Science.gov

Sample records for 3-year field experiment

  1. The nitrogen efficiency of MSW composts as measured by triticale uptake in a 3-year field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Jerzy; Licznar, Michal; Bekier, Jakub; Drozd, Jerzy; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Kocowicz, Andrzej; Parylak, Danuta; Kordas, Leszek; Licznar, Stanislawa

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents results of three year field experiment, where two different composts produced from municipal solid wastes were applied to sandy soil. The experiment was established on soil developed from loam sand, according to U.S.D.A. textural classes (81% of sand, 12% of silt, and 7% of clay), of a slightly acidic reaction (pH KCl 6.05 - 6.44). The plough layer (0 - 25 cm) contained about 5.0 g/kg of organic carbon. Both composts were alkaline in reaction and contained high amounts of plant available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Composts were used non-recurrently in rates of 18, 36, and 72 t/ha, calculated on dry matter basis. Control objects (0 and NPK) were plots without fertilization, as well as plots fertilized each year with mineral forms of NPK. Field experiment was conducted in 15 m2 plots, using five replications in a randomized block design. Spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) cultivated in a 3-year monoculture was used as the experiment plant. Soil samples were collected each year after harvesting. Changes in triticale yield were considered in relation to soil properties and nitrogen content in triticale straw and grain. Application of composts caused beneficial changes in soil fertility, connected mainly with an increase of soil organic matter and content of available forms of P, K, and Mg. These effects were observed throughout three years of the experiment. However, significantly higher values of organic carbon - as compared to control (0 and NPK) - were observed only in plots with medium and highest compost doses. This effect was very clear in the first year, while significant differences in soil carbon content were still observed in next two years. The yield of triticale straw and grain depended significantly on fertilization with composts, but beneficial effect of compost was observed only in the first year. Yield similar to NPK control was found only on plots where the highest dose of compost was applied. Next two

  2. A Field Training Model for Creative Arts Therapies: Report from a 3-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkibi, Hod

    2012-01-01

    Clinical field training is an essential component of educating future therapists. This article discusses a creative arts therapies field training model in Israel as designed and modified from 3 years of program evaluation in a changing regulatory context. A clinical seminar structure puts beginning students in the role of participant-observer in…

  3. Maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child weight status in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B; Rifas-Shiman, S L; James-Todd, T; Ertel, K; Krieger, N; Kleinman, K P; Rich-Edwards, J W; Gillman, M W; Taveras, E M

    2012-12-01

    Among US racial/ethnic minority women, we examined associations between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child growth in the first 3 years of life. We analyzed data from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. We restricted analyses to 539 mother-infant pairs; 294 were Black, 127 Hispanic, 110 Asian and 8 from additional racial/ethnic groups. During pregnancy, mothers completed the Experiences of Discrimination survey that measured lifetime experiences of racial discrimination in diverse domains. We categorized responses as 0, 1-2 or ≥3 domains. Main outcomes were birth weight for gestational age z-score; weight for age (WFA) z-score at 6 months of age; and at 3 years of age, body mass index (BMI) z-score. In multivariable analyses, we adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, nativity, education, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, household income and child sex and age. Among this cohort of mostly (58.2%) US-born and economically non-impoverished mothers, 33% reported 0 domains of discrimination, 33% reported discrimination in 1-2 domains and 35% reported discrimination in ≥3 domains. Compared with children whose mothers reported no discrimination, those whose mothers reported ≥3 domains had lower birth weight for gestational age z-score (β -0.25; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.04), lower 6 month WFA z-score (β -0.34; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.03) and lower 3-year BMI z-score (β -0.33; 95% CI: -0.66, 0.00). In conclusion, we found that among this cohort of US racial/ethnic minority women, mothers' report of experiencing lifetime discrimination in ⩾ 3 domains was associated with lower fetal growth, weight at 6 months and 3-year BMI among their offspring.

  4. Baldrige-based quality awards: Veterans Health Administration's 3-year experience.

    PubMed

    Shirks, Allan; Weeks, William B; Stein, Annie

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA's) 3-year experience with an internal, Baldrige-based quality award. The authors examined scores for Veterans Integrated Service Networks (VISNs), which received site visits, variation in year-to-year survey outcomes for repeat applicants, and variation in survey team reports for a VISN with multiple surveys. Individual VISNs that applied in multiple years had mixed results. Variation in feedback reports was not significant. Although some VISNs increased their scores over time, there was not measurable, systemwide improvement. Three years may be too short a time to significantly affect Baldrige scores in an organization as large as VHA.

  5. Modified Pfannenstiel approach for radical retropubic prostatectomy: a 3-year experience.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, M; Ayyathurai, R; Nieder, A M; Soloway, M S

    2008-01-01

    A modified Pfannenstiel approach for radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) has been described previously. We present our experience with this approach for performing a RRP over the past 3 years. Between January 2003 and July 2006, 544 consecutive RRPs by modified Pfannenstiel approach between January 2003 and July 2006 were performed. We analyzed blood loss, transfusions, use of drain, pain score, analgesia and hospital stay. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks, three monthly for a year and six monthly thereafter. All clinical and operative variables were entered into a database and analyzed. A total of 544 men underwent RRP with median follow-up of 11 (s.d.+/-10.5) months. The mean age was 60 (s.d.+/-7) years. About 83, 91 and 95% of patients had nerve sparing, bladder neck preservation and a lymph node dissection, respectively. Fifty-three patients had a concurrent inguinal hernia repair through the same incision. Mean estimated blood loss was 431 (s.d.+/-267) ml. The pathological staging distribution was T2, 82%; T3a, 9%; and T3b, 9%. The mean pain score at days 1 and 7 were 3.7 (s.d.+/-2.5) and 3.3 (s.d.+/-3), respectively. The median hospital stay was 36 h (s.d.+/-24). About 5.5% have had biochemical recurrence. At 12 months 97% were continent and 46% potent. RRP using a modified Pfannenstiel approach offers safety and efficacy. It facilitates repair of associated inguinal hernia through the same incision.

  6. Effect of a field program based on systematic plaque control on caries and gingivitis in schoolchildren after 3 years.

    PubMed

    Hamp, S E; Lindhe, J; Fornell, J; Johansson, L A; Karlsson, R

    1978-01-01

    The effect of a field program, based on systematic plaque control, on caries and gingivitis was tested during a 3-year period on 1,100 schoolchildren. Once every 3rd week the children were given oral hygiene instructions, professional toothcleaning and fluorides topically delivered by specially trained dental nurses. The children of a control group of approximately the same number of pupils, participated in a preventive program consisting of mouthrinsings once every 2nd week with a 0.2% sodium fluoride solution. The children of the third and fourth grades were, at the start of the experiment, selected as reference groups and then continuously examined once every year. At the end of the trial the mean reduction of surfaces haboring plaque and units with gingival inflammation was 59% and 73%, respectively. The reduction in caries increment was 51%.

  7. Rational action selection in 1½- to 3-year-olds following an extended training experience.

    PubMed

    Klossek, Ulrike M H; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1½ and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen to obtain video clips as outcomes. Subsequently, a visual habituation procedure was employed to devalue one of the training outcomes. As in previous studies, 2- and 3-year-olds chose actions associated with an expected valued outcome significantly more often during a subsequent choice test. Moreover, analysis of children's first responses in the post-devaluation test revealed evidence of rational action selection even in the youngest age group (18-23 months). Consistent with dual-process accounts of action control, the findings support the view that the ability to make rational action choices develops gradually.

  8. Stability of vaccinia-vectored recombinant oral rabies vaccine under field conditions: a 3-year study.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Joseph R; Fry, Alethea M; Siev, David; Slate, Dennis; Lewis, Charles; Gatewood, Donna M

    2011-10-01

    Rabies is an incurable zoonotic disease caused by rabies virus, a member of the rhabdovirus family. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal. Control methods, including oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs, have led to a reduction in the spread and prevalence of the disease in wildlife. This study evaluated the stability of RABORAL, a recombinant vaccinia virus vaccine that is used in oral rabies vaccination programs. The vaccine was studied in various field microenvironments in order to describe its viability and facilitate effective baiting strategies. Field microenvironments influenced the stability of this vaccine in this study. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding how vaccines perform under varying field conditions in order to plan effective baiting strategies.

  9. Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field variations with periods in the range of 10 days to 3 years

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, A.; Lepping, R.P.; King, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field data collected primarily by the IMP-8 spacecraft near Earth has been analyzed by a dynamic periodogram method in search of significant periodicities in the range of 10 days to 3 years. The method has the advantage of detecting variations with time in the periodicities besides determining the power and phase of the dominant variations. It has been found that the well known periodicities near 1 year and 27 days are strongly modulated by the solar cycle. Both of these periodicities are only detected during solar minimum. During solar maximum. a number of unusual variations are observed. Special emphasis will be placed on the recently reported 1.3 year variation in solar wind parameters besides periods in the interplanetary magnetic field near 51, 73 and 154 days. Correlations with solar wind plasma and solar index variations will also be presented.

  10. Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field variations with periods in the range of 10 days to 3 years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.; Lepping, R. P.; King, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field data collected primarily by the IMP-8 spacecraft near Earth has been analyzed by a dynamic periodogram method in search of significant periodicities in the range of 10 days to 3 years. The method has the advantage of detecting variations with time in the periodicities besides determining the power and phase of the dominant variations. It has been found that the well known periodicities near 1 year and 27 days are strongly modulated by the solar cycle. Both of these periodicities are only detected during solar minimum. During solar maximum. a number of unusual variations are observed. Special emphasis will be placed on the recently reported 1.3 year variation in solar wind parameters besides periods in the interplanetary magnetic field near 51, 73 and 154 days. Correlations with solar wind plasma and solar index variations will also be presented.

  11. [Vaccination against hepatitis B: 3 years' experience at the Latium Operative Unit].

    PubMed

    Perroni, L; Mattioli, R; Ensoli, G; Albertoni, F; Duchini, B; Ungaro, P; Corsi, T

    1989-01-01

    A campaign against hepatitis B was launched in 1985 in Latium Region, Italy, aimed at hospital workers, newborns of HBsAg positive mothers, hemodialysis patients, thalassemics and hemophiliacs. Subsequently, since the beginning of 1987 other at risk categories were included, namely households of HBsAg positive carriers, subjects with accidental exposure to Hepatitis B virus (HBV) (i.e exposure to street syringes), health care personnel working outside the hospital setting such as dentists, private clinics and laboratory workers, etc. A protocol was defined by the Regional Epidemiologic Unit (Osservatorio Epidemiologico Regionale) in order to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety af the two plasma-derived (pd) vaccines registered in Italy, MSD and Pasteur, in field conditions. Subjects belonging to these at risk categories were distributed among 21 hospital based vaccination units, to which the two vaccines were randomly allocated. Subjects were considered eligible for vaccination if they were HBsAg negative and Anti-HBs negative or Anti-HBs positive at low titer i.e. less than 20 milli-International units per milliliter. Subjects with insulin dependent diabetes, chronic liver disease or known hypersensitivity to vaccine components were also excluded. Antibody response was checked at six months since the beginning of the vaccination, i.e. after two doses of the MSD and three doses of Pasteur vaccine and expressed in miU/ml by use of Hollinger formula. Pre-vaccination screening, vaccination and post-vaccination anti-HBs testing were offered free of charge.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Natural experience modulates the processing of older adult faces in young adults and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Just like other face dimensions, age influences the way faces are processed by adults as well as by children. However, it remains unclear under what conditions exactly such influence occurs at both ages, in that there is some mixed evidence concerning the presence of a systematic processing advantage for peer faces (own-age bias) across the lifespan. Inconsistency in the results may stem from the fact that the individual's face representation adapts to represent the most predominant age traits of the faces present in the environment, which is reflective of the individual's specific living conditions and social experience. In the current study we investigated the processing of younger and older adult faces in two groups of adults (Experiment 1) and two groups of 3-year-old children (Experiment 2) who accumulated different amounts of experience with elderly people. Contact with elderly adults influenced the extent to which both adult and child participants showed greater discrimination abilities and stronger sensitivity to configural/featural cues in younger versus older adult faces, as measured by the size of the inversion effect. In children, the size of the inversion effect for older adult faces was also significantly correlated with the amount of contact with elderly people. These results show that, in both adults and children, visual experience with older adult faces can tune perceptual processing strategies to the point of abolishing the discrimination disadvantage that participants typically manifest for those faces in comparison to younger adult faces.

  13. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-09-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively.

  14. Automated peritoneal dialysis as the modality of choice: a single-center, 3-year experience with 458 children in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fabian Velasco, Rosaura; Lagunas Muñoz, Jesus; Sanchez Saavedra, Veronica; Mena Brito Trejo, Jorge E; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; García-López, Elvia; Divino Filho, Jose C

    2008-03-01

    Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) has been considered as the ideal dialysis modality for pediatric patients. This study reports the 3-year APD experience with 458 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) children who started APD in a single pediatric center in Mexico City between June 2003 and June 2006. By June 2003, there were 310 patients being treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). At that time, these patients were gradually switched to APD, with priority being given to those prescribed more than four exchanges per day, younger than 6 years of age, or presenting complications [hernias or decreased ultrafiltration (UF)]. An improvement of daily UF was observed when the patients were switched from CAPD (590 +/- 340 ml/day) to APD (846 +/- 335 ml/day). The presence of edema decreased (from 67% to 8%) as well as the percentage of patients requiring antihypertensive drugs (from 83% to 38%), the peritonitis rate improved from one episode every 35 patient/month to one episode every 47 patient/month, the total number of hospitalizations decreased (from 384 to 51), and 85% of children attended school. While waiting for renal transplant, APD is the dialysis modality of choice for ESRD children at the La Raza Medical Center in Mexico City.

  15. Rational Action Selection in 1 1/2- to 3-Year-Olds Following an Extended Training Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klossek, Ulrike M. H.; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1 1/2 and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen…

  16. Wake field acceleration experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics. I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Hospital Organization and Importance of an Interventional Radiology Inpatient Admitting Service: Italian Single-Center 3-Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Simonetti, Giovanni; Bollero, Enrico; Ciarrapico, Anna Micaela; Gandini, Roberto; Konda, Daniel Bartolucci, Alberto; Di Primio, Massimiliano; Mammucari, Matteo; Chiocchi, Marcello; D'Alba, Fabrizio; Masala, Salvatore

    2009-03-15

    In June 2005 a Complex Operating Unit of Interventional Radiology (COUIR), consisting of an outpatient visit service, an inpatient admitting service with four beds, and a day-hospital service with four beds was installed at our department. Between June 2005 and May 2008, 1772 and 861 well-screened elective patients were admitted to the inpatient ward of the COUIR and to the Internal Medicine Unit (IMU) or Surgery Unit (SU) of our hospital, respectively, and treated with IR procedures. For elective patients admitted to the COUIR's inpatient ward, hospital stays were significantly shorter and differences between reimbursements and costs were significantly higher for almost all IR procedures compared to those for patients admitted to the IMU and SU (Student's t-test for unpaired data, p < 0.05). The results of the 3-year activity show that the activation of a COUIR with an inpatient admitting service, and the better organization of the patient pathway that came with it, evidenced more efficient use of resources, with the possibility for the hospital to save money and obtain positive margins (differences between reimbursements and costs). During 3 years of activity, the inpatient admitting service of our COUIR yielded a positive difference between reimbursements and effective costs of Euro 1,009,095.35. The creation of an inpatient IR service and the admission of well-screened elective patients allowed short hospitalization times, reduction of waiting lists, and a positive economic outcome.

  18. No Own-Age Bias in 3-Year-Old Children: More Evidence for the Role of Early Experience in Building Face-Processing Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Pisacane, Antonella; Gava, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of an own-age bias in young children who accumulated different amounts of early experience with child faces. Discrimination abilities for upright and inverted adult and child faces were tested using a delayed two-alternative, forced-choice matching-to-sample task in two groups of 3-year-old children,…

  19. [Video-based teaching in pathology. Experience gained in the last 3 years at the RWTH Aachen University].

    PubMed

    Perez-Bouza, A; Merk, M; Rieck, I; Knuechel, R

    2011-05-01

    Modern computer technology provides students with easier access to learning materials. Basic knowledge of pathological findings in organs is essential in medical education. We have produced didactic videos for teaching pathology in a clinical context in addition to regular lectures at the university. Didactic material includes macroscopic and histological findings, as well as cartoons explaining pathophysiology and clinical links. Videos can be downloaded in mv4 format as podcasts to a local hard disk or to an iPhone or iPod via iTunes University and are designed to improve classical medical literature. Analysis over 3 years of server traffic and subjective impressions by the students revealed regular use and high acceptance by users. Didactic material in clinical pathology can be successfully integrated in videos to complement lectures and practical training. Modern teaching methods in pathology make the specialty more understandable and therefore more attractive for students.

  20. Experience and outcome of 3 years of a European EQA scheme for genetic testing of the spinocerebellar ataxias.

    PubMed

    Seneca, Sara; Morris, Michael A; Patton, Simon; Elles, Rob; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2008-08-01

    The European Molecular Genetics Quality Network (EMQN) has been organizing an external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for molecular genetic testing of trinucleotide repeat mutations in the spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) since 2004. DNA samples were validated by at least two independent labs and two different methods. Together with mock clinical case descriptions and requests for specific SCA gene analyses, these were sent to registered participants each year. Laboratories were asked to use their routine procedures and protocols. A panel of assessors reviewed the final returns, including genotype results and reports, to assess the quality of (1) genotyping and (2) interpretation and reporting. A description of methods and raw data were also requested and were very useful for the final analysis. Altogether, during 3 years, 239 reports were received from the laboratories. Overall genotype error rate ranged 1.1-5.2%, a significant cause of concern. Scores for interpretation and reporting also showed that there is still much room for progress, although performance has improved over this period of assessment. The consequences of suboptimal laboratory practices, genotyping errors and misdiagnosis and of incorrect or incomplete interpretation and reporting have wide implications for patient lives, as well as for health management and counselling of relatives. EQA schemes are an important part of quality assurance in molecular genetic laboratories, and their use should become a routine part of laboratory diagnostic practice. Current evidence shows also that it is important that laboratories participate on a yearly basis and that this becomes mandatory for reference laboratories.

  1. Does a risk questionnaire add anything to a colorectal screening project? Report of a 3-year screening experience.

    PubMed

    Niv, Y

    1992-07-01

    A questionnaire to detect persons at high risk for colorectal cancer was used in conjunction with fecal occult blood tests in a 3-year screening program in Northern Israel. Screening was offered to 2,590 persons over 40 years of age and accepted by 1,797 (compliance of 69.4%). In the subsequent 2 years, occult blood testing (Hemoccult II) was offered to those who had had negative tests (compliance rate of 99.6% and 100%). Six hundred and thirty persons (35.1%) had risk factors according to the questionnaire, and 195 of them underwent colonoscopy, with a predictive value of 15.9% for a neoplastic lesion. The Hemoccult II test was positive in 71 participants (4.0%) of whom 67 were investigated with a similar predictive value for neoplastic lesion (16.4%). In the second and third annual screening, the fecal occult blood test was positive in 29 (2.6%) and 27 (2.5%), and had a two and three times higher predictive value for neoplastic lesions, respectively. This was accompanied by a decrease in the cost of discovery. In all three stages, an adenomatous polyp was found in 48, and cancer in 10 participants (2.6% and 0.5% of the 1,797 original participants). Although a questionnaire may be fruitful in colorectal cancer screening, the higher number of participants subjected to further examinations makes this approach very expensive. The annual stool examination for occult blood has a higher predictive value for colonic neoplasm and a lower cost than a one stage, broader population based, study.

  2. Results from a 3-year deficit irrigation experiment with drip-irrigated maize to improve water productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, Sebastian; Schütze, Niels; Grundmann, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Water for irrigation farming is severely limited in arid and semi-arid regions, hence reliable and robust strategies are needed that allow to use the available resources efficiently. Controlled deficit irrigation (DI) is one strategy that can help to use water in an effective way while still ensuring considerable yields from harvest. It needs precise irrigation control however where sensors are used to determine when to irrigate. Therefore, thresholds that trigger irrigation need to be chosen carefully. An irrigation experiment with drip-irrigated maize was conducted in three consecutive years (2010-2012) where different controlled DI strategies were tested. The experiments took place in a greenhouse at TU München in Freising, Germany, and comprised treatments with constant and varying irrigation thresholds throughout the growing season, which were compared to fully irrigated reference treatments. Thresholds were determined in soil tension as it is closely related to the working principle behind plant transpiration and treatments evaluated with regard to their water productivity (WP - yield over applied irrigation water). The irrigation thresholds were determined prior to the experiment by a stochastic simulation-based framework that consisted of a weather generator, the crop growth model Daisy, and an optimization algorithm for finding optimal thresholds under limiting water supply. Achieved results show similar or better WP compared to the reference and generally high WP compared to values from literature which suggests this methodology is a promising approach to improve WP.

  3. A 3-year experience with necrotizing fasciitis: favorable outcomes despite operative delays in a busy acute care hospital.

    PubMed

    Pakula, Andrea M; Kapadia, Ravi; Freeman, Brandon; Skinner, Ruby A

    2012-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare severe soft tissue infection that has historically been associated with high mortality. We sought to evaluate our experience with necrotizing fasciitis focusing on outcomes based on timing of operative intervention. Our study hypothesis was that delays in surgical management would negatively impact outcomes. Fifty-four patients were identified for a retrospective chart review from January 2008 to January 2011. Data analysis included demographics, admission laboratory values, imaging results, examination findings, timing and nature of operations, length of stay (LOS), and outcomes. Surgical intervention in 12 hours or more was considered a delay in care. Our study cohort was high risk based on a high prevalence of intravenous drug abuse, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and end-stage liver disease. The average time to surgical intervention was 18±25 hours and the overall mortality rate was 16 per cent. A delay to surgery did not impact mortality or the number of débridements and LOS. Mortality was high, 45 per cent, in patients requiring amputation. We observed a high-risk population managed with aggressive surgical care for necrotizing fasciitis. Our mortality was low compared with historical data and surgical delays did not impact outcomes. Those patients requiring amputation had worse outcomes.

  4. Lasting Effects of Workplace Strength Training for Neck/Shoulder/Arm Pain among Laboratory Technicians: Natural Experiment with 3-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Anders I.; Zebis, Mette K.; Pedersen, Mogens T.; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated long-term effects and implementation processes of workplace strength training for musculoskeletal disorders. Methods. 333 and 140 laboratory technicians from private and public sector companies, respectively, replied to a 3-year follow-up questionnaire subsequent to a 1-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) with high-intensity strength training for prevention and treatment of neck, shoulder, and arm pain. Being a natural experiment, the two participating companies implemented and modified the initial training program in different ways during the subsequent 2 years after the RCT. Results. At 3-year follow-up the pain reduction in neck, shoulder, elbow, and wrist achieved during the first year was largely maintained at both companies. However, the private sector company was rated significantly better than the public sector company in (1) training adherence, (2) training culture, that is, relatively more employees trained at the workplace and with colleagues, (3) self-reported health changes, and (4) prevention of neck and wrist pain development among initially pain-free employees. Conclusions. This natural experiment shows that strength training can be implemented successfully at different companies during working hours on a long-term basis with lasting effects on pain in neck, shoulder, and arm. PMID:24734247

  5. User-Centered Design of Serious Games for Older Adults Following 3 Years of Experience With Exergames for Seniors: A Study Design

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Seniors need sufficient balance and strength to manage in daily life, and sufficient physical activity is required to achieve and maintain these abilities. This can be a challenge, but fun and motivational exergames can be of help. However, most commercial games are not suited for this age group for several reasons. Many usability studies and user-centered design (UCD) protocols have been developed and applied, but to the best of our knowledge none of them are focusing on seniors’ use of games for physical activity. In GameUp, a European cofunded project, some prototype Kinect exergames to enhance the mobility of seniors were developed in a user-centered approach. Objective In this paper we aim to record lessons learned in 3 years of experience with exergames for seniors, considering both the needs of older adults regarding user-centered development of exergames and participation in UCD. We also provide a UCD protocol for exergames tailored to senior needs. Methods An initial UCD protocol was formed based on literature of previous research outcomes. Senior users participated in UCD following the initial protocol. The users formed a steady group that met every second week for 3 years to play exergames and participate in the UCD during the 4 phases of the protocol. Several methods were applied in the 4 different phases of the UCD protocol; the most important methods were structured and semistructured interviews, observations, and group discussions. Results A total of 16 seniors with an average age above 80 years participated for 3 years in UCD in order to develop the GameUp exergames. As a result of the lessons learned by applying the different methodologies of the UCD protocol, we propose an adjusted UCD protocol providing explanations on how it should be applied for seniors as users. Questionnaires should be turned into semistructured and structured interviews while user consultation sessions should be repeated with the same theme to ensure that the

  6. Mojave remote sensing field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Petroy, S. B.; Plaut, J. J.; Shepard, Michael K.; Evans, D.; Farr, T.; Greeley, Ronald; Gaddis, L.; Lancaster, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Mojave Remote Sensing Field Experiment (MFE), conducted in June 1988, involved acquisition of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS); C, L, and P-band polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data; and simultaneous field observations at the Pisgah and Cima volcanic fields, and Lavic and Silver Lake Playas, Mojave Desert, California. A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scene is also included in the MFE archive. TM-based reflectance and TIMS-based emissivity surface spectra were extracted for selected surfaces. Radiative transfer procedures were used to model the atmosphere and surface simultaneously, with the constraint that the spectra must be consistent with field-based spectral observations. AIRSAR data were calibrated to backscatter cross sections using corner reflectors deployed at target sites. Analyses of MFE data focus on extraction of reflectance, emissivity, and cross section for lava flows of various ages and degradation states. Results have relevance for the evolution of volcanic plains on Venus and Mars.

  7. Nuclide-migration field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Erdal, B.R.; Wolfsberg, K.; Johnstone, J.K.; Erickson, K.L.; Friedman, A.M.; Fried, S.; Hines, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    When considering groundwater flow and radionuclide retention in the complex flow systems that can occur in geologic formations, one has a serious problem in determining if laboratory studies are being performed under conditions appropriate to natural systems. This document is the project plan for a program designed to begin to address these problems. The project is being carried out jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, and Argonne National Laboratory. The work has three principal objectives: (1) to develop the experimental, instrumental, and safety techniques necessary to conduct controlled, small-scale radionuclide migration field experiments, including those involving actinides; (2) to use these techniques to define radionuclide migration through rock by performing generic, at-depth experiments under closely monitored conditions; and (3) to determine whether available lithologic, geochemical, and hydrologic properties together with existing or developing transport models are sufficient and appropriate to describe real field conditions.

  8. Early Soil Moisture Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmugge, T.

    2008-12-01

    Before the large scale field experiments described in the call for papers, there were a number of experiments devoted to a single parameter, e.g. soil moisture. In the early 1970's, before the launch of the first microwave radiometer by NASA, there were a number of aircraft experiments to determine utility of these sensors for land observations. For soil moisture, these experiments were conducted in southwestern United States over irrigated agricultural areas which could provide a wide range of moisture conditions on a given day. The radiometers covered the wavelength range from 0.8 to 21 cm. These experiments demonstrated that it is possible to observe soil moisture variations remotely using a microwave radiometer with a sensitivity of about 3 K / unit of soil moisture. The results also showed that the longer wavelengths were better, with a radiometer at the 21 cm wavelength giving the best results. These positive results led to the development of Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) and the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instruments at the 21-cm wavelength. They have been used extensively in the large-scale experiments such as HAPEX-MOBILHY, FIFE, Monsoon90, SMEX, etc. The multi-beam nature of these instruments makes it possible to obtain more extensive coverage and thus to map spatial variations of surface soil moisture. Examples of the early results along with the more recent soil moisture maps will be presented.

  9. Have Preferences of Girls Changed Almost 3 Years after the Much Debated Start of the HPV Vaccination Program in the Netherlands? A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Robine; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W.; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; de Koning, Harry J.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Korfage, Ida J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess how girls' preferences have changed almost 3 years after the much debated start of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program. Methods A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted among girls aged 11–15 years who were invited, or were not yet invited, to get vaccinated. A panel latent class model was used to determine girls' preferences for vaccination based on five characteristics: degree of protection against cervical cancer; duration of protection; risk of mild side-effects; age of vaccination; and the number of required doses of the vaccine. Results The response rate was 85% (500/592). Most girls preferred vaccination at age 14 years (instead of at age 9 years) and a 2-dose scheme (instead of the current 3-dose scheme). Girls were willing to trade-off 7% (CI: 3.2% to 10.8%) of the degree of protection to have 10% less risk of mild side-effects, and 4% (CI: 1.2% to 5.9%) to receive 2 doses instead of 3 doses. Latent class analyses showed that there was preference heterogeneity among girls, i.e., higher educated girls and HPV vaccinated girls had a higher probability to opt for HPV vaccination at a higher age than lower educated girls or non-vaccinated girls. Conclusions Three years after the start of HPV vaccination program the risk of mild side-effects and age at vaccination seem to have become less important. For the Dutch national immunization program, we recommend not to lower the current target age of 12 years. A 2-dose scheme may result in a higher uptake and we recommend that if this scheme is introduced, it needs to receive adequate publicity. PMID:25136919

  10. Developmental milestones record - 3 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Well child - 3 years ... activities related to your child's interests. Encourage your child to use words to express feelings (rather than acting out).

  11. Mini-percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Under Total Ultrasonography in Patients Aged Less Than 3 Years: A Single-center Initial Experience from China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Wei-Guo; Chen, Song; Li, Yu-Hong; Tang, Yu-Zhe; Liu, Yu-Bao; Li, Jian-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Urolithiasis in pediatric population is a serious problem with the incidence increased these years. In the management of larger stones (diameters >2 cm), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is considered to be the gold standard. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of mini-PCNL under total ultrasonography in patients aged <3 years. Methods: We reviewed 68 patients (80 renal units) aged <3 years between August 2006 and December 2014 in Peking University People's Hospital and Beijing Tsinghua Changung Hospital, including 36 renal units with a single stone, 6 with staghorn stones, 14 with upper ureteral stones, and 24 with multiple stones. The mean age of the patients was 24.2 months (range 6–36 months), and the mean maximum stone diameter was 19.2 mm (range 10–35 mm). The puncture site selection and tract dilation were guided by Doppler ultrasonography solely. All procedures were performed using 12–16 Fr tracts. Stones were fragmented using pneumatic lithotripsy and a holmium laser with an 8/9.8 Fr rigid ureteroscope. Results: Fifty-six patients with unilateral stones underwent a single session procedure, and 12 patients with bilateral stones underwent two procedures. The mean time to establish access was 2.8 min (range 1.8–5.0 min), the mean operative time was 36.5 min (range 20–88 min), the mean decrease in hemoglobin concentration was 8.9 g/L (2–15 g/L), and the stone-free rate (SFR) at hospital discharge was 94.0%. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 7.1 days (range 3–13 days). Postprocedure complications included fever (>38.5°C) in five patients and reactive pleural effusion in one patient. Blood loss requiring transfusion, sepsis, adjacent organ injury, and kidney loss were not observed. Conclusions: This study indicated that ultrasound-guided mini-PCNL is feasible and safe in patients aged <3 years, without major complications or radiation exposure. PMID:26063360

  12. Effects of elevated CO2 on grain yield and quality of wheat: results from a 3-year free-air CO2 enrichment experiment.

    PubMed

    Högy, P; Wieser, H; Köhler, P; Schwadorf, K; Breuer, J; Franzaring, J; Muntifering, R; Fangmeier, A

    2009-11-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. TRISO) was grown for three consecutive seasons in a free-air carbon dioxide (CO(2)) enrichment (FACE) field experiment in order to examine the effects on crop yield and grain quality. CO(2) enrichment promoted aboveground biomass (+11.8%) and grain yield (+10.4%). However, adverse effects were predominantly observed on wholegrain quality characteristics. Although the thousand-grain weight remained unchanged, size distribution was significantly shifted towards smaller grains, which may directly relate to lower market value. Total grain protein concentration decreased significantly by 7.4% under elevated CO(2), and protein and amino acid composition were altered. Corresponding to the decline in grain protein concentration, CO(2) enrichment resulted in an overall decrease in amino acid concentrations, with greater reductions in non-essential than essential amino acids. Minerals such as potassium, molybdenum and lead increased, while manganese, iron, cadmium and silicon decreased, suggesting that adjustments of agricultural practices may be required to retain current grain quality standards. The concentration of fructose and fructan, as well as amounts per area of total and individual non-structural carbohydrates, except for starch, significantly increased in the grain. The same holds true for the amount of lipids. With regard to mixing and rheological properties of the flour, a significant increase in gluten resistance under elevated CO(2) was observed. CO(2) enrichment obviously affected grain quality characteristics that are important for consumer nutrition and health, and for industrial processing and marketing, which have to date received little attention.

  13. Language and cognitive outcome for high-risk neonates at the age of 2-3 years - experience from an Arab Country

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Baz, Hemmat; ElShabrawi, Doaa

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of different neonatal risk factors on different language parameters as well as cognitive abilities among Arabic speaking Egyptian children at the age of two to three years of life and to find out which risk factor(s) had the greatest impact on language and cognitive abilities. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 103 children with age range of 2-3 years (median age 31 mo). They were 62 males and 41 females who were exposed to different high-risk factors in the perinatal period, with exclusion of metabolic disorders, sepsis/meningitis, congenital anomalies and chromosomal aberrations. The studied children were subjected to a protocol of language assessment that included history taking, clinical and neurological examination, audiological evaluation, assessment of language using modified preschool language scale-4, IQ and mental age assessment and assessment of social age. RESULTS The studied children had a median gestational age of 37 wk, median birth weight of 2.5 kg. The distribution of the high-risk factors in the affected children were prematurity in 25 children, respiratory distress syndrome in 25 children, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in 15 children, hyperbilirubinemia in 10 children, hypoglycemia in 13 children, mixed risk factors in 15 children. The results revealed that high-risk neonatal complications were associated with impairment of different language parameters and cognitive abilities (P < 0.05). The presence of prematurity, in relation to other risk factors, increases the risk of language and cognitive delay significantly by 3.9 fold. CONCLUSION Arabic-speaking children aged 2-3 years who were exposed to high-risk conditions in the perinatal period are likely to exhibit delays in the development of language and impairments in cognitive abilities. The most significant risk factor associated with language and cognitive impairments was prematurity. PMID:28224092

  14. The 3-year follow-up study in a block of flats - experiences in the use of the Finnish indoor climate classification.

    PubMed

    Tuomainen, M; Tuomainen, A; Liesivuori, J; Pasanen, A-L

    2003-06-01

    Indoor climate of two new blocks of flats was investigated. The case building was built for people with respiratory diseases by following the instructions of the Finnish Classification of Indoor Climate, Construction and Finishing Materials, while the control building was built using conventional building technology. The main indoor air parameters (temperature, relative humidity and levels of CO, CO2, ammonia, total volatile organic compounds, total suspended particles, fungal spores, bacteria and cat, dog and house dust mite allergens) were measured in six apartments of both the buildings on five occasions during the 3-year occupancy. In addition, a questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of the occupants and their satisfaction with their home environment was conducted in connection with indoor air quality (IAQ) measurements. The levels of indoor air pollutants in the case building were, in general, lower than those in the control building. In addition, the asthmatic occupants informed that their symptoms had decreased during the occupancy in the case building. This case study showed that high IAQ is possible to reach by careful design, proper materials and equipment and on high-quality construction with reasonable additional costs. In addition, the study indicated that good IAQ can also be maintained during the occupancy, if sufficient information on factors affecting IAQ and guidance on proper use and care of equipment are available for occupants.

  15. Weathering steel as a potential source for metal contamination: Metal dissolution during 3-year of field exposure in a urban coastal site.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Simona; Vassura, Ivano; Chiavari, Cristina; Martini, Carla; Bignozzi, Maria C; Passarini, Fabrizio; Bernardi, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Surface and building runoff can significantly contribute to the total metal loading in urban runoff waters, with potential adverse effects on the receiving ecosystems. The present paper analyses the corrosion-induced metal dissolution (Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu) from weathering steel (Cor-Ten A) with or without artificial patinas, exposed for 3 years in unsheltered conditions at a marine urban site (Rimini, Italy). The influence of environmental parameters, atmospheric pollutants and surface finish on the release of dissolved metals in rain was evaluated, also by means of multivariate analysis (two-way and three-way Principal Component Analysis). In addition, surface and cross-section investigations were performed so as to monitor the patina evolution. The contribution provided by weathering steel runoff to the dissolved Fe, Mn and Ni loading at local level is not negligible and pre-patination treatments seem to worsen the performance of weathering steel in term of metal release. Metal dissolution is strongly affected by extreme events and shows seasonal variations, with different influence of seasonal parameters on the behaviour of bare or artificially patinated steel, suggesting that climate changes could significantly influence metal release from this alloy. Therefore, it is essential to perform a long-term monitoring of the performance, the durability and the environmental impact of weathering steel.

  16. Science Experiments, Field and Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davido, Frank, Comp.

    Included is a compilation of 21 simple experiments for use by elementary teachers and aides. The experiments are grouped into these categories: plants, insects, and senses. The materials required are not specialized and would generally be available in the classroom or from a local store. A number of films are recommended and are available from the…

  17. Your Child's Development: 3 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3 Years KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3 Years A A A Kids this age ... but certain signs could indicate a delay in development. Talk to your doctor if your child: doesn't speak, or can't speak in ...

  18. Your Child's Development: 3 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3 Years KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3 Years Print A A A en español ... but certain signs could indicate a delay in development. Talk to your doctor if your child: doesn't speak, or can't speak in ...

  19. A 3-year field evaluation of pasture rotation and supplementary feeding to control parasite infection in first-season grazing cattle--effects on animal performance.

    PubMed

    Larsson, A; Dimander, S-O; Rydzik, A; Uggla, A; Waller, P J; Höglund, J

    2006-12-20

    To evaluate non-chemical strategies to control pasture-borne parasites in first-season grazing (FSG) cattle, a 3-year grazing trial was conducted during 2002-2004 on naturally infected pastures on a commercial beef cattle farm in Sweden. A uniform pasture was divided in 4 equal 2 ha paddocks onto each of which 10, 5-9 months old dairy breed steer calves were allocated at turn-out in May each year. Two strategies were evaluated: (1) turn-out onto pasture which had been grazed the previous year by second-season grazing (SSG) steers, followed by a move to aftermath in mid-July (RT) and (2) supplementation with concentrate and roughage for 4 weeks from turn-out (FD). Comparisons were made with an untreated (UT), and an anthelmintic treated control group (DO). Animal parasitology and performance were monitored monthly throughout the 20 weeks grazing period. Additional sampling occasions were performed on day 9 (for coccidia) and 10 weeks after turn-out (mid-July). Due to clinical parasitic gastro-enteritis (PGE), salvage treatments were performed on all animals in group FD approximately 7 weeks after turn-out in 2003 and of three animals in group UT 5 weeks after turn-out in 2004. In 2003, the geometric mean oocyst excretion 9 days after turn-out was approximately 150,000 opg of mainly Eimeria alabamensis in group FD, and in 2004 approximately 180,000 opg in group UT. Apart from the DO group, geometric mean faecal egg counts (FEC) were between 80 and 400 epg 4 weeks after turn-out. Mean serum pepsinogen concentrations (SPC) of approximately 3.6 U tyrosine were recorded in the FD and UT groups from late August 2002. In 2003 and 2004, mean concentrations in these groups were between 4.1 and 7.2 U tyrosine 8 weeks after turn-out. By the end of the three grazing seasons the average weight gain difference compared to the DO group was for FD -29, -38 and -5 kg and for RT -4, -21 and +14 kg, and compared to the UT group -18, +2 and +22 for FD and +7, +19 and +41 kg for group

  20. Field Experiments in Litter Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnie, William C.

    1973-01-01

    A series of urban and highway litter experiments in Richmond (Virginia), St. Louis, and Philadelphia indicated well-designed litter cans reduced littering about 15 percent along city streets and nearly 30 percent along highways. Also, the propensity to litter is critically affected by the characteristics of the individual and environmental…

  1. Family Oriented Field Experience in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Karen A.

    A family-oriented geography field course about the southwestern United States was conducted in 1978 by a community college in Michigan (Delta College). Course activities took place in Colorado. The major purpose of the field experience was to offer learning experiences to family groups rather than to individual students. For purposes of the field…

  2. A 3-year study reveals that plant growth stage, season and field site affect soil fungal communities while cultivar and GM-trait have minor effects.

    PubMed

    Hannula, Silja Emilia; de Boer, Wietse; van Veen, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In this three year field study the impact of different potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars including a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato line on rhizosphere fungal communities are investigated using molecular microbiological methods. The effects of growth stage of a plant, soil type and year on the rhizosphere fungi were included in this study. To compare the effects, one GM cultivar, the parental isoline, and four non-related cultivars were planted in the fields and analysed using T-RFLP on the basis of fungal phylum specific primers combined with multivariate statistical methods. Additionally, fungal biomass and some extracellular fungal enzymes (laccases, Mn-peroxidases and cellulases) were quantified in order to gain insight into the function of the fungal communities. Plant growth stage and year (and agricultural management) had the strongest effect on both diversity and function of the fungal communities while the GM-trait studied was the least explanatory factor. The impact of cultivar and soil type was intermediate. Occasional differences between cultivars, the amylopectin-accumulating potato line, and its parental variety were detected, but these differences were mostly transient in nature and detected either only in one soil, one growth stage or one year.

  3. A 3-Year Study Reveals That Plant Growth Stage, Season and Field Site Affect Soil Fungal Communities while Cultivar and GM-Trait Have Minor Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hannula, Silja Emilia; de Boer, Wietse; van Veen, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    In this three year field study the impact of different potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars including a genetically modified (GM) amylopectin-accumulating potato line on rhizosphere fungal communities are investigated using molecular microbiological methods. The effects of growth stage of a plant, soil type and year on the rhizosphere fungi were included in this study. To compare the effects, one GM cultivar, the parental isoline, and four non-related cultivars were planted in the fields and analysed using T-RFLP on the basis of fungal phylum specific primers combined with multivariate statistical methods. Additionally, fungal biomass and some extracellular fungal enzymes (laccases, Mn-peroxidases and cellulases) were quantified in order to gain insight into the function of the fungal communities. Plant growth stage and year (and agricultural management) had the strongest effect on both diversity and function of the fungal communities while the GM-trait studied was the least explanatory factor. The impact of cultivar and soil type was intermediate. Occasional differences between cultivars, the amylopectin-accumulating potato line, and its parental variety were detected, but these differences were mostly transient in nature and detected either only in one soil, one growth stage or one year. PMID:22529898

  4. Field experiences with intelligent pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.N.; Duvivier, J.P.; Lefevre, D.E.; Robb, G.A.

    1996-08-01

    Oil and gas production operations use intelligent pigs for corrosion inspection of gathering systems and pipelines worldwide. The authors have been involved with intelligent pig inspections which have been conducted on over 155 different pipelines owned by one international corporation. A variety of intelligent pig vendors have been used with tools ranging from standard first generation magnetic flux leakage (MFL) to high-resolution MFL to standard and custom made ultrasonic (UT) tools. Experiences encountered during these inspections are discussed and resolutions to many of the problems are described.

  5. Experiences with the Streptococcus Mutans in Lakota Sioux (SMILeS) Study: Risk factors for Caries in American Indian Children 0–3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Drake, David; Dawson, Deborah; Kramer, Katherine; Schumacher, Amy; Warren, John; Marshall, Teresa; Starr, Delores; Phipps, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is a terribly aggressive and devastating disease that is all too common in lower socio-economic children, but none more so that what is encountered in American Indian Tribes. Nationwide, approximately 27% of 2–5 year olds have decay while 62% percent of American Indian/Alaska Native children in the same age group have a history of decay (IHS 2010, NHANES 1999–2002). We have conducted a study of children from birth to 36 months of age on Pine Reservation to gain a better understanding of the variables that come into play in the development of this disease, from transmission and acquisition of Streptococcus mutans genotypes from mother to child to multiple dietary and behavioral components. This article describes how we established a direct partnership with the Tribe and the many opportunities and challenges we faced in performing this 5-year field study. PMID:27668133

  6. From theory to field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, Bram

    2016-04-01

    Peter Raats' achievements in Haren (NL) 1986-1997 were based on a solid theoretical insight in hydrology and transport process in soil. However, Peter was also the driving force behind many experimental studies and applied research. This will be illustrated by a broad range of examples ranging from the dynamics of composting processes of organic material; modelling and monitoring nutrient leaching at field-scale; wind erosion; water and nutrient dynamics in horticultural production systems; oxygen diffusion in soils; and processes of water and nutrient uptake by plant roots. Peter's leadership led to may new approaches and the introduction of innovative measurement techniques in Dutch research; ranging from TDR to nutrient concentration measurements in closed fertigation systems. This presentation will give a brief overview how Peter's theoretical and mathematical insights accelerated this applied research.

  7. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one’s trustworthiness as a service user. PMID:27043712

  8. Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and…

  9. Overview of Field Experience - Degradation Rates & Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2015-09-14

    The way a PV module fails may depend not only on its design and the materials used in its construction, but also on the weather it experiences, the way it is mounted, and the quality control during its manufacture. This presentation gives an overview of Field Experience - what degradation rates and what lifetimes are being observed in various regions.

  10. Teaching Representation Translations with Magnetic Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillotson, Wilson Andrew; McCaskey, Timothy; Nasser, Luis

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory exercise designed to help students translate between different field representations. It starts with students qualitatively mapping field lines for various bar magnet configurations and continues with a Hall probe experiment in which students execute a series of scaffolded tasks, culminating in the prediction and measurement of the spatial variation of magnetic field components along a line near magnets. We describe the experimental tasks, various difficulties students have throughout, and ways this lab makes even their incorrect predictions better. We suggest that developing lab activities of this nature brings a new dimension to the ways students learn and interact with field concepts.

  11. Random Assignment: Practical Considerations from Field Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunford, Franklyn W.

    1990-01-01

    Seven qualitative issues associated with randomization that have the potential to weaken or destroy otherwise sound experimental designs are reviewed and illustrated via actual field experiments. Issue areas include ethics and legality, liability risks, manipulation of randomized outcomes, hidden bias, design intrusiveness, case flow, and…

  12. Teacher Knowledge Development in Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Casey; Jenkins, Jayne M.; Lux, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of physical education preservice teacher knowledge development has been primarily limited to study of a single semester of early field experience (EFE), with findings from these investigations driving EFE design. The purpose of this research was to investigate what types of knowledge develop and how knowledge evolves and interacts to…

  13. Magnetic field homogeneity for neutron EDM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Melissa

    2016-09-01

    The neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) is an observable which, if non-zero, would violate time-reversal symmetry, and thereby charge-parity symmetry of nature. New sources of CP violation beyond those found in the standard model of particle physics are already tightly constrained by nEDM measurements. Our future nEDM experiment seeks to improve the precision on the nEDM by a factor of 30, using a new ultracold neutron (UCN) source that is being constructed at TRIUMF. Systematic errors in the nEDM experiment are driven by magnetic field inhomogeneity and instability. The goal field inhomogeneity averaged over the experimental measurement cell (order of 1 m) is 1 nT/m, at a total magnetic field of 1 microTesla. This equates to roughly 10-3 homogeneity. A particularly challenging aspect of the design problem is that nearby magnetic materials will also affect the magnetic inhomogeneity, and this must be taken into account in completing the design. This poster will present the design methodology and status of the main coil for the experiment where we use FEA software (COMSOL) to simulate and analyze the magnetic field. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council.

  14. Utilizing Urban Environments for Effective Field Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Knee, K.

    2014-12-01

    Research surveys suggest that students are demanding more applied field experiences from their undergraduate environmental science programs. For geoscience educators at liberal arts colleges without field camps, university vehicles, or even geology departments, getting students into the field is especially rewarding - and especially challenging. Here, we present strategies that we have used in courses ranging from introductory environmental science for non-majors, to upper level environmental methods and geology classes. Urban locations provide an opportunity for a different type of local "field-work" than would otherwise be available. In the upper-level undergraduate Environmental Methods class, we relied on a National Park area located a 10-minute walk from campus for most field exercises. Activities included soil analysis, measuring stream flow and water quality parameters, dendrochronology, and aquatic microbe metabolism. In the non-majors class, we make use of our urban location to contrast water quality in parks and highly channelized urban streams. Here we share detailed lesson plans and budgets for field activities that can be completed during a class period of 2.5 hours with a $75 course fee, show how these activities help students gain quantitative competency, and provide student feedback about the classes and activities.

  15. IMP 8. Volume 1: EM field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The electromagnetic fields experiment on IMP-J used two electric dipole antennas and a triaxial search coil magnetic antenna to sense the electric and magnetic field of plasma waves in space. The electric dipole antennas consisted of a fine wire, 0.021 inches in diameter, with a nominal extended tip-to-tip length of 400 ft. The outermost 50 ft. of each element was conducting and the rest of the antenna was covered with an insulating coating. The search coil antennas each consisted of a high mu core with two separate windings of 40,000 turns each to sense ac magnetic fields. The search coils had a length of 18 inches tip-to-tip and are mounted on the end of a boom. The axes of the x prime and y prime search coil antennas were parallel to the x prime and y prime electric antenna axes.

  16. The FIELDS experiment for Solar Probe Plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bale, S.; Spp/Fields Team

    2010-12-01

    Many of our basic ideas on the plasma physics of acceleration, energy flow, and dissipation, and structure of the solar wind have never been rigorously confronted by direct experimental measurements in the region where these processes are actually occurring. Although Alfven waves, shocks, and magnetic reconnection are often invoked as heating mechanisms, there have never been any direct measurements of Alfvenic waves nor the associated Poynting flux nor any measurements of ion or electron kinetic energy flux in the region from 10 R_s to 30 R_s where the final stages of wind acceleration are believed to occur. The radial profiles of both slow and fast solar wind acceleration are based on remote-sensing measurements and have been obtained for only a few selected events. Thus, the spatial radial and perpendicular scales of the acceleration process have been averaged by line-of-sight effects and the possibility of intense localized acceleration cannot be ruled out. The Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission calls for the high quality fields and particles measurements required to solve the coronal heating and wind acceleration problem. The SPP 'FIELDS' experiment measures the electric and magnetic fields fundamental to the plasma physics of the structured and turbulent solar wind, flux ropes, collisionless shocks, and magnetic reconnection. FIELDS will make the first-ever measurements of the DC/Low-Frequency electric field inside of 1 AU allowing for in situ, high cadence measurements of the Poynting vector, the Elsasser variables, and E/B diagnostics of the wave spectrum to fce in the solar wind. SPP/FIELDS measures the radio wave (type III and II) signatures of microflares, energized electrons, and CME propagation. SPP/ FIELDS measures the plasma electron density to ~2% accuracy and the core electron temperature to ~5-10% accuracy more than 90% of the time at perihelion. FIELDS will also measure the in situ density fluctuation spectrum and structures at a very high cadence (

  17. AID awards 3-year Guatemala contract.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has awarded a 3-year US$593,036 grant to the Los Angeles firm of Juarez and Associates, Inc. to help implement a contraceptive social marketing project in Guatemala. The firm will provide marketing assistance to the for-profit organization. Importadora de Productos Farmaceuticos (PROFA), an offshoot of the nonprofit International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliate, Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia de Guatemala (APROFAM), created specifically to conduct the social marketing project. Juarez and Associates has previous market research experience in family planning in Guatemala. Contraceptive social marketing sales are projected to begin in early 1985.

  18. Across the Arctic Teachers Experience Field Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Wiggins, H. V.; Marshall, S. A.; Darby, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    From studying snow geese on the North Slope of Alaska to sediment coring aboard the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy in the Arctic Ocean, K-12 teachers embark on scientific expeditions as part of a program that strives to make science in the Arctic a "virtual" reality. In the past two years, seventeen K-12 teachers have participated in Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (TREC), a program that pairs teachers with researchers to improve science education through arctic field experiences. TREC builds on the scientific and cultural opportunities of the Arctic, linking research and education through topics that naturally engage students and the wider public. TREC includes expeditions as diverse as studying plants at Toolik Field Station, a research facility located 150 miles above the Arctic Circle; climate change studies in Norway's Svalbard archipelago; studying rivers in Siberia; or a trans-arctic expedition aboard the USCGC Healy collecting an integrated geophysical data set. Funded by the National Science Foundation Office of Polar Programs, TREC offers educators experiences in scientific inquiry while encouraging the public and students to become active participants in the scientific inquiry by engaging them virtually in arctic research. TREC uses online outreach elements to convey the research experience to a broad audience. While in remote field locations, teachers and researchers interact with students and the public through online seminars and live calls from the field, online journals with accompanying photos, and online bulletin boards. Since the program's inception in 2004, numerous visitors have posted questions or interacted with teachers, researchers, and students through the TREC website (http://www.arcus.org/trec). TREC teachers are required to transfer their experience of research and current science into their classroom through the development of relevant activities and resources. Teachers and researchers are encouraged to participate

  19. Magnetic Field Experiment Data Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, D. B.; Zanetti, L. J.; Suther, L. L.; Potemra, T. A.; Anderson, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) Magnetic Field Experiment Data Analysis System (MFEDAS) has been developed to process and analyze satellite magnetic field experiment data from the TRIAD, MAGSAT, AMPTE/CCE, Viking, Polar BEAR, DMSP, HILAT, UARS, and Freja satellites. The MFEDAS provides extensive data management and analysis capabilities. The system is based on standard data structures and a standard user interface. The MFEDAS has two major elements: (1) a set of satellite unique telemetry processing programs for uniform and rapid conversion of the raw data to a standard format and (2) the program Magplot which has file handling, data analysis, and data display sections. This system is an example of software reuse, allowing new data sets and software extensions to be added in a cost effective and timely manner. Future additions to the system will include the addition of standard format file import routines, modification of the display routines to use a commercial graphics package based on X-Window protocols, and a generic utility for telemetry data access and conversion.

