that influence excessive adolescent body dissatisfaction.

  13. Enabling patients to manage altered body image.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-12-14

    The author presented a model in the 1990s to explain altered body image, which has been used to characterise the difficulties encountered by patients who experience body change as a result of illness, injury or disability. However, it remains a challenge for nurses to establish care plans that can assist patients to manage the psychological adjustments associated with disfigurement. This article presents some simple questions to help patients narrate their psychological experiences and needs, and proposes a model of psychological change, based on the work of Kübler-Ross, to enable nurses to anticipate patient requirements that might arise at different stages of the individual's recovery and rehabilitation. Body-image rehabilitation may be protracted. Therefore, it is essential for nurses to understand what the patient is thinking and feeling throughout the rehabilitation process and which stage of psychological change the patient is working through.

  14. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  15. Reclaiming body image: the hidden burn.

    PubMed

    Willis-Helmich, J J

    1992-01-01

    At the age of 4, I incurred a major burn injury that left 45% of my body with permanent scars. Normal clothing covers most of the scars. I was able to reclaim a positive body image through a gradual process of verbal and "body" disclosure. As an adult, I joined a burn survivors' self-help group; as a result of talking with other burn survivors, my self expectations increased. Later, I joined a facilitated group in which nudity and personal growth were the norm. In this group, I was the only person who had experienced a major physical trauma. I replaced my strongly held beliefs that others could not accept my unclothed, burn-injured body with the belief that some persons can, and I came to a personal understanding of why others could not. Fun, exercise, and relaxation led to a reclamation of positive feelings about my unclothed body and allowed my femininity and the character of my body image to emerge and become integrated.

  16. Body image in different periods of adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Valter Paulo N.; Conti, Maria Aparecida; de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique B.; Bastos, Ronaldo Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze body image in different periods of adolescence. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled students aged ten to 19 years old of public schools in small districts of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), the Body Dissatisfaction Assessment Scale for Teenagers and the Silhouette Scale for Teenagers (SST) were used. Adolescence phases were classified according to the subjects' ages. Weight and height were measured in order to calculate the body mass index and the nutritional status. Results were analyzed by logistic regression. Results: The study emolled 531 teenagers (318 females). The average age was 15.6± 2 .2 years and 84.6% were eutrophic. The prevalence of body dissatisfaction varied from 28.9% (BSQ) to 78.9% (SST). Overweight adolescents presented greater dissatisfaction (BSQ: OR 3.66, p<0.001; SST: OR 4.108, p<0.001). Dissatisfaction also occurred for females and those at the early adolescence (p<0.05). Conclusions: A low prevalence of dissatisfaction with the body image was observed among adolescents in small towns of Minas Gerais; however, most of them wished a different silhouette than the current one. The results showed that younger adolescents had higher dissatisfaction than their peers, as well as female and overweighed adolescents. PMID:24676192

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of the body

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.B.; Hricak, H.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides reference to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the body. Beginning with explanatory chapters on the physics, instrumentation, and interpretation of MRI, it proceeds to the normal anatomy of the neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Other chapters cover magnetic resonance imaging of blood flow, the larynx, the lymph nodes, and the spine, as well as MRI in obstetrics. The text features detailed coverage of magnetic resonance imaging of numerous disorders and disease states, including neck disease, thoracic disease; breast disease; congenital and acquired heart disease; vascular disease; diseases of the liver, pancreas, and spleen; diseases of the kidney, adrenals, and retroperitoneum; diseases of the male and female pelvis; and musculoskeletal diseases. Chapters on the biological and environmental hazards of MRI, the current clinical status of MRI in comparison to other imaging modalities, and economic considerations are also included.

  18. Toward a Theoretical Model of Women's Body Image Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses women's body image resilience. Body image dissatisfaction is prevalent among girls and women. Girls as young as 6 years old experience negative body image, and there is evidence that women struggle with body concerns throughout the life cycle (Lewis & Cachelin, 2001; Smolak, 2002; Striegel-Moore & Franko, 2002). In fact,…

  19. Comparison of Interventions for Women Experiencing Body Image Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Sari H.; Kerr, Barbara A.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the effects of three counseling interventions on women's body image and self-concept (cognitive therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, and reflective therapy), using Secord and Jourard's Body-Cathexis and Self-Cathexis Scales. All participants improved in body image and self-concept. Cognitive therapy was most effective for body image,…

  20. Body Image in Female Professional and Amateur Dancers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollatou, Elisana; Bakali, Nikoleta; Theodorakis, Yannis; Goudas, Marios

    2010-01-01

    Body image is considered to be an obscure, mental representation of body shape, size and form which is influenced by a variety of factors that operate over varying time spans. Research has shown that professional female dancers may face preoccupations with their body image and weight. The present study aimed to investigate how body image was…

  1. Body image, compulsory heterosexuality, and internalized homophobia.

    PubMed

    Pitman, G E

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT Body dissatisfaction in lesbians is a subject which has traditionally been ignored in the psychological literature on body image and eating disorders. Early feminist theorists and researchers argued that body dissatisfaction in women developed as a way of dealing with the oppression and misogyny they are faced with on a daily basis. However, these theories failed to take issues of race, class, and sexual orientation into account, thereby excluding the experiences of a diversity of women. This article focuses specifically on the lesbian experience and explores how cultural messages about thinness, femininity, and heterosexuality shape lesbians' feelings about their sexuality and about their bodies. Through the inevitable process of internalizing homophobia and fat hatred, both of which are institutionalized ways of keeping heterosexuality and female oppression in place, lesbians may begin to believe that there is something inherently wrong with them and with their bodies. This article explores how the impact of racism, classism, sexism, and homophobia on women may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the cultural forces behind women's dissatisfaction with their bodies.

  2. Body Image and Sexuality in Women with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Ruth; Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie; Miller, Janis M.

    2010-01-01

    Body image, including how a woman views her genitals, has been shown to impact sexuality. Currently, there are no valid and reliable questionnaires to assess body image specific to women with genital changes from pelvic organ prolapse. The purpose of this study was to assess implementation of a body image questionnaire in women with pelvic organ prolapse. The Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem Scale showed utility and potential for demonstrating change in body image after prolapse surgery. PMID:19718939

  3. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  4. Electronic imaging of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannier, Michael W.; Yates, Randall E.; Whitestone, Jennifer J.

    1992-09-01

    The Human Engineering Division of the Armstrong Laboratory (USAF); the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology; the Washington University School of Medicine; and the Lister-Hill National Center for Biomedical Communication, National Library of Medicine are sponsoring a working group on electronic imaging of the human body. Electronic imaging of the surface of the human body has been pursued and developed by a number of disciplines including radiology, forensics, surgery, engineering, medical education, and anthropometry. The applications range from reconstructive surgery to computer-aided design (CAD) of protective equipment. Although these areas appear unrelated, they have a great deal of commonality. All the organizations working in this area are faced with the challenges of collecting, reducing, and formatting the data in an efficient and standard manner; storing this data in a computerized database to make it readily accessible; and developing software applications that can visualize, manipulate, and analyze the data. This working group is being established to encourage effective use of the resources of all the various groups and disciplines involved in electronic imaging of the human body surface by providing a forum for discussing progress and challenges with these types of data.

  5. Body dissatisfaction, engagement in body change behaviors and sociocultural influences on body image among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoyan; Mellor, David; Kiehne, Melanie; Ricciardelli, Lina A; McCabe, Marita P; Xu, Yangang

    2010-03-01

    Body dissatisfaction and body image disorders are becoming increasingly prevalent in developing non-Western countries such as China, but there is a lack of research examining the sociocultural factors that in other contexts have been associated with these problems. The current study investigated body dissatisfaction, engagement in body change behaviors, and sociocultural pressures on body image, and the relationships between these variables among 517 adolescent males (N=219) and females (N=298) in China. Females reported greater body dissatisfaction than males, and males reported using strategies to increase their muscle bulk more often than females. Males reported pressure from a variety of sociocultural sources to increase their muscles or weight, while females reported pressure from the media to lose weight. For males body dissatisfaction was predicted by pressure from peers to increase their muscle bulk, while for females pressure to lose weight from peers, adult relatives, and the media was likely to increase body dissatisfaction. Pressure from the media and adult relatives was also predictive of body change behaviors in both males and females. The findings are discussed in relation to previous research in both Western and non-Western contexts.

  6. Relationships Between Body Image, Body Composition, Sexual Functioning, and Sexual Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the association between body image and body-image self-consciousness on sexual satisfaction, accounting for relationships between body fat and body image, and between sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction, while controlling for relationship satisfaction. Participants were 143, 18-25 year-old Caucasian men and women in heterosexual monogamous relationships, recruited from the University of Guelph and surrounding community in Ontario, Canada. Various domains of body image, body-image self-consciousness, sexual satisfaction and functioning, and relationship satisfaction data were collected by questionnaires. Body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body image was positively associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Men with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer behavioral and affective body image. Only body image specific to the sexual encounter influenced sexual functioning. Among women, no domain of body image was associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Women with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer affective and sexual-encounter-specific body image. As percent total fat increased, sexual functioning decreased. Our results suggest a complex pattern of relationships exists among body image and body composition constructs and sexual and relationship variable; and that these relationships are not the same for men and women.

  7. Resection and Resolution of Bone Marrow Lesions Associated with an Improvement of Pain after Total Knee Replacement: A Novel Case Study Using a 3-Tesla Metal Artefact Reduction MRI Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, Brett; Pearson, Richard G.; Scammell, Brigitte E.

    2016-01-01

    We present our case report using a novel metal artefact reduction magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence to observe resolution of subchondral bone marrow lesions (BMLs), which are strongly associated with pain, in a patient after total knee replacement surgery. Large BMLs were seen preoperatively on the 3-Tesla MRI scans in a patient with severe end stage OA awaiting total knee replacement surgery. Twelve months after surgery, using a novel metal artefact reduction MRI sequence, we were able to visualize the bone-prosthesis interface and found complete resection and resolution of these BMLs. This is the first reported study in the UK to use this metal artefact reduction MRI sequence at 3-Tesla showing that resection and resolution of BMLs in this patient were associated with an improvement of pain and function after total knee replacement surgery. In this case it was associated with a clinically significant improvement of pain and function after surgery. Failure to eradicate these lesions may be a cause of persistent postoperative pain that is seen in up to 20% of patients following TKR surgery. PMID:27648327

  8. Internet addiction symptoms, disordered eating, and body image avoidance.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Melioli, Tiffany; Laconi, Stéphanie; Bui, Eric; Chabrol, Henri

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction is an increasing concern among young adults. Self-presentational theory posits that the Internet offers a context in which individuals are able to control their image. Little is known about body image and eating concerns among pathological Internet users. The aim of this study was to explore the association between Internet addiction symptoms, body image esteem, body image avoidance, and disordered eating. A sample of 392 French young adults (68 percent women) completed an online questionnaire assessing time spent online, Internet addiction symptoms, disordered eating, and body image avoidance. Fourteen men (11 percent) and 26 women (9.7 percent) reported Internet addiction. Body image avoidance was associated with Internet addiction symptoms among both genders. Controlling for body-mass index, Internet addiction symptoms, and body image avoidance were both significant predictors of disordered eating among women. These findings support the self-presentational theory of Internet addiction and suggest that body image avoidance is an important factor.

  9. Distortion of body image among elite female dancers.

    PubMed

    Pierce, E F; Daleng, M L

    1998-12-01

    To examine body image and possible distortion of body image among elite female dancers 10 members of a professional ballet company rated both current and ideal body shape. In addition, an objective measure of body composition was obtained via skinfold techniques. t tests indicated that the mean rating for current body image was significantly higher than the rating for ideal, despite the fact that body-composition measures for all subjects were in an "ideal" range according to normative standards. Analysis indicated a high distortion of body image among these dancers and support psychophysiological concerns previously raised.

  10. Light on Body Image Treatment: Acceptance Through Mindfulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Tiffany M.

    2004-01-01

    The treatment of body image has to be multifaceted and should be directed toward the treatment of the whole individual - body, mind, and spirit - with an ultimate culmination of acceptance and compassion for the self. This article presents information on a mindful approach to the treatment of body image as it pertains to concerns with body size…

  11. The Development of Body Image and Weight Bias in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R

    2017-01-01

    Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children.

  12. The Fantastical Body and the Vulnerability of Comfort: Alternative Models for Understanding Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Arguing for new models of inquiry that interrogate body image from the perspective of intercorporeality, this article explores a research study conducted in a secondary school art class. Shifting analysis from the representation of body image to a tactile, sensuous, and experiential understanding of body image, I highlight the contradictions and…

  13. Body image concern among Australian adolescent girls: the role of body comparisons with models and peers.

    PubMed

    Carey, Renee N; Donaghue, Ngaire; Broderick, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential mediating roles of body comparisons with peers and models in the relationship between the internalization of thinness norms and body image concern. A total of 224 Western Australian girls aged 14-15 completed questionnaires assessing their endorsement of thinness norms, body image concerns, and frequency of body comparisons with peers and with models. Both targets of body comparisons were found to significantly mediate the relationship between the endorsement of thinness norms and body image concern, with body comparison with peers a stronger mediator than comparison with models. These findings show that body comparison with peers, in particular, plays a significant role in the experience of body image concerns among adolescent girls, and should be given a higher profile in programs designed to prevent or reduce body image concern.

  14. Human body region enhancement method based on Kinect infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Fan, Yubo; Song, Xiaowei; Cai, Wenjing

    2016-10-01

    To effectively improve the low contrast of human body region in the infrared images, a combing method of several enhancement methods is utilized to enhance the human body region. Firstly, for the infrared images acquired by Kinect, in order to improve the overall contrast of the infrared images, an Optimal Contrast-Tone Mapping (OCTM) method with multi-iterations is applied to balance the contrast of low-luminosity infrared images. Secondly, to enhance the human body region better, a Level Set algorithm is employed to improve the contour edges of human body region. Finally, to further improve the human body region in infrared images, Laplacian Pyramid decomposition is adopted to enhance the contour-improved human body region. Meanwhile, the background area without human body region is processed by bilateral filtering to improve the overall effect. With theoretical analysis and experimental verification, the results show that the proposed method could effectively enhance the human body region of such infrared images.

  15. 96-Channel Receive-Only Head Coil for 3 Tesla: Design Optimization and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Graham C.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Potthast, Andreas; Schmitt, Melanie; Alagappan, Vijay; Wald, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and challenges of highly parallel array coils for head imaging were investigated through the development of a 3T receive-only phased-array head coil with 96 receive elements constructed on a close-fitting helmet-shaped former. We evaluated several designs for the coil elements and matching circuitry, with particular attention to sources of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss, including various sources of coil loading and coupling between the array elements. The SNR and noise amplification (g-factor) in accelerated imaging were quantitatively evaluated in phantom and human imaging and compared to a 32-channel array built on an identical helmet-shaped former and to a larger commercial 12-channel head coil. The 96-channel coil provided substantial SNR gains in the distal cortex compared to the 12- and 32-channel coils. The central SNR for the 96-channel coil was similar to the 32-channel coil for optimum SNR combination and 20% lower for root-sum-of-squares combination. There was a significant reduction in the maximum g-factor for 96 channels compared to 32; for example, the 96-channel maximum g-factor was 65% of the 32-channel value for acceleration rate 4. The performance of the array is demonstrated in highly accelerated brain images. PMID:19623621

  16. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  17. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  18. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    PubMed

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  19. The role of scar origin in shaping men's body image.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Anne; Mayer-Eckhard, Lennart; White, Andrew J; Alpers, Georg W

    2015-03-01

    Men generally have a more positive body image than women. However, the extent to which scars negatively influence men's body image is uncertain. The aim of the current study was to assess body image in men with and without scars while taking scar origin into account (nonsuicidal self-harming injuries [NSSI] vs. accidents or surgery). One hundred and nine men (n = 19 with NSSI) and 185 women (n = 96 with NSSI) filled in multidimensional body image questionnaires. Results indicate that on most clinical subscales women had a significantly more negative body image compared with men. However, within a subsample whose scars resulted from NSSI, gender differences vanished. Among men, scar origin was significantly associated with negative body image after partialling out scar characteristics, age, and borderline symptomatology. The visibility of scars was not associated with more severe body image disturbances. The results of our study indicate that self-inflicted scars adversely affect body image. Although women generally reported having a more negative body image, disturbances in body image should not be neglected among men, especially in those who have self-inflicted scars.

  20. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  1. Attractive celebrity and peer images on Instagram: Effect on women's mood and body image.

    PubMed

    Brown, Zoe; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-12-01

    A large body of research has documented that exposure to images of thin fashion models contributes to women's body dissatisfaction. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of attractive celebrity and peer images on women's body image. Participants were 138 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of celebrity images, a set of equally attractive unknown peer images, or a control set of travel images. All images were sourced from public Instagram profiles. Results showed that exposure to celebrity and peer images increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction relative to travel images, with no significant difference between celebrity and peer images. This effect was mediated by state appearance comparison. In addition, celebrity worship moderated an increased effect of celebrity images on body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that exposure to attractive celebrity and peer images can be detrimental to women's body image.

  2. Body Weight, Body Image, and Perception of Fad Diets in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storz, Nancy S.; Greene, Walter H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined relationships among adolescent girls' (N=203) satisfaction with body weight, body image, and perception/use of fad diets. Subjects wanting to lose weight were placed into two groups based on amount of weight-loss desired and compared in terms of body image scores, ratings of fad diets, and frequency of using the diets. (JN)

  3. Body image among victims of sexual and physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.

  4. Body-Image Evaluation and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A Test of Sociocultural and Social Comparison Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Todd G.; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A.

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion…

  5. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body.

  6. Mindfulness, body image, and drive for muscularity in men.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Gratz, Kim L; Anderson, Drew A

    2012-03-01

    Studies have shown that dispositional mindfulness, a construct characterized by awareness and attention to present moment experiences, is associated with body image constructs in women. However, little is known about the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and body image among men. Therefore, this study examined the unique associations between dispositional mindfulness and three body image variables in men: overall appearance evaluation, satisfaction with distinct body areas, and drive for muscularity. Undergraduate men (N=296) completed the Multidimensional Body Self-Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales, the Drive for Muscularity Scale, the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. A series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mindfulness was uniquely associated with all three body image variables after accounting for body mass index and negative affect. Results are discussed with regard to the potential role of dispositional mindfulness in body dissatisfaction among men.

  7. Body Image in Younger Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Carly; Lengacher, Cecile A.; Donovan, Kristine A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Tofthagen, Cindy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body image is a complex issue with the potential to impact many aspects of cancer survivorship, particularly for the younger breast cancer survivor. Objective The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current state of the science for body image in younger women with breast cancer. Intervention/Methods Combinations of the terms “body image,” “sexuality intervention,” “women,” “younger women,” and “breast cancer” were searched in the PubMed, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge and Science Direct databases through January 2014. Inclusion criteria for this review were: 1) original research; 2) published in English from the year 2000 forward; 3) measuring body image as an outcome variable; and 4) results included reporting of age-related outcomes. Results Thirty-six articles met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, with extensive variation in body image assessment tools. Age and treatment type had a significant impact on body image, and poorer body image was related to physical and psychological distress, sex and intimacy, and the partnered relationship among younger women. Only one intervention study found a significant improvement in body image post-intervention. Conclusions Findings suggest body image is a complex post-treatment concern for breast cancer survivors, particularly younger women. The findings of this review are limited by the high level of variation in the methods for assessing body image. Implications for Practice Further research of interventions to address body image concerns following treatment for breast cancer is warranted. Improvement of body image may improve the quality of life of younger breast cancer survivors. PMID:25881807

  8. Impact of a healthy body image program among adolescent boys on body image, negative affect, and body change strategies.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Karantzas, Gery

    2010-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a healthy body image program. In total, 421 adolescent boys completed a five-session intervention program or a wait list control group. There were no differences between the intervention and the control group at post-intervention or any of the follow-up times. Boys in the intervention group who were one standard deviation above the mean on body dissatisfaction at baseline, demonstrated a reduction in negative affect in the intervention group at post-test and 6 months follow-up. Prevention programs need to target boys who are at risk of adopting health risk behaviors, rather than being universally applied.

  9. Body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Tamara Y; Mashal, Rima H; Al-Domi, Hayder A; Jibril, Musa A

    2010-01-01

    The present study has investigated the occurrence of body image dissatisfaction among adolescent schoolgirls in Amman, Jordan, and the risk factors that are known to predispose it including individual, familial and social variables. A sample of 326 adolescent girls aged 10-16 years was recruited from public and private schools in Amman. Participants completed a socio-demographic data sheet, eating attitude test, and body shape questionnaire. Approximately, 21.2% of participants displayed body image dissatisfaction in which physical changes associated with puberty and exhibiting negative eating attitudes were associated with this dissatisfaction. Additionally, mass media messages, as well as peers and family pressures towards thinness were associated with participants' preoccupation with their body image. In conclusion, negative body image perception was observed in the present sample. Therefore, well-controlled prospective studies and development of intervention programs on body image among adolescent girls in Jordan are needed.

  10. Impacts of exposure to images of ideal bodies on male body dissatisfaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Blond, Anna

    2008-09-01

    Research suggests that young men's body dissatisfaction increases when they see images of attractive muscular men. This article provides the first extensive review of experimental studies exposing men to advertisements or commercials featuring idealized male bodies. Impacts on body dissatisfaction were evaluated by calculating and analyzing effect sizes from 15 studies. The effect sizes indicate that exposure to images of idealized male bodies has a small but statistically significant negative impact on men's body dissatisfaction. Three studies suggest that young men who are dissatisfied with their bodies are at increased risk for negative self-evaluations when exposed to idealized images. Two studies suggest that men who are satisfied with their bodies may be protected against negative impacts from seeing such images.

  11. BodiMojo: effective Internet-based promotion of positive body image in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Franko, Debra L; Cousineau, Tara M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Roehrig, James P

    2013-09-01

    This study tested the efficacy of an Internet-based health promotion program, BodiMojo, designed to promote positive body image in adolescents. Participants were 178 students (mean age 15.2 years, 67.6% ethnic minority) in three public high schools. Intervention groups used BodiMojo for four weekly health class periods, while controls participated in their usual health curriculum. Body image measures were given at baseline, post-intervention, and 3 months. Girls reported decreased body dissatisfaction (p<.05), decreased physical appearance comparison (p<.05), and increased appearance satisfaction (p<.05), relative to controls. Effects were not maintained at 3-month follow-up. No significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups with boys. Moderation analyses suggested positive effects for diverse adolescents as well as those who were overweight or indicated baseline high body dissatisfaction. BodiMojo appears to be modestly effective in decreasing body image concerns among adolescent girls in the short term.

  12. Body Image in Adult Women: Moving Beyond the Younger Years

    PubMed Central

    Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Becker, Carolyn Black; Wesley, Nicole; Stewart, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    In spite of copious literature investigating body dissatisfaction and its correlates in adolescents and young adult women, exploration of body image disturbances in adult women remains an underrepresented domain in the literature. Yet, there are many reasons to suspect that body image in adult women both may differ from and possibly be more complex than that of younger women. Adult women face myriad factors influencing body image beyond those delineated in the body image literature on adolescents and young adult women. For instance, aging-related physiological changes shift the female body further away from the thin-young-ideal, which is the societal standard of female beauty. Further, life priorities and psychological factors evolve with age as well. As such, adult women encounter changes that may differentially affect body image across the lifespan. This paper aims to provide an up-to-date review of the current literature on the relationship between body image and associated mental and physical health problems and behaviors in adult women. In addition, we explore factors that may influence body image in adult women. Lastly, we use this review to identify significant gaps in the existing literature with the aim of identifying critical targets for future research. PMID:26052476

  13. Adolescent Male Athletes: Body Image, Diet, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Pamela S. McKay; Read, Marsha H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates and compares football players' (n=44) and cross-country runners' (n=30) body image concerns, attitudes toward eating, and reasons for exercising. Results revealed significant differences. Football players reported a more positive body image, whereas runners indicated a greater concern for weight control and more disordered eating…

  14. Body image and adolescence: A behavioral impairment model.

    PubMed

    Senín-Calderón, Cristina; Rodríguez-Testal, Juan F; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Perpiñá, Conxa

    2017-02-01

    Adolescence is a period marked by important physical and social changes that can lead to a negative body image. The purpose of this study was to find a model enabling the appearance of behavioral impairment related to body image (restrictions, avoidance, and checking) to be predicted by body image attitudes (concern or Appearance Orientation, and dissatisfaction or Appearance Evaluation), Gender, emotional symptomatology, self-consciousness, ideas of reference (IR) and age. A total of 661 participants (67.47% girls) with an average age of 17.14 years (SD=2.34) filled in the GHQ-28, SCS on self-consciousness, REF referential thinking scale, MBSRQ (AO and AE), and BIAQ. A partial mediation model was found for IR, age and depressive symptomatology between dissatisfaction and concern about body image and Gender, to behavioral impairment related to body image. The results found suggest that age, depressive symptomatology, and IR may be mediator variables in the relationship between dissatisfaction and concern about body image, on body image behavioral impairment. This relationship implies a severity to be considered in intervention and monitoring of body image behavioral impairments in adolescents.

  15. Battling Body Image: Confessions of a Health Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasberry, Catherine N.

    2008-01-01

    As a college health educator, the author knows much about healthy behaviors. In spite of this, however, the author discusses finding herself struggling with the same problems of body image that her students express. With a variety of influences tied to negative body image, it is important that college health professionals create a plan of action…

  16. The Affective Consequences of Minimizing Women's Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Jennifer K.; Pinel, Elizabeth C.; Thompson, J. Kevin

    2008-01-01

    We propose that women regularly anticipate and receive messages from others that trivialize the severity of their body image concerns. Moreover, we suggest that these minimizing messages can heighten women's negative affective reactions to body image threats, particularly if they internalize them. Two studies provided support for these ideas. In…

  17. Gender Attitudes, Feminist Identity, and Body Images among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Thomas F.; Ancis, Julie R.; Strachan, Melissa D.

    1997-01-01

    Examines how women's body-image experiences relate to their own gender attitudes and ideologies. Responses from 122 undergraduate women reveal minimal relationships between body-image attitudes and either feminist identity or adherence to traditional gender beliefs at individual/stereotypic or societal levels. Male-female social interactions…

  18. Cross-Cultural Examination of Women's Body Image Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, R. John; And Others

    The media's portrayal of the ideal body image has been shown to be a large determinant of one's body image perception. The desire to be excessively thin can be conceived of as an artifact of White-American culture largely due to the media's influence. This study looks at cultures that have had limited exposure to the American ideal and examines…

  19. Body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Zhao, Liming; Torigian, Drew A.

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid growth of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-based medical applications, body-wide anatomy recognition on whole-body PET/CT images becomes crucial for quantifying body-wide disease burden. This, however, is a challenging problem and seldom studied due to unclear anatomy reference frame and low spatial resolution of PET images as well as low contrast and spatial resolution of the associated low-dose CT images. We previously developed an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system [15] whose applicability was demonstrated on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images in different body regions on 35 objects. The aim of the present work is to investigate strategies for adapting the previous AAR system to low-dose CT and PET images toward automated body-wide disease quantification. Our adaptation of the previous AAR methodology to PET/CT images in this paper focuses on 16 objects in three body regions - thorax, abdomen, and pelvis - and consists of the following steps: collecting whole-body PET/CT images from existing patient image databases, delineating all objects in these images, modifying the previous hierarchical models built from diagnostic CT images to account for differences in appearance in low-dose CT and PET images, automatically locating objects in these images following object hierarchy, and evaluating performance. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the performance of the AAR approach on low-dose CT images achieves object localization accuracy within about 2 voxels, which is comparable to the accuracies achieved on diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT images. Object recognition on low-dose CT images from PET/CT examinations without requiring diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT seems feasible.

  20. Body talk and body-related co-rumination: associations with body image, eating attitudes, and psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Rudiger, Jonathan A; Winstead, Barbara A

    2013-09-01

    Talk about physical appearance and body image is common among young women. We investigated how body talk (negative, positive/self-accepting, and co-ruminative) is related to body image, body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, psychological adjustment, and friendship quality via hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for social desirability and body mass index). In a sample of young adult women (N=203), negative body talk was, as predicted, negatively related to body satisfaction and self-esteem and positively related to appearance investment, body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, and depression, but not friendship quality. Self-accepting/positive body talk was negatively related to body-related cognitive distortions and positively related to body satisfaction, self-esteem, and friendship quality. Body-related co-rumination demonstrated adjustment trade-offs, being related to body-related cognitive distortions, disordered eating, and higher friendship quality. Results indicated no advantage to negative body talk, both individual and relationship benefits from positive/self-accepting body talk, and mixed outcomes for body-related co-rumination.

  1. Body Image and the Female Adolescent Oncology Patient.

    PubMed

    Burg, Alison Joy

    2016-01-01

    Female adolescent oncology patients undergo many physical changes throughout treatment that have challenging psychological, emotional, and social implications. Body image for this population is a subject that tends to be overlooked in the midst of the cancer experience. This article will examine the complex concept of body image and discuss why female adolescent patients are at such high risk for negative body image. Assessment and care strategies are needed to foster a positive body image, resiliency, and overall well-being. Although survivorship studies may offer insightful information about the effects of the cancer journey on long-term body image, focus should be on prevention and holistic care as part of the treatment itself. The health care team, especially nursing professionals, should acknowledge, recognize, and address this vital issue as a critical part of oncology care.

  2. Depression and body image among women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Himelein, Melissa J; Thatcher, Samuel S

    2006-07-01

    Common features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), including hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction and obesity, can be highly distressing. We compared 40 women with PCOS to women with infertility but not PCOS, and to women with neither PCOS nor infertility, on measures of depression and body image. Women with PCOS reported higher depression scores and greater body dissatisfaction (p < .001) than comparison group women. Body image was strongly associated with depression overall, even after controlling body mass. Among women with PCOS, body dissatisfaction measures and education explained 66 percent of the variance in depression, suggesting explanations of the PCOS-depression link should consider the role of potentially mediating psychosocial variables.

  3. "But I Like My Body": Positive body image characteristics and a holistic model for young-adult women.

    PubMed

    Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L; Tylka, Tracy L; Augustus-Horvath, Casey L

    2010-03-01

    Extant body image research has provided a rich understanding of negative body image but a rather underdeveloped depiction of positive body image. Thus, this study used Grounded Theory to analyze interviews from 15 college women classified as having positive body image and five body image experts. Many characteristics of positive body image emerged, including appreciating the unique beauty and functionality of their body, filtering information (e.g., appearance commentary, media ideals) in a body-protective manner, defining beauty broadly, and highlighting their body's assets while minimizing perceived imperfections. A holistic model emerged: when women processed mostly positive and rejected negative source information, their body investment decreased and body evaluation became more positive, illustrating the fluidity of body image. Women reciprocally influenced these sources (e.g., mentoring others to love their bodies, surrounding themselves with others who promote body acceptance, taking care of their health), which, in turn, promoted increased positive source information.

  4. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed.

  5. Factors that Influence Body Image Representations of Black Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants’ views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women. PMID:18384923

  6. More than just body weight: the role of body image in psychological and physical functioning.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rebecca E; Latner, Janet D; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2013-09-01

    The current study examined BMI and body image dissatisfaction as predictors of physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQL) and psychosocial functioning in a sample of 414 undergraduate students (mean age=21.5, SD=4.9; mean BMI=23.6, SD=5.2). In men and women, higher BMI was correlated with body image dissatisfaction and physical HRQL, but not with any measures of psychosocial functioning, whereas higher body image dissatisfaction was associated with poorer physical HRQL and psychosocial functioning. Furthermore, body image dissatisfaction was observed to mediate the relationship between BMI and physical HRQL in men and women. Interestingly, in this model, higher BMI predicted increased self-esteem. These findings suggest that body image dissatisfaction may be an important target for health interventions.

  7. Computerized assessment of body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: comparison with standardized body image assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Caspi, Asaf; Amiaz, Revital; Davidson, Noa; Czerniak, Efrat; Gur, Eitan; Kiryati, Nahum; Harari, Daniel; Furst, Miriam; Stein, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Body image disturbances are a prominent feature of eating disorders (EDs). Our aim was to test and evaluate a computerized assessment of body image (CABI), to compare the body image disturbances in different ED types, and to assess the factors affecting body image. The body image of 22 individuals undergoing inpatient treatment with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN-R), 22 with binge/purge AN (AN-B/P), 20 with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 41 healthy controls was assessed using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), the CABI, which simulated the participants' self-image in different levels of weight changes, and the Eating Disorder Inventory-2-Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-2-BD) scale. Severity of depression and anxiety was also assessed. Significant differences were found among the three scales assessing body image, although most of their dimensions differentiated between patients with EDs and controls. Our findings support the use of the CABI in the comparison of body image disturbances in patients with EDs vs.

  8. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of body image dissatisfaction in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ginsberg, Rebecca L; Tinker, Lesley; Liu, Jingmin; Gray, James; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Manson, JoAnn E; Margolis, Karen L

    2016-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with one's body image is widespread and can have serious health consequences; however, research about its prevalence and correlates in older women is limited. We analyzed data from 75,256 women participating in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, a longitudinal study of postmenopausal women's health. Measures used in the study were collected at baseline and/or the third year of follow-up between 1993 and 2002. The majority of participants (83%) in this study were dissatisfied with their bodies because they perceived themselves as heavier than their ideal. Overall, the multiple and significant correlates of body image dissatisfaction explained 36.2% of the variance in the body image dissatisfaction score, with body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI being the two most important contributors to explaining the variance. The results of this study suggest future research should focus on the utility of interventions to reduce dissatisfaction with body image in postmenopausal women that target either maintenance of a lower BMI through diet and exercise, and/or body acceptance. Further, future research should aim to identify factors in addition to body size that drive body image dissatisfaction.

  10. Body image of anorexic, obese, and normal females.

    PubMed

    Bell, C; Kirkpatrick, S W; Rinn, R C

    1986-05-01

    This study investigated disturbances in body image perception with anorexic, obese and control groups (N = 24). Each group was comprised of 8 female subjects matched for age. An original silhouette chart and chi squares were employed, and a significant difference was found among the groups in the perception of the present-self body image (chi 2 (8) = 24.19, p less than .01), body image at plus 10 pounds (chi 2 (6) = 27.63, p less than .01), and body image at minus 10 pounds (chi 2 (8) = 26.05, p less than .01). No differences among the groups appeared in perceived ideal-self body image or in their perception of the body image that was expected from their families. A directional trend was noted in anorexic overestimation and obese underestimation on the total concept of body image. Significant differences among the groups as judged via a semantic differential technique were found for personality descriptions of happy/sad, active/passive, popular/unpopular, effective/ineffective, competent/incompetent, smart/stupid, and cold/warm.

  11. Body Image, Food Addiction, Depression, and Body Mass Index in University Students.

    PubMed

    Şanlier, Nevin; Türközü, Duygu; Toka, Onur

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between body image, depression, food addiction and body mass index (BMI) and differences in these variables due to gender and field of education have not been studied extensively. This study was conducted on a total of 793 university students (20.19 ± 1.90 years). The Beck Depression Inventory, Yale Food Addiction, and Body Image Scale were used. It was determined that body image scores of females and individuals enrolled in health sciences programs were lower compared to those of males and those enrolled in the social sciences. There was a negative relationship between body image and depression and food addiction scores. There was a positive relationship between food addiction and depression scores, in addition to a positive relationship between food addiction and BMI.

  12. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated. PMID:26609415

  13. Microwave non-contact imaging of subcutaneous human body tissues.

    PubMed

    Kletsov, Andrey; Chernokalov, Alexander; Khripkov, Alexander; Cho, Jaegeol; Druchinin, Sergey

    2015-10-01

    A small-size microwave sensor is developed for non-contact imaging of a human body structure in 2D, enabling fitness and health monitoring using mobile devices. A method for human body tissue structure imaging is developed and experimentally validated. Subcutaneous fat tissue reconstruction depth of up to 70 mm and maximum fat thickness measurement error below 2 mm are demonstrated by measurements with a human body phantom and human subjects. Electrically small antennas are developed for integration of the microwave sensor into a mobile device. Usability of the developed microwave sensor for fitness applications, healthcare, and body weight management is demonstrated.

  14. The Body Image Psychological Inflexibility Scale: development and psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Glenn M; Sandoz, Emily K; Darrow, Sabrina M; Feeney, Timothy K

    2015-03-30

    Body image disturbance and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have been researched from a variety of psychological approaches. Psychological inflexibility, or avoidance of one's own cognitive and affective states at a cost to personal values, may be a useful construct to understand these problems. In an effort to clarify the role of psychological inflexibility in body image disturbance and BDD, a measure was created based on the principles of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The scale was developed by generating new items to represent the construct and revising items from an existing scale measuring aspects of body image psychological inflexibility. The study was conducted with an ethnically diverse undergraduate population using three samples during the validation process. Participants completed multiple assessments to determine the validity of the measure and were interviewed for BDD. The 16-item scale has internal consistency (α = 0.93), a single factor solution, convergent validity, and test re-test reliability (r = 0.90). Data demonstrate a relationship between psychological inflexibility and body image disturbance indicating empirical support for an ACT conceptualization of body image problems and the use of this measure for body image disturbance and BDD.

  15. Beauty and Body Image Concerns Among African American College Women

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Germine H.; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S.; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women. PMID:26778866

  16. Optoacoustic imaging: application to the detection of foreign bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D.; Barsalou, Norman; Branstetter, Ron; Thompson, Scott

    2009-02-01

    Detection of non-radio-opaque foreign bodies can be difficult. Current imaging modalities employed for detection of foreign bodies include: X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound. Successful diagnosis of the presence of foreign bodies is variable because of the difficulty of differentiating them from soft tissue, gas, and bone. We are applying laser-induced optoacoustic imaging to the detection of foreign bodies. Tissue-simulating phantoms containing various common foreign bodies have been constructed. Images of these phantoms were generated by two laser-based optoacoustic methods utilizing different detection modalities. A pre-commercial imager developed by Seno Medical Instruments (San Antonio), incorporated an ultrasound transducer to detect induced optoacoustic responses, while a laboratory-built imaging system utilized an optical probe beam deflection technique (PBDT) to detect the optoacoustic responses. The laboratory-built unit also included an optical parametric oscillator as the pump, providing tunable wavelength output to optimize the optoacoustic measurements by probing the foreign bodies at their maximum optical absorption. Results to date have been encouraging; both methodologies have allowed us to reconstruct successfully the image of foreign-body containing phantoms. In preliminary work the PBDT approach appeared to produce higher resolution than did the ultrasound detector, possibly because PBDT is not constrained by the lower bandwidth limit imposed on the ultrasound transducer necessary to increase imaging depth. During the research in progress, we will compare the optoacoustic images to those generated by MRI, CT, and ultrasound, and continue to improve the resolution of the technique by using multiple detection sensors, and to improve image contrast by scanning foreign bodies over a range of wavelengths.