  20. Technology-Focused Early Field Experiences in Preservice Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Although a broad body of research exists on field experiences in teacher education, one specific area of inquiry lacking substantial current research is that of technology-focused early field experiences, or field experiences that occur prior to student teaching and more formal clinical experiences. To address this gap, I conducted this…

  1. Algerian Eddies lifetime can near 3 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puillat, I.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Millot, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Algerian Current (AC) is unstable and generates mesoscale meanders and eddies. Only anticyclonic eddies can develop and reach diameters over 200 km with vertical extents down to the bottom (˜3000 m). Algerian Eddies (AEs) first propagate eastward along the Algerian slope at few kilometers per day. In the vicinity of the Channel of Sardinia, a few AEs detach from the Algerian slope and propagate along the Sardinian one. It was hypothesized that AEs then followed a counter-clockwise circuit in the eastern part of the basin. Maximum recorded lifetimes were known to exceed 9 months. Within the framework of the 1-year Eddies and Leddies Interdisciplinary Study off Algeria (ELISA) experiment (1997-1998), we exhaustively tracked two AEs, using mainly an ˜3-year time series of NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. We show that AEs lifetimes can near 3 years, exceeding 33 months at least. We also confirm the long-lived AEs preferential circuit in the eastern part of the Algerian Basin, and specify that it may include several loops (at least three).

  2. Project MAFEX: Report on Preservice Field Experiences in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mark R.

    Project MAFEX (Meta-Analysis of Field Experience) used standard meta-analysis techniques to synthesize the available body of research concerning preservice field experience programs. Several important questions were considered: (1) What types of field experience programs are most and least effective? (2) Are there common characteristics of field…

  3. C-2-Upgrade Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Artem

    2016-10-01

    In the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment, tangential neutral beam injection (20 - 40 keV hydrogen, 4 MW total), coupled with electrically-biased plasma guns at the plasma ends, magnetic end plugs, and advanced surface conditioning, led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses and greatly improved plasma stability. Under such conditions, highly reproducible FRCs with a significant fast-ion population and total plasma temperature of about 1 keV were achieved. The FRC's were macroscopically stable and decayed on characteristic transport time scales of a few milliseconds. In order to sustain an FRC configuration, the C-2 device was upgraded with a new neutral beam injection (NBI) system, which can deliver a total of 10 + MW of hydrogen beam power, by far the largest ever used in a compact toroid plasma experiment. Compared to C-2, the beam energy was lowered to 15 keV and angled injection geometry was adopted to provide better beam coupling to the FRC. The upgraded neutral beams produce a dominant fast ion population that makes a dramatic beneficial impact on the overall plasma performance. Specifically: (1) high-performance, advanced beam-driven FRCs were produced and sustained for times significantly longer (5 + ms) than all characteristic plasma decay times without the beams, (2) the sustainment is fully correlated with neutral beam injection, (3) confinement of fast ions is close to the classical limit, and (4) new, benign collective fast ion effects were observed. Collectively, these accomplishments represent a dramatic advance towards the scientific validation of the FRC-based approach to fusion. This talk will provide a comprehensive overview of the C-2U device and recent experimental advances.

  4. Experiments with Low Voltage Field Emission EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournelle, J.; Cathey, H. E.

    2014-12-01

    We report results from 5-7 keV Field Emission EPMA experiments on selected natural minerals and synthetic materials to illustrate some strengths -- and pitfalls --of low keV FE-EPMA. In a silicate mineral in pseudotachylite from South Mountain, AZ (Goodwin, 1999), the spatial resolution (equation of Merlet & Llovet, 2012, with an 80 nm diameter beam) at 7 keV for Si Ka is calculated to be 588 nm, 391 nm for Ca Ka and 641 nm for Fe La. This pseudotachylite contains abundant 5-10 um sieve-textured crystals full of inclusions with low BSE intensity. Previous 15 keV work suggested the sieve phase was amphibole. At 7 keV, it is possible to identify the compositions of the submicron inclusions as SiO2 and a K-rich alumino-silicate phase; the host composition is epidote. The enhanced resolution of FE-EPMA reveals problems with some microanalytical standards. Vicenzi and Rose (2008) showed submicron inclusions in the Smithsonian Kakanui hornblende standard. Our 7 keV experiments show the ~400 nm inclusions consist of a silicate phase (glass?), Fe-Ti oxide and possibly a gas bubble, concentrated along planes or grain boundaries. SEM imaging of an inclusion analyzed with a focused FE beam shows radiating trails of debris on the hornblende host, consistent with residue from a popped vapor bubble in the inclusion. How should FE-EPMA handle standards that may have inclusions? Use a focused beam avoiding inclusions? Sometimes, perhaps. However, we used a defocused beam to "average" the phases. The results show little or no deviation from the published wet chemical analysis. Operation at reduced keV may require use of non-traditional X-ray lines (e.g. Gopon et al, 2013 for Fe Ll vs Fe La). Experiments at 5 keV were also performed upon a synthetic material enriched in Nd (Nd-Mg-Zn). Fischer & Baun (1967) demonstrated problems with the Ma/Mb lines of REE; we find that use of the Nd Mz line is necessary in order to achieve reasonable results in this material (98 wt% total, Nd 36 wt

  5. Extraterrestrial Virtual Field Experience: Water at Meridiani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggan-Haas, D.; Million, C.; Sullivan, R. J., Jr.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Ross, R. M.; St Clair, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Spacecraft Planetary Imaging Facility (SPIF) at Cornell University, in collaboration with Million Concepts and the Paleontological Research Institute (PRI), has developed the Extraterrestrial Virtual Field Experience (EVFE), a web-based, game-like and inquiry-driven classroom activity targeted to middle school through undergraduate introductory Earth science classrooms. Students play the role of mission scientists for a NASA rover mission, tasked with targeting the rover's scientific instruments to investigate a specific scientific question about the landing site. As with the real mission, the student operators must optimize the efficient use of limited resources and time against the need to make observations to address working hypotheses. The activity uses only real--not artificial or simulated--mission data, and students are guided throughout by a "Mission Manager" who provides hints and advice about the scientific meaning of observations within the broader context of the mission objectives. The MER Opportunity EVFE is a pilot effort, the first of five EVFE modules planned a rate of one per year that will feature different NASA missions and scientific topics. The MER Opportunity EVFE has already been developed and focuses on the investigation of the history of water on Mars at the Meridiani landing site of the Opportunity rover. The module includes a teacher guide and is currently available to educators through the SPIF website.

  6. Technology Supported Cognitive Apprenticeship Transforms the Student Teaching Field Experience: Improving the Student Teaching Field Experience for All Triad Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Christianna; Kopcha, Theodore J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite issues of fragmentation, isolation, and disconnection from the university associated with the student teaching field experience, the field experience plays a critical role in teacher education. In this article, the authors provide an overview of eSupervision, a technology-based innovation to improve the student teaching field experience by…

  7. Field experiences in science teacher preparation programs of Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhea, Marilyn Sue Alvis

    The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data pertinent to identifying the differences and similarities in the design and implementation of field experiences for pre-service science teachers in institutions of higher education in the State of Missouri. Directors of field experience from 25 Institutions of Higher Education (IHE) that prepare both elementary and secondary science teachers and 5 additional IHE that prepare only elementary teachers were surveyed using a 48-item Likert scale instrument designed for this study. Data were collected on the hours of field experience in relation to science and other methods classes, distribution of field experience hours across the program, and total hours of field experience required. Comparisons were made between elementary and secondary science teacher preparation programs. Five areas of field experience were surveyed: design of early field experience, design of student teaching, support provided by IHE for cooperating schools, field experience assessment practices, and relationships between pre-service teachers, cooperating teachers and IHE educators. Analyses of the responses indicate statistically significant differences in the number of field experience hours between IRE programs for both early field experience (p < .05) and student teaching (p < .01). Differences in number of field experience hours by level of certification were not significant. Correlation of scores was significant between the elementary and secondary levels for both early field experience design (r = .97) and student teaching design (r = .75). No other significant correlation was found. This study found highly heterogeneous practices regarding field experience exist in Missouri IHE programs. When reported practices are compared to standards set in the professional literature, as a group Missouri IHE science teacher preparation programs could be described as traditional apprenticeships or quasi-professional development school programs.

  8. Methane Screening in JET Reverse Field Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Strachan; B. Alper; G. Corrigan; S.K. Erents; C. Giroud; A. Korotkov; H. Leggate; G.F. Mathews; R.A. Pitts; M. Stamp; J. Spence

    2004-05-17

    JET plasmas with reverse magnetic field feature a different SOL flow than those with normal field. The observed carbon fueling efficiency from injecting methane gas was similar in reverse and normal field. EDGE2D modeling used an externally applied force to create the SOL flows, without specifying the origin of the force. The resulting flow agreed reasonably with the experimental values between the separatrix and 4 cm mid-plane depth in the SOL. The effect of the flow on the calculated carbon screening was 5 to 15% higher carbon fueling efficiency for the low flow velocity with reverse field.

  9. How Grammatical Are 3-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu; Germezia, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the level of grammatical accuracy in typically developing 3-year-olds and the types of errors they produce. Method: Twenty-two 3-year-olds participated in a picture description task. The percentage of grammatical utterances was computed and error types were analyzed. Results: The mean level of grammatical accuracy…

  10. Exploring Group Cohesion in a Higher Education Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcarne, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding into the experience of group cohesion for university students participating in an academic field experience. A mixed methods approach was used following a two-phase, sequential research design to help provide a more complete explanation of how group cohesion was impacted by the field experience.…

  11. Integrating Research into LIS Field Experiences in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Selinda Adelle; Hoffmann, Kristin; Dawson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Field experiences function as a link between LIS theory and practice. Students should be provided with an experience that is a true reflection of the professional environment. The increasing focus on research by academic librarians provides an opportunity and responsibility to integrate research into the field experiences of LIS students.…

  12. Field Trips as Valuable Learning Experiences in Geography Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakowka, Amy Richmond

    2012-01-01

    Field trips have been acknowledged as valuable learning experiences in geography. This article uses Kolb's (1984) experiential learning model to discuss how students learn and how field trips can help enhance learning. Using Kolb's experiential learning theory as a guide in the design of field trips helps ensure that field trips contribute to…

  13. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S. Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-06-21

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  14. The Cyborg Astrobiologist: first field experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Patrick Charles; Ormö, Jens; Díaz Martínez, Enrique; Rodríguez Manfredi, José Antonio; Gómez Elvira, Javier; Ritter, Helge; Oesker, Markus; Ontrup, Jörg

    2004-07-01

    We present results from the first geological field tests of the "Cyborg Astrobiologist", which is a wearable computer and video camcorder system that we are using to test and train a computer-vision system towards having some of the autonomous decision-making capabilities of a field-geologist and field-astrobiologist. The Cyborg Astrobiologist platform has thus far been used for testing and development of the following algorithms and systems: robotic acquisition of quasi-mosaics of images; real-time image segmentation; and real-time determination of interesting points in the image mosaics. The hardware and software systems function reliably, and the computer-vision algorithms are adequate for the first field tests. In addition to the proof-of-concept aspect of these field tests, the main result of these field tests is the enumeration of those issues that we can improve in the future, including: detection and accounting for shadows caused by three-dimensional jagged edges in the outcrop; reincorporation of more sophisticated texture-analysis algorithms into the system; creation of hardware and software capabilities to control the camera's zoom lens in an intelligent manner; and, finally, development of algorithms for interpretation of complex geological scenery. Nonetheless, despite these technical inadequacies, this Cyborg Astrobiologist system, consisting of a camera-equipped wearable-computer and its computer-vision algorithms, has demonstrated its ability in finding genuinely interesting points in real-time in the geological scenery, and then gathering more information about these interest points in an automated manner.

  15. The STEREO/IMPACT Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, M. H.; Curtis, D.; Scheifele, J. L.; Russell, C. T.; Schroeder, P.; Szabo, A.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2008-04-01

    The magnetometer on the STEREO mission is one of the sensors in the IMPACT instrument suite. A single, triaxial, wide-range, low-power and noise fluxgate magnetometer of traditional design—and reduced volume configuration—has been implemented in each spacecraft. The sensors are mounted on the IMPACT telescoping booms at a distance of ˜3 m from the spacecraft body to reduce magnetic contamination. The electronics have been designed as an integral part of the IMPACT Data Processing Unit, sharing a common power converter and data/command interfaces. The instruments cover the range ±65,536 nT in two intervals controlled by the IDPU (±512 nT; ±65,536 nT). This very wide range allows operation of the instruments during all phases of the mission, including Earth flybys as well as during spacecraft test and integration in the geomagnetic field. The primary STEREO/IMPACT science objectives addressed by the magnetometer are the study of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), its response to solar activity, and its relationship to solar wind structure. The instruments were powered on and the booms deployed on November 1, 2006, seven days after the spacecraft were launched, and are operating nominally. A magnetic cleanliness program was implemented to minimize variable spacecraft fields and to ensure that the static spacecraft-generated magnetic field does not interfere with the measurements.

  16. Thought Field Therapy: A Former Insider's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pignotti, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Thought Field Therapy (TFT) is a novel therapy that employs finger tapping on purported acupressure points. Over the past decade, TFT, promoted on the Internet and through testimonials of fast cures, has gained popularity with therapists, including clinical social workers. Although TFT claims to cure a wide variety of psychological and physical…

  17. The Falklands war: Army field surgical experience.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, D. S.; Batty, C. G.; Ryan, J. M.; McGregor, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    In the recent Falklands campaign four Army Field Surgical Teams were deployed in the two phases of the war. They functioned as Advanced Surgical Centres and operated on 233 casualties. There were 3 deaths. The patterns of wounding and the methods of casualty management are discussed and compared with other recent campaigns. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6614760

  18. Solar UV-B effects on PSII performance in Betula nana are influenced by PAR level and reduced by EDU: results of a 3-year experiment in the High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Albert, Kristian R; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Arndal, Marie F; Boesgaard, Kristine; Michelsen, Anders; Bruhn, Dan; Schmidt, Niels M

    2012-07-01

    The long-term and diurnal responses of photosystem II (PSII) performance to near-ambient UV-B radiation were investigated in High Arctic Betula nana. We conducted an UV exclusion experiment with five replicated blocks consisting of open control (no filter), photosynthetic active radiation and UV-B transparent filter control (Teflon), UV-B-absorbing filter (Mylar) and UV-AB-absorbing filter (Lexan). Ethylenediurea (EDU), a chemical normally used to protect plants against ozone injury, was sprayed on the leaves both in the field and in an additional laboratory study to investigate if EDU mitigated the effects of UV-B. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction curves were used for analysis of OJIP test parameters. Near-ambient UV-B radiation reduced across season maximum quantum yield (TR(o) /ABS = F(v) /F(m)), approximated number of active PSII reaction center (RC/ABS) and the performance index (PI(ABS)), despite improved leaf screening against UV-B with higher content of UV-B-absorbing compounds and a lower specific leaf area. EDU application counteracted the negative impact of UV-B on TR(o) /ABS, RC/ABS and PI(ABS) . This indicates that the mechanisms behind UV-B and ozone damage share some common features. The midday depression was present in all treatments, but TR(o) /ABS and PI(ABS) were persistently lower in near-ambient UV-B compared to UV-B reduction. The recovery phase was particularly impaired in near-ambient UV-B and interactive effects between treatment × hour raised TR(o) /ABS, RC/ABS and PI(ABS) higher in reduced UV-B compared to near-ambient UV-B. This demonstrates current solar UV-B to reduce the PSII performance both on a daily as well as a seasonal basis in this High Arctic species.

  19. Field experience with gas turbine meters

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.H.

    1984-04-01

    This paper discusses a company's experience and problems with turbine meters in a large offshore system. With the increased cost and decreasing reserves of natural gas, greater demands will be placed on gas measurement. Turbine meters have lent themselves well to the task and will continue to find more applications in the natural gas industry.

  20. Emerging Trends in Teacher Preparation: The Future of Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slick, Gloria Appelt, Ed.

    This is the fourth in a series of four books presenting a variety of field experience program models and philosophies that drive the programs provided to preservice teachers during their undergraduate teacher preparation. This book focuses on critical issues facing teaching education in the future, in particular field experiences. Major themes…

  1. Concerns of Teacher Candidates in an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the concerns of teacher candidates in an early field experience. Thirty-five teacher candidates completed the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC, Fuller & Borich, 2000) at the beginning, middle and end of their early field experiences. Results showed that teacher candidates ranked impact as the highest concern, self as…

  2. Preparing Middle School Teachers: Using Collaborative Middle School Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Linda K.

    Wright State University, Ohio, has developed an undergraduate degree in Middle Childhood Education with extensive content preparation and initial field experiences. Participants complete an undergraduate program in two specialized areas accompanied by 15 hours of teacher education professional coursework and field experiences in urban and suburban…

  3. The Field Experience: Creating Successful Programs for New Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slick, Gloria Appelt, Ed.

    This is the first in a series of four books presenting a variety of field experience program models and philosophies that drive the programs provided to preservice teachers during their undergraduate teacher preparation. This publications focuses on developing and evaluating an effective field experience program. Several common themes emerge from…

  4. Assisting Your Preservice Teacher to Be Successful during Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Field experience (junior practicum and student teaching) is considered by many to be the most influential part of a teacher preparation program (Cruickshank & Aramalin, 1986; Tannehill & Zakrajsek, 1988). During field experiences, preservice teachers (hereafter referred to as PSTs) are guided by a cooperating teacher (hereafter referred to as a…

  5. Field experience in gravel packing the Dourado field, offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, F.C.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the completion operations in the Dourado field, with emphasis on four major gravel packing problems: (1) formation taking excessive gravel; (2) failure of the gravel pack screens; (3) severe well productivity decline and (4) an unusual production casing buckling. The problem occurred in a new area of the field where the main reservoir, the Calumbi sandstone, is largely intercalated with plastic, water sensitive shale streaks. Presumably, stresses developed during gravel packing set off the creepage tendency of these streaks, which might be intensified by hydration upon rock imbibition with water-based completion and gravel carrier fluids. The result was a continuous migration of shale into adjacent permeable layers, leaving behind progressive void space, which allows for the excessive pumping of gravel. As the well was flowed, check-valve effect naturally ensued as lumps of dispersed shales concentrates around the wellbore; hence the decline on well productivity. Another consequence of the shale behavior was a detrimental effect in the wellbore stability, which reflected in buckling of the casing in front of the perforated interval. Finally, the screen failure, a less conjectural problem, was attributed only to poor manufacturing quality.

  6. Classroom and Field Experiments for Florida's Environmental Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jim

    This booklet is intended to help teachers in Florida manage the growing interest in environmental education. Fourteen experiments are grouped into the environmental areas of the water cycle, groundwater, water pollution, waste and water treatment, air pollution, and field experiments. Experiments include demonstrations of the water cycle, the…

  7. Field experience with various slicing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, H. I.

    1982-01-01

    Wafer slicing using internal diameter (ID) saw, multiblade slurry (MBS) saw and multiwire slurry (MWS) saw techniques were evaluated. Wafer parameters such as bow, taper, and roughness which may not be important factors for solar cell fabrication, were considerably better for ID saw than those of the MBS and MWS saw. Analysis of add-on slicing cost indicated that machine productivity seems to be a major limiting factor for ID saw, while expendible material costs are a major factor for both MBS and MWS saw. Slicing experience indicated that the most important factors controling final wafer cost are: (1) silicon cost (wafer thickness + kerf loss); (2) add-on slicing cost, and (3) mechanical yield. There is a very strong interaction between these parameters, suggesting a necessity of optimization of these parameters.

  8. Complementarity in marine biodiversity manipulations: reconciling divergent evidence from field and mesocosm experiments.

    PubMed

    Stachowicz, John J; Best, Rebecca J; Bracken, Matthew E S; Graham, Michael H

    2008-12-02

    Mounting concern over the loss of marine biodiversity has increased the urgency of understanding its consequences. This urgency spurred the publication of many short-term studies, which often report weak effects of diversity (species richness) driven by the presence of key species (the sampling effect). Longer-term field experiments are slowly accumulating, and they more often report strong diversity effects driven by species complementarity, calling into question the generality of earlier findings. However, differences among study systems in which short- and long-term studies are conducted currently limit our ability to assess whether these differences are simply due to biological or environmental differences among systems. In this paper, we compared the effect of intertidal seaweed species richness on biomass accumulation in mesocosms and field experiments using the same pool of species. We found that seaweed species richness increased biomass accumulation in field experiments in both short (2-month) and long (3-year) experiments, although effects were stronger in the long-term experiment. In contrast, richness had no effect in mesocosm experiments, where biomass accumulation was completely a function of species identity. We argue that the short-term experiments, like many published experiments on the topic, detect only a subset of possible mechanisms that operate in the field over the longer term because they lack sufficient environmental heterogeneity to allow expression of niche differences, and they are of insufficient length to capture population-level responses, such as recruitment. Many published experiments, therefore, likely underestimate the strength of diversity on ecosystem processes in natural ecosystems.

  9. Mod-2 wind turbine field operations experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The three-machine, 7.5 MW Goodnoe Hills located near Goldendale, Washington and is now in a research/experimental operations phase that offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of single and multiple wind turbines interacting with each other, the power grid; and the environment. Following a brief description of the turbine and project history, this paper addresses major problem areas and research and development test results. Field operations, both routine and nonroutine, are discussed. Routine operation to date has produced over 13,379,000 KWh of electrical energy during 11,064 hr of rotation. Nonroutine operation includes suspended activities caused by a crack in the low speed shaft that necessitated a redesign and reinstallation of this assembly on all three turbines. With the world's largest cluster back in full operation, two of the turbines will be operated over the next years to determine their value as energy producer. The third unit will be used primarily for conducting research tests requiring configuration changes to better understand the wind turbine technology. Technical areas summarized pertain to system performance and enhancements. Specific research tests relating to acoustics, TV interference, and wake effects conclude the paper.

  10. A Gravitational Experiment Involving Inhomogeneous Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, T.; Yin, Ming; Vargas, Jose

    2004-02-01

    Unification of gravitation with other forms of interactions, particularly with electromagnetism, will have tremendous impacts on technology and our understanding of nature. The economic impact of such an achievement will also be unprecedented and far more extensive than the impact experienced in the past century due to the unification of electricity with magnetism and optics. Theoretical unification of gravitation with electromagnetism using classical differential geometry has been pursued since the late nineteen twenties, when Einstein and Cartan used teleparallelism for the task. Recently, Vargas and Torr have followed the same line of research with more powerful mathematics in a more general geometric framework, which allows for the presence of other interactions. Their approach also uses Kähler generalization of Cartan's exterior calculus, which constitutes a language appropriate for both classical and quantum physics. Given the compelling nature of teleparallelism (path-independent equality of vectors at a distance) and the problems still existing with energy-momentum in general relativity, it is important to seek experimental evidence for such expectations. Such experimental programs are likely to provide quantitative guidance to the further development of current and future theories. We too, have undertaken an experimental search for potential electrically induced gravitational (EIG) effects. This presentation describes some of the practical concerns that relates to our investigation of electrical influences on laboratory size test masses. Preliminary results, appear to indicate a correlation between the application of a spatially inhomogeneous electric field and the appearance of an additional force on the test mass. If confirmed, the presence of such a force will be consistent with the predictions of Vargas-Torr. More importantly, proven results will shed new light and clearer understanding of the interactions between gravitational and electromagnetic

  11. Drift studies--comparison of field and wind tunnel experiments.

    PubMed

    Stadler, R; Regenauer, W

    2005-01-01

    Drift at pesticide application leads to a pollution of non-target crops, non-target species and surface water. Spray drift is influenced by many factors like environmental conditions, vegetation, technical conditions, and physical properties of the tank mixes and influenced by Chemicals. Field experiments to characterise spray drift effects with the risk of permanent changing weather conditions can be supported by wind tunnel experiments. Wind tunnel experiments do not lead to the same soil deposition curves like field experiments, but the ratio of drift reduction potential is comparable.

  12. FIELD EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING AT CDG AIRPORTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaroson, R.

    2009-12-01

    Richard Ramaroson1,4, Klaus Schaefer2, Stefan Emeis2, Carsten Jahn2, Gregor Schürmann2, Maria Hoffmann2, Mikhael Zatevakhin3, Alexandre Ignatyev3. 1ONERA, Châtillon, France; 4SEAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; 2FZK, Garmisch, Germany; (3)FSUE SPbAEP, St Petersburg, Russia. 2-month field campaigns have been organized at CDG airports in autumn 2004 and summer 2005. Air quality and ground air traffic emissions have been monitored continuously at terminals and taxi-runways, along with meteorological parameters onboard trucks and with a SODAR. This paper analyses the commercial engine emissions characteristics at airports and their effects on gas pollutants and airborne particles coupled to meteorology. LES model results for PM dispersion coupled to microphysics in the PBL are compared to measurements. Winds and temperature at the surface and their vertical profiles have been stored with turbulence. SODAR observations show the time-development of the mixing layer depth and turbulent mixing in summer up to 800m. Active low level jets and their regional extent have been observed and analyzed. PM number and mass size distribution, morphology and chemical contents are investigated. Formation of new ultra fine volatile (UFV) particles in the ambient plume downstream of running engines is observed. Soot particles are mostly observed at significant level at high power thrusts at take-off (TO) and on touch-down whereas at lower thrusts at taxi and aprons ultra the UFV PM emissions become higher. Ambient airborne PM1/2.5 is closely correlated to air traffic volume and shows a maximum beside runways. PM number distribution at airports is composed mainly by volatile UF PM abundant at apron. Ambient PM mass in autumn is higher than in summer. The expected differences between TO and taxi emissions are confirmed for NO, NO2, speciated VOC and CO. NO/NO2 emissions are larger at runways due to higher power. Reactive VOC and CO are more produced at low powers during idling at

  13. Multidisciplinary Field Training in Undergraduate Physical Geography: Russian Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Chalov, Sergey R.; Panin, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Field training is seen as a central component of the discipline of Physical Geography and an essential part of the undergraduate curriculum. This paper explores the structure and relationships between fieldwork and theoretical courses and the abundant experiences of field training in the undergraduate curriculum of 37 Russian universities. It…

  14. Electric Dipole Moment Experiment Systematic from Electric Field Discharge Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, B.; Gould, Harvey

    2014-09-01

    A magnetic field, in the direction of the electric field and synchronous with the electric field reversal, will mimic an EDM signal. One might expect a discharge across the electric field plates to produce magnetic fields with only small or vanishing components parallel to the electric field, minimizing its systematic effect. Our experimental model, using simulated discharge currents, found otherwise: the discharge current may be at an angle to the normal, and thus generate a normal magnetic field. Comparison of data from the experimental model with the results from calculations will be presented, along with estimates of the time-averaged normal magnetic field seen by atoms in an electron EDM experiment using a fountain of laser-cooled francium, as a function of discharge current.

  15. On the design of experiments to study extreme field limits

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S. S.; Chen, M.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Koga, J. K.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Chen, P.; Mur, V. D.; Narozhny, N. B.; Popov, V. S.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Korn, G.

    2012-12-21

    We propose experiments on the collision of high intensity electromagnetic pulses with electron bunches and on the collision of multiple electromagnetic pulses for studying extreme field limits in the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves. The effects of nonlinear QED will be revealed in these laser plasma experiments.

  16. TPE-1R (M) reversed field pinch experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, T.; Hirano, Y.; Maejima, Y.; Ogawa, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the engineering aspects of the design, tests, and performances of the toroidal device TPE-1RM with which plasma physics researches on ''Reversed Field Pinch''configurations are carried out and this is an intermediate scale like HBTX-1A, ZT-40M, and ETA-BETA II. In TPE-1RM experiments are being performed in order to obtain an optimum reversed field configurations for MHD stability. The main description in this report is devoted to the metal vacuum vessel and specially contrived electrical circuit for field programming control techniques. The experiments with this device have been successful both from the technical and physcial points of view.

  17. A sensor fusion field experiment in forest ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.; Ranson, K. Jon; Williams, Darrel L.; Levine, Elissa R.; Goltz, Stewart M.

    1990-01-01

    The background of the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics field campaign is presented, a progress report on the analysis of the collected data and related modeling activities is provided, and plans for future experiments at different points in the phenological cycle are outlined. The ecological overview of the study site is presented, and attention is focused on forest stands, needles, and atmospheric measurements. Sensor deployment and thermal and microwave observations are discussed, along with two examples of the optical radiation measurements obtained during the experiment in support of radiative transfer modeling. Future activities pertaining to an archival system, synthetic aperture radar, carbon acquisition modeling, and upcoming field experiments are considered.

  18. Field Experiences for Young Children: Planning and Implementing Field Trips, Classroom Visitors and Collecting Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Anne; Warner, Jane

    This document provides guidelines and suggestions for taking preschool children on field trips. Rationale for field trips, safety considerations, planning, preparation through classroom activities, parent involvement and keeping a field experience reference file are among the topics discussed. Examples of trips to a supermarket and to hear a high…

  19. An illustrated gardener's guide to transgenic Arabidopsis field experiments.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Martin; Jänkänpää, Hanna Johansson; Moen, Jon; Jansson, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Field studies with transgenic Arabidopsis lines have been performed over 8 yr, to better understand the influence that certain genes have on plant performance. Many (if not most) plant phenotypes cannot be observed under the near constant, low-stress conditions in growth chambers, making field experiments necessary. However, there are challenges in performing such experiments: permission must be obtained and regulations obeyed, the profound influence of uncontrollable biotic and abiotic factors has to be considered, and experimental design has to be strictly controlled. The aim here is to provide inspiration and guidelines for researchers who are not used to setting up such experiments, allowing others to learn from our mistakes. This is believed to be the first example of a 'manual' for field experiments with transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Many of the challenges encountered are common for all field experiments, and many researchers from ecological backgrounds are skilled in such methods. There is huge potential in combining the detailed mechanistic understanding of molecular biologists with ecologists' expertise in examining plant performance under field conditions, and it is suggested that more interdisciplinary collaborations will open up new scientific avenues to aid analyses of the roles of genetic and physiological variation in natural systems.

  20. Influencing attitudes toward science through field experiences in biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Deborah Mcintyre

    The purpose of this study was to determine how student attitudes toward science are influenced by field experiences in undergraduate biology courses. The study was conducted using two institutions of higher education including a 2-year lower-level and a 2-year upper-level institution. Data were collected through interviews with student participants, focus group discussions, students' journal entries, and field notes recorded by the researcher during the field activities. Photographs and video recordings were also used as documentation sources. Data were collected over a period of 34 weeks. Themes that emerged from the qualitative data included students' beliefs that field experiences (a) positively influence student motivation to learn, (b) increase student ability to learn the concepts being taught, and (c) provide opportunities for building relationships and for personal growth. The findings of the study reinforce the importance of offering field-study programs at the undergraduate level to allow undergraduate students the opportunity to experience science activities in a field setting. The research study was framed by the behavioral and developmental theories of attitude and experience including the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Theory of Experiential Learning (Kolb, 1984).

  1. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of uranium bioremediation field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Morrison, Stan J.; Amonette, James P.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-10-01

    A reaction network integrating abiotic and microbially mediated reactions has been developed to simulate biostimulation field experiments at a former Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site in Rifle, Colorado. The reaction network was calibrated using data from the 2002 field experiment, after which it was applied without additional calibration to field experiments performed in 2003 and 2007. The robustness of the model specification is significant in that (1) the 2003 biostimulation field experiment was performed with 3 times higher acetate concentrations than the previous biostimulation in the same field plot (i.e., the 2002 experiment), and (2) the 2007 field experiment was performed in a new unperturbed plot on the same site. The biogeochemical reactive transport simulations accounted for four terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs), two distinct functional microbial populations, two pools of bioavailable Fe(III) minerals (iron oxides and phyllosilicate iron), uranium aqueous and surface complexation, mineral precipitation and dissolution. The conceptual model for bioavailable iron reflects recent laboratory studies with sediments from the UMTRA site that demonstrated that the bulk (˜90%) of initial Fe(III) bioreduction is associated with phyllosilicate rather than oxide forms of iron. The uranium reaction network includes a U(VI) surface complexation model based on laboratory studies with Rifle site sediments and aqueous complexation reactions that include ternary complexes (e.g., calcium-uranyl-carbonate). The bioreduced U(IV), Fe(II), and sulfide components produced during the experiments are strongly associated with the solid phases and may play an important role in long-term uranium immobilization.

  2. Magnetic field experiment for Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.; Aluna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Ness, N. F.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic field experiment to be carried on the Voyager 1 and 2 missions consists of dual low field (LFM) and high field magnetometer (HFM) systems. The dual systems provide greater reliability and, in the case of the LFM's, permit the separation of spacecraft magnetic fields from the ambient fields. Additional reliability is achieved through electronics redundancy. The wide dynamic ranges of plus or minus 0.5G for the LFM's and plus or minus 20G for the HFM's, low quantization uncertainty of plus or minus 0.002 gamma in the most sensitive (plus or minus 8 gamma) LFM range, low sensor RMS noise level of 0.006 gamma, and use of data compaction schemes to optimize the experiment information rate all combine to permit the study of a broad spectrum of phenomena during the mission. Planetary fields at Jupiter, Saturn, and possibly Uranus; satellites of these planets; solar wind and satellite interactions with the planetary fields; and the large-scale structure and microscale characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field are studied. The interstellar field may also be measured.

  3. The effect of natural UV-B radiation on a perennial Salicornia salt-marsh in Bahía San Sebastián, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina: a 3-year field study.

    PubMed

    Bianciotto, O A; Pinedo, L B; San Roman, N A; Blessio, A Y; Collantes, M B

    2003-07-01

    The Antarctic ozone hole and a general depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer cause increased levels of ultraviolet-B solar radiation (UV-B) over Tierra del Fuego, the southernmost tip of South America. For three consecutive growing seasons (1997-2000), we studied the biological impacts (morphology, physiology, demography and phenology) of natural UV-B radiation on a perennial Salicornia ambigua Michx. community in San Sebastian Bay (53 degrees S and 68 degrees W), Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. This is the first UV-B screening experiment on a subantarctic halophytic community. The shortwave UV-B spectrum (280 to 320 nm) was excluded by covering plots with UV-B blocking film (Mylar). These plots were compared to controls covered with UV-B transparent (Aclar) plastic screens, and unscreened plots. Shoot length in Salicornia was not affected by UV-B. Exposure to natural UV-B reduced biomass and density (by 17% and 38%, respectively). Concentration of UV-shielding pigments and cuticle thickness were both significantly higher (25-48% and 21-40%, respectively) in plants receiving ambient UV-B. The increase in cuticle thickness persisted throughout the growing season, whereas pigment concentration was higher at the beginning of the growing season. Also, the number of dead shoots was higher in plants exposed to UV-B. At the end of the growing season (March) shoot mortality was higher in plants exposed to ambient UV-B, and post-flowering senescence was 30 days earlier. Slight changes in the relative composition of Salicornia to Puccinellia were seen. The reduction observed in Salicornia shoot density under ambient UV-B was cumulative over time; 23% in the first growing-season, rising to 38% by the third growing-season. A similar incremental increase in pigment absorption at 305 nm was seen; 25% in the first and 48% in the third growing season.

  4. Lab and field experiments: are they the same animal?

    PubMed

    Calisi, Rebecca M; Bentley, George E

    2009-06-01

    To advance our understanding of biological processes we often plan our experiments based on published data. This can be confusing though, as data from experiments performed in a laboratory environment are sometimes different from, or completely opposite to, findings from similar experiments performed in the "real world". In this mini-review, we discuss instances where results from laboratory experiments differ as a result of laboratory housing conditions, and where they differ from results gathered in the field environment. Experiments involving endocrinology and behavior appear to be particularly susceptible to influence from the environment in which they are performed. As such, we have attempted to promote discussion of the influence of housing environment on the reproductive axis, circadian biology and behavior, immune function, stress biology, neuroplasticity and photoperiodism. For example, why should a rodent species be diurnal in one housing environment yet nocturnal in another? Are data that are gathered from experiments in the laboratory applicable to the field environment, and vice-versa? We hope not only to highlight the need for experiments in both lab and field when looking at complex biological systems, but also to promote frank discussion of discordant data. Perhaps, just as study of individual variation has been gaining momentum in recent years, data from variation between experimental arenas can provide us with novel lines of research.

  5. Torsion-balance experiments and ultra-low-mass fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrano, William

    2017-01-01

    Many of the solutions to outstanding problems in modern cosmology posit new, ultra-light fields. Unifying General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics appears to require new ultra-light fields at some level. Such fields are also invoked to drive inflation and dark energy. Ultra-light fields may also make up much or all of the dark matter density of the universe. Torsion pendulums, a technology that dates to the 18th century, remain one of the most sensitive experimental techniques to search for ultra-light, weakly interacting fields. I will explain how torsion balance experiments can search for beyond-the-standard-model fields using laboratory-based as well as galactic sources, and the important cosmological implications of these measurements. I will also describe a new experimental signature for which certain torsion balance geometries make very sensitive direct dark matter detectors over a broad range of interesting dark matter parameter space.

  6. NATO TG-25 joint field experiment in distributed sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Brian; Vu, Hao; Srour, Nino

    2003-09-01

    NATO's Task Group (TG-25) on acoustic and seismic sensing is responsible for assessing the potential technologies that can be cooperatively developed and shared within NATO's countries to provide effective, robust and low-cost battlefield sensor systems. The primary applications will be detection and/or classification of ground troops, ground vehicles, airborne vehicles, artillery and sniper. TG-25 has 3 main objectives: (1) to establish acoustic and seismic standards and data exchange procedures, (2) to compare, analyze, exchange, and develop analytical techniques, computational models and signal processing algorithms, and (3) to plan and conduct joint field experiments. In this paper, we discuss participation in the joint NATO field experiment conducted in France in October 2002. The experiment's goal is to demonstrate interoperability of unattended ground sensors from various participating nations. Results of the experiments will be briefed and discussed. Keywords: TG-25, unattended ground sensor, vehicle tracking

  7. Exact quantum field mappings between different experiments on quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamba, Etienne; Pelster, Axel; Anglin, James R.

    2016-10-01

    Experiments on trapped quantum gases can probe challenging regimes of quantum many-body dynamics, where strong interactions or nonequilibrium states prevent exact solutions. Here we present a different kind of exact result, which applies even in the absence of actual solutions: a class of space-time mappings of different experiments onto each other. Since our result is an identity relating second-quantized field operators in the Heisenberg picture of quantum mechanics, it is extremely general; it applies to arbitrary measurements on any mixtures of Bose or Fermi gases, in arbitrary initial states. It represents a strong prediction of quantum field theory which can be tested in current laboratories, and whose practical applications include perfect simulation of interesting experiments with other experiments which may be easier to perform.

  8. Validation of full-field techniques: discussion of experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, E.; Burguete, R.; Siebert, T.; Davighi, A.; Mottershead, J.; Lampeas, G.; Ihle, A.; Patterson, E.; Pipino, A.

    2010-06-01

    Validation and calibration of optical full-field techniques that are used to measure strain and displacement in experimental mechanics is a prerequisite for validating numerical stress analyses. ICEM14 brings together practising engineers from around the world to exchange their experience regarding validation and calibration from everyday measurements with different optical techniques. The discussion addresses the following issues: (i) experience in calibrating measurement equipment based on imaging; (ii) reference measurements and calibration artefacts; (iii) validation of finite element analyses by comparison to experimental data; and (iv) uncertainties in full-field measurements.

  9. Natural attenuation of xenobiotic compounds: Anaerobic field injection experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ruegge, K.; Bjerg, P.L.; Mosbaek, H.; Christensen, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    Currently, a continuous field injection experiment is being performed in the anaerobic part of a pollution plume downgradient of the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark. This natural gradient experiment includes an injection of 18 different xenobiotic compounds with bromide as a tracer. The injection is taking place under methanogenic/sulfate-reducing conditions and the compounds will, as they migrate with the groundwater, pass through a zone where the redox conditions have been determined as iron-reducing.

  10. Multicomponent reactive transport modeling of uranium bioremediation field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Yilin; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Morrison, Stan J.; Amonette, James E.; Long, Philip E.

    2009-10-15

    Biostimulation field experiments with acetate amendment are being performed at a former uranium mill tailings site in Rifle, Colorado, to investigate subsurface processes controlling in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater. An important part of the research is identifying and quantifying field-scale models of the principal terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs) during biostimulation and the consequent biogeochemical impacts to the subsurface receiving environment. Integrating abiotic chemistry with the microbially mediated TEAPs in the reaction network brings into play geochemical observations (e.g., pH, alkalinity, redox potential, major ions, and secondary minerals) that the reactive transport model must recognize. These additional constraints provide for a more systematic and mechanistic interpretation of the field behaviors during biostimulation. The reaction network specification developed for the 2002 biostimulation field experiment was successfully applied without additional calibration to the 2003 and 2007 field experiments. The robustness of the model specification is significant in that 1) the 2003 biostimulation field experiment was performed with 3 times higher acetate concentrations than the previous biostimulation in the same field plot (i.e., the 2002 experiment), and 2) the 2007 field experiment was performed in a new unperturbed plot on the same site. The biogeochemical reactive transport simulations accounted for four TEAPs, two distinct functional microbial populations, two pools of bioavailable Fe(III) minerals (iron oxides and phyllosilicate iron), uranium aqueous and surface complexation, mineral precipitation, and dissolution. The conceptual model for bioavailable iron reflects recent laboratory studies with sediments from the Old Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) site that demonstrated that the bulk (~90%) of Fe(III) bioreduction is associated with the phyllosilicates rather than the iron oxides

  11. Health Blogging and Social Support: A 3-Year Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Keating, David M; Rains, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The reported study explored the implications of informal computer-mediated social support for the well-being of individuals coping with illness over the course of 3 years. A panel study was conducted in which respondents--bloggers writing about their experiences living with a health condition--reported on their perceptions of social support and well-being during 2010 and again during 2013. Among respondents who completed both questionnaires (n = 49), increases in support availability from family and friends were related to improvements in bloggers' health self-efficacy as well as improvements in bloggers' loneliness, particularly among those who also experienced increased support availability from blog readers. Increased blog reader support availability was associated with improvements in bloggers' health-related uncertainty. Among respondents who completed the initial questionnaire (N = 121), a survival analysis showed that neither support available from family and friends nor support from blog readers predicted continued health blogging over the 3-year period.

  12. Nationwide peritoneal dialysis nurse training in Thailand: 3-year experience.

    PubMed

    Thaiyuenwong, Jutiporn; Mahatanan, Nanta; Jiravaranun, Somsong; Boonyakarn, Achara; Rodpai, Somrak; Eiam-Ong, Somchai; Tungsanga, Kriang; Dhanakijcharoen, Prateep; Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak

    2011-09-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) center is not possible to operate if there is no availability of dedicated PD nurse. Generally, the nurse has to play many roles, including educator coordinator, and sometimes leader. As professionalism, the PD nurses need to have both theoretical and practical skills. With the tremendous leap of PD population after the launch of "PD First" policy in Thailand, the shortage of skillful PD nurse is concerned. Hence, the nationwide PD nurse training course was established with the collaborations of many organizations and institutes. Until now, 3 generations of 225 PD nurses are the productions of the course. This number represents 80 percent of PD nurses distributed throughout the whole nation. The survey operated in the year 2010 demonstrated that the output of the course was acceptable in terms of quality since most of the trained PD nurses had a confidence in taking care of PD patients. The quality of patient care is good as indicated by KPIs.

  13. Dynamic field-frequency lock for tracking magnetic field fluctuations in electron spin resonance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Abraham; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Lyon, Stephen

    Global magnetic field fluctuations present significant challenges to pulsed electron spin resonance experiments on systems with long spin coherence times. We will discuss results from experiments in which we follow instantaneous changes in magnetic field by locking to the free induction decay of a proton NMR signal using a phase-locked loop. We extend conventional field-frequency locking techniques used in NMR to follow slow magnetic field drifts by using a modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence in which the phase of the pi-pulses follows the phase of the proton spins at all times. Hence, we retain the ability of the CPMG pulse sequence to refocus local magnetic field inhomogeneities without refocusing global magnetic field fluctuations. In contrast with conventional field-frequency locking techniques, our experiments demonstrate the potential of this method to dynamically track global magnetic field fluctuations on timescales of about 2 seconds and with rates faster than a kHz. This frequency range covers the dominant noise frequencies in our electron spin resonance experiments as previously reported.

  14. Field Experiences Using iPads: Impact of Experience on Preservice Teachers' Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Jill A.; Bicheler, Rachel; Robinson, Callan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological case study was to investigate the lived experiences of preservice music teachers using iPads to engage secondary general music students in creating and performing music during field teaching experiences. Two questions guided this research study: (a) What are these preservice teachers' perceptions of their…

  15. Infusing Coteaching into the General Education Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Deborah J.; Fisch, Audrey A.

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of inclusion, teacher education programs must prepare general education candidates to work collaboratively in a coteaching environment. This study addresses a coteaching assignment introduced into the general education field experience course for secondary content majors. The candidates enrolled had no previous preparation…

  16. Creating Dissonance in Pre-Service Teachers' Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhardt, Sara; Besnoy, Kevin; Steele, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The study is practical in nature and addresses the call for investigating effective aspects of field experiences in teacher preparation. The authors designed a framework of assignments requiring the pre-service teachers to collect data about two diverse elementary students in their assigned elementary classroom during the twelve weeks of their…

  17. Field experiments on an intelligent towed vehicle ``Flying Fish``

    SciTech Connect

    Koterayama, W.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nakamura, M.

    1995-12-31

    A depth, pitch and roll controllable towed vehicle, ``Flying Fish`` is being developed to measure the ocean current, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, chlorophyll and total inorganic hydrocarbon. The first field experiments on its performance were carried out in the Japan sea last summer. The motion data of the ``Flying Fish`` are compared with those of numerical simulations.

  18. An Experiment In Field-Based Elementary Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Margaret H.

    The Experimental Program in Elementary Education (EXEL) at Shepherd College in West Virginia began in 1973 with authorization by the West Virginia State Department of Education. The program was developed with the hope of producing more confident and competent teachers. EXEL provides continuous field experience from the second semester of the…

  19. Quality and Early Field Experiences: Partnering with Junior Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piro, Jody S.; Anderson, Gina; Fredrickson, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of preservice teacher candidates who participated in a pilot partnership between a public teacher education preparation program and Junior Achievement (JA). The partnership was grounded in the premise that providing early field experiences to preservice teacher candidates was a necessary requirement of quality…

  20. The Impact of Field Experience on Elementary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this session is to describe a research project that involved preservice teacher education candidates in a field experience incorporating individualized tutoring for at-risk elementary students. Specifically, do these struggling elementary readers improve their reading? The first and second graders (n = 190) were all given the…

  1. Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism appears to be a common problem among college students, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize plagiarism. This study presents the results of a field experiment that evaluated the effects of a web-based educational tutorial in reducing plagiarism. We found that assignment to the treatment…

  2. Exploring International Multicultural Field Experiences in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Hilary; Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; An, Heejung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore an online field experience between technology facilitator candidates in the USA and K-12 teachers in Namibia, to improve candidates' understanding of diversity and equity issues in the successful incorporation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in teaching and learning.…

  3. The First Field Experience: Perspectives of Preservice and Cooperating Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Mary; Stoner, Julia; Appel, Kelli; House, Jennifer J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined perspectives of field experiences among preservice teachers and their cooperating teachers because of debate in the politically charged atmosphere of No Child Left Behind regarding teacher preparation programs. Nine pairs of preservice and cooperating teachers were observed and interviewed over the course of a semester to…

  4. Electric field measurements during the Condor critical velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-01-01

    The instrumentation of the Condor critical velocity Ba experiment (Wescott et al., 1986) for the measurements of the energetic particles and the electric field associated with a Ba explosion is described. The Ba explosion created a complex electric field pulse detected in situ by a single-axis double electric-field probe on a separate spacecraft. The measurements provide evidence of several important links in the critical-velocity chain, and are consistent with two hypotheses. The first hypothesis involves the creation of large polarization electric field due to charge separation; the second hypothesis implies a polarization of the beam by currents flowing across it. The chain of physical processes inferred from the observations is in agreement with most theories for the Alfven process.

  5. NATO SET-093 joint field experiment at Bourges, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, C.; Bruel, F.; Prieur, D.; Naz, P.; Miller, L. S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the NATO Task Group SET-093/RTG53/MSE (referred to as TG-53 in this report) Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment II conducted at the Etablissement Technique de Bourges (ETBS), Bourges, France, during 16 to 27 June 2008. This field experiment is a follow-on to the NATO TG-53 Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment I conducted at the Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG), Yuma, Arizona, USA, during 31 October to 4 November 2005 [1]. The objectives of the joint experiment were: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons' such as small arms, mortars, artillery, rockets, and C4 explosives, (ii) to analyze the propagation effects of grassy, wooded, and urban terrains, (iii) to share signatures collected from a variety of acoustic sensors, on the ground and in the air, distributed over a wide area, and (iv) to demonstrate the interoperability of disparate sensors developed by the various nations involved. The participating NATO countries , including France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States of America, and Israel as well as part of the Mediterranean dialogue countries, deployed nearly 90 sensors and sensor systems over the test range area.

  6. Designing a Field Experience Tracking System in the Area of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Wu; Watson, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the quality of field experience, support field experience cooperation and streamline field experience management, the purpose of this paper is to describe the experience in using Activity Theory to design and develop a web-based field experience tracking system for a special education program. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  7. Precision magnetic field mapping for CERN experiment NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, John R.; Ruggiero, Giuseppe; Bergsma, Felix

    2016-12-01

    In the CERN experiment NA62, low-mass straw-tube tracking-chambers have been designed to operate in vacuum and, in conjunction with precisely mapped magnetic fields, enable the determination of the trajectories of the charged decay products of a 75 GeV/c K+ with high accuracy. This is particularly important for the crucial measurement of the branching fraction for the decay K+ → π + ν ν, which has the potential to reveal BSM physics. The charged particles passing through the magnetic field of a dipole magnet receive a transverse-momentum kick, ΔP T = 270 MeV/c, which the physics requires to be determined to better than one part in a thousand. This puts stringent constraints on the required accuracy and precision of the magnetic field components at all points through which charged particles pass. Before reaching the dipole magnet the particles travel through an evacuated steel tank of length 90 m, where residual magnetic fields of typical size 50 μT modify the trajectories of the charged particles and require measurement with a precision of better than 10 μT. In this paper we describe in detail the different approaches to the measurement and analysis of the magnetic field for the two regions, the corrections to the raw data necessary to produce the final field map, and the physics validation procedures showing that the required accuracy and precision of the field maps have been achieved.

  8. Recent magneto-inertial fusion experiments on the field reversed configuration heating experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degnan, J. H.; Amdahl, D. J.; Domonkos, M.; Lehr, F. M.; Grabowski, C.; Robinson, P. R.; Ruden, E. L.; White, W. M.; Wurden, G. A.; Intrator, T. P.; Sears, J.; Weber, T.; Waganaar, W. J.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Camacho, J. F.; Coffey, S. K.; Makhin, V.; Roderick, N. F.; Gale, D. G.; Kostora, M.; Lerma, A.; McCullough, J. L.; Sommars, W.; Kiuttu, G. F.; Bauer, B.; Fuelling, S. R.; Siemon, R. E.; Lynn, A. G.; Turchi, P. J.

    2013-09-01

    Magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) approaches take advantage of an embedded magnetic field to improve plasma energy confinement by reducing thermal conduction relative to conventional inertial confinement fusion (ICF). MIF reduces required precision in the implosion and the convergence ratio. Since 2008 (Wurden et al 2008 IAEA 2008 Fusion Energy Conf. (Geneva, Switzerland, 13-18 October) IC/P4-13 LA-UR-08-0796) and since our prior refereed publication on this topic (Degnan et al 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 80), AFRL and LANL have developed further one version of MIF. We have (1) reliably formed, translated, and captured field reversed configurations (FRCs) in magnetic mirrors inside metal shells or liners in preparation for subsequent compression by liner implosion; (2) imploded a liner with interior magnetic mirror field, obtaining evidence for compression of a 1.36 T field to 540 T (3) performed a full system experiment of FRC formation, translation, capture, and imploding liner compression operation; (4) identified by comparison of 2D-MHD simulation and experiments factors limiting the closed-field lifetime of FRCs to about half that required for good liner compression of FRCs to multi-keV, 1019 ion cm-3, high energy density plasma (HEDP) conditions; and (5) designed and prepared hardware to increase that closed-field FRC lifetime to the required amount. Those lifetime experiments are now underway, with the goal of at least doubling closed-field FRC lifetimes and performing FRC implosions to HEDP conditions this year. These experiments have obtained imaging evidence of FRC rotation, and of initial rotation control measures slowing and stopping such rotation. Important improvements in fidelity of simulation to experiment have been achieved, enabling improved guidance and understanding of experiment design and performance.

  9. Active experiments in the ionosphere and geomagnetic field variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivokon, V. P.; Cherneva, N. V.; Khomutov, S. Y.; Serovetnikov, A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Variations of ionospheric-magnetospheric relation energy, as one of the possible outer climatology factors, may be traced on the basis of analysis of natural geophysical phenomena such as ionosphere artificial radio radiation and magnetic storms. Experiments on active impact on the ionosphere have been carried out for quite a long time in Russia as well. The most modern heating stand is located in Alaska; it has been used within the HAARP Program. The possibility of this stand to affect geophysical fields, in particular, the geomagnetic field is of interest.

  10. Neutron spin turners with a rotating magnetic field: first experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnarchuk, V. I.; Kraan, W. H.; Rekveldt, M. T.; Ioffe, A.

    2008-03-01

    Spin turners are the key elements of a neutron spin-echo spectrometer with rotating magnetic fields. Here we describe the results of experiments with thin-film spin turners made of 25 µm amorphous ferromagnetic foils, whose in-plane magnetization is rotated by a weak external rotating field. The behaviour of the polarization vector of a 0.2 nm neutron beam is analysed in 3D after transmission through such a foil and, apart from a non-negligible depolarization, the results show that they are in good accordance with simulations. This observed depolarization is due to a domain structure with a net magnetization.

  11. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    Recent experiments at DIII-D used an active-coil mock-up to investigate effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from two ferromagnetic Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in one ITER equatorial port. The largest and most prevalent observed effect was plasma toroidal rotation slowing across the entire radial profile, up to 60% in H-mode when the mock-up local ripple at the plasma was ˜4 times the local ripple expected in front of ITER TBMs. Analysis showed the slowing to be consistent with non-resonant braking by the mock-up field. There was no evidence of strong electromagnetic braking by resonant harmonics. These results are consistent with the near absence of resonant helical harmonics in the TBM field. Global particle and energy confinement in H-mode decreased by <20% for the maximum mock-up ripple, but <5% at the local ripple expected in ITER. These confinement reductions may be linked with the large velocity reductions. TBM field effects were small in L-mode but increased with plasma beta. The L-H power threshold was unaffected within error bars. The mock-up field increased plasma sensitivity to mode locking by a known n=1 test field (n = toroidal harmonic number). In H-mode the increased locking sensitivity was from TBM torque slowing plasma rotation. At low beta, locked mode tolerance was fully recovered by re-optimizing the conventional DIII-D ``I-coils'' empirical compensation of n=1 errors in the presence of the TBM mock-up field. Empirical error compensation in H-mode should be addressed in future experiments. Global loss of injected neutral beam fast ions was within error bars, but 1 MeV fusion triton loss may have increased. The many DIII-D mock-up results provide important benchmarks for models needed to predict effects of TBMs in ITER.

  12. Elucidating GPR Response to Biological Activity: Field and Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Schillig, P. C.; McGlashan, M. A.; Roberts, J. A.; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of “biogeophysics”. The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present field and laboratory experiments that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to further assess radar response to biomass growth. The first experiment monitored GPR wave transmission through a water-saturated quartz-sand reactor during the course of enhanced biostimulation. Radar wave velocity initially decreased as a result of bacterial activity and subsequently increased rapidly as biogenic gas formed in the pore space. Radar signal attenuation increased during the course of the experiment as a result of an

  13. Field Experiences with Floating Breakwaters in the Eastern United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    7AD-AL ’b76 MARINE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT INC CAMBRIDGE MA FIG 1 3/2 FIELD EXPERIENCES WITH FLOATING BREAKWATERS IN THE EASTERN UNIT--ETC(U) JUL 82 A...Resource Management , Inc. 12 Arrow Street [31679 Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 If. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Department of the...Development. The report was prepared by Andrew V. Baird, Marine Resource Management , Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Neil W. Ross, who provided

  14. An Integral, Multidisciplinary and Global Geophysical Field Experience for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, O.; Carrillo, D. J.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The udergraduate program of Geophysical Engineering at the School of Engineering, of the Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), went through an update process that concluded in 2006. As part of the program, the student takes three geophysical prospecting courses (gravity and magnetics, electric, electromagnetics, and seismic methods). The older program required a three-week field experience for each course in order to gradute. The new program considers only one extended field experience. This work stresses the importance of international academic exchange, where undergraduate students could participate, such as the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE), and interaction with research programs, such as the MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE). Also, we propose a scheeme for this activity based on those examples; both of them have in common real geophysical problems, from which students could benefit. Our proposal covers academic and logistic aspects to be taken into account, enhancing the relevance of interaction between other academic institutions, industry, and UNAM, in order to obtain a broader view of geophysics.

  15. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implicationsmore » of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  16. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  17. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  18. Plasma Rotation Control Experiment in a Strongly Diverging Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terasaka, Kenichiro; Furuta, Kanshi; Yoshimura, Shinji; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.

    2016-10-01

    It has been recognized that the plasma rotation affects the plasma flow structure along the magnetic field line. However, the effect of plasma rotation on structure formation in a strongly diverging magnetic field with magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions has not been fully understood, so far. Understanding the flow structure formation in an ion-unmagnetized plasma is essential to control ion streamline detachment from the magnetic field line and also necessary to study the astrophysical phenomena in laboratory. In order to clarify the effect of plasma rotation in a diverging magnetic field, we have performed the plasma rotation control experiment in the HYPER-II device at Kyushu Univ., Japan. A set of cylindrical electrode was utilized to control the radial electric field, and the profile of azimuthal E × B rotation has been changed. We present the experimental results on the electron density pileup and the flow reversal appeared in the rotating plasma. This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 16K05633.

  19. Massless scalar field and solar-system experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Formiga, J. B.

    2011-04-15

    The solution of Einstein's field equations with the energy-momentum tensor of a massless scalar field is known as the Fisher solution. It is well known that this solution has a naked singularity due to the ''charge''{Sigma} of the massless scalar field. Here I obtain the radial null geodesic of the Fisher solution and use it to confirm that there is no black hole. In addition, I use the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism to show that the Fisher spacetime predicts the same effects on solar-system experiments as the Schwarzschild one does, as long as we impose a limit on {Sigma}. I show that this limit is not a strong constraint and we can even take values of {Sigma} bigger than M. By using the exact formula of the redshift and some assumptions, I evaluate this limit for the experiment of Pound and Snider [Phys. Rev. 140, B788 (1965)]. It turns out that this limit is {Sigma}<5.8x10{sup 3} m.

  20. Equilibrium evolution in oscillating-field current-drive experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollam, K. J.; Anderson, J. K.; Blair, A. P.; Craig, D.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ebrahimi, F.; O'Connell, R.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Stephens, H. D.; Stone, D. R.; Brower, D. L.; Deng, B. H.; Ding, W. X.

    2010-08-01

    Oscillating-field current drive (OFCD) is a proposed method of steady-state toroidal plasma sustainment in which ac poloidal and toroidal loop voltages are applied to produce a dc plasma current. OFCD is added to standard, inductively sustained reversed-field pinch plasmas in the Madison Symmetric Torus [R. N. Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)]. Equilibrium profiles and fluctuations during a single cycle are measured and analyzed for different relative phases between the two OFCD voltages and for OFCD off. For OFCD phases leading to the most added plasma current, the measured energy confinement is slightly better than that for OFCD off. By contrast, the phase of the maximum OFCD helicity-injection rate also has the maximum decay rate, which is ascribed to transport losses during discrete magnetic-fluctuation events induced by OFCD. Resistive-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the experiments reproduce the observed phase dependence of the added current.

  1. SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

    2012-10-17

    The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

  2. EFEDA - European field experiment in a desertification-threatened area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolle, H.-J.; Andre, J.-C.; Arrue, J. L.; Barth, H. K.; Bessemoulin, P.; Brasa, A.; De Bruin, H. A. R.; Cruces, J.; Dugdale, G.; Engman, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    During June 1991 more than 30 scientific teams worked in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain, studying the energy and water transfer processes between soil, vegetation, and the atmosphere in semiarid conditions within the coordinated European research project EFEDA (European Field Experiment in Desertification-threatened Areas). Measurements were made from the microscale (e.g., measurements on single plants) up to a scale compatible with the grid size of global models. For this purpose three sites were selected 70 km apart and heavily instrumented at a scale in the order of 30 sq km. Aircraft missions, satellite data, and movable equipment were deployed to provide a bridge to the larger scale. This paper gives a description of the experimental design along with some of the preliminary results of this successful experiment.

  3. A field experiment: reducing interpersonal discrimination toward pregnant job applicants.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; Walker, Sarah Singletary; Hebl, Michelle Mikki R; King, Eden B

    2013-09-01

    The current research targets 4 potential stereotypes driving hostile attitudes and discriminatory behaviors toward pregnant women: incompetence, lack of commitment, inflexibility, and need for accommodation. We tested the relative efficacy of reducing concerns related to each of the stereotypes in a field experiment in which female confederates who sometimes wore pregnancy prostheses applied for jobs in a retail setting. As expected, ratings from 3 perspectives (applicants, observers, and independent coders) converged to show that pregnant applicants received more interpersonal hostility than did nonpregnant applicants. However, when hiring managers received (vs. did not receive) counterstereotypic information about certain pregnancy-related stereotypes (particularly lack of commitment and inflexibility), managers displayed significantly less interpersonal discrimination. Explicit comparisons of counterstereotypic information shed light on the fact that certain information may be more effective in reducing discrimination than others. We conclude by discussing how the current research makes novel theoretical contributions and describe some practical organizational implications for understanding and improving the experiences of pregnant workers.

  4. Insect monitoring with fluorescence lidar techniques: field experiments.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zuguang; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Lundin, Patrik; Wellenreuther, Maren; Runemark, Anna; Svensson, Erik I; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-09-20

    Results from field experiments using a fluorescence lidar system to monitor movements of insects are reported. Measurements over a river surface were made at distances between 100 and 300 m, detecting, in particular, damselflies entering the 355 nm pulsed laser beam. The lidar system recorded the depolarized elastic backscattering and two broad bands of laser-induced fluorescence, with the separation wavelength at 500 nm. Captured species, dusted with characteristic fluorescent dye powders, could be followed spatially and temporally after release. Implications for ecological research are discussed.

  5. Cartoon music in a candy store: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Le Guellec, Hélène; Guéguen, Nicolas; Jacob, Céline; Pascual, Alexandre

    2007-06-01

    An experiment on consumers' behavior was carried out in a new field context. According to a random assignment, 60 customers from ages 12 to 14 years who entered a candy store were exposed to Top Forty music which was usually played in this store, music from cartoons (Captain Flame, Candy, Olive & Tom, etc.), or no music. Analysis showed that customers spent significantly more time in the store when cartoon music was played, but the two styles of music were not related to the amount of money spent.

  6. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Nearshore Hydrodynamics Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, K. A.; Voulgaris, G.; Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Hanes, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) a nearshore field experiment was carried out for five days in December 2003 just north of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, providing measurements of the waves, currents and morphological evolution. This experiment occurred concurrently with an extensive field campaign several kilometers offshore which included measurements of the waves and currents on and near a significant sand shoal. The purpose of the nearshore experiment was to aid in the identification of the effect of the offshore shoal on the nearshore processes. The resulting dataset will be used for verification of numerical models being used to investigate the hydrodynamics of the region. The experiment was carried out from December 10 to December 15 and consisted of measurements of the waves and currents, extensive surveys of the bathymetry every day, grab samples of the sediments, and video imagery. The hydrodynamics were measured using two Sontek Triton downward-looking Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters and two Nortek AquaDopp profilers arranged in a cross-shore line from inside the swash to several surf zone widths past the breakers. The bathymetric surveying was accomplished using both a differential GPS system and a total station. Surveying was performed each day in order to capture the morphological changes. On the last day, seven sediment samples were taken along a single cross-section to determine the sediment characteristics across the beach. Additionally, a video camera was located on a balcony of the top floor of a nearby hotel providing an excellent field of view of the entire experimental area. Digital video was captured directly onto a computer during all daylight hours and many control points were surveyed in each day to facilitate rectification of the imagery. A variety of conditions were encountered during the experiment, including two storm fronts which passed through, generating wind speeds up to 15 m/s. The first storm generated

  7. Field and laboratory experiments on high dissolution rates of limestone in stream flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattanji, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Mariko; Song, Wonsuh; Ishii, Nobuyuki; Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Takaya, Yasuhiko; Matsukura, Yukinori

    2014-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were performed to examine dissolution rates of limestone in stream flow. Field experiments were conducted in three stream sites (A-C) with different lithological or hydrological settings around a limestone plateau in the Abukuma Mts., Japan. Sites A and B are allogenic streams, which flow from non-limestone sources into dolines, and site C has a karst spring source. Tablets made of limestone from the same plateau with a diameter of 3.5 cm and a thickness of 1 cm were placed in the streams for 3 years (2008-2011) where alkalinity, pH and major cation concentrations were measured periodically. The saturation indices of calcite (SIc) of stream water were - 2.8 ± 0.4 at site A, - 2.5 ± 0.4 at site B and - 0.5 ± 0.4 at site C. Annual weight loss ratios for tablets were extremely high at site A (0.11-0.14 mg cm- 2 d- 1), high at site B (0.05 mg cm- 2 d- 1), and low at site C (0.005 mg cm- 2 d- 1). The contrasting rates of weight loss are mainly explained by chemical conditions of stream water. In addition, laboratory experiments for dissolution of limestone tablets using a flow-through apparatus revealed that flow conditions around the limestone tablet is another important factor for dissolution in the stream environment. These results revealed that limestone dissolves at a rapid rate where water unsaturated to calcite continuously flows, such as in an allogenic stream.

  8. Identifying Discrimination at Work: The Use of Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Western, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Antidiscrimination law offers protection to workers who have been treated unfairly on the basis of their race, gender, religion, or national origin. In order for these protections to be invoked, however, potential plaintiffs must be aware of and able to document discriminatory treatment. Given the subtlety of contemporary forms of discrimination, it is often difficult to identify discrimination when it has taken place. The methodology of field experiments offers one approach to measuring and detecting hiring discrimination, providing direct observation of discrimination in real-world settings. In this article, we discuss the findings of two recent field experiments measuring racial discrimination in low wage labor markets. This research provides several relevant findings for researchers and those interested in civil rights enforcement: (1) it produces estimates of the rate of discrimination at the point of hire; (2) it yields evidence about the interactions associated with discrimination (many of which reveal the subtlety with which contemporary discrimination is practiced); and (3) it provides a vehicle for both research on and enforcement of antidiscrimination law. PMID:24163481

  9. Dimensioning IRGA gas sampling systems: laboratory and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubinet, Marc; Joly, Lilian; Loustau, Denis; De Ligne, Anne; Chopin, Henri; Cousin, Julien; Chauvin, Nicolas; Decarpenterie, Thomas; Gross, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Both laboratory and field experiments were carried out in order to define suitable configuration ranges for the gas sampling systems (GSSs) of infrared gas analyzers (IRGAs) used in eddy covariance measurements.

    In the laboratory, an original dynamic calibration bench was developed in order to test the frequency attenuation and pressure drop generated by filters. In the field, three IRGAs of the same type equipped with different filters or different rain caps were installed and run and the real frequency response of the complete setup was tested. The main results are as follows. - Filters may have a strong impact on the pressure drop in the GSS and this impact increases with flow rate. - Conversely, no impact of the tested filters on cut-off frequency was found, GSSs with and without filters presenting similar cut-off frequencies. - The main limiting factor of cut-off frequency in the field was found to be the rain cap design. In addition, the impact of this design on pressure drop was also found to be noteworthy.

  10. Dimensioning IRGA gas sampling system : laboratory and field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubinet, Marc; Joly, Lilian; Loustau, Denis; De Ligne, Anne; Chopin, Henri; Cousin, Julien; De Carpenterie, Thomas; Gross, Patrick; Chauvin, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Both laboratory and field experiments were carried out in order to define suitable configuration ranges for the gas sampling systems (GSS) of infrared gas analyzers (IRGA) used in eddy covariance measurements. In the laboratory, an original dynamic calibration bench was developed in order to test the frequency attenuation and pressure drop generated by filters. In the field, three IRGAs of the same type equipped with different filters or different rain caps were installed and run and the real frequency response of the complete set-up was tested. The main results are that: - Filters may have a strong impact on the pressure drop in the GSS and this impact increases with flow rate. - On the contrary, no impact of the tested filters on cut off frequency was found, GSS with and without filters presenting similar cut off frequencies. - The main limiting factor of cut off frequency in the field was found to be the rain cap design. In addition, the impact of this design on pressure drop was also found noteworthy.

  11. [Runoff Pollution Experiments of Paddy Fields Under Different Irrigation Patterns].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-wen; Su, Bao-lin; Huang, Ning-bo; Guan, Yu-tang; Zhao, Kun

    2016-03-15

    To study runoff and non-point source pollution of paddy fields and to provide a scientific basis for agricultural water management of paddy fields, paddy plots in the Jintan City and the Liyang City were chosen for experiments on non-point source pollution, and flood irrigation and intermittent irrigation patterns were adopted in this research. The surface water level and rainfall were observed during the growing season of paddies, and the runoff amount from paddy plots and loads of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were calculated by different methods. The results showed that only five rain events of totally 27 rainfalls and one artificially drainage formed non-point source pollution from flood irrigated paddy plot, which resulted in a TN export coefficient of 49.4 kg · hm⁻² and a TP export coefficient of 1.0 kg · hm⁻². No any runoff event occurred from the paddy plot with intermittent irrigation even in the case of maximum rainfall of 95.1 mm. Runoff from paddy fields was affected by water demands of paddies and irrigation or drainage management, which was directly correlated to surface water level, rainfall amount and the lowest ridge height of outlets. Compared with the flood irrigation, intermittent irrigation could significantly reduce non-point source pollution caused by rainfall or artificial drainage.

  12. Field experiments using SPEAR: a speech control system for UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhatpar, Siddharth R.; Blanco, Chris; Czerniak, Jeffrey; Hoffman, Orin; Juneja, Amit; Pruthi, Tarun; Liu, Dongqing; Karlsen, Robert; Brown, Jonathan

    2009-05-01

    This paper reports on a Field Experiment carried out by the Human Research and Engineering Directorate at Ft. Benning to evaluate the efficacy of using speech to control an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) concurrently with a handcontroller. The SPEAR system, developed by Think-A-Move, provides speech-control of UGVs. The system picks up user-speech in the ear canal with an in-ear microphone. This property allows it to work efficiently in high-noise environments, where traditional speech systems, employing external microphones, fail. It has been integrated with an iRobot PackBot 510 with EOD kit. The integrated system allows the hand-controller to be supplemented with speech for concurrent control. At Ft. Benning, the integrated system was tested by soldiers from the Officer Candidate School. The Experiment had dual focus: 1) Quantitative measurement of the time taken to complete each station and the cognitive load on users; 2) Qualitative evaluation of ease-of-use and ergonomics through soldier-feedback. Also of significant benefit to Think-A-Move was soldier-feedback on the speech-command vocabulary employed: What spoken commands are intuitive, and how the commands should be executed, e.g., limited-motion vs. unlimited-motion commands. Overall results from the Experiment are reported in the paper.

  13. Data management for interdisciplinary field experiments: OTTER project support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelici, Gary; Popovici, Lidia; Skiles, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of investigators of an interdisciplinary science project to properly manage the data that are collected during the experiment is critical to the effective conduct of science. When the project becomes large, possibly including several scenes of large-format remotely sensed imagery shared by many investigators requiring several services, the data management effort can involve extensive staff and computerized data inventories. The OTTER (Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research) project was supported by the PLDS (Pilot Land Data System) with several data management services, such as data inventory, certification, and publication. After a brief description of these services, experiences in providing them are compared with earlier data management efforts and some conclusions regarding data management in support of interdisciplinary science are discussed. In addition to providing these services, a major goal of this data management capability was to adopt characteristics of a pro-active attitude, such as flexibility and responsiveness, believed to be crucial for the effective conduct of active, interdisciplinary science. These are also itemized and compared with previous data management support activities. Identifying and improving these services and characteristics can lead to the design and implementation of optimal data management support capabilities, which can result in higher quality science and data products from future interdisciplinary field experiments.

  14. Electric Field Double Probe Measurements for Ionospheric Space Plasma Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R.

    1999-01-01

    Double probes represent a well-proven technique for gathering high quality DC and AC electric field measurements in a variety of space plasma regimes including the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and mesosphere. Such experiments have been successfully flown on a variety of spacecraft including sounding rockets and satellites. Typical instrument designs involve a series of trades, depending on the science objectives, type of platform (e.g., spinning or 3-axis stabilized), expected plasma regime where the measurements will be made, available telemetry, budget, etc. In general, ionospheric DC electric field instruments that achieve accuracies of 0.1 mV/m or better, place spherical sensors at large distances (10m or more) from the spacecraft body in order to extend well beyond the spacecraft wake and sheath and to achieve large signal-to-noise ratios for DC and long wavelength measurements. Additional sets of sensors inboard of the primary, outermost sensors provide useful additional information, both for diagnostics of the plasma contact potentials, which particularly enhance the DC electric field measurements on non-spinning spacecraft, and for wavelength and phase velocity measurements that use the spaced receiver or "interferometer" technique. Accurate attitude knowledge enables B times V contributions to be subtracted from the measured potentials, and permits the measured components to be rotated into meaningful geophysical reference frames. We review the measurement technique for both DC and wave electric field measurements in the ionosphere discussing recent advances involving high resolution burst memories, multiple baseline double probes, new sensor surface materials, biasing techniques, and other considerations.

  15. Mercury's Gravity Field from BepiColombo MORE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marabucci, M.; Genova, A.; Iess, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Mercury Orbiter Radioscience Experiment (MORE) is one of the main instruments on board the BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO), designed to provide an accurate estimation of Mercury's gravity field by means of highly stable, multi-frequency radio links in X and Ka band. The state-of-the-art microwave equipment enables simultaneous two-way links in X/X (7.2 GHz uplink/8.4 GHz downlink), X/Ka (7.2/32.5 GHz) and Ka/Ka band (34/32.5 GHz), providing range rate accuracies of 3 micron/s (at 1000 s integration time) at nearly all elongation angles. Range observables accurate to 20 cm (two-way) will be attained using a novel, wideband (24 Mcps) ranging system, based upon a pseudo-noise modulation scheme. The multifrequency link, adopted for the first time by the Cassini mission to Saturn [1,2], allows a nearly complete cancellation of the plasma noise both in Doppler and range measurements and hence an accurate determination of Mercury's gravity field and ephemerides. The orbit determination of spacecraft in deep space is generally carried out by means of batch filters, for recovering the trajectory and the model parameters (i.e. gravity field coefficients). The complexity of Mercury's environment penalizes strongly the accuracy of the orbit determination because of the non-gravitational perturbations, such as the solar radiation pressure. Although the non-gravitational accelerations of the MPO will be measured by a highly sensitive accelerometer (the Italian Spring Accelerometer, ISA), a classical, global batch filter proved to be inadequate for precise orbit propagation due to numerical instabilities. Therefore, a different approach has been devised, where the information accumulated previously is exploited in a batch-sequential filter. This paper reports on a new set of numerical simulations carried out with this strategy. The simulation setup takes into account the latest changes in the spacecraft design, the mission profile and the tracking system. We

  16. Microwave Remote Sensing and the Cold Land Processes Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward J.; Cline, Don; Davis, Bert; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Cold Land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX) has been designed to advance our understanding of the terrestrial cryosphere. Developing a more complete understanding of fluxes, storage, and transformations of water and energy in cold land areas is a critical focus of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise Research Strategy, the NASA Global Water and Energy Cycle (GWEC) Initiative, the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX), and the GEWEX Americas Prediction Project (GAPP). The movement of water and energy through cold regions in turn plays a large role in ecological activity and biogeochemical cycles. Quantitative understanding of cold land processes over large areas will require synergistic advancements in 1) understanding how cold land processes, most comprehensively understood at local or hillslope scales, extend to larger scales, 2) improved representation of cold land processes in coupled and uncoupled land-surface models, and 3) a breakthrough in large-scale observation of hydrologic properties, including snow characteristics, soil moisture, the extent of frozen soils, and the transition between frozen and thawed soil conditions. The CLPX Plan has been developed through the efforts of over 60 interested scientists that have participated in the NASA Cold Land Processes Working Group (CLPWG). This group is charged with the task of assessing, planning and implementing the required background science, technology, and application infrastructure to support successful land surface hydrology remote sensing space missions. A major product of the experiment will be a comprehensive, legacy data set that will energize many aspects of cold land processes research. The CLPX will focus on developing the quantitative understanding, models, and measurements necessary to extend our local-scale understanding of water fluxes, storage, and transformations to regional and global scales. The experiment will particularly emphasize developing a strong synergism between process

  17. Soil response to chemicals used in a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezierska-Tys, S.; Rutkowska, A.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of chemicals (Reglone 200 SL and Elastiq 550 EC) on soil microorganisms and their enzymatic activity was estimated. The study was conducted in a field experiment which was set up in the split-block design and comprised three treatments. Soil samples were taken six times, twice in each year of study. The results showed that the application of chemicals generally had no negative effect on the number of soil microorganisms. The application of Reglone 200 SL caused an increase of proteolytic and ureolytic activity and affected the activity of dehydrogenases, acid and alkaline phosphatases in the soil. The soil subjected of Elastiq 550 EC was characterized by lower activity of dehydrogenases, protease, urease and alkaline phosphatase.

  18. Prosocial Behavior and Subjective Insecurity in Violent Contexts: Field Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, María Alejandra; Trujillo, Carlos Andres; Moros, Lina; Forero, Clemente

    2016-01-01

    Subjective insecurity is a key determinant of different forms of prosocial behavior. In Study 1, we used field experiments with farmers in Colombian villages exposed to different levels of violence to investigate how individual perceptions of insecurity affect cooperation, trust, reciprocity and altruism. To do so, we developed a cognitive-affective measure of subjective insecurity. We found that subjective insecurity has a negative effect on cooperation but influences trust and altruism positively. In Study 2, carried out three years after Study 1, we repeated the initial design with additional measures of victimization. Our goal was to relate subjective insecurity with actual victimization. The findings of Study 2 support the initial results, and are robust and consistent for cooperative behavior and trust when including victimization as a mediator. Different indicators of victimization are positively correlated with subjective insecurity and an aggregate index of victimization has a negative effect on cooperation but exerts a positive influence on trust. PMID:27472437

  19. Monitoring instrument field experiments at Oregon Institute of Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Danielson, M.J.; Smith, R.P.

    1980-09-01

    The field tests were conducted under reducing and oxidizing conditions. Corrosion rates with zero oxygen were about 1.1 mils per year (mpy) for both copper and steel coupons, which is quite low for carbon steel. There was a problem controlling the oxygen level in the oxygenated experiments; however, it was found that corrosion rates increased with the presence of oxygen. Corrosion rates for the steel and copper coupons were 4 and 2 mpy, respectively; copper coupled to cast iron corroded at 8 mpy. Commercial corrosion rate measuring equipment determined the general corrosion rate of carbon steel farily well but overestimated copper corrosion rates. The redox electrode was a very sensitive indicator of the entry of oxygen.

  20. Use of multitemporal SPOT data in first ISLSCP field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, Ghassem; Murphy, R. E.; Hall, F. G.; Sellers, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of multitemporal SPOT data in a coordinated field experiment is described with objectives to understand the processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of heat, mass, momentum and radiation at a range of spatial and temporal scales; and quantify processes associated with these biosphere-atmosphere exchanges with the aid of multispectral and multitemporal remotely sensed data. The study was conducted in a 15 sq km area located in the tall grass prairie region of midwestern U.S. over a period of three years from 1987 through 1989. A combination of ground based, airborne and space based remotely sensed data were used in a variety of interdisciplinary investigations. An overview of the results from studies that used SPOT multispectral and multitemporal data is presented.

  1. ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) Field Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, L Ruby

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s ARM Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) field campaign contributes to CalWater 2015, a multi-agency field campaign that aims to improve understanding of atmospheric rivers and aerosol sources and transport that influence cloud and precipitation processes. The ultimate goal is to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods in California. With the DOE G-1 aircraft and ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) well equipped for making aerosol and cloud measurements, ACAPEX focuses specifically on understanding how aerosols from local pollution and long-range transport affect the amount and phase of precipitation associated with atmospheric rivers. ACAPEX took place between January 12, 2015 and March 8, 2015 as part of CalWater 2015, which included four aircraft (DOE G-1, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA] G-IV and P-3, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] ER-2), the NOAA research ship Ron Brown, carrying onboard the AMF2, National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored aerosol and precipitation measurements at Bodega Bay, and the California Department of Water Resources extreme precipitation network.

  2. Frac-and-pack stimulation: Application, design, and field experience

    SciTech Connect

    Roodhart, L.P.; Fokker, P.A.; Davies, D.R.; Shlyapobersky, J.; Wong, G.K.

    1994-03-01

    This paper discusses the criteria for selecting wells to be frac-and-packed. The authors show how systematic study of the inflow performance can be used to assess the potential of frac-and-packed wells, to identify the controlling factors, and to optimize design parameters. They also show that fracture conductivity is often the key to successful treatment. This conductivity depends largely on proppant size; formation permeability damage around the created fracture has less effect. Appropriate allowance needs to be made for flow restrictions caused by the presence of the perforations, partial penetration, and non-Darcy effects. They describe the application of the overpressure-calibrated hydraulic fracture model in frac-and-pack treatment design, and discuss some operational considerations with reference to field examples. The full potential of this promising new completion method can be achieved only if the design is tailored to the individual well. This demands high-quality input data, which can be obtained only from a calibration test. This paper presents their strategy for frac-and-pack design, drawing on examples from field experience. They also point out several areas that the industry needs to address, such as the sizing of proppant in soft formations and the interaction between fracturing fluids and resin in resin-coated proppant.

  3. Magnetic Field Experiment on Yinghuo-1 at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hua

    Magnetic Field Experiment on Yinghuo-1 at Mars Hua Zhao, G. W. Zhu, J. D. Wang, M. F. Yu, L. Li, Y. Q. Sun, S. W. Chen, H. Z. Liao, and B. Zhou Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China Abstract: A micro-satellite, Yinghuo-1, would be launched with Phobos-Grunt in October, 2009 to investigate the space environment around Mars. YH-1 and Phobos-Grunt forms a twopoint measurement configuration in the Martian space environment, and equipped with similar magnetic field and plasma detecting payload on two spacecraft would give some coordinated exploration around Mars. YH-1 would orbit Mars with periapsis of 800 km above the Martian surface, and apoapsis about 80000 km to the center of Mars. The orbit inclination is in the range of 0—7o to the Martian equator. A flux-gate type magnetometer, with two sensors, is developed for YH-1 spacecraft. Two sensors are mounted on one-side of the deployable solar panel with a radial separation about 45 cm to function as a gradiometer to minimize the affects of platform remanence. The dynamic range of √ magnetometer is with a 16-bit ADC converter, and the the noise level is better than 0.01 nT/ Hz, to measure three-component magnetic field from DC to 10Hz. Flux-gate magnetometer would work together with the Plasma Package onboard of YH-1 to investigate the Martian bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetic pileup region (MPR). A detail description of the flux-gate magnetometer is presented in this paper, with some test and calibration results.

  4. Macroalgal mats and species abundance: a field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, S. C.

    1987-11-01

    A field experiment was carried out whereby the density of macroalgae ( Enteromorpha spp.) was manipulated and the resultant changes in sediment infaunal density were monitored. Four densities of Enteromorpha spp. were used: 0,0·3, 1, and 3 kg FW m -2, corresponding to control, low-, medium-, and high-density plots. The experiment ran from May to October 1985 and was sampled on three occasions. By July, the density of Corophium volutator was reduced at all weed levels when compared to control plots, whereas densities of Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Nereis diversicolor, and Capitella capitata, all increased. Samples taken in October when the weed mats were buried in the sediment showed fewer differences than in July. Macoma, Nereis, and Capitella were still significantly more abundant at medium and high weed densities. Corophium showed no significant treatment effect. There was, however, a highly significant difference in population size structure for Corophium. Measurements of sediment redox potential and silt content under medium- and high-density plots revealed rapid anoxia with a significant increase in siltation.

  5. Geothermal well stimulation - program summary and the Beowawe field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, R.V.

    1983-12-01

    Republic Geothermal, Inc. and its subcontractors have planned and executed laboratory studies and eight well stimulation field experiments under the Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP). The program, begun in February 1979, has concentrated on extending petroleum industry stimulation technology for use by the geothermal industry. The most recent experiment was in a naturally fractured Chevron well at Beowawe and involved an acid stimulation of a damaged interval which yielded a 2.3-fold increase in injectivity. Overall results to date have shown that stimulation is viable where adequate reservoirs are penetrated by wells encountering formation damage or locally tight formations. However, wells in marginal naturally fractured reservoirs have not been saved by the types of well stimulation jobs performed thus far. A recent discovery is that many wells can possibly be made outstanding producers by widening and propping compliant natural fractures. Confirmation of this constitutes unfinished business of the GRWSP, adn offers one of the greatest potential opportunities for enhancing the economics of geothermal power production.

  6. The field experiments on the HTO washout from the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Golubev, A.V.; Mavrin, S.V.; Golubeva, V.N.; Stengach, A.V.; Balashov, Y.S.; Kovalenko, V.P.; Solomatin, I.I.

    2015-03-15

    HTO (tritiated water) wash-out from the atmosphere is one of the key processes governing the HTO transport from the atmosphere into soil and plants. Experimental studies of the HTO interaction with water drops were carried out both in laboratories and in the field. In the course of experiments, the following rain characteristics were recorded: rain intensity, size distribution of drops, and falling velocities and their dependence on drop diameter. A laser optical device was designed and used to measure the distribution of the drop radius and velocities during the period of experiment. The tritium source was placed at a height of 30 m. Rainwater samples were collected in plastic bottles and their HTO activity was determined by liquid scintillation techniques. The data obtained for the experimental values of the scavenging rate are within the range from 4.12*10{sup -5} to 1.57*10{sup -4} s{sup -1} and correspond to the precipitation intensity from 0.3 to 1.26 mm/hour. These results are in sufficiently good agreement with the results of earlier papers.

  7. An Oceanographic Decision Support System for Scientific Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maughan, T.; Das, J.; McCann, M. P.; Rajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Thom Maughan, Jnaneshwar Das, Mike McCann, Danelle Cline, Mike Godin, Fred Bahr, Kevin Gomes, Tom O'Reilly, Frederic Py, Monique Messie, John Ryan, Francisco Chavez, Jim Bellingham, Maria Fox, Kanna Rajan Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Moss Lading, California, United States Many of the coastal ocean processes we wish to observe in order to characterize marine ecosystems have large spatial extant (tens of square km) and are dynamic moving kilometers in a day with biological processes spanning anywhere from minutes to days. Some like harmful algal blooms generate toxins which can significantly impact human health and coastal economies. In order to obtain a viable understanding of the biogeochemical processes which define their dynamics and ecology, it is necessary to persistently observe, track and sample within and near the dynamic fields using augmented methods of observation such as autonomous platforms like AUVs, gliders and surface craft. Field experiments to plan, execute and manage such multitude of assets are challenging. To alleviate this problem the autonomous systems group with its collaborators at MBARI and USC designed, built and fielded a prototype Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) that provides situational awareness and a single portal to visualize and plan deployments for the large scale October 2010 CANON field program as well as a series of 2 week field programs in 2011. The field programs were conducted in Monterey Bay, a known 'red tide' incubator, and varied from as many as twenty autonomous platforms, four ships and 2 manned airplanes to coordinated AUV operations, drifters and a single ship. The ODSS web-based portal was used to assimilate information from a collection of sources at sea, including AUVs, moorings, radar data as well as remote sensing products generated by partner organizations to provide a synthesis of views useful to predict the movement of a chlorophyll patch in the confines of the northern Monterey Bay

  8. Field experiments of nonlocal sediment transport on a steep hillslope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiBiase, R.; Booth, A. M.; Ganti, V.; Scheingross, J. S.; Lamb, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Steep rocky hillslopes dominate the areal extent of rapidly uplifting mountain ranges, and pose a significant hazard to encroaching population centers. Existing models for hillslope sediment transport developed for soil-mantled landscapes are poorly suited to explain the evolution of steep hillslopes characterized by: (1) intermittent or patchy soil cover, (2) slopes that exceed the angle of repose, and (3) transport events that often involve long travel distances. Recently, nonlocal formulations of hillslope sediment transport laws that account for long travel distances have been proposed to overcome the limitations of traditional continuum-based models. However, their application to natural landscapes has been limited owing to few field constraints on key parameters, and computational difficulties expanding the framework to two-dimensions. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a series of field experiments on natural hillslopes to inform a simple particle-based model of hillslope sediment transport. We compiled the distribution of average velocity and transport distance for over 300 stones ranging in diameter from 2-10 cm using a video camera and laser range-finder. To characterize surface roughness, we used a tripod-based laser scanner to generate a 1 cm-resolution digital elevation model of each 30 m long hillslope. We find that hillslope travel distance follows a heavy-tailed distribution that varies systematically with the ratio of particle diameter to roughness height, in general agreement to published laboratory experiments. Mean particle velocity ranges from 1-3 m/s and scales weakly with distance traveled. Our modeling exercise reveals three key effects that should be included in any treatment of steep hillslope evolution: (1) there is a strong grain-size and surface roughness dependence on sediment transport distance, (2) sediment storage on slopes steeper than the angle of repose is possible due to vegetation or topographic roughness, and (3

  9. High field electron spin resonance experiments on spin - Peierls compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palme, W.; Schmidt, S.; Lüthi, B.; Boucher, J. P.; Weiden, M.; Hauptmann, R.; Geibel, C.; Revcolevschi, A.; Dhalenne, G.

    1998-05-01

    The spin-Peierls (SP) transition is still one of the most challenging effects in quasi-one-dimensional magnetism. A few years ago the first inorganic spin-Peierls compound CuGeO 3 with TSP=14.3 K was discovered, and recently α‧-NaV 2O 5 was found to be another inorganic SP system with the highest transition temperature so far observed: TSP=35 K. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is the only direct way to probe electron spin dynamics in magnetic fields higher than 12 T, where a transition to an incommensurate magnetic phase can occur. We present ESR results on single crystals of pure and Si-doped CuGeO 3 and pure α‧-NaV 2O 5. Our experiments were done in a wide frequency range 35-440 GHz in magnetic fields up to 16 T, covering a large temperature range 1.5-100 K. The temperature dependence of the ESR absorption in the D-phase in α‧-NaV 2O 5 points to transitions among triplet states, which are separated from the singlet ground state by an energy gap Δ≈85 K for T →0 . In contrast to χ( T) the ESR absorption does not stay finite for T →0 . In the incommensurate phase of slightly Si-doped CuGeO 3 (0.2% Si) ESR signals were observed, but their behaviour is much different from the ones in the pure compound.

  10. The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, M. C.; Brune, W. H.; Cantrell, C. A.; Rutledge, S. A.; Crawford, J. H.; Huntrieser, H.; Homeyer, C. R.; Nault, B.; Cohen, R. C.; Pan, L.; Ziemba, L. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field experiment took place in the central U.S. in May and June 2012 and had the objectives of characterizing the effect of thunderstorms on the chemical composition of the lower atmosphere and determining the chemical aging of upper troposphere (UT) convective outflow plumes. DC3 employed ground-based radars, lightning mapping arrays, and weather balloon soundings in conjunction with aircraft measurements sampling the composition of the inflow and outflow of a variety of thunderstorms in northeast Colorado, West Texas to central Oklahoma, and northern Alabama. A unique aspect of the DC3 strategy was to locate and sample the convective outflow a day after active convection in order to measure the chemical transformations within the UT convective plume. The DC3 data are being analyzed to investigate transport and dynamics of the storms, scavenging of soluble trace gases and aerosols, production of nitrogen oxides by lightning, relationships between lightning flash rates and storm parameters, and chemistry in the UT that is affected by the convection. In this presentation, we give an overview of the DC3 field campaign and highlight results from the campaign that are relevant to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region. These highlights include stratosphere-troposphere exchange in connection with thunderstorms, the 0-12 hour chemical aging and new particle formation in the UT outflow of a dissipating mesoscale convective system observed on June 21, 2012, and UT chemical aging in convective outflow as sampled the day after convection occurred and modeled in the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry model.

  11. Status of SRNL radiological field lysimeter experiment-Year 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.; Roberts, K.; Bagwell, L.

    2013-10-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radiological Field Lysimeter Experiment is a one-of-a-kind field facility designed to study radionuclide geochemical processes at a larger spatial scale (from grams to tens of kilograms sediment) and temporal scale (from months to 10 years) than is readily afforded through laboratory studies. The lysimeter facility is intended to capture the natural heterogeneity of moisture and temperature regimes in the vadose zone, the unsaturated subsurface region between the surface soil and the underlying aquifer. The 48 lysimeter columns, which contain various radionuclides (and stable iodine), were opened to rainfall infiltration on July 5, 2012. The objective of this report is to provide a status of the lysimeter facility operations and to compile data collected during FY13, including leachate volume, rainfall, and soil moisture and temperature in situ probe data. Radiological leachate data are not presented in this document but will be the subject of a separate document.1 Leachate samples were collected quarterly and shipped to Clemson University for radiological analyses. Rainfall, leachate volume, moisture and temperature probe data were collected continuously. During operations of the facility this year, there were four safety or technical concerns that required additional maintenance: 1) radioactivity was detected in one of the overflow bottles (captured water collected from the secondary containment that does not come in contact with the radiological source material); 2) rainwater accumulated within the sample-bottle storage sheds; 3) overflow containers collected more liquid than anticipated; and 4) significant spider infestation occurred in the sample-bottle storage sheds. To address the first three concerns, each of the lysimeter columns was re-plumbed to improve and to minimize the number of joint unions. To address the fourth concern regarding spiders, new sample-bottle water sheds were purchased and a pest control

  12. A measurement system applicable for landslide experiments in the field.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Zhao; Xu, Xiang-Zhou; Wang, Wen-Long; Yang, Ji-Shan; Liu, Ya-Kun; Xu, Fei-Long

    2016-04-01

    Observation of gravity erosion in the field with strong sunshine and wind poses a challenge. Here, a novel topography meter together with a movable tent addresses the challenge. With the topography meter, a 3D geometric shape of the target surface can be digitally reconstructed. Before the commencement of a test, the laser generator position and the camera sightline should be adjusted with a sight calibrator. Typically, the topography meter can measure the gravity erosion on the slope with a gradient of 30°-70°. Two methods can be used to obtain a relatively clear video, despite the extreme steepness of the slopes. One method is to rotate the laser source away from the slope to ensure that the camera sightline remains perpendicular to the laser plane. Another way is to move the camera farther away from the slope in which the measured volume of the slope needs to be corrected; this method will reduce distortion of the image. In addition, installation of tent poles with concrete columns helps to surmount the altitude difference on steep slopes. Results observed by the topography meter in real landslide experiments are rational and reliable.

  13. Test plan for FY-94 digface characterization field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.; Roybal, L.G.

    1994-08-01

    The digface characterization concept has been under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) since fiscal year (FY) 1992 through the support of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program. A digface characterization system conducts continuous subsurface characterization simultaneously with retrieval of hazardous and radioactive waste from buried waste sites. The system deploys multiple sensors at the retrieval operation digface and collects data that provide a basis for detecting, locating, and classifying buried materials and hazardous conditions before they are disturbed by the retrieval equipment. This test plan describes ongoing efforts to test the digface characterization concept at the INEL`s Cold Test Pit using a simplified prototype deployment apparatus and off-the-shelf sensors. FY-94 field experiments will explore problems in object detection and classification. Detection and classification of objects are fundamental to three of the four primary functions of digface characterization during overburden removal. This test plan establishes procedures for collecting and validating the digface characterization data sets. Analysis of these data will focus on testing and further developing analysis methods for object detection and classification during overburden removal.

  14. Cooperation and conflict: field experiments in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Antonio S.; Mace, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The idea that cohesive groups, in which individuals help each other, have a competitive advantage over groups composed of selfish individuals has been widely suggested as an explanation for the evolution of cooperation in humans. Recent theoretical models propose the coevolution of parochial altruism and intergroup conflict, when in-group altruism and out-group hostility contribute to the group's success in these conflicts. However, the few empirical attempts to test this hypothesis do not use natural groups and conflate measures of in-group and unbiased cooperative behaviour. We conducted field experiments based on naturalistic measures of cooperation (school/charity donations and lost letters' returns) with two religious groups with an on-going history of conflict—Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Conflict was associated with reduced donations to out-group schools and the return of out-group letters, but we found no evidence that it influences in-group cooperation. Rather, socio-economic status was the major determinant of cooperative behaviour. Our study presents a challenge to dominant perspectives on the origins of human cooperation, and has implications for initiatives aiming to promote conflict resolution and social cohesion. PMID:25143042

  15. A measurement system applicable for landslide experiments in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wen-Zhao; Xu, Xiang-Zhou; Wang, Wen-Long; Yang, Ji-Shan; Liu, Ya-Kun; Xu, Fei-Long

    2016-04-01

    Observation of gravity erosion in the field with strong sunshine and wind poses a challenge. Here, a novel topography meter together with a movable tent addresses the challenge. With the topography meter, a 3D geometric shape of the target surface can be digitally reconstructed. Before the commencement of a test, the laser generator position and the camera sightline should be adjusted with a sight calibrator. Typically, the topography meter can measure the gravity erosion on the slope with a gradient of 30°-70°. Two methods can be used to obtain a relatively clear video, despite the extreme steepness of the slopes. One method is to rotate the laser source away from the slope to ensure that the camera sightline remains perpendicular to the laser plane. Another way is to move the camera farther away from the slope in which the measured volume of the slope needs to be corrected; this method will reduce distortion of the image. In addition, installation of tent poles with concrete columns helps to surmount the altitude difference on steep slopes. Results observed by the topography meter in real landslide experiments are rational and reliable.

  16. Field performance of the Walker Branch throughfall displacement experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.; Todd, D.E.; Edwards, N.T.; Huston, M.A.

    1994-10-06

    The authors are conducting a large-scale manipulative field experiments in an upland oak forest on the Walker Branch Watershed in eastern Tennessee USA to identify important ecosystem responses that might result from future precipitation changes. The manipulation of soil moisture is being implemented by a gravity-driven transfer of throughfall precipitation from one treatment plot to another. Throughfall is intercepted in {approx} 2,000 subcanopy troughs (0.3 x 5 m) suspended above the forest floor of the dry plots ({approx} 33% of the ground area is covered) and transferred by gravity flow across an ambient plot for subsequent distribution onto the wet treatment plot. Percent soil water is being monitored with time domain reflectometers at 310 sampling locations across the site. The experimental system is able to produce statistically significant differences in soil water content in years having both extremely dry and extremely wet conditions. Furthermore, comparisons of pre- and post-installation soil temperature measurements have documented the ability of the experimental design to produce these changes without changing the microclimate of the forest understory.

  17. VIIRS Aerosol Products During the SEAC4RS Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, L. A.; Munchak, L. A.; Huang, J.; Martins, J. V.; Espinosa, R.; Orozco, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field experiment that took place during August and September 2013 offered an in depth portrait of the aerosol system over much of the continental United States. Heavily instrumented aircraft, including the NASA DC-8 sampled a wide variety of aerosol types including transported Saharan dust, both fresh and aged smoke from western wildfires, urban pollution plumes and also biogenic aerosol produced by the "green volcano" in the vegetated Ozarks. Complementing these aircraft measurements was an enhanced array of AERONET stations sprinkled across the country and also concentrated in a mesoscale array near the home base of Houston Texas. This rich collection of suborbital aerosol information permits a more comprehensive evaluation of the VIIRS aerosol product that includes validation of the products across the mesoscale and choices of case studies in which we can delve deeper into the VIIRS retrieval to test algorithm assumptions. We will compare VIIRS retrievals during SEAC4RS with MODIS retrievals, with AERONET observations and retrievals, and with measurements and retrievals from the Polar Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) that flew aboard the NASA DC-8.

  18. Micro-scale hydrological field experiments in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minea, Gabriel; Moroşanu, Gabriela A.

    2016-02-01

    The paper (communication) presents an overview of hydrologic field experiments at micro-scale in Romania. In order to experimentally investigate micro (plot)-scale hydrological impact of soil erosion, the National Institute of Hydrology and Water Management founded Voineşti Experimental Basin (VES) in 1964 and the Aldeni Experimental Basins (AEB) in 1984. AEB and VES are located in the Curvature Subcarpathians. Experimental plots are organized in a double systems and have an area of 80 m2 (runoff plots) at AEB and 300 m2 (water balance plots) at VES. Land use of plot: first plot "grass-land" is covered with perennial grass and second plot (control) consists in "bare soil". Over the latter one, the soil is hoeing, which results in a greater development of infiltration than in the first plot. Experimental investigations at micro-scale are aimed towards determining the parameters of the water balance equation, during natural and artificial rainfalls, researching of flows and soil erosion processes on experimental plots, extrapolating relations involving runoff coefficients from a small scale to medium scale. Nowadays, the latest evolutions in data acquisition and transmission equipment are represented by sensors (such as: sensors to determinate the soil moisture content). Exploitation and dissemination of hydrologic data is accomplished by research themes/projects, year-books of basic data and papers.

  19. Beam extraction experiment with field-emission arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, H.; Watanabe, A.; Shiho, M.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental project aimed to develop FEL drivers using a field-emission array is under way. The subject covers design and fabrication of novel micro-emitters, operation of FEAs, beam formation and emittance diagnostics. So far the generation of a focused beam has been demonstrated with an array of double-gated microemitters. Active control of FEAs has greatly improved the stability of the emission current. Large FEAs with an emitting area of up to 2 x 2 cm{sup 2} have been fabricated for the production of high-current beams. DC beams (1 - 5 keV < 100 {mu}A) extracted from Spindt cathodes were propagated over 1 m and projected on a fluorescent screen. Separate images of FEA tips were observed and emittance measurement has been carried out. The cathode is going to be replaced by a double-gated FEA to improve the beam quality. Pulsed extraction of high currents will also be tested, employing a non-gated FEA as the cathode of a 1 MV induction linac. Results of these experiments will be presented and perspectives concerning the FEA gun will be discussed.

  20. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  1. Idaho field experiment 1981. Volume 2: measurement data

    SciTech Connect

    Start, G E; Sagendorf, J F; Ackermann, G R; Cate, J H; Hukari, N F; Dickson, C R

    1984-04-01

    The 1981 Idaho Field Experiment was conducted in southeastern Idaho over the upper Snake River Plain. Nine test-day case studies were conducted between July 15 and 30, 1981. Releases of SF/sub 6/ gaseous tracer were made for 8-hour periods from 46m above ground. Tracer was sampled hourly, for 12 sequential hours, at about 100 locations within an area 24km square. Also, a single total integrated sample of about 30 hours duration was collected at approximately 100 sites within an area 48 by 72km square (using 6km spacings). Extensive tower profiles of meteorology at the release point were collected. RAWINSONDES, RABALS and PIBALS were collected at 3 to 5 sites. Horizontal, low-altitude winds were monitored using the INEL MESONET. SF/sub 6/ tracer plume releases were marked with co-located oil fog releases and bi-hourly sequential launches of tetroon pairs. Aerial LIDAR observations of the oil fog plume and airborne samples of SF/sub 6/ were collected. High altitude aerial photographs of daytime plumes were collected. Volume II lists the data in tabular form or cites the special supplemental reports by other participating contractors. While the primary user file and the data archive are maintained on 9 track/1600 cpi magnetic tapes, listings of the individual values are provided for the user who either cannot utilize the tapes or wishes to preview the data. The accuracies and quality of these data are described.

  2. SMOS Instrument Performance and Calibration after 3 Years in Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Neira, Manuel; Corbella, Ignasi; Torres, Francesc; Kainulainen, Juha; Oliva, Roger; Closa, Josep; Cabot, François; Castro, Rita; Barbosa, Jose; Gutierrez, Antonio; Anterrieu, Eric; Tenerelli, Joe; Martin-Porqueras, Fernando; Buenadicha, Guillermo; Delwart, Steven; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; Suess, Martin

    2013-04-01

    ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has been in orbit for already over 3 years which has allowed the calibration and data processing team consolidating both the calibration strategy and the Level-1 processor which transforms the raw visibility samples into polarimetric brightness temperature images. The payload on board SMOS, MIRAS, is quite unique in that it is the first microwave radiometer in space ever capable to generate wide field of view images at every snapshot measurement. This means that most of the calibration as well as image processing techniques are being developed for the first time with little heritage from any previous space mission. Issues intrinsically attached to its wide field of view such as spatial ripples across the snapshot images are particular to MIRAS and to no other earlier radiometer. Even the fundamental theory behind the instrument was put at test, first on ground inside an electromagnetic compatibility chamber, and now in orbit when imaging the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation of the cold sky. A groundbreaking effort is being carried out by the SMOS project team to understand and master all calibration and image reconstruction issues of this novel microwave interferometer payload. MIRAS in-orbit performance is driven by the amplitude of spatial ripples across the image and orbital and seasonal radiometer stability. Spatial ripples are unique to interferometric radiometers and are produced by (a) a limited knowledge of the antenna patterns and, in general, of the model of the instrument, (b) some fundamental limitations related to the inverse problem of image reconstruction in undetermined conditions and (c) subtle data processing inconsistencies which are discovered and corrected. To reduce the spatial ripples sea surface salinity retrievals are performed by first removing the brightness temperature spatial errors using a uniform region of the Pacific Ocean. However soil moisture retrievals cannot benefit of

  3. Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old Print A A A ... 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms) and grow about 2 to 3 inches (5 to 8 centimeters). They' ...