  17. Optoacoustic multispectral imaging of radiolucent foreign bodies in tissue.

    PubMed

    Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D

    2013-01-01

    Optoacoustic imaging is an emerging medical technology that uniquely combines the absorption contrast of optical imaging and the penetration depth of ultrasound. While it is not currently employed as a clinical imaging modality, the results of current research strongly support the use of optoacoustic-based methods in medical imaging. One such application is the diagnosis of the presence of soft tissue foreign bodies. Because many radiolucent foreign bodies have sufficient contrast for imaging in the optical domain, laser-induced optoacoustic imaging could be advantageous for the detection of such objects. Common foreign bodies have been scanned over a range of visible and near infrared wavelengths by using an optoacoustic method to obtain the spectroscopic properties of the materials commonly associated with these foreign bodies. The derived optical absorption spectra compared quite closely to the absorption spectra generated when using a conventional spectrophotometer. By using the probe-beam deflection technique, a novel, pressure-wave detection method, we successfully generated optoacoustic spectroscopic plots of a wooden foreign body embedded in a tissue phantom, which closely resembled the spectrum of the same object obtained in isolation. A practical application of such spectra is to assemble a library of spectroscopic data for radiolucent materials, from which specific characteristic wavelengths can be selected for use in optimizing imaging instrumentation and provide a basis for the identification of the material properties of particular foreign bodies.

  18. Whole-body and multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Na; Xi, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Zebrafish is a top vertebrate model to study developmental biology and genetics, and it is becoming increasingly popular for studying human diseases due to its high genome similarity to that of humans and the optical transparency in embryonic stages. However, it becomes difficult for pure optical imaging techniques to volumetric visualize the internal organs and structures of wild-type zebrafish in juvenile and adult stages with excellent resolution and penetration depth. Even with the establishment of mutant lines which remain transparent over the life cycle, it is still a challenge for pure optical imaging modalities to image the whole body of adult zebrafish with micro-scale resolution. However, the method called photoacoustic imaging that combines all the advantages of the optical imaging and ultrasonic imaging provides a new way to image the whole body of the zebrafish. In this work, we developed a non-invasive photoacoustic imaging system with optimized near-infrared illumination and cylindrical scanning to image the zebrafish. The lateral and axial resolution yield to 80 μm and 600 μm, respectively. Multispectral strategy with wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm was employed to image various organs inside the zebrafish. From the reconstructed images, most major organs and structures inside the body can be precisely imaged. Quantitative and statistical analysis of absorption for organs under illumination with different wavelengths were carried out.

  19. The effects of body exposure on self-body image and esthetic appreciation in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Cazzato, Valentina; Mian, Emanuel; Mele, Sonia; Tognana, Giulia; Todisco, Patrizia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Repeated exposures to thin-idealized body shapes may alter women's perceptions of what normal (e.g., accepted) and ideal (e.g., desired) bodies in a cultural environment look like. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to thin and round body shapes may change the subsequent esthetic appreciation of others' bodies and the perceptual and cognitive-affective dimensions of self-body image in patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN). Thirteen AN patients and 13 matched healthy controls were exposed to pictures of either thin or round unfamiliar body models and, before and after exposure, they were required to either express liking judgments about round and slim figures of unfamiliar bodies (esthetic task) or to adjust distorted pictures of their own body to their perceptual (How do you see yourself?), affective (How do you feel yourself?), metacognitive (How do others see you?) and ideal (How would you like to look like?) body image (self-body adjustment task). Brief exposures to round models increased liking judgments of round figures in both groups. However, only in AN patients, exposure to round models induced an increase in thin figures liking, which positively correlated with their preoccupation with dieting. Furthermore, exposure to round bodies in AN patients, but not in controls, increased the distortion for the perceptual body image and decreased the size of the ideal one. No differences between the two groups were obtained after adaptation to thin models. Our results suggest that AN patients' perception of their own and others' body is more easily malleable by exposure to round figures as compared to controls. Crucially, this mechanism may strongly contribute to the development and maintenance of self-body image disturbances.

  20. Body image and health behaviors: is there a relationship between lifestyles and positive body image?

    PubMed

    Zanon, A; Tomassoni, R; Gargano, M; Granai, M G

    2016-01-01

    The study illustrates a research on the relationship between body image and lifestyles in a sample of 262 young amateur athletes that have a regular attendance of a gym in Cassino (Central Italy). The following questionnaires were used: Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ34), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Short form 12 items (SF12). The participants were 257 (response rate 98.1%) mainly of young age (18-24 years, 63.8%), single (72%), with a senior high school diploma (57.2%), students (63%). For almost all the BSQ-34 questionnaire items differences for gender were found, with Females more worried than males. 187 (72.8%) reported some vigorous activity during a week, 207 (80.5%) some moderate activity, and 229 (89.1%) walking. The participants had a median PCS score of 54.2 (range: 24.5-64.8) and a median MCS score of 43.8 (range: 9.3 - 58.7). The mean score of the Mediterranean diet was 4.8 (median = 5; Range = 1-8), and only 72 individuals (11.7%) had optimal score (over or equal to 6).

  1. Body Image and Self-Esteem (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop healthier thinking. previous continue Where Can I Go if I Need Help? Sometimes low self-esteem ... and lose interest in activities or friends. Some go on to develop eating disorders or body image ...

  2. Relationship between perceived body image and recorded body mass index among Kuwaiti female university students.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Yearul; Zafar, Tasleem A; Waslien, Carol

    2013-01-01

    The associations between body image and attitudes toward obesity and thinness and their associations with measured body mass index (BMI) among female students of Kuwait University (n = 137) was examined in 2008. The body image perceptions were assessed using nine female silhouettes figures. The difference between current perceived body image (PBI) and ideal body image (IBI) was used as a measure of body image dissatisfaction (BID). Students tended to have a bigger PBI and smaller IBI than would be expected from their BMI category, leading to high levels of BID in each BMI category. PBI, IBI, BID, RBI were highly correlated with each other, and BMI was significantly correlated with each of them. The coefficients of these associations were not significantly altered in multiple regression analysis by the addition of potential confounding variables, such as age, marital status, physical activity, dieting behavior, parental education, and family size. These results suggest that PBI and a desire to be thinner were strongly related to BID and that thinness is becoming more desired in Kuwaiti society than the plump body image of the past.

  3. Agreement and association between different indicators of body image and body mass index in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla Fernandez Dos; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Tavares, Letícia Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the correlation among different indicators of body image; between each one of these and nutritional status; and the association of these indicators with the Body Mass Index (BMI) of adolescents. A random sample of 152 students from public and private schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, was studied. On four occasions, two silhouette scales and two questions regarding the opinion of the student about his/her body and weight were applied and weight and height were measured. The BMI was examined both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. The agreement between the variables was analyzed using the quadratic weighted Kappa statistics. The association between body image variables and BMI was examined by the comparison among median, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of BMI for each category of the body image variables. In general, the correlation among the body image variables ranged from reasonable to good; between these and the variable nutritional status, correlation ranged from regular to reasonable. Best results were observed among boys and students from private schools. All body image variables showed good discriminatory power for BMI, when it was analyzed as a continuous variable, even when controlling for potential confounders. The question about body seems to be better than that about weight to compose the questionnaire of a surveillance system for risk and protective factors for adolescent health.

  4. Body Image and Body Change: Predictive Factors in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Garrusi, Behshid; Garousi, Saeide; Baneshi, Mohammad R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body concerns and its health consequences such as eating disorders and harmful body change activities are mentioned in Asian countries. This study evaluates factors contributing to body image/shape changes in an Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we focused on four main body change activity (diet, exercise, substance use, and surgery) and their risk factors such as demographic variables, Body Mass Index (BMI), Media, Body-Esteem, Perceived Socio-cultural Pressure, Body dissatisfaction and, Self-Esteem. Approximately, 1,200 individuals between 14-55 years old participated in this study. We used a multistage sampling method. In each region, the first household was selected at random. The probability of outcomes was estimated from logistic models. Results: About 54.3% of respondents were females. The mean (SD) of age was 31.06 (10.24) years. Variables such as gender, age, BMI, use of media and socio cultural factors as, body dissatisfaction, body-esteem and pressure by relatives were the main factors that influenced body change methods. In particular we have seen that male are 53% less likely to follow surgical treatments, but 125% were more likely to use substances. Conclusions: Investigation of body concern and its health related problem should be assessed in cultural context. For effectiveness of interventional programs and reducing harmful body image/shape changes activities, socio-cultural background should be noted. PMID:24049621

  5. [Sociodemographic factors and body image among high school students].

    PubMed

    Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes; Claumann, Gaia Salvador; Sacomori, Cinara; Daronco, Luciane Sanchotene Etchepare; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2015-11-01

    The scope of this article is to investigate associations between body image dissatisfaction and sociodemographic indicators among adolescents. Participants included 1126 high school students in the city of Santa Maria in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Aspects regarding body image dissatisfaction and sociodemographic indicators were analyzed. Association analyses were performed using crude Poisson regression duly adjusted for sex and age. Boys were found to be dissatisfied due to slimness and girls due to excess weight. Adolescents where the parents had less schooling, as well as those from lower socioeconomic classes and with lower income were found to be more likely to have body image dissatisfaction due to slimness. However, those where the parents had completed higher education and those living in the downtown area were more likely to have body image dissatisfaction due to excess weight. Sociodemographic indicators are closely associated with body image dissatisfaction. Body image dissatisfaction due to slimness can be explained by the lower level of schooling of the parents, lower socioeconomic class and lower income. Dissatisfaction due to excess weight can be explained by the higher schooling of the parents and the fact of living in the downtown area.

  6. Predictors of Changes in Body Image Concerns of Chinese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern…

  7. Feminist Pedagogy, Body Image, and the Dance Technique Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sherrie; Oliver, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolution of feminist consciousness in dance technique class as related to body image, the myth of the perfect body, and the development of feminist pedagogy. Western concert dance forms have often been taught in a manner where imitating the teacher is primary in the learning process. In this traditional scenario,…

  8. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  9. Gender Differences in Effects of Mood on Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between experimental mood alteration and body image among college students who experienced mood induction by reading self-descriptive statements. Analysis of participant responses indicated that the more elated they felt, the lighter they felt, regardless of gender. However, the manipulation did not alter body ideal…

  10. Study of cenesthesias and body image aberration in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rajender, Gaurav; Kanwal, Krishna; Rathore, Dinesh M.; Chaudhary, Deepa

    2009-01-01

    Background: Abnormal body sensations are reported frequently by schizophrenic patients. Cenesthesias are infrequently recognized and diagnosis of cenesthopathic schizophrenia is rarely made. There are very few studies regarding the same. Aims and Objectives: To assess cenesthesias and different aspects of body image aberration and their relationship with psychopathology in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Seventy patients of paranoid schizophrenia meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed with Positive and Negative Symptom Scale(PANSS) for psychopathology, Bonn Scale for Assessment of Basic Symptoms/Category D ‘Cenesthesias’ (BSABS), Image-Marking Procedure(IMP), alteration of body size and body cathexis. Assessments were made at baseline and after two weeks and assessed with SPSS 12.0. Results: The most commonly endorsed items on BSABS were depersonalization, motor weakness, abnormal pain, numbness and stiffness. Patients underestimated lower extremities and feelings of body size change which was positively correlated with PANSS-scores and improved on reassessment. Cenesthesias were positively correlated with disturbances of body concept and were present at onset in 40% and change form in 75.7%. Conclusions: Cenesthesias and body image aberrations are common in paranoid schizophrenia. They are present from onset in few, change form and improve on treatment. Cenesthesias and disturbances of body concept are correlated and body size is associated with other psychopathology. PMID:19881047

  11. Body image, body satisfaction, and unsafe anal intercourse among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Welles, Seth L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Ross, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Using survey results from the 1998 Twin Cities Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Pride Festival (N = 535), we explored associations between body image and unsafe anal intercourse (UAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM), and evaluated whether body satisfaction mediated this association. MSM who reported underweight body image had lower odds than those who reported average weight of UAI (AOR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.13, 0.85); body satisfaction was not found to mediate this association. 13.3% of men who reported overweight/obese body image had engaged in UAI compared with 21.6% of those who reported average weight and 8.2% of those who reported underweight (p < .05). Compared with MSM in exclusive relationships, MSM in non exclusive relationships had increased odds of UAI (AOR = 5.78; 95% CI = 2.96, 11.29) as did men who were not partnered (AOR = 3.20; 95% CI = 1.72, 5.93). These findings highlight the importance of including body image in sexual behavior models of MSM to better understand body image's role in influencing sexual risk and sexually transmitted infections (STI)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission.

  12. Automatic nonrigid registration of whole body CT mice images.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Peterson, Todd E; Gore, John C; Dawant, Benoit M

    2008-04-01

    Three-dimensional intra- and intersubject registration of image volumes is important for tasks that include quantification of temporal/longitudinal changes, atlas-based segmentation, computing population averages, or voxel and tensor-based morphometry. While a number of methods have been proposed to address this problem, few have focused on the problem of registering whole body image volumes acquired either from humans or small animals. These image volumes typically contain a large number of articulated structures, which makes registration more difficult than the registration of head images, to which the majority of registration algorithms have been applied. This article presents a new method for the automatic registration of whole body computed tomography (CT) volumes, which consists of two main steps. Skeletons are first brought into approximate correspondence with a robust point-based method. Transformations so obtained are refined with an intensity-based nonrigid registration algorithm that includes spatial adaptation of the transformation's stiffness. The approach has been applied to whole body CT images of mice, to CT images of the human upper torso, and to human head and neck CT images. To validate the authors method on soft tissue structures, which are difficult to see in CT images, the authors use coregistered magnetic resonance images. They demonstrate that the approach they propose can successfully register image volumes even when these volumes are very different in size and shape or if they have been acquired with the subjects in different positions.

  13. Relationship between Body Image and Body Mass Index in College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Julia A.; Christie, Catherine; Chally, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined cognitive and affective dimensions of body image of a randomized sample of 188 college men on the basis of body mass index (BMI). Methods: They conducted chi-square tests and ANOVAs to determine differences between 4 BMI groups (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese) on demographics and…

  14. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  15. Body image and correlation with body composition and attrition rate in the TIGER study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Body image can be a very important part of determining an individual's outlook and behavior. Previous research has shown that the degree of satisfaction women have with their bodies may vary across race and may have a significant impact on an individual's motivation and commitment to a regular exer...

  16. Adolescent Boys and Body Image: Weight and Muscularity Concerns as Dual Pathways to Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson; Crawford, Joy K.

    2005-01-01

    This research evaluated a dual pathway model for body dissatisfaction among adolescent boys. The study provides empirical support for the importance of distinguishing between weight and muscularity concerns in understanding male body image. A total of 128 boys from grades 8 and 11 completed a self-report questionnaire. Results indicated that…

  17. Body image flexibility as a protective factor against disordered eating behavior for women with lower body mass index.

    PubMed

    Hill, Mary L; Masuda, Akihiko; Latzman, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine whether body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility would be uniquely and significantly associated with disordered eating behavior. In addition, the study examined if body mass index (BMI) moderated the relationships between each of the body image related variables and disordered eating. Two-hundred-fifty-eight female participants completed the web-based survey. Body dissatisfaction and body image flexibility were significantly related to disordered eating behavior, after controlling for ethnicity and BMI, and BMI moderated the relation between body image flexibility and disordered eating. Specifically, for those with low BMI, greater body image flexibility was associated with reduced disordered eating behavior. Body image flexibility was not associated with disordered eating behavior among those with average or high BMI. These results suggest that greater body image flexibility may serve as a protective factor against disordered eating behaviors for those with low BMI.

  18. Body image and subjective well-being in Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Borges, António; Gaspar de Matos, Margarida; Diniz, José Alves

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the impact of body image in adolescents' well-being. Well-being was assessed with the scale Kidscreen10, with the Cantril ladder for satisfaction with life and with an ad hoc happiness scale. The study presents data on adolescent health from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC)/World Health Organization study in Portugal (2006), with a sample of 4,877 adolescents, average age of 14 years old and gender distribution at 49,6% males. Portuguese adolescents showed differences between gender and age group regarding their body image-related satisfaction/dissatisfaction and self-perceived body image, being that both components have a direct impact on the levels of well-being. The male gender has better results in the perception of body image and, consequently, well-being. The largest inter-gender differences for well-being is at 15 years of age. The main predictors of well-being are the look and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction, with greater importance on the affective component. This research highlights the importance of body image for adolescents' well-being, as well as to prepare educational strategies adapted to adolescents' age and gender, by helping them to develop skills concerning self-knowledge and caring for their look.

  19. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    PubMed

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  20. A Portable Stereo Vision System for Whole Body Surface Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a whole body surface imaging system based on stereo vision technology. We have adopted a compact and economical configuration which involves only four stereo units to image the frontal and rear sides of the body. The success of the system depends on a stereo matching process that can effectively segment the body from the background in addition to recovering sufficient geometric details. For this purpose, we have developed a novel sub-pixel, dense stereo matching algorithm which includes two major phases. In the first phase, the foreground is accurately segmented with the help of a predefined virtual interface in the disparity space image, and a coarse disparity map is generated with block matching. In the second phase, local least squares matching is performed in combination with global optimization within a regularization framework, so as to ensure both accuracy and reliability. Our experimental results show that the system can realistically capture smooth and natural whole body shapes with high accuracy.

  1. Optical Diagnostic Imaging Of Surface Topography And Body Deformity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windischbauer, Gerhard

    1989-04-01

    Modern diagnostic imaging techniques are providing three-dimensional images by the combination of analog sensing devices, powerful digital processors and graphic displays. Computer based optical imaging systems are used for detection and tracking of body deformities in Orthopaedics. To establish a morphometric data-base means for comparing and averaging similar shapes have to be prepared. Assuming fast technological advancements use at present and prospective applications are given.

  2. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung.

  3. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator.

  4. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-11-12

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a gating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive an impulse generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. 12 figs.

  5. Body monitoring and imaging apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16

    A non-acoustic pulse-echo radar monitor is employed in the repetitive mode, whereby a large number of reflected pulses are averaged to produce a voltage that modulates an audio oscillator to produce a tone that corresponds to the heart motion. The antenna used in this monitor generally comprises two flat copper foils, thus permitting the antenna to be housed in a substantially flat housing. The monitor converts the detected voltage to an audible signal with both amplitude modulation and Doppler effect. It further uses a dual time constant to reduce the effect of gross sensor-to-surface movement. The monitor detects the movement of one or more internal body parts, such as the heart, lungs, arteries, and vocal chords, and includes a pulse generator for simultaneously inputting a sequence of pulses to a transmit path and a grating path. The pulses transmitted along the transmit path drive Oh impulse, generator and provide corresponding transmit pulses that are applied to a transmit antenna. The gating path includes a range delay generator which generates timed gating pulses. The timed gating pulses cause the receive path to selectively conduct pulses reflected from the body parts and received by a receive antenna. The monitor output potential can be separated into a cardiac output indicative of the physical movement of the heart, and a pulmonary output indicative of the physical movement of the lung. The impulse generator in the transmit path can be replaced with a pulsed RF generator. 13 figs.

  6. Influence of yoga on body image satisfaction in men.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Mary

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of yoga practice on body image satisfaction in men. Male Figure Drawings were used to explore body image satisfaction in yoga beginners (n = 26, M age = 40.3 yr., SD = 11.6), experienced yoga practitioners (n = 22, M age = 46.4 yr., SD = 11.6), and non-yoga practicing aerobic and weight training exercisers (n = 34, M age = 41.2 yr., SD = 11.9). Satisfaction was significantly higher among the yoga groups than the exercisers. There was no statistical difference between the body satisfaction scores of the experienced yoga group and the beginner yoga students. This may suggest that individuals drawn to yoga have greater body satisfaction than exercisers, and that regular yoga practice possibly further increases body satisfaction.

  7. Body image and quality of life in a Spanish population

    PubMed Central

    Lobera, Ignacio Jáuregui; Ríos, Patricia Bolaños

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the current study was to analyze the psychometric properties, factor structure, and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP) as well as its test–retest reliability. Further objectives were to analyze different relationships with key dimensions of psychosocial functioning (ie, self-esteem, presence of psychopathological symptoms, eating and body image-related problems, and perceived stress) and to evaluate differences in body image quality of life due to gender. Patients and methods The sample comprised 417 students without any psychiatric history, recruited from the Pablo de Olavide University and the University of Seville. There were 140 men (33.57%) and 277 women (66.43%), and the mean age was 21.62 years (standard deviation = 5.12). After obtaining informed consent from all participants, the following questionnaires were administered: BIQLI, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Results The BIQLI-SP shows adequate psychometric properties, and it may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different physical conditions. A more positive body image quality of life is associated with better self-esteem, better psychological wellbeing, and fewer eating-related dysfunctional attitudes, this being more evident among women. Conclusion The BIQLI-SP may be useful to determine the body image quality of life in different contexts with regard to dermatology, cosmetic and reconstructive surgery, and endocrinology, among others. In these fields of study, a new trend has emerged to assess body image-related quality of life. PMID:21403794

  8. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Distortion, Steroid Use, and Sex Differences in College Age Bodybuilders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Mark Anthony; Phelps, LeAddelle

    2001-01-01

    Compares college age bodybuilders by sex and steroid intake on two variables: body image dissatisfaction and body image distortion. Results reveal only a significant effect for gender on body distortion. No steroid-use differences were apparent for either body image dissatisfaction or body image distortion. Analyses indicate that female…

  9. Predicting body appreciation in young women: An integrated model of positive body image.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-09-01

    This study examined a range of predictors, based on previous theoretical models, of positive body image in young adult women. Participants were 266 women who completed an online questionnaire measuring body appreciation, activity participation, media consumption, perceived body acceptance by others, self-compassion, and autonomy. Potential mechanisms in predicting body appreciation assessed were self-objectification, social appearance comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation. Results indicated that greater perceived body acceptance by others and self-compassion, and lower appearance media consumption, self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation were related to greater body appreciation. An integrated model showed that appearance media (negatively) and non-appearance media and self-compassion (positively) were associated with lower self-objectification, social comparison, and thin-ideal internalisation, which in turn related to greater body appreciation. Additionally, perceived body acceptance by others was directly associated with body appreciation. The results contribute to an understanding of potential pathways of positive body image development, thereby highlighting possible intervention targets.

  10. A Virtual Reality Full Body Illusion Improves Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Keizer, Anouk; van Elburg, Annemarie; Helms, Rossa; Dijkerman, H. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have a persistent distorted experience of the size of their body. Previously we found that the Rubber Hand Illusion improves hand size estimation in this group. Here we investigated whether a Full Body Illusion (FBI) affects body size estimation of body parts more emotionally salient than the hand. In the FBI, analogue to the RHI, participants experience ownership over an entire virtual body in VR after synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation of the actual and virtual body. Methods and Results We asked participants to estimate their body size (shoulders, abdomen, hips) before the FBI was induced, directly after induction and at ~2 hour 45 minutes follow-up. The results showed that AN patients (N = 30) decrease the overestimation of their shoulders, abdomen and hips directly after the FBI was induced. This effect was strongest for estimates of circumference, and also observed in the asynchronous control condition of the illusion. Moreover, at follow-up, the improvements in body size estimation could still be observed in the AN group. Notably, the HC group (N = 29) also showed changes in body size estimation after the FBI, but the effect showed a different pattern than that of the AN group. Conclusion The results lead us to conclude that the disturbed experience of body size in AN is flexible and can be changed, even for highly emotional body parts. As such this study offers novel starting points from which new interventions for body image disturbance in AN can be developed. PMID:27711234

  11. Considering an affect regulation framework for examining the association between body dissatisfaction and positive body image in Black older adolescent females: does body mass index matter?

    PubMed

    Webb, Jennifer B; Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A

    2014-09-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed.

  12. Considering an Affect Regulation Framework for Examining the Association Between Body Dissatisfaction and Positive Body Image in Black Older Adolescent Females: Does Body Mass Index Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Butler-Ajibade, Phoebe; Robinson, Seronda A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provided an initial evaluation of an affect regulation model describing the association between body dissatisfaction and two contemporary measures of positive body image among 247 Black college-bound older adolescent females. We further tested whether possessing a higher body mass index (BMI) would strengthen these associations. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI. Respondents also completed a culturally-sensitive figure rating scale along with assessments of body appreciation and body image flexibility. Results indicated a robust positive association between the two measures of positive body image; BMI was the strongest predictor of both body appreciation and body image flexibility with body size discrepancy (current minus ideal) contributing incremental variance to both models tested. Implications for improving our understanding of the association between positive and negative body image and bolstering positive body image to promote health-protective behaviors among Black young women at this developmental juncture are discussed. PMID:25079011

  13. Weight status and the perception of body image in men

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%–7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  14. Weight status and the perception of body image in men.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Rick M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of body size in relation to the accuracy of body image perception in men is an important topic because of the implications for avoiding and treating obesity, and it may serve as a potential diagnostic criterion for eating disorders. The early research on this topic produced mixed findings. About one-half of the early studies showed that obese men overestimated their body size, with the remaining half providing accurate estimates. Later, improvements in research technology and methodology provided a clearer indication of the role of weight status in body image perception. Research in our laboratory has also produced diverse findings, including that obese subjects sometimes overestimate their body size. However, when examining our findings across several studies, obese subjects had about the same level of accuracy in estimating their body size as normal-weight subjects. Studies in our laboratory also permitted the separation of sensory and nonsensory factors in body image perception. In all but one instance, no differences were found overall between the ability of obese and normal-weight subjects to detect overall changes in body size. Importantly, however, obese subjects are better at detecting changes in their body size when the image is distorted to be too thin as compared to too wide. Both obese and normal-weight men require about a 3%-7% change in the width of their body size in order to detect the change reliably. Correlations between a range of body mass index values and body size estimation accuracy indicated no relationship between these variables. Numerous studies in other laboratories asked men to place their body size into discrete categorizes, ranging from thin to obese. Researchers found that overweight and obese men underestimate their weight status, and that men are less accurate in their categorizations than are women. Cultural influences have been found to be important, with body size underestimations occurring in cultures

  15. Relationship of body image and creative dance movement.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R N; Scannell, E D

    1995-08-01

    Findings supporting the proposition that dance movement improves a person's body image have been contradictory. Previous work focussed on styles such as ballet, jazz, and modern dance but it is arguable that creative dance movement, with its less structured approach and absence of predetermined performance standards, will have a positive influence on body image. This study examine scores on the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire of 112 women between 18 and 69 years who had been actively participating in creative dance movement courses for periods ranging from two weeks to 16.5 years. Subjects experienced in creative dance movement were more satisfied with their appearance, fitness, and body parts than subjects with less than five years of experience. Differences in evaluation of health were not clearly established. Given this analysis and the potential for wide-spread clinical use of creative dance movement with people having body-image disturbances, empirical research on the relationship between creative dance movement and body image is warranted.

  16. Body image after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    McGaughey, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) can reduce a woman's risk for breast cancer by 80%. Thus, women who are at high risk for familial breast cancer are increasingly opting for BPM as a preventative option. Research indicates that there are psychological benefits to BPM, including a reduction in anxiety about developing breast cancer. The purpose of this integrative review is to summarize the research that has examined the effect of prophylactic mastectomy on women's subsequent body image. Thirteen studies were reviewed. The majority of women were satisfied with their decision. However, the majority of studies indicate that up to one-half of the women suffer a negative effect on body image and changes in sexuality. Knowledge of these findings can improve the practitioner's ability to counsel women regarding this radical decision. Further research, particularly prospective studies, are needed to examine women's body image prior to BPM so that the impact of prophylactic mastectomy can be examined more thoroughly.

  17. Relationship Between Body Image Discrepancy and Intuitive Eating.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Kesha Dorsey; Madanat, Hala

    2016-04-01

    Dieting is widespread among college women despite being ineffective and harmful long term. Intuitive eating is a dieting alternative that teaches eating in response to hunger and satiety cues. It has been associated with improved physical and psychological health and studied in association with various body image dimensions. A sample of college first years completed baseline measurements during an intuitive eating intervention to test the association between intuitive eating and body image discrepancy (BID). BID represents whether a respondent believes her current body is larger or smaller than ideal. Greater BID was negatively associated with intuitive eating (p ≤ .05); participants who believed that their current bodies were larger than ideal were less likely to attend to hunger and satiety cues than participants who expressed little or no BID. These women should be targeted in future weight management interventions in order to avoid negative health outcomes of dieting.

  18. [Images and representations of the female body in Brazilian magazines].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Márcia Rebeca Rocha; de Oliveira, Jeane Freitas; do Nascimento, Enilda Rosendo; Carvalho, Evanilda Souza de Santana

    2013-06-01

    This documentary, qualitative, descriptive study has the objective to analyze images and representations of the female body and their relation to drug use in the content of articles published in four magazines with national circulation (Veja, Isto E, Boa Forma, Claúdia). The articles selected were submitted to the technique of content analysis, with three thematic groups identified: the body as an incentive to use drugs; risks to the body resulting from drug use; and the search for the perfect body through drug use. The data showed that the media reproduces rigid aesthetic standards, exposing women to social and health offenses that stimulate drug use, either autonomously or by prescription. The search for beauty and the appeal to feminine eroticism, published through the communication channels analyzed limit the social importance of women by using images that link them to the status of sexual object.

  19. Predictors of changes in body image concerns of Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Jackson, Todd

    2009-08-01

    This nine-month prospective study tested the extent to which risk factors implicated in recent accounts of body dissatisfaction predicted changes in body image concerns of adolescent boys and girls in China. A sample of 593 Chinese adolescents (217 boys, 376 girls) completed measures of weight esteem, appearance esteem and physical stature concern in addition to demographics, internalization of attractiveness ideals, negative affect, and appearance pressure, teasing, and comparison at baseline and nine-month follow-up. For girls, initial levels of social comparison, and internalized attractiveness ideals predicted decreases in body esteem over time. Time 1 negative affect contributed to changes in both appearance esteem and weight esteem for boys. Baseline level of stature concerns and reported height were the only predictors of later stature concerns within each sex. In sum, this study suggests specific factors previously implicated in Western accounts also have utility for understanding body image concerns of adolescents in China.

  20. Effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body Image following mastectomy*

    PubMed Central

    Fadaei, Simin; Janighorban, Mojgan; Mehrabi, Tayebe; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmadi; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Gukizade, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Surgical treatment of breast cancer may cause body image alterations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of cognitive behavioral counseling on body image among Iranian women with primary breast cancer. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental designed study, 72 patients diagnosed as breast cancer and surgically treated were enrolled in Isfahan, Iran. The patients were entered the study by convenience sampling method and were randomly divided in two groups of intervention (n = 32) and control (n = 40). The intervention group received consultation based on Ellis rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) method for 6 sessions during 3 weeks. The control group did not receive any consultation Paired t-test was used to compare the changes in groups and independent t-test was conducted to compare two groups. The average values represented as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Before the study, the body image score was not significantly different between the intervention (16 97 ± 5 44) and control (15 95 ± 4 66) groups (t = 0 86, P = 0 395). The body image score was significantly lower in the interven-tion group (9 03 ± 6 11) compared to control group (17 18 ± 5 27) after the intervention (t = -6 07, P < 0 001). CONCLUSIONS: Since a woman's body image influences her breast cancer treatment decision, oncology professionals need to recognize the value of a woman's favorite about appearance and body image. This study emphasizes the importance of offering consultation in breast cancer patients. PMID:22279481

  1. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños Ríos, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED) clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body image quality of life would have a stronger negative association with specific ED-related variables than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, mainly among ED patients. On the basis of previous studies, the influence of gender on the results was explored, too. Patients and methods: The final sample comprised 70 ED patients (mean age 22.65 ± 7.76 years; 59 women and 11 men); 106 were patients with other psychiatric disorders (mean age 28.20 ± 6.52; 67 women and 39 men), and 135 were university students (mean age 21.57 ± 2.58; 81 women and 54 men), with no psychiatric history. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Image Quality of Life Inventory-Spanish version (BIQLI-SP), Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2), Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Results: The ED patients’ ratings on the BIQLI-SP were the lowest and negatively scored (BIQLI-SP means: +20.18, +5.14, and −6.18, in the student group, the non-ED patient group, and the ED group, respectively). The effect of body image on quality of life was more negative in the ED group in all items of the BIQLI-SP. Body image quality of life was negatively associated with specific ED-related variables, more than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, but not especially among ED patients. Conclusion: Body image quality of life was affected not only by specific pathologies related to body image disturbances, but also by other psychopathological syndromes. Nevertheless, the greatest effect was related to ED, and seemed to be more negative among men. This finding is the

  2. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern

    PubMed Central

    Duncum, Anna J. F.; Mundy, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  3. Imaging spectrometry of the Earth and other solar system bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry is a relatively new tool for remote sensing of the Earth and other bodies of the solar system. The technique dates back to the late 1970's and early 1980's. It is a natural extension of the earlier multi-spectral imagers developed for remote sensing that acquire images in a few, usually broad spectral bands. Imaging spectrometers combine aspects of classical spectrometers and imaging systems, making it possible to acquire literally hundreds of images of an object, each image in a separate, narrow spectral band. It is thus possible to perform spectroscopy on a pixel-by-pixel basis with the data acquired with an imaging spectrometer. Two imaging spectrometers have flown in space and several others are planned for future Earth and planetary missions. The French-built Phobos Infrared Spectrometer (ISM) was part of the payload of the Soviet Mars mission in 1988, and the JPL-built Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) is currently en route to Jupiter aboard the Galileo spacecraft. Several airborne imaging spectrometers have been built in the past decade including the JPL-built Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) which is the only such sensor that covers the full solar reflected portion of the spectrum in narrow, contiguous spectral bands. NASA plans two imaging spectrometers for its Earth Observing System, the Moderate and the High Resolution Imaging Spectrometers (MODIS and HIRIS). A brief overview of the applications of imaging spectrometry to Earth science will be presented to illustrate the value of the tool to remote sensing and indicate the types of measurements that are required. The system design for AVIRS and a planetary imaging spectrometer will be presented to illustrate the engineering considerations and challenges that must be met in building such instruments. Several key sensor technology areas will be discussed in which miniaturization and/or enhanced performance through micromachining and nanofabrication may

  4. Multimodal Correlative Preclinical Whole Body Imaging and Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Dafni, Hagit; Addadi, Yoseph; Biton, Inbal; Avni, Reut; Brenner, Yafit; Neeman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures and particularly abdominal organs is a fundamental problem for quantitative image analysis in preclinical research. This paper presents a novel approach for whole body segmentation of small animals in a multimodal setting of MR, CT and optical imaging. The algorithm integrates multiple imaging sequences into a machine learning framework, which generates supervoxels by an efficient hierarchical agglomerative strategy and utilizes multiple SVM-kNN classifiers each constrained by a heatmap prior region to compose the segmentation. We demonstrate results showing segmentation of mice images into several structures including the heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, stomach, vena cava, bladder, tumor, and skeleton structures. Experimental validation on a large set of mice and organs, indicated that our system outperforms alternative state of the art approaches. The system proposed can be generalized to various tissues and imaging modalities to produce automatic atlas-free segmentation, thereby enabling a wide range of applications in preclinical studies of small animal imaging. PMID:27325178

  5. Dieting practices and body image perception among Lebanese university students.

    PubMed

    Yahia, Najat; El-Ghazale, Hiba; Achkar, Alice; Rizk, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Dieting is becoming a popular phenomenon among university students to achieve or maintain a healthy weight. The purpose of this study is to obtain a preliminary understanding of what dieting practices university students use in order to achieve their desirable body weight and to determine the magnitude of body dissatisfaction in relation to weight status among a sample of students (n=252) from the Lebanese American University in Beirut, Lebanon. Students filled out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their dieting and physical activity practices in addition to the body shape questionnaire (BSQ). Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index. Percentage body fat was measured using Tanita scale body fat analyzer 300A. The outcome of this study showed that smoking and unhealthy dieting practices were not common among students (only 26% reported smoking, 8% reported taking laxatives and 4% taking diet pills). Half of the students reported practicing regular physical activity. Multivitamin intake was also not popular among students. BSQ scores indicate that the majority of students were not worried about their body image perception (64% reported not being worried, 19% were slightly worried, 12% were moderately worried and 5% were extremely worried). A gender difference was observed in the BSQ scores, as 89% of the "extremely worried" students were females. Collectively, results indicate that unhealthy dieting practices are uncommon among students. However, developing health promotion awareness' programs to promote good self image within the concept of a realistic healthy weight will be beneficial, especially among females.

  6. Body image satisfaction in heterosexual, gay, and lesbian adults.

    PubMed

    Peplau, Letitia Anne; Frederick, David A; Yee, Curtis; Maisel, Natalya; Lever, Janet; Ghavami, Negin

    2009-10-01

    Does the prevalence and degree of body dissatisfaction differ among heterosexual and homosexual men and women? Some theorists have suggested that, compared to their heterosexual peers, gay men are at greater risk for body dissatisfaction and lesbians at lower risk. Past studies examining this issue have generally relied on small samples recruited from gay or lesbian groups. Further, these studies have sometimes produced conflicting results, particularly for comparisons of lesbian and heterosexual women. In the present research, we compared body satisfaction and comfort with one's body during sexual activity among lesbian women, gay men, heterosexual women, and heterosexual men through two large online studies (Ns = 2,512 and 54,865). Compared to all other groups, heterosexual men reported more positive evaluations of their appearance, less preoccupation with their weight, more positive effects of their body image on their quality of life and the quality of their sex life, more comfort wearing a swimsuit in public, and greater willingness to reveal aspects of their body to their partner during sexual activity. Few significant differences were found among gay men, lesbian women, and heterosexual women. Many gay men (42%) reported that their feelings about their body had negative effects on the quality of their sex life, as did some lesbian women (27%), heterosexual women (30%), and heterosexual men (22%). Overall, the findings supported the hypothesis that gay men are at greater risk than heterosexual men for experiencing body dissatisfaction. There was little evidence that lesbian women experience greater body satisfaction than heterosexual women.

  7. Three-dimensional coherence of the conscious body image.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    We experience our body as a coherent object in the three-dimensional (3-D) world. In contrast, the body is represented in somatosensory cortex as a fragmented collection of two-dimensional (2-D) maps. Recent results have suggested that some forms of higher level body representations maintain this fragmentation, for example by showing different patterns of distortion for two surfaces of a single body part, such as the palmar and dorsal hand surfaces. This study investigated the 3-D coherence of the conscious body image of the hand by comparing perceptual biases of perceived hand shape on the dorsal and palmar surfaces. Participants made forced-choice judgements of whether observed hand images were thinner or wider than their own left or right hand, and perceptual distortions of the hand image were assessed by fitting psychometric functions. The results suggested that the hand is consciously represented as a fully coherent, 3-D object. Specifically: (a) Similar overall levels of distortion were found on the palmar and dorsal hand surfaces, (b) comparable laterality effects were found on both surfaces (left hand represented as wider than right hand), and (c) the magnitude of distortions were strongly correlated across the two surfaces. Whereas other recent results have suggested that perceptual abilities such as position sense, tactile size perception, and tactile localization may rely on fragmented, 2-D representations of individual skin surfaces, the present results suggest that, in striking contrast, the conscious body image represents the body (or, at least the hand) as a coherent, 3-D object.

  8. Senses of body image in adolescents in elementary school

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria Lídia de Abreu; Taquette, Stella Regina; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To comprehend the perception of body image in adolescence. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted with eight focus groups with 96 students of both sexes attending four public elementary school institutions in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 2013. An interview guide with questions about the adolescents’ feelings in relation to: their bodies, standards of idealized beauty, practice of physical exercise and sociocultural influences on self-image. In the data analysis we sought to understand and interpret the meanings and contradictions of narratives, understanding the subjects’ context and reasons and the internal logic of the group. RESULTS Three thematic categories were identified. The influence of media on body image showed the difficulty of achieving the perfect body and is viewed with suspicion in face of standards of beauty broadcast; the importance of a healthy body was observed as standards of beauty and good looks were closely linked to good physical condition and result from having a healthy body; the relationship between the standard of beauty and prejudice, as people who are not considered attractive, having small physical imperfections, are discriminated against and can be rejected or even excluded from society. CONCLUSIONS The standard of perfect body propagated by media influences adolescents’ self-image and, consequently, self-esteem and is considered an unattainable goal, corresponding to a standard of beauty described as artificial and unreal. However, it causes great suffering and discrimination against those who do not feel they are attractive, which can lead to health problems resulting from low self-esteem. PMID:25119938

  9. Encouraging Lifelong Healthy Habits for a Positive Body Image in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Christine

    This article discusses issues related to body image in adolescents, explaining what school practitioners can do to encourage lifelong healthy habits that enhance body image. Body image is the picture of physical self carried in the mind's eye. This impression can have little resemblance to how a teen actually looks. Body image culturalization is…

  10. Female Wheelchair Athletes and Changes to Body Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Robert Thomas; Wettenhall, Robyn Sandra

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a psychological intervention program on attitudes of body image of six national female wheelchair basketball players was examined. As a result of the cognitive behavioral intervention program, physical self-perception increased for the wheelchair athletes and for 50 percent of the athletes on multidimensional components of body…

  11. Ecological Strategies to Promote Healthy Body Image among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Retta R.; Roy, Jane; Geiger, Brian F.; Werner, Karen A.; Burnett, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Background: Personal habits of children and adolescents related to healthy body image (BI) are influenced by various determinants in the micro- and macroenvironment. These include attitudes and behaviors about eating; exercise and physical appearance modeled by parents, teachers, and peers; as well as opportunities to learn new habits and social…

  12. Self-Esteem and Body-Image Concept in Paraplegics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Marian; Gruver, Gene Gary

    1978-01-01

    Paraplegics, hospitalized tuberculosis patients, and nonhospitalized normal people were compared to ascertain the relationship between body image and self-concept. There were no significant differences between paraplegics and nonhospitalized normal people. Between the hospitalized tuberculosis patients and the other two groups, however, the…

  13. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Rama, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first…

  14. Sociocultural Influences on Body Image Concerns of Young Chinese Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the extent to which sociocultural factors implicated in explanations of weight dissatisfaction among young Western females extend to sources of body image concern in emerging adult and adolescent males from the People's Republic of China. In Study 1, 219 Mainland Chinese male university students completed measures of stature…

  15. Body Image Disorder in Adolescent Males: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Eric J.; Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, men have been bombarded with images in society that depict the "ideal" male: strong, muscular, lean, with perfect features. What many adolescents do not realize is that most of the male bodies that they idealize can be acquired only with the use of anabolic steroids. Thus, many adolescent boys find themselves pursuing a body…

  16. Body Image Boundaries and Small Group Seating Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Les R.

    1976-01-01

    This study examined the effects of body image boundaries on preferred and avoided seating choices in small groups and the personal meanings associated with these measures of spatial behavior. The findings indicate a tendency toward greater defensive distancing by the boundary-indefinite subjects. (Author)

  17. Appearance-based exercise motivation moderates the relationship between exercise frequency and positive body image.

    PubMed

    Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with a positive body image appreciate their bodies, hold an internal perspective of their bodies, and are satisfied with the functionality of their bodies. Research shows that positive body image is more complex than the absence of body dissatisfaction. Although exercise reduces women's body dissatisfaction, very little research has explored how, or even whether, exercise is associated with positive body image. Therefore, we examined whether exercise frequency was positively related to three aspects of positive body image (body appreciation, internal body orientation, and functional body satisfaction) among 321 college women. Appearance-based exercise motivation (the extent exercise is pursued to influence weight or shape) was hypothesized to moderate these associations. Hierarchical moderated regression analyses showed that exercise frequency was related to higher positive body image, but high levels of appearance-based exercise motivation weakened these relationships. Thus, messages promoting exercise need to de-emphasize weight loss and appearance for positive body image.

  18. [Cognitive mechanisms and self-acceptance of body image].

    PubMed

    Anuel, Adriana; Bracho, Angie; Brito, Nereida; Rondón, José Eduardo; Sulbarán, Dimas

    2012-01-01

    This research proposed to investigate the effect of an intervention program to strengthen self-acceptance (positive), and a cognitive intervention program on body image. Specifically, it is based on the idea of prevention of risk factors for eating disorders from the perspective of normalcy in the prevention of body dissatisfaction. We used a 2×2 factorial design with 120 participants of both sexes, aged between 10 and 12 years, selected by stratification. To evaluate the hypothesis, we used two-way analysis of variance. The results concluded that only the cognitive intervention program affected the dependent variable body image, maintaining its statistical significance, which is revealed both in the general two-way ANOVA and when controlling the effect of the covariates, age and sex.

  19. Rotational imaging optical coherence tomography for full-body mouse embryonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen; Sudheendran, Narendran; Singh, Manmohan; Larina, Irina V; Dickinson, Mary E; Larin, Kirill V

    2016-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely used to study mammalian embryonic development with the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolutions and without the need for any contrast enhancement probes. However, the limited imaging depth of traditional OCT might prohibit visualization of the full embryonic body. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a new methodology to enhance the imaging range of OCT in embryonic day (E) 9.5 and 10.5 mouse embryos using rotational imaging. Rotational imaging OCT (RI-OCT) enables full-body imaging of mouse embryos by performing multiangle imaging. A series of postprocessing procedures was performed on each cross-section image, resulting in the final composited image. The results demonstrate that RI-OCT is able to improve the visualization of internal mouse embryo structures as compared to conventional OCT.

  20. Rotational imaging optical coherence tomography for full-body mouse embryonic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chen; Sudheendran, Narendran; Singh, Manmohan; Larina, Irina V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely used to study mammalian embryonic development with the advantages of high spatial and temporal resolutions and without the need for any contrast enhancement probes. However, the limited imaging depth of traditional OCT might prohibit visualization of the full embryonic body. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a new methodology to enhance the imaging range of OCT in embryonic day (E) 9.5 and 10.5 mouse embryos using rotational imaging. Rotational imaging OCT (RI-OCT) enables full-body imaging of mouse embryos by performing multiangle imaging. A series of postprocessing procedures was performed on each cross-section image, resulting in the final composited image. The results demonstrate that RI-OCT is able to improve the visualization of internal mouse embryo structures as compared to conventional OCT. PMID:26848543

  1. Body MR Imaging: Artifacts, k-Space, and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Susie Y; Seethamraju, Ravi T; Patel, Pritesh; Hahn, Peter F; Kirsch, John E; Guimaraes, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    Body magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is challenging because of the complex interaction of multiple factors, including motion arising from respiration and bowel peristalsis, susceptibility effects secondary to bowel gas, and the need to cover a large field of view. The combination of these factors makes body MR imaging more prone to artifacts, compared with imaging of other anatomic regions. Understanding the basic MR physics underlying artifacts is crucial to recognizing the trade-offs involved in mitigating artifacts and improving image quality. Artifacts can be classified into three main groups: (a) artifacts related to magnetic field imperfections, including the static magnetic field, the radiofrequency (RF) field, and gradient fields; (b) artifacts related to motion; and (c) artifacts arising from methods used to sample the MR signal. Static magnetic field homogeneity is essential for many MR techniques, such as fat saturation and balanced steady-state free precession. Susceptibility effects become more pronounced at higher field strengths and can be ameliorated by using spin-echo sequences when possible, increasing the receiver bandwidth, and aligning the phase-encoding gradient with the strongest susceptibility gradients, among other strategies. Nonuniformities in the RF transmit field, including dielectric effects, can be minimized by applying dielectric pads or imaging at lower field strength. Motion artifacts can be overcome through respiratory synchronization, alternative k-space sampling schemes, and parallel imaging. Aliasing and truncation artifacts derive from limitations in digital sampling of the MR signal and can be rectified by adjusting the sampling parameters. Understanding the causes of artifacts and their possible solutions will enable practitioners of body MR imaging to meet the challenges of novel pulse sequence design, parallel imaging, and increasing field strength.

  2. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  3. Living into the imagined body: how the diagnostic image confronts the lived body.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Devan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper I will show how the medical image, presented to the patient by the physician, participates in medicine's cold culture of abstraction, objectification and mandated normativity. I begin by giving a brief account of the use of anatomical imaging since the Renaissance to show how images have historically functioned in contrast to how they are currently used in medical practice. Next, I examine how contemporary medical imaging techniques participate in a kind of knowledge production that objectifies the human body. Finally, I elucidate how physicians ought to place the medical image within the context of the lived body so as to create a healing relationship with the patient. In all this I hope to show that the medical image, far from a piece of objective data, testifies to the interplay of particular beliefs, practices and doctrines contemporary medicine holds dear. To best treat her patient, the physician must appreciate the influence of these images and appropriately place them within the context of the patient's lived experience.

  4. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  5. Media images, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in adolescent women.

    PubMed

    Andrist, Linda C

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the literature related to the media, body image, and diet/weight issues in children and young women. The media holds an awesome power to influence young women, bombarding them with images of abnormally thin models who seem to represent the ideal. When the majority of adolescents inevitably fail to achieve the extremely thin image they crave, body dissatisfaction results, and disordered eating can begin. Emerging research in the pediatric and adolescent literature demonstrates that children as young as 5 are already anxious about their bodies, and want to be thinner. This obsessive interest in body weight is only fueled by a dramatic increase in the number of Internet Web sites devoted to disordered eating. Unfortunately many of the Web sites are "pro-ana" (pro anorexia) and "pro-mia" (pro bulimia); these Web sites encourage young people at risk to begin starving themselves, or to begin binge-purging. As nurses know, each of these scenarios can lead to serious illness, and sometimes to death.

  6. Exploring adolescent views of body image: the influence of media.

    PubMed

    Spurr, Shelley; Berry, Lois; Walker, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present findings from two parallel qualitative studies that used focus groups to explore adolescent views of psychological wellness and healthy bodies. Nine focus groups were held with 46 adolescents aged 16-19 years from two Mid-Western Canadian high schools. Both studies were designed with an interpretive humanist perspective and then a 6-step thematic approach was used to analyze the data. Common themes emerging in the focus group discussions in both studies included the negative impact of media on adolescent body image and pressure to conform to the Western views of physical appearance. These findings illustrate the need for nurses to understand the influence of the media on adolescents' views of their body image and to incorporate protocols for assessment, education, and counseling of adolescents on the healthy usage of media into their pediatric clinical practice. Through consistent participation in the development and implementation of health policies, nurses play a critical role in supporting adolescents to develop healthy views of body image.

  7. Body image and genital self-image in pre-menopausal women with dyspareunia.

    PubMed

    Pazmany, Els; Bergeron, Sophie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Verhaeghe, Johan; Enzlin, Paul

    2013-08-01

    With a prevalence of 15-21%, dyspareunia is one of the most commonly reported sexual dysfunctions in pre-menopausal women under the age of 40. Studies to date have focused primarily on clinical samples, showing that women with dyspareunia report overall sexual impairment, anxiety, and feelings of sexual inadequacy. However, little is known about their body image and genital self-image and few studies have sampled women exclusively from the general population. The aim of the present, controlled study was to investigate body image and genital self-image in a community sample of pre-menopausal women with self-reported dyspareunia. In total, 330 women completed an online survey, of which 192 (58%) had dyspareunia and 138 (42%) were pain-free control women. In comparison to pain-free control women, women with dyspareunia reported significantly more distress about their body image and a more negative genital self-image. Moreover, findings from a logistic regression, in which trait anxiety was controlled for, showed that a more negative genital self-image was strongly and independently associated with an increased likelihood of reporting dyspareunia. These results suggest that, in women with dyspareunia, body image and genital self-image are significantly poorer and would benefit from more attention from both clinicians and researchers.

  8. Image-Guidance for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, Martin . E-mail: fussm@ohsu.edu; Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Papanikolau, Nikos; Salter, Bill J.

    2007-07-01

    The term stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) describes a recently introduced external beam radiation paradigm by which small lesions outside the brain are treated under stereotactic conditions, in a single or few fractions of high-dose radiation delivery. Similar to the treatment planning and delivery process for cranial radiosurgery, the emphasis is on sparing of adjacent normal tissues through the creation of steep dose gradients. Thus, advanced methods for assuring an accurate relationship between the target volume position and radiation beam geometry, immediately prior to radiation delivery, must be implemented. Such methods can employ imaging techniques such as planar (e.g., x-ray) or volumetric (e.g., computed tomography [CT]) approaches and are commonly summarized under the general term image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). This review summarizes clinical experience with volumetric and ultrasound based image-guidance for SBRT. Additionally, challenges and potential limitations of pre-treatment image-guidance are presented and discussed.

  9. Body image perception of African immigrants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Rinaldo, Natascia; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2016-08-23

    Nutritional disorders are now spreading worldwide both in developed and developing countries. Body image ideals and dissatisfaction have been linked to a number of poor health outcomes, including nutritional disorders. While previous studies have offered insight into weight status and body image perception of immigrants in North America, very few studies have analysed these aspects in migrants from Africa to Europe. Our review examines the effects of the migration process on beauty ideals and body dissatisfaction in African immigrants in Europe compared to residents in their own countries. The PubMed, PsycINFO and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies published from January 2000 till November 2015. Of the 730 titles identified, 26 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. Among African residents, the body preferences depend on the country of residence and their socio-cultural status. Ethnic groups living in great isolation or with low incomes still have an ancestral idea of beauty, preferring a shapely body. However ethnic groups living in urban areas are moving toward Westernization of beauty ideals, preferring underweight or normal weight bodies. This review highlights that both residents and migrants are at high risk of nutritional disorders due to the adoption of Western beauty ideals. The results suggest that body dissatisfaction and BMI are increasing from Southern Africa to Europe according to a geographical gradient (described for females by Spearman's coefficient and linear regression, respectively). We emphasize the need for monitoring of the weight and psychological status of immigrants and the development of specific preventive strategies in European countries.

  10. What is and what is not positive body image? Conceptual foundations and construct definition.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-06-01

    A decade ago, research on positive body image as a unique construct was relatively nonexistent, and now this area is flourishing. How and why did positive body image scholarship emerge? What is known about this contemporary construct? This article situates and contextualizes positive body image within Cash's scholarship, eating disorder prevention efforts, feminist influences, strength-based disciplines within psychology, and Buddhism. Extracting insights from quantitative and qualitative research, this article demonstrates that positive body image is (a) distinct from negative body image; (b) multifaceted (including body appreciation, body acceptance/love, conceptualizing beauty broadly, adaptive investment in appearance, inner positivity, interpreting information in a body-protective manner); (c) holistic; (d) stable and malleable; (e) protective; (f) linked to self-perceived body acceptance by others; and (g) shaped by social identities. Complementing what positive body image is, this article further details what positive body image is not to provide a more nuanced understanding of this construct.

  11. Anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder: A comparison of body image concerns and explicit and implicit attractiveness beliefs.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A S; Thomas, J J; Greenberg, J L; Elliott, C M; Matheny, N L; Wilhelm, S

    2015-06-01

    Although body image is central to the etiological models of anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder, studies comparing body image and beliefs about attractiveness between the disorders are rare. Sixty-nine individuals (anorexia nervosa: n=24, body dysmorphic disorder: n=23, healthy controls: n=22) completed self-report measures (body image and general psychopathology), diagnostic interviews, and Go/No-Go Association tasks measuring implicit associations. Compared to controls, both clinical groups exhibited greater negative body image, a more negative attitude toward their physical selves, and more dysfunctional coping strategies (ps<.001). Also, both clinical groups shared greater explicit beliefs about the importance of attractiveness (ps<.001). In addition to supporting previous research with regard to comparable body image disturbance, this study also showed that beliefs regarding the importance of appearance (e.g., "one must be attractive to be successful") might be a fruitful target for therapy across both disorders.

  12. Engaging stakeholder communities as body image intervention partners: The Body Project as a case example.

    PubMed

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Perez, Marisol; Kilpela, Lisa Smith; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Trujillo, Eva; Stice, Eric

    2016-03-11

    Despite recent advances in developing evidence-based psychological interventions, substantial changes are needed in the current system of intervention delivery to impact mental health on a global scale (Kazdin & Blase, 2011). Prevention offers one avenue for reaching large populations because prevention interventions often are amenable to scaling-up strategies, such as task-shifting to lay providers, which further facilitate community stakeholder partnerships. This paper discusses the dissemination and implementation of the Body Project, an evidence-based body image prevention program, across 6 diverse stakeholder partnerships that span academic, non-profit and business sectors at national and international levels. The paper details key elements of the Body Project that facilitated partnership development, dissemination and implementation, including use of community-based participatory research methods and a blended train-the-trainer and task-shifting approach. We observed consistent themes across partnerships, including: sharing decision making with community partners, engaging of community leaders as gatekeepers, emphasizing strengths of community partners, working within the community's structure, optimizing non-traditional and/or private financial resources, placing value on cost-effectiveness and sustainability, marketing the program, and supporting flexibility and creativity in developing strategies for evolution within the community and in research. Ideally, lessons learned with the Body Project can be generalized to implementation of other body image and eating disorder prevention programs.

  13. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R; Badawi, Ramsey D; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-21

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte-Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq (18)F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  14. Quantitative image reconstruction for total-body PET imaging using the 2-meter long EXPLORER scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Zhou, Jian; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-03-01

    The EXPLORER project aims to build a 2 meter long total-body PET scanner, which will provide extremely high sensitivity for imaging the entire human body. It will possess a range of capabilities currently unavailable to state-of-the-art clinical PET scanners with a limited axial field-of-view. The huge number of lines-of-response (LORs) of the EXPLORER poses a challenge to the data handling and image reconstruction. The objective of this study is to develop a quantitative image reconstruction method for the EXPLORER and compare its performance with current whole-body scanners. Fully 3D image reconstruction was performed using time-of-flight list-mode data with parallel computation. To recover the resolution loss caused by the parallax error between crystal pairs at a large axial ring difference or transaxial radial offset, we applied an image domain resolution model estimated from point source data. To evaluate the image quality, we conducted computer simulations using the SimSET Monte–Carlo toolkit and XCAT 2.0 anthropomorphic phantom to mimic a 20 min whole-body PET scan with an injection of 25 MBq 18F-FDG. We compare the performance of the EXPLORER with a current clinical scanner that has an axial FOV of 22 cm. The comparison results demonstrated superior image quality from the EXPLORER with a 6.9-fold reduction in noise standard deviation comparing with multi-bed imaging using the clinical scanner.

  15. Overweight, Body Image, and Depression in Asian and Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bin; Unger, Jennifer B.; Gallaher, Peggy; Johnson, C. Anderson; Wu, Qiaobing; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively investigate associations between overweight and depressive symptoms in Asian and Hispanic adolescents. Methods Data included 780 Hispanic and 375 Asian students. Structural equation model was used to prospectively explore moderation effects of gender, ethnicity, and acculturation on associations of overweight, body image dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms. Results Significant mediation effect was found only in Asian girls (mediation effect=0.16, P<0.05) and girls with high acculturation (mediation effect=0.17, P<0.05). Overweight significantly predicted higher body image dissatisfaction, which in turn was significantly related to depressive symptoms. Conclusion Our findings help understanding the association of overweight and experience of depressive symptoms. PMID:20218759

  16. Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

    2014-11-01

    THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

  17. Body image and cystic fibrosis: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    A slight frame and poor appetite are common among patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) yet healthy body weight has been related to a better prognosis. A review of studies exploring body image (BI) among adults and adolescents with CF was conducted. Seven electronic databases were searched for potential papers. They located 128 references, of which 24 were read in full and 12 included in the review. Accepted papers suggested females with CF had a better BI compared to males, but this could compromise survival, given their preference for a low body weight. Males may be more motivated to adhere to nutritional advice because they favor a larger form. Practitioners should broach the topic of BI at clinic appointments to ensure this does not have a detrimental impact on self-management, although more research is required to guide professionals in this task.

  18. The impact of thin idealized media images on body satisfaction: does body appreciation protect women from negative effects?

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Emma

    2013-09-01

    This article examines whether positive body image can protect women from negative media exposure effects. University women (N=112) were randomly allocated to view advertisements featuring ultra-thin models or control images. Women who reported high levels of body appreciation did not report negative media exposure effects. Furthermore, the protective role of body appreciation was also evident among women known to be vulnerable to media exposure. Women high on thin-ideal internalization and low on body appreciation reported appearance-discrepancies that were more salient and larger when they viewed models compared to the control group. However, women high on thin-ideal internalization and also high on body appreciation rated appearance-discrepancies as less important and no difference in size than the control group. The results support the notion that positive body image protects women from negative environmental appearance messages and suggests that promoting positive body image may be an effective intervention strategy.

  19. Abnormalities in visual processing amongst students with body image concerns

    PubMed Central

    Mundy E., Matthew; Sadusky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they observe and discriminate visual information. A pre-occupation with perceived defects in appearance has been attributed to a local visual processing bias. We studied the nature of visual bias in individuals who may be at risk of developing BDD – those with high body image concerns (BICs) – by using inverted stimulus discrimination. Inversion disrupts global, configural information in favor of local, feature-based processing. 40 individuals with high BIC and 40 low BIC controls performed a discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, bodies, and scenes. Individuals with high BIC discriminated inverted faces and bodies faster than controls, and were also more accurate when discriminating inverted bodies and scenes. This reduction in inversion effect for high BIC individuals may be due to a stimulus-general local, detail-focused processing bias, which may be associated with maladaptive fixation on small features in their appearance. PMID:25157299

  20. Neurocognitive processing of body representations in artistic and photographic images.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Aline; Nassehi, Armin; Bao, Yan; Pöppel, Ernst; Sztrókay, Anikó; Reiser, Maximilian; Fehse, Kai; Gutyrchik, Evgeny

    2013-02-01

    Visual art because of its artistic context can be related to the general idea of providing alternative perceptual experiences. However, research examining the neural basis of art beyond the paradigm of beauty has been neglected. This study seeks to determine how the perception of a body in an artwork can be distinguished from the perception of a body in a non-artistic photography. While viewing different body representations in both artworks and photographs, subjects were required to evaluate the appeal of the portrayed persons. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we show that the perception of a body within the context of art leads to a higher activation in the right parietal cortex and the extrastriate cortex bilaterally. Relating this result to concepts from previous research, we suggest that the perception of art is linked to visuo-spatial coding and also motor mapping. In contrast, the higher activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the primary visual cortex during the perception of a body in a non-artistic frame of reference, i.e. in a photograph, can be linked to processes of person evaluation. Possibly, the task to judge the appeal of a person in a photograph might be more daunting and, thus, cause emotional and even moral challenges being reflected in the ventromedial prefrontal activity. Taken together, perceptual experiences within an artistic vs. a non-artistic frame of reference are based on distinct patterns of neuronal activity.

  1. Repercussions of transition out of elite sport on body image.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Bilard, Jean

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychological repercussions of transition out of elite sport from a bodily point of view. We hypothesized that the passage from a bodily over-investment to a more sedentary state would have an effect on body satisfaction. 16 Transitioning Athletes following the Sydney Olympic Games were compared with 16 Active Athletes two times during the transition period using the Body-Image Questionnaire of Bruchon-Schweitzer. Qualitative data in the form of interviews provided a complement to the quantitative data. Analysis yielded no significant differences 1 1/2 mo. after career termination between the two groups but showed a decrease in body satisfaction between 1 1/2 and 5 mo. after career termination for Transitioning Athletes, with a significant between-group difference at 5 mo. The Transitioning Athletes initially reported weight gain and uncertainty about their real physical capacities but also a continued social recognition that maintained body satisfaction. Over time, however, they were increasingly aware of this bodily deterioration, as ongoing exercise served as a reality test. Added to this were perceived decreases in social value as well as disturbing somatic manifestations. The result was a substantial effect on body satisfaction.

  2. Body-image evaluation and body-image investment among adolescents: a test of sociocultural and social comparison theories.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Todd G; Kalin, Rudolf; Morrison, Melanie A

    2004-01-01

    Sociocultural theory and social comparison theory were used to account for variations in body-image evaluation and body-image investment among male and female adolescents (N = 1,543). Exposure to magazines and television programs containing idealistic body imagery as well as frequency of self-comparison to universalistic targets (e.g., fashion models) were measured. Results provided minimal support for sociocultural theory, but fairly strong support for social comparison theory. Specifically, the extent to which males engaged in universalistic social comparison predicted appearance self-esteem, number of diets to gain weight, use of pathogenic weight control practices, and use of steroids to increase muscle mass. For females, universalistic social comparison predicted appearance self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, number of diets to lose weight, and use of pathogenic weight control practices. The possibility that the null effects for sociocultural theory were an artifact of dummy coding for missing data or theoretical interdependence were explored, but did not appear to be valid. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are outlined.

  3. A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments.

    PubMed

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig

    2010-01-01

    Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major challenges associated with constructing phased array coils for monkeys are the variation in head size and space constraints. Here, we apply phased array technology to a 4-channel phased array coil capable of improving the resolution and image quality of full brain awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments. The phased array coil is that can adapt to different rhesus monkey head sizes (ages 4-8) and fits in the limited space provided by monkey stereotactic equipment and provides SNR gains in primary visual cortex and anatomical accuracy in conjunction with parallel imaging and improves resolution in fMRI experiments by a factor of 2 (1.25 mm to 1.0 mm isotropic) and diffusion MRI experiments by a factor of 4 (1.5 mm to 0.9 mm isotropic).

  4. Visualizing gene expression by whole-body fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Meng; Baranov, Eugene; Moossa, A. R.; Penman, Sheldon; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Transgene expression in intact animals now can be visualized by noninvasive techniques. However, the instruments and protocols developed so far have been formidable and expensive. We describe here a system for rapidly visualizing transgene expression in major organs of intact live mice that is simple, rapid, and eminently affordable. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is expressed in the cells of brain, liver, pancreas, prostate, and bone, and its fluorescence is encoded in whole-body optical images. For low-magnification images, animals are illuminated atop a fluorescence light box and directly viewed with a thermoelectrically cooled color charge-coupled device camera. Higher-magnification images are made with the camera focused through an epi-fluorescence dissecting microscope. Both nude and normal mice were labeled by directly injecting 8 × 1010 plaque-forming units/ml of adenoviral GFP in 20–100 μl PBS and 10% glycerol into either the brain, liver, pancreas, prostate, or bone marrow. Within 5–8 h after adenoviral GFP injection, the fluorescence of the expressed GFP in brain and liver became visible, and whole-body images were recorded at video rates. The GFP fluorescence continued to increase for at least 12 h and remained detectable in liver for up to 4 months. The system's rapidity of image acquisition makes it capable of real-time recording. It requires neither exogenous contrast agents, radioactive substrates, nor long processing times. The method requires only that the expressed gene or promoter be fused or operatively linked to GFP. A comparatively modest investment allows the study of the therapeutic and diagnostic potential of suitably tagged genes in relatively opaque organisms. PMID:11050247

  5. Does nutritional status interfere with adolescents' body image perception?

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Karla L; Sousa, Ana L L; Carneiro, Carolina S; Nascente, Flávia M N; Póvoa, Thaís I R; Souza, Weimar K S B; Jardim, Thiago S V; Jardim, Paulo C B V

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' body image (BI) may not match their nutritional status. This study selected representative sample of healthy adolescents aged between 12 and 18 from public and private schools. Anthropometric measures were performed in order to calculate the body mass index (BMI) percentile. The silhouette scale proposed by Childress was used to evaluate BI, making it possible to assess BI satisfaction and BI distortion. The sample was composed of 1168 adolescents with a mean age of 14.7 years; 52.9% were female, 50.9% were fair-skinned, 62.4% had consumed or still consume alcohol and 67% attended public school. Male adolescents presented more overweight and obesity (28.4%) (p<0.05) than the female (17.1%). It was observed that 69.4% were dissatisfied with BI, 91.1% of the obese and 69.8% of those with overweight wished to lose body weight and 82.5% of those underweight wished to gain body weight. BI distortion was identified, since 35% of the adolescents who were underweight did not regard themselves thin, 39.1% of the overweight individuals and 62.1% of the obese did not see themselves in their adequate classifications. Adolescents with overweight/obesity were those who presented higher dissatisfaction with BI, mainly the females. Male individuals presented a greater wish of gaining weight. BI distortion was present in adolescents of all classes of BMI percentile.

  6. Impact of the media on adolescent body image.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Claire V; Sunday, Suzanne R; Becker, Anne E

    2005-07-01

    The mass media have become a powerful force throughout the world and strongly influence how people see themselves and others. This is particularly true for adolescents. This article discusses how the media affect body image and self-esteem and why the media seem to have such strong effects on adolescents. The differences in responses to the media in adolescents of different ethnic, racial, and cultural backgrounds are discussed. Although this article focuses primarily on teenage girls, the data for adolescent boys is reviewed as well. Finally, this article discusses possible ways to help adolescents become more active viewers of the media and help prevent the decrease in body esteem that so often occurs during adolescence.

  7. My Body Looks Like That Girl's: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao; Deng, Xiao; Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  8. My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  9. Longitudinal study of the protective effect of hope on reducing body image distress in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianlin; Griva, Konstadina; Lim, Haikel A; Tan, Joyce Y S; Mahendran, Rathi

    2017-01-01

    Body image distress is well-documented in patients with cancer, but little is known about the course of body image distress over time and the role of psychosocial resources such as hope. This prospective study sought to explore the dynamics between trajectories of body image distress and hope across time. Cancer patients receiving outpatient treatment at a cancer center completed self-reported measures of body image distress (Body Image Scale) and hope (Adult Hope Scale) at baseline (within three months of their cancer diagnosis) and follow-up (six months post-baseline; N = 111). Trajectories of intra-individual change (improved, stable, and declined) for body image distress were calculated based on the minimal clinically important difference (±0.5 baseline SD). There was a significant increase in body image distress at follow-up (p < .05); hope remained stable. Rank-transformed mixed-factor repeated measures analyses of variance revealed significant interactions between body image distress trajectory groups and time on hope, suggesting that patients experiencing improvements in body image distress reported higher levels of hope than those who had stable or deteriorating levels of body image distress F(2,108) = 3.25, p < .05. The findings of this exploratory study suggest that psychosocial resources like hope may also reduce body image distress across time in a sample of cancer patients, although the mechanisms of interaction require further examination. Supportive care could lend greater focus to improving patients' hope to alleviating body image distress.

  10. The role of body image in prenatal and postpartum depression: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marushka L; Ertel, Karen A; Dole, Nancy; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Maternal depression increases risk of adverse perinatal outcomes, and recent evidence suggests that body image may play an important role in depression. This systematic review identifies studies of body image and perinatal depression with the goal of elucidating the complex role that body image plays in prenatal and postpartum depression, improving measurement, and informing next steps in research. We conducted a literature search of the PubMed database (1996-2014) for English language studies of (1) depression, (2) body image, and (3) pregnancy or postpartum. In total, 19 studies matched these criteria. Cross-sectional studies consistently found a positive association between body image dissatisfaction and perinatal depression. Prospective cohort studies found that body image dissatisfaction predicted incident prenatal and postpartum depression; findings were consistent across different aspects of body image and various pregnancy and postpartum time periods. Prospective studies that examined the reverse association found that depression influenced the onset of some aspects of body image dissatisfaction during pregnancy, but few evaluated the postpartum onset of body image dissatisfaction. The majority of studies found that body image dissatisfaction is consistently but weakly associated with the onset of prenatal and postpartum depression. Findings were less consistent for the association between perinatal depression and subsequent body image dissatisfaction. While published studies provide a foundation for understanding these issues, methodologically rigorous studies that capture the perinatal variation in depression and body image via instruments validated in pregnant women, consistently adjust for important confounders, and include ethnically diverse populations will further elucidate this association.

  11. Foreign Body in Duodenum Mimicking a Duplication Cyst on Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vinay; Tanger, Ramesh; Gupta, Arun; Kumar, Ayush

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric age group is most vulnerable for the accidental foreign body (FB) ingestion which may go unnoticed. These patients present with symptoms or complications as a result of FB and may mimic other conditions on various investigations. We describe a 9-month old infant who ingested crystal gel ball and presented with vomiting for a month. On radiological imaging it was interpreted as duplication cyst of the duodenum. At operation, crystal gel ball was retrieved. Our case vindicates importance of keeping various possibilities in mind as differential diagnoses during evaluation and management of surgical ailments such as the duplication cyst of duodenum. PMID:27900276

  12. Explorations in body image care: Peplau and practice knowledge.

    PubMed

    Price, B

    1998-06-01

    Practitioners in mental health care have long utilized the work of Hildegard Peplau, both for nursing discourse and for practice. At a time when the role of theory in practice is once more being debated, and when theories are being applied in new contexts, this paper examines the contribution that Peplau's work may have to offer altered body image nursing care. A case study is used to highlight concepts in practice, the paper examining the ways in which Peplau's Theory of Interpersonal Relations complement the other elements of practice knowledge that the nurse uses to assist patients and lay carers alike.

  13. Limited role of body satisfaction and body image self-consciousness in sexual frequency and satisfaction in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Radoš, Sandra Nakić; Vraneš, Hrvojka Soljačić; Šunjić, Marijana

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the role of maternal body image and body image self-consciousness in sexual satisfaction and intercourse frequency during pregnancy when controlling for satisfaction with partnership. Pregnant women in their third trimester of pregnancy (N = 150) participated in the study. Body image was measured by the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale (BASS) and Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale (BISC), while relationship satisfaction was measured by different subscales of the Perceived Quality of Marital Relationship (PQMR) Scale. Sexual satisfaction was also measured by one of the subscales of the PQMR (Intimate Relationship). The sexual behavior questionnaire comprised questions about frequency of sexual intercourse, desire, and other aspects of sexual functioning as well as the reasons that might prevent women from having intercourse during pregnancy. Findings suggested that satisfaction with body image and body image self-consciousness were related to sexual satisfaction. Nevertheless, other aspects of partnership, such as communication, appeared to be much more important predictors of sexual satisfaction than body image variables. The best predictor of sexual frequency was fear that intercourse might harm the fetus. Implications for education about sexuality issues in pregnancy are discussed.

  14. A software tool for stitching two PET/CT body segments into a single whole-body image set.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tingting; Chang, Guoping; Clark, John W; Rohren, Eric M; Mawlawi, Osama R

    2012-05-10

    A whole-body PET/CT scan extending from the vertex of the head to the toes of the patient is not feasible on a number of commercially available PET/CT scanners due to a limitation in the extent of bed travel on these systems. In such cases, the PET scan has to be divided into two parts: one covering the upper body segment, while the other covering the lower body segment. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate, using phantom and patient studies, a software tool that was developed to stitch two body segments and output a single whole-body image set, thereby facilitating the interpretation of whole-body PET scans. A mathematical model was first developed to stitch images from two body segments using three landmarks. The model calculates the relative positions of the landmarks on the two segments and then generates a rigid transformation that aligns these landmarks on the two segments. A software tool was written to implement this model while correcting for radioactive decay between the two body segments, and output a single DICOM whole-body image set with all the necessary tags. One phantom, and six patient studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the software. In these studies, six radio-opaque markers (BBs) were used as landmarks (three on each leg). All studies were acquired in two body segments with BBs placed in the overlap region of the two segments. The PET/CT images of each segment were then stitched using the software tool to create a single DICOM whole-body PET/CT image. Evaluation of the stitching tool was based on visual inspection, consistency of radiotracer uptake in the two segments, and ability to display the resultant DICOM image set on two independent workstations. The software tool successfully stitched the two segments of the phantom image, and generated a single whole-body DICOM PET/CT image set that had the correct alignment and activity concentration throughout the image. The stitched images were viewed by two independent

  15. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  16. Body image, BMI, and physical activity in girls and boys aged 14-16 years.

    PubMed

    Kantanista, Adam; Osiński, Wiesław; Borowiec, Joanna; Tomczak, Maciej; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body image, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys aged 14-16 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was evaluated by the Physical Activity Screening Measure. Body image was assessed using the Feelings and Attitudes Towards the Body Scale, and participants' BMI was determined based on measured height and weight. Compared to boys, girls reported more negative body image (p<.05). The results of the three-way hierarchical regression revealed that body image was a statistically significant positive predictor of MVPA for adolescents, regardless of BMI. Additionally, body image was a stronger predictor of MVPA in boys than in girls. These findings suggest that body image, rather than BMI, is important in undertaking physical activity in adolescents and should be considered when preparing programs aimed at improving physical activity.

  17. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    PubMed

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  18. Bodies in nature: Associations between exposure to nature, connectedness to nature, and body image in U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Barron, David; Weis, Laura; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Here, we sought to replicate previous work showing a relationship between connectedness to nature and body appreciation, and extend it by examining associations between exposure to natural environments and other body image-related variables. An online sample of 399 U.S. women and men (Mage=34.55 years) completed measures of body appreciation, connectedness to nature, nature exposure, appearance investment, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance, and self-esteem. Path analysis showed that nature exposure and connectedness to nature, respectively, were associated with body appreciation in women and men, both directly and indirectly via self-esteem. Connectedness to nature also mediated the link between nature exposure and body appreciation. In men, but not women, the link between connectedness to nature and body appreciation was also mediated by appearance investment and internalisation of a muscular ideal. These results may point to novel methods for promoting more positive body image in adults through engagement with nature.

  19. Body Image Satisfaction, Eating Attitudes and Perceptions of Female Body Silhouettes in Rural South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M.; Pettifor, John M.; Norris, Shane A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the associations between BMI, disordered eating attitude, body dissatisfaction in female adolescents, and descriptive attributes assigned to silhouettes of varying sizes in male and female adolescents, aged 11 to 15, in rural South Africa. Height and weight were measured to determine BMI. Age and sex-specific cut-offs for underweight and overweight/obesity were determined using the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Body image satisfaction using Feel-Ideal Discrepancy (FID) scores, Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and perceptual female silhouettes were collected through self-administered questionnaires in 385 adolescents from the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HSDSS). Participants self-reported their Tanner pubertal stage and were classified as early pubertal (< = Tanner stage 2), and mid to post pubertal (Tanner stage > 2). Mid to post pubertal boys and girls were significantly heavier, taller, and had higher BMI values than their early pubertal counterparts (all p<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher in the girls than the boys in both pubertal stages. The majority (83.5%) of the girls demonstrated body dissatisfaction (a desire to be thinner or fatter). The girls who wanted to be fatter had a significantly higher BMI than the girls who wanted to be thinner (p<0.001). There were no differences in EAT-26 scores between pubertal groups, within the same sex, and between boys and girls within the two pubertal groups. The majority of the boys and the girls in both pubertal groups perceived the underweight silhouettes to be “unhappy” and “weak” and the majority of girls in both pubertal groups perceived the normal silhouettes to be the “best”. These findings suggest a need for policy intervention that will address a healthy body size among South African adolescents. PMID:27171420

  20. Negative Body-Image Bias in College Women as a Function of Self-Awareness and Self-Reported Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebowitz Elkoubi, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Research on body image and body image disturbance has met with great debate and inconsistency regarding definition, conceptualization, and measurement. The fundamental understanding of body image ranges from being a perceptual or visual concept to actually representing attitudes or judgments individuals hold regarding their bodies. The present…

  1. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance.