  4. Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old A A A Kids ... skills are appropriate for this age. By age 2, toddlers should be able to walk and run ...

  5. Words, Shape, Visual Search and Visual Working Memory in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated…

  6. Two-and 3-Year-Olds Know What Others Have and Have Not Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have established that even infants can determine what others know based on previous visual experience. In the current study, we investigated whether 2-and 3-year-olds know what others know based on previous auditory experience. A child and an adult heard the sound of one object together, but only the child heard the sound of another…

  7. Anomalous transport in fracture networks: field scale experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, P. K.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Dentz, M.; Juanes, R.

    2012-12-01

    Anomalous transport is widely observed in different settings and scales of transport through porous and fractured geologic media. A common signature of anomalous transport is the late-time power law tailing in breakthrough curves (BTCs) during tracer tests. Various conceptual models of anomalous transport have been proposed, including multirate mass transfer, continuous time random walk, and stream tube models. Since different conceptual models can produce equally good fits to a single BTC, tracer test interpretation has been plagued with ambiguity. Here, we propose to resolve such ambiguity by analyzing BTCs obtained from both convergent and push-pull flow configurations at two different fracture planes. We conducted field tracer tests in a fractured granite formation close to Ploemeur, France. We observe that BTC tailing depends on the flow configuration and the injection fracture. Specifically the tailing disappears under push-pull geometry, and when we injected at a fracture with high flux (Figure 1). This indicates that for this fractured granite, BTC tailing is controlled by heterogeneous advection and not by matrix diffusion. To explain the change in tailing behavior for different flow configurations, we employ a simple lattice network model with heterogeneous conductivity distribution. The model assigns random conductivities to the fractures and solves the Darcy equation for an incompressible fluid, enforcing mass conservation at fracture intersections. The mass conservation constraint yields a correlated random flow through the fracture system. We investigate whether BTC tailing can be explained by the spatial distribution of preferential flow paths and stagnation zones, which is controlled by the conductivity variance and correlation length. By combining the results from the field tests and numerical modeling, we show that the reversibility of spreading is a key mechanism that needs to be captured. We also demonstrate the dominant role of the injection

  8. High Magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, B B; Froula, D H; Davis, P F; Ross, J S; Fulkerson, S; Bower, J; Satariano, J; Price, D; Glenzer, S H

    2006-05-01

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system suppling 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented.

  9. Experiments of Flow Field Influenced by Vegetation Distribution on Floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin-Fu; Wang, Shun-Chang; Chen, Su-Chin

    2015-04-01

    The vegetation on floodplain can block river flow, raise flood level, and scour riverbed downstream the vegetation region. However, it can also protect the dike, reduce flood velocity, and increase the stability of channel. This experiment analyzed the relationship between vegetation distribution and flow field. We designed three vegetation arrangement pattern of unilateral vegetation, unilateral interval vegetation and no vegetation, respectively. The unilateral vegetation was defined as a 4.9 m length and 0.5 m width with vegetative area in one side of the experiment flume. The unilateral interval vegetation was defined as the same dimension of vegetative area but inserted 2 gaps with 1 m interval, and the vegetative area was separated into 3 blocks. The model of a single plant was assembled with stem and frond. The stem was a woody cylinder with 10 cm height and 2.2 cm in diameter. The other part was plastic frond with 10 cm in height. The flume was 20 m length, 1 m width and 0.7 m height with 2 kinds of bed slopes in 0.001 and 0.002, and 3 different discharges in 0.2 m3/s, 0.145 m3/s and 0.0855 m3/s. The velocity was measured by 2-D electromagnetic velocimeter (ACM2-R2). In addition, water depth was measured by Vernier calipers. The velocity distribution showed that the current were divided into two parts. In the part of inside vegetation area, water level uplifted when flow entering the vegetation area, and it declined until the current leaving vegetation area. Compared with the current in the other half part of flume, the magnitudes of uplift were about 50% in both case of unilateral vegetation and unilateral interval vegetation. Downstream the vegetation area edge, the water level dropped immediately and violently. The water depth was shallower than that in the other half non-vegetation part, and the decline magnitude were 48% and 39% in cases of unilateral vegetation and unilateral interval vegetation, respectively. To explain this phenomenon, we measured

  10. Field Experiment Provides Ground Truth for Surface NMR Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, R. J.; Abraham, J. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Dlubac, K. I.; Grau, B.; Grunewald, E. D.; Irons, T.; Song, Y.; Walsh, D.

    2010-12-01

    Effective and sustainable long-term management of fresh water resources requires accurate information about the availability of water in groundwater aquifers. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) can provide a direct link to the presence of water in the pore space of geological materials through the detection of the nuclear magnetization of the hydrogen nuclei (protons) in the pore water. Of interest for groundwater applications is the measurement of the proton-NMR relaxation time constant, referred to as T2. This parameter is sensitive to the geometry of the water-filled pore space and can be related to the hydraulic conductivity. NMR logging instruments, which have been available since the 1980’s, provide direct measurements of T2 in boreholes. Surface NMR (SNMR) is a non-invasive geophysical method that uses a loop of wire on the surface to probe the NMR properties of groundwater aquifers to a depth of ~100 m, without the need for the drilling of boreholes. SNMR provides reliable measurements of a different NMR time constant referred to as T2*, that is related to, but not necessarily equivalent to, T2. The relationship between T2* and T2 is likely to depend upon the physical environment and the composition of the sampled material. In order to advance the use of SNMR as a non-invasive means of characterizing groundwater aquifers, we must answer the fundamental question: When probing a groundwater aquifer, what information is provided by T2*, the time constant measured with SNMR? Our approach was to conduct a field experiment in Nebraska, in an area underlain by the Quaternary Alluvium and Tertiary Ogallala aquifers. We first used SNMR to obtain a 1D profile of T2* to a depth of ~60 m. We then drilled a well inside the area of the SNMR loop, to a depth of ~150 m, and used the drill cuttings to describe the composition of the geologic material at the site. The borehole was kept open for 2 days to acquire logging NMR T2 measurements over the total depth. Three

  11. Field Experiments Aimed To The Analysis of Flood Generation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carriero, D.; Iacobellis, V.; Oliveto, G.; Romano, N.; Telesca, V.; Fiorentino, M.

    The study of the soil moisture dynamics and of the climate-soil-vegetation interac- tion is essential for the comprehension of possible climatic change phenomena, as well as for the analysis of occurrence of extreme hydrological events. In this trend the theoretically-based distribution of floods recently derived by Fiorentino and Ia- cobellis, [ŞNew insights about the climatic and geologic control on the probability distribution of floodsT, Water Resources Research, 2001, 37: 721-730] demonstrated, by an application in some Southern Italy basins, that processes at the hillslope scale strongly influence the basin response by means of the different mechanisms of runoff generation produced by various distributions of partial area contributing. This area is considered as a stochastic variable whose pdf position parameter showed strong de- pendence on the climate as it can seen in the studied basins behavior: in dry zones, where there is the prevalence of the infiltration excess (Horton) mechanism, the basin water loss parameter decreases as basin area increases and the flood peak source area depends on the permeability of soils; in humid zones, with the prevalence of satu- ration excess (Dunne) process, the loss parameter seems independent from the basin area and very sensitive to simple climatic index while only small portion of the area invested by the storm contributes to floods. The purpose of this work is to investigate the consistency of those interpretations by means of field experiments at the hillslope scale to establish a parameterization accounting for soil physical and hydraulic prop- erties, vegetation characteristics and land-use. The research site is the catchment of River Fiumarella di Corleto, which is located in Basilicata Region, Italy, and has a drainage area of approximately 32 km2. The environment has a rather dynamic geo- morphology and very interesting features from the soil-landscape modeling viewpoint [Santini A., A. Coppola, N. Romano, and

  12. Exploring the Role of Field Experience Context in Preservice Teachers' Development as Mathematics Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sandi; Nesmith, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of field experience is supported and attended to by teacher education programs across the United States, there have been numerous national reports and research findings stressing the need for major improvements in the preparation of teachers with an emphasis on more authentic experiences. Quality field experiences have the…

  13. School's IN for Summer: An Alternative Field Experience for Elementary Science Methods Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanuscin, Deborah L.; Musikul, Kusalin

    2007-01-01

    Field experiences are critical to teacher learning and enhance the effectiveness of methods courses; however, when methods courses are offered in the summer, traditional school-based field experiences are not possible. This article describes an alternative campus-based experience created as part of an elementary science methods course. The Summer…

  14. Communication, Community, and Disconnection: Pre-Service Teachers in Virtual School Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkens, Christian; Eckdahl, Kelli; Morone, Mike; Cook, Vicki; Giblin, Thomas; Coon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of 11 graduate-level pre-service teachers completing Virtual School Field Experiences (VSFEs) with cooperating teachers in fully online, asynchronous high school courses in New York State. The VSFEs included a 7-week online teacher training course, and a 7-week online field experience. Pre-service teachers…

  15. Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective in significantly increasing their final adult height. Constitutional growth delay (delayed puberty). Although they are usually ... about age 2 or 3 years, kids with constitutional growth delay will grow at a normal childhood ...

  16. Predicting Performance in an Advanced Undergraduate Geological Field Camp Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykas, Matthew J.; Valentino, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the factors that contribute to students' success in conducting geological field work. Undergraduate students (n = 49; 51% female; mean age = 22 y) who were enrolled in the 5-wk State University of New York at Oswego (SUNY Oswego) geology field program volunteered to participate in this study. At the beginning of the field…

  17. Enhancing the Executive Functions of 3-Year-Olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J.; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that…

  18. Missile launch detection electric field perturbation experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.J.; Rynne, T.M.

    1993-04-28

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and SARA Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. LLNL and SARA deployed sensors for monitoring of basic phenomena. An attempt was made to measure perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of a Lance missile. The occurrence of the perturbation is expected from the conducting body of the missile and the exhaust plume. A set of voltage-probe antennas were used to monitor the local electric field perturbation from the launch at ranges of approximately 1 km. Examination of the data acquired during the launch period failed to show identifiable correlation of the field variations with the launch event. Three reasons are ascribed to this lack of event data: (1) The electric field potential variations have a limited spatial correlation length - the fields measured in one region have little correlation to measurements made at distances of a kilometer away. The potential variations are related to localized atmospheric disturbances and are generally unpredictable. A value for the spatial correlation length is also not known. (2) The conductivity of the plume and missile body are not adequate to produce a field perturbation of adequate magnitude. Phenomena related to the exhaust plume and missile may exist and be outside of the collection range of the equipment employed for these measurements. (3) The presence of 60 Hz power line noise was of sufficient magnitude to irreversibly contaminate measurements.

  19. Taking Them into the Field: Mathematics Teacher Candidate Learning about Equity-Oriented Teaching Practices in a Mediated Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sara Sunshine

    2012-01-01

    Teacher education programs have been criticized as too theoretical with university courses disconnected from the practical realities of classrooms. This single case study investigates a model of teacher education that worked to bridge the coursework-fieldwork gap in teacher education. The Mediated Field Experience (MFE) is a field experience…

  20. It is an Experience, Not a Lesson: The Nature of High School Students' Experiences at a Biological Field Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, Marc E.

    The purpose of this case study was to describe the nature of high school students' experiences in the immersive four-day field experience at Stone Laboratory Biological Field Station including excursions to Kelley's Island and South Bass Island. Six tenth, eleventh, and twelfth grade students participated through interviews, photovoice, observations, and a survey. Pretrip semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand each participant student's relationship with science. Participants were given cameras to record their field trip experiences to relate what they found interesting, important, and exciting. Back at school after the field trip, the participants were asked to choose their five most meaningful photographs, and write a short essay to describe the significance of each image. A posttrip semi-structured interview explored each participant's experiences during the field trip. An unstructured interview was conducted to discuss each participant's full photograph gallery from the field trip. Interview transcripts were member checked with one minor wording change. Analysis consisted of open coding using apriori codes derived from the ecological framework and emergent codes derived from the data. Coding was duplicated through multiple readers. Significant findings included: 1) Prior experience, prior knowledge, and funds of knowledge added relevance and value to an experience, facilitating interest development; 2) Experiences appeared to be more meaningful when all the senses were stimulated; 3) Friends and peers were an essential part of a quality experience; 4) Quality experiences included a wow factor, or sudden awareness; 5) Teachers needed to be within the experience, not the focus of the experience, and needed to be available to answer questions, be enthusiastic when a discovery was made, and promote student reflection concerning their perceptions and discoveries; 6) A quality informal learning situation incorporated the cognitive/affective, physical

  1. International Field Experiences: The Impact of Class, Gender and Race on the Perceptions and Experiences of Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malewski, Erik; Phillion, JoAnn

    2009-01-01

    We explore ways class, gender and race complicate perceptions and experiences of preservice teachers during an international field experience in Honduras. Data were collected over 5 years through observations, group discussions, course assignments, and on-site focus group interviews and post-trip individual interviews. An inductive approach…

  2. Near-field radiative thermal transport: From theory to experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bai Fiorino, Anthony; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-05-15

    Radiative thermal transport via the fluctuating electromagnetic near-field has recently attracted increasing attention due to its fundamental importance and its impact on a range of applications from data storage to thermal management and energy conversion. After a brief historical account of radiative thermal transport, we summarize the basics of fluctuational electrodynamics, a theoretical framework for the study of radiative heat transfer in terms of thermally excited propagating and evanescent electromagnetic waves. Various approaches to modeling near-field thermal transport are briefly discussed, together with key results and proposals for manipulation and utilization of radiative heat flow. Subsequently, we review the experimental advances in the characterization of both near-field heat flow and energy density. We conclude with remarks on the opportunities and challenges for future explorations of radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale.

  3. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, W.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective eld theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering or current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral di*erences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  4. Global meteorological data facility for real-time field experiments support and guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipham, Mark C.; Shipley, Scott T.; Trepte, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    A Global Meteorological Data Facility (GMDF) has been constructed to provide economical real-time meteorological support to atmospheric field experiments. After collection and analysis of meteorological data sets at a central station, tailored meteorological products are transmitted to experiment field sites using conventional ground link or satellite communication techniques. The GMDF supported the Global Tropospheric Experiment Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (GTE-ABLE II) based in Manaus, Brazil, during July and August 1985; an arctic airborne lidar survey mission for the Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSC) experiment during January 1986; and the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) during January, February and March 1986. GMDF structure is similar to the UNIDATA concept, including meteorological data from the Zephyr Weather Transmission Service, a mode AAA GOES downlink, and dedicated processors for image manipulation, transmission and display. The GMDF improved field experiment operations in general, with the greatest benefits arising from the ability to communicate with field personnel in real time.

  5. Focus on Geography--Team Themes and Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, John L.

    1990-01-01

    Describes an approach used by the Wayland, Massachusetts, middle school to organizing students into instructional teams. Explains that each instructional team is organized into a "house" named after a significant individual around whom the curriculum and theme for field trips is designed. Highlights the Rachel Carson House activities of…

  6. Early Field Experience in Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Scott Walter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the three studies in this dissertation was to enhance career and technical education in the area of agriculture, business, and family and consumer sciences. This dissertation contains three papers: (1) a Delphi study identifying the purpose, expected outcomes, and methods of documenting preservice teacher early field experience…

  7. Soil Science as a Field Discipline - Experiences in Iowa, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burras, C. Lee

    2015-04-01

    Effective field understanding of soils is crucial. This is true everywhere but especially so in Iowa, a 15 million hectare state in the central USA's "corn belt." Iowa is intensely farmed and almost exclusively privately owned. Many regions of Iowa have had over 90% of their land area in row crops for the past 60 years. In these regions two very common land management strategies are tile drainage (1.5 million km total) and high rates of fertilization (e.g., 200 kg N/ha-yr for cropland) Iowa also has problematic environmental issues including high rates of erosion, excessive sediment and nutrient pollution in water bodies and episodic catastrophic floods. Given the preceding the Agronomy, Environmental Science and Sustainable Agriculture programs at Iowa State University (ISU) offer a strong suite of soil science classes - undergraduate through graduate. The objective of this presentation is to review selected field based soil science courses offered by those programs. This review includes contrasting and comparing campus-based and immersion classes. Immersion classes include ones offered at Iowa Lakeside Laboratory, as "soil judging" and internationally. Findings over the past 20 years are consistent. Students at all levels gain soil science knowledge, competency and confidence proportional to the amount of time spent in field activities. Furthermore their professional skepticism is sharpened. They are also preferentially hired even in career postings that do not require fieldwork. In other words, field learning results in better soil science professionals who have highly functional and sought after knowledge.

  8. Mechanisms of nitrogen retention in forest ecosystems - A field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitousek, P. M.; Matson, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intensive forest management led to elevated losses of nitrogen from a recently harvested loblolly pine plantation in North Carolina. Measurements of nitrogen-15 retention in the field demonstrated that microbial uptake of nitrogen during the decomposition of residual organic material was the most important process retaining nitrogen. Management practices that remove this material cause increased losses of nitrogen to aquatic ecosystems and the atmosphere.

  9. The Field Trip Book: Study Travel Experiences in Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2010-01-01

    Looking for social studies adventures to help students find connections to democratic citizenship? Look no further! This book provides just the answer teachers need for engaging students in field trips as researching learners with emphasis on interdisciplinary social studies plus skills in collecting and reporting data gathered from field…

  10. Well-planning programs give students field-like experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sifferman, T.R.; Chapman, L.

    1983-01-01

    The University of Tulsa recently was given a package of computer well planning and drilling programs that will enable petroleum engineering students to gain valuable experience in designing well programs while still in school. Comprehensive homework assignments are now given in areas of drilling fluids programing, hydraulics, directional wells and surveying. Additional programs are scheduled for next semester.

  11. Laboratory Experiment in Semiconductor Surface-Field Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, F. R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A laboratory instructional program involving metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices is described. In the first of a two-part experiment, students become familiar with the important parameters of a simple MIS device and learn measurement techniques; in the second part, device fabrication procedures are learned. (DT)

  12. International Field Experiences Promote Professional Development for Sustainability Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, R. Bruce; Kimmel, Courtney; Robertson, David P.; Mortimer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe, explain and evaluate a graduate education program that provides international project experiences and builds competencies related to collaborative problem-solving, cultural capacity to work globally and sustainable development. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative analysis of survey data from 28 students…

  13. Rocky 7 prototype Mars rover field geology experiments 1. Lavic Lake and sunshine volcanic field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arvidson, R. E.; Acton, C.; Blaney, D.; Bowman, J.; Kim, S.; Klingelhofer, G.; Marshall, J.; Niebur, C.; Plescia, J.; Saunders, R.S.; Ulmer, C.T.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with the Rocky 7 rover were performed in the Mojave Desert to better understand how to conduct rover-based, long-distance (kilometers) geological traverses on Mars. The rover was equipped with stereo imaging systems for remote sensing science and hazard avoidance and 57Fe Mo??ssbauer and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers for in situ determination of mineralogy of unprepared rock and soil surfaces. Laboratory data were also obtained using the spectrometers and an X ray diffraction (XRD)/XRF instrument for unprepared samples collected from the rover sites. Simulated orbital and descent image data assembled for the test sites were found to be critical for assessing the geologic setting, formulating hypotheses to be tested with rover observations, planning traverses, locating the rover, and providing a regional context for interpretation of rover-based observations. Analyses of remote sensing and in situ observations acquired by the rover confirmed inferences made from orbital and simulated descent images that the Sunshine Volcanic Field is composed of basalt flows. Rover data confirmed the idea that Lavic Lake is a recharge playa and that an alluvial fan composed of sediments with felsic compositions has prograded onto the playa. Rover-based discoveries include the inference that the basalt flows are mantled with aeolian sediment and covered with a dense pavement of varnished basalt cobbles. Results demonstrate that the combination of rover remote sensing and in situ analytical observations will significantly increase our understanding of Mars and provide key connecting links between orbital and descent data and analyses of returned samples. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Community-Based Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Possibilities for a Pedagogical Third Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallman, Heidi L.

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses the importance of community-based field experiences as a feature of teacher education programs. Through a qualitative case study, prospective teachers' work with homeless youth in an after-school initiative is presented. Framing community-based field experiences in teacher education through "third space" theory, the…

  15. Examining the Content of Preservice Teachers' Reflections of Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study that examined the content of preservice elementary teachers' reflections of their documented early field experiences of science teaching in authentic contexts. The study used an early field experience model that was focused on the objective of profiling an elementary science teacher as the practical…

  16. Issues in Field Experience Assessment in Teacher Education in a Standards-Based Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Sylvia Yee Fan

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study that shows the use of professional standards in field experience assessment in initial teacher education. A Professional Development Progress Map was developed in field experience assessment in a teacher education institution in Hong Kong. The study enriches our understanding of the holistic nature of assessing…

  17. Which Field Experiences Best Prepare Future School Leaders? An Analysis of Kentucky's Principal Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of field experiences in preparing school principals for the exigencies of the job. Current school principals throughout Kentucky were surveyed regarding their perceptions of the utility and comparative effectiveness of field experiences in the principal preparation program (PPP) each attended. Surveys were…

  18. Using Field Experiments to Change the Template of How We Teach Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    List, John A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explains why field experiments can improve what we teach and how we teach economics. Economists no longer operate as passive observers of economic phenomena. Instead, they participate actively in the research process by collecting data from field experiments to investigate the economics of everyday life. This change can…

  19. The Influence of Technology-Rich Early Childhood Field Experiences on Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nicholas; Lux, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite a comprehensive body of research on field experiences in teacher education, technology-rich early field experiences in early childhood environments is one particular area of inquiry lacking substantive current research. Therefore, this study was conducted to better understand how preservice teachers' perceptions of global concepts related…

  20. Sites for Student Field Experiences in Refugee Mental Health. Task VI--Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshino, George; And Others

    This report on sites for student field experiences in refugee mental health has been prepared by the University of Minnesota's Mental Health Technical Assistance Center for the state refugee assistance programs. After a brief introduction describing the mission of the Technical Assistance Center, the characteristics of field experience in mental…

  1. The Effects of Primary Sources and Field Trip Experience on the Knowledge Retention of Multicultural Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, James; Knapp, Doug; Benton, Gregory M.

    2007-01-01

    Although small in scope, this study attempted to analyze the impacts of primary sources and field trip experiences on multicultural education through first-hand narrative interviews, one year after the experience. In particular, it assessed the recollections of students who participated in a one-half-day field trip to George Washington Carver…

  2. Impact of a Paid Urban Field Experience on Teacher Candidates' Willingness to Work in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grande, Marya; Burns, Barbara; Schmidt, Raquel; Marable, Michele A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a paid field experience designed to investigate teacher candidates' willingness to teach in urban schools. Seventy-three teacher candidates each participated in an urban field experience including 90 hours of tutoring and 12 hours of training. Data from pre and post surveys indicated no significant difference as the number…

  3. ETIPS: Using Cases with Virtual Schools to Prepare for, Extend, and Deepen Preservice Teachers' Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dexter, Sara L.; Riedel, Eric; Scharber, Cassandra

    2008-01-01

    Field experiences are identified as an important component in the preparation of new teachers. As such, methods to supplement field experiences with pre- and post-activities that ready preservice teachers to effectively learn from them warrant further examination. This paper presents one tool that has been used successfully to improve preservice…

  4. Life on the Reservation: Cross-Cultural Field Experiences and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Belinda Conrad; Dinkins, Elizabeth G.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century classrooms are filled with increasingly diverse student populations. Effective teacher preparation programs must include explicit course work in culturally responsive pedagogies and field experiences that place educators in new sociocultural contexts. Field experiences in cross-cultural, place-based settings have the potential…

  5. Focusing, Situating, and Grounding Micro-Level Evaluation Field Experiences: An Instructional Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolits, Gary J.; Woodard, Thelma; Morrow, Jennifer Ann; Kaesbauer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Evaluator training field experiences seek to reinforce applicable content knowledge and promote applied skills. For students, even a small-scale field experience focusing on limited components of a larger evaluation process can seem particularly challenging. Students often do not recognize the relevance of established evaluation resources capable…

  6. Vegetation and soils field research data base: Experiment summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biehl, L. L.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Bauer, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    Understanding of the relationships between the optical, spectral characteristics and important biological-physical parameters of earth-surface features can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies over fields and plots where complete data describing the condition of targets are attainable and where frequent, timely spectral measurement can be obtained. Development of a vegetation and soils field research data base was initiated in 1972 at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing and expanded in the fall of 1974 by NASA as part of LACIE. Since then, over 250,000 truck-mounted and helicopter-borne spectrometer/multiband radiometer observations have been obtained of more than 50 soil series and 20 species of crops, grasses, and trees. These data are supplemented by an extensive set of biophysical and meteorological data acquired during each mission. The field research data form one of the most complete and best-documented data sets acquired for agricultural remote sensing research. Thus, they are well-suited to serve as a data base for research to: (1) quantiatively determine the relationships of spectral and biophysical characteristics of vegetation, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques.

  7. Measuring microbial fitness in a field reciprocal transplant experiment.

    PubMed

    Boynton, Primrose J; Stelkens, Rike; Kowallik, Vienna; Greig, Duncan

    2016-06-22

    Microbial fitness is easy to measure in the laboratory, but difficult to measure in the field. Laboratory fitness assays make use of controlled conditions and genetically modified organisms, neither of which are available in the field. Among other applications, fitness assays can help researchers detect adaptation to different habitats or locations. We designed a competitive fitness assay to detect adaptation of Saccharomyces paradoxus isolates to the habitat they were isolated from (oak or larch leaf litter). The assay accurately measures relative fitness by tracking genotype frequency changes in the field using digital droplet PCR (DDPCR). We expected locally adapted S. paradoxus strains to increase in frequency over time when growing on the leaf litter type from which they were isolated. The DDPCR assay successfully detected fitness differences among S. paradoxus strains, but did not find a tendency for strains to be adapted to the habitat they were isolated from. Instead, we found that the natural alleles of the hexose transport gene we used to distinguish S. paradoxus strains had significant effects on fitness. The origin of a strain also affected its fitness: strains isolated from oak litter were generally fitter than strains from larch litter. Our results suggest that dispersal limitation and genetic drift shape S. paradoxus populations in the forest more than local selection does, although further research is needed to confirm this. Tracking genotype frequency changes using DDPCR is a practical and accurate microbial fitness assay for natural environments.

  8. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Borchardt, M.; Cappechi, W.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C. B.; Galante, M.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D. J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J. D.; Liu, D.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Mirnov, V. V.; Morton, L.; Munaretto, S.; Nornberg, M. D.; Nonn, P. D.; Oliva, S. P.; Parke, E.; Pueschel, M. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J.; Seltzman, A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Stone, D.; Theucks, D.; Thomas, M.; Triana, J.; Terry, P. W.; Waksman, J.; Whelan, G. C.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P.; Titus, J.; Auriemma, F.; Cappello, S.; Franz, P.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Piovesan, P.; Puiatti, M.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S.; Stupishin, N. V.; Spong, D.; Craig, D.; Stephens, H.; Harvey, R. W.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Breizman, B. N.; Li, M.; Zheng, L. J.

    2015-10-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST reversed field pinch programme is presented. With neutral beam injection, bursty energetic particle (EP) modes are observed. The profiles of the magnetic and density fluctuations associated with these EP modes are measured using a far infrared interferometer-polarimeter. Equilibrium reconstructions of the quasi-single-helicity 3D helical state are provided by the V3FIT code that now incorporates several of MST's advanced diagnostics. The orientation of the helical structure is controlled using a new resonant magnetic perturbation technique. Gyrokinetic simulations based on experimental equilibria predict unstable trapped-electron modes (TEMs), and small-scale density fluctuations are detected in improved-confinement plasmas with TEM-like features. Upgraded pellet injection permits study of density and beta limits over MST's full range of operation, and an MST-record line-average density of 0.9 × 1020 m3 (n/nG = 1.4) has been obtained. Impurity ion temperature measurements reveal a charge-to-mass-ratio dependence in the rapid heating that occurs during a sawtooth crash. Runaway of NBI-born fast ions during the impulsive sawtooth event agrees with test-particle theory. Magnetic self-organization studies include measurements of the dynamo emf with an applied ac inductive electric field using oscillating field current drive.

  9. Field experiments of success-breeds-success dynamics

    PubMed Central

    van de Rijt, Arnout; Kang, Soong Moon; Restivo, Michael; Patil, Akshay

    2014-01-01

    Seemingly similar individuals often experience drastically different success trajectories, with some repeatedly failing and others consistently succeeding. One explanation is preexisting variability along unobserved fitness dimensions that is revealed gradually through differential achievement. Alternatively, positive feedback operating on arbitrary initial advantages may increasingly set apart winners from losers, producing runaway inequality. To identify social feedback in human reward systems, we conducted randomized experiments by intervening in live social environments across the domains of funding, status, endorsement, and reputation. In each system we consistently found that early success bestowed upon arbitrarily selected recipients produced significant improvements in subsequent rates of success compared with the control group of nonrecipients. However, success exhibited decreasing marginal returns, with larger initial advantages failing to produce much further differentiation. These findings suggest a lesser degree of vulnerability of reward systems to incidental or fabricated advantages and a more modest role for cumulative advantage in the explanation of social inequality than previously thought. PMID:24778230

  10. The Camp Pendleton Experiment in Battalion Level Field Feeding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    Two 30KW generators were used to provide the required electrical power to operate the reefers, lights , water heater and pump, and other labor...dehydrated mashed potatoes , etc.). During the fourth week of the experiment, five meals were prepared using B- ratlon Hems. These meals were...TABLE 13. FOOD PREPARATION TIMES Food Item Quantity for 900 Portions Control XM-75/XM-76 Dinner Items: Vegetables Mashed Potatoes Baked

  11. Viking satellite program - preliminary results from the APL Magnetic Field Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.; Erlandson, R.E.; Gustafsson, G.; Acuna, M.H.

    1986-12-01

    Sweden's Viking satellite, launched in February 1986, has been conducting plasma process observations in the earth magnetosphere and auroral regions; the U.S.-supplied APL Magnetic Field Experiment aboard Viking is used to determine field-aligned Birkeland current characteristics in previously unsampled regions of near-earth space. The Magnetic Field Experiment has an equivalent spatial resolution of 12 m in the auroral ionosphere when making measurements near apogee. The purposes of Viking's other instruments and their relationship to the Magnetic Field Experiment are discussed.

  12. The Viking satellite program - Preliminary results from the APL Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemra, Thomas A.; Zanetti, Lawrence J.; Erlandson, Robert E.; Gustafsson, Georg; Acuna, Mario H.

    1986-12-01

    Sweden's Viking satellite, launched in February 1986, has been conducting plasma process observations in the earth magnetosphere and auroral regions; the U.S.-supplied APL Magnetic Field Experiment aboard Viking is used to determine field-aligned Birkeland current characteristics in previously unsampled regions of near-earth space. The Magnetic Field Experiment has an equivalent spatial resolution of 12 m in the auroral ionosphere when making measurements near apogee. The purposes of Viking's other instruments and their relationship to the Magnetic Field Experiment are discussed.

  13. The Viking satellite program - Preliminary results from the APL Magnetic Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potemra, Thomas A.; Zanetti, Lawrence J.; Erlandson, Robert E.; Gustafsson, Georg; Acuna, Mario H.

    1986-01-01

    Sweden's Viking satellite, launched in February 1986, has been conducting plasma process observations in the earth magnetosphere and auroral regions; the U.S.-supplied APL Magnetic Field Experiment aboard Viking is used to determine field-aligned Birkeland current characteristics in previously unsampled regions of near-earth space. The Magnetic Field Experiment has an equivalent spatial resolution of 12 m in the auroral ionosphere when making measurements near apogee. The purposes of Viking's other instruments and their relationship to the Magnetic Field Experiment are discussed.

  14. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Seguin, F. H.; Town, R. P.; Frenje, J. A.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-04-08

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  15. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M. J. Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Fox, W.; Igumenshchev, I.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V.; Town, R. P. J.

    2015-04-15

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β ∼ 10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  16. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  17. Developing Dialogic Argumentation Skills: A 3-Year Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Amanda; Kuhn, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is increasingly recognized as a fundamental intellectual skill, but evidence suggests that few adolescents or adults are skilled arguers. This article reports on an extended (3-year, twice weekly) intervention designed to afford dense practice in dialogic argumentation to middle-school students from traditionally academically…

  18. The experience from field operation of a subsea multiphase booster

    SciTech Connect

    De Donno, S.; Colombi, P.; Chiesa, G.; Ferrari Aggradi, G.

    1995-12-31

    The subsea multiphase production -- based on the transportation over long distance of the untreated oil-well fluids (oil, water and gas) -- is expected to be one of the most efficient tool for economic exploitation of deep offshore and marginal fields. A long term testing campaign on a multiphase screw pump was successfully completed in 1990 at the AGIP Trecate onshore oil field and the results confirmed the industrial viability for such a kind of equipment for surface application. Then, a subsea version of an improved multiphase twin screw pump has been integrated into a Subsea Multiphase Boosting Unit and installed on the Prezioso Field, offshore Sicily, in Summer 1994. Long term testing under real operating conditions were initiated after a successful start-up of the Unit. To the Authors` knowledge, this is the first world-wide subsea installation of an electrically driven multiphase pump operating with live oil. The paper presents first a description of the marine twin screw pump concept adopted for the subsea application including the main features of the complete boosting unit and the adopted solutions to allow it to operate under different conditions. Then, the project implementation activities from the onshore integration through the installation, commissioning and start-up operations are described. Moreover, the results of the initial functional tests are discussed with particular reference to the screw pump hydraulic performance as well as to the behavior of the pump pressure compensation and seal/lube oil systems. Transient and steady state conditions experienced by the system are finally characterized and the early evidences of its long term performance are discussed.

  19. Scaling of sand flux over bedforms- experiments to field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McElroy, B. J.; Mahon, R. C.; Ashley, T.; Alexander, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bed forms are one of the few geomorphic phenomena whose field and laboratory geometric scales have significant overlap. This is similarly true for scales of sediment transport. Whether in the lab or field, at low transport stages and high Rouse numbers where suspension is minimal, sand fluxes scale nonlinearly with transport stage. At high transport stages, and low Rouse numbers where suspension is substantial, sand transport scales with rouse number. In intermediate cases deformation of bed forms is a direct result of the exchange of sediment between the classically suspended and bed load volumes. These parameters are straightforwardly measured in the laboratory. However, practical difficulties and cost ineffectiveness often exclude bed-sediment measurements from studies and monitoring efforts aimed at estimating sediment loads in rivers. An alternative to direct sampling is through the measurement of evolution of bed topography constrained by sediment-mass conservation. Historically, the topographic-evolution approach has been limited to systems with negligible transport of sand in suspension. As was shown decades ago, pure bed load transport is responsible for the mean migration of trains of bed forms when no sediment is exchanged between individual bed forms. In contrast, the component of bed-material load that moves in suspension is responsible for changes in the size, shape, and spacing of evolving bed forms; collectively this is called deformation. The difference between bed-load flux and bed-material-load flux equals the flux of suspended bed material. We give a partial demonstration of this using available field and laboratory data and comparing them across geometric and sediment transport scales.

  20. A full field, 3-D velocimeter for microgravity crystallization experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodkey, Robert S.; Russ, Keith M.

    1991-01-01

    The programming and algorithms needed for implementing a full-field, 3-D velocimeter for laminar flow systems and the appropriate hardware to fully implement this ultimate system are discussed. It appears that imaging using a synched pair of video cameras and digitizer boards with synched rails for camera motion will provide a viable solution to the laminar tracking problem. The algorithms given here are simple, which should speed processing. On a heavily loaded VAXstation 3100 the particle identification can take 15 to 30 seconds, with the tracking taking less than one second. It seeems reasonable to assume that four image pairs can thus be acquired and analyzed in under one minute.

  1. Tools and Setups for Experiments with AC and Rotating Magnetic Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponikvar, D.

    2010-01-01

    A rotating magnetic field is the basis for the transformation of electrical energy to mechanical energy. School experiments on the rotating magnetic field are rare since they require the use of specially prepared mechanical setups and/or relatively large, three-phase power supplies to achieve strong magnetic fields. This paper proposes several…

  2. Targeting the Poor: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Alatas, Vivi; Banerjee, Abhijit; Hanna, Rema; Olken, Benjamin A.; Tobias, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment in 640 Indonesian villages on three approaches to target the poor: proxy-means tests (PMT), where assets are used to predict consumption; community targeting, where villagers rank everyone from richest to poorest; and a hybrid. Defining poverty based on PPP$2 per-capita consumption, community targeting and the hybrid perform somewhat worse in identifying the poor than PMT, though not by enough to significantly affect poverty outcomes for a typical program. Elite capture does not explain these results. Instead, communities appear to apply a different concept of poverty. Consistent with this finding, community targeting results in higher satisfaction. PMID:25197099

  3. Targeting the Poor: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Alatas, Vivi; Banerjee, Abhijit; Hanna, Rema; Olken, Benjamin A; Tobias, Julia

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports an experiment in 640 Indonesian villages on three approaches to target the poor: proxy-means tests (PMT), where assets are used to predict consumption; community targeting, where villagers rank everyone from richest to poorest; and a hybrid. Defining poverty based on PPP$2 per-capita consumption, community targeting and the hybrid perform somewhat worse in identifying the poor than PMT, though not by enough to significantly affect poverty outcomes for a typical program. Elite capture does not explain these results. Instead, communities appear to apply a different concept of poverty. Consistent with this finding, community targeting results in higher satisfaction.

  4. The 1987 Federal field exercise: The DOE experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, M.V.; Gant, K.S.

    1989-06-01

    The second full-scale field exercise of the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) was held at the Zion Nuclear Power Station, Zion, Illinois, in June 1987. The exercise incorporated the annual compliance exercise for the Zion plant and involved the operating utility, Commonwealth Edison Company, the states of Illinois and Wisconsin, local governments, volunteer groups, and representatives from 12 federal agencies. The 3-day exercise was played from many locations in the Zion area; Springfield, Illinois; Madison, Wisconsin; and Washington, DC. Approximately 1000 people participated in the exercise, which used a scenario in which an accident at the plant resulted in the release of radioactive material outside the plant boundary. The US Department of Energy (DOE) had major responsibilities during the planning, playing, and critiquing of the exercise; these functions are outlined in the report. This document describes the DOE participation in the planning and response during the exercise. During a radiological emergency, the FRERP gives DOE the responsibility for coordinating the federal radiological monitoring and assessment activities in support of the states and the cognizant federal agency. At Zion, a self-sufficient Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center was established by DOE at a nearby fairground in which over 200 people from DOE, the two states, and other federal agencies participated. Before the field exercise, a tabletop exercise and a dry run were held for training purposes. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Overview of results from the MST reversed field pinch experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarff, J. S.; Almagri, A. F.; Anderson, J. K.; Borchardt, M.; Carmody, D.; Caspary, K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Eilerman, S.; Falkowski, A.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Holly, D. J.; Kim, J.-H.; King, J.; Ko, J.; Koliner, J.; Kumar, S.; Lee, J. D.; Liu, D.; Magee, R.; McCollam, K. J.; McGarry, M.; Mirnov, V. V.; Nornberg, M. D.; Nonn, P. D.; Oliva, S. P.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sauppe, J. P.; Seltzman, A.; Sovinec, C. R.; Stephens, H.; Stone, D.; Theucks, D.; Thomas, M.; Triana, J.; Terry, P. W.; Waksman, J.; Bergerson, W. F.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L.; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P.; Titus, J.; Auriemma, F.; Cappello, S.; Franz, P.; Innocente, P.; Lorenzini, R.; Martines, E.; Momo, B.; Piovesan, P.; Puiatti, M.; Spolaore, M.; Terranova, D.; Zanca, P.; Belykh, V.; Davydenko, V. I.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S.; Stupishin, N. V.; Spong, D.; Craig, D.; Harvey, R. W.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.

    2013-10-01

    An overview of recent results from the MST programme on physics important for the advancement of the reversed field pinch (RFP) as well as for improved understanding of toroidal magnetic confinement more generally is reported. Evidence for the classical confinement of ions in the RFP is provided by analysis of impurity ions and energetic ions created by 1 MW neutral beam injection (NBI). The first appearance of energetic-particle-driven modes by NBI in a RFP plasma is described. MST plasmas robustly access the quasi-single-helicity state that has commonalities to the stellarator and ‘snake’ formation in tokamaks. In MST the dominant mode grows to 8% of the axisymmetric field strength, while the remaining modes are reduced. Predictive capability for tearing mode behaviour has been improved through nonlinear, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamic computation using the measured resistivity profile and Lundquist number, which reproduces the sawtooth cycle dynamics. Experimental evidence and computational analysis indicates two-fluid effects, e.g., Hall physics and gyro-viscosity, are needed to understand the coupling of parallel momentum transport and current profile relaxation. Large Reynolds and Maxwell stresses, plus separately measured kinetic stress, indicate an intricate momentum balance and a possible origin for MST's intrinsic plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic analysis indicates that micro-tearing modes can be unstable at high beta, with a critical gradient for the electron temperature that is larger than for tokamak plasmas by roughly the aspect ratio.

  6. Field experience with a mobile tomographic nondestructive assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.; Betts, S.E.; Taggart, D.P.; Estep, R.J.; Nicholas, N.J.; Lucas, M.C.; Harlan, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    A mobile tomographic gamma-ray scanner (TGS) developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory was recently demonstrated at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and is currently in use at Los Alamos waste storage areas. The scanner was developed to assay radionuclides in low-level, transuranic, and mixed waste in containers ranging in size from 2 ft{sup 3} boxes to 83-gallon overpacks. The tomographic imaging capability provides a complete correction for source distribution and matrix attenuation effects, enabling accurate assays of Pu-239 and other gamma-ray emitting isotopes. In addition, the system can reliably detect self-absorbing material such as plutonium metal shot, and can correct for bias caused by self-absorption. The system can be quickly configured to execute far-field scans, segmented gamma-ray scans, and a host of intermediate scanning protocols, enabling higher throughput (up to 20 drums per 8-hour shift). In this paper, we will report on the results of field trials of the mobile system at Rocky Flats and Los Alamos. Assay accuracy is confirmed for cases in which TGS assays can be compared with assays (e.g. with calorimetry) of individual packages within the drums. The mobile tomographic technology is expected to considerably reduce characterization costs at DOE production and environmental technology sites.

  7. Pesticide uptake in potatoes: model and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Juraske, Ronnie; Vivas, Carmen S Mosquera; Velásquez, Alexander Erazo; Santos, Glenda García; Moreno, Mónica B Berdugo; Gomez, Jaime Diaz; Binder, Claudia R; Hellweg, Stefanie; Dallos, Jairo A Guerrero

    2011-01-15

    A dynamic model for uptake of pesticides in potatoes is presented and evaluated with measurements performed within a field trial in the region of Boyacá, Colombia. The model takes into account the time between pesticide applications and harvest, the time between harvest and consumption, the amount of spray deposition on soil surface, mobility and degradation of pesticide in soil, diffusive uptake and persistence due to crop growth and metabolism in plant material, and loss due to food processing. Food processing steps included were cleaning, washing, storing, and cooking. Pesticide concentrations were measured periodically in soil and potato samples from the beginning of tuber formation until harvest. The model was able to predict the magnitude and temporal profile of the experimentally derived pesticide concentrations well, with all measurements falling within the 90% confidence interval. The fraction of chlorpyrifos applied on the field during plant cultivation that eventually is ingested by the consumer is on average 10(-4)-10(-7), depending on the time between pesticide application and ingestion and the processing step considered.

  8. Two-Channel Rectangular Dielectric Wake Field Accelerator Structure Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sotnikov, G. V.; Marshall, T. C.; Shchelkunov, S. V.; Didenko, A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2009-01-22

    A design is presented for a two-channel 30-GHz rectangular dielectric wake field accelerator structure being built for experimental tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This structure allows for a transformer ratio T much greater than two, and permits continuous coupling of energy from drive bunches to accelerated bunches. It consists of three planar slabs of cordierite ceramic ({epsilon} = 4.7) supported within a rectangular copper block, forming a drive channel 12 mmx6 mm, and an accelerator channel 2 mmx6 mm. When driven by a 50 nC, 14 MeV single bunch available at ANL, theory predicts an acceleration field of 6 MeV/m, and T = 12.6. Inherent transverse wake forces introduce deflections and some distortion of bunch profiles during transit through the structure that are estimated to be tolerable. Additionally, a cylindrical two-channel DWFA is introduced which shares many advantages of the rectangular structure including high T, and the added virtue of axisymmetry that eliminates lowest-order transverse deflecting forces.

  9. Resolving the Physics of Error Field Correction Through Error Field Proxy Experiments in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, R. J.; Ferraro, N. M.; La Haye, R. J.; Schaffer, M. J.; Strait, E. J.; Hanson, J. M.; Park, J.-K.; Reimerdes, H.

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies have determined the scale and likely origins of limitations to error field correction by using DIII-D's multiple coil arrays to apply known large amplitude proxy error fields and attempting correction with additional coils of different structure. It was found that even with pure n=1 proxy fields and carefully optimized correction field, the benefits of correction were substantially limited, at the ˜50% level in terms of low density access. This indicates coupling of residual fields either through higher order resonances and/or through non-resonant braking of the plasma The interpretation is confirmed by modeling with the IPEC code, which shows that the correction process reduces resonant components, but increases non-resonant NTV damping, thus decreasing rotation and easing penetration of residual resonant fields. The result is significant, suggesting multiple field components must be compensated to achieve good correction, and that the best approach may be to minimize the total field in the plasma by cancelling error fields close to their source or close to the plasma.

  10. Developing Personal and Professional Identity: Teaming, Dialogue, and Inquiry in the Sophomore Professional Field Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Ruth J.; Sherman, Sharon J.; Rothstein, Michael; Lupo, Theresa R.

    This paper examines a model of supervision/field experience proposed for teacher candidates in the sophomore professional experience of a teacher preparation program. The approach envisions the sophomore experience as a dialogic process in which students and teachers construct knowledge and nurture dispositions needed for development of personal…

  11. Women's hairstyle and men's behavior: A field experiment.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Little research has examined the effect of women's hairstyles on people's behavior. In a field study, male and female passersby, walking alone in the street, were observed while walking behind a female-confederate who dropped a glove and apparently was unaware of her loss. The confederate had long dark hair arranged in three different hairstyles: one with her hair falling naturally on her shoulders and her back, one with her hair tied in a ponytail, and one with her hair twisted in a bun. Results reported that the hairstyle had no effect on female passersby's helping behavior. However, it was found that the hairstyle influenced male passersby with men helping the confederate more readily when her hair fell naturally on her neck, shoulders and upper back.

  12. Field experience & usage of the Sentinel treatment plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hiscock, K.C.

    1994-12-31

    A process of chemically induced flocculation followed by filtration through activated carbon has been shown to be very effective in removing pesticides from waste water prior to disposal or re-use. Large plants treating up to 100 m{sup 3} per day have been used in agrochemical manufacturing for the past twenty years. This system has been miniaturized to produce a batch treatment family of self-contained plants from 20 litres to 5000 litres. These plans have found their way into thirty-three countries worldwide, treating rinsate from research stations, field trial teams, research universities, farmers, horticulturists as well as ag-chem producers, packers, formulators and storers. In worldwide results, removal of active ingredients to the lowest level of detection have been consistently achieved.

  13. Aircraft measurements and analysis of severe storms: 1975 field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, P. C.

    1976-01-01

    Three aircraft and instrumentation systems were acquired in support of the severe storm surveillance program. The data results indicate that the original concept of a highly mobile research aircraft capability for obtaining detailed measurements of wind, temperature, dew point, etc., near and within specifically designated severe storms is entirely feasible and has been demonstrated for the first time by this program. This program is unique in that it is designed to be highly mobile in order to move to and/or with the developing storm systems to obtain the necessary measurements. Previous programs have all been fixed to a particular location and therefore have had to wait for the storms to come within their network. The present research is designed around a highly mobile aircraft measurements group in order to maximize the storm cases during the field measurements program.

  14. A preliminary assessment of field transport experiments using encapsulated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Petrich, C.R.; Knaebel, D.B.; Ralston, D.R.; Crawford, R.L.; Stormo, K.E.

    1995-12-31

    Microencapsulation of nonindigenous degradative organisms is a technique that enhances microorganism survival. An intermediate-scale field tracer test was conducted to evaluate the transport of encapsulated-cell microbeads and other particles in a shallow, confined, heterogeneous aquifer consisting of unconsolidated silts, sands, and gravels under induced-gradient, uniform flow conditions. Tracers included bromide; 2-, 5-, and 15-{micro}m-diameter polystyrene microspheres; and encapsulated Flavobacterium microbeads ranging in diameter from approximately 2 to 80 {micro}m. Results suggest that aquifer heterogeneity was a dominant factor in bromide- and particle-transport patterns. Encapsulated-cell migration appeared to be retarded with respect to the bromide and microsphere tracers. Results of this study also indicate that encapsulated-cell particle sizes and encapsulation material characteristics may be important factors affecting the transport of encapsulated cells in a subsurface environment.

  15. The lure of local SETI: Fifty years of field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailleris, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    With the commemoration in October 2007 of the Sputnik launch, space exploration celebrated its 50th anniversary. Despite impressive technological and scientific achievements the fascination for space has weakened during the last decades. One contributing factor has been the gradual disappearance of mankind's hope of discovering extraterrestrial life within its close neighbourhood. In striking contrast and since the middle of the 20th century, a non-negligible proportion of the population have already concluded that intelligent beings from other worlds do exist and visit Earth through space vehicles popularly called Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). In light of the continuous public interest for the UFO enigma symbolized by the recent widely diffused media announcements on the release of French and English governmental files; and considering the approach of broadening the strategies of the "Active SETI" approach and the existence of a rich multi-disciplinary UFO documentation of potential interest for SETI; this paper describes some past scientific attempts to demonstrate the physical reality of the phenomena and potentially the presence on Earth of probes of extraterrestrial origin. Details of the different instrumented field studies deployed by scientists and organizations during the period 1950-1990 in the USA, Canada and Europe are provided. In conclusion it will be argued that while continuing the current radio/optical SETI searches, there is the necessity to maintain sustaining attention to the topic of anomalous aerospace phenomena and to develop new rigorous research approaches.

  16. How deep cells feel: Mean-field Computations and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxboim, Amnon; Sen, Shamik; Discher, Dennis E.

    2009-03-01

    Most cells in solid tissues exert contractile forces that mechanically couple them to elastic surroundings and that significantly influence cell adhesion, cytoskeletal organization and differentiation. However, strains within the depths of matrices are often unclear and are likely relevant to thin matrices, such as basement membranes, relative to cell size as well as to defining how far cells can ``feel.'' We present experimental results for cell spreading on thin, ligand- coated gels and for prestress in stem cells in relation to gel stiffness. Matrix thickness affects cell spread area, focal adhesions and cytoskeleton organization in stem cells, which we will compare to differentiated cells. We introduce a finite element computation to estimate the elastostatic deformations within the matrix on which a cell is placed. Interfacial strains between cell and matrix show large deviations only when soft matrices are a fraction of cell dimensions, proving consistent with experiments. 3-D cell morphologies that model stem cell-derived neurons, myoblasts, and osteoblasts show that a cylinder-shaped myoblast induces the highest strains, consistent with the prominent contractility of muscle. Groups of such cells show a weak crosstalk via matrix strains only when cells are much closer than a cell-width. Cells thus feel on length scales closer to that of adhesions than on cellular scales.

  17. Applicability of sniffing team observations: experience of field measurements.

    PubMed

    Van Langenhove, H; Van Broeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Sniffing measurement campaigns are a commonly used technique in Flanders to estimate the impact of an odour emission source. The Department of Organic Chemistry at Ghent University has developed its own sniffing strategy throughout the last ten years. The method uses, in essence, the technique of plotting odour perception areas and calculation of total odour emission rates based on maximum odour perception distance. 566 sniffing measurements, executed from 1990 until 1999 around industrial and agricultural odour sources were collected in a database for statistical analysis. Short-term dispersion modelling was executed using four different models, two of them based on Bultynck-Malet dispersion parameters, and two based on Pasquill dispersion parameters. Results from this analysis demonstrate some causes of variance in calculated emissions and show the fitness of each model. From the results of the sniffing teams, which are expressed as sniffing units (SU) instead of odour units (OU, OUE) to underline the difference in methodological approach, the overall odorous emission can be calculated, using short-term atmospheric dispersion models. In a second step, long-term dispersion models can be used to calculate isopercentile contour plots. According to our experience the short-term atmospheric model is a source of "noise" in the method since calculated standard deviations on calculated emissions are larger than standard deviations in the observed maximum distance for odour perception. This will be illustrated by presenting results from the evaluation of composting plants and animal farm houses.