    PubMed

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-01-10

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the "ideal" images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass - variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear "normal" before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia).

  2. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the “ideal” images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass – variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear “normal” before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia). PMID:28071712

  3. RF Device for Acquiring Images of the Human Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd C.; McGrath, William R.

    2010-01-01

    A safe, non-invasive method for forming images through clothing of large groups of people, in order to search for concealed weapons either made of metal or not, has been developed. A millimeter wavelength scanner designed in a unique, ring-shaped configuration can obtain a full 360 image of the body with a resolution of less than a millimeter in only a few seconds. Millimeter waves readily penetrate normal clothing, but are highly reflected by the human body and concealed objects. Millimeter wave signals are nonionizing and are harmless to human tissues when used at low power levels. The imager (see figure) consists of a thin base that supports a small-diameter vertical post about 7 ft (=2.13 m) tall. Attached to the post is a square-shaped ring 2 in. (=5 cm) wide and 3 ft (=91 cm) on a side. The ring is oriented horizontally, and is supported halfway along one side by a connection to a linear bearing on the vertical post. A planar RF circuit board is mounted to the inside of each side of the ring. Each circuit board contains an array of 30 receivers, one transmitter, and digitization electronics. Each array element has a printed-circuit patch antenna coupled to a pair of mixers by a 90 coupler. The mixers receive a reference local oscillator signal to a subharmonic of the transmitter frequency. A single local oscillator line feeds all 30 receivers on the board. The resulting MHz IF signals are amplified and carried to the edge of the board where they are demodulated and digitized. The transmitted signal is derived from the local oscillator at a frequency offset determined by a crystal oscillator. One antenna centrally located on each side of the square ring provides the source illumination power. The total transmitted power is less than 100 mW, resulting in an exposure level that is completely safe to humans. The output signals from all four circuit boards are fed via serial connection to a data processing computer. The computer processes the approximately 1-MB

  4. Body Image and First Sexual Intercourse in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Vasilenko, Sara A.; Ram, Nilam; Lefkowitz, Eva S.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual behavior is associated with body image, but the directionality of this association is unclear. This study used longitudinal data from a sample of previously abstinent college students (N = 100, 45% female, 49% European American, 26% Latino American, 25% African American) to test whether satisfaction with appearance changed after first intercourse. Male students were more satisfied with their appearance after first intercourse, whereas female students became slightly less satisfied with their appearance. These findings demonstrate that first intercourse can lead to changes in well-being, even if the transition takes places in late adolescence. In addition, they suggest that gendered cultural expectations regarding sexual behavior are associated with differing psychological outcomes for male and female adolescents. PMID:20488512

  5. Sketching people: Prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing on body image.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren

    2017-03-01

    Three studies were conducted to establish the extent to which life drawing is effective at promoting positive body image. Study 1 (N=84 women) showed that life drawing had a positive impact on state body image, but only if artists observed a human model and not non-human objects. Study 2 (N=61 women, 61 men) showed that life drawing had a positive impact on state body image for women and men, irrespective of whether artists observed a sex-congruent or -incongruent model. Study 3 (N=23) showed that participating in weekly life drawing sessions for a 6-week period resulted in significantly elevated trait positive body image (body appreciation and body pride) and embodiment, and in reduced social physique anxiety; however, the intervention had no significant impact on negative body image (drive for thinness or muscularity). These results highlight the potential of life drawing for promoting positive body experiences.

  6. Form or function: Does focusing on body functionality protect women from body dissatisfaction when viewing media images?

    PubMed

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-07-04

    We examined whether shifting young women's (N =322) attention toward functionality components of media-portrayed idealized images would protect against body dissatisfaction. Image type was manipulated via images of models in either an objectified body-as-object form or active body-as-process form; viewing focus was manipulated via questions about the appearance or functionality of the models. Social comparison was examined as a moderator. Negative outcomes were most pronounced within the process-related conditions (body-as-process images or functionality viewing focus) and for women who reported greater functionality comparison. Results suggest that functionality-based depictions, reflections, and comparisons may actually produce worse outcomes than those based on appearance.

  7. Tiny dancer: Body image and dancer identity in female modern dancers.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Susan W; Petracca, Gina

    2010-09-01

    Dance has been found to both enhance and undermine body image. Most of the literature has focused on ballet dancers and has neglected the role of identity as a dancer. This study assessed general and dance specific body image and dancer identity in 77 female modern dancers. Compared to samples of non-clinical college women, this sample had higher body appreciation and lower drive for thinness and self-objectification. White dancers in the sample also had positive levels of dancer body efficacy/acceptance whereas as non-White dancers had negative levels of this variable. Identity as a dancer was negatively correlated with body appreciation and dancer body perceptions and not related to the number of years of dance experience. Of general and dance specific body image, body appreciation emerged as the unique predictor. The findings warrant further research on positive body image, modern dancers, and identity.

  8. The Relationship Between Body Image and Sexual Function in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Afshari, Poorandokht; Houshyar, Zeinab; Javadifar, Nahid; Pourmotahari, Fatemeh; Jorfi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An individual’s social and marital function, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life may, sometimes be affected by negative body image. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between body image and sexual function in middle-aged women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 437 middle-aged women, who were referred to various public healthcare centers in Ahvaz, Iran during 2014–2015, were selected. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) were used for data collection. Chi-square, one-way analysis of variance, Spearman’s correlation test, and logistic regression analysis were performed for statistical analysis. Results Approximately 58% of the participants expressed satisfaction with their body image, 35% were mildly dissatisfied, and 7% were moderately dissatisfied with their body image. Body image had a significant negative relationship with sexual satisfaction and sexual function (p=0.005). Furthermore, there was a significant relationship between body image and sexual desire (p=0.022), pain (p=0.001), sexual arousal (p<0.0005), sexual orgasm (p=0.001), and sexual satisfaction (p<0.0005). Conclusion As the results indicated, body image is an important aspect of sexual health. In this study, women with a positive body image had higher sexual function valuation, compared to women with a negative body image. Also, body shape satisfaction was a predictor of sexual function. PMID:28070265

  9. Assessing the Landscape: Body Image Values and Attitudes among Middle School Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosick, Tracy L.; Talbert-Johnson, Carolyn; Myers, Melissa J.; Angelo, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body image refers to an individual's thoughts and feelings about his or her body and physical appearance. To date, several qualitative and quantitative findings implicate sociocultural influences, such as the media or parental pressure, in shaping female adolescents' body image perceptions. Overall, there is not much quantitative…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

  11. Evaluation of An Upper Elementary School Program To Prevent Body Image, Eating, and Weight Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kater, Kathy J.; Rohwer, John; Londre, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether the 11-lesson "Healthy Body Image: Teaching Kids to Eat and Love Their Bodies Too!" curriculum would have a positive effect on upper elementary students. Pretest- posttest measures indicated that, compared to control children, children who completed the curriculum showed significant or notable improvement regarding body image,…

  12. The Influence of Fashion Magazines on the Body Image Satisfaction of College Women: An Exploratory Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherry L.; Hamilton, Heather; Jacobs, Meija; Angood, Laurie M.; Dwyer, Deanne Hovde

    1997-01-01

    Examines the impact of exposure to fashion magazines on women's (n=24) body image satisfaction. Results indicate that women who viewed fashion magazines prior to completing a body image satisfaction survey, preferred to weigh less, and were less satisfied with their bodies, than peers (n=15) who read news magazines before the survey. (RJM)

  13. Application of a Relational Model to Understanding Body Image in College Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Ryan, William J.; Pierce, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Relational cultural theory was examined in relation to body image in two samples of college women (n = 102) and men (n = 78) from a Midwestern university. Participants completed measures of mutuality and body image satisfaction. Results revealed that low mutuality with mothers and fathers predicted body dissatisfaction in both men and women, and…

  14. Body Image in Dyadic and Solitary Sexual Desire: The Role of Encoding Style and Distracting Thoughts.

    PubMed

    Dosch, Alessandra; Ghisletta, Paolo; Van der Linden, Martial

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the link between body image and desire to engage in sexual activity (dyadic and solitary desire) in adult women living in a long-term couple relationship. Moreover, it considered two psychological factors that may underlie such a link: the occurrence of body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity and encoding style (i.e., the tendency to rely on preexisting internal schemata versus external information at encoding). A total of 53 women (29 to 47 years old) in heterosexual relationships completed questionnaires assessing sexual desire (dyadic, solitary), body image, body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity, and encoding style. Results showed that poor body image was associated with low dyadic and solitary sexual desire. Body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity mediated the link between body image and solitary (but not dyadic) sexual desire. Finally, the mediation of body-related distracting thoughts between body image and solitary sexual desire was moderated by encoding style. A negative body image promoted the occurrence of body-related distracting thoughts during sexual activity, especially in internal encoders. Our study highlights the importance of body image, distracting thoughts, and encoding style in women's solitary sexuality and suggests possible factors that may reduce the impact of those body-related factors in dyadic sexual desire.

  15. Body image in transgender young people: Findings from a qualitative, community based study.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jenifer K; Doty, Jennifer L; Catalpa, Jory M; Ola, Cindy

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the ways in which transgender youth experience their bodies with regard to gender and body size. Ninety transgender youth and young adults completed in-depth interviews in eight metropolitan areas of the United States, Canada, and Ireland. Using a queer perspective, qualitative analyses revealed two broad conceptual categories: body dissatisfaction and body satisfaction. Within these categories, participants focused on body issues related to gender characteristics and body size. Findings revealed evidence of self-criticism and social distress related to body image dissatisfaction and self-acceptance and social acceptance related to body image satisfaction. Data demonstrated how gender, body size, and the intersection of gender and body size influenced personal perceptions of body dissatisfaction and satisfaction. Developmental processes were evident: participants further along in consolidating a gender identity described gaining a sense of social awareness, self-acceptance, and body satisfaction reflecting a sense of resilience.

  16. Consumer opinion on social policy approaches to promoting positive body image: Airbrushed media images and disclaimer labels.

    PubMed

    Paraskeva, Nicole; Lewis-Smith, Helena; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2015-08-10

    Disclaimer labels on airbrushed media images have generated political attention and advocacy as a social policy approach to promoting positive body image. Experimental research suggests that labelling is ineffective and consumers' viewpoints have been overlooked. A mixed-method study explored British consumers' (N = 1555, aged 11-78 years) opinions on body image and social policy approaches. Thematic analysis indicated scepticism about the effectiveness of labelling images. Quantitatively, adults, although not adolescents, reported that labelling was unlikely to improve body image. Appearance diversity in media and reorienting social norms from appearance to function and health were perceived as effective strategies. Social policy and research implications are discussed.

  17. PET imaging predicts future body weight and cocaine preference

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides M.; Wang G.; Michaelides M.; Thanos P.K. Kim R.; Cho J.; Ananth M.; Wang G.-J.; Volkow N.D.

    2011-08-28

    Deficits in dopamine D2/D3 receptor (D2R/D3R) binding availability using PET imaging have been reported in obese humans and rodents. Similar deficits have been reported in cocaine-addicts and cocaine-exposed primates. We found that D2R/D3R binding availability negatively correlated with measures of body weight at the time of scan (ventral striatum), at 1 (ventral striatum) and 2 months (dorsal and ventral striatum) post scan in rats. Cocaine preference was negatively correlated with D2R/D3R binding availability 2 months (ventral striatum) post scan. Our findings suggest that inherent deficits in striatal D2R/D3R signaling are related to obesity and drug addiction susceptibility and that ventral and dorsal striatum serve dissociable roles in maintaining weight gain and cocaine preference. Measuring D2R/D3R binding availability provides a way for assessing susceptibility to weight gain and cocaine abuse in rodents and given the translational nature of PET imaging, potentially primates and humans.

  18. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew F.; Soldin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups. PMID:27429267

  19. Con-forming bodies: the interplay of machines and bodies and the implications of agency in medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    Attending to the material discursive constructions of the patient body within cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in radiotherapy treatments, in this paper I describe how bodies and machines co-create images. Using an analytical framework inspired by Science and Technology Studies and Feminist Technoscience, I describe the interplay between machines and bodies and the implications of materialities and agency. I argue that patients' bodies play a part in producing scans within acceptable limits of machines as set out through organisational arrangements. In doing so I argue that bodies are fabricated into the order of work prescribed and embedded within and around the CBCT system, becoming, not only the subject of resulting images, but part of that image. The scan is not therefore a representation of a passive subject (a body) but co-produced by the work of practitioners and patients who actively control (and contort) and discipline their body according to protocols and instructions and the CBCT system. In this way I suggest they are 'con-forming' the CBCT image. A Virtual Abstract of this paper can be found at: https://youtu.be/qysCcBGuNSM.

  20. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  1. Performance Characteristics of a Positron Projection Imager For Mouse Whole-body Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Jurgen; Xi, Wenze; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Jagoda, Elaine M.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We describe a prototype positron projection imager (PPI) for visualizing the whole-body biodistribution of positron-emitting compounds in mouse-size animals. The final version of the PPI will be integrated into the MONICA portable dual-gamma camera system to allow the user to interchangeably image either single photon or positron-emitting compounds in a shared software and hardware environment. Methods A mouse is placed in the mid-plane between two identical, opposed, pixelated LYSO arrays separated by 21.8-cm and in time coincidence. An image of the distribution of positron decays in the animal is formed on this mid-plane by coincidence events that fall within a small cone angle to the perpendicular to the two detectors and within a user-specified energy window. We measured the imaging performance of this device with phantoms and in tests performed in mice injected with various compounds labeled with positron-emitting isotopes. Results Representative performance measurements yielded the following results (energy window 250–650 keV, cone angle 3.5-degrees): resolution in the image mid-plane, 1.66-mm (FWHM), resolution ±1.5-cm above and below the image plane, 2.2-mm (FWHM), sensitivity: 0.237-cps/kBq (8.76-cps/μCi) 18F (0.024% absolute). Energy resolution was 15.9% with a linear-count-rate operating range of 0–14.8 MBq (0–400 μCi) and a corrected sensitivity variation across the field-of-view of <3%. Whole-body distributions of [18F] FDG and [18F] fluoride were well visualized in mice of typical size. Conclusion Performance measurements and field studies indicate that the PPI is well suited to whole-body positron projection imaging of mice. When integrated into the MONICA gamma camera system, the PPI may be particularly useful early in the drug development cycle where, like MONICA, basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors (e.g., available imaging space, non

  2. Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescent Girls: Testing the Influence of Sociocultural Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Daniel; Vignoles, Vivian L.; Dittmar, Helga

    2005-01-01

    In Western cultures, girls' self-esteem declines substantially during middle adolescence, with changes in body image proposed as a possible explanation. Body image develops in the context of sociocultural factors, such as unrealistic media images of female beauty. In a study of 136 U.K. girls aged 11-16, experimental exposure to either ultra-thin…

  3. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  4. An evaluation of the Aerie Real campaign: Potential for promoting positive body image?

    PubMed

    Convertino, Alexandra D; Rodgers, Rachel F; Franko, Debra L; Jodoin, Adriana

    2016-11-25

    This study evaluated the impact on young women's body satisfaction of an advertising campaign: Aerie Real, which included images of models who were not digitally modified. In total, 200 female students were randomly allocated to view either Aerie Real images or digitally modified images from previous campaigns. In the total sample, no condition differences appeared. However, participants with high appearance comparison reported a smaller decrease in body satisfaction after viewing the Aerie Real images as compared to those viewing previous images (p = .003). Findings provide preliminary support for the Aerie Real campaign as less deleterious form of media for body image.

  5. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media.

  6. Objective index of image fidelity for JPEG2000 compressed body CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kil Joong; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Bohyoung; Seo, Jinwook; Mantiuk, Rafal

    2009-07-15

    Compression ratio (CR) has been the de facto standard index of compression level for medical images. The aim of the study is to evaluate the CR, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and a perceptual quality metric (high-dynamic range visual difference predictor HDR-VDP) as objective indices of image fidelity for Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) 2000 compressed body computed tomography (CT) images, from the viewpoint of visually lossless compression approach. A total of 250 body CT images obtained with five different scan protocols (5-mm-thick abdomen, 0.67-mm-thick abdomen, 5-mm-thick lung, 0.67-mm-thick lung, and 5-mm-thick low-dose lung) were compressed to one of five CRs (reversible, 6:1, 8:1, 10:1, and 15:1). The PSNR and HDR-VDP values were calculated for the 250 pairs of the original and compressed images. By alternately displaying an original and its compressed image on the same monitor, five radiologists independently determined if the pair was distinguishable or indistinguishable. The kappa statistic for the interobserver agreement among the five radiologists' responses was 0.70. According to the radiologists' responses, the number of distinguishable image pairs tended to significantly differ among the five scan protocols at 6:1-10:1 compressions (Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact tests). Spearman's correlation coefficients between each of the CR, PSNR, and HDR-VDP and the number of radiologists who responded as distinguishable were 0.72, -0.77, and 0.85, respectively. Using the radiologists' pooled responses as the reference standards, the areas under the receiver-operating-characteristic curves for the CR, PSNR, and HDR-VDP were 0.87, 0.93, and 0.97, respectively, showing significant differences between the CR and PSNR (p=0.04), or HDR-VDP (p<0.001), and between the PSNR and HDR-VDP (p<0.001). In conclusion, the CR is less suitable than the PSNR or HDR-VDP as an objective index of image fidelity for JPEG2000 compressed body CT images. The HDR-VDP is more

  7. Person Recognition System Based on a Combination of Body Images from Visible Light and Thermal Cameras

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Hong, Hyung Gil; Kim, Ki Wan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-01-01

    The human body contains identity information that can be used for the person recognition (verification/recognition) problem. In this paper, we propose a person recognition method using the information extracted from body images. Our research is novel in the following three ways compared to previous studies. First, we use the images of human body for recognizing individuals. To overcome the limitations of previous studies on body-based person recognition that use only visible light images for recognition, we use human body images captured by two different kinds of camera, including a visible light camera and a thermal camera. The use of two different kinds of body image helps us to reduce the effects of noise, background, and variation in the appearance of a human body. Second, we apply a state-of-the art method, called convolutional neural network (CNN) among various available methods, for image features extraction in order to overcome the limitations of traditional hand-designed image feature extraction methods. Finally, with the extracted image features from body images, the recognition task is performed by measuring the distance between the input and enrolled samples. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient for enhancing recognition accuracy compared to systems that use only visible light or thermal images of the human body. PMID:28300783

  8. Person Recognition System Based on a Combination of Body Images from Visible Light and Thermal Cameras.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Hong, Hyung Gil; Kim, Ki Wan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-03-16

    The human body contains identity information that can be used for the person recognition (verification/recognition) problem. In this paper, we propose a person recognition method using the information extracted from body images. Our research is novel in the following three ways compared to previous studies. First, we use the images of human body for recognizing individuals. To overcome the limitations of previous studies on body-based person recognition that use only visible light images for recognition, we use human body images captured by two different kinds of camera, including a visible light camera and a thermal camera. The use of two different kinds of body image helps us to reduce the effects of noise, background, and variation in the appearance of a human body. Second, we apply a state-of-the art method, called convolutional neural network (CNN) among various available methods, for image features extraction in order to overcome the limitations of traditional hand-designed image feature extraction methods. Finally, with the extracted image features from body images, the recognition task is performed by measuring the distance between the input and enrolled samples. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient for enhancing recognition accuracy compared to systems that use only visible light or thermal images of the human body.

  9. Body image as a mediator of non-suicidal self-injury in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J; Brausch, Amy M

    2012-02-01

    Attitudes towards the body have been largely overlooked as a potential risk factor for adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) despite theorizing that a negative body image may play a critical role in the development of this behavior. The current study used structural equation modeling to evaluate the fit of a theoretical model specifying body image as a mediator between negative affect and NSSI in a combined clinical and non-clinical sample of 284 adolescents. The data supported the model, accounted for 21.6% of the variance in NSSI, and body image significantly mediated the relationship between negative affect and NSSI. These findings provide essential preliminary evidence that body image may represent a necessary but not sufficient risk factor for NSSI in adolescents and that treatment for NSSI should consider targeting body-related pathology in addition to emotion regulation. The findings also support including body image within developing etiological models of NSSI.

  10. Whole-Body MRI in Children: Current Imaging Techniques and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in children to evaluate the extent and distribution of various neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. Not using ionizing radiation is a major advantage of pediatric whole-body MRI. Coronal and sagittal short tau inversion recovery imaging is most commonly used as the fundamental whole-body MRI protocol. Diffusion-weighted imaging and Dixon-based imaging, which has been recently incorporated into whole-body MRI, are promising pulse sequences, particularly for pediatric oncology. Other pulse sequences may be added to increase diagnostic capability of whole-body MRI. Of importance, the overall whole-body MRI examination time should be less than 30-60 minutes in children, regardless of the imaging protocol. Established and potentially useful clinical applications of pediatric whole-body MRI are described. PMID:26355493

  11. Body image in social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M; Gutner, Cassidy A; Lazarov, Amit; Hermesh, Haggai; Hofmann, Stefan G; Marom, Sofi

    2014-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder falls under the category of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, yet research has suggested it may also be highly associated with social anxiety disorder. The current study examined body image variables among 68 outpatients with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n=22), social anxiety disorder (SAD; n=25), and panic disorder (PD; n=21). Participants filled out self-report measures of body image disturbance, attitudes toward one's appearance, and anxiety. Body image disturbance and attitudes toward appearance did not significantly differ between the groups. However, SAD symptoms predicted body image disturbance, Appearance Evaluation and Body Areas Satisfaction, and OCD symptoms predicted Appearance Orientation. These findings suggest that SAD and OCD may be associated with different facets of body image. Implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders and for future research are discussed.

  12. Family influence on disordered eating: the role of body image dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Kluck, Annette S

    2010-01-01

    Research has linked an appearance-focused family culture (including parental commentary about weight/size) with increased disordered eating and body image dissatisfaction in daughters. Since body image dissatisfaction is also a risk factor for disordered eating, body image dissatisfaction may contribute to the link between family focus on appearance and disordered eating. This correlational study included a sample of 268 college women who completed the Family Influence Scale, Bulimia Test - Revised, Body Shape Questionnaire, and a series of items about their parents' comments about their weight/size. Both family appearance focus and daughters' body image dissatisfaction predicted increased disordered eating in daughters. Additionally, body image dissatisfaction partially mediated the influence of family appearance focus on daughters' disordered eating. No specific type of parental comments regarding weight/size emerged as a superior predictor of eating disturbance, but encouragement to control weight/size was a stronger predictor of body dissatisfaction than other types of parental comments.

  13. Predicting drive for muscularity behavioural engagement from body image attitudes and emotions.

    PubMed

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We examined the potential moderating effects of appearance investment, body image disturbance, and situational body image dysphoria on the drive for muscularity attitude-behaviour relationship. Participants (339 British college men, M(AGE)=20.00 years, SD=2.59) completed drive for muscularity attitude and behaviour, appearance investment, body image disturbance, and situational body image dysphoria measures. Results indicated higher levels of appearance investment, body image disturbance, and situational body image dysphoria were associated with increases in the drive for muscularity attitude's relationship with physique-enhancing behavioural engagement. Results help extend recent research that has moved beyond identifying correlates to examining ways that groups of variables interact to predict drive for muscularity behavioural engagement and may contribute to theory development.

  14. Does short-term fasting promote changes in state body image?

    PubMed

    Schaumberg, Katherine; Anderson, Drew A

    2014-03-01

    Fasting, or going a significant amount of time without food, is a predictor of eating pathology in at-risk samples. The current study examined whether acute changes in body image occur after an episode of fasting in college students. Furthermore, it evaluated whether individual difference variables might inform the relationship between fasting and shifts in body image. Participants (N=186) included male (44.7%) and female college students who completed the Body Image States Scale (BISS) and other eating-related measures before a 24-h fast. Participants completed the BISS again after fasting. While no overall changes in BISS scores emerged during the study, some individuals evidenced body image improvement. Baseline levels of disinhibition and self-reported fasting at least once per week uniquely predicted improvement in body image. Individual difference variables may play a role in how fasting could be reinforced by shifts in body image.

  15. Aggression and body image concerns among anabolic androgenic steroid users, contemplators, and controls in Norway.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Ida Heimly; Johannessen, Kim Berg

    2015-01-01

    AAS users and contemplators were investigated for differences in aggression and body image concern. Prevalence rates were sought as a secondary aim. 396 male adolescents at Norwegian high schools completed a questionnaire battery during school hours. Prevalence of AAS use showed 4.0%; AAS contemplation showed 5.1%. No significant differences between the AAS users and contemplators were found on levels of aggression and body image concern. AAS users and contemplators reported significantly higher levels of aggression and body image concern compared nonusing controls. AAS contemplators enhance understanding of AAS use by representing psychosocial factors contributing to increased aggression, and AAS use or risk thereof indicative of an aggressive personality profile. Body image concerns for AAS users and contemplators may indicate that AAS use does not diminish body image concern, and that body image concern is a risk factor for AAS use. This is supportive of previous research.

  16. The effects of exposure to slender and muscular images on male body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Galioto, Rachel; Crowther, Janis H

    2013-09-01

    This research examined the effects of appearance-based comparisons to muscular and slender idealized male bodies and the contribution of internalization and social comparison to change in body dissatisfaction. Participants were 111 male undergraduates who completed measures of body dissatisfaction, internalization, and social comparison and viewed images of either muscular or slender men in advertisements or product-only advertisements. Results indicated that exposure to both muscular and slender images was associated with an increase in body dissatisfaction, with no significant differences in the change in body dissatisfaction between the two image conditions. Internalization and trait social comparison were each associated with an increase in body dissatisfaction; however, upward social comparison was only a significant predictor of a change in body dissatisfaction for the males who viewed muscular images. These results highlight the impact of slender models on young men's body dissatisfaction and support the examination of media literacy interventions with this population.

  17. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shaban, Lemia H; Vaccaro, Joan A; Sukhram, Shiryn D; Huffman, Fatma G

    2016-01-01

    Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents' self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public), TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females' body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value.

  18. Perceived Body Image, Eating Behavior, and Sedentary Activities and Body Mass Index Categories in Kuwaiti Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shaban, Lemia H.; Sukhram, Shiryn D.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The State of Kuwait has a growing obesity epidemic in both genders and all age groups; however, obesity rates in the young seem to be rising. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 169 Kuwaiti female adolescents attending both private and public schools spanning the six governorates in the State of Kuwait in order to explore female adolescents' self-image, body dissatisfaction, type of school (private versus public), TV viewing, and computer games and their relationship to body mass index. Results. Approximately half the students classified as obese perceived their body image to lie in the normal range. Females in the obese category were the most dissatisfied with their body image, followed by those in the overweight category. Eating behavior, level of physical activity, school type, television viewing, computer/video usage, and desired BMI were not significantly associated with level of obesity. Conclusion. This study was one of the few studies to assess adolescent females' body image dissatisfaction in relation to obesity in the State of Kuwait. The results suggest that including body image dissatisfaction awareness into obesity prevention programs would be of value. PMID:28042301

  19. Roles of body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living in the link between body image and women's quality of life.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2016-12-07

    The current study aimed to test whether the associations of body mass index, body image discrepancy, and social comparison based on physical appearance with women's psychological quality of life (QoL) would be explained by the mechanisms of body image-related experiential avoidance and patterns of uncommitted living. The sample was collected from October 2014 to March 2015 and included 737 female college students (aged between 18 and 25 years) who completed validated self-report measures. Results demonstrated that the final path model explained 43% of psychological QoL and revealed an excellent fit. Body image-related experiential avoidance had a meditational role in the association between body image discrepancy and psychological QoL. Further, the link between social comparison based on physical appearance and psychological QoL was partially mediated by body image-related experiential avoidance and uncommitted living. These findings indicate that the key mechanisms of the relationship between body image and young women's QoL were those related to maladaptive emotion regulation. It thus seems that interventions aiming to promote mental health in this population should promote acceptance of internal experiences related to physical appearance (e.g., sensations, thoughts, or emotions) and the engagement in behaviors committed to life values.

  20. Body image and body type preferences in St. Kitts, Caribbean: a cross- cultural comparison with U.S. samples regarding attitudes towards muscularity, body fat, and breast size.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B; Frederick, David A

    2012-09-06

    We investigated body image in St. Kitts, a Caribbean island where tourism, international media, and relatively high levels of body fat are common. Participants were men and women recruited from St. Kitts (n = 39) and, for comparison, U.S. samples from universities (n = 618) and the Internet (n = 438). Participants were shown computer generated images varying in apparent body fat level and muscularity or breast size and they indicated their body type preferences and attitudes. Overall, there were only modest differences in body type preferences between St. Kitts and the Internet sample, with the St. Kitts participants being somewhat more likely to value heavier women. Notably, however, men and women from St. Kitts were more likely to idealize smaller breasts than participants in the U.S. samples. Attitudes regarding muscularity were generally similar across samples. This study provides one of the few investigations of body preferences in the Caribbean.

  1. Sociocultural and individual psychological predictors of body image in young girls: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Levina; Tiggemann, Marika

    2008-07-01

    This study investigated the prospective predictors of body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls. Participants were 150 girls in Grades 4-6 with a mean age of 10.3 years. Girls completed questionnaire measures of media and peer influences (television/magazine exposure, peer appearance conversations), individual psychological variables (appearance schemas, internalization of appearance ideals, autonomy), and body image (figure discrepancy and body esteem) at Time 1 and 1 year later at Time 2. Linear panel analyses showed that after controlling for Time 1 levels of body image, none of the Time 1 sociocultural variables predicted body image variables at Time 2. Body mass index (BMI; a biological variable) and psychological variables, however, did offer significant prospective prediction. Specifically, higher BMI, higher appearance schemas, higher internalization of appearance ideals, and lower autonomy predicted worsening body image 1 year later. Thus, higher weight and certain psychological characteristics were temporally antecedent to body image concerns. It was concluded that both biological and individual psychological variables play a role in the development of body image in children. Individual psychological variables, in particular, may provide useful targets in prevention and intervention programs addressing body image in 9- to 12-year-old girls.

  2. The influence of race, ethnicity, class, and sexual politics on lesbians' body image.

    PubMed

    Pitman, G E

    2000-01-01

    Based on interviews conducted with eight lesbians, this paper explores how the intersection of gender, sexual identity, race, ethnicity, and class affect lesbians' feelings about their bodies. Their responses suggest that, while being female has a strong effect on lesbians' feelings about their bodies, issues of race, acculturation, and class also affect body image. Lesbian feminism and S/M politics also appear to play a significant role in lesbians' body image. These findings highlight the limitations of existing theories about body image and call for a more complex theory incorporating a more diverse range of experiences.

  3. Are there different sociocultural influences on body image and body change strategies for overweight adolescent boys and girls?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Holt, Kate

    2010-08-01

    This study examined how sociocultural messages differ for overweight and normal weight adolescents and how these messages predict body image and body change strategies. In total, 590 adolescents participated in the study. Overweight adolescents experienced greater body dissatisfaction, engaged in more strategies to lose weight, and experienced greater sociocultural messages to lose weight. Body dissatisfaction and sociocultural pressures predicted weight loss among overweight boys. Body image importance, and sociocultural pressures predicted increasing muscle bulk for normal and overweight boys. Weight loss for overweight girls was predicted by sociocultural pressures. Sociocultural pressures also predicted muscle increase for overweight and normal weight girls. Implications for intervention and prevention programs for overweight adolescent boys and girls are discussed.

  4. Body image and personality among British men: associations between the Big Five personality domains, drive for muscularity, and body appreciation.

    PubMed

    Benford, Karis; Swami, Viren

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined associations between the Big Five personality domains and measures of men's body image. A total of 509 men from the community in London, UK, completed measures of drive for muscularity, body appreciation, the Big Five domains, and subjective social status, and provided their demographic details. The results of a hierarchical regression showed that, once the effects of participant body mass index (BMI) and subjective social status had been accounted for, men's drive for muscularity was significantly predicted by Neuroticism (β=.29). In addition, taking into account the effects of BMI and subjective social status, men's body appreciation was significantly predicted by Neuroticism (β=-.35) and Extraversion (β=.12). These findings highlight potential avenues for the development of intervention approaches based on the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and body image.

  5. Associations Between Positive Body Image, Sexual Liberalism, and Unconventional Sexual Practices in U.S. Adults.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Weis, Laura; Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-01-17

    While studies have documented robust relationships between body image and sexual health outcomes, few studies have looked beyond sexual functioning in women. Here, we hypothesized that more positive body image would be associated with greater sexual liberalism and more positive attitudes toward unconventional sexual practices. An online sample of 151 women and 164 men from the U.S. completed measures of sexual liberalism, attitudes toward unconventional sexual practices, and indices of positive body image (i.e., body appreciation, body acceptance by others, body image flexibility, and body pride), and provided their demographic details. Regression analyses indicated that, once the effects of sexual orientation, relationship status, age, and body mass index had been accounted for, higher body appreciation was significantly associated with greater sexual liberalism in women and men. Furthermore, higher body appreciation and body image flexibility were significantly associated with more positive attitudes toward unconventional sexual practices in women and men. These results may have implications for scholars working from a sex-positive perspective, particularly in terms of understanding the role body image plays in sexual attitudes and behaviors.

  6. Optimization of Whole-Body Zebrafish Sectioning Methods for Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass spectrometry imaging methods and protocols have become widely adapted to a variety of tissues and species. However, the mass spectrometry imaging literature contains minimal information on whole-body cryosection preparation for the zebrafish (Danio rerio), a model organism ...

  7. Managing Body Image Difficulties of Adult Cancer Patients: Lessons from Available Research

    PubMed Central

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Teo, Irene; Epner, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body image is a critical psychosocial issue for cancer patients as they often undergo significant changes to appearance and functioning. In this review article, our primary purpose was to identify empirically-supported approaches to treat body image difficulties of adult cancer patients that can be incorporated into high-quality comprehensive cancer care. Methods We provided an overview of theoretical models of body image relevant to cancer patients, and presented findings from published literature on body image and cancer from 2003–2013. We integrated these data with information from the patient-doctor communication literature to delineate a practical approach for assessing and treating body image concerns of adult cancer patients. Results Body image difficulties were found across patients with diverse cancer sites, and were most prevalent in the immediate postoperative and treatment period. Age, body mass index, and specific cancer treatments have been identified as potential risk factors for body image disturbance in cancer patients. Current evidence supports the use of time-limited cognitive-behavioral therapy interventions for addressing these difficulties. Other intervention strategies also show promise but require further study. We identified potential indicators of body image difficulties to alert healthcare professionals when to refer patients for psychosocial care, and proposed a framework for approaching conversations about body image that can be used by the oncologic treatment team. Conclusions Body image issues affect a wide array of cancer patients. Providers can use available evidence combined with information from the healthcare communication literature to develop practical strategies for treating body image concerns of cancer patients. PMID:24895287

  8. Body-Image Disturbance: A Comparative Study among Haemodialysis and Kidney Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Jaleh; Seyedfatemi, Naeimeh; Rafiei, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As a chronic disease, End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) changes the patients’ body and affects their body image negatively. Although the changes in body image are expected in all types of renal replacement therapies, different renal replacement therapy methods could represent different levels of impact on body image. Aim Present study was conducted to examine and compare the level of body-image disturbance between haemodialysis and kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods This descriptive study was conducted in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Using convenient sampling, 84 patients (42 patients under haemodialysis and 42 patients with transplant) were invited to participate in the study. A self-designed questionnaire was developed to examine the level of body-image disturbance. Results Out of 42 haemodialysis patients, 64.3%, 19% and 16.7% of patients reported low, moderate and high level of body-image disturbance respectively. The mean score of body-image disturbance was 21.1±18.3(rang=1–71) in haemodialysis patients. Of 42 transplant patients, 69%, 26.2% and 4.8% reported low, moderate and high level of body-image disturbance respectively. The mean score of body-image disturbance was 17.1±13.3 (rang=1–48). According to the results of independent t-test, difference between mean score of body-image disturbance in two groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion The findings of the present study showed that both haemodialysis and renal transplant patients experienced some levels of body-image disturbance. This problem was more prevalent among haemodialysis patients as compared to kidney transplant ones. We recommend more studies may be conducted in this regard. PMID:27437264

  9. Perceived relationship with God fosters positive body image in college women.

    PubMed

    Homan, Kristin J; Cavanaugh, Brianna N

    2013-12-01

    Positive body image is defined as healthy body-related attitudes that go beyond the absence of distressful symptoms. A warm and secure relationship with an important other person has been linked with attitudes of acceptance and appreciation toward one's body as well as adaptive eating patterns. This study tested whether a warm and secure relationship with God was similarly related to positive body image. Undergraduate women completed self-report measures of religiosity, life satisfaction, body appreciation, body acceptance by others, functional orientation, and intuitive eating. Multiple regression analyses showed that relationship with God contributed variance to most of the well-being variables.

  10. Assessment methods for eating disorders and body image disorders.

    PubMed

    Túry, Ferenc; Güleç, Hayriye; Kohls, Elisabeth

    2010-12-01

    The growing interest in the treatment and research of eating disorders has stimulated the development of assessment methods, and there are now many questionnaires for evaluating behavioral and attitudinal characteristics of eating pathology. The present article sets out to review the assessment tools that are widely used in clinical practice and research. In particular, it covers self-report measures with summaries of their psychometric properties. It also presents diagnostic questionnaires based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnostic criteria. The instruments described include screening questionnaires, measurement tools for specific eating disorder symptoms, measurement of quality of life in eating disorders, and some tools for the measurement of body image disorder, a common feature of eating disorders. There is also a discussion of distorting factors that decrease the authenticity of assessment tools. These problems arise from the definition of some constructs and from the phenomena of denial and concealment, which are frequent among eating-disordered individuals. The frequent co-occurrence of other psychopathological features (e.g., multiimpulsive symptoms) shows that other psychological phenomena should also be evaluated in line with the assessment of eating disorders.

  11. Yoga and positive body image: A test of the Embodiment Model.

    PubMed

    Mahlo, Leeann; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to test the Embodiment Model of Positive Body Image (Menzel & Levine, 2011) within the context of yoga. Participants were 193 yoga practitioners (124 Iyengar, 69 Bikram) and 127 university students (non-yoga participants) from Adelaide, South Australia. Participants completed questionnaire measures of positive body image, embodiment, self-objectification, and desire for thinness. Results showed yoga practitioners scored higher on positive body image and embodiment, and lower on self-objectification than non-yoga participants. In support of the embodiment model, the relationship between yoga participation and positive body image was serially mediated by embodiment and reduced self-objectification. Although Bikram practitioners endorsed appearance-related reasons for participating in yoga more than Iyengar practitioners, there were no significant differences between Iyengar and Bikram yoga practitioners on body image variables. It was concluded that yoga is an embodying activity that can provide women with the opportunity to cultivate a favourable relationship with their body.