  18. The structure of executive function in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Sandra A; Sheffield, Tiffany; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Clark, Caron A C; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-03-01

    Although the structure of executive function (EF) during adulthood is characterized by both unity and diversity, recent evidence suggests that preschool EF may be best described by a single factor. The latent structure of EF was examined in 228 3-year-olds using confirmatory factor analysis. Children completed a battery of executive tasks that differed in format and response requirements and in putative working memory and inhibitory control demands. Tasks appeared to be age appropriate, with adequate sensitivity across the range of performance and without floor or ceiling effects. Tests of the relative fit of several alternative models supported a single latent EF construct. Measurement invariance testing revealed less proficient EF in children at higher sociodemographic risk relative to those at lower risk and no differences between boys and girls. At 3years of age, when EF skills are emerging, EF appears to be a unitary, more domain-general process.

  19. A Loop Current experiment: Field and remote measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Peter; Lugo-Fernández, Alexis; Sheinbaum, Julio

    2016-12-01

    An overview of a new comprehensive observational study of the Loop Current (LC) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico that encompassed full-depth and near-bottom moorings, pressure-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) and remote sensing is presented. The study array was designed to encompass the LC from the Campeche Bank to the west Florida escarpment. This overview centers about principal findings as they pertain to mesoscale dynamics. Two companion papers provide in-depth analyses. Three LC anticyclonic eddy separation events were observed with good 3D spatial coverage over the 2½ year extent of the field study; the three separations exhibited similar processes after the LC had extended into the eastern Gulf. Large scale (∼300 km wavelength, 40-60 day periods) southward propagating meanders developed on the eastern side of the LC over deep (∼3000 m) water that were the result of baroclinic instability between the upper layer meandering jet and lower layer cyclones and anticyclones. The lower layer was only highly energetic during relatively short (∼2-3 months) intervals just prior to or during eddy detachments because of baroclinic instability. The steepening of the meanders lead to a pinch-off of LC eddies. The deep lower-layer eddies, constrained by the closed topography of the southeastern Gulf, propagated westward across the detachment zone and appear to assist in achieving separation. Small scale (∼50-100 km, periods ∼10 days) frontal eddies, observed on the western side of the LC along the Campeche Bank slope, decay over the deep water of the northern part of an extended LC, and have little influence on lower layer eddies, the east side meanders and the eddy detachment processes.

  20. Experiments and modeling of dilution jet flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental and analytical results of the mixing of single, double, and opposed rows of jets with an isothermal or variable-temperature main stream in a straight duct are presented. This study was performed to investigate flow and geometric variations typical of the complex, three-dimensional flow field in the dilution zone of gas-turbine-engine combustion chambers. The principal results, shown experimentally and analytically, were the following: (1) variations in orifice size and spacing can have a significant effect on the temperature profiles; (2) similar distributions can be obtained, independent of orifice diameter, if momentum-flux ratio and orifice spacing are coupled; (3) a first-order approximation of the mixing of jets with a variable-temperature main stream can be obtained by superimposing the main-stream and jets-in-an-isothermal-crossflow profiles; (4) the penetration of jets issuing mixing is slower and is asymmetric with respect to the jet centerplanes, which shift laterally with increasing downstream distance; (5) double rows of jets give temperature distributions similar to those from a single row of equally spaced, equal-area circular holes; (6) for opposed rows of jets, with the orifice centerlines in line, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is one-half the optimum value for single-side injection at the same momentum-flux ratiol and (7) for opposed rows of jets, with the orifice centerlines staggered, the optimum ratio of orifice spacing to duct height is twice the optimum value for single-side injection at the same momentum-flux ratio.

  1. [Dermatobia hominis infection in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Meissner, M; Kippenberger, S; Valesky, E M; Kaufmann, R

    2012-04-01

    In the context of increasing travel to the tropics, outpatient services are more frequently confronted with non-domestic diseases in Europe. A 3-year old child presented with a painful tumor of the scalp. After incision of the furuncle-like lesion, we extracted a larva of the botfly Dermatobia hominis. Botflies are mainly encountered in Central and South America; they should be considered if patients demonstrate a furuncle-like lesion and have returned from a holiday in these endemic regions.

  2. Tools and setups for experiments with AC and rotating magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponikvar, D.

    2010-09-01

    A rotating magnetic field is the basis for the transformation of electrical energy to mechanical energy. School experiments on the rotating magnetic field are rare since they require the use of specially prepared mechanical setups and/or relatively large, three-phase power supplies to achieve strong magnetic fields. This paper proposes several experiments and describes setups and tools which are easy to obtain and work with. Free software is offered to generate the required signals by a personal computer. The experiments can be implemented in introductory physics courses on electromagnetism for undergraduates or specialized courses at high schools.

  3. Evaluation of a drug abuse prevention program: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    LoSciuto, L; Ausetts, M A

    1988-01-01

    The central aim of this study was to evaluate Project PRIDE, a school-based affective education program offered in select schools since 1970 and throughout the entire Philadelphia Public School System since 1981. The primary purpose of the program is to increase youth's resistance to drug use and abuse through weekly small group counseling sessions. The 12 weekly student sessions focused on developing self-awareness, life skills, knowledge, and appropriate attitudes about drugs. Project PRIDE also developed training modules for teachers and parents. Evaluation was by means of a true experimental pretest-posttest design, with random assignment to treatment and control groups. Measures of attitudes, self-reported drug use, and behavioral intentions were administered to students, teachers, and parents; process evaluation measures of the student component were collected throughout the treatment period as well. Data analyses indicate that, while a few of the broad aims of the prevention program were not met, there were reliable changes in the intended direction in many of the students' attitudes and intentions. Student attitudes toward drug use and knowledge about drugs both improved. Project PRIDE participation was associated with a relative decrease in willingness to experiment with drugs, even though all groups showed strongly negative attitudes toward drug use. Treatment interacted with sex of student and/or SES on a number of items. Generally, effects were more pronounced for girls and for low SES students. All groups of participants felt they gained significant knowledge and skills from the program. Other effects for parents and teachers were infrequent and inconsistent.

  4. A case study of urban student and teacher experiences surrounding an outdoor environmental science field trip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusch, Peggy L.

    2009-12-01

    Field trips provide opportunities for students to experience many different contexts beyond the classroom, and are a popular choice of K-12 teachers in the US. Recent interest in learning that occurs at informal science education centers such as museums, zoos and aquariums has stimulated studies of the relationship between learning in and outside of schools. Although many studies focus on the teachers, the contexts, and/or the students during the field trip, only a few look at the entire process of learning by including the classroom setting before and after the field trip. This study was designed to develop understandings of the student process of learning during and surrounding an environmental science field trip to an outdoor setting. John Dewey's extensive writings on the relationship between experience and learning informed the analysis, creating a focus on active and passive elements of the experience, continuity within and across contexts, the interactive nature of the experience and the importance of subject matter. An exploration of environmental education (EE), environmental science (ES), and nature study as content revealed the complexities of the subject matter of the field trip that make its presentation problematic. An urban school was chosen to contribute to the research literature about urban student learning in outdoor environments. During the field trip, the students' active engagement with each other and the environment supported meaningful remembrances of the field trip experiences during interviews after the field trip. The students accurately described plants and animals they had observed in different habitats during the field trip. They also made connections with their home life and prior experiences in the outdoors as they discussed the field trip and drew pictures that represented their experiences. One student integrated his outdoor experience with a language arts assignment as he reflected deeply on the field trip. One implication of this

  5. The Escompte Programme: An Overview of The Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, P.; Cros, B.; Peuch, V. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Saïd, F.; Perros, P.; Robin, D.

    The ESCOMPTE programme (http://medias.obs-mip.fr/escompte) is embedded in a long-term strategy whose aim is the improvement of air quality. In order to be able to take preventive measures to reduce the size and the effects of pollution events, we need to dispose of efficient tools of prediction of these events. Such tools, yet to be developed or improved, are, on the one hand, the inventory of the various pollu- tion sources (fixed and mobile), and, on the other hand, mathematical models able to accurately simulate the dynamical (diffusion and transport) and chemical (reactions) processes under which the various solid, liquid and gaseous species will evolve. The main objective of the ESCOMPTE programme is to gather a data set of some pollution events, involving the emissions of primary pollutants, as well as atmospheric dynam- ics and chemistry. This data set, acquired at the surface and in the lower troposphere, in a region located South-East of France, between June 4th and July 16th, 2001, will serve as a reference for qualifying the CTMs of atmospheric pollution, from local- to regional-scale. A 120km*120km area, around the "Marseille-Berre" site, in the South-eastern of France, has been selected to host the ESCOMPTE field campaign. This region presents a high occurrence of photochemical pollution, because it is one of the most sunny re- gions of France, with anticyclonic conditions prevailing during summer ; it involves the urbanized area of Marseille city (more than one million people), and the "Fos- Berre" industrial area (oil refineries, power plants, E), both being considerable sources of various pollutants ; it presents terrain characteristics (land-sea-breeze circulations ; numerous hills and mountain chains up to more than thousand meters high) acting as dynamical forcings on the transport of pollutants. Although the core domain of ESCOMPTE is a 100km*100km box, a hierarchy of chemistry and/or transport models is involved in the programme, and is able do

  6. Supine Craniospinal Irradiation Using Intrafractional Junction Shifts and Field-in-Field Dose Shaping: Early Experience at Methodist Hospital

    SciTech Connect

    South, Michael C. Chiu, J. Kam; Teh, Bin S.; Bloch, Charles; Schroeder, Thomas M.; Paulino, Arnold C.

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To describe our preliminary experience with supine craniospinal irradiation. The advantages of the supine position for craniospinal irradiation include patient comfort, easier access to maintain an airway for anesthesia, and reduced variability of the head tilt in the face mask. Methods and Materials: The cranial fields were treated with near lateral fields and a table angle to match their divergence to the superior edge of the spinal field. The collimator was rotated to match the divergence from the superior spinal field. The spinal fields were treated using a source to surface distance (SSD) technique with the couch top at 100 cm. When a second spinal field was required, the table and collimator were rotated 90{sup o} to allow for the use of the multileaf collimator and so the gantry could be rotated to match the divergence of the superior spinal field. The multileaf collimator was used for daily dynamic featherings and field-in-field dose control. Results: With a median follow-up of 20.2 months, five documented failures and no cases of radiation myelitis occurred in 23 consecutive patients. No failures occurred in the junctions of the spine-spine or brain-spine fields. Two failures occurred in the primary site alone, two in the spinal axis alone, and one primary site failure plus distant metastasis. The median time to recurrence was 17 months. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that supine approach for delivering craniospinal irradiation is not associated with increased relapses at the field junctions. To date, no cases of radiation myelitis have developed.

  7. Blowout Fracture in a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pluijmers, Britt I.; Koudstaal, Maarten J.; Paridaens, Dion; van der Wal, Karel G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial department with a fracture of the orbital floor. Due to the lack of clinical symptoms, a conservative approach was chosen. After 3 weeks, an enophthalmos developed. The orbital floor reconstruction was successfully performed through a transconjunctival approach. This case highlights the rarity of pure blowout fractures in young children. The specific presentation and diagnostics of orbital floor fractures in children and the related surgical planning and intervention are discussed. PMID:24436749

  8. Pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Holdaway, M. D.; Kennedy, J.; Ashcroft, T.; Kay-Butler, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Until 1960, 179 cases of infection with Nocardia asteroides had been described in the world literature. Seventeen cases in children were reported by 1963. The organism is a common saprophyte in nature with probably a world-wide distribution. Infection can be primary but is more common in patients with underlying malignancy, auto-immune disease or preceding tuberculosis. Sulphonamides, particularly sulphadiazine, are the drugs of choice in treatment; the value of antibiotics is less clearly established. The indications for surgical treatment have not yet been defined. We record a further case of primary pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child. Images PMID:6035802

  9. The electric field structure of auroral arcs as determined from barium plasma injection experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Barium plasma injection experiments have revealed a number of features of electric fields in and near auroral forms extending from a few hundred to many thousands of km in altitude. There is evidence for V-type potential structures over some auroras, but not in others. For some auroral arcs, large E fields are found at ionospheric altitudes outside the arc but the E field inside the arc is near zero. In a few other auroras, most recently one investigated in an experiment conducted from Poker Flat on March 22, 1980, large, rapidly fluctuating E fields were detected by barium plasma near 600 km altitude. These E fields suggest that the motion of auroral rays can be an effect of low-altitude electric fields, or that V-type potential structures may be found at low altitudes.

  10. Development of temporomandibular disorder symptoms: a 3-year cohort study of university students.

    PubMed

    Akhter, R; Morita, M; Esaki, M; Nakamura, K; Kanehira, T

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the incidence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) over a 3-year period and to evaluate the risk of self-reported TMDs among university students in Japan. The study population comprised 2374 university students examined at the start of their undergraduate course and 492 students re-examined after 3 years using questionnaires on symptoms of TMD and experiences of jaw injury, stress, orthodontic treatment and parafunctional habits. Cumulative incidence (%) and relative risks were calculated overall. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to determine the degree of risks of these variables for symptoms of TMDs using logistic regression. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that male subjects with experience of jaw injury had a 3·54 (CI=1·45-8·68, P<0·01)-fold higher risk of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain than that for those who did not. Female subjects who reported experiencing stress and bruxism had 10·56 (CI=1·28-87·54, P<0·05)- and 5·00 (CI=1·21-20·71, P<0·05)-fold higher risks of TMJ sound, respectively, than the risk for female subjects who had not experienced stress or bruxism. The results indicated that experiences of jaw injury, stress and bruxism were significantly associated with increased risks of development of TMJ disorders in a 3-year cohort.

  11. A Field-Based Learning Experience for Introductory Level GIS Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a pedagogic foundation for introducing a field-based geographic information systems (GIS) experience to the GIS curriculum at the university level and uses a dual evaluation methodology to monitor student learning and satisfaction. Students learned the basics of field-based global position systems (GPS) and GIS data…

  12. Biological Effects of Static Magnetic Fields: Ideal Experiments for Introductory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendler, Barry S.; Grove, Patricia A.

    2005-01-01

    A serendipitous finding involving static magnetic fields can be used to design experiments suitable for both science and nonscience majors. It has been reported that organisms respond differently to high-gauss magnetic fields generated by north poles than they do to those generated by south poles. Experimental tests of this hypothesis are ideal…

  13. Factors That Influence Student's Satisfaction in an Environmental Field Day Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hui-Hui; Carlson, Stephan P.

    2011-01-01

    A field trip is a common strategy used by educators to bring out-of-school learning experience into schools. Many research studies suggest a field trip will not only bring an individual close to the real-world, but may also increase an individual's environmental knowledge and responsible behaviors. Program evaluations usually focus on the…

  14. Teaching Elementary Mathematics: A Resource for Field Experiences. 3rd Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a hands-on field manual for elementary school teachers. It features a range of activities that offer opportunities for reflection while enhancing student field experiences, through observation and practicum. The first section of the book provides activities that focus on collecting information about the school and its resources, and…

  15. Data from TRMM Field Experiments at the Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) DISC DAAC Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Field Experiments (TRMM FEs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The basic objectives of TRMM Field Experiments (FEs) are to evaluate the physical assumptions made by TRMM. rainfall algorithms, initialize and validate the cloud resolving models, test latent heating retrievals from TRMM mea- surements, and evaluate methods to estimate rainfall and latent heating from ground-based radars. The field experiments were designed as a group, so that specific measure ments could be compared between experiments in order to gain insight into the regional dependence of any findings. The TExas FLorida UNderflight Experiments (TEFLUN) were designed to provide validation measurements for TRMM and for the enhancement of TRMM precipitation algorithms. TEFLUN-A focused on east Texas. TEFLUN-B was conducted in close coordination with the Third Convection And Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) in Florida. The TRMM-LBA was conducted in coordination with the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). The LBA objectives are to further our understanding of the climatological, ecological, bie geochemical, and hydrological processes in Amazonia and the impact of land use/land change on these processes. Specifically, TRMM-LBA addressed issues related to land precipitation algorithms. The Kwa jalein Experiment (KWAJEX), conducted on the Kwajalein Island in the Republic of Marshall Islands (RMI), was designed to address issues of TRMM products over the ocean. The purpose of the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) was to study the water and energy cycle of the Asian monsoon in order to provide better understanding and improve prediction. and instruments of the TRMM FEs. The platforms and instruments of the TRMM FEs are given.

  16. Being There: The Importance of a Field Experience in Teaching Native American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Roberta

    2000-01-01

    A Native American literature professor's account of college students' cross-cultural field experience on two Indian reservations near the Grand Canyon shows how the experience enhanced student understanding of the Native American belief in the people and land as one, storytelling and a sense of the sacred, and the history and impact of…

  17. Practical Applications for Using Peer Assessment in Physical Education Teacher Education Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Beth J.; Marty-Snyder, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Peer assessment (PA) occurs in many higher education programs. However, there is limited research examining PA in physical education teacher education (PETE) in regards to student teaching experiences. PA may be a method to better prepare PETE students to assess their future students. The field experience students assessed their fellow peers on…

  18. Understanding Field Experiences in Traditional Teacher Preparation Programs in Missouri. REL 2016-145

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of field experiences in traditional teacher preparation programs completed by first-year teachers in Missouri and how experiences vary by teaching certificate type. This descriptive study is based on data from a survey administered in early 2015 to first-year teachers in Missouri public…

  19. Preservice Science Teachers' Field Experiences with Educational Technologies as Part of Portfolio Development: A Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Hunkar; Gucum, Berna; Hakverdi, Meral

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the usage of educational technology of pre-service science teachers in their field experiences. This study was carried out on 45 pre-service science teachers taking School Experience and Practice Teaching courses at Hacettepe University in Turkey. The data were obtained from the evaluation of pre-service…

  20. Perspectives on a Reconceptualized Early Field Experience in an Urban School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burant, Theresa J.

    Teacher education in the U.S. faces a critical dilemma: preparing white, middle-class preservice teachers to teach increasingly diverse student populations in public schools. Early field experiences (EFEs) show promise for addressing this mismatch, yet little is actually known about what happens to preservice teachers in practicum experiences.…

  1. Inquiry-Based Field Experiences: Transforming Early Childhood Teacher Candidates' Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Vicki; Jacobs, Gera

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary teacher preparation programs are challenged to provide transformational learning experiences that enhance the development of highly effective teachers. This mixed-methods case study explored the influence of inquiry-based field experiences as a pedagogical approach to teacher preparation. Four teacher candidates participated in a…

  2. Developing Standards-Based Geography Curricular Materials from Overseas Field Experiences for K-12 Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Alex; Palacios, Fabian Araya

    2012-01-01

    Overseas experiences provide educators with exceptional opportunities to incorporate field study, firsthand experiences, and tangible artifacts into the classroom. Despite this potential, teachers must consider curricular standards that direct how such international endeavors can be integrated. Furthermore, geography curriculum development is more…

  3. From Books to the Real World: A Field Learning Experience. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes Coll., Wilkes-Barre, PA. Educational Development Center.

    The Crestwood Community-Based Learning Experiences Project was undertaken to test the feasibility of conducting an out-of-school learning program and to determine the cost of establishing such a program. For 3 months, 6 teachers and 206 fifth-grade children participated in a total of 20 field experiences which were implemented at three levels: a)…

  4. Evaluating Experience-Based Geologic Field Instruction: Lessons Learned from A Large-Scale Eye-Tracking Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarduno, J. A.; Walders, K.; Bono, R. K.; Pelz, J.; Jacobs, R.

    2015-12-01

    A course centered on experience-based learning in field geology has been offered ten times at the University of Rochester. The centerpiece of the course is a 10-day field excursion to California featuring a broad cross-section of the geology of the state, from the San Andreas Fault to Death Valley. Here we describe results from a large-scale eye-tracking experiment aimed at understanding how experts and novices acquire visual geologic information. One ultimate goal of the project is to determine whether expert gaze patterns can be quantified to improve the instruction of beginning geology students. Another goal is to determine if aspects of the field experience can be transferred to the classroom/laboratory. Accordingly, ultra-high resolution segmented panoramic images have been collected at key sites visited during the field excursion. We have found that strict controls are needed in the field to obtain meaningful data; this often involves behavior atypical of geologists (e.g. limiting the field of view prior to data collection and placing time limits on scene viewing). Nevertheless some general conclusions can be made from a select data set. After an initial quick search, experts tend to exhibit scanning behavior that appears to support hypothesis testing. Novice fixations appear to define a scattered search pattern and/or one distracted by geologic noise in a scene. Noise sources include modern erosion features and vegetation. One way to quantify noise is through the use of saliency maps. With the caveat that our expert data set is small, our preliminary analysis suggests that experts tend to exhibit top-down behavior (indicating hypothesis driven responses) whereas novices show bottom-up gaze patterns, influenced by more salient features in a scene. We will present examples and discuss how these observations might be used to improve instruction.

  5. An overview of the first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Asrar, G.; Strebel, D. E.; Murphy, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and scientific background leading up to FIFE, the experiment design, the scientific teams and equipment involved, and the actual execution of the experiment. The experiment was tasked with exploring techniques for utilizing satellite data to quantify important biophysical states and rates for model input. During the intensive field campaigns the fluxes of moisture, heat, carbon dioxide and radiation were measured with airborne and surface equipment in coordination with measurements of atmospheric and surface parameters and satellite overpasses.

  6. Physical barriers formed from gelling liquids: 1. numerical design of laboratory and field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Pruess, K.; Persoff, P.

    1994-01-01

    The emplacement of liquids under controlled viscosity conditions is investigated by means of numerical simulations. Design calculations are performed for a laboratory experiment on a decimeter scale, and a field experiment on a meter scale. The purpose of the laboratory experiment is to study the behavior of multiple gout plumes when injected in a porous medium. The calculations for the field trial aim at designing a grout injection test from a vertical well in order to create a grout plume of a significant extent in the subsurface.

  7. Virtual navigation performance: the relationship to field of view and prior video gaming experience.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Anthony E; Collaer, Marcia L

    2011-04-01

    Two experiments examined whether learning a virtual environment was influenced by field of view and how it related to prior video gaming experience. In the first experiment, participants (42 men, 39 women; M age = 19.5 yr., SD = 1.8) performed worse on a spatial orientation task displayed with a narrow field of view in comparison to medium and wide field-of-view displays. Counter to initial hypotheses, wide field-of-view displays did not improve performance over medium displays, and this was replicated in a second experiment (30 men, 30 women; M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.9) presenting a more complex learning environment. Self-reported video gaming experience correlated with several spatial tasks: virtual environment pointing and tests of Judgment of Line Angle and Position, mental rotation, and Useful Field of View (with correlations between .31 and .45). When prior video gaming experience was included as a covariate, sex differences in spatial tasks disappeared.

  8. Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

  9. Plasma Jet Motion Across the Geomagnetic Field in the ``North Star'' Active Geophysical Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, B. G.; Zetzer, J. I.; Podgorny, I. M.; Sobyanin, D. B.; Meng, C.-I.; Erlandson, R. E.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Pfaff, R. F.; Lynch, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    The active geophysical rocket experiment ``North Star'' was carried out in the auroral ionosphere on January 22, 1999, at the Poker Flat Research Range (Alaska, USA) using the American research rocket Black Brant XII with explosive plasma generators on board. Separable modules with scientific equipment were located at distances of from 170 to 1595 m from the plasma source. The experiment continued the series of the Russian-American joint experiments started by the ``Fluxus'' experiment in 1997. Two injections of aluminum plasma across the magnetic field were conducted in the ``North Star'' experiment. They were different, since in the first injection a neutral gas cloud was formed in order to increase the plasma ionization due to the interaction of neutrals of the jet and cloud. The first and second injections were conducted at heights of 360 and 280 km, respectively. The measurements have shown that the charged particle density was two orders of magnitude higher in the experiment with the gas release. The magnetic field in the first injection was completely expelled by the dense plasma of the jet. The displacement of the magnetic field in the second injection was negligible. The plasma jet velocity in both injections decreased gradually due to its interaction with the geomagnetic field. One of the most interesting results of the experiment was the conservation of high plasma density during the propagation of the divergent jet to considerable distances. This fact can be explained by the action of the critical ionization velocity mechanism.

  10. A high-altitude balloon experiment to probe stratospheric electric fields from low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurubaran, Subramanian; Shanmugam, Manu; Jawahar, Kaliappan; Emperumal, Kaliappan; Mahavarkar, Prasanna; Buduru, Suneel Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The Earth's electrical environment hosts a giant electrical circuit, often referred to as the global electric circuit (GEC), linking the various sources of electrical generators located in the lower atmosphere, the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. The middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) has been traditionally believed to be passively transmitting electric fields generated elsewhere. Some observations have reported anomalously large electric fields at these altitudes, and the scientific community has had to revisit the earlier hypothesis time and again. At stratospheric altitudes and especially at low latitudes, horizontal electric fields are believed to be of ionospheric origin. Though measurements of these fields from a balloon platform are challenging because of their small magnitudes (around a few mV m-1), a suitably designed long-duration balloon experiment capable of detecting such small fields can provide useful information on the time evolution of ionospheric electric fields, which is otherwise possible only using radar or satellite in situ measurements. We present herein details of one such experiment, BEENS (Balloon Experiment on the Electrodynamics of Near Space), carried out from a low-latitude site in India. The instrument package for this experiment is comprised of four deployable booms for measurements of horizontal electric fields and one inclined boom for vertical electric field measurements, all equipped with conducting spheres at the tip. The experiment was conducted from Hyderabad (17.5° N, 78.6° E) during the post-midnight hours on 14 December 2013. In spite of a few shortcomings we report herein, a noticeable feature of the observations has been the detection of horizontal electric fields of ˜ 5 mV m-1 at the stratospheric altitudes of ˜ 35 km.

  11. Solute mass transfer from near field to far field in a HLWR experiment at real scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buil, B.; Peña, J.; Gómez, P.; Garralón, A.; Turrero, M. J.; Sánchez, L.; Durán, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    The FEBEX experiment located in Grimsel (Switzerland) is a 1:1 simulation of a high level waste disposal facility in crystalline rock according to the Spanish concept: two electrical heaters of dimension and weight equivalent to those of the real canisters were installed concentrically with the drift and simulated the thermal effect of the wastes and surrounded by a clay barrier constructed from highly-compacted bentonite blocks. This experiment started in 1996 and the external rim of bentonite is saturated with the granitic water. The difference between the chemical gradients generated by the bentonite porewater and the granitic water made possible the movement of solute into the geosphere. The experiment reproduces in the most realistic conditions, all the processes affecting the radionuclide migration in a HLWR. Two boreholes parallel to the axis of the FEBEX drift were drilled in granite relatively close to the bentonite surface (20 and 60cm) in order to highlight the solute migration mechanisms in crystalline host rock, influenced by the presence of the bentonite buffer and by the geochemical gradients generated at the bentonite/granite interface. After three years of periodic water sampling campaigns in those boreholes, the chemical composition of waters reveal that there is an appreciable increase of Na and Cl concentration in time in the waters sampled from the borehole located at 20cm from the bentonite surface. On the other hand, the Na/Cl ratio in waters is similar to the Na/Cl ratio in the bentonite porewater. For this reason Cl and Na are considered as the main natural tracers indicating the mass transfer process between the bentonite porewater and the granite. A diffusion transport modelling (PHREEQC) was used to describe the mass transfer process. The results show that the Cl and Na concentration in the granitic waters is the result of a diffusive transport from the bentonite to the granite, with a calculated De≈ 5,0E-11 m2/s. These results could

  12. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, Alexandra N; Snapp, Sieglinde S; Robertson, G Philip

    2017-01-31

    Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based-organic, management practices for a corn-soybean-wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-scale experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-scale yields well matched field-scale yields for conventional management but not for alternative systems. For all three crops, at the plot scale, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot scale, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-scale experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental scale than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-scale challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-scale experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-system performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced systems typical of much of the developing world.

  13. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems

    PubMed Central

    Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based–organic, management practices for a corn–soybean–wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-scale experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-scale yields well matched field-scale yields for conventional management but not for alternative systems. For all three crops, at the plot scale, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot scale, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-scale experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental scale than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-scale challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-scale experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-system performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced systems typical of much of the developing world. PMID:28096409

  14. Combining long term field experiments and nanoscale analysis to enhance process understanding of root litter stabilization by mineral interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabbi, Abad; Baumann, Karen; Remusat, Laurent; Barre, Pierre; Dignac, Marie-France; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2015-04-01

    Mineral interaction may affect the stabilisation of root litter directly or indirectly after microbial decomposition and transformation. The importance of both processes may vary within the soil profile. In this study we studied C stabilisation of isotopically labelled root litter (13C and 15N), which was incubated during 3 year in the field at different soil depth. Samples from this field experiment were recovered and subjected to nanoscale analyses in order to elucidate mineral interactions occurring in different parts of the soil profile. Our results showed enrichment of mineral associated organic matter in subsoil horizons. However, material derived from new plant litter may be stabilised at similar rates in top- and subsoil horizons. N-containing compounds are enriched in the mineral associated fraction of subsoil horizons, indicating enrichment of microbial derived material with depth. Nano scale analyses showed that indeed plant-derived material may be associated with metal oxides in topsoil horizons, whereas the mineral associated organic matter in subsoil horizons may consist of microbial cells. Interestingly, in contrast to short term laboratory analysis, decoupling of C and N through stabilisation with soil minerals was observed during this long term field experiment. Our results indicate that the nature of OM stabilised by mineral interactions is depth specific. Therefore, we suggest, that plant derived lignocellulosic material may be preserved by mineral interactions in topsoil given its incomplete degradation, thereby leading to the formation of functional groups and favouring adsorption to soil minerals. This is consistent with the higher state of lignin-degradation observed in topsoil horizons as compared to subsoil. At depth, where microorganisms are most likely energy limited, degradation of fresh plant litter may be complete, thereby diminishing the formation of lignocellulosic compounds capable of sorption onto metal oxides. As a result

  15. Magnetic shielding in a low temperature torsion pendulum experiment. [superconducting cylinders for attenuation earth field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of ether drift experiment searches for anomalous torques on a permanent magnet. A torsion pendulum is used at liquid helium temperature, so that superconducting cylinders can be used to shield magnetic fields. Lead shields attenuate the earth's field, while Nb-Sn shields fastened to the pendulum contain the fields of the magnet. The paper describes the technique by which the earth's field can be reduced below 0.0001 G while simultaneously the moment of the magnet can be reduced by a factor 7 x 10 to the 4th.

  16. GRB 030329: 3 years of radio afterglow monitoring.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, A J; Kamble, A; Wijers, R A M J; Resmi, L; Bhattacharya, D; Rol, E; Strom, R; Kouveliotou, C; Oosterloo, T; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2007-05-15

    Radio observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are essential for our understanding of the physics of relativistic blast waves, as they enable us to follow the evolution of GRB explosions much longer than the afterglows in any other wave band. We have performed a 3-year monitoring campaign of GRB 030329 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescopes and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Our observations, combined with observations at other wavelengths, have allowed us to determine the GRB blast wave physical parameters, such as the total burst energy and the ambient medium density, as well as to investigate the jet nature of the relativistic outflow. Further, by modelling the late-time radio light curve of GRB 030329, we predict that the Low-Frequency Array (30-240 MHz) will be able to observe afterglows of similar GRBs, and constrain the physics of the blast wave during its non-relativistic phase.

  17. ISS ECLSS: 3 Years of Logistics for Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkedi, Brienne; Thompson, Dean

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is designed to be maintainable. During the 3 years since the ISS US Lab became operational, there have been numerous ECLSS Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) launched and returned to Maintain the ECLSS operation in the US segments. The maintenance logistics have provided tools for maintenance, replaced limited life ORUs and failed ORUs, upgraded ECLSS hardware to improve reliability and placed critical spares onboard prior to need. In most cases, the removed ORUs have been returned for either failure analysis and repair or refurbishment. This paper describes the ECLSS manifesting history and maintenance events and quantifies the numbers of ECLSS items, weights, and volumes.

  18. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children.

  19. Geomagnetic field-line resonant harmonics measured by the Viking and AMPTE/CCE magnetic field experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, L. J.; Potemra, T. A.; Erlandson, R. E.; Engebretson, M. J.; Acuna, M. H.

    1987-01-01

    The first simultaneous observations of multiple harmonic, azimuthally polarized, ULF pulsations at two points along a geomagnetic flux tube in space are reported. In March 1986, the elliptically orbiting equatorial AMPTE/CCE satellite was oriented with the apogee near 0830 h MLT, and the orbital plane of the polar-orbiting Viking satellite was at 1000 MLT. The satellites were situated within approximately the same flux tube but with an effective separation of approximately 10 R(e) near L = 8 on the inbound pass of the AMPTE/CCE orbit. Structured harmonic pulsations were observed by the magnetic field experiments on both spacecraft, and they appeared to turn off and on simultaneously at both locations. Both the observations and the relative amplitudes along the magnetic field lines support recent ideas of multiple field-line resonances of Alfven waves.

  20. Lead uptake and translocation by willows in pot and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhivotovsky, Olena P; Kuzovkina, Yulia A; Schulthess, Cristian P; Morris, Tom; Pettinelli, Dawn

    2011-09-01

    Plant growth and lead (Pb) uptake by seven willow varieties were investigated in pot and field experiments to assess the suitability of willows for phytoremediation of Pb at heavily contaminated sites such as skeet ranges. Differences in uptake and translocation of Pb in Salix were observed between pot and field experiments. In the pot experiment, willows grown in Pb-contaminated field soil for 6 months showed tolerance to very high soil Pb concentration (21,360 mg kg(-1)), and with the addition of EDTA were able to take up and translocate more than 1000 mg kg(-1) Pb into above-ground tissues. In the field experiment, all willow varieties showed tolerance to heterogeneously high soil Pb concentrations. Plants were also able to take up and translocate Pb into above-ground tissues. However, after 4.5 months, the lead concentration in the above-ground tissues of willows grown in soil amended with EDTA was less than 200 mg kg(-1). The results from the pot experiment suggest that Salix varieties have the potential to take up and translocate significant amounts of Pb into above-ground tissues using EDTA. However, to verify the phytoextraction abilities of Salix in the field, additional research is needed.

  1. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Rosenberg, M. J.; Li, C. K.; Fox, W.; ...

    2015-04-08

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β~10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations predict a stronger flux compressionmore » and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.« less

  2. The first ISLSCP field experiment (FIFE). [International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Asrar, G.; Strebel, D. E.; Murphy, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The background and planning of the first International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) field experiment (FIFE) are discussed. In FIFE, the NOAA series of satellites and GOES will be used to provide a moderate-temporal resolution coarse-spatial resolution data set, with SPOT and aircraft data providing the high-spatial resolution pointable-instrument capability. The paper describes the experiment design, the measurement strategy, the configuration of the site of the experiment (which will be at and around the Konza prairie near Manhattan, Kansas), and the experiment's operations and execution.

  3. Effect of Biochar on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Cycling in Laboratory and Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Harter, Johannes; Kaldamukova, Radina; Ruser, Reiner; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    The extensive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in agriculture is a major source of anthropogenic N2O emissions contributing 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Soil biochar amendment has been suggested as a means to reduce both CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. The reduction of N2O emissions by biochar has been demonstrated repeatedly in field and laboratory experiments. However, the mechanisms of the reduction remain unclear. Further it is not known how biochar field-weathering affects GHG emissions and how agro-chemicals, such as the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), that is often simultaneously applied together with commercial N-fertilizers, impact nitrogen transformation and N2O emissions from biochar amended soils. In order investigate the duration of the biochar effect on soil N2O emissions and its susceptibility to DMPP application we performed a microcosm and field study with a high-temperature (400 ° C) beech wood derived biochar (60 t ha-1 and 5 % (w/w) biochar in the field and microcosms, respectively). While the field site contained the biochar already for three years, soil and biochar were freshly mixed for the laboratory microcosm experiments. In both studies we quantified GHG emissions and soil nitrogen speciation (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium). While the field study was carried out over the whole vegetation period of the sunflower Helianthus annuus L., soil microcosm experiments were performed for up to 9 days at 28° C. In both experiments a N-fertilizer containing DMPP was applied either before planting of the sunflowers or at the beginning of soil microcosms incubation. Laboratory microcosm experiments were performed at 60% water filled pore space reflecting average field conditions. Our results show that biochar effectively reduced soil N2O emissions by up to 60 % in the field and in the soil microcosm experiments. No significant differences in N2O emission mitigation potential between field-aged and fresh

  4. Magnetic Field R&D for the neutron EDM experiment at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammei, Russell R.

    2014-09-01

    The neutron EDM experiment at TRIUMF aims to constrain the EDM with a precision of 1 ×10-27 e-cm by 2018. The experiment will use a spallation ultracold neutron (UCN) source employing superfluid helium coupled to a room-temperature EDM apparatus. In the previous best experiment, conducted at ILL, effects related to magnetic field homogeneity and instability were found to dominate the systematic error. This presentation will cover our R&D efforts on passive and active magnetic shielding, magnetic field generation within shielded volumes, and precision magnetometry. The neutron EDM experiment at TRIUMF aims to constrain the EDM with a precision of 1 ×10-27 e-cm by 2018. The experiment will use a spallation ultracold neutron (UCN) source employing superfluid helium coupled to a room-temperature EDM apparatus. In the previous best experiment, conducted at ILL, effects related to magnetic field homogeneity and instability were found to dominate the systematic error. This presentation will cover our R&D efforts on passive and active magnetic shielding, magnetic field generation within shielded volumes, and precision magnetometry. Supported by the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the Canada Research Chairs program.

  5. CSU FIRE 2 cirrus field experiment: Description of field deployment phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, S.; Beck, G.; Cornwall, C.; Davis, J.; Hein, P.; Lappen, C.; Song, R.; Withrow, J.; Wood, D.; Alvarez, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado State University (CSU) surface observing systems are described. These systems were deployed at the Parsons, Kansas site during the FIRE 2 Cirrus Special Observing Period (SOP) from 13 Nov. - 7 Dec. 1991. The geographical coordinates of the site containing most of the CSU instrumentation are 37 deg. 18 min N. latitude and 96 deg. 30 min. W. longitude; site elevation was 269 meters. In addition, one surface meteorological and broadband flux observing site was maintained at the Tri City Airport which is approximately 18 miles due west of Parsons (37 deg. 20 min. N. latitude, 95 deg. 30 min. 30 sec. W. longitude). A map of the locations of the CSU deployment sites is presented. At the main Parsons site, the instrumentation was located directly adjacent to and north of a lake. Under most cirrus observing conditions, when the wing had a significant southernly component, the lake was upwind of the observing site. The measurements and observations collected during the experiment are listed. These measurements may be grouped into five categories: surface meteorology; infrared spectral and broadband measurements; solar spectral and broadband measurements; upper air measurements; and cloud measurements. A summary of observations collected at the Parsons site during the SOP are presented. The wind profiler, laser ceilometer, surface meteorology and surface broadband radiation instrumentation were operated on a continuous basis. All other systems were operated on an 'on demand' basis when cloud conditions merited the collection of data.

  6. CSU FIRE 2 cirrus field experiment: Description of field deployment phase

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, S.; Beck, G.; Cornwall, C.; Davis, J.; Hein, P.; Lappen, C.; Song, R.; Withrow, J.; Wood, D.; Alvarez, J.

    1992-08-01

    The Colorado State University (CSU) surface observing systems are described. These systems were deployed at the Parsons, Kansas site during the FIRE 2 Cirrus Special Observing Period (SOP) from 13 Nov. - 7 Dec. 1991. The geographical coordinates of the site containing most of the CSU instrumentation are 37 deg. 18 min N. latitude and 96 deg. 30 min. W. longitude; site elevation was 269 meters. In addition, one surface meteorological and broadband flux observing site was maintained at the Tri City Airport which is approximately 18 miles due west of Parsons (37 deg. 20 min. N. latitude, 95 deg. 30 min. 30 sec. W. longitude). A map of the locations of the CSU deployment sites is presented. At the main Parsons site, the instrumentation was located directly adjacent to and north of a lake. Under most cirrus observing conditions, when the wind had a significant southernly component, the lake was upwind of the observing site. The measurements and observations collected during the experiment are listed. These measurements may be grouped into five categories: surface meteorology; infrared spectral and broadband measurements; solar spectral and broadband measurements; upper air measurements; and cloud measurements. A summary of observations collected at the Parsons site during the SOP are presented. The wind profiler, laser ceilometer, surface meteorology and surface broadband radiation instrumentation were operated on a continuous basis. All other systems were operated on an on demand basis when cloud conditions merited the collection of data.

  7. Integration of Field Geophysics and Geology in an International Setting: Multidisciplinary Geoscience Field Experience at the University of Western Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenders, A. J.; Banerjee, N.; Pratt, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    The pedagogical value of the field experience is unequaled: students, teaching assistants, and professors alike return with a renewed sense of purpose, community, and the context in which to place classroom education. It is widely regarded as valuable to personal development, and is required by the Canadian Council of Professional Geoscientists for professional registration. As part of our ongoing International Geoscience Field Experience Initiative, Earth Sciences students at the University of Western Ontario have the opportunity to enhance their education through a study abroad program. The focus is on a residential field experience to world-class localities, offered with the collaboration of internationally recognized academic researchers, government survey personnel, and industry leaders. Recent trips have included the Sn-W mineralization in the Cornwall district of the U.K., the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) in Portugal and Spain, and the metallogenic belts of Western Turkey. The integration of geological knowledge with geophysical data was one of the key organizing principles of our recent field trips to the IPB and Western Turkey. This integration is a foundation of modern Earth Sciences, and common practice in industry, it is relatively rare in classroom settings. Lectures before departure and evening exercises during the field trip supplemented the core undergraduate curriculum in geophysics, reviewing gravity, DC resistivity, induced polarization (IP), and magnetotelluric methods, focusing on application to mineral exploration. During our trip to the IPB, partnership with industry allowed students the opportunity to work with state of the art geophysical data, acquired on an exploration prospect visited during the field trip. Multi-parameter geophysical inversions of the IP and MT data produced cross-sections in depth - results interpretable by the students in the complex geological environment of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Although the students gained valuable

  8. Coincident 1.3-year Periodicities in the ap Geomagnetic Index and the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paularena, K. I.; Szabo, A.; Richardson, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent observations show an approximately 1.3-year period in the speed of the solar wind detected by the IMP 8 and Voyager 2 spacecraft. A similar period is also seen in the north-south (GSE) component of the magnetic field observed by IMP 8. Since both parameters are commonly used as input to models of geomagnetic activity, the 'ap' index (a measure of geomagnetic disturbance) is examined to look for this periodicity. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram method is used on the ap, plasma, and magnetic field data during the 1973-1994 time range. A dynamic FFT periodogram method is also used to analyze the ap data during this time, as well as to look for periods present between 1932 and 1972. A clear 1.3-year periodicity is present in the post-1986 data when the same period is observed in the plasma and field data. The V(2)B(zsm) and V(2)B(s) proxies for geomagnetic activity also show this periodicity. However, the southward (GSM) component of the magnetic field does not have a 1.3-year period, and neither do solar wind or ap data from 1973-1985. This demonstrates that the ap geomagnetic index can act as a proxy for solar wind periodicities at this time scale. Historic ap data are examined, and show that a similar periodicity in ap exists around 1942. Since auroral data show a 1.4-year periodicity, all these similar periods may result from a common underlying solar mechanism.

  9. [Research under reduced gravity. Part II: experiments in variable gravitational fields].

    PubMed

    Volkmann, D; Sievers, A

    1992-03-01

    Recently, the reduced gravitational field of space laboratories, rockets, or satellites in Earth orbits offers a gravitational field which is variable from 10(-4) g to 1 g by the use of centrifuges. Especially with plants, data concerning gravisensitivity are based on experiments with clinostats. First experiments in reduced gravitational fields, however, demonstrate the uncertainty of these results. Thus, the main task of gravitational biologists is to test the validity of results obtained with the aid of clinostats. On this basis it should be possible to find a common mechanism to explain the influence of gravity on organisms. Experiments under reduced gravity in sounding rockets provided new knowledge on the perception of the gravity stimulus in plant cells.

  10. Using Magnetic Field Gradients to Simulate Variable Gravity in Fluids and Materials Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan

    2006-01-01

    Fluid flow due to a gravitational field is caused by sedimentation, thermal buoyancy, or solutal buoyancy induced convection. During crystal growth, for example, these flows are undesirable and can lead to crystal imperfections. While crystallization in microgravity can approach diffusion limited growth conditions (no convection), terrestrially strong magnetic fields can be used to control fluid flow and sedimentation effects. In this work, a theory is presented on the stability of solutal convection of a magnetized fluid(weak1y paramagnetic) in the presence of a magnetic field. The requirements for stability are developed and compared to experiments performed within the bore of a superconducting magnet. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experiments. Extension of the technique can also be applied to study artificial gravity requirements for long duration exploration missions. Discussion of this application with preliminary experiments and application of the technique to crystal growth will be provided.

  11. Engaging students in research learning experiences through hydrology field excursions and projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewen, T.; Seibert, J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the best ways to engage students and instill enthusiasm for hydrology is to expose them to hands-on learning. A focus on hydrology field research can be used to develop context-rich and active learning, and help solidify idealized learning where students are introduced to individual processes through textbook examples, often neglecting process interactions and an appreciation for the complexity of the system. We introduced a field course where hydrological measurement techniques are used to study processes such as snow hydrology and runoff generation, while also introducing students to field research and design of their own field project. In the field projects, students design a low-budget experiment with the aim of going through the different steps of a 'real' scientific project, from formulating the research question to presenting their results. In one of the field excursions, students make discharge measurements in several alpine streams with a salt tracer to better understand the spatial characteristics of an alpine catchment, where source waters originate and how they contribute to runoff generation. Soil moisture measurements taken by students in this field excursion were used to analyze spatial soil moisture patterns in the alpine catchment and subsequently used in a publication. Another field excursion repeats a published experiment, where preferential soil flow paths are studied using a tracer and compared to previously collected data. For each field excursion, observational data collected by the students is uploaded to an online database we developed, which also allows students to retrieve data from past excursions to further analyze and compare their data. At each of the field sites, weather stations were installed and a webviewer allows access to realtime data from data loggers, allowing students to explore how processes relate to climatic conditions. With in-house film expertise, these field excursions were also filmed and short virtual

  12. Development and application of setup for ac magnetic field in neutron scattering experiments.

    PubMed

    Klimko, Sergey; Zhernenkov, Kirill; Toperverg, Boris P; Zabel, Hartmut

    2010-10-01

    We report on a new setup developed for neutron scattering experiments in periodically alternating magnetic fields at the sample position. The assembly consisting of rf generator, amplifier, wide band transformer, and resonance circuit. It allows to generate homogeneous ac magnetic fields over a volume of a few cm(3) and variable within a wide range of amplitudes and frequencies. The applicability of the device is exemplified by ac polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR): a new method established to probe remagnetization kinetics in soft ferromagnetic films. Test experiments with iron films demonstrate that the ac field within the accessible range of frequencies and amplitudes produces a dramatic effect on the PNR signal. This shows that the relevant ac field parameters generated by the device match well with the scales involved in the remagnetization processes. Other possible applications of the rf unit are briefly discussed.

  13. Megagauss field generation for high-energy-density plasma science experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Rovang, Dean Curtis; Struve, Kenneth William; Porter, John Larry Jr.

    2008-10-01

    There is a need to generate magnetic fields both above and below 1 megagauss (100 T) with compact generators for laser-plasma experiments in the Beamlet and Petawatt test chambers for focused research on fundamental properties of high energy density magnetic plasmas. Some of the important topics that could be addressed with such a capability are magnetic field diffusion, particle confinement, plasma instabilities, spectroscopic diagnostic development, material properties, flux compression, and alternate confinement schemes, all of which could directly support experiments on Z. This report summarizes a two-month study to develop preliminary designs of magnetic field generators for three design regimes. These are, (1) a design for a relatively low-field (10 to 50 T), compact generator for modest volumes (1 to 10 cm3), (2) a high-field (50 to 200 T) design for smaller volumes (10 to 100 mm3), and (3) an extreme field (greater than 600 T) design that uses flux compression. These designs rely on existing Sandia pulsed-power expertise and equipment, and address issues of magnetic field scaling with capacitor bank design and field inductance, vacuum interface, and trade-offs between inductance and coil designs.

  14. Supporting Meteorological Field Experiment Missions and Postmission Analysis with Satellite Digital Data and Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Digital satellite remote-sensing imagery and derived products can greatly aid field project success in terms of both real-time logistics and...supporting scientific hypotheses. Supporting Meteorological Field experiMent MiSSionS and poStMiSSion analySiS with Satellite digital data and productS...and Postmission Analysis with Satellite Digital Data and Products 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  15. Results of Lasagna process field experiment at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Athmer, C.J.; Ho, S.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Lasagna process is being developed to remediate clayey soils in-situ. Lasagna is a combination of electrokinetics and in-situ treatment taking place in installed treatment zones. The zones are formed in either horizontal or vertical orientation using modified existing geoengineering processes. A Lasagna field experiment combining electroosmosis with carbon adsorption in the vertical orientation has been conducted at a TCE contaminated DOE site in Paducah, KY. Carbon adsorption was chosen for this first field test so that a material balance could confirm the movement of TCE from the clay to the treatment zones. The results of this experiment are presented in this paper.

  16. Chemical weed control in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack): review of five years of field experiments.

    PubMed

    Derycke, V; Haesaert, G; Latre, J

    2013-01-01

    During five subsequent growing seasons field experiments were carried out at the experimental farm of the University College Ghent (Belgium) to evaluate the selectivity and efficacy of herbicides for chemical weed control in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack). The experiments were set up on a sandy loam soil, according to a completely randomised block design with four replicates. Several herbicides and combinations of herbicides were applied pre- and post-emergence, at different rates. The influence of the different treatments on weed diversity, weed density, growth inhibition and chlorosis of the crop and grain yield was studied. Results obtained from these field trials indicated differences between the different treatments.

  17. Chemical weed control in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack): review of five years of field experiments.

    PubMed

    Veerle, Derycke; Joos, Latré; Geert, Haesaert

    2014-01-01

    During five subsequent growing seasons field experiments were carried out at the experimental farm of the University College Ghent (Belgium) to evaluate the selectivity and efficacy of herbicides for chemical weed control in triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack). The experiments were set up on a sandy loam soil, according to a completely randomised block design with four replications. Several herbicides and combinations of herbicides were applied pre- and post-emergence, at different rates. The influence of the different treatments on weed diversity, weed density, growth inhibition and chlorosis of the crop and grain yield was studied. Results obtained from these field trials indicated differences between the different treatments.

  18. Kicker field simulation and measurement for the muon g-2 experiment at FNAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seung Pyo; Kim, Young Im; Choi, Jihoon; Semertzidis, Yannis; muon g-2 experiment Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In the Muon g-2 experiment, muon beam is injected to the storage ring in a slightly tilted orbit whose center is 77 mm away from the center of the ring. The kicker is needed to send the muon beam to the central orbit. The magnetic kicker is designed for the experiment and about 0.1 Tm field integral is needed. The peak current pulse is 4200 A to make this field integral. This strong kicker pulse could make unwanted eddy current occur. This eddy current could spoil the main magnetic field of the storage ring. This could be a critical threat to the precision of experiment. The kicker field simulation has done using OPERA to estimate the effects. Also the kicker field should be measured based on Faraday effect. The measurement has tested in the lab before install the experiment area. In this presentation, the simulation and measurement results will be discussed. This work was supported by IBS-R017-D1-2016-a00.

  19. 1999 Marsokhod Field Experiment: A Simulation of a Mars Rover Science Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, C.; Cabrol, N.; Roush, T.; Gulick, V.; Hovde, G.; Moersch, J.

    1999-01-01

    A field experiment to simulate a rover mission to Mars was performed in February 1999. This experiment, the latest in a series of rover field experiments, was designed to demonstrate and validate technologies and investigation strategies for high-science, high-technology performance, and cost-effective planetary rover operations. Objectives: The experiment objectives were to: (1) train scientists in a mission configuration relevant to Surveyor program rover missions at a terrestrial analog field site simulating the criteria of high-priority candidate landing-sites on Mars; (2) develop optimal exploration strategies; (3) evaluate the effectiveness of imaging and spectroscopy in addressing science objectives; (4) assess the value and limitation of descent imaging in supporting rover operations; and (5) evaluate the ability of a science team to correctly interpret the geology of the field site using rover observations. A field site in the California Mojave Desert was chosen for its relevance to the criteria for landing site selection for the Mars Surveyor program. These criteria are: (1) evidence of past water activity; (2) presence of a mechanism to concentrate life; (3) presence of thermal energy sources; (4) evidence of rapid burial; and (5) excavation mechanisms that could expose traces of life.

  20. Remote Sensor Application Studies Progress Report, July L, 1968 to June 30, 1969. Controlled Field Experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Offield, T.W.; Watson, R.D.; Cannon, P.J.; Grolier, H.J.; Pohn, H.A.; Watson, Kenneth

    1970-01-01

    Field Sites have been selected for controlled experiments to analyze physical and chemical parameters affecting the response of electromagnetic radiation to geological materials. Considerations in the selection of the sites are the availability of good exposures of nearly monomineralic rocks, level of geologic understanding, and ease of access. Seven sites, where work is underway or planned, contain extensive outcrops of the following rocks: stanstone, limestone, dolomite, and gypsum. Field measurement of quartz have been conducted at four sites.