  12. Illustrating the body: Cross-sectional and prospective investigations of the impact of life drawing sessions on body image.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren

    2016-01-30

    Life drawing sessions, where individuals produce drawings of the human figure from observations of a live model, may contain embodying elements that promote healthier body image. Two pilot studies were conducted to test this hypothesis. In Study 1, 138 individuals recruited from life drawing sessions in London, UK, estimated how many sessions they had attended in their lifetime and completed measures of negative and positive body image. In women, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation and lower drive for thinness and social physique anxiety. In men, greater attendance was significantly associated with higher body appreciation, but not drive for muscularity or social physique anxiety. In Study 2, 37 women took part in a life drawing session for the first time. Compared to pre-session scores, participants had significantly more positive state body image and appearance satisfaction after the session. The findings of these studies suggest that life drawing may promote healthier body image, particularly among women, but further research is needed.

  13. The effects of aerobic- versus strength-training on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns.

    PubMed

    Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Strong, Heather A; Arent, Shawn M; Bray, Steven R; Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L

    2014-06-01

    This experiment compared the effects of aerobic-training (AT) versus strength-training (ST) on body image among young women with pre-existing body image concerns. Theory-based correlates of body image change were also examined. Participants were 46 women (M age=21.5 years), randomly assigned to an 8-week AT or ST intervention consisting of supervised exercise 3 days/week. Multidimensional measures of body image were administered pre- and post-intervention, along with measures of physical fitness, perceived fitness, and exercise self-efficacy. Women in the AT condition reported greater reductions in social physique anxiety (p=.001) and tended to report greater improvements in appearance evaluation (p=.06) than women in the ST condition. Changes in perceived fatness, perceived aerobic endurance and aerobic self-efficacy were significantly correlated with body image change (ps<.003). Results provide direction for prescribing exercise to improve body image and advancing theory to account for the effects of exercise.

  14. A biopsychosocial model of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A

    2014-05-01

    Body image and eating concerns are prevalent among early adolescent girls, and associated with biological, psychological and sociocultural risk factors. To date, explorations of biopsychosocial models of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls are lacking. A sample of 488 early adolescent girls, mean age = 12.35 years (SD = 0.53), completed a questionnaire assessing depressive symptoms, self-esteem, body mass index (BMI), sociocultural appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, appearance comparison, body image concerns and disordered eating. Structural equation modelling was conducted to test a hypothetical model in which internalization and comparison were mediators of the effect of both negative affect and sociocultural influences on body image concerns and disordered eating. In addition, the model proposed that BMI would impact body image concerns. Although the initial model was a poor fit to the data, the fit was improved after the addition of a direct pathway between negative affect and bulimic symptoms. The final model explained a large to moderate proportion of the variance in body image and eating concerns. This study supports the role of negative affect in biopsychosocial models of the development of body image concerns and disordered eating in early adolescent girls. Interventions including strategies to address negative affect as well as sociocultural appearance pressures may help decrease the risk for body image concerns and disordered eating among this age group.

  15. Automatic anatomy recognition in whole-body PET/CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K. Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Torigian, Drew A.; Zhao, Liming

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has become a standard method of imaging patients with various disease conditions, especially cancer. Body-wide accurate quantification of disease burden in PET/CT images is important for characterizing lesions, staging disease, prognosticating patient outcome, planning treatment, and evaluating disease response to therapeutic interventions. However, body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT is a critical first step for accurately and automatically quantifying disease body-wide, body-region-wise, and organwise. This latter process, however, has remained a challenge due to the lower quality of the anatomic information portrayed in the CT component of this imaging modality and the paucity of anatomic details in the PET component. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the adaptation of a recently developed automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodology [Udupa et al., “Body-wide hierarchical fuzzy modeling, recognition, and delineation of anatomy in medical images,” Med. Image Anal. 18, 752–771 (2014)] to PET/CT images. Their goal was to test what level of object localization accuracy can be achieved on PET/CT compared to that achieved on diagnostic CT images. Methods: The authors advance the AAR approach in this work in three fronts: (i) from body-region-wise treatment in the work of Udupa et al. to whole body; (ii) from the use of image intensity in optimal object recognition in the work of Udupa et al. to intensity plus object-specific texture properties, and (iii) from the intramodality model-building-recognition strategy to the intermodality approach. The whole-body approach allows consideration of relationships among objects in different body regions, which was previously not possible. Consideration of object texture allows generalizing the previous optimal threshold-based fuzzy model recognition method from intensity images to any derived fuzzy membership image, and in the process

  16. The Small Bodies Imager Browser --- finding asteroid and comet images without pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, E.; Sykes, M.; Davis, D.; Neese, C.

    2014-07-01

    To facilitate accessing and downloading spatially resolved imagery of asteroids and comets in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS), we have created the Small Bodies Image Browser. It is a HTML5 webpage that runs inside a standard web browser needing no installation (http://sbn.psi.edu/sbib/). The volume of data returned by spacecraft missions has grown substantially over the last decade. While this wealth of data provides scientists with ample support for research, it has greatly increased the difficulty of managing, accessing and processing these data. Further, the complexity necessary for a long-term archive results in an architecture that is efficient for computers, but not user friendly. The Small Bodies Image Browser (SBIB) is tied into the PDS archive of the Small Bodies Asteroid Subnode hosted at the Planetary Science Institute [1]. Currently, the tool contains the entire repository of the Dawn mission's encounter with Vesta [2], and we will be adding other datasets in the future. For Vesta, this includes both the level 1A and 1B images for the Framing Camera (FC) and the level 1B spectral cubes from the Visual and Infrared (VIR) spectrometer, providing over 30,000 individual images. A key strength of the tool is providing quick and easy access of these data. The tool allows for searches based on clicking on a map or typing in coordinates. The SBIB can show an entire mission phase (such as cycle 7 of the Low Altitude Mapping Orbit) and the associated footprints, as well as search by image name. It can focus the search by mission phase, resolution or instrument. Imagery archived in the PDS are generally provided by missions in a single or narrow range of formats. To enhance the value and usability of this data to researchers, SBIB makes these available in these original formats as well as PNG, JPEG and ArcGIS compatible ISIS cubes [3]. Additionally, we provide header files for the VIR cubes so they can be read into ENVI without additional processing. Finally

  17. Psychological Adaptation to Alteration of Body Image among Stoma Patients: A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Jayarajah, Umesh; Samarasekera, Dharmabandhu Nandadeva

    2017-01-01

    Background: Creation of an ostomy leads to significant change in the body image of the patient. However, adaptation to this alteration of body image is necessary for rehabilitation following surgery. The objective of this study was to identify the factors that influence adaptation to altered body image. Materials and Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 41 ostomy patients who were treated at a single tertiary care unit. Body image disturbance questionnaire (BIDQ) was used to assess the perception of body image. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test (unpaired), Chi-square test, and Spearman's correlation. Results: In our study, the mean BIDQ score was 2.22 (standard deviation ± 0.88). The body image disturbance was significantly associated with younger age (P < 0.05). The prevalence of body image disturbance was significantly higher among overweight patients (P < 0.05). Males had a higher BIDQ score than females. Those who had temporary stoma had significantly higher BIDQ score (P < 0.05). Those who felt depressed or had thoughts of self-harm soon after surgery had significantly high body image disturbance score (P < 0.05). There was a significant negative correlation with the perception of self-efficacy and body image disturbance (P < 0.01). There was no significant association between body image disturbance and the diagnosis, type of surgery, or time duration after surgery. Conclusions: Poor adaptation to alteration of body image was associated with younger age, overweight, and temporary stoma. Individuals at risk of poor adaptation should be identified before surgery and counseled before surgery, after surgery, and during follow-up visits. PMID:28250561

  18. Body Image and Westernization Trends among Japanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, Hailey E.; Reel, Justine J.; Galli, Nick A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; Miyairi, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: The purpose of this project was to examine body dissatisfaction and the degree of acculturation to Western media body ideals among Japanese adolescents. Furthermore, sex differences in body esteem were examined between male and female participants. Methods: Male and female participants (N=158) aged 15 to 18 years in Okinawa,…

  19. Effects of behavior modification on body image, depression and body fat in obese Korean elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young Im; Park, Ho Ran; Koo, Hyun Young; Kim, Hyo Shin

    2004-02-29

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of behavior modification on body image, depression and body fat in obese elementary school children. Sixty-two elementary students of the 4th to 6th grade were selected from two different Seoul schools. Thirty-four children in one school were designated as the experimental group, and 28 children from the other school as the control group. The experimental group received 60 - 70 minutes of behavior modification, once a week, for 8 weeks. The control group received neither management nor treatment. The results indicated a significant improvement of body image and a reduction in the increase rate of body fat for the experimental group. This finding strongly supports the theory that behavior modification can be used as an effective strategy in the treatment of obese children.

  20. On the use of trace-weighted images in body diffusional kurtosis imaging.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Marco; Toschi, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) has proven to be a promising diffusion-MRI technique whose first and most established applications are in neuroimaging. Recently, a number of preliminary studies have assessed the feasibility and potential usefulness of DKI in extra-cranial regions such as prostate, liver, kidney, bladder and breast. The stringent time constraints in most routine body MRI exams frequently mandate the acquisition of diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) with (only) three diffusion weighting directions (i.e. the main orthogonal directions). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential error introduced in the estimation of the average of the three directional diffusional kurtosis values (K) by using, for each b-value, the geometric mean (trace-weighted image) of acquired DWIs (as is common practice in most diffusion-MRI studies of the body) instead of fitting the DKI model to DWIs acquired along each direction prior to averaging. By solving the DKI model analytically while imposing three orthogonal diffusion weighting directions and two non-null b-values (800 and 2000s/mm(2)), extensive simulations were performed for different K values (0-3) and a wide range of diffusion anisotropy values. The error in the estimates of K induced by geometrical averaging of DWIs was assessed and compared to the uncertainty in K caused by DWIs noise for low (20), medium (40) and high (80) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values. The simulations showed that geometrical averaging of the DWIs introduces a noticeable error in estimated K. While the error in K varies non-monotonically with K and with the degree of diffusion anisotropy, there is a trend of increasing absolute error with both increasing K and increasing degree of diffusion anisotropy. In particular, for values of K close to 1 and low/moderate (0-0.4) diffusion anisotropy degrees (typical of various body tissues), the absolute error in K can range up to 60% of K. In this case, at all SNR values (20, 40, 80), the

  1. Influence of Appearance-Related TV Commercials on Body Image State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Ruhl, Ilka; Vocks, Silja

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of media exposure on body image state in eating-disordered (ED) patients. The attitudinal and perceptual components of body image are assessed, as well as any associations with dysfunctional cognitions and behavioral consequences. Twenty-five ED patients and 25 non-ED controls (ND) viewed commercials either…

  2. NetTweens: The Internet and Body Image Concerns in Preteenage Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between media exposure and body image concerns in preteenage girls, with a particular focus on the Internet. A sample of 189 girls (aged 10-12 years) completed questionnaire measures of media consumption and body image concerns. Nearly all girls (97.5%) had access to the Internet in their home.…

  3. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  4. Body image disturbance in children and adolescents with eating disorders. Current evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Thiemann, Pia; Vocks, Silja

    2014-01-01

    Body image is multifaceted and incorporates perceptual, affective, and cognitive components as well as behavioral features. Only few studies have examined the character of body-image disturbance in children/adolescents with eating disorders. It is unknown whether body-image disturbances in children/adolescent with eating disturbances are comparable to those of adult patients with eating disorders. Body-image disturbance might differ quantitatively and qualitatively according to the cognitive developmental status and the age of the individual. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence for body-image disturbance in children/adolescents with eating disorders, and how they compare with those adults with eating disorders. Current evidence indicates that older adolescent patients show similar deficits as adult patients with eating disorders, in particular for the attitudinal body-image component. However, evidence for a perceptual body-image disturbance in adolescent patients, in particular anorexia nervosa, is not conclusive. Reliable statements for childhood can hardly be made because clinical studies are not available. Investigations of body-image disturbance in children have focused on the predictive value for eating disorders. Limitations of the current evidence are discussed, and future directions for research and therapy are indicated.

  5. Communication between breast cancer patients and their physicians about breast-related body image issues.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mallory; Anderson, Rebecca C; Jensik, Kathleen; Xiang, Qun; Pruszynski, Jessica; Walker, Alonzo P

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer patients encounter body image changes throughout their diagnosis, treatment, and recovery from breast cancer. No prospective studies were identified investigating communication between physicians and breast cancer patients related to body image. This qualitative pilot study determines (1) how breast cancer patients prefer their physicians communicate regarding body image changes and (2) how comfortable physicians are in discussing body image issues with their patients. Data were collected from patients over 12 weeks through the breast evaluation questionnaire (BEQ), a valid and reliable instrument, and a qualitative questionnaire. Ten physicians completed a qualitative questionnaire. The data were analyzed using frequency analysis. Nearly 70% of the patients reported there was more the physician could do to improve patient comfort in discussing breast-related body image concerns. Honesty, openness, and directness were important to the patients. Thirty-three percent of the patients answered that their physicians should be honest, open, and direct while discussing these issues. On a five-point Likert scale (1 = very uncomfortable and 5 = very comfortable), the physicians most frequently answered a 4 when asked how comfortable they are speaking about breast-related body image issues; however, only four out of 10 always address the topic themselves during the patient's visit. These data suggest that patients want honesty, openness, and directness from their physicians during the discussion of breast-related body image issues. The physicians report they are comfortable speaking about breast-related body image issues; yet, they do not directly initiate the topic.

  6. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  7. Gender Conformity, Self-Objectification, and Body Image for Sorority and Nonsorority Women: A Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, David Francis; Behrens, Erica; Gann, Lianne; Schoen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Sororities have been identified as placing young women at risk for body image concerns due to a focus on traditional gender role norms and objectification of women. Objective: This study assessed the relationship between conformity to feminine gender role norms, self-objectification, and body image surveillance among undergraduate women.…

  8. The Practical Application of Promoting Positive Body Image on a College Campus: Insights from Freshmen Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Jackson, TeriSue; Reel, Justine J.; Thackeray, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body image disturbances and disordered eating behaviors are prevalent across college campuses and can lead to psychological and physical health consequences. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain formative research on the promotion of positive body image on a university campus with the goal of developing educational programs.…

  9. Cognitive Behavior Therapy with Body Image Exposure for Bulimia Nervosa: A Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delinsky, Sherrie S.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for bulimia nervosa (BN). However, among patients with BN, symptom improvement is more pronounced for behavioral eating symptoms (i.e., bingeing and purging) than for body image disturbance, and the persistence of body image disturbance is associated with relapse. The need for more…

  10. Perceptions of Body Image and Psychosocial Development: An Examination of First-Year Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jennifer Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help higher education practitioners and researchers better understand the role that body image plays in first-year traditional-aged college females' development of physical competence and also provide new insights regarding the role that body image plays in the psychosocial development of first-year…

  11. A Program To Promote Positive Body Image: A 1-Year Follow-Up Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVey, Gail L.; Davis, Ron

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of a program designed to promote body image satisfaction and prevent eating problems in young adolescent girls over a 1-year period. Found no program effect. Found instead, significant increases in body image satisfaction and decreases in eating problem scores over time for participants in both the prevention and…

  12. Does Body Image Play a Role in Risky Sexual Behavior and Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Meghan M.; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Shearer, Cindy L.

    2006-01-01

    Body image and sexuality, both physically-oriented domains of the self, are likely linked, but few studies have examined their associations. In the present investigation, we studied emerging adult undergraduates (ages 17-19), focusing specifically on risky sexual behaviors and attitudes. Participants (N=434) completed a survey on body image,…

  13. Body Weight Image and Gender Influence Emotional Response Patterns to Body Weight Related Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelRosario, Marlene W.; And Others

    Young adult females' attitudes toward body weight regulation contain important emotional components. To study the effects of body weight cues on emotionality, 160 college students (75 females, 85 males) completed either a body weight related (Q1) or control (Q2) questionnaire prior to taking the California Test of Personality (CTP). An analysis of…

  14. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: technique and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Eutsler, Eric P; Khanna, Geetika

    2016-05-01

    Whole-body MR imaging is being increasingly used in children to evaluate the extent of various oncologic and non-oncologic entities. The lack of exposure to ionizing radiation, excellent soft-tissue contrast (even without the use of contrast agents), and functional imaging capabilities make it especially suitable for screening and surveillance in the pediatric population. Technical developments such as moving table platforms, multi-channel/multi-element surface coils, and parallel imaging allow imaging of the entire body with multiple sequences in a reasonable 30- to 40-min time frame, which has facilitated its acceptance in routine clinical practice. The initial investigations in whole-body MR imaging were primarily focused on oncologic applications such as tumor screening and staging. The exquisite sensitivity of fluid-sensitive MR sequences to many different types of pathology has led to new applications of whole-body MR imaging in evaluation of multifocal rheumatologic conditions. Availability of blood pool contrast agents has allowed whole-body MR angiographic imaging of vascular malformations, vasculitides and vasculopathies. Whole-body MRI is being applied for delineating the extent and distribution of systemic and multifocal diseases, establishing diagnoses, assessing treatment response, and surveillance imaging. This article reviews the technique and clinical applications of whole-body MR imaging in children.

  15. The effect of changes to MOLLI scheme on T1 mapping and extra cellular volume calculation in healthy volunteers with 3 tesla cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    McDiarmid, Adam K.; Broadbent, David A.; Higgins, David M.; Swoboda, Peter P.; Kidambi, Ananth; Ripley, David P.; Erhayiem, Bara; Musa, Tarique A.; Dobson, Laura E.; Greenwood, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diffuse myocardial fibrosis may be quantified with magnetic resonance (MR) by calculating extracellular volume (ECV) fraction from native and post-contrast T1 values. The ideal modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence for deriving T1 values has not been determined. This study aims to establish if systematic differences exist between suggested MOLLI schemes. Methods Twelve phantom gels were studied with inversion recovery spin echo MR at 3.0 tesla to determine reference T1. Gels were then scanned with six MOLLI sequences (3s)3b(3s)5b; 4b(3s)3b(3s)2b; 5b(3s)3b with flip angles of both 35° and 50° at a range of heart rates (HRs). In 10 healthy volunteers MOLLI studies were performed on two separate occasions. Mid ventricular native and post contrast T1 was measured and ECV (%) calculated. Results In phantoms, the co-efficient of variability at simulated HR [40-100] with a flip angle of 35° ranged from 6.77 to 9.55, and at 50° from 7.71 to 11.10. T1 was under-estimated by all MOLLI acquisitions. Error was greatest with longer T1, and increased as HR increased. The 10 volunteers had normal MR studies. Native T1 time was similar for all acquisitions but highest with the 5b(3s)3b 35° scheme (1,189.1±33.46 ms). Interstudy reproducibility was similar for all MOLLIs. Conclusions The 5b(3s)3b MOLLI scheme agreed best with reference T1, without statistical difference between the six schemes. The shorter breath-hold time of 5b(3s)3b scheme may be preferable in clinical studies and warrants further investigation. PMID:26435913

  16. Preoperative 3-Tesla Multiparametric Endorectal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings and the Odds of Upgrading and Upstaging at Radical Prostatectomy in Men With Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hegde, John V.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Mulkern, Robert V.; Fennessy, Fiona M.; D'Amico, Anthony V.; Tempany, Clare M.C.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether 3-T esla (3T) multiparametric endorectal MRI (erMRI) can add information to established predictors regarding occult extraprostatic or high-grade prostate cancer (PC) in men with clinically localized PC. Methods and Materials: At a single academic medical center, this retrospective study's cohort included 118 men with clinically localized PC who underwent 3T multiparametric erMRI followed by radical prostatectomy, from 2008 to 2011. Multivariable logistic regression analyses in all men and in 100 with favorable-risk PC addressed whether erMRI evidence of T3 disease was associated with prostatectomy T3 or Gleason score (GS) 8-10 (in patients with biopsy GS {<=}7) PC, adjusting for age, prostate-specific antigen level, clinical T category, biopsy GS, and percent positive biopsies. Results: The accuracy of erMRI prediction of extracapsular extension and seminal vesicle invasion was 75% and 95%, respectively. For all men, erMRI evidence of a T3 lesion versus T2 was associated with an increased odds of having pT3 disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-16.98, P=.015) and pGS 8-10 (AOR 5.56, 95% CI 1.10-28.18, P=.038). In the favorable-risk population, these results were AOR 4.14 (95% CI 1.03-16.56), P=.045 and AOR 7.71 (95% CI 1.36-43.62), P=.021, respectively. Conclusions: Three-Tesla multiparametric erMRI in men with favorable-risk PC provides information beyond that contained in known preoperative predictors about the presence of occult extraprostatic and/or high-grade PC. If validated in additional studies, this information can be used to counsel men planning to undergo radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy about the possible need for adjuvant radiation therapy or the utility of adding hormone therapy, respectively.

  17. Anthropometric body measurements based on multi-view stereo image reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoxin; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jie; Chen, Hsin-Chen; Zuo, Wangmeng; Wang, Kuanquan; Sun, Mingui

    2013-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements, such as the circumferences of the hip, arm, leg and waist, waist-to-hip ratio, and body mass index, are of high significance in obesity and fitness evaluation. In this paper, we present a home based imaging system capable of conducting anthropometric measurements. Body images are acquired at different angles using a home camera and a simple rotating disk. Advanced image processing algorithms are utilized for 3D body surface reconstruction. A coarse body shape model is first established from segmented body silhouettes. Then, this model is refined through an inter-image consistency maximization process based on an energy function. Our experimental results using both a mannequin surrogate and a real human body validate the feasibility of the proposed system.

  18. Influence of appearance-related TV commercials on body image state.

    PubMed

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Rühl, Ilka; Vocks, Silja

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates the influence of media exposure on body image state in eating-disordered (ED) patients. The attitudinal and perceptual components of body image are assessed, as well as any associations with dysfunctional cognitions and behavioral consequences. Twenty-five ED patients and 25 non-ED controls (ND) viewed commercials either featuring appearance (AC; 5 min) or not featuring appearance (NC; 5 min). Both perceptual and attitudinal body image components changed markedly after the AC condition for ED patients, compared with the ND group and NC condition. Cognitions referring to dietary restraint and internalization/social comparison also changed significantly in ED patients depending on the experimental manipulation, whereas thoughts about body and self-esteem did not. The results suggest that media exposure acts as a stimulus that triggers body-related schemas. Partial support is given to cognitive-behavioral models of eating disorders, which postulate an association between cognitive bias, body image disturbances, and compensatory behavioral consequences.

  19. The Body Image Dissatisfaction and Psychological Symptoms among Invasive and Minimally Invasive Aesthetic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Y. Yazdandoost, Rokhsareh; Hayatbini, Niki; Asgharnejad Farid, Ali Asghar; Gharaee, Banafsheh; Latifi, Noor Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elective aesthetic surgeries are increasing in the Iranian population with reasons linked to body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms. This study compared the body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms among invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery patients and a control group. METHODS Data from 90 participants (invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, minimally invasive aesthetic surgery=30 Ss, and control group=30 Ss) were included. Subjects were assessed on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms to provide an evidence for a continuum of body image dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity in invasive and minimally invasive aesthetic surgery clients. RESULTS Between the three groups of invasive, minimally invasive aesthetic surgeries and control on body image dissatisfaction and psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression and interpersonal sensitivity), there was a significant difference. CONCLUSION These findings have implications for pre-surgical assessment as well as psychological interventions rather than invasive medical interventions at first step. PMID:27579270

  20. Empowerment, feminism, and self-efficacy: relationships to body image and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Kinsaul, Jessica A E; Curtin, Lisa; Bazzini, Doris; Martz, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural norms pertaining to an ideal of thinness for women likely play a role in the development and maintenance of disturbance in body image, and by extension, disordered eating. However, competing norms associated with feminism may buffer women from pressures associated with achieving the thin ideal. The present study explored the relationship between feminist ideology, empowerment, and self-efficacy relative to body image and eating behavior with a sample of U.S. undergraduate women (N=318) attending a southeastern U.S. mid-sized university. In planned hierarchical multiple regression analyses, endorsement of feminist ideology predicted perceptions of positive body image, but did not appear to predict disordered eating. Self-efficacy emerged as a robust predictor of positive body image and lower disordered eating even after controlling for perceptions of personal empowerment and feminism. Results, although limited by correlational data, suggest that self-efficacy may protect college-aged women from disordered eating and negative body image.

  1. "Looks do matter"--visual attentional biases in adolescent girls with eating disorders viewing body images.

    PubMed

    Horndasch, Stefanie; Kratz, Oliver; Holczinger, Anna; Heinrich, Hartmut; Hönig, Florian; Nöth, Elmar; Moll, Gunther H

    2012-07-30

    Visual attention allocation of adolescent girls with and without an eating disorder while viewing body images of underweight, normal-weight and overweight women was studied using eye tracking. While all girls attended more to specific body parts (e.g. hips, upper legs), eating-disordered girls showed an attentional bias towards unclothed body parts.

  2. Perceived Body Image Satisfaction: Impact on Romantic Relationships of African American Adult Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Candy H.

    2009-01-01

    The size, shape and physical attractiveness of a woman's body are linked to her sexuality. As women age, changes occur to their bodies that may cause them anxiety over the socially constructed body image norms that are promoted within this society. Researchers posit that the standard of our culture seems to create more problems for women as they…

  3. The effect of thin and muscular images on women's body satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Benton, Catherine; Karazsia, Bryan T

    2015-03-01

    A substantial body of research documents that exposure to images depicting a "thin ideal" body figure effects women's state-oriented body satisfaction. However, there is evidence that the societal ideal body figure of females is evolving to be not just thin, but also muscular or toned. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to test the effect of exposure to ideal body figures that are both thin and muscular on female state body satisfaction. Researchers recruited female participants (N=366) from an online community (Amazon's Mechanical Turk) and randomly assigned them to view images in one of four conditions: thin, thin and muscular, thin and hypermuscular, and control (images of cars). Results indicated that state-oriented body satisfaction decreased in the thin condition and thin and muscular condition, but not the hypermuscular or control conditions. These findings have implications for clinical initiatives as well as future research.

  4. Perceptions of early body image socialization in families: Exploring knowledge, beliefs, and strategies among mothers of preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Janet M; Clarke, Samantha; Birky, Julie P; Harrison, Kristen

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to explore parental perceptions of body image in preschoolers. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 primary caregivers of preschoolers to examine knowledge, beliefs, and strategies regarding early body image socialization in families. Thematic Analysis yielded three themes highlighting knowledge gaps, belief discrepancies, and limited awareness of strategies. Findings regarding knowledge: Most participants defined body image as objective attractiveness rather than subjective self-assessment (53%) and focused on negative body image. Beliefs: Although 97% of participants believed weight and shape impact children's self-esteem, 63% believed preschoolers too young to have a body image. Strategies: Most participants (53%) said family was a primary influence on body image, but identified few effective strategies and 63% said they did not do anything to influence children's body image. Findings suggested family body image socialization in preschoolers is occurring outside the awareness of parents and the concept of positive body image is underdeveloped.

  5. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction and distortion among Iranian women.

    PubMed

    Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Amiri, Samira; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is considered high in both developed and developing countries. It has been shown that many factors affect the body image dissatisfaction. However, because of the economical and cultural differences, it seems that these affecting factors should be determined in each region. So, the present study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors with body image dissatisfaction and distortion among Iranian women. Body image perception was analyzed in 500 women through the Stunkard figure rating system. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for assessing physical activity level. The information about age, marital status and socioeconomic status was recorded by general questionnaire. The one-way ANOVA and regression were used for statistical analysis. By increasing the BMI categories from underweight to obesity, participants tended to perceive their body size thinner than real body size. The regression models indicated that the body image distortion was significantly increased with increasing the BMI (p=0.002) and physical activity level (p=0.008). Besides, dissatisfaction by being heavier than ideal was significantly associated with higher BMI (OR (95% CI). 1.21 (1.03, 1.17)). Considering the high prevalence of body image dissatisfaction among Iranian women, for preventing psychological problems and eating disorders, appropriate public health programs for increasing awareness about healthy body size were needed.

  6. Body dissatisfaction and body comparison with media images in males and females.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Patricia; Paxton, Susan J; Keery, Helene; Wall, Melanie; Guo, Jia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the role of media body comparison as a mediator of the relationships between psychological factors and sociocultural pressures to be thin and body dissatisfaction in both females and males. Participants were 1,386 females (mean age = 19.37 years) and 1,130 males (mean age = 19.46) from diverse backgrounds who completed a self-report questionnaire. Path analysis was used to test a cross-sectional model in which media body comparison mediated the impact of self-esteem, depressive mood, parent dieting environment, friend dieting, TV exposure, magazine message exposure, weight teasing and body mass index (BMI) on body dissatisfaction. In females, media body comparison partially or fully mediated relationships between self-esteem, depressive mood, friend dieting, magazine message exposure and BMI, and body dissatisfaction. In males, media body comparison was not a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction. This research particularly highlights the need to further examine processes that are involved in the development of body dissatisfaction in males.

  7. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan M; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the "thin ideal" has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of "self" and "other" are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g., expanded other/contracted self), and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one's own body following exposure to "thin" and to "fat" others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size.

  8. Body Image Distortion and Exposure to Extreme Body Types: Contingent Adaptation and Cross Adaptation for Self and Other

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Kevin R.; Mond, Jonathan M.; Stevenson, Richard J.; Stephen, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Body size misperception is common amongst the general public and is a core component of eating disorders and related conditions. While perennial media exposure to the “thin ideal” has been blamed for this misperception, relatively little research has examined visual adaptation as a potential mechanism. We examined the extent to which the bodies of “self” and “other” are processed by common or separate mechanisms in young women. Using a contingent adaptation paradigm, experiment 1 gave participants prolonged exposure to images both of the self and of another female that had been distorted in opposite directions (e.g., expanded other/contracted self), and assessed the aftereffects using test images both of the self and other. The directions of the resulting perceptual biases were contingent on the test stimulus, establishing at least some separation between the mechanisms encoding these body types. Experiment 2 used a cross adaptation paradigm to further investigate the extent to which these mechanisms are independent. Participants were adapted either to expanded or to contracted images of their own body or that of another female. While adaptation effects were largest when adapting and testing with the same body type, confirming the separation of mechanisms reported in experiment 1, substantial misperceptions were also demonstrated for cross adaptation conditions, demonstrating a degree of overlap in the encoding of self and other. In addition, the evidence of misperception of one's own body following exposure to “thin” and to “fat” others demonstrates the viability of visual adaptation as a model of body image disturbance both for those who underestimate and those who overestimate their own size. PMID:27471447

  9. Low-cost compact thermal imaging sensors for body temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Myung-Soo; Han, Seok Man; Kim, Hyo Jin; Shin, Jae Chul; Ahn, Mi Sook; Kim, Hyung Won; Han, Yong Hee

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a 32x32 microbolometer thermal imaging sensor for human body temperature measurement. Waferlevel vacuum packaging technology allows us to get a low cost and compact imaging sensor chip. The microbolometer uses V-W-O film as sensing material and ROIC has been designed 0.35-um CMOS process in UMC. A thermal image of a human face and a hand using f/1 lens convinces that it has a potential of human body temperature for commercial use.

  10. Associations of body-related teasing with weight status, body image, and dieting behavior among Japanese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.19). The most common answer for source of teasing was friends (84.7% of boys’ teasing, 67.1% of girls’ teasing, P = 0.003, effect size = 0.19). Students who were overweight, of an upper-normal weight status, and perceived themselves as "fat" were at a greater risk of being teased. Additionally, students with a history of teasing were significantly likelier to display dieting behavior (odds ratios with confidence intervals: boys 4.06 [2.08–7.93], girls 2.40 [1.53– 3.75]). Conclusion: Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.

  11. Associations of body-related teasing with weight status, body image, and dieting behavior among Japanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chisuwa-Hayami, Naomi; Haruki, Toshi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body-related teasing is known to be linked to body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior in adolescents. However, little is known about it in non-Western countries. This study aims to examine the prevalence of body-related teasing among Japanese adolescents and its connection to weight status, body image, and dieting behavior to consider implications for public health. Methods: The design of this study is a cross-sectional study. An anonymous self-administrated survey was conducted with 1172 junior high school students in Higashi-Osaka City in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. The sampling method was non-random design. The survey items included self-reported height and weight, history and source of teasing, body image perception, and dieting behavior. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to examine the associations. Results: A history of teasing was reported by 16.4% of boys and 32.5% of girls (P < 0.001, effect size = 0.19). The most common answer for source of teasing was friends (84.7% of boys' teasing, 67.1% of girls' teasing, P = 0.003, effect size = 0.19). Students who were overweight, of an upper-normal weight status, and perceived themselves as "fat" were at a greater risk of being teased. Additionally, students with a history of teasing were significantly likelier to display dieting behavior (odds ratios with confidence intervals: boys 4.06 [2.08-7.93], girls 2.40 [1.53- 3.75]). Conclusion: Body-related teasing has a significant association with body image and dieting behavior in Japanese adolescents. A school-based education should be provided to reduce body-related teasing.

  12. Body Image and Self-Esteem (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal ... KidsHealth > For Teens > Body ...

  13. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…

  14. Enhancing positive body image: An evaluation of a cognitive behavioral therapy intervention and an exploration of the role of body shame.

    PubMed

    Cassone, Sarah; Lewis, Vivienne; Crisp, Dimity A

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a 6-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention in promoting the development of positive body image. The study also examined if, in accordance with the objectification theory, participants who reported higher levels of body shame would (a) report higher levels of body dissatisfaction, and (b) demonstrate less improvement in response to the Positive Bodies program. A total of 52 women aged 17-54 years completed self-report measures of self-esteem, body area satisfaction, body image quality of life, body shame, and self-surveillance at the commencement and conclusion of the program. The results provided preliminary support for the overall effectiveness of the program. Contrary to predictions, higher body shame was associated with greater improvements in indicators of body image over time. Further comparisons with a control or treatment comparison group are required; however, the results support benefits for individuals with body dissatisfaction, particularly those reporting higher levels of body shame.

  15. Evaluation of an upper elementary school program to prevent body image, eating, and weight concerns.

    PubMed

    Kater, Kathy J; Rohwer, John; Londre, Karen

    2002-05-01

    Preparing young students to resist the sociocultural pressures that contribute to body image and eating problems in American culture poses a monumental challenge. This project determined if the 11-lesson "Healthy Body Image: Teaching Kids to Eat and Love Their Bodies Too!" curriculum would have a positive effect when presented to upper elementary school children. A controlled study with 415 students measured changes from pretest to posttest related to: 1) body image; 2) knowledge about the biology of size, shape, and restricted hunger or dieting; 3) body size prejudice; 4) media awareness; 5) self-image; and 6) lifestyle behavior. Boys and girls who completed the curriculum showed significant or notable improvement compared to a control group not exposed to the curriculum. Results suggest it is possible to provide children with a knowledge base to use as they face increasing pressures about appearance, weight, and eating in the critical middle school years.

  16. Body image among eating disorder patients with disabilities: a review of published case studies.

    PubMed

    Cicmil, Nela; Eli, Karin

    2014-06-01

    While individual cases of eating disorder (ED) patients with disabilities have been reported, there has been little synthesis of their experiences of body image and thin idealization. This study reviews 19 published clinical reports of ED patients with sensory, mobility-related, or intellectual disabilities and evaluates the extent to which their experiences align with or challenge current conceptions of body image in ED. ED patients with visual impairment reported a profound disturbance of body image, perceived intersubjectively and through tactile sensations. Reducing dependence in mobility was an important motivation to control body size for ED patients with mobility-related disabilities. ED as a way of coping with and compensating for the psychosocial consequences of disability was a recurrent theme for patients across a range of disabilities. These experiential accounts of ED patients with disabilities broaden current understandings of body image to include touch and kinaesthetic awareness, intersubjective dynamics, and perceptions of normalcy.

  17. Relationship of body image to breast and skin self-examination intentions and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chait, Sari R; Thompson, J Kevin; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2009-01-01

    Breast self-examinations (BSE) and skin self-examinations (SSE) represent cost-effective and time-efficient approaches to cancer detection. Given their utility, it is important to determine who is likely to perform these behaviors regularly and why. Because BSE and SSE require close examination of one's body, women who are less satisfied and less comfortable with their bodies may perform these behaviors less often. This study sought to determine if a relationship exists between body image and BSE and SSE behaviors and intentions. Ninety-three women completed measures assessing body image, past performance of and future intentions to perform BSE and SSE. Results indicated that body image was related to past performance of SSE. Having greater body-areas satisfaction and more favorable global evaluations of appearance were related to having performed SSE more frequently in the past year. Future research should further examine this relationship utilizing longitudinal designs and more diverse populations.

  18. Peer pressure to "Fat talk": Does audience type influence how women portray their body image?

    PubMed

    Craig, Ashley B; Martz, Denise M; Bazzini, Doris G

    2007-04-01

    "Fat talk" describes women discussing their bodies disparangingly for impression management while interacting with one another. This study examined whether college females deliberately alter their self-reported body image according to characteristics of their prospective audience. This study was a mixed experimental design with four audience conditions (private, public, female audience, male audience) as the between-subjects factor and time across trials as the within-subjects factor using college females as participants (N=100). Pre versus posttest changes on the Body Esteem Scale (BES) and the Body Weight Figure Assessment (BWFA) served as the dependent variables. It was hypothesized that body image would decrease to indicate self-derogation (fat talk) in the public audience and female audience conditions, whereas body image would increase in the male audience condition. These hypotheses were not supported using repeated measures ANOVA. Strengths and weaknesses of the study are discussed.

  19. Identification of radiolucent foreign bodies in tissue using optoacoustic spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D.

    2011-03-01

    One of the leading causes of medical malpractice claims in emergency medicine is the misdiagnosis of the presence of foreign bodies. Radiolucent foreign bodies are especially difficult to differentiate from surrounding soft tissue, gas, and bone using existing clinical imaging modalities. Because many radiolucent foreign bodies have sufficient contrast for imaging in the optical domain, we are exploring the use of laser-induced optoacoustic imaging for the detection of foreign bodies, especially in orbital and craniofacial injuries, in which the foreign bodies are likely to lie within the penetration depth of visible and near infrared wavelengths. In order to evaluate the performance of optoacoustic imaging for clinical detection and characterization, common foreign bodies have been scanned over a range of visible and near infrared wavelengths to obtain the spectroscopic properties of the materials commonly associated with these foreign bodies. The foreign bodies are also being embedded in realistic ex vivo tissue phantoms to evaluate the changes that may occur in the spectroscopic absorption of the materials due to the interaction with tissue absorbers. Ultimately, we anticipate that spectroscopic characterization will help identify specific wavelengths to be used for imaging foreign bodies that will provide useful diagnostic data about the material properties of the object, thereby enabling the characterization, as well as the location, of the objects. This information will aid the clinician in choosing the optimal treatment course for the patient.

  20. Examining the impact of acculturative stress on body image disturbance among Hispanic college students.

    PubMed

    Menon, Chloe V; Harter, Stephanie L

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of acculturative stress on psychological well-being and body image disturbance in a sample of female and male Hispanic individuals. The unique protective effects of differing social support sources, including family and peer support, were examined against acculturative stress and body image disturbance. A total of 399 participants of Hispanic origin were recruited from Texas Tech University in West Texas. Students completed a battery of measures of acculturative stress and internalization of the thin ideal, as well as perceived social support. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that acculturative stress is a significant positive predictor of body image disturbance among Hispanic college students. Thin ideal internalization was found to mediate this relationship such that acculturative stress was associated with heightened body image disturbance through its impact on thin ideal internalization. Social support significantly reduced acculturative stress as well as body image disturbance but did not moderate the relation between these 2 factors. Results highlight the importance of considering acculturative stress as a strong predictor of body image disturbance among college students of Hispanic origin. The mechanisms of influence of acculturative stress on body image disturbance are discussed in relation to thin ideal internalization. The protective role of social support on these negative psychological outcomes is also clarified. This study is the first to examine these issues in a sample of female and male Hispanic college students and provides avenues for clinical interventions and future trials with diverse populations.

  1. Body Image Disturbance in Acromegaly Patients Compared to Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Patients and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Conaglen, Helen M.; de Jong, Dennis; Crawford, Veronica; Elston, Marianne S.; Conaglen, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Excess growth hormone secretion in adults results in acromegaly, a condition in which multiple physical changes occur including bony and soft tissue overgrowth. Over time these changes can markedly alter a person's appearance. The aim of this study was to compare body image disturbance in patients with acromegaly to those with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) and controls and assess the impact of obesity in these groups. Methods. A cross-sectional survey including quality of life, body image disturbance, anxiety and depression measures, growth hormone, and BMI measurement was carried out. Results. The groups did not differ with respect to body image disturbance. However separate analysis of obese participants demonstrated relationships between mood scales, body image disturbance, and pain issues, particularly for acromegaly patients. Conclusions. While the primary hypothesis that acromegaly might be associated with body image disturbance was not borne out, we have shown that obesity together with acromegaly and NFA can be associated with body image issues, suggesting that BMI rather than primary diagnosis might better indicate whether patients might experience body image disturbance problems. PMID:26078758

  2. The implications of body-image dissatisfaction among kidney-transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Yagil, Yaron; Geller, Shulamit; Sidi, Yael; Tirosh, Yael; Katz, Paulina; Nakache, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The role that body image plays in the psychological adjustment of kidney-transplant recipients is an understudied issue. In the current study, the association between three variables - (a) body-image dissatisfaction, (b) quality of life (QOL), and (c) psychological distress - was investigated. The research participants were 45 kidney-transplant recipients who were under follow-up care at the Transplant Unit of the Tel-Aviv Medical Center (Israel). Body image, psychological distress, and QOL were measured using self-report questionnaires [Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIIQ), Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and SF-12]. Medical and background data were collected from medical and administrative records. The findings indicated an association between higher level of body-image dissatisfaction and a decrease in several quality-of-life dimensions (role emotional, physical pain, general health, and social functioning), and with an increase in psychological distress. These findings highlight the importance of body-image dissatisfaction as a factor that is associated with QOL and psychological distress among kidney-transplant recipients. Body image warrants further attention and should be screened and treated among those who demonstrate high levels of dissatisfaction.

  3. A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image

    PubMed Central

    Alleva, Jessica M.; Sheeran, Paschal; Webb, Thomas L.; Martijn, Carolien; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Objective Numerous stand-alone interventions to improve body image have been developed. The present review used meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of such interventions, and to identify the specific change techniques that lead to improvement in body image. Methods The inclusion criteria were that (a) the intervention was stand-alone (i.e., solely focused on improving body image), (b) a control group was used, (c) participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and (d) at least one pretest and one posttest measure of body image was taken. Effect sizes were meta-analysed and moderator analyses were conducted. A taxonomy of 48 change techniques used in interventions targeted at body image was developed; all interventions were coded using this taxonomy. Results The literature search identified 62 tests of interventions (N = 3,846). Interventions produced a small-to-medium improvement in body image (d+ = 0.38), a small-to-medium reduction in beauty ideal internalisation (d+ = -0.37), and a large reduction in social comparison tendencies (d+ = -0.72). However, the effect size for body image was inflated by bias both within and across studies, and was reliable but of small magnitude once corrections for bias were applied. Effect sizes for the other outcomes were no longer reliable once corrections for bias were applied. Several features of the sample, intervention, and methodology moderated intervention effects. Twelve change techniques were associated with improvements in body image, and three techniques were contra-indicated. Conclusions The findings show that interventions engender only small improvements in body image, and underline the need for large-scale, high-quality trials in this area. The review identifies effective techniques that could be deployed in future interventions. PMID:26418470

  4. Imaging of body packing: errors and medico-legal issues.

    PubMed

    Reginelli, Alfonso; Russo, Anna; Urraro, Fabrizio; Maresca, Duilia; Martiniello, Ciro; D'Andrea, Alfredo; Brunese, Luca; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Body packing is the ingestion or insertion in the human body of packed illicit substances. Over the last 20 years, drug smuggling has increased global and new means of transport of narcotics have emerged. Among these, the most frequent one is the gastrointestinal tract: from mouth to anus, vagina, and ears. Cocaine is one of the most traded drugs, followed by heroin. Condoms, latex gloves, and balloons are typically used as drug packets for retention in the body. There are different radiologic modalities to detect illicit drugs in body packing: Plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, and magnetic resonance. Current protocols recommend the use of radiography to confirm packet retention and, in case of doubt, the use of abdominal CT scan with reduced mAs. In case of packet rupture, catastrophic effects can occur. Management of patients carrying packets of drugs is a recurrent medico-legal problem. To improve diagnostic accuracy and prevent hazardous complications, radiologists and emergency physicians should be familiar with radiologic features of body packing. The radiologist plays both a social and a medico-legal role in their assessment, and it should not be limited only to the identification of the packages but must also provide accurate information about their number and their exact location. In this review, we focus on diagnostic errors and medico-legal issues related to the radiological assessment of body packers.

  5. Internet Pornography Use and Sexual Body Image in a Dutch Sample

    PubMed Central

    Cranney, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A commonly attributed cause of sexual body image dissatisfaction is pornography use. This relationship has received little verification. Methods The relationship between sexual body image dissatisfaction and Internet pornography use was tested using a large-N sample of Dutch respondents. Results/Conclusion Penis size dissatisfaction is associated with pornography use. The relationship between pornography use and breast size dissatisfaction is null. These results support prior speculation and self-reports about the relationship between pornography use and sexual body image among men. These results also support a prior null finding of the relationship between breast size satisfaction for women and pornography use. PMID:26918066

  6. Sex-role orientation associations with college students' body-image preferences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, H Durell; Lamont, Janine; Monacelli, Jennifer; Vojick, Alex

    2004-12-01

    Sex roles dictate acceptable attitudes and preferences for men and women. Further, perception of ideal body type is one attitude and preference that may be associated with sex-role orientation. Therefore, the current study examined the association between sex-role orientation and men's and women's reports of their preferred body type and their views of others' preferred body type for men and women. Responses from 172 university students indicated sex-role associations with participants' personal body-type preferences and participants' perceptions of the body types others prefer. Analysis indicates that a more masculine sex-role orientation was associated with men's and women's perceptions of larger ideal body images. Results are discussed in terms of the association between sex-role orientation and possible susceptibility to societal standards of ideal body images.

  7. EXPLORER: Changing the molecular imaging paradigm with total-body PET/CT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Jones, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is the highest sensitivity technique for human whole-body imaging studies. However, current clinical PET scanners do not make full use of the available signal, as they only permit imaging of a 15-25 cm segment of the body at one time. Given the limited sensitive region, whole-body imaging with clinical PET scanners requires relatively long scan times and subjects the patient to higher than necessary radiation doses. The EXPLORER initiative aims to build a 2-meter axial length PET scanner to allow imaging the entire subject at once, capturing nearly the entire available PET signal. EXPLORER will acquire data with ~40-fold greater sensitivity leading to a six-fold increase in reconstructed signal-to-noise ratio for imaging the total body. Alternatively, total-body images with the EXPLORER scanner will be able to be acquired in ~30 seconds or with ~0.15 mSv injected dose, while maintaining current PET image quality. The superior sensitivity will open many new avenues for biomedical research. Specifically for cancer applications, high sensitivity PET will enable detection of smaller lesions. Additionally, greater sensitivity will allow imaging out to 10 half-lives of positron emitting radiotracers. This will enable 1) metabolic ultra-staging with FDG by extending the uptake and clearance time to 3-5 hours to significantly improve contrast and 2) improved kinetic imaging with short-lived radioisotopes such as C-11, crucial for drug development studies. Frequent imaging studies of the same subject to study disease progression or to track response to therapy will be possible with the low dose capabilities of the EXPLORER scanner. The low dose capabilities will also open up new imaging possibilities in pediatrics and adolescents to better study developmental disorders. This talk will review the basis for developing total-body PET, potential applications, and review progress to date in developing EXPLORER, the first total-body PET scanner.

  8. The effect of breast reconstruction surgery on body image among women after mastectomy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Su-Ying; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chang, Ying-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the available evidence concerning the effects of breast reconstruction (BR) on body image of women with breast cancer. BR is a potential intervention to improve the body image of women with breast cancer. Conflicting research findings about the effects of breast reconstructive surgery on body image compared to breast conservative surgery (BCS) or mastectomy exist. A meta-analysis of studies found in MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, PubMed as well as PQDT (dissertation and theses), and other unpublished literature resources from 1970 to 2010 were searched. Comparable studies that examined the difference of body image between breast cancer women receiving mastectomy plus BR and those with BCS were included. A clear definition about the domains of body image including body stigma, body concern, and transparency were identified. Mean effect sizes were calculated. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. Women with BR and BCS were no different on the body concern domain of body image. However, women with BR had a significantly worse score on body stigma domain of body image than women receiving BCS. Women with BR had a better body image score than women with mastectomy. Women who are satisfied with their body shape may still perceive deficiencies because of the stigma of mastectomy and affect on body image. Consistent application of valid and reliable measures of body image specific to breast cancer women is needed.

  9. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  10. Posturographic destabilization in eating disorders in female patients exposed to body image related phobic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Forghieri, M; Monzani, D; Mackinnon, A; Ferrari, S; Gherpelli, C; Galeazzi, G M

    2016-08-26

    Human postural control is dependent on the central integration of vestibular, visual and proprioceptive inputs. Psychological states can affect balance control: anxiety, in particular, has been shown to influence balance mediated by visual stimuli. We hypothesized that patients with eating disorders would show postural destabilization when exposed to their image in a mirror and to the image of a fashion model representing their body ideal in comparison to body neutral stimuli. Seventeen females patients attending a day centre for the treatment of eating disorders were administered psychometric measures of body dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and underwent posturographic measures with their eyes closed, open, watching a neutral stimulus, while exposed to a full length mirror and to an image of a fashion model corresponding to their body image. Results were compared to those obtained by eighteen healthy subjects. Eating disordered patients showed higher levels of body dissatisfaction and higher postural destabilization than controls, but this was limited to the conditions in which they were exposed to their mirror image or a fashion model image. Postural destabilization under these conditions correlated with measures of body dissatisfaction. In eating disordered patients, body related stimuli seem to act as phobic stimuli in the posturographic paradigm used. If confirmed, this has the potential to be developed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  11. Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: the key role of body image inflexibility.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Trindade, Inês A; Martinho, Ana

    2016-03-01

    Restrictive dieting is an increasing behavior presented by women in modern societies, independently of their weight. There are several known factors that motivate diet, namely a sense of dissatisfaction with one's body and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance. However, dieting seems to have a paradoxical effect and has been considered a risk factor for weight gain and obesity in women and for maladaptive eating. Nevertheless, the study of the emotional regulation processes that explain the adoption of inflexible and rigid eating behaviors still remains little explored. In this line, the present study aims to explore why normal-weight women engage in highly rigid and inflexible diets. We hypothesize that body and weight dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance explain the adoption of inflexible eating rules, through the mechanisms of body image inflexibility. The current study comprised 508 normal-weight female college students. Path analyses were conducted to explore the study's hypotheses. Results revealed that the model explained 43 % of inflexible eating and revealed excellent fit indices. Furthermore, the unwillingness to experience unwanted events related to body image (body image inflexibility) mediated the impact of body dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons on the adoption of inflexible eating rules. This study highlights the relevance of body image inflexibility to explain rigid eating attitudes, and it seems to be an important avenue for the development of interventions focusing on the promotion of adaptive attitudes towards body image and eating in young women.

  12. [Leonardo da Vinci the first human body imaging specialist. A brief communication on the thorax oseum images].

    PubMed

    Cicero, Raúl; Criales, José Luis; Cardoso, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The impressive development of computed tomography (CT) techniques such as the three dimensional helical CT produces a spatial image of the thoracic skull. At the beginning of the 16th century Leonardo da Vinci drew with great precision the thorax oseum. These drawings show an outstanding similarity with the images obtained by three dimensional helical CT. The cumbersome task of the Renaissance genius is a prime example of the careful study of human anatomy. Modern imaging techniques require perfect anatomic knowledge of the human body in order to generate exact interpretations of images. Leonardo's example is alive for anybody devoted to modern imaging studies.

  13. Patient-specific biomechanical model as whole-body CT image registration tool.

    PubMed

    Li, Mao; Miller, Karol; Joldes, Grand Roman; Doyle, Barry; Garlapati, Revanth Reddy; Kikinis, Ron; Wittek, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Whole-body computed tomography (CT) image registration is important for cancer diagnosis, therapy planning and treatment. Such registration requires accounting for large differences between source and target images caused by deformations of soft organs/tissues and articulated motion of skeletal structures. The registration algorithms relying solely on image processing methods exhibit deficiencies in accounting for such deformations and motion. We propose to predict the deformations and movements of body organs/tissues and skeletal structures for whole-body CT image registration using patient-specific non-linear biomechanical modelling. Unlike the conventional biomechanical modelling, our approach for building the biomechanical models does not require time-consuming segmentation of CT scans to divide the whole body into non-overlapping constituents with different material properties. Instead, a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm is used for tissue classification to assign the constitutive properties automatically at integration points of the computation grid. We use only very simple segmentation of the spine when determining vertebrae displacements to define loading for biomechanical models. We demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of our approach on CT images of seven patients suffering from cancer and aortic disease. The results confirm that accurate whole-body CT image registration can be achieved using a patient-specific non-linear biomechanical model constructed without time-consuming segmentation of the whole-body images.

  14. Air flow-assisted ionization imaging mass spectrometry method for easy whole-body molecular imaging under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhigang; He, Jiuming; Chen, Yi; He, Jingjing; Gong, Tao; Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhang, Ruiping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Lianfeng; Lv, Haining; Ma, Shuanggang; Fu, Zhaodi; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yu, Shishan; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-03-05

    Whole-body molecular imaging is able to directly map spatial distribution of molecules and monitor its biotransformation in intact biological tissue sections. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), a label-free molecular imaging method, can be used to image multiple molecules in a single measurement with high specificity. Herein, a novel easy-to-implement, whole-body IMS method was developed with air flow-assisted ionization in a desorption electrospray ionization mode. The developed IMS method can effectively image molecules in a large whole-body section in open air without sample pretreatment, such as chemical labeling, section division, or matrix deposition. Moreover, the signal levels were improved, and the spatial assignment errors were eliminated; thus, high-quality whole-body images were obtained. With this novel IMS method, in situ mapping analysis of molecules was performed in adult rat sections with picomolar sensitivity under ambient conditions, and the dynamic information of molecule distribution and its biotransformation was provided to uncover molecular events at the whole-animal level. A global view of the differential distribution of an anticancer agent and its metabolites was simultaneously acquired in whole-body rat and model mouse bearing neuroglioma along the administration time. The obtained drug distribution provided rich information for identifying the targeted organs and predicting possible tumor spectrum, pharmacological activity, and potential toxicity of drug candidates.

  15. Stochastic distribution of the fibrils that yielded the Shroud of Turin body image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, G.; Mandaglio, G.

    2011-07-01

    The fibrils that yielded the Shroud body image show a stochastic distribution on the Linen of Turin. In fact, the probability of a fibril yellowing is a function of the energy, while this is not the case for the optical density value. This means that the above image is a latent image. We suggest thermal radiation or low-temperature chemical processes as possible natural energy sources to explain, by stochastic effects, the Shroud body image formation. Unfortunately, due to the nature of the phenomenon, we are not able to extract the energy source.

  16. Whole-body MR imaging, bone diffusion imaging: how and why?

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Diego

    2010-06-01

    Whole-body MRI (W-B MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) are two novel techniques that greatly facilitate the evaluation of many disorders of childhood. In the musculoskeletal system, these techniques primarily aid in the evaluation of the marrow, although there is increasing interest in the study of soft-tissue abnormalities with W-B MRI and of cartilage with DWI.The normal pattern of marrow transformation affects both modalities throughout childhood. Haematopoietic marrow has a much higher signal intensity than fatty marrow on W-B MRI short tau inversion recovery (STIR) images (Darge et al. Eur J Radiol 68:289-298, 2008). Diffusion is greater in haematopoietic marrow than in fatty marrow and decreases in the skeleton with age (Jaramillo et al. Pediatr Radiol 34:S48, 2004). It is important therefore to remember that the entire skeleton is haematopoietic at birth and that there is a process of marrow transformation to fatty marrow. Marrow conversion proceeds from the fingers to the shoulders and from the toes to the hips. Within each bone, fatty marrow transformation begins in the epiphyses, and within the shaft of the long bones fatty marrow transformation begins at the diaphysis and proceeds towards the metaphyses.

  17. [Food habits and body image of students in Lausanne].

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Isabelle

    2008-06-11

    During adolescence, nutrition needs are high; however the literature shows that few adolescents are following standardized nutritional requirements. A few weeks before an intervention about nutrition to high school adolescents in Lausanne, they were invited to fill in a self-reported questionnaire about their nutrition modes and habits, and their self-image satisfaction (N = 198). Results show that only 5% of youth are eating 5 fruits and vegetables per day and only 29% 3 to 5 dairy products. 21% of female and 6% of boys are not satisfied about their self-image, and those exhibiting a poor self-image tend to adopt health compromising eating patterns in a higher proportion. During adolescence it is important not only to investigate the nutritional habits but also one's self image.

  18. Whole-body imaging of infection using fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ying; Akin, Ali R; Francis, Kevin P; Zhang, Ning; Troy, Tamara L; Xie, Hexin; Rao, Jianghong; Cirillo, Suat L G; Cirillo, Jeffrey D

    2011-05-01

    Optical imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to study physiological, neurological, oncological, cell biological, molecular, developmental, immunological, and infectious processes. This unit describes the use of fluorescent reporters for biological organisms, components, or events. We describe the application of fluorescence imaging to examination of infectious processes, in particular subcutaneous and pulmonary bacterial infections, but the same approaches are applicable to nearly any infectious route. The strategies described use mycobacterial infections as an example, but nearly identical systems can be used for Pseudomonas, Legionella, Salmonella, Escherichia, Borrelia, and Staphylococus, suggesting that the approaches are generally applicable to nearly any infectious agent. Two strategies for fluorescence imaging are described: the first method uses reporter enzyme fluorescence (REF), and the second uses fluorescent proteins for fluorescence imaging. Methods are described in detail to facilitate successful application of these emerging technologies to nearly any experimental system.

  19. Effects of the exposure to self- and other-referential bodies on state body image and negative affect in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja; Düsing, Rainer; Waldorf, Manuel

    2017-03-09

    Previous body image research suggests that first, exposure to body stimuli can negatively affect men's body satisfaction and second, body concerns are associated with dysfunctional gaze behavior. To date, however, the effects of self- vs. other-referential body stimuli and of gaze behavior on body image in men under exposure conditions have not been investigated. Therefore, 49 weight-trained men were presented with pictures of their own and other bodies of different builds (i.e., normal, muscular, hyper-muscular) while being eye-tracked. Participants completed pre- and post-exposure measures of body image and affect. Results indicated that one's own and the muscular body negatively affected men's body image to a comparable degree. Exposure to one's own body also led to increased negative affect. Increased attention toward disliked own body parts was associated with a more negative post-exposure body image and affect. These results suggest a crucial role of critical self-examination in maintaining body dissatisfaction.

  20. A machine learning approach for body part recognition based on CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Keigo; Li, Yuanzhong; Ito, Wataru; Shimura, Kazuo

    2008-03-01

    Body part recognition based on CT slice images is very important for many applications in PACS and CAD systems. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that can recognize which body part a slice image belongs to robustly. We focus on how to effectively express and use the unique statistical information of the correlation between the CT value and the position information of each body part. We apply the machine learning method AdaBoost to express and use this statistical information. Our approach consists of a training process and a recognition process. In the training process, we first define the whole body using a set of specific classes to ensure that training images in the same class have a high similarity, and prepare a training image set (positive samples and negative samples) for each class. Second, the training images are normalized to a fixed size and rotation in each class. Third, features are calculated for each normalized training image. Finally, AdaBoosted histogram classifiers are trained. After the training process, each class has its own classifiers. In the recognition process, given a series of CT images, the scores of all classes for each slice image are calculated based on the classifiers obtained in the training process. Then, based on the scores of each slice and a simple model of body part sequence continuity, we use dynamic programming (DP) to eliminate false recognition results. Experimental results on 440 unknown series including lesions show that our approach has high a recognition rate.

  1. Facebook use and negative body image among U.S. college women.

    PubMed

    Eckler, Petya; Kalyango, Yusuf; Paasch, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    Young women increasingly spend time on social media, but the relationship of this exposure to body image is still in the initial stages of exploration. In this study the authors used social comparison theory to examine the relationship between time spent on Facebook and body image. A survey of 881 U.S. college women was conducted in April-May 2013. Findings showed that 10.1% had posted about weight, body image, exercise, or dieting, and 27.4% had commented on friends' posts or photos. More time on Facebook related to more frequent body and weight comparisons, more attention to the physical appearance of others, and more negative feelings about their bodies for all women. For women who wanted to lose weight, more time on Facebook also related to more disordered eating symptoms.

  2. Discrepancy between actual and ideal body images; Impact on eating and exercise behaviors.

    PubMed

    Anton, S D; Perri, M G; Riley, J R

    2000-12-01

    This study examined how discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are related to eating and exercise patterns. A total of 115 college-age women completed the Body Discrepancy Scale (BDS, a measure of the discrepancy between one's "actual" vs. "ideal" weight and size), a leisure-time physical activity survey, and questionnaires assessing the intake of fat and fiber (i.e., fruits and vegetables), as well as measures of maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. Partial correlations (controlling for Body Mass Index, BMI) showed that scores on the BDS were significantly (P's<.05) associated with low levels of physical activity (r=-.28), with low levels of fruit and vegetable consumption (r=-.19), and with high levels of body image dissatisfaction (r=.32) and binge eating (r=.32). Collectively, these findings suggest that discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are associated with maladaptive eating and exercise patterns.

  3. 'Retouch free': The effect of labelling media images as not digitally altered on women's body dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy; Smyth, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of 'retouch free' labels on thin ideal fashion images on women's body dissatisfaction. This represents an experimental analogue to current practice by some fashion magazines. Participants were 224 female undergraduates who viewed a set of fashion shoots with either no label, or a label indicating that the image had not been digitally altered. Results indicated that, although body dissatisfaction increased after exposure to the thin ideal images, there was no significant effect of label type on mood or body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that labelling images as digitally unaltered appears neither helpful nor harmful in terms of body dissatisfaction. Nevertheless, more extensive research is required to guide the most effective use of labels.

  4. Contact-free determination of human body segment parameters by means of videometric image processing of an anthropomorphic body model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatze, Herbert; Baca, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    The development of noninvasive techniques for the determination of biomechanical body segment parameters (volumes, masses, the three principal moments of inertia, the three local coordinates of the segmental mass centers, etc.) receives increasing attention from the medical sciences (e,.g., orthopaedic gait analysis), bioengineering, sport biomechanics, and the various space programs. In the present paper, a novel method is presented for determining body segment parameters rapidly and accurately. It is based on the video-image processing of four different body configurations and a finite mass-element human body model. The four video images of the subject in question are recorded against a black background, thus permitting the application of shape recognition procedures incorporating edge detection and calibration algorithms. In this way, a total of 181 object space dimensions of the subject's body segments can be reconstructed and used as anthropometric input data for the mathematical finite mass- element body model. The latter comprises 17 segments (abdomino-thoracic, head-neck, shoulders, upper arms, forearms, hands, abdomino-pelvic, thighs, lower legs, feet) and enables the user to compute all the required segment parameters for each of the 17 segments by means of the associated computer program. The hardware requirements are an IBM- compatible PC (1 MB memory) operating under MS-DOS or PC-DOS (Version 3.1 onwards) and incorporating a VGA-board with a feature connector for connecting it to a super video windows framegrabber board for which there must be available a 16-bit large slot. In addition, a VGA-monitor (50 - 70 Hz, horizontal scan rate at least 31.5 kHz), a common video camera and recorder, and a simple rectangular calibration frame are required. The advantage of the new method lies in its ease of application, its comparatively high accuracy, and in the rapid availability of the body segment parameters, which is particularly useful in clinical practice

  5. "BE"ing a Certain Way: Seeking "Body Image" in Canadian Health and Physical Education Curriculum Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Lorayne; Thomson, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Body image is an individual's emotional response to one's appearance including size and shape; this response may not be helpful in the pursuit of overall health and well-being. This policy analysis examines the treatment of body image in Canadian Health and Physical Education (HPE) curriculum policies using a body image analysis framework…

  6. The Impact of Body Image and Afrocentric Appearance on Sexual Refusal Self-Efficacy in Early Adolescent African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plybon, Laura E.; Holmer, Heidi; Hunter, Alexis; Sheffield, Charity; Stephens, Christopher; Cavolo, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the association between body image and sexual risk-taking has been mostly limited to clinical and/or White female samples. It is unclear whether body image plays a role in sexual risk-taking among African American early adolescent females. Moreover, research has neglected to consider body image within a cultural and ethnic…

  7. Adolescent Athleticism, Exercise, Body Image, and Dietary Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Cheryl J.; McKeown, Robert E.; Sargent, Roger G.; Valois, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated relationships between physical activity and athletic participation and body-size perceptions, diet, and weight-control practice among high school students, noting racial and gender differences. Surveys indicated that diet quality improved and weight-loss attempts increased as physical activity and athletic participation increased.…

  8. Body image dissatisfaction, physical activity and screen-time in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Añez, Elizabeth; Fornieles-Deu, Albert; Fauquet-Ars, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Puntí-Vidal, Joaquim; Sánchez Carracedo, David

    2016-08-24

    This cross-sectional study contributes to the literature on whether body dissatisfaction is a barrier/facilitator to engaging in physical activity and to investigate the impact of mass-media messages via computer-time on body dissatisfaction. High-school students (N = 1501) reported their physical activity, computer-time (homework/leisure) and body dissatisfaction. Researchers measured students' weight and height. Analyses revealed that body dissatisfaction was negatively associated with physical activity on both genders, whereas computer-time was associated only with girls' body dissatisfaction. Specifically, as computer-homework increased, body dissatisfaction decreased; as computer-leisure increased, body dissatisfaction increased. Weight-related interventions should improve body image and physical activity simultaneously, while critical consumption of mass-media interventions should include a computer component.

  9. The swimsuit issue: Correlates of body image in a sample of 52,677 heterosexual adults.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Peplau, Letitia Anne; Lever, Janet

    2006-12-01

    Past research on adults' body image has typically used small convenience samples, limiting the ability to examine associations of personal characteristics to body satisfaction. This study of 52,677 heterosexual adults ages 18-65 examined associations of body satisfaction to age, height, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Age and height were mostly unrelated to body satisfaction. Consistent with an Objectification Theory perspective, fewer men than women reported being too heavy (41% versus 61%), rated their body as unattractive (11% versus 21%), or avoided wearing a swimsuit in public (16% versus 31%). Men felt better about their bodies than women across most of the weight span, although among underweight individuals, women felt better than men. Slender women (BMIs 14.5-22.49) were more satisfied than most other women (BMIs 22.5-40.5). Among men, underweight and obese men were least satisfied. These findings highlight gender differences in the association of weight to body satisfaction.

  10. Effects of breast cancer surgery and surgical side effects on body image over time.

    PubMed

    Collins, Karen Kadela; Liu, Ying; Schootman, Mario; Aft, Rebecca; Yan, Yan; Dean, Grace; Eilers, Mark; Jeffe, Donna B

    2011-02-01

    We examined the impact of surgical treatments (breast-conserving surgery [BCS], mastectomy alone, mastectomy with reconstruction) and surgical side-effects severity on early stage (0-IIA) breast cancer patients' body image over time. We interviewed patients at 4-6 weeks (T1), six (T2), 12 (T3), and 24 months (T4) following definitive surgical treatment. We examined longitudinal relationships among body image problems, surgery type, and surgical side-effects severity using the Generalized Estimating Equation approach, controlling for demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. We compared regression coefficients of surgery type from two models, one with and one without surgical side-effects severity. Of 549 patients enrolled (mean age 58; 75% White; 65% BCS, 12% mastectomy, 23% mastectomy with reconstruction), 514 (94%) completed all four interviews. In the model without surgical side-effects severity, patients who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction reported poorer body image than patients who underwent BCS at T1-T3 (each P < 0.02), but not at T4. At T2, patients who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction also reported poorer body image than patients who underwent mastectomy alone (P = 0.0106). Adjusting for surgical side-effects severity, body image scores did not differ significantly between patients with BCS and mastectomy with reconstruction at any interview; however, patients who underwent mastectomy alone had better body image at T2 than patients who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction (P = 0.011). The impact of surgery type on body image within the first year of definitive surgical treatment was explained by surgical side-effects severity. After 2 years, body image problems did not differ significantly by surgery type.

  11. Body Image Disturbance and Health Behaviors among Sexual Minority Men Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Blashill, Aaron J.; Goshe, Brett M.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Body image disturbance is a common experience for sexual minority men living with HIV, and is associated with poor self-care behaviors. However, to date, no known cohesive theoretical model has been advanced to understand the possible antecedents and outcomes of body image disturbance in this population. Thus, the goal of the current study was to test a biopsychosocial model of body image and self-care behaviors among sexual minority men living with HIV. Methods Participants were 106 gay and bisexual men living with HIV who completed a battery of self-report measures including assessment of body image disturbance, depression, lipodystrophy, appearance orientation, condom use self-efficacy, antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Bayesian estimation was employed to assess model fit and direct and indirect pathways within the model. Results The data fit the model well, with all theorized pathways being significant. Lipodystrophy severity and appearance orientation were associated with elevated body image disturbance. In turn, body image disturbance was related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors, through the mechanisms of elevated depressive symptoms and poor condom use self-efficacy. Conclusions Elevated body image disturbance among sexual minority men living with HIV is associated with important biopsychosocial variables, which in turn are related to poorer ART adherence and increased HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors. Integrative psychosocial interventions addressing co-occurring body image disturbance, depression, and HIV self-care behaviors may be a fruitful area of future clinical practice and research. PMID:24977311

  12. Processing and fusion for human body terahertz dual-band passive image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Li; Shen, Yanchun; Jin, Weiqi; Zhao, Guozhong; Cai, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Compared with microwave, THz has higher resolution, and compared with infrared, THz has better penetrability. Human body radiate THz also, its photon energy is low, it is harmless to human body. So THz has great potential applications in the body searching system. Dual-band images may contain different information for the same scene, so THz dual-band imaging have been a significant research subject of THz technology. Base on the dual-band THz passive imaging system which is composed of a 94GHz and a 250GHz cell detector, this paper researched the preprocessing and fusion algorithm for THz dual-band images. Firstly, THz images have such problems: large noise, low SNR, low contrast, low details. Secondly, the stability problem of the optical mechanical scanning system makes the images less repetitive, obvious stripes and low definition. Aiming at these situations, this paper used the BM3D de-noising algorithm to filter noise and correct the scanning problem. Furthermore, translation, rotation and scaling exist between the two images, after registered by the intensity-base registration algorithm, and enhanced by the adaptive histogram equalization algorithm, the images are fused by image fusion algorithm based on wavelet. This effectively reduced the image noise, scan distortion and matching error, improved the details, enhanced the contrast. It is helpful to improve the detection efficiency of hidden objects too. Method in this paper has a substantial effect for improving the dual-band THz passive imaging system's performance and promoting technology practical.

  13. Online quantitative analysis of multispectral images of human body tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Lisenko, S A

    2013-08-31

    A method is developed for online monitoring of structural and morphological parameters of biological tissues (haemoglobin concentration, degree of blood oxygenation, average diameter of capillaries and the parameter characterising the average size of tissue scatterers), which involves multispectral tissue imaging, image normalisation to one of its spectral layers and determination of unknown parameters based on their stable regression relation with the spectral characteristics of the normalised image. Regression is obtained by simulating numerically the diffuse reflectance spectrum of the tissue by the Monte Carlo method at a wide variation of model parameters. The correctness of the model calculations is confirmed by the good agreement with the experimental data. The error of the method is estimated under conditions of general variability of structural and morphological parameters of the tissue. The method developed is compared with the traditional methods of interpretation of multispectral images of biological tissues, based on the solution of the inverse problem for each pixel of the image in the approximation of different analytical models. (biomedical optics)

  14. Whole-body multispectral photoacoustic imaging of adult zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Na; Guo, Heng; Qi, Weizhi; Zhang, Zhiwei; Rong, Jian; Yuan, Zhen; Ge, Wei; Jiang, Huabei; Xi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish, an ideal vertebrate for studying developmental biology and genetics, is increasingly being used to understand human diseases, due to its high similarity to the human genome and its optical transparency during embryonic stages. Once the zebrafish has fully developed, especially wild-type breeds, conventional optical imaging techniques have difficulty in imaging the internal organs and structures with sufficient resolution and penetration depth. Even with established mutant lines that remain transparent throughout their life cycle, it is still challenging for purely optical imaging modalities to visualize the organs of juvenile and adult zebrafish at a micro-scale spatial resolution. In this work, we developed a non-invasive three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging platform with an optimized illumination pattern and a cylindrical-scanning-based data collection system to image entire zebrafish with micro-scale resolutions of 80 μm and 600 μm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. In addition, we employed a multispectral strategy that utilized excitation wavelengths from 690 nm to 930 nm to statistically quantify the relative optical absorption spectrum of major organs. PMID:27699119

  15. A mixed-method exploration of body image and sexual health among adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Schooler, Deborah; Impett, Emily A; Hirschman, Celeste; Bonem, Lathem

    2008-12-01

    This study uses a mixed-method approach to examine the relationship between body image and sexual health among adolescent boys. In Study 1, eight 12th-grade boys participated in semistructured interviews focusing on dating and sexuality. Qualitative analyses revealed several differences between boys who were satisfied with their bodies and boys who were not. Specifically, boys who were satisfied with their bodies indicated that they were clear about what they wanted sexually and were comfortable communicating those wants with partners. In contrast, boys with low body satisfaction were often unclear about their sexual choices and resisted talking about sexuality with partners. Study 2 examined these same themes using quantitative data from 149 boys from the 12th grade who completed surveys assessing body image, sexual experiences, and sexual attitudes. Body satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual agency and with clarity of personal sexual values. Implications for promoting adolescent sexual health are discussed.

  16. Gender and race matter: the importance of considering intersections in Black women's body image.

    PubMed

    Capodilupo, Christina M; Kim, Suah

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, body image literature has used race as a variable to explain ethnic-specific differences in body satisfaction and the prevalence of eating disorders. Instead of employing race as an explanatory variable, the present study utilized a qualitative method to explore the relationships among race, ethnicity, culture, discrimination, and body image for African American and Black women. The purpose of the study was to gain a deeper understanding of how race and gender interface with and inform body image. Women were recruited through community centers in a major metropolitan city and represented a diversity of ethnicities. In total, 26 women who identified racially as Black (mean age = 26 years) participated in 6 focus groups, which explored body ideals, societal messages, cultural values, racism, and sexism. Narrative data from the focus groups were analyzed using grounded theory. The central category, Body/Self Image, was informed by perceptions of and feelings about not only weight and shape but also hair, skin, and attitude. Three additional categories, each with multiple properties, emerged: Interpersonal Influences, Experiences of Oppression, and Media Messages. These categories interact to explain the central category of Body/Self Image, and an emergent theory is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Body Image Dissatisfaction and Eating Disturbances among Children and Adolescents: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skemp-Arlt, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction and eating disturbances are prevalent among youths and are beginning at an increasingly younger age. The glorification of the ideal, thin body type surrounds youths, in direct contrast to the increasing rates of overweight and obesity among the same population. The messages that children and adolescents are receiving are…

  18. Self-Esteem and Body Image Perception in a Sample of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pop, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the relationship established between self-esteem and body image dissatisfaction, as subjective variables among young, female Romanian university students. Purpose of Study: We hypothesize that young women's body dissatisfaction is related to their self-esteem level. The…

  19. Young Girls' Eating Attitudes and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Associations with Communication and Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kichler, Jessica C.; Crowther, Janis H.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships among communication, modeling, body image dissatisfaction, and maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescent girls were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 69 girls in fourth through sixth grade and their mothers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing familial and peer influences, body image…

  20. Body Image as a Mediator of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Brausch, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes towards the body have been largely overlooked as a potential risk factor for adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) despite theorizing that a negative body image may play a critical role in the development of this behavior. The current study used structural equation modeling to evaluate the fit of a theoretical model specifying body…

  1. Psychobehavioral Attributes of Body Image in College Freshmen and Seniors: Implications for Long-Term Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leone, James E.; Partridge, Julie A.; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Understanding and assessing behavioral risk factors, particularly among college populations, is challenging for health educators. Similarly, issues affecting mental health remain unclear in terms of how body image evolves year to year in college students. A better understanding of how students perceive their bodies and to what extent…

  2. Who's that Girl: Television's Role in the Body Image Development of Young White and Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Deborah; Ward, L. Monique; Merriwether, Ann; Caruthers, Allison

    2004-01-01

    Although findings indicate a connection between frequent media use and greater body dissatisfaction, little attention has focused on the role of race. Accordingly, this study investigates the relation between television viewing and body image among 87 Black and 584 White women. Participants reported monthly viewing amounts of mainstream and…

  3. Predictors and Health-Related Outcomes of Positive Body Image in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential…

  4. The Relationship among Overexcitability, Social Coping, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Implications for Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Heath R.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents confront a plethora of physical and emotional changes, especially those alterations surrounding puberty. Body image disturbances have become commonplace with high school students, and school personnel seem to have had little success in fighting this problem. Teenagers with body dissatisfaction may also be at risk for mental health…

  5. Body Image Concerns of Gay Men: The Roles of Minority Stress and Conformity to Masculine Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Sara B.; Mahalik, James R.

    2005-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that gay men's experiences of minority stress and their conformity to masculine norms would be associated with increased body image dissatisfaction and masculine body ideal distress. For this cross-sectional study, 357 gay males completed a Web-based survey, and 2 multiple regression analyses indicated that minority stress…

  6. Body image, eating disorders, and the relationship to adolescent media use.

    PubMed

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Carson A; Garcia, Kaylor; Massey, Meredith; Vasagar, Brintha; Borzekowski, Dina L G

    2012-06-01

    Historically and currently, media messages around body shape and size emphasize the importance of being below-average weight for women and hypermuscular for men. The media messages around physical appearance are not realistic for most and lead to body dissatisfaction for most adolescents. Interventions designed to mitigate the influence of negative media messages on adolescents' body image are presented; however, most have shown limited success.