  1. Array Receivers and Sound Sources for Three Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustic Field Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-06

    Water Acoustic Field Experiments NOOO 14-15-1-2893 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ying Tsong-Lin 132893SP Se. TASK...testing. 1S. SUBJECT TERMS acoustics, shallow water , Arctic Ocean , 3-D acoustic propagation, shelfbreak 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: R b...Approved f or public release; distribution is unlimited. Array Receivers and Sound Sources for Three-Dimensional Shallow- Water Acoustic Field

  2. The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor - A Situational Awareness Tool for Conducting Tropical Cyclone Field Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Hall, John; Parker, Philip; He, Yubin

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a situational awareness tool that integrates satellite, aircraft state information, airborne and surface instruments, and weather state data in to a single visualization package for real time field experiment management. RTMM optimizes science and logistic decision-making during field experiments by presenting timely data and graphics to the users to improve real time situational awareness of the experiment's assets. The RTMM is proven in the field as it supported program managers, scientists, and aircraft personnel during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (investigated African easterly waves and Tropical Storm Debby and Helene) during August-September 2006 in Cape Verde, the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling experiment during July-August 2007 in Costa Rica, and the Hurricane Aerosonde mission into Hurricane Noel in 2-3 November 2007. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible through data acquisition systems, network communication links, and network server resources built and managed by collaborators at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). RTMM is evolving towards a more flexible and dynamic combination of sensor ingest, network computing, and decision-making activities through the use of a service oriented architecture based on community standards and protocols. Each field experiment presents unique challenges and opportunities for advancing the functionality of RTMM. A description of RTMM, the missions it has supported, and its new features that are under development will be presented.

  3. 'The Real Classroom Is Outside—Get into It!' Teaching through Field Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Field-based experiences can be powerful influences on students of any age, from pre-college through grad school, as well as on the general public. Every place-based learning experience will be different because the combination of location, participant background, available resources, and other factors will be unique. But certain shared goals, necessities, and similarities can be recognized. Intended outcomes should be identified in advance to inform planning. Preparation for field experiences should involve the students along with other participants. More-experienced students can become role models for new-comers. Field experiences involve active learning, as participants are fully immersed in the sampling site and have all senses stimulated. Constantly-changing variables highlight interconnectedness of Earth processes and fosters Systems Thinking. Decisions about the most effective ways to communicate data and results will differ from what might be based on classroom or laboratory venues. Three examples of field-based learning will be provided. One involves collaboration between educational specialists at a scientific research institution, the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, with high school students enrolled in their school's Authentic Science Research program. The second describes orientation for beginning graduate students to the geology, geography, and history of their new home region through a tourist boat ride, the well-known Circle Ride around Manhattan. The third illustrates use of 'eco-hikes' to enhance environmental understanding for Open House and other visitors. These can serve as models for designing experience-based programs in other situations.

  4. Effects of treatment with bimatoprost 0.03% for 3 years in patients with normal-tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji; Shiokawa, Minako; Fujimoto, Takayuki; Tomita, Goji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of bimatoprost 0.03% single treatment for 3 years on intraocular pressure (IOP) and visual field performance. Methods We monitored the IOP of 62 patients with normal-tension glaucoma every 1–3 months. The Humphrey visual field test was performed every 6 months after treatment and the results obtained were compared to those before treatment. In addition, visual field performance was evaluated using trend and event analysis. Results The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of IOP after treatment with bimatoprost for 3 years (13.6±3.1 mmHg) was significantly lower than that before treatment (16.8±2.4 mmHg, P<0.0001). No change was observed in the mean deviation and pattern SD values of the Humphrey visual field before and 3 years after treatment. Worsening of visual field performance was observed in one patient (3.0%) by using trend analysis and in four patients (12.1%) by using event analysis. Treatment was discontinued in 17 patients (27.4%) because of adverse reactions. Conclusion Bimatoprost 0.03% single treatment was effective in reducing the IOP at least during the 3 years of treatment, but visual field performance worsened by 3.0%–12.1% in patients with normal-tension glaucoma. PMID:24970996

  5. Magnetic field effects in few-level quantum dots: Theory and application to experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Christopher J.; Galpin, Martin R.; Logan, David E.

    2011-09-01

    We examine several effects of an applied magnetic field on Anderson-type models for both single- and two-level quantum dots, and we make direct comparison between numerical renormalization group (NRG) calculations and recent conductance measurements. On the theoretical side, the focus is on magnetization, single-particle dynamics, and zero-bias conductance, with emphasis on the universality arising in strongly correlated regimes, including a method to obtain the scaling behavior of field-induced Kondo resonance shifts over a very wide field range. NRG is also used to interpret recent experiments on spin-(1)/(2) and spin-1 quantum dots in a magnetic field, which we argue do not wholly probe universal regimes of behavior, and the calculations are shown to yield good qualitative agreement with essentially all features seen in experiment. The results capture in particular the observed field dependence of the Kondo conductance peak in a spin-(1)/(2) dot, with quantitative deviations from experiment occurring at fields in excess of ˜5T, indicating the eventual inadequacy of using the equilibrium single-particle spectrum to calculate the conductance at finite bias.

  6. Spontaneous analog number representations in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Safford, Kelley E; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2010-03-01

    When enumerating small sets of elements nonverbally, human infants often show a set-size limitation whereby they are unable to represent sets larger than three elements. This finding has been interpreted as evidence that infants spontaneously represent small numbers with an object-file system instead of an analog magnitude system (Feigenson, Dehaene & Spelke, 2004). In contrast, non-human animals and adult humans have been shown to rely on analog magnitudes for representing both small and large numbers (Brannon & Terrace, 1998; Cantlon & Brannon, 2007; Cordes, Gelman, Gallistel & Whalen, 2001). Here we demonstrate that, like adults and non-human animals, children as young as 3 years of age spontaneously employ analog magnitude representations to enumerate both small and large sets. Moreover, we show that children spontaneously attend to numerical value in lieu of cumulative surface area. These findings provide evidence of young children's greater sensitivity to number relative to other quantities and demonstrate continuity in the process they spontaneously recruit to judge small and large values.

  7. A 3-year follow-up of hypertension in Delhi.

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, N.; Chadha, S. L.; Shekhawat, S.; Tandon, R.

    1994-01-01

    A follow-up study of hypertension was carried out among adults in Delhi 3 years after an initial community-based epidemiological survey of the same population. The treatment and the severity status of 1115 out of 1749 individuals with hypertension detected in the initial survey were compared with those observed in the follow-up. The proportion of treated cases with controlled blood pressure rose from 10.8% to 60.8%. Among the cohort of 3611 subjects aged 25-64 years who were normotensive in the initial survey, 132 new cases of hypertension, were detected. The annual incidence of hypertension was the same in men and women (12.2 per 1000). Diabetes and regular alcohol consumption were significant risk factors for hypertension, being present in 13 and 7 cases, respectively. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded for 871 of the 1115 cases of hypertension. Abnormal ECGs were exhibited by 307 cases (35.2%), of which 24 (2.7%) had had myocardial infarction, 133 (15.3%) had ischaemic ST-T changes, 54 (6.2%) had left ventricular hypertrophy, and 96 (11.0%) had conduction defects and arrhythmias. PMID:7955019

  8. Acute epididymitis in Greek children: a 3-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, George S; Charissis, Giorgos C

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to compare historical features, physical examination findings, and testicular color Doppler ultrasound in pediatric patients with epididymitis compared to testicular torsion and torsion of the appendix testes. A retrospective review of the medical records of 66 boys presenting with clinical aspects of acute scrotum over a 3-year period was performed. Sixty-six patients were included in the study (29 with epididymitis, 8 with testicular torsion and 12 with torsion of the appendix testis, 4 with scrotal abscesses, 5 with scrotal swelling, and 1 with inflamed epididymal cyst). The duration of symptoms ranged from 6 h to 4 days with a peak on the second day. Urine cultures and viral testes were negative in all patients. Color Doppler ultrasound was diagnostic for epididymitis in 28 patients (96.6%). Systemic intravenous antibiotics were given in all 29 patients with epididymitis. No patient showed signs of testicular atrophy in the follow-up. The increasing incidence of epididymitis should question the policy of routine exploration of the acute scrotum in children. The history and physical examination cannot reliably identify those boys who can be managed conservatively. Color Doppler ultrasound is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of the acute scrotum when physical findings are equivocal but it can also be misleading.

  9. Field experience in science for fifth grade students---a mixed methods study of learning environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Barbara E.

    The purpose of this research is to compare students' perceptions of the learning environment in a traditional science classroom and a field study classroom. This mixed methods study used a sequential explanatory design. Phase one was the quantitative phase using two survey tools. A modified version of the "What is happening in this Classroom Survey" (WIHIC) (Fraser et al., 1996) and the "Test of Science Related Attitudes" (TOSRA) (Fraser, 1982) was administered to 60 fifth grade students from one school. Data was then disaggregated by socioeconomic class and ethnicity. Results from Phase one showed that students prefer the classroom for investigation and prefer the field environment for enjoyment of science. Differences in ethnicity and class were small but Hispanic students prefer the field for investigation and equity. Students that are low socio-economic class rank cooperation in the field higher than the classroom and students that do not qualify for free or reduced lunch prefer the field environment for enjoyment of science. Finally, there are strong correlations for the variables of cooperation, investigation, equity and enjoyment of science in both the classroom and the field environment. Questions raised from the analysis of the survey data were further explored through qualitative data collection methods in phase two. Student responses to three questions were coded using template analysis to provide answers to the "how and why" field experience effects students' attitudes toward science. Three themes emerged from the coding of the results. These results showed that students are physically engaged, develop a sense of place and learn skills in the field that reinforce concepts learned in the classroom. This information will help teachers in developing quality and meaningful experiences for all students. "Closing the gaps among minority groups while improving achievement of all students constitutes the dual goals of education in the nation" (Lee et al., 2004

  10. Plot-scale field experiment of surface hydrologic processes with EOS implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Macari, Emir J.; Costes, Nicholas C.

    1992-01-01

    Plot-scale hydrologic field studies were initiated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to a) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface and subsurface hydrologic processes, particularly as affected by vegetation, and b) develop experimental techniques and associated instrumentation methodology to study hydrologic processes at increasingly large spatial scales. About 150 instruments, most of which are remotely operated, have been installed at the field site to monitor ground atmospheric conditions, precipitation, interception, soil-water status, and energy flux. This paper describes the nature of the field experiment, instrumentation and sampling rationale, and presents preliminary findings.

  11. Experience-based Learning in Acadia National Park: a Successful, Long-running, Model Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connaughton, M.

    2015-12-01

    This two-week field course has been offered alternate summers since 2000 in Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island, Maine and addresses the geological history, physical and biological oceanography and principles of community ecology applicable to terrestrial and/or marine communities of coastal Maine. The course is often transformative and deeply meaningful to the students, many of whom have limited travel experience. The essential components of experience-based learning are well represented in this class with multiple opportunities for abstract conceptualization, active experimentation, concrete hands-on experiences and reflective observation built into the course. Each day begins with a lecture introducing concepts, which are then made concrete though daily field trips (4-8 hours in duration) into the park that include rigorous hiking, some kayaking and one commercial nature cruise. Field trips include hands-on experience with lecture concepts, on-site lessons in field methods, and data collection for independent projects. Each field trip is tied to a specific independent project, which are generated by the instructor, but self-selected by the students. Every student is actively involved in data collection during each field trip, with one student in charge of the collection each day. Daily guided journaling in three parts (scientific, personal and creative) and evening discussions provide ample opportunity for the student to reflect on the scientific content of the course, examine their personal reactions to what they have experienced and to be creative, sharing prior experiences, prior learning and their personalities. The course includes two exams, each following a week of lecture and field experiences. Independent research projects include the production of a manuscript-formatted report complete with statistical analysis of the data and a literature-based discussion of the conclusions. The combination of experiential reinforcement of concepts, abundant

  12. Abiotic stress QTL in lettuce crop–wild hybrids: comparing greenhouse and field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Yorike; Hooftman, Danny A P; Uwimana, Brigitte; Schranz, M Eric; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; Michelmore, Richard W; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The development of stress-tolerant crops is an increasingly important goal of current crop breeding. A higher abiotic stress tolerance could increase the probability of introgression of genes from crops to wild relatives. This is particularly relevant to the discussion on the risks of new GM crops that may be engineered to increase abiotic stress resistance. We investigated abiotic stress QTL in greenhouse and field experiments in which we subjected recombinant inbred lines from a cross between cultivated Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas and its wild relative L. serriola to drought, low nutrients, salt stress, and aboveground competition. Aboveground biomass at the end of the rosette stage was used as a proxy for the performance of plants under a particular stress. We detected a mosaic of abiotic stress QTL over the entire genome with little overlap between QTL from different stresses. The two QTL clusters that were identified reflected general growth rather than specific stress responses and colocated with clusters found in earlier studies for leaf shape and flowering time. Genetic correlations across treatments were often higher among different stress treatments within the same experiment (greenhouse or field), than among the same type of stress applied in different experiments. Moreover, the effects of the field stress treatments were more correlated with those of the greenhouse competition treatments than to those of the other greenhouse stress experiments, suggesting that competition rather than abiotic stress is a major factor in the field. In conclusion, the introgression risk of stress tolerance (trans-)genes under field conditions cannot easily be predicted based on genomic background selection patterns from controlled QTL experiments in greenhouses, especially field data will be needed to assess potential (negative) ecological effects of introgression of these transgenes into wild relatives. PMID:25360276

  13. Enabling Field Experiences in Introductory Geoscience Classes through the Use of Immersive Virtual Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moysey, S. M.; Smith, E.; Sellers, V.; Wyant, P.; Boyer, D. M.; Mobley, C.; Brame, S.

    2015-12-01

    Although field experiences are an important aspect of geoscience education, the opportunity to provide physical world experiences to large groups of introductory students is often limited by access, logistical, and financial constraints. Our project (NSF IUSE 1504619) is investigating the use of immersive virtual reality (VR) technologies as a surrogate for real field experiences in introductory geosciences classes. We are developing a toolbox that leverages innovations in the field of VR, including the Oculus Rift and Google Cardboard, to enable every student in an introductory geology classroom the opportunity to have a first-person virtual field experience in the Grand Canyon. We have opted to structure our VR experience as an interactive game where students must explore the Canyon to accomplish a series of tasks designed to emphasize key aspects of geoscience learning. So far we have produced two demo products for the virtual field trip. The first is a standalone "Rock Box" app developed for the iPhone, which allows students to select different rock samples, examine them in 3D, and obtain basic information about the properties of each sample. The app can act as a supplement to the traditional rock box used in physical geology labs. The second product is a fully functioning VR environment for the Grand Canyon developed using satellite-based topographic and imagery data to retain real geologic features within the experience. Players can freely navigate to explore anywhere they desire within the Canyon, but are guided to points of interest where they are able to complete exercises that will be aligned with specific learning goals. To this point we have integrated elements of the "Rock Box" app within the VR environment, allowing players to examine 3D details of rock samples they encounter within the Grand Canyon. We plan to provide demos of both products and obtain user feedback during our presentation.

  14. Porous media experience applicable to field evaluation for compressed air energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Gutknecht, P.J.

    1980-06-01

    A survey is presented of porous media field experience that may aid in the development of a compressed air energy storage field demonstration. Work done at PNL and experience of other groups and related industries is reviewed. An overall view of porous media experience in the underground storage of fluids is presented. CAES experience consists of site evaluation and selection processes used by groups in California, Kansas, and Indiana. Reservoir design and field evaluation of example sites are reported. The studies raised questions about compatibility with depleted oil and gas reservoirs, storage space rights, and compressed air regulations. Related experience embraces technologies of natural gas, thermal energy, and geothermal and hydrogen storage. Natural gas storage technology lends the most toward compressed air storage development, keeping in mind the respective differences between stored fluids, physical conditions, and cycling frequencies. Both fluids are injected under pressure into an aquifer to form a storage bubble confined between a suitable caprock structure and partially displaced ground water. State-of-the-art information is summarized as the necessary foundation material for field planning. Preliminary design criteria are given as recommendations for basic reservoir characteristics. These include geometric dimensions and storage matrix properties such as permeability. Suggested ranges are given for injection air temperature and reservoir pressure. The second step in developmental research is numerical modeling. Results have aided preliminary design by analyzing injection effects upon reservoir pressure, temperature and humidity profiles. Results are reported from laboratory experiments on candidate sandstones and caprocks. Conclusions are drawn, but further verification must be done in the field.

  15. Self-generated magnetic fields in direct-drive implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Nilson, P. M.; Goncharov, V. N.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-06-13

    Electric and self-generated magnetic fields in direct-drive implosion experiments on the OMEGA Laser Facility were investigated employing radiography with ~10- to 60-MeV protons. The experiment used plastic-shell targets with imposed surface defects (glue spots, wires, and mount stalks), which enhance self-generated fields. The fields were measured during the 1-ns laser drive with an on-target intensity ~1015 W/cm2. Proton radiographs show multiple ring-like structures produced by electric fields ~107 V/cm and fine structures from surface defects, indicating self-generated fields up to ~3 MG. These electric and magnetic fields show good agreement with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations when the latter include the ∇Te × ∇ne source, Nernst convection, and anisotropic resistivity. The simulations predict that self-generated fields affect heat fluxes in the conduction zone and, through this, affect the growth of local perturbations.

  16. Self-generated magnetic fields in direct-drive implosion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Igumenshchev, I. V.; Nilson, P. M.; Goncharov, V. N.; Zylstra, A. B.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2014-06-15

    Electric and self-generated magnetic fields in direct-drive implosion experiments on the OMEGA Laser Facility were investigated employing radiography with ∼10- to 60-MeV protons. The experiment used plastic-shell targets with imposed surface defects (glue spots, wires, and mount stalks), which enhance self-generated fields. The fields were measured during the 1-ns laser drive with an on-target intensity ∼10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Proton radiographs show multiple ring-like structures produced by electric fields ∼10{sup 7} V/cm and fine structures from surface defects, indicating self-generated fields up to ∼3 MG. These electric and magnetic fields show good agreement with two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations when the latter include the ∇T{sub e} × ∇n{sub e} source, Nernst convection, and anisotropic resistivity. The simulations predict that self-generated fields affect heat fluxes in the conduction zone and, through this, affect the growth of local perturbations.

  17. Hydromagnetic Dynamics and Magnetic Field Enhancement in a Turbulent Spherical Couette Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Douglas; Adams, Matthew; Kara, Onur; Lathrop, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    The University of Maryland Three Meter Geodynamo, a spherical Couette experiment filled with liquid sodium and geometrically similar to the earth's core, is used to study hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic phenomena in rapidly rotating turbulence. An external coil applies a magnetic field in order to study hydromagnetic effects relevant to the earth's outer core such as dynamo action, while an array of 31 external Hall sensors measures the Gauss coefficients of the resulting magnetic field. The flow state is strongly dependent on Rossby number, Ro = (ΩI -ΩO) /ΩO , where ΩI and ΩO are the inner and outer sphere rotation frequencies. The flow state is inferred from the torque required to drive the inner sphere. The generation of internal toroidal magnetic field through the Ω-effect is measured by a Hall probe inserted into the sodium. A self-sustaining dynamo has not yet been observed at rotation speeds up to ΩO=3 Hz, which is three-fourths of the design maximum of the experiment. However, continuous dipole amplification up to 12% of a small applied field has been observed at Ro=?17.7 while bursts of dipole field have been observed up to 15% of a large external applied field at Ro=+6.0 and up to 20% of a small applied field at Ro=+2.15.

  18. Three-Axis Magnetic Field Measurements in the TCSU RMF Current Drive Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velas, K. M.; Milroy, R. D.

    2011-10-01

    A 3-axis probe was installed on TCSU shortly before its shutdown. The probe has 90 windings that simultaneously measure Br, Bθ, and Bz at 30 radial positions and is fully translatable. Positioning the probe at multiple axial positions and taking multiple repeatable shots allows for a full r-z map of the magnetic field. Initially, data has been processed with a 10 kHz low pass filter to capture the steady field. Higher frequency content has more shot-to-shot variability; it is difficult to map this axially. Plans include using a band pass filter to isolate the RMF frequency, which is consistent between shots. It is anticipated that the RMF field, in conjunction with the steady field, will yield a map of the full 3D rotating field structure. The 3- axis probe measurements are used to calculate the end-shorting torque, which opposes the RMF torque. Data from even- and odd-parity experiments will be compared. The NIMROD code has been adapted to simulate the TCSU experiment using boundary conditions adjusted to match both even- and odd-parity experimental conditions. A comparison of the n = 0 components of the calculated fields to the 3- axis probe measurements shows agreement in the magnetic field structure of the FRC as well as in the jet region.

  19. A 7 T Pulsed Magnetic Field Generator for Magnetized Laser Plasma Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guangyue; Liang, Yihan; Song, Falun; Yuan, Peng; Wang, Yulin; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A pulsed magnetic field generator was developed to study the effect of a magnetic field on the evolution of a laser-generated plasma. A 40 kV pulsed power system delivered a fast (~230 ns), 55 kA current pulse into a single-turn coil surrounding the laser target, using a capacitor bank of 200 nF, a laser-triggered switch and a low-impedance strip transmission line. A one-dimensional uniform 7 T pulsed magnetic field was created using a Helmholtz coil pair with a 6 mm diameter. The pulsed magnetic field was controlled to take effect synchronously with a nanosecond heating laser beam, a femtosecond probing laser beam and an optical Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) detector. The preliminary experiments demonstrate bifurcation and focusing of plasma expansion in a transverse magnetic field.

  20. Thermal analysis supporting the design of the Avery Island field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Just, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    This report documents the thermal analysis that was performed in support of the design effort of the three Avery Island field tests. The Avery Island experiments use simulated waste canisters to generate quantitative data to validate analytical predictions that use laboratory-measured properties and numerical models to simulate effects in the field. Results from the field tests will include the determination of the thermal conductivity of a field salt formation, temperatures and temperature gradients in the adjacent salt formation, and room and canister-hole deformations. This report furnishes the necessary documentation to compare these a priori calculations with experimental results from the Avery Island field tests, as well as time-temperature histories at selected points of interest.

  1. ENERGY MODULATION OF THE ELECTRONS BY THE LASER FIELD IN THEWIGGLER MAGNET: ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Zholents, A.A.; Holldack, K.

    2006-08-20

    Energy modulation of the electron beam after the interactionwith the laser field in the wiggler magnet can be calculated usinginterference of the laser field and the field of spontaneous emission inthe far field region of wiggler radiation. Quite often this approachgives a deeper insight on the process than traditional calculations wherethe effect of the laser field on the electron energy is integrated alongthe electron trajectory in the wiggler. We demonstrate it by showing theagreement between the analytical model and the experiment involvingwiggler scan measurements with large detuning from the FEL resonanceproducing more than one order of magnitude variations in the amplitude ofthe energy modulation. The high sensitivity was achieved using the THzradiation from a sub-mm dip in the electron density that energy modulatedelectrons leave behind while propagating along the storage ring lattice.All measurements were performed at the BESSY-II electron storagering.

  2. Far ultraviolet wide field imaging with a SPARTAN /Experiment of Opportunity/ Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Opal, C. B.

    1982-01-01

    A wide-field electrographic Schmidt camera, sensitive in the far UV (1230-2000 A), has been developed and utilized in three sounding rocket flights. It is now being prepared for Shuttle flight as an Experiment of Opportunity Payload (EOP) (recently renamed as the SPARTAN program). In this paper, we discuss (1) design of the instrument and payload, particularly as influenced by our experience in rocket flights; (2) special problems of EOP in comparison to sounding rocket missions; (3) relationship of this experiment to, and special capabilities in comparison to, other space astronomy instruments such as Space Telescope; and (4) a tentative observing plan for an EOP mission.

  3. The Forest, Part 3: Year-Round Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elfriede Nemetz

    1973-01-01

    Many experiments can be conducted in spring and early summer when many of the flowering plants must hurriedly bloom before the leafage of the trees and bushes takes most of the needed sunlight away. (DF)

  4. Engaging students in research learning experiences through hydrology field excursions and short films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewen, Tracy; Seibert, Jan

    2015-04-01

    One of the best ways to engage students and instill enthusiasm for hydrology is to expose them to hands-on learning. A focus on hydrology field research can be used to develop context-rich and active learning, and help solidify idealized learning where students are introduced to individual processes through textbook examples, often neglecting process interactions and an appreciation for the complexity of the system. We introduced a field course where hydrological measurement techniques are used to study processes such as snow hydrology and runoff generation, while also introducing students to field research and design of their own field project. Additionally, we produced short films of each of these research-based field excursions, with in-house film expertise. These films present a short overview of field methods applied in alpine regions and will be used for our larger introductory hydrology courses, exposing students to field research at an early stage, and for outreach activities, including for potential high school students curious about hydrology. In the field course, students design a low-budget experiment with the aim of going through the different steps of a 'real' scientific project, from formulating the research question to presenting their results. During the field excursions, students make discharge measurements in several alpine streams with a salt tracer to better understand the spatial characteristics of an alpine catchment, where source waters originate and how they contribute to runoff generation. Soil moisture measurements taken by students in this field excursion were used to analyze spatial soil moisture patterns in the alpine catchment and subsequently used in a publication. Another field excursion repeats a published experiment, where preferential soil flow paths are studied using a tracer and compared to previously collected data. For each field excursion, observational data collected by the students is uploaded to an online database we

  5. Making the Difference for Teachers: The Field Experience in Actual Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slick, Gloria Appelt, Ed.

    This is the third in a series of four books presenting a variety of field experience program models and philosophies that drive the programs provided to preservice teachers during their undergraduate teacher preparation. This publication explores the internal workings of the relationships and events that have an impact on all the persons involved…

  6. Field versus laboratory experiments to evaluate the fate of azoxystrobin in an amended vineyard soil.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Hernández, E; Marín-Benito, J M; Andrades, M S; Sánchez-Martín, M J; Rodríguez-Cruz, M S

    2015-11-01

    This study reports the effect that adding spent mushroom substrate (SMS) to a representative vineyard soil from La Rioja region (Spain) has on the behaviour of azoxystrobin in two different environmental scenarios. Field dissipation experiments were conducted on experimental plots amended at rates of 50 and 150 t ha(-1), and similar dissipation experiments were simultaneously conducted in the laboratory to identify differences under controlled conditions. Azoxystrobin dissipation followed biphasic kinetics in both scenarios, although the initial dissipation phase was much faster in the field than in the laboratory experiments, and the half-life (DT50) values obtained in the two experiments were 0.34-46.3 days and 89.2-148 days, respectively. Fungicide residues in the soil profile increased in the SMS amended soil and they were much higher in the top two layers (0-20 cm) than in deeper layers. The persistence of fungicide in the soil profile is consistent with changes in azoxystrobin adsorption by unamended and amended soils over time. Changes in the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of soils under different treatments assayed in the field and in the laboratory indicated that SMS and the fungicide had a stimulatory effect on soil DHA. The results reveal that the laboratory studies usually reported in the literature to explain the fate of pesticides in amended soils are insufficient to explain azoxystrobin behaviour under real conditions. Field studies are necessary to set up efficient applications of SMS and fungicide, with a view to preventing the possible risk of water contamination.

  7. The Discourse and Reflections of Teacher Candidates during an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, John E.; Dani, Danielle E.; Weade, Ginger

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the capacity of teacher candidates to facilitate and reflect on classroom discourse in the context of an early field experience. The classroom discourse and reflections of 10 teacher candidates were examined through interviews, audio and video recordings, and written reflections. The findings indicated…

  8. FLASH MHD simulations of experiments that study shock-generated magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeferacos, P.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Gregori, G.; Lamb, D. Q.; Lee, D.; Meinecke, J.; Scopatz, A.; Weide, K.

    2015-12-01

    We summarize recent additions and improvements to the high energy density physics capabilities in FLASH, highlighting new non-ideal magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) capabilities. We then describe 3D Cartesian and 2D cylindrical FLASH MHD simulations that have helped to design and analyze experiments conducted at the Vulcan laser facility. In these experiments, a laser illuminates a carbon rod target placed in a gas-filled chamber. A magnetic field diagnostic (called a Bdot) employing three very small induction coils is used to measure all three components of the magnetic field at a chosen point in space. The simulations have revealed that many fascinating physical processes occur in the experiments. These include megagauss magnetic fields generated by the interaction of the laser with the target via the Biermann battery mechanism, which are advected outward by the vaporized target material but decrease in strength due to expansion and resistivity; magnetic fields generated by an outward expanding shock via the Biermann battery mechanism; and a breakout shock that overtakes the first wave, the contact discontinuity between the target material and the gas, and then the initial expanding shock. Finally, we discuss the validation and predictive science we have done for this experiment with FLASH.

  9. Student Teachers' Team Teaching during Field Experiences: An Evaluation by Their Mentors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Mathea; Baeten, Marlies

    2016-01-01

    Since collaboration within schools gains importance, teacher educators are looking for alternative models of field experience inspired by collaborative learning. Team teaching is such a model. This study explores two team teaching models (parallel and sequential teaching) by investigating the mentors' perspective. Semi-structured interviews were…

  10. Engineering and agronomy aspects of a long-term precision agriculture field experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much research has been conducted on specific precision agriculture tools and implementation strategies, but little has been reported on long-term evaluation of integrated precision agriculture field experiments. In 2004 our research team developed and initiated a multi-faceted “precision agriculture...

  11. The Preservice Teachers Are Watching: Framing and Reframing the Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherff, Lisa; Singer, Nancy Robb

    2012-01-01

    In this article we employ Sizers' (1999) school- and classroom-based lenses for observation and apply them to the events and interactions that teacher education students see during school-based field experiences. Our data include online reflections and discussions among 33 students enrolled in a teacher education program at a large, public…

  12. Improving Field Experiences for Rural Preservice Teachers through the Establishment of a Professional Development School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleman, Jacquelyn B.

    This practicum reports on the creation of a professional development school (PDS) designed to improve field experiences for early childhood education majors at a rural private college. The goal of the project was to increase the number of qualified teachers at a local primary school who would be willing to participate in the supervision of student…

  13. Health Education Field Experience Stories: A Reflective, Digital, Performance-Based Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyde, Adrian R.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a reflective, systematic, performance-based project resulting in the development of a digital story about a community health education field experience. The project is designed for preservice health education students at the college/university level. The primary benefit of the project is that it challenges students to engage…

  14. Teacher Preparation in Career and Technical Education: A Model for Developing and Researching Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retallick, Michael S.; Miller, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Leading educational researchers have called for a framework for implementing and researching early field experiences (EFE). Yet, a review of literature revealed that a comprehensive model focusing on the structure and content of EFE was an important element missing from the literature. The primary purpose of this study was to synthesize the…

  15. More than "Just" Changing Diapers: The Experiences of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers in Infant Field Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Lisa Marie Powell

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that early childhood preservice teachers are typically being prepared to work with children from birth through age 8, preservice field experiences with infants continue to be largely missing in early childhood teacher preparation programs Since the education and care of infants often takes place in vastly different settings than…

  16. Mind the Gap. Combining Theory and Practice in a Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Tuovila, Seija

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe a collegial case study conducted in one Finnish university during the last field experience in a primary school teacher education program and discuss pedagogy of supervision from university supervisors' perspectives. The aim of the study was to clarify the role of university supervisors and try out a collegial…

  17. Video as Text of Teaching: Toward More Deliberate Literacy Field Experience Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelfuso, Andrea; Dennis, Danielle V.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we theoretically explore how the deliberate use of video during literacy field experiences creates a text that can be read by triad members and can ameliorate the problem of relying on memory to engage in reflective conversations about literacy teaching and learning. The use of video, tools, and interactions with knowledgeable…

  18. The Impact of a Social Justice Service-Learning Field Experience in a Social Foundations Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinkler, Barri; hannah, c. lynne; Tinkler, Alan; Miller, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This interpretive study examines the outcomes of using a social justice service-learning field experience in a social foundations course to help illuminate for teacher candidates the often "invisible" institutionalized inequities of public schools. The findings demonstrate how social justice service-learning can be used as a field…

  19. Incidental Becomes Visible: A Comparison of School- and Community-Based Field Experience Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holder, K. C.; Downey, Jayne A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare student learning documented using written field experience summary narratives and occurring in community-based or school-based locations. Utilizing a hybrid portraiture--instrumental case study design, two researchers selected participants from undergraduate educational psychology courses using…

  20. Pre-Service English Teachers' Perceptions of an Overseas Field Experience Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chi Cheung Ruby

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present a small group of pre-service English teachers' perceptions towards the overseas field experience programme jointly organised by a university in Canada and the teacher trainer institute in Hong Kong. The study involved seven Canadian Year 3 and 4 B.Ed. TESL students who participated in the investigated eight-week overseas…

  1. Evaluation of the Persistent Issues in History Laboratory for Virtual Field Experience (PIH-LVFE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Thomas; Saye, John; Kale, Ugur; Hur, Jung Won; Kohlmeier, Jada; Yerasimou, Theano; Guo, Lijiang; Symonette, Simone

    2009-01-01

    The Persistent Issues in History Laboratory for Virtual Field Experience (PIH-LVFE) combines a database of video cases of authentic classroom practices with multiple resources and tools to enable pre-service social studies teachers to virtually observe teachers implementing problem-based learning activities. In this paper, we present the results…

  2. Demonstrating Pre-Service Teacher Learning through Engagement in Global Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Raymond W.

    2015-01-01

    Global opportunities for students to engage in teaching and learning have the potential to have a great impact on their professional knowledge base as a future teacher. However, little information is available about how global field experiences impact pre-service teachers' understanding due to substantial challenges in collecting and analyzing…

  3. Effects of supervision on tax compliance: Evidence from a field experiment in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Gangl, Katharina; Torgler, Benno; Kirchler, Erich; Hofmann, Eva

    2014-01-01

    We conduct a field experiment on tax compliance, focusing on newly founded firms. As a novelty the effect of tax authorities’ supervision on timely tax payments is examined. Interestingly, results show no positive overall effect of close supervision on tax compliance. PMID:25843992

  4. Effects of supervision on tax compliance: Evidence from a field experiment in Austria.

    PubMed

    Gangl, Katharina; Torgler, Benno; Kirchler, Erich; Hofmann, Eva

    2014-06-01

    We conduct a field experiment on tax compliance, focusing on newly founded firms. As a novelty the effect of tax authorities' supervision on timely tax payments is examined. Interestingly, results show no positive overall effect of close supervision on tax compliance.

  5. Early Field Experience Innovations to Increase Positive Impact on K-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Anny Fritzen; Traynor, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes several innovations to an early field experience emerging from a community, school, and university partnership focused on a middle school serving diverse students from low-income neighborhoods. With the primary goal of utilizing teaching candidates to provide direct academic, social, and instructional support to the middle…

  6. Development of Preservice Teachers' Value Orientations during a Secondary Methods Course and Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofo, Seidu; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the value orientations of physical education preservice teachers (PTs). The purposes of this study were to: (1) describe the extent to which one cohort of PTs' value orientations changed and developed during a secondary methods course and early field experience (EFE); and (2) determine why PTs' value orientations changed…

  7. MODELING HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM REDUCTION IN GROUND- WATER IN FIELD-SCALE TRANSPORT AND LABORATORY BATCH EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plausible and consistent model is developed to obtain a quantitative description of the gradual disappearance of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from groundwater in a small-scale field tracer test and in batch kinetic experiments using aquifer sediments under similar chemical cond...

  8. An Investigation into the Contents and Aspects of College Students' Reflective Thoughts during Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yuling

    2015-01-01

    Field experience makes a strong contribution to the learning of students. However, the procedure for conducting training sessions based on experiential teaching methods is relatively unclear, and the contents and aspects of students' reflections during such training are not well known. This study applied experiential teaching methods in a college…

  9. Against-the-Grain Teacher Education: A Study of Coursework, Field Experience, and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Jesse; Fish, Dale R.

    1997-01-01

    This study explored how preservice elementary teachers experienced coursework and field experiences that fostered commitment to socially and pedagogically progressive teaching, especially development of against-the-grain perspectives. Interviews and observations indicated that against-the-grain perspectives evolved from complex interactions of…

  10. Reconceptualising Out-of-Field Teaching: Experiences of Rural Teachers in Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharplin, Elaine Denise

    2014-01-01

    Background: Out-of-field teaching (generally defined as a situation where teachers are appointed to areas or phases of learning for which they have no formal qualifications) is an international phenomenon that can impact on the educational experiences of students. Teachers in rural and difficult to staff schools are frequently appointed…

  11. The Efficacy of Drama in Field Experience: A Qualitative Study Using MAXQDA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elaldi, Senel; Yerliyurt, Nazli Sila

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to evaluate the views of senior preservice preschool teachers on the efficacy of drama activities in their field experience in terms of the effect of students' learning, socialization, individual or group work skills and school connectedness and also disclosed the suggestions of senior preservice preschool teachers for faculty…

  12. Focusing on Reflective Practice: Reconsidering Field Experiences for Urban Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalchman, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The traditional structure of field experiences poses a dilemma for urban teacher preparation. Research shows that teachers of low-income, urban students often have negative beliefs about, and attitudes towards, their students. Yet, large numbers of cooperating teachers are routinely utilized as mentors in urban classrooms. This practice…

  13. Do Differing Types of Field Experiences Make a Difference in Teacher Candidates' Perceived Level of Competence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprano, Mary Margaret; Caprano, Robert M.; Helfeldt, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to directly compare the effectiveness of different models of field-based learning experiences and little has been reported on the use of the Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) standards in establishing a formative assessment for teacher candidates (TCs). The current study used the…

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Knowledge of Language Concepts: Relationships to Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetley, Deborah; Jones, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of language concepts by pre-service teachers (PSTs) is likely influenced by university coursework and field experiences, but little research has examined how. Knowledge of phonics and phonological awareness and confidence to teach reading were surveyed among primary PSTs at one New South Wales university, most in second year following…

  15. From Isolation to Collaboration: Rethinking the Preservice Field Experience from a Community Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Laura A.; Klecka, Cari L.; Silva, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we report the action research that shaped the development of the Growing Career Educators project, a teacher-designed field experience for preservice teachers within a high school in the fifth-largest school district in the country. The research consisted of two cycles of action research, both of which focused on whether a…

  16. Using Experiment and Computer Modeling to Determine the Off-Axis Magnetic Field of a Solenoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lietor-Santos, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    The study of the ideal solenoid is a common topic among introductory-based physics textbooks and a typical current arrangement in laboratory hands-on experiences where the magnetic field inside a solenoid is determined at different currents and at different distances from its center using a magnetic probe. It additionally provides a very simple…

  17. Using Norm-Based Appeals to Increase Response Rates in Evaluation Research: A Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misra, Shalini; Stokols, Daniel; Marino, Anne Heberger

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of norm-based persuasive messages for increasing response rates in online survey research. Participants in an interdisciplinary conference were asked to complete two successive postconference surveys and randomly assigned to one of two groups at each time point. The experimental group…

  18. A Descriptive Analysis of the Experience Based Training and Development Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Todd

    This article describes and analyzes the field of experience-based training and development (EBTD) in an attempt to determine its scope, goals, activities, participants, providers, and philosophical bases. EBTD is a process that uses hands-on challenge or adventure, usually in the outdoors, combined with review and feedback, to improve work place…

  19. Field Biology Experiences of Undergraduate Students: The Impact of Novelty Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Debby R. E.; Cotton, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Fieldwork is generally considered an essential aspect of teaching and learning about biology, at both school and university level. However, previous research suggests that the novelty of being in an unfamiliar field environment can negatively, as well as positively, impact on the student experience and learning. This research uses the framework of…

  20. Using Field-Based Experiences as a Guide for Program Evaluation and Redesign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Robert O.; And Others

    A concern among those scrutinizing postsecondary programs in educational administration is the relationship among the academic and theoretical components of the programs, field-based experiences, and future on-the-job success. This paper examines the efforts of an educational administration department at Valdosta State College, Valdosta, Georgia,…

  1. Teacher Candidates' Implementation of the Personal and Social Responsibility Model in Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Okseon

    2012-01-01

    With the teacher concerns theory (Fuller, 1969) as a theoretical framework, this study has set out to examine how physical education teacher candidates perceive their implementation of the Personal and Social Responsibility Model (Hellison, 2003) and how they actually implement it during field experience. Five teacher candidates (three female, two…

  2. Field Experience Supervision: A Comparison of Cooperating Teachers' and College Supervisors' Evaluations of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunn, Lorie L.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored and compared the ways in which school-based cooperating teachers and college supervisors evaluate student teachers. The scores allocated to student teachers by school-based cooperating teachers and college supervisors in the final field experience evaluations of student teachers were analyzed. A mixed methods research design…

  3. Reemployment Bonuses in the Unemployment Insurance System: Evidence from Three Field Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Philip K., Ed.; Spiegelman, Robert G., Ed.

    This book contains eight papers examining the evidence from three field experiences in Illinois, Pennsylvania, and Washington that were conducted to identify the impact of reemployment bonuses on the following indicators characterizing the unemployment insurance (UI) program: weeks of UI receipt during the benefit year; dollars of UI received…

  4. Innovative Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Student-Teachers and Mentors as Partners in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeten, Marlies; Simons, Mathea

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates team teaching between student teachers and mentors during student teachers' field experiences. A systematic literature search was conducted, which resulted into a narrative review. Three team teaching models could be distinguished: (1) the co-planning and co-evaluation model, (2) the assistant teaching model, and (3) the…

  5. Providing Culturally Responsive Teaching in Field-Based and Student Teaching Experiences: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kea, Cathy D.; Trent, Stanley C.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed design study chronicles the yearlong outcomes of 27 undergraduate preservice teacher candidates' ability to design and deliver culturally responsive lesson plans during field-based experience lesson observations and student teaching settings after receiving instruction in a special education methods course. While components of…

  6. Patterns of Generative Discourse in Online Discussions during the Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, Karen Elizabeth; Kopcha, Theodore J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how online discussion of the classroom challenges that preservice teachers face during the field experience can lead to problem solving and knowledge generation. Drawing upon Horn and Little's (2010) descriptions of generative discourse, the study examined how a community of preservice teachers, their university supervisors,…

  7. "Doing Gender" at "Body Worlds": Embodying Field Trips as Affective Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Joyce; Huff, Leah; Bridgen, Jen; Carolan, Andrea; Chang, Ashley; Ennis, Katherine; Loynes, Kathryn; Miller, Jen

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the background, experience and outcomes of an explicitly feminist field trip to Gunther von Hagen's "Body Worlds 2: The Anatomical Exhibition of Real Human Bodies". The cultural landscape of this exhibition materialized gendered geographies very powerfully, facilitating observation and analysis of embodied and emotional,…

  8. Concerns of Preservice Physical Education Teachers Participating in an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shawna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of concerns by type (self, task, and impact) of preservice physical education teachers participating in an early field experience. Participants (n = 52) taught three physical education lessons in a junior high school. Following each teaching episode, participants wrote concerns in their…

  9. The Field Experiences of Student Teachers and Effective Mathematics Teaching in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haciomeroglu, Guney

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cooperative teachers' supervision for effective mathematics teaching from the perspective of elementary student teachers during their field experiences. The participants were 259 senior elementary education majors (189 female and 70 male) who were enrolled in practicum courses at a Turkish university.…

  10. Field Experiences in Teacher Education: The Perceptions and Qualities of Written Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulusoy, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the Pre-service Teachers' (PSTs') field experience-related perceptions and the qualities of their written reflections. Two thousand four hundred journal entries written by 75 teacher candidates were analyzed to classify their qualities. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with all of the subjects.…

  11. Bioacoustic field research: a primer to acoustic analyses and playback experiments with primates.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Julia; Noser, Rahel; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-07-01

    Acoustic analyses of primate vocalizations as well as playback experiments are staple methods in primatology. Acoustic analyses have been used to investigate the influence of factors such as individuality, context, sex, age, and size on variation in calls. More recent studies have expanded our knowledge on the effects of phylogenetic relatedness and the structure of primate vocal repertoires in general. Complementary playback experiments allow direct testing of hypotheses regarding the attribution of meaning to calls, the cognitive mechanisms underpinning responses, and/or the adaptive value of primate behavior. After briefly touching on the historical background of this field of research, we first provide an introduction to recording primate vocalizations and discuss different approaches to describe primate calls in terms of their temporal and spectral properties. Second, we present a tutorial regarding the preparation, execution, and interpretation of field playback experiments, including a review of studies that have used such approaches to investigate the responses to acoustic variation in calls including the integration of contextual and acoustic information, recognition of kin and social relationships, and social knowledge. Based on the review of the literature and our own experience, we make a number of recommendations regarding the most common problems and pitfalls. The power of acoustic analyses typically hinges on the quality of the recordings and the number of individuals represented in the sample. Playback experiments require profound knowledge of the natural behavior of the animals for solid interpretation; experiments should be conducted sparingly, to avoid habituation of the subjects to the occurrence of the calls; experimenter-blind designs chosen whenever possible; and researchers should brace themselves for long periods of waiting times until the appropriate moments to do the experiment arise. If all these aspects are considered, acoustic analyses

  12. Bioacoustic Field Research: A Primer to Acoustic Analyses and Playback Experiments With Primates

    PubMed Central

    FISCHER, JULIA; NOSER, RAHEL; HAMMERSCHMIDT, KURT

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic analyses of primate vocalizations as well as playback experiments are staple methods in primatology. Acoustic analyses have been used to investigate the influence of factors such as individuality, context, sex, age, and size on variation in calls. More recent studies have expanded our knowledge on the effects of phylogenetic relatedness and the structure of primate vocal repertoires in general. Complementary playback experiments allow direct testing of hypotheses regarding the attribution of meaning to calls, the cognitive mechanisms underpinning responses, and/or the adaptive value of primate behavior. After briefly touching on the historical background of this field of research, we first provide an introduction to recording primate vocalizations and discuss different approaches to describe primate calls in terms of their temporal and spectral properties. Second, we present a tutorial regarding the preparation, execution, and interpretation of field playback experiments, including a review of studies that have used such approaches to investigate the responses to acoustic variation in calls including the integration of contextual and acoustic information, recognition of kin and social relationships, and social knowledge. Based on the review of the literature and our own experience, we make a number of recommendations regarding the most common problems and pitfalls. The power of acoustic analyses typically hinges on the quality of the recordings and the number of individuals represented in the sample. Playback experiments require profound knowledge of the natural behavior of the animals for solid interpretation; experiments should be conducted sparingly, to avoid habituation of the subjects to the occurrence of the calls; experimenter-blind designs chosen whenever possible; and researchers should brace themselves for long periods of waiting times until the appropriate moments to do the experiment arise. If all these aspects are considered, acoustic analyses

  13. Numerical modeling of laser-driven experiments aiming to demonstrate magnetic field amplification via turbulent dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeferacos, P.; Rigby, A.; Bott, A.; Bell, A. R.; Bingham, R.; Casner, A.; Cattaneo, F.; Churazov, E. M.; Emig, J.; Flocke, N.; Fiuza, F.; Forest, C. B.; Foster, J.; Graziani, C.; Katz, J.; Koenig, M.; Li, C.-K.; Meinecke, J.; Petrasso, R.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Ross, J. S.; Ryu, D.; Ryutov, D.; Weide, K.; White, T. G.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Lamb, D. Q.

    2017-04-01

    The universe is permeated by magnetic fields, with strengths ranging from a femtogauss in the voids between the filaments of galaxy clusters to several teragauss in black holes and neutron stars. The standard model behind cosmological magnetic fields is the nonlinear amplification of seed fields via turbulent dynamo to the values observed. We have conceived experiments that aim to demonstrate and study the turbulent dynamo mechanism in the laboratory. Here, we describe the design of these experiments through simulation campaigns using FLASH, a highly capable radiation magnetohydrodynamics code that we have developed, and large-scale three-dimensional simulations on the Mira supercomputer at the Argonne National Laboratory. The simulation results indicate that the experimental platform may be capable of reaching a turbulent plasma state and determining the dynamo amplification. We validate and compare our numerical results with a small subset of experimental data using synthetic diagnostics.

  14. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Models Using Denver 2006 Field Experiment Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nash’at N.; Pruis, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a series of wake vortex field experiments at Denver in 2003, 2005, and 2006. This paper describes the lidar wake vortex measurements and associated meteorological data collected during the 2006 deployment, and includes results of recent reprocessing of the lidar data using a new wake vortex algorithm and estimates of the atmospheric turbulence using a new algorithm to estimate eddy dissipation rate from the lidar data. The configuration and set-up of the 2006 field experiment allowed out-of-ground effect vortices to be tracked in lateral transport further than any previous campaign and thereby provides an opportunity to study long-lived wake vortices in moderate to low crosswinds. An evaluation of NASA's fast-time wake vortex transport and decay models using the dataset shows similar performance as previous studies using other field data.

  15. The influence of ego depletion on sprint start performance in athletes without track and field experience

    PubMed Central

    Englert, Chris; Persaud, Brittany N.; Oudejans, Raôul R. D.; Bertrams, Alex

    2015-01-01

    We tested the assumption that ego depletion would affect the sprint start in a sample of N = 38 athletes without track and field experience in an experiment by applying a mixed between- (depletion vs. non-depletion) within- (T1: before manipulation of ego depletion vs. T2: after manipulation of ego depletion) subjects design. We assumed that ego depletion would increase the possibility for a false start, as regulating the impulse to initiate the sprinting movement too soon before the starting signal requires self-control. In line with our assumption, we found a significant interaction as there was only a significant increase in the number of false starts from T1 to T2 for the depletion group while this was not the case for the non-depletion group. We conclude that ego depletion has a detrimental influence on the sprint start in athletes without track and field experience. PMID:26347678

  16. Field and Experience Influences on Ethical Decision-Making in the Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Michael D.; Connelly, Shane; Murphy, Stephen T.; Devenport, Lynn D.; Antes, Alison L.; Brown, Ryan P.; Hill, Jason H.; Waples, Ethan P.

    2009-01-01

    Differences across fields and experience levels are frequently considered in discussions of ethical decision-making and ethical behavior. In the present study, doctoral students in the health, biological, and social sciences completed measures of ethical decision-making. The effects of field and level of experience with respect to ethical decision-making, metacognitive reasoning strategies, social-behavioral responses, and exposure to unethical events were examined. Social and biological scientists performed better than health scientists with respect to ethical decision-making. Furthermore, the ethical decision-making of health science students decreased as experience increased. Moreover, these effects appeared to be linked to the specific strategies underlying participants' ethical decision-making. The implications of these findings for ethical decision-making are discussed. PMID:19750129

  17. Remediation of copper contaminated soil by using different particle sizes of apatite: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jinfeng; Hu, Tiantian; Cang, Long; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    The particle size of apatite is one of the critical factors that influence the adsorption of heavy metals on apatite in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils using apatite. However, little research has been done evaluating the impact of different particle sizes of apatite on immobilization remediation of heavy metal polluted soils in field. In this study, the adsorption isothermal experiments of copper on three kinds of apatite was tested, and the field experiment by using different particle sizes apatite [nano-hydroxyapatite (NAP), micro-hydroxyapatite (MAP), ordinary particle apatite (OAP)] at a same dosage of 25.8 t/ha (1.16 %, W/W) was also conducted. Ryegrass was chosen as the test plant. The ryegrass biomass, the copper contents in ryegrass and the copper fractionations in soil were determined after field experiments. Results of adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption amounts of copper on OAP was the lowest among different particles. The adsorption amounts of copper on MAP was higher than NAP at high copper equilibrium concentration (>1 mmol L(-1)), an opposite trend was obtained at low copper concentration (<1 mmol L(-1)). In the field experiment, we found that the application of different apatites could effectively increase the soil pH, decrease the available copper concentration in soil, provide more nutrient phosphate and promote the growth of ryegrass. The ryegrass biomass and the copper accumulation in ryegrass were the highest in MAP among all treatments. The effective order of apatite in phytoremediation of copper contaminated field soil was MAP > NAP > OAP, which was attributed to the high adsorption capacity of copper and the strong releasing of phosphate by MAP.

  18. Linking manipulative experiments to field data to test the dilution effect.

    PubMed

    Venesky, Matthew D; Liu, Xuan; Sauer, Erin L; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-05-01

    The dilution effect, the hypothesis that biodiversity reduces disease risk, has received support in many systems. However, few dilution effect studies have linked mechanistic experiments to field patterns to establish both causality and ecological relevance. We conducted a series of laboratory experiments and tested the dilution effect hypothesis in an amphibian-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) system and tested for consistency between our laboratory experiments and field patterns of amphibian species richness, host identity and Bd prevalence. In our laboratory experiments, we show that tadpoles can filter feed Bd zoospores and that the degree of suspension feeding was positively associated with their dilution potential. The obligate suspension feeder, Gastrophryne carolinensis, generally diluted the risk of chytridiomycosis for tadpoles of Bufo terrestris and Hyla cinerea, whereas tadpoles of B. terrestris (an obligate benthos feeder) generally amplified infections for the other species. In addition, G. carolinensis reduced Bd abundance on H. cinerea more so in the presence than absence of B. terrestris and B. terrestris amplified Bd abundance on H. cinerea more so in the absence than presence of G. carolinensis. Also, when ignoring species identity, species richness was a significant negative predictor of Bd abundance. In our analysis of field data, the presence of Bufo spp. and Gastrophryne spp. were significant positive and negative predictors of Bd prevalence, respectively, even after controlling for climate, vegetation, anthropogenic factors (human footprint), species richness and sampling effort. These patterns of dilution and amplification supported our laboratory findings, demonstrating that the results are likely ecologically relevant. The results from our laboratory and field data support the dilution effect hypothesis and also suggest that dilution and amplification are predictable based on host traits. Our study is among the first to link

  19. Pre-Service English Teachers' Perceptions and Practice of Field Experience and Professional Learning from Expert Teachers' Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Chin-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Though it is well known that pre-service teachers' field experiences are recognized as key to enhancing teaching practice, Taiwanese pre-service teachers who take "Teaching Methods and Materials" in elementary school's seven areas often complain that they lack field experience. They do not have the opportunity to experience teaching…

  20. Urban Field Experiences for Undergraduate Liberal Arts Students: Using Compromised Environments as Living Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Knee, K.

    2015-12-01

    While urban environments may lack the beauty of relatively pristine field sites, they can be used to deliver an effective demonstration of actual environmental damage. Students demanding applied field experiences from their undergraduate environmental science programs can be well served in urban settings. Here, we present strategies for integrating degraded urban systems into the undergraduate field experience. Urban locations provide an opportunity for a different type of local "field-work" than would otherwise be available. In the upper-level undergraduate Environmental Methods class, we relied on a National Park area located a 10-minute walk from campus for most field exercises. Activities included soil analysis, measuring stream flow and water quality parameters, dendrochronology, and aquatic microbe metabolism. In the non-majors class, we make use of our urban location to contrast water quality in parks and highly channelized urban streams. Students spend labs immersed in streams and wetlands heavily impacted by the urban runoff their city generates. Here we share lesson plans and budgets for field activities that can be completed during a class period of 2.5 hours with a $75 course fee, show how these activities help students gain quantitative competency.

  1. In pursuit of a science of agriculture: the role of statistics in field experiments.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-09-01

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century statistics has reshaped the experimental cultures of agricultural research taking part in the subtle dialectic between the epistemic and the material that is proper to experimental systems. This transformation has become especially relevant in field trials and the paper will examine the British agricultural institution, Rothamsted Experimental Station, where statistical methods nowadays popular in the planning and analysis of field experiments were developed in the 1920s. At Rothamsted statistics promoted randomisation over systematic arrangements, factorisation over one-question trials, and emphasised the importance of the experimental error in assessing field trials. These changes in methodology transformed also the material culture of agricultural science, and a new body, the Field Plots Committee, was created to manage the field research of the agricultural institution. Although successful, the vision of field experimentation proposed by the Rothamsted statisticians was not unproblematic. Experimental scientists closely linked to the farming community questioned it in favour of a field research that could be more easily understood by farmers. The clash between the two agendas reveals how the role attributed to statistics in field experimentation defined different pursuits of agricultural research, alternately conceived of as a scientists' science or as a farmers' science.

  2. Measurement and tricubic interpolation of the magnetic field for the OLYMPUS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernauer, J. C.; Diefenbach, J.; Elbakian, G.; Gavrilov, G.; Goerrissen, N.; Hasell, D. K.; Henderson, B. S.; Holler, Y.; Karyan, G.; Ludwig, J.; Marukyan, H.; Naryshkin, Y.; O'Connor, C.; Russell, R. L.; Schmidt, A.; Schneekloth, U.; Suvorov, K.; Veretennikov, D.

    2016-07-01

    The OLYMPUS experiment used a 0.3 T toroidal magnetic spectrometer to measure the momenta of outgoing charged particles. In order to accurately determine particle trajectories, knowledge of the magnetic field was needed throughout the spectrometer volume. For that purpose, the magnetic field was measured at over 36,000 positions using a three-dimensional Hall probe actuated by a system of translation tables. We used these field data to fit a numerical magnetic field model, which could be employed to calculate the magnetic field at any point in the spectrometer volume. Calculations with this model were computationally intensive; for analysis applications where speed was crucial, we pre-computed the magnetic field and its derivatives on an evenly spaced grid so that the field could be interpolated between grid points. We developed a spline-based interpolation scheme suitable for SIMD implementations, with a memory layout chosen to minimize space and optimize the cache behavior to quickly calculate field values. This scheme requires only one-eighth of the memory needed to store necessary coefficients compared with a previous scheme (Lekien and Marsden, 2005 [1]). This method was accurate for the vast majority of the spectrometer volume, though special fits and representations were needed to improve the accuracy close to the magnet coils and along the toroidal axis.

  3. The joys of mapping: qualitative insights into the student experience of a residential geoscience field course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Alison

    2010-05-01

    Using a mixed-format survey instrument, Boyle et al. (2007) identify significant effects in the affective domain resulting from participation in residential fieldwork. These findings are echoed by Stokes & Boyle (2009) in a separate, more detailed, study into the experiences of geoscience students when learning geologic mapping. While providing a quantifiable measure of changes in the students' attitudes and feelings, however, these survey data provide limited information about the experiences that have resulted in these changes, or of the factors likely to have influenced them. In order to gain a deeper insight into the students' affective responses, the quantitative data collected during this study were supplemented with qualitative data from in-situ and group interviews, open (free-text) survey questions, and direct observation of fieldwork activities. This provided a richness and depth of information that could not be achieved from quantitative data alone, and thus afforded a greater understanding of the students' experiences of this particular field activity. The survey findings showed that positive feelings and attitudes present at the start of the mapping field course became reinforced, but closer scrutiny of the data revealed that over half of the student cohort (57%) embarked on the fieldwork with some degree of worry, concern, or anxiety. The qualitative data enabled the source of these negative feelings to be identified, and provided evidence that these were overcome as a result of participating in the fieldwork. Thematic content analysis of the data resulted in the emergence of ten major themes; these provided a clear indication of factors significant to the student experience, and of specific aspects of the field course likely to generate either positive or negative affective responses. Further, these data highlighted the complexity of the learning process, and demonstrated the extent to which experiences varied between individual students. The social

  4. Vascular Calcification in Patients with Nondialysis CKD over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Pablo; Cerverón, M. Jesús; Vila, Rocío; Bover, Jordi; Nieto, Javier; Barril, Guillermina; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Fernández, Elvira; Escudero, Verónica; Piñera, Celestino; Adragao, Teresa; Navarro-Gonzalez, Juan F.; Molinero, Luis M.; Castro-Alonso, Cristina; Pallardó, Luis M.; Jamal, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Vascular calcification (VC) is common in CKD, but little is known about its prognostic effect on patients with nondialysis CKD. The prevalence of VC and its ability to predict death, time to hospitalization, and renal progression were assessed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Study of Mineral and Bone Disorders in CKD in Spain is a prospective, observational, 3-year follow-up study of 742 patients with nondialysis CKD stages 3–5 from 39 centers in Spain from April to May 2009. VC was assessed using Adragao (AS; x-ray pelvis and hands) and Kauppila (KS; x-ray lateral lumbar spine) scores from 572 and 568 patients, respectively. The primary end point was death. Secondary outcomes were hospital admissions and appearance of a combined renal end point (beginning of dialysis or drop >30% in eGFR). Factors related to VC were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Survival analysis was assessed by Cox proportional models. Results VC was present in 79% of patients and prominent in 47% (AS≥3 or KS>6). Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02 to 1.07; P<0.001), phosphorous (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.20; P<0.001), and diabetes (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.32 to 3.35; P=0.002) were independently related to AS≥3. After a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range=17–36), there were 70 deaths (10%). After multivariate adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, comorbidity, renal function, and level of phosphorous, AS≥3 but not KS>6 was independently associated with all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.07 to 4.01; P=0.03) and cardiovascular (HR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.27 to 9.45; P=0.02) mortality as well as a shorter hospitalization event–free period (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22; P<0.001). VC did not predict renal progression. Conclusions VC is highly prevalent in patients with CKD. VC assessment using AS independently predicts death and time to hospitalization. Therefore, it could be a useful

  5. Deep Space 1 Ion Engine Completed a 3-Year Journey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Hamley, John A.

    2001-01-01

    A xenon ion engine and power processor system, which was developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in partnership with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, completed nearly 3 years of operation aboard the Deep Space 1 spacecraft. The 2.3-kW ion engine, which provided primary propulsion and two-axis attitude control, thrusted for more than 16,000 hr and consumed more than 70 kg of xenon propellant. The Deep Space 1 spacecraft was launched on October 24, 1998, to validate 12 futuristic technologies, including the ion-propulsion system. After the technology validation process was successfully completed, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft flew by the small asteroid Braille on July 29, 1999. The final objective of this mission was to encounter the active comet Borrelly, which is about 6 miles long. The ion engine was on a thrusting schedule to navigate the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to within 1400 miles of the comet. Since the hydrazine used for spacecraft attitude control was in short supply, the ion engine also provided two-axis attitude control to conserve the hydrazine supply for the Borrelly encounter. The comet encounter took place on September 22, 2001. Dr. Marc Rayman, project manager of Deep Space 1 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory said, "Deep Space 1 plunged into the heart of the comet Borrelly and has lived to tell every detail of its spinetingling adventure! The images are even better than the impressive images of comet Halley taken by Europe's Giotto spacecraft in 1986." The Deep Space 1 mission, which successfully tested the 12 high-risk, advanced technologies and captured the best images ever taken of a comet, was voluntarily terminated on December 18, 2001. The successful demonstration of the 2-kW-class ion propulsion system technology is now providing mission planners with off-the-shelf flight hardware. Higher power, next generation ion propulsion systems are being developed for large flagship missions, such as outer planet

  6. Design of a dual sensor probe array for internal field measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torusa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong-hun, Yang; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; An, YoungHwa; Jung, Bong Ki; Jo, Jong Gab; Hwang, Y. S.

    2012-10-01

    A dual sensor probe array is designed and constructed for internal magnetic field measurement at Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at the Seoul National University. Simultaneous use of Hall sensors and chip inductors allows cross-calibration among the measurements and compensation for each other's weaknesses while their small sizes are expected to cause only mild plasma perturbations. Calibration of the dual sensor probe array, using a Helmholtz coil, shows good sensitivity for the magnetic field measurement of the VEST. Prior to Ohmic start-up, the magnetic field structure inside the vacuum chamber is measured by using the calibrated probe array. The dual sensor probe array is expected to be useful in analyzing the temporal magnetic field structure change during the magnetic reconnection and in reconstruction of the current profile during the discharge of the VEST device.

  7. Alternating field induced crack patterns in desiccating Laponite solutions: experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircar, Sudeshna; Khatun, Tajkera; Dutta, Tapati; Tarafdar, Sujata

    2016-12-01

    A randomized spring-network model is proposed to simulate crack patterns in drying aqueous solution of Laponite in the presence of a radial inhomogeneous direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) electric field. The simulation model produces realistic radial and cross-radial cracks in DC field for the two cases: centre positive and centre negative, respectively. Having validated the model for the case of DC, it is applied to study patterns in drying clay colloidal solutions in an AC field. In this case, the cracks curve along their path after their emergence from the inner electrode. The crack patterns are analyzed in terms of applied voltage, electrode and system size. Our experiments on aqueous Laponite films drying in the presence of an AC field, compare favourably with the simulation results.

  8. Simulating Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) with a Guide Field using Fluid Code, HiFi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budner, Tamas; Chen, Yangao; Meier, Eric; Ji, Hantao; MRX Team

    2015-11-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a phenomenon that occurs in plasmas when magnetic field lines effectively ``break'' and reconnect resulting in a different topological configuration. In this process, energy that was once stored in the magnetic field is transfered into the thermal velocity of the particles, effectively heating the plasma. MRX at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory creates the conditions under which reconnection can occur by initially ramping the current in two adjacent coils and then rapidly decreasing with and without a guide magnetic field along the reconnecting current. We simulate this experiment using a fluid code called HiFi, an implicit and adaptive high order spectral element modeling framework, and compare our results to experimental data from MRX. The purpose is to identify physics behind the observed reconnection process for the field line break and the resultant plasma heating.

  9. Design of a dual sensor probe array for internal field measurement in Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus.

    PubMed

    Jeong-hun, Yang; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; An, YoungHwa; Jung, Bong Ki; Jo, Jong Gab; Hwang, Y S

    2012-10-01

    A dual sensor probe array is designed and constructed for internal magnetic field measurement at Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus (VEST) at the Seoul National University. Simultaneous use of Hall sensors and chip inductors allows cross-calibration among the measurements and compensation for each other's weaknesses while their small sizes are expected to cause only mild plasma perturbations. Calibration of the dual sensor probe array, using a Helmholtz coil, shows good sensitivity for the magnetic field measurement of the VEST. Prior to Ohmic start-up, the magnetic field structure inside the vacuum chamber is measured by using the calibrated probe array. The dual sensor probe array is expected to be useful in analyzing the temporal magnetic field structure change during the magnetic reconnection and in reconstruction of the current profile during the discharge of the VEST device.

  10. Experience with wavefront sensor and deformable mirror interfaces for wide-field adaptive optics systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basden, A. G.; Atkinson, D.; Bharmal, N. A.; Bitenc, U.; Brangier, M.; Buey, T.; Butterley, T.; Cano, D.; Chemla, F.; Clark, P.; Cohen, M.; Conan, J.-M.; de Cos, F. J.; Dickson, C.; Dipper, N. A.; Dunlop, C. N.; Feautrier, P.; Fusco, T.; Gach, J. L.; Gendron, E.; Geng, D.; Goodsell, S. J.; Gratadour, D.; Greenaway, A. H.; Guesalaga, A.; Guzman, C. D.; Henry, D.; Holck, D.; Hubert, Z.; Huet, J. M.; Kellerer, A.; Kulcsar, C.; Laporte, P.; Le Roux, B.; Looker, N.; Longmore, A. J.; Marteaud, M.; Martin, O.; Meimon, S.; Morel, C.; Morris, T. J.; Myers, R. M.; Osborn, J.; Perret, D.; Petit, C.; Raynaud, H.; Reeves, A. P.; Rousset, G.; Sanchez Lasheras, F.; Sanchez Rodriguez, M.; Santos, J. D.; Sevin, A.; Sivo, G.; Stadler, E.; Stobie, B.; Talbot, G.; Todd, S.; Vidal, F.; Younger, E. J.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in adaptive optics (AO) have led to the implementation of wide field-of-view AO systems. A number of wide-field AO systems are also planned for the forthcoming Extremely Large Telescopes. Such systems have multiple wavefront sensors of different types, and usually multiple deformable mirrors (DMs). Here, we report on our experience integrating cameras and DMs with the real-time control systems of two wide-field AO systems. These are CANARY, which has been operating on-sky since 2010, and DRAGON, which is a laboratory AO real-time demonstrator instrument. We detail the issues and difficulties that arose, along with the solutions we developed. We also provide recommendations for consideration when developing future wide-field AO systems.

  11. Detrimental adsorbate fields in experiments with cold Rydberg gases near surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattermann, H.; Mack, M.; Karlewski, F.; Jessen, F.; Cano, D.; Fortágh, J.

    2012-08-01

    We observe the shift of Rydberg levels of rubidium close to a copper surface when atomic clouds are repeatedly deposited on it. We measure transition frequencies of rubidium to S and D Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers n between 31 and 48 using the technique of electromagnetically induced transparency. The spectroscopic measurement shows a strong increase of electric fields towards the surface that evolves with the deposition of atoms. Starting with a clean surface, we measure the evolution of electrostatic fields in the range between 30 and 300 μm from the surface. We find that after the deposition of a few hundred atomic clouds, each containing ˜106 atoms, the field of adsorbates reaches 1 V/cm for a distance of 30 μm from the surface. This evolution of the electrostatic field sets serious limitations on cavity QED experiments proposed for Rydberg atoms on atom chips.

  12. Laboratory Experiment of Magnetic Reconnection between Merging Flux Tubes with Strong Guide FIeld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomoto, M.; Kamio, S.; Kuwahata, A.; Ono, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection governs variety of energy release events in the universe, such as solar flares, geomagnetic substorms, and sawtooth crash in laboratory nuclear fusion experiments. Differently from the classical steady reconnection models, non-steady behavior of magnetic reconnection is often observed. In solar flares, intermittent enhancement of HXR emission is observed synchronously with multiple ejection of plammoids [1]. In laboratory reconnection experiments, the existence of the guide field, that is perpendicular to the reconnection field, makes significant changes on reconnection process. Generally the guide field will slow down the reconnection rate due to the increased magnetic pressure inside the current sheet. It also brings about asymmetric structure of the separatrices or effective particle acceleration in collisionless conditions. We have conducted laboratory experiments to study the behavior of the guide-field magnetic reconnection using plasma merging technique (push reconnection). Under substantial guide field even larger than the reconnection field, the reconnection generally exhibits non-steady feature which involves intermittent detachment of X-point and reconnection current center[2]. Transient enhancement of reconnection rate is observed simultaneously with the X-point motion[3]. We found two distinct phenomena associated with the guide-field non-steady reconnection. The one is the temporal and localized He II emission from X-point region, suggesting the production of energetic electrons which could excite the He ions in the vicinity of the X-point. The other is the excitation of large-amplitude electromagnetic waves which have similar properties with kinetic Alfven waves, whose amplitude show positive correlation with the enhancement of the reconnection electric field[4]. Electron beam instability caused by the energetic electrons accelerated to more than twice of the electron thermal velocity could be a potential driver of the

  13. NSF GK-12 Fellows as Mentors for K-12 Teachers Participating in Field Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K.; Perry, E.

    2005-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) recognizes the value of providing educational opportunities to K-12 teachers who play a critical role in shaping the minds of young people who are the future of our science. To that end, UTIG established the "Texas Teachers in the Field" program in 2000 to formalize the participation of K-12 teachers in field programs that included UTIG scientists. In 2002, "Texas Teachers in the Field" evolved through UTIG's involvement in a University of Texas at Austin GK-12 project led by the Environmental Sciences Institute, which enabled UTIG to partner a subset of GK-12 Fellows with teachers participating in geophysical field programs. During the three years of the GK-12 project, UTIG successfully partnered four GK-12 Fellows with five K-12 teachers. The Fellows served as mentors to the teachers, as liaisons between UTIG scientists leading field programs and teachers and their students, and as resources in science, mathematics, and technology instruction. Specifically, Fellows prepared teachers and their students for the field investigations, supervised the design of individual Teacher Research Experience (TRE) projects, and helped teachers to develop standards-aligned curriculum resources related to the field program for use in their own classrooms, as well as broader distribution. Although all but one TRE occurred during the school year, Texas school districts and principals were willing to release teachers to participate because the experience and destinations were so extraordinary (i.e., a land-based program in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina; and research cruises to the Southeast Caribbean Sea and Hess Deep in the Pacific Ocean) and carried opportunities to work with scientists from around the world. This exceptional collaboration of GK-12 Fellows, K-12 teachers and research scientists enriches K-12 student learning and promotes greater enthusiasm for science. The level of mentoring, preparation and follow-up provided

  14. Laboratory experiments investigating magnetic field production via the Weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, Channing; Fiuza, Frederico; Ross, James Steven; Zylstra, Alex; Pollock, Brad; Drake, R. Paul; Froula, Dustin; Gregori, Gianluca; Kugland, Nathan; Kuranz, Carolyn; Levy, Matthew; Li, Chikang; Meinecke, Jena; Petrasso, Richard; Remington, Bruce; Ryutov, Dmitri; Sakawa, Youichi; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Takabe, Hideke; Turnbull, David; Park, Hye-Sook

    2015-08-01

    Astrophysical collisionless shocks are often associated with the presence of strong magnetic fields in a plasma flow. The magnetic fields required for shock formation may either be initially present, for example in supernova remnants or young galaxies, or they may be self-generated in systems such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In the case of GRB outflows, the intense magnetic fields are greater than those seeded by the GRB progenitor or produced by misaligned density and temperature gradients in the plasma flow (the Biermann-battery effect). The Weibel instability is one candidate mechanism for the generation of sufficiently strong fields to create a collisionless shock. Despite their crucial role in astrophysical systems, observation of the magnetic fields produced by Weibel instabilities in experiments has been challenging. Using a proton probe to directly image electromagnetic fields, we present evidence of Weibel-generated magnetic fields that grow in opposing, initially unmagnetized plasma flows from laser-driven laboratory experiments. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reveal that the instability efficiently extracts energy from the plasma flows, and that the self-generated magnetic energy reaches a few percent of the total energy in the system. This result demonstrates an experimental platform suitable for the investigation of a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including collisionless shock formation in supernova remnants, large-scale magnetic field amplification, and the radiation signature from gamma-ray bursts.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. The generation and amplification of intergalactic magnetic fields in analogue laboratory experiments with high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.

    2015-11-01

    The advent of high-power laser facilities has, in the past two decades, opened a new field of research where astrophysical environments can be scaled down to laboratory dimensions, while preserving the essential physics. This is due to the invariance of the equations of magneto-hydrodynamics to a class of similarity transformations. Here we review the relevant scaling relations and their application in laboratory astrophysics experiments with a focus on the generation and amplification of magnetic fields in cosmic environment. The standard model for the origin of magnetic fields is a multi stage process whereby a vanishing magnetic seed is first generated by a rotational electric field and is then amplified by turbulent dynamo action to the characteristic values observed in astronomical bodies. We thus discuss the relevant seed generation mechanisms in cosmic environment including resistive mechanism, collision-less and fluid instabilities, as well as novel laboratory experiments using high power laser systems aimed at investigating the amplification of magnetic energy by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Future directions, including efforts to model in the laboratory the process of diffusive shock acceleration are also discussed, with an emphasis on the potential of laboratory experiments to further our understanding of plasma physics on cosmic scales.

  16. Field experiment of laser energy transmission and laser to electric conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Yugami, H.; Kanamori, Y.; Arashi, H.; Niino, M.; Moro, A.; Eguchi, K.; Okada, Y.; Endo, A.

    1997-12-31

    In this paper, the authors report the result of the field experiment of laser power transmission over 500m using different laser systems, i.e., CO{sub 2}, YAG, etc. The efficiency of energy transmission for long time period under various meteorological conditions was measured. They have observed large and long time scale fluctuation of beam pointing. It is found that the position of laser beam at the receiving site is correlated with the temperature difference between laser path height and ground. The laser to electricity conversion experiment has been performed using GaAs, c-Si, tandem-type a-Si, and CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) solar cells. Finally, they briefly introduce the proposal on the space experiment of laser power transmission at Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the international space station.

  17. SU-E-J-233: A Facility for Radiobiological Experiments in a Large Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Carlone, M; Heaton, R; Keller, H; Wouters, B; Jaffray, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: There is considerable interest in developing medical linear accelerators with integrated image guidance by MRI. Less work has been done on the fundamental biology of cell survival in the presence of a strong magnetic field. The purpose of this work is to describe an experimental system capable of measuring cell survival response in the types of MRI-linac systems currently under development. Methods: We have integrated a cobalt irradiator with a solenoid magnet. The solenoid magnet has inner diameter of 10 cm. To enable measurement of the biological effects as a function of depth, we are utilizing the sliced gel technique, in which cells are embedded and fixed within a gelatin matrix. Irradiated cells at defined positions (sub mm resolution) can subsequently be recovered and assessed for cell survival or other biological effects. Results: The magnetic field profile in the solenoid has a peak magnetic field 36 cm below the top edge of the magnet bore and can be placed at and SAD of 100 cm. At a solenoid current of 35 A, the peak magnetic field is 0.25 T. The dose rate of the cobalt irradiator is 16 cGy/min at 100 cm SAD. EBT3 film was used to demonstrate the system functionality. It was irradiated at 1 cm depth at 100 cm SSD with a 4×4 field to 1.5 Gy in a 0.25 T magnetic field. The dose profile was similar between this film and the control exposure without magnetic field. Conclusion: Integrating a cobalt irradiator with a high field magnet is demonstrated. The magnetic field at the cobalt defining head was minimal and did not interfere with the functioning of this unit. Cell survival experiments can be reproduced exactly in the presence or absence of a magnetic field since a resistive magnet is used.

  18. [Comparative study of the electrocorticogram of several brain fields of dozing cats in a chronic experiment].

    PubMed

    Konik, O E

    1976-01-01

    Peculatities of background electrical activity of some projection regions, the I somatosensory (field 53), and I and II auditory (fields 22 and 52, respectively), visual (field 17) and associative cortex (field 5), were studied in chronic experiments, performed on unanesthetized dozy cats. In transient periods, from vigil to sleep and vice versa, the maximal distinctions in slow-wave activity were detected between the regions under recording. They consisted in dissimilarities of spindle activity and low crosscorrelation coefficients (0.21 +/- 0.04). The synchrony of the potentials of different cortical regions increased and the crosscorrelation coefficients grew from 0.4 +/- 18 as sleep deepened. The functional reorganization of thalamic pacemaker mechanisms is supposed to take place with changes in the sleep depth. No distinctions in desynchronization were observed in different projective cortical fields because of the expressive orientation reflex. Only after the orientation reaction was suppressed and after application of the stimuli of adequate strength it was possible to reveal specific peculiarities of the projective field electrical reaction. Availability of definite conditions is emphasized for developing specific signs of the projective field electrical reaction.

  19. Simulating the volatilization of solvents in unsaturated soils during laboratory and field infiltration experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cho, H. Jean; Jaffe, Peter R.; Smith, James A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes laboratory and field experiments which were conducted to study the dynamics of trichloroethylene (TCE) as it volatilized from contaminated groundwater and diffused in the presence of infiltrating water through the unsaturated soil zone to the land surface. The field experiments were conducted at the Picatinny Arsenal, which is part of the United States Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. In both laboratory and field settings the gas and water phase concentrations of TCE were not in equilibrium during infiltration. Gas-water mass transfer rate constants were calibrated to the experimental data using a model in which the water phase was treated as two phases: a mobile water phase and an immobile water phase. The mass transfer limitations of a volatile organic compound between the gas and liquid phases were described explicitly in the model. In the laboratory experiment the porous medium was nonsorbing, and water infiltration rates ranged from 0.076 to 0.28 cm h−1. In the field experiment the water infiltration rate was 0.34 cm h−1, and sorption onto the soil matrix was significant. The laboratory-calibrated gas-water mass transfer rate constant is 3.3×10−4 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.076 cm h−1 and 1.4×10−3 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.28 cm h−1. The overall mass transfer rate coefficients, incorporating the contribution of mass transfer between mobile and immobile water phases and the variation of interfacial area with moisture content, range from 3×10−4 h−1 to 1×10−2 h−1. A power law model relates the gas-water mass transfer rate constant to the infiltration rate and the fraction of the water phase which is mobile. It was found that the results from the laboratory experiments could not be extrapolated to the field. In order to simulate the field experiment the very slow desorption of TCE from the soil matrix was incorporated into the mathematical model. When desorption from the soil

  20. Simulating the volatilization of solvents in unsaturated soils during laboratory and field infiltration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H. Jean; Jaffé, Peter R.; Smith, James A.

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes laboratory and field experiments which were conducted to study the dynamics of trichloroethylene (TCE) as it volatilized from contaminated groundwater and diffused in the presence of infiltrating water through the unsaturated soil zone to the land surface. The field experiments were conducted at the Picatinny Arsenal, which is part of the United States Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. In both laboratory and field settings the gas and water phase concentrations of TCE were not in equilibrium during infiltration. Gas-water mass transfer rate constants were calibrated to the experimental data using a model in which the water phase was treated as two phases: a mobile water phase and an immobile water phase. The mass transfer limitations of a volatile organic compound between the gas and liquid phases were described explicitly in the model. In the laboratory experiment the porous medium was nonsorbing, and water infiltration rates ranged from 0.076 to 0.28 cm h-1. In the field experiment the water infiltration rate was 0.34 cm h-1, and sorption onto the soil matrix was significant. The laboratory-calibrated gas-water mass transfer rate constant is 3.3×10-4 h-1 for an infiltration rate of 0.076 cm h-1 and 1.4×10-3 h-1 for an infiltration rate of 0.28 cm h-1. The overall mass transfer rate coefficients, incorporating the contribution of mass transfer between mobile and immobile water phases and the variation of interfacial area with moisture content, range from 3×10-4 h-1 to 1×10-2 h-1. A power law model relates the gas-water mass transfer rate constant to the infiltration rate and the fraction of the water phase which is mobile. It was found that the results from the laboratory experiments could not be extrapolated to the field. In order to simulate the field experiment the very slow desorption of TCE from the soil matrix was incorporated into the mathematical model. When desorption from the soil matrix was added to the model

  1. Females and STEM: Determining the K-12 Experiences that Influenced Women to Pursue STEM Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Anne Marie

    In the United States, careers in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) are increasing yet there are not enough trained personnel to meet this demand. In addition, of those that seek to pursue STEM fields in the United States, only 26% are female. In order to increase the number of women seeking STEM based bachelor's degrees, K-12 education must provide a foundation that prepares students for entry into these fields. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to determine the perceived K-12 experiences that influenced females to pursue a STEM field. Twelve college juniors or seniors seeking a degree in Biology, Mathematics, or Physics were interviewed concerning their K-12 experiences. These interviews were analyzed and six themes emerged. Teacher passion and classroom characteristics such as incorporating challenging activities played a significant role in the females' decisions to enter STEM fields. Extra-curricular activities such as volunteer and mentor opportunities and the females' need to benefit others also influenced females in their career choice. Both the formal (within the school) and informal (outside of the traditional classroom) pipeline opportunities that these students encountered helped develop a sense of self-efficacy in science and mathematics; this self-efficacy enabled them to persist in pursuing these career fields. Several participants cited barriers that they encountered in K-12 education, but these barriers were primarily internal as they struggled with overcoming self-imposed obstacles in learning and being competitive in the mathematics and science classrooms. The experiences from these female students can be used by K-12 educators to prepare and encourage current female students to enter STEM occupations.

  2. Comparisons of Transport and Dispersion Model Predictions of the Joint Urban 2003 Field Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Comparisons of Transport and Dispersion Model Predictions of the Joint Urban 2003 Field Experiment I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y...T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-4195 Comparisons of Transport and Dispersion Model Predictions of the Joint Urban 2003 Field...Material Transport and Dispersion Prediction Models .” The objective of this effort was to conduct analyses and special studies associated with the

  3. Spatiotemporal properties of Sub-Rayleigh and supershear rupture velocity fields: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Michael; Bhat, Harsha S.; Rosakis, Ares J.

    2016-08-01

    Fundamental spatiotemporal field properties and particle velocity waveform signatures of sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures were experimentally investigated through a series of laboratory earthquake experiments. We appeal to dynamic rupture theory to extract and highlight previously unnoticed aspects and results, which are of direct relevance to our new experiments. Kinematic relationships derived from both singular and non-singular solutions are applied to analyze and interpret various features observed in these experiments. A strong correspondence is demonstrated between particle velocity records obtained in lab experiments and synthetic particle velocity waveform profiles derived from theory. Predicted temporal profiles, sense of particle motion, and amplitude decay properties of sub-Rayleigh and supershear particle velocity waveforms are experimentally verified. In a particular set of supershear rupture experiments, the fault-normal (FN) and fault-parallel (FP) velocity waveforms were simultaneously recorded at fixed, off-fault field points as a shear Mach front swept these locations. Particle velocity records collected over a broad range of stable supershear rupture speeds validate the predicted scaling relationship δu˙1s / δu˙2s =√{Vr2 / Cs2-1 } =βs, between the FP (δu1ṡ) and the FN (δu2ṡ) velocity jumps propagated by a shear Mach front. Additional experimental findings include detailed rupture speed measurements of sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures and the observation of a supershear daughter crack with vanishing shear Mach front.

  4. Series-field-coil ion beam diode experiment and numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Quintenz, J.P.; Zagar, D.M.; Johnson, P.R.; Anderson, R.J.; Widner, M.M.

    1984-08-01

    An experiment with a series-field-coil intense ion beam diode operating at the 1.6-MV, 0.8-TW level is described. The diode operates in the extraction mode with a 20-cm focal length. The diode design procedure is described together with some of the essential ion diode theory used in this design process. The experiment produced a well-focused ion beam while verifying some of the theoretical assumptions about ion diodes of this type. The experimental results are compared with numerical computer simulations and excellent agreement is obtained.

  5. NATO TG-53: acoustic detection of weapon firing joint field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Dale N.; Pham, Tien; Scanlon, Michael V.; Srour, Nassy; Reiff, Christian G.; Sim, Leng K.; Solomon, Latasha; Thompson, Dorothea F.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we discuss the NATO Task Group 53 (TG-53) acoustic detection of weapon firing field joint experiment at Yuma Proving Ground during 31 October to 4 November 2005. The participating NATO countries include France, the Netherlands, UK and US. The objectives of the joint experiments are: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons such as sniper, mortar, artillery and C4 explosives and (ii) to share signatures among NATO partners from a variety of acoustic sensing platforms on the ground and in the air distributed over a wide area.

  6. Spatial correlations and probability density function of the phase difference in a developed speckle-field: numerical and natural experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysina, N. Yu; Maksimova, L. A.; Gorbatenko, B. B.; Ryabukho, V. P.

    2015-10-01

    Investigated are statistical properties of the phase difference of oscillations in speckle-fields at two points in the far-field diffraction region, with different shapes of the scatterer aperture. Statistical and spatial nonuniformity of the probability density function of the field phase difference is established. Numerical experiments show that, for the speckle-fields with an oscillating alternating-sign transverse correlation function, a significant nonuniformity of the probability density function of the phase difference in the correlation region of the field complex amplitude, with the most probable values 0 and p, is observed. A natural statistical interference experiment using Young diagrams has confirmed the results of numerical experiments.

  7. Asian Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project: Draft Field Work Plan for the Asian Long-Range Tracer Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.

    2007-08-01

    This report provides an experimental plan for a proposed Asian long-range tracer study as part of the international Tracer Experiment and Atmospheric Modeling (TEAM) Project. The TEAM partners are China, Japan, South Korea and the United States. Optimal times of year to conduct the study, meteorological measurements needed, proposed tracer release locations, proposed tracer sampling locations and the proposed durations of tracer releases and subsequent sampling are given. Also given are the activities necessary to prepare for the study and the schedule for completing the preparation activities leading to conducting the actual field operations. This report is intended to provide the TEAM members with the information necessary for planning and conducting the Asian long-range tracer study. The experimental plan is proposed, at this time, to describe the efforts necessary to conduct the Asian long-range tracer study, and the plan will undoubtedly be revised and refined as the planning goes forward over the next year.

  8. Large Eddy Simulation and Field Experiments of Pollen Transport in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamecki, M.; Meneveau, C.; Parlange, M. B.; van Hout, R.

    2006-12-01

    Dispersion of airborne pollen by the wind has been a subject of interest for botanists and allergists for a long time. More recently, the development of genetically modified crops and questions about cross-pollination and subsequent contamination of natural plant populations has brought even more interest to this field. A critical question is how far from the source field pollen grains will be advected. Clearly the answer depends on the aerodynamic properties of the pollen, geometrical properties of the field, topography, local vegetation, wind conditions, atmospheric stability, etc. As a consequence, field experiments are well suited to provide some information on pollen transport mechanisms but are limited to specific field and weather conditions. Numerical simulations do not have this drawback and can be a useful tool to study pollen dispersal in a variety of configurations. It is well known that the dispersion of particles in turbulent fields is strongly affected by the large scale coherent structures. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is a technique that allows us to study the typical distances reached by pollen grains and, at the same time, resolve the larger coherent structures present in the atmospheric boundary layer. The main objective of this work is to simulate the dispersal of pollen grains in the atmospheric surface layer using LES. Pollen concentrations are simulated by an advection-diffusion equation including gravitational settling. Of extreme importance is the specification of the bottom boundary conditions characterizing the pollen source over the canopy and the deposition process everywhere else. In both cases we make use of the theoretical profile for suspended particles derived by Kind (1992). Field experiments were performed to study the applicability of the theoretical profile to pollen grains and the results are encouraging. Airborne concentrations as well as ground deposition from the simulations are compared to experimental data to validate the

  9. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  10. Fish physiology and metal pollution: results and experiences from laboratory and field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, A.; Haux, C.; Sjoebeck, M.L.

    1985-06-01

    Physiological methods, previously used as health indicators in laboratory investigations on fish exposed to toxicants, have been applied to feral fish living in metal-polluted waters. A background to the use of a physiological approach for detecting early-arising effects of toxic chemicals on fish is given, together with a description of the clinical parameters used and their physiological relevance. The results and experiences from the field application show that certain clinical methods may be very useful in detecting and diagnosing sublethal disturbances in natural fish populations in polluted areas. Furthermore, the results indicate a good agreement between metal-induced physiological effects detected in fish exposed under natural field conditions and those found in laboratory experiments.

  11. Modeling of coherent ultrafast magneto-optical experiments: Light-induced molecular mean-field model

    SciTech Connect

    Hinschberger, Y.; Hervieux, P.-A.

    2015-12-28

    We present calculations which aim to describe coherent ultrafast magneto-optical effects observed in time-resolved pump-probe experiments. Our approach is based on a nonlinear semi-classical Drude-Voigt model and is used to interpret experiments performed on nickel ferromagnetic thin film. Within this framework, a phenomenological light-induced coherent molecular mean-field depending on the polarizations of the pump and probe pulses is proposed whose microscopic origin is related to a spin-orbit coupling involving the electron spins of the material sample and the electric field of the laser pulses. Theoretical predictions are compared to available experimental data. The model successfully reproduces the observed experimental trends and gives meaningful insight into the understanding of magneto-optical rotation behavior in the ultrafast regime. Theoretical predictions for further experimental studies are also proposed.

  12. Fate of Methane and Ethanol-Blended Fuels in Soil: Laboratory and Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, D. M.; de Sieyes, N. R.; Peng, J.; Schmidt, R.; Buelow, M. C.; Felice, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our research site is within the UC Davis Putah Creek Riparian Reserve in Davis, CA; climate is semi-arid and soils are sandy loams and silts. We are conducting three types of controlled release experiments in the field: 1) Gas mixture, a continuous release of methane, sometimes with other gases included, with the composition and release rate changing over time to allow examination of various hypotheses, 2) E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol): a continuous release of E10 NAPL at rate equal to documented low rate releases from underground storage tanks (USTs) that are difficult or impossible to detect with current practical approaches (<0.04 gallons per day); 3) E85: release at same rate as the E10 release. In the field experiments, gas or NAPL is released from a stainless steel drive point with 0.5 cm slotted section at 1 m bgs; we monitor temperature, pressure, moisture content, and soil gas composition in the soil, and efflux of carbon dioxide, methane, oxygen, water vapor, and other species to/ from soil to atmosphere. Periodic coring allows examination of the microbial community composition with depth. Laboratory microcosm and column tests assisted in planning the E10 and E85 field experiments above, evaluated the effect of moisture content on methane oxidation, and allowed testing and refinement of the monitoring approaches in the field We found that up to 40% of the methane released can be accounted for by efflux from soil to the atmosphere. The percentage in the efflux depends on the rate of release, and, based on literature and our microcosms with methane-spiked PCRR soils, we hypothesize that the very low moisture content of the soils in this drought year limits in situ methane oxidation. Efflux of carbon dioxide accounted for up to 20% of the E10 release rate under our lab column conditions, which we believe were oxygen-limited compared to the field conditions. We also detected low molecular weight hydrocarbons in the column efflux, though the concentrations

  13. GSFC magnetic field experiment Explorer 43. [describing magnetometer, data processor, and telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seek, J. B.; Scheifele, J. L.; Ness, N. F.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic field experiment flown on Explorer 43 is described. The detecting instrument is a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer which is mounted on a boom with a flipping mechanism for reorienting the sensor in flight. An on-board data processor takes successive magnetometer samples and transmits differences to the telemetry system. By examining these differences in conjunction with an untruncated sample transmitted periodically, the original data may be uniquely reconstructed on the ground.

  14. Proposed operating strategy for a field mis oil shale retorting experiment (RBOSC Retort O)

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.; Campbell, J.H.; McKenzie, D.R.; Raley, J.H.; Gregg, M.L.

    1980-01-01

    A possible operating strategy for a field scale retort (similar to Retort 0) proposed by the Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company (RBOSC)) is discussed. This retorting strategy was developed based on model calculations, pilot retort experiments, and laboratory work carried out at LLL. From these calculations a set of operating conditions are derived that appear to give the best overall retort performance. A performance monitoring strategy is being developed based solely on the exit gas and oil composition.

  15. Observed chlorine concentrations during Jack Rabbit I and Lyme Bay field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Steven; Chang, Joseph; Huq, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    As part of planning for a series of field experiments where large quantities (up to 20 tons) of pressurized liquefied chlorine will be released, observations from previous chlorine field experiments are analyzed to estimate the ranges of chlorine concentrations expected at various downwind distances. In five field experiment days during the summer 2010 Jack Rabbit I (JR I) field trials, up to two tons of chlorine were released and concentrations were observed at distances, x, from 25 to 500 m. In the 1927 Lyme Bay (LB) experiments, there were four days of trials, where 3-10 tons of chlorine were released in about 15 min from the back of a ship. Concentrations were sampled at LB from four ships sailing across the cloud path at downwind distances in the range from about 350 to 3000 m. Thus, the distances from which JR I concentrations were available slightly overlapped the LB distances. One-minute arc-maximum chlorine concentrations, C (g/m3), were analyzed from four JR I trials and two LB trials. Normalized concentrations (Cu/Q) were plotted versus x (m), where u (m/s) is measured wind speed at heights of 2-10 m and Q (g/s) is continuous mass release rate. It is found that the JR I and LB Cu/Q observations smoothly merge with each other and fall along a line with approximate slope of -2 at distances beyond about 200 m (i.e., Cu/Q is proportional to x-2). At x < 200 m, where dense gas effects are more important, the slope is less (about -1.5). Most of the data points are within a factor of two of the "best-fit" line.

  16. Vertical sampling flights in support of the 1981 ASCOT cooling tower experiments: field effort and data

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, G.T.

    1982-03-01

    During the month of August 1981, three nights of experimental sampling of tracers released into the cooling tower plume of a geothermal power plant were conducted. In these experiments a tethered balloon was used to lift a payload so as to obtain vertical profiles of the cooling tower plume and the entrained tracers. A description of the equipment used, the field effort and the data acquired are presented here.

  17. Experiences of using mobile technologies and virtual field tours in Physical Geography: implications for hydrology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingston, D. G.; Eastwood, W. J.; Jones, P. I.; Johnson, R.; Marshall, S.; Hannah, D. M.

    2012-05-01

    Education in hydrology is changing rapidly due to diversification of students, emergent major scientific and practical challenges that our discipline must engage with, shifting pedagogic ideas and higher education environments, the need for students to develop new discipline specific and transferrable skills, and the advent of innovative technologies for learning and teaching. This paper focuses on new technologies in the context of learning and teaching in Physical Geography and reflects on the implications of our experiences for education in hydrology. We evaluate the experience of designing and trialling novel mobile technology-based field exercises and a virtual field tour for a Year 1 undergraduate Physical Geography module at a UK university. The new exercises are based on using and obtaining spatial data, operation of meteorological equipment (explained using an interactive DVD), and include introductions to global positioning systems (GPS) and geographical information systems (GIS). The technology and exercises were well received in a pilot study and subsequent rolling-out to the full student cohort (∼150 students). A statistically significant improvement in marks was observed following the redesign. Although the students enjoyed using mobile technology, the increased interactivity and opportunity for peer learning were considered to be the primary benefits by students. This is reinforced further by student preference for the new interactive virtual field tour over the previous "show-and-tell" field exercise. Despite the new exercises having many advantages, exercise development was not trivial due to the high start-up costs, the need for provision of sufficient technical support and the relative difficulty of making year-to-year changes (to the virtual field tour in particular). Our experiences are highly relevant to the implementation of novel learning and teaching technologies in hydrology education.

  18. ITER test blanket module error field simulation experiments at DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffer, M. J.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; de Vries, P.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenfield, C. M.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Kramer, G. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Osborne, T. H.; Oyama, N.; Park, J.-K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Salmi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, D. A.; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Boedo, J. A.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, R. M.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M. R.; You, K.-I.; Zeng, L.; DIII-D Team

    2011-10-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations, energetic particle losses, and more. The experiments used a purpose-built three-coil mock-up of two magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The largest effect was a reduction in plasma toroidal rotation velocity v across the entire radial profile by as much as Δv/v ~ 60% via non-resonant braking. Changes to global Δn/n, Δβ/β and ΔH98/H98 were ~3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher β. Other effects were smaller. The TBM field increased sensitivity to locking by an applied known n = 1 test field in both L- and H-mode plasmas. Locked mode tolerance was completely restored in L-mode by re-adjusting the DIII-D n = 1 error field compensation system. Numerical modelling by IPEC reproduces the rotation braking and locking semi-quantitatively, and identifies plasma amplification of a few n = 1 Fourier harmonics as the main cause of braking. IPEC predicts that TBM braking in H-mode may be reduced by n = 1 control. Although extrapolation from DIII-D to ITER is still an open issue, these experiments suggest that a TBM-like error field will produce only a few potentially troublesome problems, and that they might be made acceptably small.

  19. ITER Test Blanket Module Error Field Simulation Experiments at DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, M. J.; Testa, D.; Snipes, J. A.; Gohil, P.; De Vries, P.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Gao, X.; Garofalo, A.; Gates, D.A.; Greenfield, C. M.; Heidbrink, W.; La Haye, R.; Liu, S.; Loarte, A.; Nave, M. F. F.; Oyama, N.; Osakabe, M.; Park, J. K.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Saibene, G.; Saimi, A.; Shinohara, K.; Spong, Donald A; Solomon, W. M.; Tala, T.; Zhu, Y. B.; Zhai, K.; Boedo, J.; Chuyanov, V.; Doyle, E. J.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Jhang, H.; Nazikian, Raffi; Pustovitov, V. D.; Schmitz, O.; Sanchez, Raul; Srinivasan, R.; Taylor, T. S.; Wade, M.; You, K. I.; Zeng, L.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments at DIII-D investigated the effects of magnetic error fields similar to those expected from proposed ITER test blanket modules (TBMs) containing ferromagnetic material. Studied were effects on: plasma rotation and locking, confinement, L-H transition, the H-mode pedestal, edge localized modes (ELMs) and ELM suppression by resonant magnetic perturbations, energetic particle losses, and more. The experiments used a purpose-built three-coil mock-up of two magnetized ITER TBMs in one ITER equatorial port. The largest effect was a reduction in plasma toroidal rotation velocity v across the entire radial profile by as much as Delta upsilon/upsilon similar to 60% via non-resonant braking. Changes to global Delta n/n, Delta beta/beta and Delta H(98)/H(98) were similar to 3 times smaller. These effects are stronger at higher beta. Other effects were smaller. The TBM field increased sensitivity to locking by an applied known n = 1 test field in both L-and H-mode plasmas. Locked mode tolerance was completely restored in L-mode by re-adjusting the DIII-D n = 1 error field compensation system. Numerical modelling by IPEC reproduces the rotation braking and locking semi-quantitatively, and identifies plasma amplification of a few n = 1 Fourier harmonics as the main cause of braking. IPEC predicts that TBM braking in H-mode may be reduced by n = 1 control. Although extrapolation from DIII-D to ITER is still an open issue, these experiments suggest that a TBM-like error field will produce only a few potentially troublesome problems, and that they might be made acceptably small.

  20. Survey of Academic Field Experiences (SAFE): Trainees Report Harassment and Assault

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Nelson, Robin G.; Rutherford, Julienne N.; Hinde, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites. PMID:25028932

  1. Survey of academic field experiences (SAFE): trainees report harassment and assault.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Kathryn B H; Nelson, Robin G; Rutherford, Julienne N; Hinde, Katie

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.

  2. High Precision Magnetic Field Scanning System for the New Muon g-2 Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ran; Muon g-2 collaboration Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The New Muon g-2 Experiment (E989) at Fermilab will measure the anomalous magnetic moment of muon aμ aiming at a precision of 140 ppb. This new experiment will shed light on the long-standing 3.5 standard deviation between the previous muon g-2 measurement (E821) at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Standard Model calculation, and potentially discover new physics. The New Muon g-2 Experiment measures the precession frequency of muon in a uniform magnetic field, and the magnetic field experienced by the muons needs to be measured with a precision better than 70 ppb. For the measurement of the magnetic field in the muon storage region, the former trolley system from E821 with 17 NMR probes was refurbished and upgraded with new electronics, probes and a modern motion control system. A test solenoid magnet was set up at Argonne National Laboratory for calibrating the NMR probes and the precision studies of systematic uncertainties. In this presentation, we will describe the trolley motion control scheme, the trolley position measurement methods, the electronic system for activating and reading the NMR probes and the test solenoid facility.

  3. The context of employment discrimination: interpreting the findings of a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Midtbøen, Arnfinn H

    2015-03-01

    Although field experiments have documented the contemporary relevance of discrimination in employment, theories developed to explain the dynamics of differential treatment cannot account for differences across organizational and institutional contexts. In this article, I address this shortcoming by presenting the main empirical findings from a multi-method research project, in which a field experiment of ethnic discrimination in the Norwegian labour market was complemented with forty-two in-depth interviews with employers who were observed in the first stage of the study. While the experimental data support earlier findings in documenting that ethnic discrimination indeed takes place, the qualitative material suggests that theorizing in the field experiment literature have been too concerned with individual and intra-psychic explanations. Discriminatory outcomes in employment processes seems to be more dependent on contextual factors such as the number of applications received, whether requirements are specified, and the degree to which recruitment procedures are formalized. I argue that different contexts of employment provide different opportunity structures for discrimination, a finding with important theoretical and methodological implications.

  4. Effect of field experiences on music therapy students' perceptions of choral music for geriatric wellness programs.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, Kimberly; Whipple, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of field experiences on music therapy students' perceptions of choral music for geriatric wellness programs. Specifically, the study investigated music therapy students': a) personal comfort working with senior adult singers; b) perceptions of preparation in their educational training to work with senior adults in a choral music wellness program; c) perceptions of senior adults' functioning levels as singers in choral ensembles; d) perceptions of senior adults' functioning levels as learners; and e) willingness to seek additional opportunities to lead senior adults in choral music wellness programs. Comparative analysis using pretest and posttest scores for each grouping was completed. Significant mean score differences were found in the categories of student comfort, preparation, perceptions of singing, and willingness, with gains from pre- to posttest in all categories. The general demographics and perceptions of learning groupings increased and decreased, respectively, though not significantly, following the field experience. Analysis combining all groups, creating an overall pretest and posttest score, was also completed. Results revealed that students felt significantly more positive about choral music being used in wellness programs for senior adults after the field experience.

  5. JSC thunderstorm experiment results. [electric fields, lightning, and effects on space shuttle operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    To gain more insight into the various effects of lightning and thunderstorms on future shuttle vehicle launch and landing operations, an experiment was conducted to obtain data on the nature of electric fields in the vicinity of thunderstorms and particularly in the region of cumulonimbus cloud anvils during their various stages of build-up, maturity, and dissipation. These data supplement the airborne electric field data collected during the summer of 1975 in support of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and the Viking launches. A Learjet aircraft was outfitted with four special electric field meters for collecting data. The onboard aircraft radar was also used to investigate cells embedded in large thunderstorm systems such as those found in frontal and squall line activities. Data were collected from 33 storm cells and used to establish a launch criteria to preclude triggering lightning during shuttle vehicle operations in close proximity to thunderstorms.

  6. A novel experiment using rotating magnetic fields to study the pumping spin states in molecular magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Minguez, Alberto; Macia, Ferran; Hernandez, Joan Manel; Carbonell, Carla; Amigó, Roger; Tejada, Javier

    2008-03-01

    We report here a new experimental technique to monitor spin population dynamics in molecular magnets. This deals with a huge rotating magnetic field initially applied along the easy magnetization direction, z--axis, that rotates with components parallel and perpendicular to the z axis. This technique allows us to probe spin relaxation on reasonably fast time scales detecting the inversion of the whole spin states. The population of spin levels depends on the frequency of the rotating magnetic field. This very new technique could help to carry out new experiments in a number of different fields, broadening substantially the scope of their use until now. A Hern'andez-M'inguez et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 202502 (2007)

  7. Static and dynamic property experiments of giant magnetostrictive material-fiber Bragg grating magnetic field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guoping; Liu, Jiayi; Gao, Bin; Zhang, Biyun

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, there are many kinds of magnetic field sensors such as Hall sensor, Gauss meter and so on. But few of them can be used in the small air gaps which size is about millimeter. A thin-slice Giant Magnetostrictive Material-fiber Bragg grating (GMM-FBG) magnetic field sensor was proposed with the size of 14mm×7mm×1.5mm. The FBG was bonded along the GMM slice length orientation, perpendicular to the major magnetostriction orientation, to measure the GMM's strain caused by external magnetic field. Experiment systems were established to test the GMM-FBG sensor's static and dynamic properties. The results show that the sensor's static property is consistent with the theoretical prediction, and the dynamic response is feasible in low frequencies from 1Hz to 20Hz.

  8. Radar observations of field-aligned plasma propagations associated with nasa's PMG experiment. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    NASA's Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) tethered satellite mission was launched in June 1993 to verify the ability of hollow cathode plasma sources to couple electric currents from an electrodynamic tether into the ambient ionospheric plasma. This large-scale coupling process resulted in turbulent plasma signatures associated with the orbiting plasma generator, which propagated over great distances along the earth's geomagnetic field lines. VHF radars in Hilo, Hawaii and Jicamarca, Peru recorded observations of these field-aligned disturbances as part of the experiment. Based on analysis of these radar observations and tracking data of PMG's orbit, the effective propagation velocity of these traveling plasma waveforms was calculated to be of the order of 1000 meters per second. Detection of these disturbances, associated with PMG's passage overhead, supports the existence of a phantom current loop allowing current flow along the magnetic field lines of the earth and into the lower ionosphere from either end of an electrodynamic tether.