  7. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rachel; Tiggemann, Marika; Clark, Levina

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate prospective predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls. In so doing, the modified acceptance model of intuitive eating was also examined longitudinally. A sample of 298 girls aged 12 to 16 years completed a questionnaire containing measures of body appreciation, potential predictors, and a range of health outcomes, at 2 time points separated by 1 year. Longitudinal change regression models showed that perceived body acceptance by others (positively), self-objectification and social comparison (negatively), and body appreciation (positively) prospectively predicted intuitive eating 1 year later, consistent with the acceptance model of intuitive eating. Perceived body acceptance by others was the only proposed predictor to prospectively predict an increase in body appreciation over time. Time 1 body appreciation prospectively predicted a decrease in dieting, alcohol, and cigarette use, and an increase in physical activity 1 year later. In particular, girls with low body appreciation were more likely than girls with high body appreciation to take up alcohol and cigarette use between time points. The results highlight body appreciation as an important target for interventions designed to prevent or delay the uptake of alcohol and cigarette consumption among girls. More broadly, they suggest that a positive body image can confer considerable benefit for adolescent girls.

  8. Body image, visual working memory and visual mental imagery.

    PubMed

    Darling, Stephen; Uytman, Clare; Allen, Richard J; Havelka, Jelena; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction (BD) is a highly prevalent feature amongst females in society, with the majority of individuals regarding themselves to be overweight compared to their personal ideal, and very few self-describing as underweight. To date, explanations of this dramatic pattern have centred on extrinsic social and media factors, or intrinsic factors connected to individuals' knowledge and belief structures regarding eating and body shape, with little research examining links between BD and basic cognitive mechanisms. This paper reports a correlational study in which visual and executive cognitive processes that could potentially impact on BD were assessed. Visual memory span and self-rated visual imagery were found to be predictive of BD, alongside a measure of inhibition derived from the Stroop task. In contrast, spatial memory and global precedence were not related to BD. Results are interpreted with reference to the influential multi-component model of working memory.

  9. Africa adorned: body image and symbols of physical beauty.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Leah

    2010-01-01

    African concepts of beauty and adornments of the body reflect a celebration of life in the face of death. They are derived from ancient times and the sense of man as a biological animal, within the context of life with other beasts. Among these, man is the only one who is born naked without nature's protections and adornment, such as fur, stripes, or feathers. The body is therefore an asset which must be guarded and covered and yet be expressive of strength as well as sexual desire, so as to attract a mate. Beauty, as a source of self-regard in African cultures is also often achieved through empathic identification with animals. Primordial African attitudes to life and death and symbols of beauty apparently influenced Freud's fourth instinct theory conceptions of Eros and Thanotos, as well as Erich Fromm's ideas about life-loving and death-loving societies, as illustrated in selected quotations from their writings.

  10. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of

  11. Body image in Brazil: recent advances in the state of knowledge and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Laus, Maria Fernanda; Kakeshita, Idalina Shiraishi; Costa, Telma Maria Braga; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo; Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze Brazilian literature on body image and the theoretical and methodological advances that have been made. METHODS A detailed review was undertaken of the Brazilian literature on body image, selecting published articles, dissertations and theses from the SciELO, SCOPUS, LILACS and PubMed databases and the CAPES thesis database. Google Scholar was also used. There was no start date for the search, which used the following search terms: “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “scale(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “questionnaire(s)”; “body image” AND “Brazil” AND “instrument(s)”; “body image” limited to Brazil and “body image”. RESULTS The majority of measures available were intended to be used in college students, with half of them evaluating satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the body. Females and adolescents of both sexes were the most studied population. There has been a significant increase in the number of available instruments. Nevertheless, numerous published studies have used non-validated instruments, with much confusion in the use of the appropriate terms (e.g., perception, dissatisfaction, distortion). CONCLUSIONS Much more is needed to understand body image within the Brazilian population, especially in terms of evaluating different age groups and diversifying the components/dimensions assessed. However, interest in this theme is increasing, and important steps have been taken in a short space of time. PMID:24897056

  12. Socializing Young Readers: A Content Analysis of Body Size Images in Caldecott Medal Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedwick, Linda; Latham, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have examined gender issues in children's literature, but a review of the literature reveals that few studies have examined the instances of fatness in the images. Studying the fat representation in the images of children's literature is important because exposure to a variety of body types may slow the rate of children's body…

  13. Body Image and Eating Disorders Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth.

    PubMed

    McClain, Zachary; Peebles, Rebecka

    2016-12-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period for emerging sexual orientation and gender identity and also body image disturbance and disordered eating. Body image distortion and disordered eating are important pediatric problems affecting individuals along the sexual orientation and gender identity spectrum. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) youth are at risk for eating disorders and body dissatisfaction. Disordered eating in LGBT and gender variant youth may be associated with poorer quality of life and mental health outcomes. Pediatricians should know that these problems occur more frequently in LGBT youth. There is evidence that newer treatment paradigms involving family support are more effective than individual models of care.

  14. Cultural issues in eating pathology and body image among children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    George, Jessica B Edwards; Franko, Debra L

    2010-04-01

    Eating pathology and body image issues are now recognized as affecting all racial and ethnic groups. This article reviews eating pathology and body image concerns in four diverse groups in the U.S. (African Americans, Latino/as, Asians, and Native Americans). The major conclusion based on this review is that eating disturbances and body dissatisfaction occur to some degree in children and adolescents from all four major ethnic groups in the U.S; however, there is substantial variability across studies. Future directions include the need for studies of prevalence, prevention and treatment research, and investigations of neurobiological and genetic variables.

  15. The influence of fashion magazines on the body image satisfaction of college women: an exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Turner, S L; Hamilton, H; Jacobs, M; Angood, L M; Dwyer, D H

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the impact of exposure to fashion magazines on women's body image satisfaction. Participants were 39 undergraduate women, randomly assigned to two experimental conditions: half viewed fashion magazines prior to completing a body image satisfaction survey, and the remaining half, news magazines. Mean height and weight did not differ for the two groups. As hypothesized, women who viewed fashion magazines preferred to weigh less, were less satisfied with their bodies, were more frustrated about their weight, were more preoccupied with the desire to be thin, and were more afraid of getting fat than were their peers who viewed news magazines.

  16. Imaging of ultraweak spontaneous photon emission from human body displaying diurnal rhythm.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2009-07-16

    The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon emission is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. We successfully imaged the diurnal change of this ultraweak photon emission with an improved highly sensitive imaging system using cryogenic charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. The diurnal changes in photon emission might be linked to changes in energy metabolism.

  17. Assessing body image issues and body satisfaction/dissatisfaction among Hmong American children 9-18 years of age using mixed methodology.

    PubMed

    Mulasi-Pokhriyal, Urvashi; Smith, Chery

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated body image issues and the usefulness of self-reported measurements among Hmong American children, 9-18 years using mixed methodology. Twelve focus groups were conducted (n=68) and a silhouette drawing instrument and six questions pertaining to body image were administered (n=335). About 50% of the children were either overweight or obese and 23% were short statured relative to US norms. About 70% of the girls and 53% of the boys selected smaller body ideals than their perceived body sizes. Further, 21% of the girls and 31% of the boys were satisfied with their bodies. Children underestimated their weights and overestimated their heights. During focus groups children reported that parents, peers, and media influenced their body image perceptions. Our results indicate that the majority of Hmong children are dissatisfied with their bodies and tend to endorse American ideals of beauty and attractiveness rather than the heavier, traditional Hmong body ideals supported by their parents.

  18. Endoscopic OCT for imaging of uterine body and cervix pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhova, Natalia M.; Kuznetzova, Irina N.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Snopova, Ludmila; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Feldchtein, Felix I.; Kuranov, Roman V.; Sergeev, Alexander M.

    1998-04-01

    First results of endoscopic applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in gynecology are presented. We have studied mucosa of uterus, uterine cervix and vagina in vivo. Images of healthy endometrium in different stages of menstrual cycle have been recorded. For uterine cervix not only OCT data of normal state but some kids of pathology have been analyzed. Capability of OCT to identify alterations of mucosa makes this method promising for early diagnosis of tumors and precise guiding of excisional biopsy.

  19. Relations among media influence, body image, eating concerns, and sexual orientation in men: A preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey

    2010-09-01

    The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population.

  20. Gender differences in colour naming performance for gender specific body shape images.

    PubMed

    Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K

    1998-03-01

    Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects.

  1. Are maladaptive schema domains and perfectionism related to body image concerns in eating disorder patients?

    PubMed

    Boone, Liesbet; Braet, Caroline; Vandereycken, Walter; Claes, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Both maladaptive schemas (MS) and perfectionism have been associated with eating pathology. However, previous research has not examined these variables simultaneously and has not studied possible mediating relationships between MS and multidimensional perfectionism for body image concerns in eating disorder (ED) patients. Eighty-eight female ED patients completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and the Body Attitude Test. Body image concerns were found to be positively related to Personal Standards (PS) and Evaluative Concerns (EC) perfectionism and all five schema domains. PS Perfectionism was positively associated with Disconnection, Other-directedness, and Overvigilance. EC Perfectionism was positively related to Disconnection, Impaired Autonomy, Other-directedness, and Overvigilance. Moreover, EC perfectionism was found to be a significant mediator in the relationship between the schema domains Impaired Autonomy and Overvigilance and body image concerns. These findings denote the importance to address both core beliefs and perfectionism in ED treatment.

  2. Media images of the "ideal" female body: can acute exercise moderate their psychological impact?

    PubMed

    Fallon, Elizabeth A; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to the media's "ideal" physique increases mood and body image disturbance, especially for at-risk women. Because exercise decreases mood and body image disturbance, we examined the ability of acute aerobic exercise to moderate the negative psychological impact of exposure to media pictures of the "ideal" female body. Women reporting high drive for thinness and media internalization viewed pictures of either nonphysique or "ideal" physique pictures after engaging in 30min of either aerobic exercise or quiet rest. Compared to the nonphysique pictures, viewing the physique pictures resulted in increased depression and body dissatisfaction. Acute aerobic exercise, however, did not moderate the negative mood states elicited by the media images. Implications of our results and future directions for research are discussed.

  3. Reliability and validity of the body image quality of life inventory: version for Brazilian burn victims.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Flávia Fernanda Oliveira; Dantas, Rosana Aparecida Spadoti; Ciol, Márcia Aparecida; Gonçalves, Natália; Farina, Jayme Adriano; Rossi, Lidia Aparecida

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this study were to adapt the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) into Brazilian Portuguese (BP) and to assess the psychometric properties of the adapted version. Construct validity was assessed by correlating the BIQLI-BP scores with the Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, with Burns Specific Health Scale-Revised (BSHS-R), and with gender, total body surface area burned, and visibility of the scars. Participants were 77 adult burn patients. Cronbach's alpha for the adapted version was .90 and moderate linear correlations were found between body image and self-esteem and between BIQLI-BP scores and two domains of the BSHS-R: affect and body image and interpersonal relationships. The BIQLI-BP showed acceptable levels of reliability and validity for Brazilian burn patients.

  4. Body Image Discomfort of Adolescent and Young Adult Hematologic Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Zucchetti, Giulia; Bellini, Simona; Bertolotti, Marina; Bona, Francesca; Biasin, Eleonora; Bertorello, Nicoletta; Tirtei, Elisa; Fagioli, Franca

    2017-01-23

    This study focuses on body image discomfort (BID) of 50 adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematologic cancer survivors (age range 15-23; 52% males). The study results were obtained through data from a self-report questionnaire: the Body Uneasiness Test. Findings differed according to gender: a greater proportion of females were in the Risk category of impaired body image than males (χ(2) = 5.258, p < 0.05). No significant body image differences were found according to the type of diagnosis or to the length of survival. To manage survivors' BIDs and to improve their quality of life, assessing BID in AYA cancer survivors is important for identifying those who might be in need of additional supportive care or a program.

  5. Health Perceptions, Self and Body Image, Physical Activity and Nutrition among Undergraduate Students in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Korn, Liat; Gonen, Ester; Shaked, Yael; Golan, Moria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examines health perceptions, self and body image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students. Methods A structured, self-reported questionnaire was administered to more than 1500 students at a large academic institute in Israel. The study population was heterogenic in both gender and fields of academic study. Results High correlations between health perceptions, appropriate nutrition, and positive self and body image were found. The relationships between these variables differed between the subpopulation in the sample and the different genders. Engagement in physical exercise contributed to positive body image and positive health perceptions more than engagement in healthy nutrition. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, positive self and body image and higher engagement in physical exercise in comparison to all other students in the sample. Conclusions This study suggests, as have many before, that successful health promotion policy should reflect a collectivist rather than an individualist ethos by providing health prerequisites through a public policy of health-promotion, where the academic settings support a healthy lifestyle policy, by increasing availability of a healthy, nutritious and varied menu in the cafeterias, and offering students various activities that enhance healthy eating and exercise. Implications and contribution This study examined health perceptions, self-image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students and found high correlations between these topics. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, and positive self and body image and engaged more in physical exercise when compared with all other students in the sample. PMID:23516503

  6. Body Image of Women with Breast Cancer After Mastectomy: A Qualitative Research

    PubMed Central

    Koçan, Sema; Gürsoy, Ayla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To gain a holistic and deep understanding about how mastectomy effects the body image of women who have breast cancer. Materials and Methods The sample of this qualitative descriptive study consisted of twenty patients who underwent mastectomy procedures. Semi-structured interviews were conducted during the second week after mastectomy. Each interview was transcribed verbatim, and a thematic analysis was performed. Results After the mastectomy, the findings related to the women’s body image and their experiences were specified as four main themes and seven sub-themes. The main themes were: meaning of the breast, mastectomy and me, my body image and body image changes, and social life. Most of the participants in this study stated that the breast meant femininity, beauty, and motherhood. It was found that the meaning of mastectomy varied according to individuals. Women used quite negative statements about their appearances. The participants also said that they felt that half themselves was missing, as individuals and women. The women stated that they preferred clothes that hid their lack of breast. Some of the participants mentioned that relations with their husbands were not like before, and they abstained from social interaction. Conclusion Our findings suggest that mastectomy as a surgical treatment for breast cancer may negatively affect a woman’s body image and her self-image.

  7. Waif goodbye! Average-size female models promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

    PubMed

    Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Lee, Christina

    2011-10-01

    Despite consensus that exposure to media images of thin fashion models is associated with poor body image and disordered eating behaviours, few attempts have been made to enact change in the media. This study sought to investigate an effective alternative to current media imagery, by exploring the advertising effectiveness of average-size female fashion models, and their impact on the body image of both women and men. A sample of 171 women and 120 men were assigned to one of three advertisement conditions: no models, thin models and average-size models. Women and men rated average-size models as equally effective in advertisements as thin and no models. For women with average and high levels of internalisation of cultural beauty ideals, exposure to average-size female models was associated with a significantly more positive body image state in comparison to exposure to thin models and no models. For men reporting high levels of internalisation, exposure to average-size models was also associated with a more positive body image state in comparison to viewing thin models. These findings suggest that average-size female models can promote positive body image and appeal to consumers.

  8. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in a longitudinal pilot study of adolescent girls: what happens 2 years later?

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Paola; Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the prospective association of risk factors for eating and body image disturbances after a 2-year follow-up in a community sample of Spanish adolescent girls. The participants included 128 Spanish girls aged 12-14, who took part in a 28-month prospective study. Aspects assessed were eating attitudes (Eating Attitudes Test), influence of the body shape model (questionnaire on influences of the aesthetic body shape model), extreme weight-control behaviors (Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire), body image (Body Image Questionnaire) and Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI, extreme weight-control behaviors and body image problems emerged as potential predictors of an increase in eating disturbances. An increased influence of the thinness model was significantly associated with reduced body satisfaction and body image problems. Preventive programs are needed to contribute reducing the impact of sociocultural influences with regard to thinness, the use of extreme weight-control behaviors and overweight in adolescents.

  9. Rural urban differences in weight, body image, and dieting behavior among adolescent Egyptian schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Robert T; Rashed, Motaza; Saad-Eldin, Rawia

    2003-01-01

    Overweight and obesity prevalence among adolescents is increasing worldwide and may be associated with increased risk for the development of obesity and chronic diseases in adulthood. Dissatisfaction with weight and body shapes is a contributor to the growing incidence of adolescent eating disorders. Our purpose was to compare the relationship between body weight and body image in a convenience sample of rural and urban girls. We also wanted to examine the influence of the mothers on their daughters by asking the girls how their mothers would classify their body shapes. Three hundred and forty adolescent Egyptian schoolgirls representing Cairo and surrounding rural areas were studied. The girls were from private and public schools. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Body image was determined by asking participants to indicate which of five silhouettes of a female body most closely resembled her own current body size. We also asked them to select the silhouette that closely resembled their mothers' current body size. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference standards, 35% of the girls were > or = 85th percentile, while 13% were > or = 95th percentile. Overweight was more prevalent in urban than rural girls and in those with higher socio-economic status than in lower socio-economic status girls. Girls' perceptions of how their mothers viewed their bodies differed from how the girls viewed their own bodies. From a policy point of view, these data underscore the need to consider not only the health risks associated with overweight and its distribution on the body, but also the weight and body image of the target audience in the design of clinical and public health intervention programs worldwide.

  10. An adaptive diffusion-weighted whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scheme using the multistation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yeji

    2016-02-01

    Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a useful tool in oncology, which enables fast screening of disseminated tumors, lymph nodes or abscesses in the body. Multistation magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or continuously moving table (CMT) MRI can be performed to overcome the limited field of view (FOV) of the magnet bore in whole-body DWI. Although CMT-MRI is regarded as a more advanced form of whole-body MRI, it cannot be widely used because most of the available MR systems are not equipped with the required hardware/software to perform CMT. Thus, optimizing the multistation approach for whole-body DWI, which is more widely available and easier to perform with the existing MR systems, is worthwhile. To improve the quality of DW images acquired with the multistation approach, we used different combinations of the built-in body RF coil and the phased-array surface RF coils for reception of the signals in whole-body DWI in this work. If different coils are selectively used in the extended FOV and appropriate reconstruction algorithms are exploited, the screening ability of whole-body DWI can be improved while minimizing the patient's discomfort and the artifacts due to physiological motions.

  11. Body movement analysis during sleep for children with ADHD using video image processing.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Masahiro; Okada, Shima; Shimizu, Sachiko; Mohri, Ikuko; Ohno, Yuko; Taniike, Masako; Makikawa, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the amount of children with sleep disorders that cause arousal during sleep or light sleep is increasing. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a cause of this sleep disorder; children with ADHD have frequent body movement during sleep. Therefore, we investigated the body movement during sleep of children with and without ADHD using video imaging. We analysed large gross body movements (GM) that occur and obtained the GM rate and the rest duration. There were differences between the body movements of children with ADHD and normally developed children. The children with ADHD moved frequently, so their rest duration was shorter than that of the normally developed children. Additionally, the rate of gross body movement indicated a significant difference in REM sleep (p < 0.05). In the future, we will develop a new device that can easily diagnose children with ADHD, using video image processing.

  12. Reducing the negative effects of media exposure on body image: Testing the effectiveness of subvertising and disclaimer labels.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Scott, Terri; Akbari, Yasmin

    2016-06-01

    Body image activists have proposed adding disclaimer labels to digitally altered media as a way to promote positive body image. Another approach advocated by activists is to alter advertisements through subvertising (adding social commentary to the image to undermine the message of the advertisement). We examined if body image could be enhanced by attaching Photoshop disclaimers or subvertising to thin-ideal media images of swimsuit models. In Study 1 (N=1268), adult women exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher body state satisfaction or lower drive for thinness than women exposed to unaltered images. In Study 2 (N=820), adult women who were exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher state body satisfaction or lower state social appearance comparisons than women exposed to unaltered images or to no images. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of disclaimers and subvertising for promoting body satisfaction.

  13. Body Image Avoidance, Body Dissatisfaction, and Eating Pathology: Is There a Difference Between Male Gym Users and Non-Gym Users?

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Peta; McIntyre, Timothy; Bannatyne, Amy

    2016-03-01

    With research highlighting the increasing prevalence and severity of body image and eating disturbances in males, particularly athletes and regular gymnasium users, the current study examined body image and eating disturbances in a sample of male gym users and non-gym users (N = 180). Based on previous research, it was predicted that male gym users would report greater body image disturbance (e.g., body image avoidance and body dissatisfaction) and eating pathology, compared with non-gym users. Results of the study partially supported hypotheses, revealing body dissatisfaction and eating pathology were significantly increased in male gym users. However, no significant differences were observed in body image avoidance behaviors, though this is likely because of methodological limitations associated with psychometric measures selected. The study provides preliminary evidence that male gym users do experience subclinical eating and body image concerns, with some also experiencing clinically significant symptoms that could be precursors to the later development of an eating disorder. Results of the current study highlight the importance of educating key stakeholders within health and fitness centers, through community-based interventions, to increase awareness regarding male body image and eating disturbances.

  14. Prevalence of distorted body image in young Koreans and its association with age, sex, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong-Chul; Jung, Young-Eun; Kim, Moon-Doo; Lee, Chang-In; Hyun, Mi-Yeul; Bahk, Won-Myong; Yoon, Bo-Hyun; Lee, Kwang Heun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To define the prevalence of distorted body image in 10–24-year-old Koreans and determine its relationship with sex, age, body weight status, and disordered eating behaviors. Methods A total of 3,227 young Koreans were recruited from elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as from universities. The participants completed a self-reported questionnaire on body image, eating behaviors (Eating Attitude Test-26), and body weight status. Results The prevalence of a distorted body image in males was 49.7% and that in females was 51.2%. Distorted body image was more frequent in adolescents (age, 10–17 years) than in young adults (age, 18–24 years). The highest prevalence (55.3%) was reported in female elementary school students (age, 10–12 years). Distorted body image was associated with disordered eating behaviors and abnormal body weight status. Conclusion These results suggest that distorted body image is a public health problem, given its high frequency in young Koreans, and that it is associated with abnormal body weight status and disordered eating behaviors. PMID:25914537

  15. Multiplane spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging of small animals in vivo.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully developed a multiscale acoustic-resolution photoacoustic tomography system in a single imaging platform. By switching between ultrasound transducers (center frequencies 5 and 40 MHz) and optical condensers, we have photoacoustically imaged microvasculatures of small animals in vivo at different scales. Further, we have extended the field of view of our imaging system to entire bodies of small animals. At different imaging planes, we have noninvasively imaged the major blood vessels (e.g., descending aorta, intercostal vessels, cephalic vessels, brachial vessels, femoral vessels, popliteal vessels, lateral marginal vessels, cranial mesenteric vessels, mammalian vessels, carotid artery, jugular vein, subclavian vessels, iliac vessels, and caudal vessels) as well as intact internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver, kidney, intestine, cecum, and spinal cord) of the animals in vivo. The spectroscopic whole-body photoacoustic imaging clearly reveals the spectral responses of the internal structures. Similar to other existing preclinical whole-body imaging systems, this whole-body photoacoustic tomography can be a useful tool for small-animal research.

  16. A database of body-only computer-generated pictures of women for body-image studies: Development and preliminary validation.

    PubMed

    Moussally, Joanna M; Rochat, Lucien; Posada, Andrés; Van der Linden, Martial

    2017-02-01

    The body-shape-related stimuli used in most body-image studies have several limitations (e.g., a lack of pilot validation procedures and the use of non-body-shape-related control/neutral stimuli). We therefore developed a database of 61 computer-generated body-only pictures of women, wherein bodies were methodically manipulated in terms of fatness versus thinness. Eighty-two young women assessed the pictures' attractiveness, beauty, harmony (valence ratings), and body shape (assessed on a thinness/fatness axis), providing normative data for valence and body shape ratings. First, stimuli manipulated for fatness versus thinness conveyed comparable emotional intensities regarding the valence and body shape ratings. Second, different subcategories of stimuli were obtained on the basis of variations in body shape and valence judgments. Fat and thin bodies were distributed into several subcategories depending on their valence ratings, and a subcategory containing stimuli that were neutral in terms of valence and body shape was identified. Interestingly, at a descriptive level, the thinness/fatness manipulations of the bodies were in a curvilinear relationship with the valence ratings: Thin bodies were not only judged as positive, but also as negative when their estimated body mass indexes (BMIs) decreased too much. Finally, convergent validity was assessed by exploring the impacts of body-image-related variables (BMI, thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction) on participants' judgments of the bodies. Valence judgments, but not body shape judgments, were influenced by the participants' levels of thin-ideal internalization and body dissatisfaction. Participants' BMIs did not significantly influence their judgments. Given these findings, this database contains relevant material that can be used in various fields, primarily for studies of body-image disturbance or eating disorders.

  17. Perceived impact of body feedback from romantic partners on young adults' body image and sexual well-being.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Kaitlyn M; Byers, E Sandra

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the messages individuals receive from their partners about their bodies and their perceived impact on body image and sexual well-being. Young adult men (n=35) and women (n=57) completed open-ended questions identifying messages they had received from partners and the impact of these messages on their body image and sexual well-being. Content coding revealed three verbal (expressions of approval and pride, challenging negative beliefs, expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) and two nonverbal (physical affection, physical expressions of sexual attraction/arousal/desire) positive messages as well as one verbal (disapproval/disgust) and two nonverbal (rejection, humiliation) negative messages. Some participants reported gender-related messages (muscularity/strength, genital appearance, breast appearance, weight, and comparison to others). Positive messages were seen to increase confidence, self-acceptance, and sexual empowerment/fulfillment, whereas negative messages decreased these feelings. Our findings suggest that even everyday, seemingly neutral messages are perceived to have an important impact on young adults.

  18. Parent, Peer, and Media Influences on Body Image and Strategies to Both Increase and Decrease Body Size among Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the nature of body image and body change strategies, as well as sociocultural influences on these variables, among a group of 1,266 adolescents. Findings indicated females were less satisfied with their bodies and were more likely to adopt strategies to lose weight, whereas males were likely to adopt strategies to increase weight and…

  19. Type-D personality and body image in men: the role of exercise status.

    PubMed

    Borkoles, Erika; Polman, Remco; Levy, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The 'Distressed' or Type-D personality is described by the interaction between high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. This study investigated the prevalence of Type-D personality in men of different exercise status, the association between Type-D and body image perceptions, and the moderating effect of exercise status. Participants were 564 British males aged between 18 and 55 years. Of these 200 were classified as sedentary, 148 as active and 216 as weight trainers. Participants completed the DS14 and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Results showed that more individuals were classified as Type-D in the sedentary group (45%) than the two active groups, and in the weight training (24.5%) than the active (14.2%) group. Both Type-D and a sedentary lifestyle were associated with a significantly poorer body image. However, exercise mode was not associated with body image differences. Sedentary Type-D men scored significantly lower in Body Areas Satisfaction and higher in Self-Classified Weight than both active groups. Regular exercise might provide a pathway for Type-D men to develop a more positive body image.

  20. Is the hijab protective? An investigation of body image and related constructs among British Muslim women.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Miah, Jusnara; Noorani, Nazerine; Taylor, Donna

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have reported equivocal findings concerning the impact of wearing a hijab, or Islamic head- and body-cover, on Muslim women's body image. Here, we sought to examine that impact using a larger sample of Muslim women than has been relied upon and a wider range of body image measures. A total of 587 British Muslim women completed a battery of scales assessing their frequency and conservativeness of hijab use, body image variables, attitudes towards the media and beauty ideals, importance of appearance, and religiosity. Preliminary results indicated that 218 women never used the hijab and 369 women used some form of the hijab at least rarely. Controlling for religiosity, women who wore the hijab had more positive body image, lower internalization of media messages about beauty standards, and placed less importance on appearance than women who did not wear the hijab. Among women who wore the hijab, hijab use significantly predicted weight discrepancy and body appreciation over and above religiosity. These results are discussed in terms of the possible protective impact among British Muslim women of wearing the hijab.

  1. Neurobiology of Anorexia Nervosa: Serotonin Dysfunctions Link Self-Starvation with Body Image Disturbances through an Impaired Body Memory

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is still unclear, despite that it is a critical and potentially mortal illness. A recent neurobiological model considers AN as the outcome of dysfunctions in the neuronal processes related to appetite and emotionality (Kaye et al., 2009, 2013). However, this model still is not able to answer a critical question: What is behind body image disturbances (BIDs) in AN? The article starts its analysis from reviewing some of the studies exploring the effects of the serotonin systems in memory (episodic, working, and spatial) and its dysfunctions. The review suggests that serotonin disturbances may: (a) facilitate the encoding of third person (allocentric) episodic memories; (b) facilitate the consolidation of emotional episodic memories (e.g., teasing), if preceded by repeated stress; (c) reduce voluntary inhibition of mnestic contents; (d) impair allocentric spatial memory. If we discuss these results within the interpretative frame suggested by the “Allocentric Lock Hypothesis” (Riva, 2012, 2014), we can hypothesize that altered serotoninergic activity in AN patients: (i) improves their ability to store and consolidate negative autobiographical memories, including those of their body, in allocentric perspective; (ii) impairs their ability to trigger voluntary inhibition of the previously stored negative memory of the body; (iii) impairs their capacity to retrieve/update allocentric information. Taken together, these points suggest a possible link between serotonin dysfunctions, memory impairments and BIDs: the impossibility of updating a disturbed body memory using real time experiential data—I'm locked to a wrong body stored in long term memory—pushes AN patients to control body weight and shape even when underweight. PMID:27932968

  2. The Association Between Family Flexibility, Food Preoccupation and Body Image Among Crystal Abuser Women

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh; Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita

    2012-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) is a highly addictive stimulant which has destructive effects. There is also evidence that methamphetamine use in some females, partly is due to their desire to lose weight. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between family flexibility, food preoccupation and body image among crystal abuser women. Objectives This study tried to evaluate whether food preoccupation, body image and family flexibility affect on crystal abuse in women. Patients and Methods Eighty crystal abuser women were chosen with convenience sampling and they responded to instrument of body image (Fisher), family flexibility (Olson) and food preoccupation (Tapper) questionnaires. Results There is a significant association between family flexibility and food preoccupation (P < 0.01) and also other variables; there is no significant association between family flexibility and body image, body image and food preoccupation (P > 0.05). Also, family flexibility is prediction of food preoccupation (P < 0.01). Conclusions These results emphasize that the components of eating behaviors (e.g. food preoccupation) and family flexibility can be considered in therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment) for women to crystal withdrawal. PMID:24971249

  3. Dialysis access and the impact on body image: role of the nephrology nurse.

    PubMed

    Muringai, T; Noble, H; McGowan, A; Channey, M

    End-stage renal disease is a chronic condition, without cure, requiring dialysis therapy to maintain life or transplantation for those fortunate enough to receive a kidney. To commence dialysis (peritoneal dialysis or haemodialysis), access is required in the form of a fistula, vascular catheter or peritoneal catheter, and changes in body image will ensue, no matter what treatment option is selected. Renal transplantation, the treatment of choice for many patients, is also associated with body image issues. Despite these problems, the role of the nurse in managing body image problems in the renal population is rarely discussed. The aim of this article is to outline the concepts of dialysis and body image, and discuss the role of the nephrology nurse at the authors' current place of work. It highlights suggestions on how renal nurses can prepare and educate patients regarding changes in body image following a diagnosis of end-stage renal disease, and emphasizes the need for future research in this area.

  4. Altered Sexuality and Body Image after Gynecological Cancer Treatment: How Can Psychologists Help?

    PubMed Central

    Sacerdoti, Rebecca Caldwell; Lagana’, Luciana; Koopman, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Once medical treatment for gynecological cancer is completed, what happens to patients’ sexuality and body image? Due to the delicate nature of the cancer site, treating this cancer typically affects sexual functioning and body image adversely, making it critical to identify the concerns of these patients and do so in a manner less restrictive than paper-and-pencil assessment. To gain a deeper understanding of the phenomenological experiences in question, we interviewed nine gynecological cancer patients and seven cancer-free women. After implementing a relaxation protocol, we asked each woman to describe her feelings and thoughts on her sexuality and body image in one-on-one interviews. A variety of themes emerged on patients' attitudes and perspectives concerning sexuality and body image following diagnosis and treatment of the cancer. The themes that were considerably different from those of the cancer-free women included decreased sexual functioning and body image, abrupt shifts in self-identity due to loss of physical integrity, and distancing in intimate relationships. Several implications of these findings for clinical practice are discussed, as well as the need to train medical professionals to properly assess these patients’ alterations in sexuality. PMID:21572538

  5. Evaluation of Social Support, Quality of Life, and Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spatuzzi, Roberta; Vespa, Anna; Lorenzi, Primo; Miccinesi, Guido; Ricciuti, Marcello; Cifarelli, Wanda; Susi, Marina; Fabrizio, Tommaso; Ferrari, Maria G.; Ottaviani, Marica; Giulietti, Maria V.; Merico, Fabiana; Aieta, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background This study was aimed at comparing the quality of life, body image, and perceived social support in women with breast cancer surgery. Patients and Methods Patients receiving breast-conserving surgery (BCS) (n = 72), mastectomy alone (n = 44), and mastectomy with breast reconstruction (n = 41) were evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the EORTC Breast Cancer Module (QLQ-BR23), the Body Image Scale (BIS) and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Results The results indicated that the BCS group had a better body image compared with the other 2 groups and better role functioning compared with the mastectomy-alone group. In the reconstruction group, body image correlated with perceived social support, especially from family and significant others. Conclusion These results suggest that a positive perception of a supportive social network can help women with breast reconstruction to better cope with the psychological effects of surgery on their body image. PMID:27051393

  6. Body image concerns in professional fashion models: are they really an at-risk group?

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Szmigielska, Emilia

    2013-05-15

    Although professional models are thought to be a high-risk group for body image concerns, only a handful of studies have empirically investigated this possibility. The present study sought to overcome this dearth of information by comparing professional models and a matched sample on key indices of body image and appeared-related concerns. A group of 52 professional fashion models was compared with a matched sample of 51 non-models from London, England, on indices of weight discrepancy, body appreciation, social physique anxiety, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, internalization of sociocultural messages about appearance, and dysfunctional investment in appearance. Results indicated that professional models only evidenced significantly higher drive for thinness and dysfunctional investment in appearance than the control group. Greater duration of engagement as a professional model was associated with more positive body appreciation but also greater drive for thinness. These results indicate that models, who are already underweight, have a strong desire to maintain their low body mass or become thinner. Taken together, the present results suggest that interventions aimed at promoting healthy body image among fashion models may require different strategies than those aimed at the general population.

  7. Distress Tolerance as a Predictor of Adherence to a Yoga Intervention: Moderating Roles of BMI and Body Image.

    PubMed

    Baird, Scarlett O; Hopkins, Lindsey B; Medina, Johnna L; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether distress tolerance, body image, and body mass index (BMI) predicted adherence to a yoga intervention. Participants were 27 women who participated in a yoga intervention as part of a randomized controlled trial. Attendance and distress tolerance were assessed weekly, and body image and BMI were measured at baseline. Multilevel modeling revealed a three-way interaction of distress tolerance, BMI, and body image (p < .001). For participants with few body image concerns, distress tolerance was positively associated with adherence regardless of BMI (p = .009). However, for those with poor body image, increases in distress tolerance were associated with increases in adherence among overweight participants (p < .001) but lower adherence among obese participants (p = .007). Distress tolerance may be implicated in adherence to a yoga intervention, although its effects may be dependent on body image concerns, BMI, and their interaction. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

  8. Expand Your Horizon: A programme that improves body image and reduces self-objectification by training women to focus on body functionality.

    PubMed

    Alleva, Jessica M; Martijn, Carolien; Van Breukelen, Gerard J P; Jansen, Anita; Karos, Kai

    2015-09-01

    This study tested Expand Your Horizon, a programme designed to improve body image by training women to focus on the functionality of their body using structured writing assignments. Eighty-one women (Mage=22.77) with a negative body image were randomised to the Expand Your Horizon programme or to an active control programme. Appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, body appreciation, and self-objectification were measured at pretest, posttest, and one-week follow-up. Following the intervention, participants in the Expand Your Horizon programme experienced greater appearance satisfaction, functionality satisfaction, and body appreciation, and lower levels of self-objectification, compared to participants in the control programme. Partial eta-squared effect sizes were of small to medium magnitude. This study is the first to show that focusing on body functionality can improve body image and reduce self-objectification in women with a negative body image. These findings provide support for addressing body functionality in programmes designed to improve body image.

  9. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  10. Tumor glucose metabolism imaged in vivo in small animals with whole-body photoacoustic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Chatni, Muhammad Rameez; Xia, Jun; Sohn, Rebecca; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Kun; Xia, Younan; Anastasio, Mark; Arbeit, Jeffrey; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing use of small animals for human disease studies, small-animal whole-body molecular imaging plays an important role in biomedical research. Currently, none of the existing imaging modalities can provide both anatomical and glucose molecular information, leading to higher costs of building dual-modality systems. Even with image co-registration, the spatial resolution of the molecular imaging modality is not improved. Utilizing a ring-shaped confocal photoacoustic computed tomography system, we demonstrate, for the first time, that both anatomy and glucose uptake can be imaged in a single modality. Anatomy was imaged with the endogenous hemoglobin contrast, and glucose metabolism was imaged with a near-infrared dye-labeled 2-deoxyglucose.

  11. Optimal self-calibration of tomographic reconstruction parameters in whole-body small animal optoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Subhamoy; Nasonova, Elena; Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In tomographic optoacoustic imaging, multiple parameters related to both light and ultrasound propagation characteristics of the medium need to be adequately selected in order to accurately recover maps of local optical absorbance. Speed of sound in the imaged object and surrounding medium is a key parameter conventionally assumed to be uniform. Mismatch between the actual and predicted speed of sound values may lead to image distortions but can be mitigated by manual or automatic optimization based on metrics of image sharpness. Although some simple approaches based on metrics of image sharpness may readily mitigate distortions in the presence of highly contrasting and sharp image features, they may not provide an adequate performance for smooth signal variations as commonly present in realistic whole-body optoacoustic images from small animals. Thus, three new hybrid methods are suggested in this work, which are shown to outperform well-established autofocusing algorithms in mouse experiments in vivo. PMID:25431756

  12. Lean body mass correction of standardized uptake value in simultaneous whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochimsen, Thies H.; Schulz, Jessica; Busse, Harald; Werner, Peter; Schaudinn, Alexander; Zeisig, Vilia; Kurch, Lars; Seese, Anita; Barthel, Henryk; Sattler, Bernhard; Sabri, Osama

    2015-06-01

    This study explores the possibility of using simultaneous positron emission tomography—magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI) to estimate the lean body mass (LBM) in order to obtain a standardized uptake value (SUV) which is less dependent on the patients' adiposity. This approach is compared to (1) the commonly-used method based on a predictive equation for LBM, and (2) to using an LBM derived from PET-CT data. It is hypothesized that an MRI-based correction of SUV provides a robust method due to the high soft-tissue contrast of MRI. A straightforward approach to calculate an MRI-derived LBM is presented. It is based on the fat and water images computed from the two-point Dixon MRI primarily used for attenuation correction in PET-MRI. From these images, a water fraction was obtained for each voxel. Averaging over the whole body yielded the weight-normalized LBM. Performance of the new approach in terms of reducing variations of 18F-Fludeoxyglucose SUVs in brain and liver across 19 subjects was compared with results using predictive methods and PET-CT data to estimate the LBM. The MRI-based method reduced the coefficient of variation of SUVs in the brain by 41  ± 10% which is comparable to the reduction by the PET-CT method (35  ± 10%). The reduction of the predictive LBM method was 29  ± 8%. In the liver, the reduction was less clear, presumably due to other sources of variation. In conclusion, employing the Dixon data in simultaneous PET-MRI for calculation of lean body mass provides a brain SUV which is less dependent on patient adiposity. The reduced dependency is comparable to that obtained by CT and predictive equations. Therefore, it is more comparable across patients. The technique does not impose an overhead in measurement time and is straightforward to implement.

  13. The Effects of Gender and Family, Friend, and Media Influences on Eating Behaviors and Body Image during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ata, Rheanna N.; Ludden, Alison Bryant; Lally, Megan M.

    2007-01-01

    The current study expands upon body image research to examine how gender, self-esteem, social support, teasing, and family, friend, and media pressures relate to body image and eating-related attitudes and behaviors among male and female adolescents (N = 177). Results indicated that adolescents were dissatisfied with their current bodies: males…

  14. Real Women Have Curves: A Longitudinal Investigation of TV and the Body Image Development of Latina Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Contextualizing Latina girls' body image development requires an appreciation of mainstream body ideals, Latino/a cultural values, and the process by which Latina girls traverse the borders between them. The current study examines how media use and acculturation act across adolescence to shape the development of body image among Latina girls.…

  15. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  16. The Longitudinal Interplay of Adolescents' Self-Esteem and Body Image: A Conditional Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Maïano, Christophe; Marsh, Herbert W; Janosz, Michel; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2011-04-11

    Self-esteem and body image are central to coping successfully with the developmental challenges of adolescence. However, the current knowledge surrounding self-esteem and body image is fraught with controversy. This study attempts to clarify some of them by addressing three questions: (1) Are the intraindividual developmental trajectories of self-esteem and body image stable across adolescence? (2) What is the direction of the relations between body image and self-esteem over time? (3) What is the role of gender, ethnicity, and pubertal development on those trajectories? This study relies on Autoregressive Latent Trajectory analyses based on data from a 4-year, 6-wave, prospective longitudinal study of 1,001 adolescents. Self-esteem and body image levels remained high and stable over time, although body image levels also tended to increase slightly. The results show that levels of self-esteem were positively influenced by levels of body image. However, these effects remained small and most of the observed associations were cross-sectional. Finally, the effects of pubertal development on body image and self-esteem levels were mostly limited to non-Caucasian females who appeared to benefit from more advanced pubertal development. Conversely, Caucasian females presented the lowest self-esteem and body image levels of all, although for them more advanced pubertal development levels were associated with a slight rise in body image over time.

  17. Relationship between body image disturbance and incidence of depression: the SUN prospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; López, Celeste Nicole; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Background Body image disturbance is an increasing problem in Western societies and is associated with a number of mental health outcomes including anorexia, bulimia, body dysmorphia, and depression. The aim of this study was to assess the association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression. Methods This study included 10,286 participants from a dynamic prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, who were followed-up for a median period of 4.2 years (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra – the SUN study). The key characteristic of the study is the permanently open recruitment that started in 1999. The baseline questionnaire included information about body mass index (BMI) and the nine figure schemes that were used to assess body size perception. These variables were grouped according to recommended classifications and the difference between BMI and body size perception was considered as a proxy of body image disturbance. A subject was classified as an incident case of depression if he/she was initially free of depression and reported a physician-made diagnosis of depression and/or the use of antidepressant medication in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. The association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression was estimated by calculating the multivariable adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) and its 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI), using logistic regression models. Results The cumulative incidence of depression during follow-up in the cohort was 4.8%. Men who underestimated their body size had a high percentage of overweight and obesity (50.1% and 12.6%, respectively), whereas women who overestimated their body size had a high percentage of underweight (87.6%). The underestimation exhibited a negative association with the incidence of depression among women (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54 – 0.95), but this effect disappeared after adjusting for possible confounding variables. The proportion of participants who

  18. Instagram Unfiltered: Exploring Associations of Body Image Satisfaction, Instagram #Selfie Posting, and Negative Romantic Relationship Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Jessica L; Clayton, Russell B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors and consequences associated with Instagram selfie posting. Thus, this study explored whether body image satisfaction predicts Instagram selfie posting and whether Instagram selfie posting is then associated with Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes. A total of 420 Instagram users aged 18 to 62 years (M = 29.3, SD = 8.12) completed an online survey questionnaire. Analysis of a serial multiple mediator model using bootstrapping methods indicated that body image satisfaction was sequentially associated with increased Instagram selfie posting and Instagram-related conflict, which related to increased negative romantic relationship outcomes. These findings suggest that when Instagram users promote their body image satisfaction in the form of Instagram selfie posts, risk of Instagram-related conflict and negative romantic relationship outcomes might ensue. Findings from the current study provide a baseline understanding to potential and timely trends regarding Instagram selfie posting.

  19. Self-compassion, body image, and disordered eating: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Braun, Tosca D; Park, Crystal L; Gorin, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Self-compassion, treating oneself as a loved friend might, demonstrates beneficial associations with body image and eating behaviors. In this systematic review, 28 studies supporting the role of self-compassion as a protective factor against poor body image and eating pathology are reviewed. Findings across various study designs consistently linked self-compassion to lower levels of eating pathology, and self-compassion was implicated as a protective factor against poor body image and eating pathology, with a few exceptions. These findings offer preliminary support that self-compassion may protect against eating pathology by: (a) decreasing eating disorder-related outcomes directly; (b) preventing initial occurrence of a risk factor of a maladaptive outcome; (c) interacting with risk factors to interrupt their deleterious effects; and (d) disrupting the mediational chain through which risk factors operate. We conclude with suggestions for future research that may inform intervention development, including the utilization of research designs that better afford causal inference.

  20. The effect of media analysis on attitudes and behaviors regarding body image among college students.

    PubMed

    Rabak-Wagener, J; Eickhoff-Shemek, J; Kelly-Vance, L

    1998-07-01

    Particular strategies of media advocacy can help people contest the dominant body images of fashion advertisements and reframe them to include a broader array of "normal" images. A study with an intervention group (n = 60) and a comparison group (n = 45) of undergraduate college students was conducted to investigate whether analyzing and reframing fashion advertisements changed the students' attitudes and behaviors regarding their own body images. Results from the posttest showed a significant change in beliefs among those in the intervention group but no significant change in behaviors. The comparison group showed no significant change in beliefs or behaviors. Posttest results from the women in the intervention group (n = 44) indicated a significant change in the study participants' beliefs that adult models in advertisements have an ideal body size and shape and that the participants' decisions about dieting or exercising should be based more on looks rather than on health status.

  1. Wrinkles and sagging flesh: exploring transformations in women's sexual body image.

    PubMed

    Montemurro, Beth; Gillen, Meghan M

    2013-01-01

    In American society, the sexually desirable woman is young and thin. Changes associated with aging such as wrinkled skin or weight gain often bring women further from societal ideals of attractiveness. As physical appearance is very much related to desirability, we explore sexual body image and the way that it changes as women age. Based on in-depth interviews with 95 women aged 20-68, we find women's sexuality and feelings of desirability are influenced by physical appearance, media, as well as significant others and family. We also note that sexual body image is more often negative than positive for women of all ages and that women struggle to accept changes in their bodies as a result of the aging process and life experiences; however, women in their 50s and 60s are most likely to accept their bodies and not feel influenced by social pressures.

  2. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    PubMed

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal.

  3. Negative comparisons about one's appearance mediate the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns.

    PubMed

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Vartanian, Lenny R

    2015-01-01

    Use of social media, such as Facebook, is pervasive among young women. Body dissatisfaction is also highly prevalent in this demographic. The present study examined the relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns among female university students (N=227), and tested whether appearance comparisons on Facebook in general, or comparisons to specific female target groups (family members, close friends, distant peers [women one may know but do not regularly socialize with], celebrities) mediated this relationship. Results showed a positive relationship between Facebook usage and body image concerns, which was mediated by appearance comparisons in general, frequency of comparisons to close friends and distant peers, and by upward comparisons (judging one's own appearance to be worse) to distant peers and celebrities. Thus, young women who spend more time on Facebook may feel more concerned about their body because they compare their appearance to others (especially to peers) on Facebook.

  4. Label-free in situ imaging of oil body dynamics and chemistry in germination

    PubMed Central

    Waschatko, Gustav; Billecke, Nils; Schwendy, Sascha; Jaurich, Henriette; Bonn, Mischa; Vilgis, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant oleosomes are uniquely emulsified lipid reservoirs that serve as the primary energy source during seed germination. These oil bodies undergo significant changes regarding their size, composition and structure during normal seedling development; however, a detailed characterization of these oil body dynamics, which critically affect oil body extractability and nutritional value, has remained challenging because of a limited ability to monitor oil body location and composition during germination in situ. Here, we demonstrate via in situ, label-free imaging that oil bodies are highly dynamic intracellular organelles that are morphologically and biochemically remodelled extensively during germination. Label-free, coherent Raman microscopy (CRM) combined with bulk biochemical measurements revealed the temporal and spatial regulation of oil bodies in native soya bean cotyledons during the first eight days of germination. Oil bodies undergo a cycle of growth and shrinkage that is paralleled by lipid and protein compositional changes. Specifically, the total protein concentration associated with oil bodies increases in the first phase of germination and subsequently decreases. Lipids contained within the oil bodies change in saturation and chain length during germination. Our results show that CRM is a well-suited platform to monitor in situ lipid dynamics and local chemistry and that oil bodies are actively remodelled during germination. This underscores the dynamic role of lipid reservoirs in plant development. PMID:27798279

  5. Differences in the nature of body image disturbances between female obese individuals with versus without a comorbid binge eating disorder: an exploratory study including static and dynamic aspects of body image.

    PubMed

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Báguena Puigcerver, María José; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F; Rüddel, Heinz

    2011-03-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily attitudes, and eating behavior. Patients with obesity and a binge eating disorder (OBE, n = 15) were compared with patients with obesity only (ONB; n = 15), to determine the nature of any differences in body image disturbances. Both groups had high levels of body image disturbances with cognitive-affective deficits. Binge eating disorder (BED) participants also had perceptual difficulties (static only). Both groups reported high importance of weight and shape for self-esteem. There were some significant differences between the groups suggesting that a comorbid BED causes further aggravation. Body image interventions in obesity treatment may be warranted.

  6. Small-animal whole-body imaging using a photoacoustic full ring array system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun; Guo, Zijian; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    In this report, we present a novel 3D photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system for small-animal whole-body imaging. The PACT system, based on a 512-element full-ring transducer array, received photoacoustic signals primarily from a 2-mm-thick slice. The light was generated by a pulse laser, and can either illuminate from the top or be reshaped to illuminate the sample from the side, using a conical lens and an optical condenser. The PACT system was capable of acquiring an in-plane image in 1.6 s; by scanning the sample in the elevational direction, a 3D tomographic image could be constructed. We tested the system by imaging a cylindrical phantom made of human hairs immersed in a scattering medium. The reconstructed image achieved an in-plane resolution of 0.1 mm and an elevational resolution of 1 mm. After deconvolution in the elevational direction, the 3D image was found to match well with the phantom. The system was also used to image a baby mouse in situ; the spinal cord and ribs can be seen easily in the reconstructed image. Our results demonstrate that the PACT system has the potential to be used for fast small-animal whole-body tomographic imaging.

  7. Highly Resolved MR Imaging of Arbitrary Subregions in Large Objects by a Whole-Body Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Karin; Pfeffer, Markus; Jung, Wulf-Ingo; Lutz, Otto; Schick, Fritz

    1993-07-01

    Highly resolved images of defined regions of interest within extended objects were obtaind with a 1.5 T whole-bode imager and standard hardware. The high-resolution spin echo imaging sequence avoids aliasing and allows pixel resolutions down to 39 µm which are confirmed by phantom measurements. The application of the sequence to large biological objects such as, for example, an amaryllis bulb results in images which provide much detail which could not be resolved with standard sequences.

  8. Factors Influencing Body Image in Women with Breast Cancer: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maedeh; Elyasi, Forouzan; Janbabai, Ghasem; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Context Many psycho-socioeconomic and other types factors associated with cancer, the treatment process, and changes in patients’ physical appearance and sexual function influence the body image of women with breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors influence the body image of women with breast cancer. Data Collection A narrative literature review was conducted. Electronic databases, including Google Scholar, SID, Magiran, IranDoc, Barekat, Web of Science, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, Scopus, and PubMed, including Medline, were searched to retrieve articles published from 1993 to 2016 using the keywords breast cancer, treatment, body image, and related factors. The quality of selected studies was appraised using a checklist adapted from Samadaee-Gelehkolaee (2016). Results Of 690 articles retrieved in the search, 190 articles were selected for full text appraisal. Finally, 44 articles were selected for data analysis. The results were classified under three headings: bio-psycho-socioeconomic factors, factors associated with the disease and treatment processes, and physical appearance and sexual function. Conclusions The findings of this review showed that many factors can influence the body image of women suffering from breast cancer. These factors were predictors of patients’ inter-personal and intra-personal relationships with their partners and others who influenced various other aspects of their lives, possibly leading to many life’s issues. These factors must be identified and considered to make the most appropriate decisions for patients. The strength of this study lies in the exploration of factors influencing the body image of women with breast cancer which earlier studies did not consider. Moreover, the authors believe that this research has addressed nearly all the factors that are real concerns in the body image of women with breast cancer. PMID:28184329

  9. Correlating Hemodynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging with high-field Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Weston; Donahue, Manus J.; van der Kolk, Anja G.; Rane, Swati; Strother, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) can be used to visualize vascular lesions noninvasively and holds potential for improving stroke-risk assessment in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We present the first multi-modal comparison of such high-field vessel wall imaging with more conventional (i) 3 Tesla hemodynamic magnetic resonance imaging and (ii) digital subtraction angiography in a 69-year-old male with a left temporal ischemic infarct. PMID:25426229

  10. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging of a carotid body tumor in a dog

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A 5-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever was presented to a referring veterinarian for a swelling in the neck region. Based on the results of histopathology, a carotid body tumor, was diagnosed. The dog was referred to a medical imaging unit for further staging and follow up. This report describes the magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic (CT) appearance of a carotid body tumor. PMID:22507757

  11. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging of a carotid body tumor in a dog.

    PubMed

    Kromhout, Kaatje; Gielen, Ingrid; De Cock, Hilde E V; Van Dyck, Kristof; van Bree, Henri

    2012-04-16

    A 5-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever was presented to a referring veterinarian for a swelling in the neck region. Based on the results of histopathology, a carotid body tumor, was diagnosed. The dog was referred to a medical imaging unit for further staging and follow up. This report describes the magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic (CT) appearance of a carotid body tumor.

  12. Investigation of eating disorders in cancer patients and its relevance with body image

    PubMed Central

    Hossein, Seyyed Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud; Mohamadirizi, Shahla; Paknaad, Zamzam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorder is one of the most common health problems with clinical and psychological consequences, which can affect body image in cancer patients. Similar studies in this area for checking the status of this disorder and its relevance with body image in patients with cancer are limited. Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of determination of eating disorders in patients with cancer and their relevance with body image. Materials and Methods: The research was a cross-correlation study. It was carried out in Sayed-Al-Shohada Hospital affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Two hundred and ten patients with cancer were selected and were asked tocomplete the demographic and disease characteristics questionnaire, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ), and eating disorders questionnaire. SPSS statistical software, version 14 was used for statistical analysis’-Test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for analyzing the obtained data. Results: The mean values of age, body mass index (BMI), and duration of illness were 48.2 ± 13.20 years, 24.6 ± 4.6kg/m2, and 25.64 ± 21.24months, respectively. Most patients were married (87%), without university education (96%), unemployed (67%), and with incomes below their requirement (52%). Most patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (36.5%). They received chemotherapy as the main treatment (56.2%). In addition, mean ± SD of eating disorders and body image were 12.84 ± 4.7 and184.40 ± 43.68, respectively. Also, 49.7% of patients with cancer had an eating disorder. Among these, 29% had experiences of anorexia and 20.7% had bulimia. There was a significant negative correlation between the score of body image and eating disorders (r = −0.47, P = 0.01). Conclusions: Findings of this study showed that most patients with cancer had experienced symptoms of eating disorders. This may lead to a negative impact on

  13. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in children: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Marchiori, Edson; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body imaging in children was classically performed with radiography, positron-emission tomography, either combined or not with computed tomography, the latter with the disadvantage of exposure to ionizing radiation. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in association with the recently developed metabolic and functional techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging, has brought the advantage of a comprehensive evaluation of pediatric patients without the risks inherent to ionizing radiation usually present in other conventional imaging methods. It is a rapid and sensitive method, particularly in pediatrics, for detecting and monitoring multifocal lesions in the body as a whole. In pediatrics, it is utilized for both oncologic and non-oncologic indications such as screening and diagnosis of tumors in patients with genetic syndromes, evaluation of disease extent and staging, evaluation of therapeutic response and post-therapy follow-up, evaluation of non neoplastic diseases such as multifocal osteomyelitis, vascular malformations and syndromes affecting multiple regions of the body. The present review was aimed at describing the major indications of whole-body MRI in pediatrics added of technical considerations.

  14. Imaging methods for analyzing body composition in human obesity and cardiometabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Seabolt, Lynn A; Welch, E Brian; Silver, Heidi J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in the technological qualities of imaging modalities for assessing human body composition have been stimulated by accumulating evidence that individual components of body composition have significant influences on chronic disease onset, disease progression, treatment response, and health outcomes. Importantly, imaging modalities have provided a systematic method for differentiating phenotypes of body composition that diverge from what is considered normal, that is, having low bone mass (osteopenia/osteoporosis), low muscle mass (sarcopenia), high fat mass (obesity), or high fat with low muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity). Moreover, advances over the past three decades in the sensitivity and quality of imaging not just to discern the amount and distribution of adipose and lean tissue but also to differentiate layers or depots within tissues and cells is enhancing our understanding of distinct mechanistic, metabolic, and functional roles of body composition within human phenotypes. In this review, we focus on advances in imaging technologies that show great promise for future investigation of human body composition and how they are being used to address the pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes.

  15. Body image and its relationship with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Karamidehkordi, Akram; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body image is related to cognitive, emotional, and physical aspects of women's life. Therefore, it is expected to have an important role in women's sexual health and marital adjustment too. This issue seems to be salient in infertile women who suffer from psychological consequences of infertility. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of body image with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women in 2011 in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: This correlational study was performed on 130 infertile women who referred to Montaserieh Infertility Research Centre in Mashhad, Iran. Subjects were selected using convenient sampling method. To collect data, valid and reliable questionnaires including demographic and infertility-related data tool, modified Younesi Body Image Questionnaire, Rosen Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) were used. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software using Student's t-test, correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: The mean scores of body image, sexual function, and marital adjustment in women were 308.1 ± 45.8, 27.23 ± 3.80, and 113.8 ± 19.73, respectively. There was a direct correlation between overall body image and subscales of sexual function including sexual arousal (P = 0.003), sexual desire (P = 0.024), vaginal moisture (P = 0.001), orgasm (P < 0.001), sexual satisfaction (P < 0.001), and dyspareunia (P = 0.007). A direct correlation was also observed between overall body image and subscales of marital adjustment including agreement and consent (P < 0.001), satisfaction with life (P < 0.001), continuity of life (P = 0.007), and expressing emotions within the family environment (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Improved sexual function and marital adjustment in cases with higher body image provides evidence that one of the solutions to reduce sexual dysfunction and marital dispute in infertile women could be

  16. Effects of body image on college students' attitudes toward diet/fitness apps on smartphones.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jaehee; Lee, H Erin; Kim, Sun Jin; Park, Dongjin

    2015-01-01

    Considering the increasing use of diet/fitness apps, this study aimed to investigate how four factors related to body image--evaluations of and orientations toward both appearance and fitness--impact college students' perception of the usefulness of such apps. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, this study tested a path model examining the relationships among the four body-image-oriented factors, perceived usefulness (PU) of diet/fitness apps, and behavioral intention to use such apps. Results from a path analysis revealed that while college students' evaluation of appearance and fitness decreased the PU of diet/fitness apps, their orientation toward fitness increased the same outcome variable.

  17. Restraint, body image and food attitudes in children from 12 to 18 years.

    PubMed

    Wardle, J; Beales, S

    1986-09-01

    Body image, dietary restraint, attitudes to food and food intake pattern were assessed in a survey of 348 London schoolchildren from three age groups. The data revealed striking sex differences in body image, restraint and food attitudes, even in the youngest age group (12 to 13 years). The majority of girls felt too fat, attempted to restrict their food intake, and expressed guilt about eating. The boys expressed much less concern in all these areas. No differences were found across the age groups. The results suggested that normal English girls experience significant levels of distress over eating and weight.

  18. The role of ethnicity and culture in body image and disordered eating among males.

    PubMed

    Ricciardelli, Lina A; McCabe, Marita P; Williams, Robert J; Thompson, J Kevin

    2007-06-01

    An increasing number of researchers have examined body image concerns, disordered eating, and other behaviors associated with increasing muscle size among men from different cultural groups. However, to date there has been no synthesis or evaluation of these studies. In this paper we specifically review studies which have included a comparison between males from different cultural groups with White males on body image concerns or other related behaviors. The groups include Blacks, Hispanic Americans, Asians, Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, and men from Middle Eastern countries. Overall, evidence suggests that males from a range of cultural groups engage in more extreme body change strategies and binge eating than Whites. On the other hand, there is no consistent pattern which summarizes the nature of body image concerns across the different cultures. Mediating and/or moderating variables are proposed to account for the inconsistent findings. These include body build, levels of acculturation, socio-economic status, media exposure, and internalization of the muscular and lean body ideal.

  19. Men, muscles, and body image: comparisons of competitive bodybuilders, weight trainers, and athletically active controls

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, T; Lewis, R; Cash, T; Pope, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate body image and psychosocial adjustment among competitive bodybuilders, non-competitive weight trainers, and athletically active men. Methods: Participants were 40 men in each of the three groups who were assessed on body composition and multiple facets of body image evaluation, investment and anxiety, eating attitudes, and social self esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups were more satisfied with their upper torso and muscle tone. Competitive bodybuilders reported more mid torso satisfaction than the other two groups. Competitive bodybuilders also wished to be significantly heavier than controls did and reported higher social self esteem but greater eating disturbance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that competitive bodybuilders as a group are not more "muscle dysmorphic" than either non-competitive weight trainers or physically active men who do not train with weights. PMID:15793091

  20. Joint detection and segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT images by sparse representation error minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korez, Robert; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Vrtovec, Tomaž

    2016-03-01

    Automated detection and segmentation of vertebral bodies from spinal computed tomography (CT) images is usually a prerequisite step for numerous spine-related medical applications, such as diagnosis, surgical planning and follow-up assessment of spinal pathologies. However, automated detection and segmentation are challenging tasks due to a relatively high degree of anatomical complexity, presence of unclear boundaries and articulation of vertebrae with each other. In this paper, we describe a sparse representation error minimization (SEM) framework for joint detection and segmentation of vertebral bodies in CT images. By minimizing the sparse representation error of sampled intensity values, we are able to recover the oriented bounding box (OBB) and segmentation binary mask for each vertebral body in the CT image. The performance of the proposed SEM framework was evaluated on five CT images of the thoracolumbar spine. The resulting Euclidean distance of 1:75+/-1:02 mm, computed between the center points of recovered and corresponding reference OBBs, and Dice coefficient of 92:3+/-2:7%, computed between the resulting and corresponding reference segmentation binary masks, indicate that the proposed framework can successfully detect and segment vertebral bodies in CT images of the thoracolumbar spine.

  1. Molecular Body Imaging: MR Imaging, CT, and US. Part I. Principles

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Moritz F.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular imaging, generally defined as noninvasive imaging of cellular and subcellular events, has gained tremendous depth and breadth as a research and clinical discipline in recent years. The coalescence of major advances in engineering, molecular biology, chemistry, immunology, and genetics has fueled multi- and interdisciplinary innovations with the goal of driving clinical noninvasive imaging strategies that will ultimately allow disease identification, risk stratification, and monitoring of therapy effects with unparalleled sensitivity and specificity. Techniques that allow imaging of molecular and cellular events facilitate and go hand in hand with the development of molecular therapies, offering promise for successfully combining imaging with therapy. While traditionally nuclear medicine imaging techniques, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), PET combined with computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission computed tomography, have been the molecular imaging methods most familiar to clinicians, great advances have recently been made in developing imaging techniques that utilize magnetic resonance (MR), optical, CT, and ultrasonographic (US) imaging. In the first part of this review series, we present an overview of the principles of MR imaging-, CT-, and US-based molecular imaging strategies. © RSNA, 2012 PMID:22623690

  2. Improving uptake and engagement with child body image interventions delivered to mothers: Understanding mother and daughter preferences for intervention content.

    PubMed

    Garbett, Kirsty M; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2016-12-01

    Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study aimed to improve understanding of mothers' and daughters' preferences for content in body image interventions designed to assist mothers to promote positive body image among their daughters. British mother-daughter dyads (N=190) viewed descriptions of five evidence-based influences on body image (family, friends, and relationships; appearance-based teasing; media and celebrities; appearance conversations; body acceptance and care). Mothers and daughters each selected the two most important influences to learn about in these interventions. Overall, both mothers and daughters most frequently opted for family, friends, and relationships and body acceptance and care, whereas media and celebrities was their least preferred topic. While the overall sample of mothers and daughters agreed on preferences, Fisher's exact tests showed that within-dyad agreement was low. Recommendations for improving parent and child engagement with, and effectiveness of, child body image interventions delivered to parents are discussed.

  3. Changes in body image and dieting among 16-19-year-old Icelandic students from 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Ingolfsdottir, Gudrun; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Bjornsson, Andri Steinthor

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate trends in body image and dieting among 16-19-year-old students in Iceland from 2000 to 2010. Data from four cross-sectional surveys conducted among Icelandic students in 26 junior colleges using four time points were compared to examine changes in body image and dieting. In total, 33,801 students with the mean age of 17.3 years participated. Body image became significantly more positive over the 10-year period for both genders. At all time points, females reported more negative body image than males and a higher proportion of dieters were females than males. There was a decrease in the frequency of dieting among females over time but an increase among males, resulting in a narrower gender gap in dieting. Further examination of these trends in body image and dieting may reveal differences in causal mechanisms behind negative body image and dieting between the genders.

  4. Musculoskeletal pitfalls and pseudotumours in the pelvis: a pictorial review for body imagers

    PubMed Central

    Ghazizadeh, S; Didier, R; Fung, A; Panicek, D M; Coakley, F V

    2014-01-01

    Many musculoskeletal abnormalities in the pelvis are first seen by body imagers while reviewing pelvic cross-sectional studies, and some of these abnormalities may mimic malignancy or another aggressive process. This article describes nine musculoskeletal pseudotumours and interpretative pitfalls that may be seen on CT, MRI and ultrasound imaging of the pelvis. Awareness of these pitfalls and pseudotumours may help avoid misdiagnosis and prevent inappropriate intervention or management. PMID:25096891

  5. Body image and restrained eating in blind and sighted women: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga

    2010-03-01

    Sociocultural theory attributes the high levels of body image concerns and disordered eating in Western women to the promotion of an unrealistically thin body ideal. This study investigated body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and attitudes toward appearance in visually impaired and sighted women. There were 21 congenitally blind, 11 blinded later in life, and 60 sighted. Blind women were more satisfied with their body and dieted less than sighted women. Appearance attitudes, particularly thin-ideal internalization, accounted for differences in body dissatisfaction and dieting among the three groups of women. Possible explanations for our findings are considered, including the importance of visual exposure to the media's thin ideal, as well as the usefulness of future research on blind women.

  6. Media influences on body image and disordered eating among indigenous adolescent Australians.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males, 25 females) Australian adolescents (mean age 14.05, SD = 1.05). Consistent with past studies, girls were more likely to be dissatisfied with their weight and engage in strategies to lose weight. However, contrary to expectations, indigenous adolescents engaged in more strategies to lose weight, increase weight, and increase muscles than did non-indigenous adolescents, despite perceiving fewer media messages about losing weight. Additional factors that may explain the findings and the need for further research with different cultural groups are highlighted.

  7. Toward a Relational Understanding of Objectification, Body Image, and Preventive Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Ramseyer Winter, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    There is a wealth of empirical support for objectification theory. Researchers have suggested an extension to the theory that includes risky sexual behaviors as a consequence of body shame. However, there are no known studies that place the association between body image and sexual behavior in the context of the interpersonal sexual relationship. The current study was grounded in objectification theory and relational cultural theory and sought to better understand how negative self-objectification, body appreciation, relationship quality, and preventive sexual health behaviors are related. An online survey was conducted with 399 emerging adult women in the Midwest, and the proposed model was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results suggest that, among this sample, negative self-objectification was indirectly related to preventive sexual health behaviors through body appreciation alone and through both body appreciation and relationship quality. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  8. Body image and strategies to lose weight and increase muscle among boys and girls.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Ricciardelli, Lina A

    2003-01-01

    This study examined factors that influence body image and strategies to either lose weight or increase muscle among children. Participants were 237 boys and 270 girls. Body mass index (BMI), body dissatisfaction, cognitions and behaviors to both lose weight and increase muscles, as well as self-esteem and positive and negative affect, were evaluated. Self-esteem was associated with body satisfaction, positive affect predicted strategies to lose weight and increase muscles, and negative affect predicted body dissatisfaction and cognitions to lose weight and increase muscles. Boys were more likely to focus on changing muscles. Respondents with higher BMIs were more focused on losing weight butnot muscle. The discussion focuses on health risk behaviors related to eating and exercise among children.

  9. Advanced CUBIC protocols for whole-brain and whole-body clearing and imaging.

    PubMed

    Susaki, Etsuo A; Tainaka, Kazuki; Perrin, Dimitri; Yukinaga, Hiroko; Kuno, Akihiro; Ueda, Hiroki R

    2015-11-01

    Here we describe a protocol for advanced CUBIC (Clear, Unobstructed Brain/Body Imaging Cocktails and Computational analysis). The CUBIC protocol enables simple and efficient organ clearing, rapid imaging by light-sheet microscopy and quantitative imaging analysis of multiple samples. The organ or body is cleared by immersion for 1-14 d, with the exact time required dependent on the sample type and the experimental purposes. A single imaging set can be completed in 30-60 min. Image processing and analysis can take <1 d, but it is dependent on the number of samples in the data set. The CUBIC clearing protocol can process multiple samples simultaneously. We previously used CUBIC to image whole-brain neural activities at single-cell resolution using Arc-dVenus transgenic (Tg) mice. CUBIC informatics calculated the Venus signal subtraction, comparing different brains at a whole-organ scale. These protocols provide a platform for organism-level systems biology by comprehensively detecting cells in a whole organ or body.

  10. Systematic measurements of whole-body imaging dose distributions in image-guided radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Haelg, Roger A.; Besserer, Juergen; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The full benefit of the increased precision of contemporary treatment techniques can only be exploited if the accuracy of the patient positioning is guaranteed. Therefore, more and more imaging modalities are used in the process of the patient setup in clinical routine of radiation therapy. The improved accuracy in patient positioning, however, results in additional dose contributions to the integral patient dose. To quantify this, absorbed dose measurements from typical imaging procedures involved in an image-guided radiation therapy treatment were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom for a complete course of treatment. The experimental setup, including the measurement positions in the phantom, was exactly the same as in a preceding study of radiotherapy stray dose measurements. This allows a direct combination of imaging dose distributions with the therapy dose distribution. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from imaging devices used with treatment machines from the manufacturers Accuray, Elekta, Siemens, and Varian and from computed tomography scanners from GE Healthcare were determined and the resulting effective dose was calculated. The list of investigated imaging techniques consisted of cone beam computed tomography (kilo- and megavoltage), megavoltage fan beam computed tomography, kilo- and megavoltage planar imaging, planning computed tomography with and without gating methods and planar scout views. Results: A conventional 3D planning CT resulted in an effective dose additional to the treatment stray dose of less than 1 mSv outside of the treated volume, whereas a 4D planning CT resulted in a 10 times larger dose. For a daily setup of the patient with two planar kilovoltage images or with a fan beam CT at the TomoTherapy unit, an additional effective dose outside of the treated volume of less than 0.4 mSv and 1

  11. The role of the media in body image concerns among women: a meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies.

    PubMed

    Grabe, Shelly; Ward, L Monique; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2008-05-01

    Research suggests that exposure to mass media depicting the thin-ideal body may be linked to body image disturbance in women. This meta-analysis examined experimental and correlational studies testing the links between media exposure to women's body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, and eating behaviors and beliefs with a sample of 77 studies that yielded 141 effect sizes. The mean effect sizes were small to moderate (ds = -.28, -.39, and -.30, respectively). Effects for some outcome variables were moderated by publication year and study design. The findings support the notion that exposure to media images depicting the thin-ideal body is related to body image concerns for women.

  12. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  13. MONICA: a compact, portable dual gamma camera system for mouse whole-body imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Kakareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2010-04-01

    Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named "MONICA" for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed ?looking up? through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV?10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1 cm), 2.2 mm; sensitivity, 149 cps (counts per seconds)/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM, full width at half maximum), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2=0.99 for 0?185 MBq (0?5 mCi) in the field of view (FOV); spatial uniformity, <3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-min images acquired throughout the 168-h study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g., limited imaging space, portability and, potentially, cost are important.

  14. MONICA: A Compact, Portable Dual Gamma Camera System for Mouse Whole-Body Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Wenze; Seidel, Jurgen; Karkareka, John W.; Pohida, Thomas J.; Milenic, Diane E.; Proffitt, James; Majewski, Stan; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Green, Michael V.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction We describe a compact, portable dual-gamma camera system (named “MONICA” for MObile Nuclear Imaging CAmeras) for visualizing and analyzing the whole-body biodistribution of putative diagnostic and therapeutic single photon emitting radiotracers in animals the size of mice. Methods Two identical, miniature pixelated NaI(Tl) gamma cameras were fabricated and installed “looking up” through the tabletop of a compact portable cart. Mice are placed directly on the tabletop for imaging. Camera imaging performance was evaluated with phantoms and field performance was evaluated in a weeklong In-111 imaging study performed in a mouse tumor xenograft model. Results Tc-99m performance measurements, using a photopeak energy window of 140 keV ± 10%, yielded the following results: spatial resolution (FWHM at 1-cm), 2.2-mm; sensitivity, 149 cps/MBq (5.5 cps/μCi); energy resolution (FWHM), 10.8%; count rate linearity (count rate vs. activity), r2 = 0.99 for 0–185 MBq (0–5 mCi) in the field-of-view (FOV); spatial uniformity, < 3% count rate variation across the FOV. Tumor and whole-body distributions of the In-111 agent were well visualized in all animals in 5-minute images acquired throughout the 168-hour study period. Conclusion Performance measurements indicate that MONICA is well suited to whole-body single photon mouse imaging. The field study suggests that inter-device communications and user-oriented interfaces included in the MONICA design facilitate use of the system in practice. We believe that MONICA may be particularly useful early in the (cancer) drug development cycle where basic whole-body biodistribution data can direct future development of the agent under study and where logistical factors, e.g. limited imaging space, portability, and, potentially, cost are important. PMID:20346864

  15. The effect of music video clips on adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation.

    PubMed

    Mulgrew, Kate E; Volcevski-Kostas, Diana; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    There is limited research that has examined experimentally the effects of muscular images on adolescent boys' body image, with no research specifically examining the effects of music television. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of viewing muscular and attractive singers in music video clips on early, mid, and late adolescent boys' body image, mood, and schema activation. Participants were 180 boys in grade 7 (mean age = 12.73 years), grade 9 (mean age = 14.40 years) or grade 11 (mean age = 16.15 years) who completed pre- and post-test measures of mood and body satisfaction after viewing music videos containing male singers of muscular or average appearance. They also completed measures of schema activation and social comparison after viewing the clips. The results showed that the boys who viewed the muscular clips reported poorer upper body satisfaction, lower appearance satisfaction, lower happiness, and more depressive feelings compared to boys who viewed the clips depicting singers of average appearance. There was no evidence of increased appearance schema activation but the boys who viewed the muscular clips did report higher levels of social comparison to the singers. The results suggest that music video clips are a powerful form of media in conveying information about the male ideal body shape and that negative effects are found in boys as young as 12 years.

  16. Analysis of adipose tissue distribution using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, Diana; Schwarz, Tobias; Dinkel, Julien; Delorme, Stefan; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Heimann, Tobias

    2011-03-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem in the western world and triggers diseases like cancer, type two diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a clinically viable method to measure the amount and distribution of adipose tissue (AT) in the body. However, analysis of MRI images by manual segmentation is a tedious and time-consuming process. In this paper, we propose a semi-automatic method to quantify the amount of different AT types from whole-body MRI data with less user interaction. Initially, body fat is extracted by automatic thresholding. A statistical shape model of the abdomen is then used to differentiate between subcutaneous and visceral AT. Finally, fat in the bone marrow is removed using morphological operators. The proposed method was evaluated on 15 whole-body MRI images using manual segmentation as ground truth for adipose tissue. The resulting overlap for total AT was 93.7% +/- 5.5 with a volumetric difference of 7.3% +/- 6.4. Furthermore, we tested the robustness of the segmentation results with regard to the initial, interactively defined position of the shape model. In conclusion, the developed method proved suitable for the analysis of AT distribution from whole-body MRI data. For large studies, a fully automatic version of the segmentation procedure is expected in the near future.

  17. The Slender Imbalance: An Overview of Body Image Related Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Leslie

    The current emphasis on thinness has had a negative impact on many women and girls who suffer from a negative body image, poor self-concept, and depression, three conditions that often manifest themselves behaviorally through chronic dieting, compulsive exercise, and eating disorders. Socio-cultural factors that have contributed to this emphasis…

  18. Parental Bonds, Anxious Attachment, Media Internalization, and Body Image Dissatisfaction: Exploring a Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2009-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to investigate direct links between body image dissatisfaction (BID) in college women and their memories of either parent as cold and emotionally aloof. Theory, clinical case evidence, and a small (but growing) number of studies support these links. After estimating the strength of the associations between…

  19. [On hallucinations, bizarre sensations, phantom phenomena and body-image disturbances].

    PubMed

    Avi, Ohry

    2011-07-01

    Subjective descriptions of neuropsychological phenomena which reflect body-image disturbances, are well known to neurologists, psychiatrists, neuropsychologists and rehabilitation medicine physicians. These phenomena may accompany patients with mental illnesses, after brain injury or with various neuro-orthopedic disabilities. It is also well documented in people who are exposed to extreme isolation or harsh situations.

  20. A Therapeutic Program To Improve the Body Image of Pre-Puberty Exceptional Education Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Linda Jo

    This practicum designed and implemented a body image improvement program for seven severely emotionally disturbed latency-aged girls. Students participated once per week for 12 weeks in individual art therapy and in group sessions. The practicum incorporated therapeutic art activities with verbal interactions and utilized human growth films,…