  9. Radar observations of field-aligned plasma propagations associated with NASA's PMG experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Darren M.

    1994-09-01

    NASA's Plasma Motor Generator (PMG) tethered satellite mission was launched in June 1993 to verify the ability of hollow cathode plasma sources to couple electric currents from an electrodynamic tether into the ambient ionospheric plasma. This large-scale coupling process resulted in turbulent plasma signatures associated with the orbiting plasma generator, which propagated over great distances along the earth's geomagnetic field lines. VHF radars in Hilo, Hawaii and Jicamarca, Peru recorded observations of these field-aligned disturbances as part of the experiment. Based on analysis of these radar observations and tracking data of PMG's orbit, the effective propagation velocity of these traveling plasma waveforms was calculated to be of the order of 1000 meters per second. Detection of these disturbances, associated with PMG's passage overhead, supports the existence of a phantom current loop allowing current flow along the magnetic field lines of the earth and into the lower ionosphere from either end of an electrodynamic tether.

  10. Shift of the critical mixing temperature in strong electric fields. Theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Orzechowski, Kazimierz; Adamczyk, Mariusz; Wolny, Alicja; Tsori, Yoav

    2014-06-26

    We study the shift in the critical temperature T(c) in binary mixtures in strong electric fields. In experiments we measure the nonlinear dielectric effect (NDE) in a mixture of nitrobenze and n-octane and calculate Piekara's factor. We find that the critical anomaly of Piekara's factor is a function of an electric field strength. We propose to explain this observation as a result of a downward shift of T(c), and this allows us to calculate (∂T(c)/∂E(2)) = (-22 ± 10) × 10(-16) (K m(2))/V(2). In the theoretical part we amend Landau and Lifshitz's formula and show that the downward shift of Tc can be estimated from a simple mean-field theory taking into account the linear and quadratic terms in an expansion of the constitutive relation ε(x) between the electric constant ε and mixture composition x.

  11. Wow, My Science Teacher Does Real Research! Engaging and Motivating Students Using Experiences from the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C.

    2013-12-01

    Students respond to personal connections. When K-12 science teachers are able to participate as field assistants on research projects, their students can benefit greatly from the stories, pictures, and video transmitted or brought back from the field. Teachers can translate and tailor their learning while in the field to the level of their students. Students are ';hooked' into science content by seeing their own teacher out there actually ';doing' science. The teacher is able to provide a direct content connection for the student, an avenue for understanding why ';learning this' is relevant and important. This presentation provides a case for why science teachers and researchers should collaborate as much as possible. The NSF funded PolarTREC program (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is an excellent example of how to make this collaboration work. The presentation will also provide a look into how teachers can make an effective connection for their students between field science and classroom learning. Alaskan secondary science teacher Carol Scott spent a month at the Kevo Research Station in northern Finland in May/June 2013 as a PolarTREC teacher, and is translating this experience for students. She has also worked on an NSF Research Experience for Teachers grant in Prince William Sound, AK, and has successfully used this work to engage students in the classroom.

  12. ADX: a high field, high power density, Advanced Divertor test eXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, R.; Labombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, J.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; ADX Team

    2014-10-01

    The MIT PSFC and collaborators are proposing an advanced divertor experiment (ADX) - a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research program on the pathway to FNSF/DEMO. This high field (6.5 tesla, 1.5 MA), high power density (P/S ~ 1.5 MW/m2) facility would utilize Alcator magnet technology to test innovative divertor concepts for next-step DT fusion devices (FNSF, DEMO) at reactor-level boundary plasma pressures and parallel heat flux densities while producing high performance core plasma conditions. The experimental platform would also test advanced lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion-cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) actuators and wave physics at the plasma densities and magnetic field strengths of a DEMO, with the unique ability to deploy launcher structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-field side - a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and wave physics is most favorable for efficient current drive, heating and flow drive. This innovative experiment would perform plasma science and technology R&D necessary to inform the conceptual development and accelerate the readiness-for-deployment of FNSF/DEMO - in a timely manner, on a cost-effective research platform. Supported by DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  13. Numerical modeling of laser-driven experiments of colliding jets: Turbulent amplification of seed magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeferacos, Petros; Fatenejad, Milad; Flocke, Norbert; Graziani, Carlo; Gregori, Gianluca; Lamb, Donald; Lee, Dongwook; Meinecke, Jena; Scopatz, Anthony; Weide, Klaus

    2014-10-01

    In this study we present high-resolution numerical simulations of laboratory experiments that study the turbulent amplification of magnetic fields generated by laser-driven colliding jets. The radiative magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations discussed here were performed with the FLASH code and have assisted in the analysis of the experimental results obtained from the Vulcan laser facility. In these experiments, a pair of thin Carbon foils is placed in an Argon-filled chamber and is illuminated to create counter-propagating jets. The jets carry magnetic fields generated by the Biermann battery mechanism and collide to form a highly turbulent region. The interaction is probed using a wealth of diagnostics, including induction coils that are capable of providing the field strength and directionality at a specific point in space. The latter have revealed a significant increase in the field's strength due to turbulent amplification. Our FLASH simulations have allowed us to reproduce the experimental findings and to disentangle the complex processes and dynamics involved in the colliding flows. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by DOE NNSA ASC.

  14. Development of an applied-magnetic-field diode for ion-beam-transport experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Young, F.C.; Neri, J.M.; Boller, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    An applied-magnetic-field ion diode (ABD) is being developed to study the transport of intense ion beams for light-ion inertial confinement fusion. Initially, the beam from this diode will be used to test the concept of self-pinched transport (SPT). The design goal is diode operation at 1.5 MV and 250-kA total current on the Gamble 2 generator at NRL. For SPT experiments, the beam is extracted from the diode and focused into a transport channel. The ATHETA code is used to calculate B-field configurations in the diode and ion-beam trajectories. Shaping of the anode surface to aim the beam and to counteract focusing due to self B-field and solenoidal-lens effects results in a convex anode surface. Most of the beam can be focused within a spot size of 1.4-cm diameter at 65 cm from the anode. The B-field is generated with inner and outer cathode coils connected in series and driven by a 100-{micro}s risetime, 50-kA pulse. A shunt inductor in parallel with the outer coil is used to control the ratio of the currents in the two coils. To cancel flux penetration of the aluminum anode by the main B-field, a current pulse of opposite polarity with a 1-ms risetime is applied prior to the main pulse. This current is adjusted to place the B-field separatrix on the ion emission surface in the diode gap, accounting for anode plasma expansion. A grooved-anode flashover source is planned for initial experiments. Preliminary results are presented.

  15. Field warming experiments shed light on the wheat yield response to temperature in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chuang; Piao, Shilong; Huang, Yao; Wang, Xuhui; Ciais, Philippe; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Peng, Shushi

    2016-11-01

    Wheat growth is sensitive to temperature, but the effect of future warming on yield is uncertain. Here, focusing on China, we compiled 46 observations of the sensitivity of wheat yield to temperature change (SY,T, yield change per °C) from field warming experiments and 102 SY,T estimates from local process-based and statistical models. The average SY,T from field warming experiments, local process-based models and statistical models is -0.7+/-7.8(+/-s.d.)% per °C, -5.7+/-6.5% per °C and 0.4+/-4.4% per °C, respectively. Moreover, SY,T is different across regions and warming experiments indicate positive SY,T values in regions where growing-season mean temperature is low, and water supply is not limiting, and negative values elsewhere. Gridded crop model simulations from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project appear to capture the spatial pattern of SY,T deduced from warming observations. These results from local manipulative experiments could be used to improve crop models in the future.

  16. Field warming experiments shed light on the wheat yield response to temperature in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuang; Piao, Shilong; Huang, Yao; Wang, Xuhui; Ciais, Philippe; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Peng, Shushi

    2016-11-17

    Wheat growth is sensitive to temperature, but the effect of future warming on yield is uncertain. Here, focusing on China, we compiled 46 observations of the sensitivity of wheat yield to temperature change (SY,T, yield change per °C) from field warming experiments and 102 SY,T estimates from local process-based and statistical models. The average SY,T from field warming experiments, local process-based models and statistical models is -0.7±7.8(±s.d.)% per °C, -5.7±6.5% per °C and 0.4±4.4% per °C, respectively. Moreover, SY,T is different across regions and warming experiments indicate positive SY,T values in regions where growing-season mean temperature is low, and water supply is not limiting, and negative values elsewhere. Gridded crop model simulations from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project appear to capture the spatial pattern of SY,T deduced from warming observations. These results from local manipulative experiments could be used to improve crop models in the future.

  17. HT to HTO conversion and field experiments near Darlington Nuclear Power Generating Station (DNPGS) site.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Stuart, M; Bredlaw, M; Festarini, A; Beaton, D

    2014-06-01

    The Canadian input parameters related to tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) used in tritium dose models are currently based on experiments performed at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in 1986, 1987 and 1994. There is uncertainty in how well other sites experiencing atmospheric HT releases are represented by these data. In order to address this uncertainty, HT to HTO conversion factors were evaluated at different locations near the Darlington Nuclear Power Generating Station (DNPGS) site using various experimental approaches. These were D2 gas exposure chamber experiments, atmospheric tritium measurements, and HTO and OBT measurements in vegetation and soil. In addition to these field experiments, chamber experiments were conducted using HT gas on field soil samples. The suggested Canadian input parameters for atmospheric tritium releases estimate the total fraction of HT oxidized in air and in soil, at the site, to be up to a maximum of 2.4%. Based on the more limited data obtained near DNPGS in early spring, this fraction would likely be closer to 0.5%. The result suggests that current parameters provide a conservative estimate for the DNPGS site.

  18. Field warming experiments shed light on the wheat yield response to temperature in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chuang; Piao, Shilong; Huang, Yao; Wang, Xuhui; Ciais, Philippe; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Peng, Shushi

    2016-01-01

    Wheat growth is sensitive to temperature, but the effect of future warming on yield is uncertain. Here, focusing on China, we compiled 46 observations of the sensitivity of wheat yield to temperature change (SY,T, yield change per °C) from field warming experiments and 102 SY,T estimates from local process-based and statistical models. The average SY,T from field warming experiments, local process-based models and statistical models is −0.7±7.8(±s.d.)% per °C, −5.7±6.5% per °C and 0.4±4.4% per °C, respectively. Moreover, SY,T is different across regions and warming experiments indicate positive SY,T values in regions where growing-season mean temperature is low, and water supply is not limiting, and negative values elsewhere. Gridded crop model simulations from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project appear to capture the spatial pattern of SY,T deduced from warming observations. These results from local manipulative experiments could be used to improve crop models in the future. PMID:27853151

  19. Constraining chameleon field theories using the GammeV afterglow experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhye, A.; Steffen, J. H.; Weltman, A.

    2010-01-01

    The GammeV experiment has constrained the couplings of chameleon scalar fields to matter and photons. Here, we present a detailed calculation of the chameleon afterglow rate underlying these constraints. The dependence of GammeV constraints on various assumptions in the calculation is studied. We discuss the GammeV-CHameleon Afterglow SEarch, a second-generation GammeV experiment, which will improve upon GammeV in several major ways. Using our calculation of the chameleon afterglow rate, we forecast model-independent constraints achievable by GammeV-CHameleon Afterglow SEarch. We then apply these constraints to a variety of chameleon models, including quartic chameleons and chameleon dark energy models. The new experiment will be able to probe a large region of parameter space that is beyond the reach of current tests, such as fifth force searches, constraints on the dimming of distant astrophysical objects, and bounds on the variation of the fine structure constant.

  20. Remedial self-fulfilling prophecy: two field experiments to prevent Golem effects among disadvantaged women.

    PubMed

    Davidson, O B; Eden, D

    2000-06-01

    The Pygmalion effect is a self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) in which raising leader expectations boosts subordinate performance. Although attempts to produce Pygmalion effects have been successful repeatedly among men, attempts to produce Pygmalion effects with female leaders have yielded null results. Also, only 1 experiment has demonstrated the Golem effect (i.e., negative SFP in which low leader expectations impair subordinate performance). In 2 field experiments testing the SFP hypothesis among women leading disadvantaged women, experimental leaders were led to believe that their trainees had higher than usual potential. In reality, the trainees had been assigned randomly. Manipulation checks confirmed that the treatment raised leader expectations toward experimental trainees. Analysis of variance of performance detected the predicted SFP effects in both experiments. These were the first-ever experimental confirmations of SFP among women as leaders.

  1. Constraining chameleon field theories using the GammeV afterglow experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, A.; Steffen, J.H.; Weltman, A.; /Cambridge U., DAMTP /Cape Town U.

    2009-11-01

    The GammeV experiment has constrained the couplings of chameleon scalar fields to matter and photons. Here we present a detailed calculation of the chameleon afterglow rate underlying these constraints. The dependence of GammeV constraints on various assumptions in the calculation is studied. We discuss GammeV-CHASE, a second-generation GammeV experiment, which will improve upon GammeV in several major ways. Using our calculation of the chameleon afterglow rate, we forecast model-independent constraints achievable by GammeV-CHASE. We then apply these constraints to a variety of chameleon models, including quartic chameleons and chameleon dark energy models. The new experiment will be able to probe a large region of parameter space that is beyond the reach of current tests, such as fifth force searches, constraints on the dimming of distant astrophysical objects, and bounds on the variation of the fine structure constant.

  2. Scaling methane oxidation: from laboratory incubation experiments to landfill cover field conditions.

    PubMed

    Abichou, Tarek; Mahieu, Koenraad; Chanton, Jeff; Romdhane, Mehrez; Mansouri, Imane

    2011-05-01

    Evaluating field-scale methane oxidation in landfill cover soils using numerical models is gaining interest in the solid waste industry as research has made it clear that methane oxidation in the field is a complex function of climatic conditions, soil type, cover design, and incoming flux of landfill gas from the waste mass. Numerical models can account for these parameters as they change with time and space under field conditions. In this study, we developed temperature, and water content correction factors for methane oxidation parameters. We also introduced a possible correction to account for the different soil structure under field conditions. These parameters were defined in laboratory incubation experiments performed on homogenized soil specimens and were used to predict the actual methane oxidation rates to be expected under field conditions. Water content and temperature corrections factors were obtained for the methane oxidation rate parameter to be used when modeling methane oxidation in the field. To predict in situ measured rates of methane with the model it was necessary to set the half saturation constant of methane and oxygen, K(m), to 5%, approximately five times larger than laboratory measured values. We hypothesize that this discrepancy reflects differences in soil structure between homogenized soil conditions in the lab and actual aggregated soil structure in the field. When all of these correction factors were re-introduced into the oxidation module of our model, it was able to reproduce surface emissions (as measured by static flux chambers) and percent oxidation (as measured by stable isotope techniques) within the range measured in the field.

  3. Scaling methane oxidation: From laboratory incubation experiments to landfill cover field conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Abichou, Tarek; Mahieu, Koenraad; Chanton, Jeff; Romdhane, Mehrez; Mansouri, Imane

    2011-05-15

    Evaluating field-scale methane oxidation in landfill cover soils using numerical models is gaining interest in the solid waste industry as research has made it clear that methane oxidation in the field is a complex function of climatic conditions, soil type, cover design, and incoming flux of landfill gas from the waste mass. Numerical models can account for these parameters as they change with time and space under field conditions. In this study, we developed temperature, and water content correction factors for methane oxidation parameters. We also introduced a possible correction to account for the different soil structure under field conditions. These parameters were defined in laboratory incubation experiments performed on homogenized soil specimens and were used to predict the actual methane oxidation rates to be expected under field conditions. Water content and temperature corrections factors were obtained for the methane oxidation rate parameter to be used when modeling methane oxidation in the field. To predict in situ measured rates of methane with the model it was necessary to set the half saturation constant of methane and oxygen, K{sub m}, to 5%, approximately five times larger than laboratory measured values. We hypothesize that this discrepancy reflects differences in soil structure between homogenized soil conditions in the lab and actual aggregated soil structure in the field. When all of these correction factors were re-introduced into the oxidation module of our model, it was able to reproduce surface emissions (as measured by static flux chambers) and percent oxidation (as measured by stable isotope techniques) within the range measured in the field.

  4. Field experiments of multi-channel oceanographic fluorescence lidar for oil spill and chlorophyll- a detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Chaofang; Ma, Youjun; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-08-01

    A Multi-channel Oceanographic Fluorescence Lidar (MOFL), with a UV excitation at 355 nm and multiple receiving channels at typical wavelengths of fluorescence from oil spills and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a), has been developed using the Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. The sketch of the MOFL system equipped with a compact multi-channel photomultiplier tube (MPMT) is introduced in the paper. The methods of differentiating the oil fluorescence from the background water fluorescence and evaluating the Chl- a concentration are described. Two field experiments were carried out to investigate the field performance of the system, i.e., an experiment in coastal areas for oil pollution detection and an experiment over the Yellow Sea for Chl- a monitoring. In the coastal experiment, several oil samples and other fluorescence substances were used to analyze the fluorescence spectral characteristics for oil identification, and to estimate the thickness of oil films at the water surface. The experiment shows that both the spectral shape of fluorescence induced from surface water and the intensity ratio of two channels ( I 495/ I 405) are essential to determine oil-spill occurrence. In the airborne experiment, MOFL was applied to measure relative Chl- a concentrations in the upper layer of the ocean. A comparison of relative Chl- a concentration measurements by MOFL and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicates that the two datasets are in good agreement. The results show that the MOFL system is capable of monitoring oil spills and Chl- a in the upper layer of ocean water.

  5. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Do words cue children’s visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information. PMID:24720802

  6. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information.

  7. Assessing Teaching Practices of Secondary Mathematics Student Teachers: An Exploratory Cross Case Analysis of Voluntary Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, Edwin; O'Brien, George; Jiang, Zhonghong

    2005-01-01

    Analyses of the impact of reform-based teaching practices in Florida International University's program have been previously reported. However, the impact of the field experiences "per se" has not been assessed. Using a cross-case analysis approach, the authors assess the impact of voluntary field experiences with teachers who practice…

  8. 3-Year-olds' comprehension, production, and generalization of Sesotho passives.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Katherine; Moloi, Francina; Machobane, Malillo

    2010-05-01

    Researchers have long been puzzled by the challenge English passive constructions present for language learners, with adult-like comprehension and production emerging only around the age of 5. It has therefore been of significant interest that researchers of other languages, including the Bantu language Sesotho, have reported acquisition of the passive by the age of 3 (Demuth, 1989). Such reports have typically been based on spontaneous production data, calling for further investigation. This study carried out a series of experiments with Sesotho-speaking 3-year-olds, testing their ability to comprehend the passive, produce the passive, and generalize novel verbs to passive frames. The results showed that passive comprehension was good, with no effect of actional/non-actional verb type. Elicited production of the passive was also good, with no difference between adversive and non-adversive verbs. Finally, all participants made both active and passive generalizations to novel verbs. These findings provide strong evidence that Sesotho-speaking 3-year-olds have robust, abstract knowledge of passive syntax. The paper concludes with a discussion of the factors that contribute to the early learning of the Sesotho passive, why acquisition of the passive may be delayed in English, and the implications for understanding grammatical development more generally.

  9. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance.

  10. Quantifying the effect of inflow variability in RANS simulations of the JU2003 field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorle, Catherine; Garcia Sanchez, Clara; Philips, David; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-11-01

    Predicting flow and dispersion in realistic urban canopies is challenging because of the high variability in the governing flow parameters, such as atmospheric conditions and street-level geometrical characteristics. As a result, one deterministic prediction for a specific condition is unlikely to provide an adequate representation of the problem and uncertainty quantification is required to determine confidence bounds on the predictions. Assessing the predictive capability of the resulting model requires validation with field measurements that represent the full complexity of the problem. In this study we present a comparison of the JU2003 field measurements with computational results from RANS simulations performed within an uncertainty quantification framework. The variability in the inflow conditions observed during the field experiment is represented in the simulations, and regions in the urban canopy that are particularly sensitive to this variability are identified. The standard deviation in the results is compared to that observed during the field measurements. Three uncertain variables were considered: the velocity magnitude and direction and the aerodynamic roughness used in the log law that defines the incoming boundary layer profile. A sparse grid Clenshaw-Curtis Stochastic Collocation approach was used, and a polynomial chaos representation of the velocity at different field measurement locations was constructed to extract the mean and standard deviations.

  11. Copper sulphate reduces the metabolic activity of Gammarus fossarum in laboratory and field experiments.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Lara; von Fumetti, Stefanie; Nagel, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The specialised fauna of freshwater springs is affected by contamination of the water with xenobiotics from human activities in the surrounding landscape. We assessed the effects of exposure to toxins in laboratory and field experiments by using copper sulphate as a model substance and Gammarus fossarum Koch, 1836, as the model organism. This amphipod is a common representative of the European spring fauna and copper is a widespread contaminant, mainly from agricultural practice. The experiments were conducted in test chambers placed in flow channels and directly in a spring. The gammarids were fed with conditioned beech leaf discs, which had been exposed to a 0.8 mg Cu/L solution for 96 h. The feeding activity of the amphipods was quantified on the level of the organism; and the respiratory electron transport system (ETS) assay was conducted in order to determine changes on the cellular level in the test organisms. The results show that the feeding activity, when the leaf discs were contaminated with copper, was not significantly different from the control. The ETS activity of the gammarids, which had been feeding on the copper contaminated leaf discs was however significantly reduced. The results followed the same pattern for gammarids from both the laboratory and the spring. By conducting the experiments not only in a laboratory but also directly in a spring in the field, we took a crucial step towards a more realistic approach when examining environmental pollutants on an organism. Our findings demonstrate the importance of conducting experiments out in the field, in natural conditions, as well as in the laboratory.

  12. Anomalies in the applied magnetic fields in DIII-D and their implications for the understanding of stability experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Luxon, J. L.; Schaffer, M. J.; Jackson, G. L.; Leuer, J. A.; Nagy, A.; Scoville, J. T.; Strait, E. J.

    2003-12-01

    Small non-axisymmetric magnetic fields are known to cause serious loss of stability in tokamaks leading to loss of confinement and abrupt termination of plasma current (disruptions). The best known examples are the locked mode and the resistive wall mode. Understanding of the underlying field anomalies (departures in the hardware-related fields from ideal toroidal and poloidal fields on a single axis) and the interaction of the plasma with them is crucial to tokamak development. Results of both locked mode experiments and resistive wall mode experiments done in DIII-D tokamak plasmas have been interpreted to indicate the presence of a significant anomalous field. New measurements of the magnetic field anomalies of the hardware systems have been made on DIII-D. The measured field anomalies due to the plasma shaping coils in DIII-D are smaller than previously reported. Additional evaluations of systematic errors have been made. New measurements of the anomalous fields of the ohmic heating and toroidal coils have been added. Such detailed in situ measurements of the fields of a tokamak are unique. The anomalous fields from all of the coils are one third of the values indicated from the stability experiments. These results indicate limitations in the understanding of the interaction of the plasma with the external field. They indicate that it may not be possible to deduce the anomalous fields in a tokamak from plasma experiments and that we may not have the basis needed to project the error field requirements of future tokamaks.

  13. The Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. VI - Results for carbon tetrachloride based on 3 years data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, P. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cardelino, C. A.; Cunnold, D. M.; Crawford, A. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Lane, B. C.; Lovelock, J. E.; Prinn, R. G.

    1983-10-01

    The automated electron capture gas chromatographic determination of the atmospheric concentrations of CCl4 are reported for the period July 1978 to June 1981 at five coastal monitoring stations, Adrigole (Ireland), Cape Meares (Oregon), Ragged Point (Barbados, West Indies), Point Matatula (American Samoa), and Cape Grim (Tasmania). Daily measurements at approximately 6-hourly intervals are always complemented by an equivalent number of on-site calibration measurements. Estimates of CCl4 emissions to the atmosphere from known industrial sources are compared with the measured trends and the absolute values of the observed concentrations. A globally averaged atmospheric lifetime for CCl4 is calculated by using an optimal estimation technique incorporating a nine-box model of the atmosphere. The average global concentration of CCl4 from July 1978 to June 1981 in the lower troposphere was 118 pptv, and it was increasing 2.1 pptv/year over this period. Both the absolute concentration observed and its trend are consistent with the calculated releases of CCl4 and its expected destruction by stratospheric photolysis.

  14. Heat tracer test in an alluvial aquifer: Field experiment and inverse modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepikova, Maria; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Hermans, Thomas; Jamin, Pierre; Orban, Philippe; Nguyen, Frédéric; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Using heat as an active tracer for aquifer characterization is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in an injection well and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in the pumping well and in measurement intervals. To get insights in the 3D characteristics of the heat transport mechanisms, temperature data from a large number of observation wells closely spaced along three transects were used. Temperature breakthrough curves in observation wells are contrasted with what would be expected in an ideal layered aquifer. They reveal strongly unequal lateral and vertical components of the transport mechanisms. The observed complex behavior of the heat plume is explained by the groundwater flow gradient on the site and heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field. Moreover, due to high injection temperatures during the field experiment a temperature-induced fluid density effect on heat transport occurred. By using a flow and heat transport numerical model with variable density coupled with a pilot point approach for inversion of the hydraulic conductivity field, the main preferential flow paths were delineated. The successful application of a field heat tracer test at this site suggests that heat tracer tests is a promising approach to image hydraulic conductivity field. This methodology could be applied in aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) projects for assessing future efficiency that is strongly linked to the hydraulic conductivity variability in the considered aquifer.

  15. Improved Brewster Angle experiment using a capacitor induced electric field, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duplan, Don M.

    This thesis expands on the analysis of the optical response of dielectrics using a modified Brewster Angle technique. The present experiment has been modified by adding an electric field, provided by a capacitor, and an isotropic source of radiation from a blackbody source. The blackbody source refers to a source in thermal equilibrium, which emits all radiations and reflects none. Our studies were performed for scenarios involving these two energy sources configured together as well as separately. As a result of the experimentation done as part of this thesis, a correlation between both the radiation of a blackbody source and the energy associated to the electric field in the form of voltage across a dielectric, as well as the optical properties of this dielectric has been discovered. By increasing the power provided to the electric field, the dielectric perceives the radiation of a laser beam reflected by its surface as one of a different wavelength, providing a shift of the corresponding Brewster Angle to this new wavelength. The effect of the blackbody presence, which has a similar effect on the Brewster angle as the electric field, produces an additive effect on the dielectric's surface when they are implemented simultaneously. We observe that the more isotropic energy is added to a dielectric surface, the larger the shift of the Brewster Angle toward larger values, and implicitly, larger the index of refraction of the dielectric when is analyzed with the same probe wavelength (i.e. from a laser source). In essence, this is due to the scalar addition of energies transferred to the atomic dipoles of the dielectric. A number of applications can be conceived, provided these effects, due to or in the context of the Brewster Angle experiments. Examples can be made in the fields of photovoltaics, security, as well as satellite design. Also, there are prospects for future experimentation that can be pursued.

  16. Modeling hexavalent chromium reduction in groundwater in field-scale transport and laboratory batch experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedly, J.C.; Davis, J.A.; Kent, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A plausible and consistent model is developed to obtain a quantitative description of the gradual disappearance of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) from groundwater in a small-scale field tracer test and in batch kinetic experiments using aquifer sediments under similar chemical conditions. The data exhibit three distinct timescales. Fast reduction occurs in well-stirred batch reactors in times much less than 1 hour and is followed by slow reduction over a timescale of the order of 2 days. In the field, reduction occurs on a timescale of the order of 8 days. The model is based on the following hypotheses. The chemical reduction reaction occurs very fast, and the longer timescales are caused by diffusion resistance. Diffusion into the secondary porosity of grains causes the apparent slow reduction rate in batch experiments. In the model of the field experiments, the reducing agent, heavy Fe(II)-bearing minerals, is heterogeneously distributed in thin strata located between larger nonreducing sand lenses that comprise the bulk of the aquifer solids. It is found that reducing strata of the order of centimeters thick are sufficient to contribute enough diffusion resistance to cause the observed longest timescale in the field. A one-dimensional advection/dispersion model is formulated that describes the major experimental trends. Diffusion rates are estimated in terms of an elementary physical picture of flow through a stratified medium containing identically sized spherical grains. Both reduction and sorption reactions are included. Batch simulation results are sensitive to the fraction of reductant located at or near the surface of grains, which controls the amount of rapid reduction, and the secondary porosity, which controls the rate of slow reduction observed in batch experiments. Results of Cr(VI) transport simulations are sensitive to the thickness and relative size of the reducing stratum. Transport simulation results suggest that nearly all of the reductant must be

  17. High School and Undergraduate Participation in Field Experiments as a Means of Teaching Global Change Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiariello, N. R.; Gomez, W.; Field, C. B.

    2004-12-01

    Field experiments offer unique opportunities to teach undergraduates and high school students many of the principles and methods of global change science. The Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE) studies the response of California grassland to four environmental factors changing globally, and has emphasized a tiered program of outreach that combines curriculum supplements, demonstration tours, sample data sets, and internship opportunities. The program emphasizes translating a complex environmental question into an experiment. High school outreach by the JRGCE has focused on the environmental studies classes at a nearby public high school. Students begin with background material via a website and in-class sessions that focus on global and regional changes in the four environmental factors incorporated in the experiment: warming, elevated CO2, increased precipitation, and nitrogen deposition. Each class also visits the experiment to see and discuss many aspects of experimental design: environmental heterogeneity, the importance of replication and randomization, the role of experimental controls, the possibility of experimental artifacts, the importance of minimally disruptive measurements, and the complexity of ecosystems and their responses to experimental treatments. These demonstration tours also emphasize hands-on measurements to illustrate how ecosystem responses to global change are quantified across a wide range of mechanisms. Finally, students use data from the experiment to test for effects of the treatments. For undergraduate classes, outreach focuses on either broad-based or more specialized demonstration tours to support their already well-developed curriculum. A few strongly interested high school students and undergraduates also conduct studies within the JRGCE under the supervision of a graduate student, postdoc, or professor. These educational activities depend crucially on three factors: 1) involvement of many members of the experiment team

  18. An Undergraduate Field Experiment for Measuring Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Indoor Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Adam M.; Huang, Jiping; Ellis, David A.; Mabury, Scott A.

    1999-12-01

    An undergraduate field experiment is described for the measurement of nicotine and various carbonyl compounds arising from environmental tobacco smoke. Students are introduced to practical techniques in HPLC-UV and GC-NPD. Also introduced are current methods in personal air sampling using small and portable field sampling pumps. Carbonyls (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and acetone) are sampled with silica solid-phase extraction cartridges impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, eluted, and analyzed by HPLC-UV (360-380 nm). Nicotine is sampled using XAD-2 cartridges, extracted, and analyzed by GC-NPD. Students gain an appreciation for the problems associated with measuring ubiquitous pollutants such as formaldehyde, as well as the issue of chromatographic peak resolution when trying to resolve closely eluting peaks. By allowing the students to formulate their own hypothesis and sampling scheme, critical thinking and problem solving are developed in addition to analysis skills. As an experiment in analytical environmental chemistry, this laboratory introduces the application of field sampling and analysis techniques to the undergraduate lab.

  19. Guidance to Design Grain Boundary Mobility Experiments with Molecular Dynamics and Phase-Field Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R Tonks; Yongfeng Zhang; S.B. Biner; Paul C Millett; Xianming Bai

    2013-02-01

    Quantitative phase-field modeling can play an important role in designing experiments to measure the grain boundary (GB) mobility. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is employed to determine the GB mobility using Cu bicrystals. Two grain configurations are considered: a shrinking circular grain and a half loop grain. The results obtained from the half loop configuration approaches asymptotically to that obtained from the circular configuration with increasing half loop width. We then verify the phase- field model by directly comparing to the MD simulation results, obtaining excellent agreement. Next, this phase-field model is used to predict the behavior in a common experimental setup that utilizes a half loop grain configuration in a bicrystal to measure the GB mobility. With a 3D simulation, we identify the two critical times within the experiments to reach an accurate value of the GB mobility. We use a series of 2D simulations to investigate the impact of the notch angle on these two critical times and we identify an angle of 60? as an optimal value. We also show that if the notch does not have a sharp tip, it may immobilize the GB migration indefinitely.

  20. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  1. Diagnosing Model Uncertainty on Terrestrial Carbon Cycle with Field manipulative experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J.; Norby, R. J.; Walker, A. P.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Luus, K. A.; Harper, A. B.; Lu, X.; Guenet, B.; Medlyn, B. E.; Zaehle, S.; Werner, C.; Shi, Z.; Jiang, L.; Liang, J.; Lei, L.; Wan, S.; Wang, Y.; Weng, E.; Ciais, P.; Luo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Our capability to predict future climate is strongly limited by the poor representations of carbon-cycle responses to climate changes in terrestrial ecosystem models. In the past three decades, although >1600 field manipulative experiments have been conducted globally to explore the response of terrestrial ecosystem to global changes, their findings have not been widely used for facilitating model evaluation or development. Here, we present two examples using experimental studies to benchmark terrestrial ecosystem models. First, we evaluated seven models (GDAY, ORCHIDEE, CABLE, SDGVM, JULES, TECO, and OCN) on their simulated responses of ecosystem carbon storage capacity to CO2 elevation based on results from six Free-Air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments in North America. We further applied a traceability analysis to trace the model-to-model difference in CO2 effect on ecosystem carbon storage capacity back to the key processes and parameters in the models. Second, we evaluated two models (DAYCENT and TECO) on their simulated responses of ecosystem CO2 fluxes to experimental warming and increasing precipitation in a temperate steppe in northern China. We found although the models can be tuned to mimic the CO2 dynamics observed by the local eddy flux tower and in the control plots, they cannot well capture the observed experimental effects of warming and increasing precipitation. These results indicate that the widely distributed field experiments can provide useful benchmarks for facilitating evaluation and improvements of terrestrial ecosystem models.

  2. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part II: Field Firing Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, I.; Goldstein, D.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    We present data from three seasons of experimental field work designed to recreate ancient Andean coastal ceramic firing techniques. Based on the recent discovery of two different archaeological ceramic production sites in the La Leche river valley of northern coastal Peru, the opportunity arose to apply Mössbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods to reconstruct ancient firing procedures. Two sets of firings took place in 1993 and 1997 in Batán Grande using a partially restored Formative kiln from about 800 BC, local hardwood and cow dung as fuel. A third experiment followed in 2000 after the discovery of a Middle Sicán ceramics workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe, where an exact replica of an ancient kiln was built from local clay, and fired with local wood and cow dung. Additionally, inverted urns found at Huaca Sialupe were tested for their potential use as furnaces for metal working. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to compare the physical and chemical state of specimens produced in the field experiments with ancient ceramics and with specimens produced in controlled laboratory experiments.

  3. Colloid Facilitated Transport of Radioactive Cations in the Vadose Zone: Field Experiments Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Saiers

    2012-09-20

    The overarching goal of this study was to improve understanding of colloid-facilitated transport of radioactive cations through unsaturated soils and sediments. We conducted a suite of laboratory experiments and field experiments on the vadose-zone transport of colloids, organic matter, and associated contaminants of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The laboratory and field experiments, together with transport modeling, were designed to accomplish the following detailed objectives: 1. Evaluation of the relative importance of inorganic colloids and organic matter to the facilitation of radioactive cation transport in the vadose zone; 2. Assessment of the role of adsorption and desorption kinetics in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 3. Examination of the effects of rainfall and infiltration dynamics and in the facilitated transport of radioactive cations through the vadose zone; 4. Exploration of the role of soil heterogeneity and preferential flow paths (e.g., macropores) on the facilitated transport of radioactive cations in the vadose zone; 5. Development of a mathematical model of facilitated transport of contaminants in the vadose zone that accurately incorporates pore-scale and column-scale processes with the practicality of predicting transport with readily available parameters.

  4. `Galileo Galilei' flight experiment on the equivalence principle with field emission electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobili, Anna M.; Bramanti, Donato; Catastini, Giuseppe

    1996-11-01

    An experiment to test the equivalence of inertial to gravitational (passive) mass in space offers two main advantages: a signal about a factor of a thousand larger than on Earth and the possibility of exploiting the absence of weight. `Galileo Galilei' (GG) is a small satellite mission currently under study in Italy with the financial support of ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana). The mission concerns a small, low Earth satellite (0264-9381/13/11A/028/img1 total mass, 0264-9381/13/11A/028/img2 altitude) with two objectives. One is scientific, in the field of fundamental physics, and the other technological within the framework of spacecraft propulsion and drag compensation. The scientific goal is to test the equivalence principle to one part in 0264-9381/13/11A/028/img3, four orders of magnitude better than the best ground results. The technological goal is a full, comprehensive test of FEEP (field emission electric propulsion) thrusters for accurate drag compensation, a technology developed in Europe by the ESA (European Space Agency) which is likely to become an essential component of all space experiments which require measurement of small forces. The GG experiment is based on novel concepts and does not require low temperatures.

  5. Computer Simulation and Field Experiment for Downlink Multiuser MIMO in Mobile WiMAX System

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Nagahashi, Takaharu; Akiyama, Takuya; Matsue, Hideaki; Uekado, Kunio; Namera, Takakazu; Fukui, Hiroshi; Nanamatsu, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The transmission performance for a downlink mobile WiMAX system with multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems in a computer simulation and field experiment is described. In computer simulation, a MU-MIMO transmission system can be realized by using the block diagonalization (BD) algorithm, and each user can receive signals without any signal interference from other users. The bit error rate (BER) performance and channel capacity in accordance with modulation schemes and the number of streams were simulated in a spatially correlated multipath fading environment. Furthermore, we propose a method for evaluating the transmission performance for this downlink mobile WiMAX system in this environment by using the computer simulation. In the field experiment, the received power and downlink throughput in the UDP layer were measured on an experimental mobile WiMAX system developed in Azumino City in Japan. In comparison with the simulated and experimented results, the measured maximum throughput performance in the downlink had almost the same performance as the simulated throughput. It was confirmed that the experimental mobile WiMAX system for MU-MIMO transmission successfully increased the total channel capacity of the system. PMID:26421311

  6. Computer Simulation and Field Experiment for Downlink Multiuser MIMO in Mobile WiMAX System.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Nagahashi, Takaharu; Akiyama, Takuya; Matsue, Hideaki; Uekado, Kunio; Namera, Takakazu; Fukui, Hiroshi; Nanamatsu, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The transmission performance for a downlink mobile WiMAX system with multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems in a computer simulation and field experiment is described. In computer simulation, a MU-MIMO transmission system can be realized by using the block diagonalization (BD) algorithm, and each user can receive signals without any signal interference from other users. The bit error rate (BER) performance and channel capacity in accordance with modulation schemes and the number of streams were simulated in a spatially correlated multipath fading environment. Furthermore, we propose a method for evaluating the transmission performance for this downlink mobile WiMAX system in this environment by using the computer simulation. In the field experiment, the received power and downlink throughput in the UDP layer were measured on an experimental mobile WiMAX system developed in Azumino City in Japan. In comparison with the simulated and experimented results, the measured maximum throughput performance in the downlink had almost the same performance as the simulated throughput. It was confirmed that the experimental mobile WiMAX system for MU-MIMO transmission successfully increased the total channel capacity of the system.

  7. An Overview of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.; Asrar, G.; Strebel, D. E.; Murphy, R. E.

    1992-11-01

    In the summer of 1983 a group of scientists working in the fields of meteorology, biology, and remote sensing met to discuss methods for modeling and observing land-surface—atmosphere interactions on regional and global scales. They concluded, first, that the existing climate models contained poor representations of the processes controlling the exchanges of energy, water, heat, and carbon between the land surface and the atmosphere and, second, that satellite remote sensing had been underutilized as a means of specifying global fields of the governing biophysical parameters. Accordingly, a multiscale, multidisciplinary experiment, FIFE, was initiated to address these two issues. The objectives of FIFE were specified as follows: (1) Upscale integration of models: The experiment was designed to test the soil-plant-atmosphere models developed by biometeorologists for small-scale applications (millimeters to meters) and to develop methods to apply them at the larger scales (kilometers) appropriate to atmospheric models and satellite remote sensing. (2) Application of satellite remote sensing: Even if the first goal were achieved to yield a "perfect" model of vegetation-atmosphere exchanges, it would have very limited applications without a global observing system for initialization and validation. As a result, the experiment was tasked with exploring methods for using satellite data to quantify important biophysical states and rates for model input. The experiment was centered on a 15 × 15 km grassland site near Manhattan, Kansas. This area became the focus for an extended monitoring program of satellite, meteorological, biophysical, and hydrological data acquisition from early 1987 through October 1989 and a series of 12- to 20-day intensive field campaigns (IFCs), four in 1987 and one in 1989. During the IFCs the fluxes of heat, moisture, carbon dioxide, and radiation were measured with surface and airborne equipment in coordination with measurements of surface

  8. Short-Term Effects of Field Programme on Students' Knowledge and Attitude toward Biology: A Slovak Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokop, Pavol; Tuncer, Gaye; Kvasnicak, Radoslav

    2007-01-01

    Field trips are ideal for increasing students' experience and perceptions of various organisms and their relationship between the original habitat. However, in general field trips are greatly neglected by teachers and their short-term effects are thought to be questionable. Therefore, we conducted a one-day field trip for both improving students'…

  9. A modified version of the Millikan oil drop experiment to test the probable existence of a new electrodynamic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, Jorge C.

    1982-10-01

    The probable existence of a new electrodynamic field is obtained by analogy with the general theory of relativity. The new field is derived from a scalar electrodynamic potential which is similar to the Edwards potential discovered experimentally in recent years. A modification of the Millikan oil drop experiment is also suggested to empirically verify the new field avoiding misinterpretations of Edwards' results.

  10. Summary of Past Microgravity Experiment in Japanese Microgravity Science Field and Future Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Yoda, S.

    2002-01-01

    strategic plan for the early years of the 21st century is described experiments were carried out onboard various flight platforms such as airplanes, sounding rockets, free-flyers, and space shuttles. In Japan, microgravity experiments started with Skylab in 1973. In this first set of experiments, the results were scrutinized with keen interest and the usefulness of microgravity environment was evidenced. In the 1980's, the Japanese sounding rocket TT-500A, which provided microgravity conditions for several minutes, was used to verify the experimental facilities and the operations before long duration microgravity experiments were carried out. With the First International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) and the First Material Processing Test (FMPT) projects, the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) had the opportunity to perform sustained and genuine microgravity experiments. With the twenty-two experiments carried out in the FPMT, the Japanese microgravity community made rapid progress. Following this, space missions such as the Second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) and the First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) were performed. In addition, a series of seven sounding rockets TR-IA were launched to investigate scientific problems and to help develop technologies. Through these flight experiments, material sciences (Electrostatic Levitation Furnace; the diffusion coefficient measurement by shear-cell method; in-situ simultaneous observation of temperature and concentration field by two wavelength Mach-Zehnder microscope Interferometer) became at the forefront of science and technology in the world. measurement, and cell biology, are being carried out as phase C of NASDA strategic research. Research solicitation in microgravity sciences, among other fields, has seen substantial progress since its initiation in 1997. It is hoped that grant awardees will be the potential applicants of ISS flight experiments in the future. The science

  11. An infant oral health programme in Goiânia-GO, Brazil: results after 3 years of establishment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Batista Borges; do Carmo Matias Freire, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of an infant oral health programme 3 years after implementation, a programme focused on health education for parents and caries prevention methods for children in a baby clinic. A retrospective cohort study was carried out. The setting was the Infant Oral Health Programme developed at the baby clinic of the State Department of Health, Goiânia-GO, Brazil. The sample comprised 100 children who entered the programme from birth to 12 months and were followed for 2 to 3 years. Variables investigated were caries experience, caries risk, and children's behaviour in the dental clinic. The number of children with caries experience was 1 at the initial visit and 8 after the follow-up. There was a dramatic decrease in the number of children in the high risk group, from 51% at the initial visit to only 1% after 2 to 3 years. Children's behaviour in the dental clinic was according to their psychological development. It was concluded that the Infant Oral Health Programme in Goiânia showed positive outcomes after 3 years of establishment. Further investigations should evaluate the cost-benefit, as well as the effectiveness of the procedures used in the programme.

  12. The neural correlates of processing newborn and adult faces in 3-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Westerlund, Alissa; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Kuefner, Dana; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the processing of upright and inverted faces in 3-year-old children (n = 35). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive-looking paradigm including adult and newborn face stimuli. We observed three face-sensitive components, the P1, the N170 and the P400. Inverted faces elicited shorter P1 latency and larger P400 amplitude. P1 and N170 amplitudes were larger for adult faces. To examine the role of experience in the development of face processing, the processing of adult and newborn faces was compared for children with a younger sibling (n = 23) and children without a younger sibling (n = 12). Age of sibling at test correlated negatively with P1 amplitude for adult and newborn faces. This may indicate more efficient processing of different face ages in children with a younger sibling and potentially reflects a more flexible face representation. PMID:24118716

  13. Magnetic Field Line Tracing Calculations for Conceptual PFC Design in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Maingi, R; Kaiser, T; Hill, D N; Lyon, J F; Monticello, D; Zarnstorff, M C

    2006-06-12

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is a three-field period compact stellarator presently in the construction phase at Princeton, NJ. The design parameters of the device are major radius R=1.4m, average minor radius = 0.32m, 1.2 {le} toroidal field (B{sub t}) {le} 1.7 T, and auxiliary input power up to 12 MW with neutral beams and radio-frequency heating. The NCSX average aspect ratio of 4.4 lies well below present stellarator experiments and designs, enabling the investigation of high {beta} physics in a compact stellarator geometry. Also the NCSX design choice for a quasi-axisymmetric configuration aims toward the achievement of tokamak-like transport. In this paper, we report on the magnetic field line tracing calculations used to evaluate conceptual plasma facing component (PFC) designs. In contrast to tokamaks, axisymmetric target plates are not required to intercept the majority of the heat flux in stellarators, owing to the nature of the 3-D magnetic field footprint. The divertor plate design investigated in this study covers approximately one half of the toroidal extent in each period. Typical Poincare plots in Figure 1 illustrate the plasma cross-section at several toroidal angles for a computed NCSX high-beta equilibrium. The plates used for these calculations are centered in each period about the elongated cross-section shown in Figure 1a, extending to +/- {pi}/6 in each direction. Two methods for tracing the edge field line topology were used in this study. The first entails use of the VMEC/MFBE-2001 packages, whereas the second entails use of the PIES code with a post-processor by Michael Drevlak; the same field line integration routine was used to evaluate the equilibria for this comparison. Both inputs were generated based on the {beta}=4%, =iota=0.5 equilibrium computed from the final NCSX coil set. We first compare these two methods for a specific plate geometry, and conclude with a comparison of the strike characteristics

  14. Thermal Field Indicator for Identifying Active Faults and its Instability From Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, P.; Ma, S.

    2007-12-01

    The relationship between the thermal filed and strain field during deformation of faults is the physical basis to clarify whether satellite infrared information and the ground temperature field can be used to study fault activity. This study attempts to discuss these problems by experiments in the laboratory. The two-direction servo-control system was used to load on the samples with compressional and extensional en echelon faults. An infrared thermal image system and a contact-type thermometer recorded synchronously variations of the bright temperature field of infrared radiation and temperature field during deformation of the rock specimens. A digital CCD camera and a soft ware based on the digital speckle correlation method (DSCM) was utilized to capture images and to analyze them, yielding processes of displacement and strain fields. The experimental result shows as follows: 1 The temperature is highest at the jog area of the compressional en echelon faults, whereas that is lowest at the extensional en echelon faults prior to failure of the jog area. The record by DSCM displays that the mean strain of the jog area is largest for the compressional en echelon faults, while that is smallest for the extensional en echelon faults. These mean that the temperature field has clear responses to the opposite stress states at the jog areas of two kinds of en echelon faults, providing an indicator for determining whether the fault segment has slid. 2 The en echelon faults experience two deformation stages from stress building up and fault propagating at the jog area to unstable sliding along the fault. Correspondingly the mechanism of heating-up is turned from strain heating into frictional heating. Three kinds of phenomena have been observed at the jog area and its vicinity during the stage of transformation. They are temperature drop, fast fluctuation of temperature, and pulses of temperature rising, respectively. Mechanism of these phenomena is discussed. 3 These

  15. Short-time electrical effects during volcanic eruption: Experiments and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, Ralf; Zimanowski, Bernd; Röder, Helmut

    2000-02-01

    Laboratory experiments on the fragmentation and expansion of magmatic melt have been performed using remelted volcanic rock at magmatic temperatures as magma simulant. A specially designed dc amplifier in combination with high speed data recording was used to detect short-time electrostatic field effects related to the fragmentation and expansion history of the experimental system, as documented by simultaneous force and pressure recording, as well as by high-speed cinematography. It was found that (1) the voltage-time ratio of electrostatic field gradients (100 to 104 V/s) reflects different physical mechanisms of fragmentation and expansion and (2) the maximum voltage measured in 1 m distance (-0.1 to -180 V) can be correlated with the intensity of the respective processes. Based on these experimental results, a field method was developed and tested at Stromboli volcano in Italy. A 0.8 m rod antenna was used to detect the dc voltage against local ground (i.e., the electrostatic field gradient), at a distance of 60 to 260 m from the respective vent. Upwind position of the detection site was chosen to prevent interference caused by contact of charged ash particles with the antenna. A standard 8 Hz geophone was used to detect the accompanying seismicity. Three types of volcanic activity occurred during the surveillance operation; two of these could be clearly related to specific electrical and seismical signals. A typical delay time was found between the electrical and the seismical signal, corresponding to the seismic velocity within the crater deposits. Using a simple first-order electrostatic model, the field measurements were recalibrated to the laboratory scale. Comparison of field and laboratory data at first approximation revealed striking similarities, thus encouraging the further development of this technique for real-time surveillance operation at active volcanoes.

  16. The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Gaia South Ecliptic Pole Field as Seen by OGLE-IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soszyński, I.; Udalski, A.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Ulaczyk, K.; Skowron, J.

    2012-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the Gaia South Ecliptic Pole (GSEP) field, 5.3 square degrees area around the South Ecliptic Pole on the outskirts of the LMC, based on the data collected during the fourth phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, OGLE-IV. The GSEP field will be observed during the commissioning phase of the ESA Gaia space mission for testing and calibrating the Gaia instruments. We provide the photometric maps of the GSEP region containing the mean VI photometry of all detected stellar objects and their equatorial coordinates. We show the quality and completeness of the OGLE-IV photometry and color-magnitude diagrams of this region. We conducted an extensive search for variable stars in the GSEP field leading to the discovery of 6789 variable stars. In this sample we found 132 classical Cepheids, 686 RR Lyr type stars, 2819 long-period, and 1377 eclipsing variables. Several objects deserving special attention were also selected, including a new classical Cepheid in a binary eclipsing system. To provide empirical data for the Gaia Science Alert system we also conducted a search for optical transients. We discovered two firm type Ia supernovae and nine additional supernova candidates. To facilitate future Gaia supernovae detections we prepared a list of more than 1900 galaxies to redshift about 0.1 located in the GSEP field. Finally, we present the results of astrometric study of the GSEP field. With the 26 months time base of the presented here OGLE-IV data, proper motions of stars could be detected with the accuracy reaching 2 mas/yr. Astrometry allowed to distinguish galactic foreground variable stars detected in the GSEP field from LMC objects and to discover about 50 high proper motion stars (proper motion ≥ 100 mas/yr). Among them three new nearby white dwarfs were found. All data presented in this paper are available to the astronomical community from the OGLE Internet archive.

  17. Determination of Biology Department Students' Past Field Trip Experiences and Examination of Their Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Planning and Organising Educational Field Trips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the past field trip experiences of pre-service teachers who are graduates of Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology and who had pedagogical formation training certificate and to examine their self-efficacy beliefs in planning and organizing field trips with regard to different variables. The study was…

  18. Using Teleducation and Field Experiences to further the Understanding of Coastal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S. A.; Szuba, T. A.; Shugart, H.

    2007-05-01

    This project is an outreach and education program with a partner in the K-12 schools at Accomack County on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. It endeavors to build a community knowledgeable of the importance the ocean plays daily in our lives, and our own impact on the ocean. It is an program built in stages that: 1) Establish high speed live interactive classes (teleducation) linkages with the Eastern Shore High Schools with earth science teachers enabling them to remotely participate in University of Virginia classes in Oceanography (designed on a faculty development basis or acquire NSTA certification in Earth Science Education, as well as participation by seniors in the Accomack Schools; 2) Establish field experiences for teachers and selected students that involve travel to both the Virginia Coast Reserve Long Term Ecological Research (VCR/LTER) Center, UVA to observe first- hand the science programs at those locations and participate in cutting edge coastal marine research efforts. These experiences improve student understanding of the ocean-atmosphere biogeophysical system and encourage students to explore the sciences as a field of study and possible vocation. Advanced high school students and science teachers from Accomack County Public Schools participated in an experience involving field and laboratory methods employed in a NSF-sponsored study of the coupled natural-human dynamics on the Eastern Shore of Virginia over the past 500 years (NSF-Biocomplexity). Students and teachers worked with researchers of the VCR facility in Oyster, VA, collected sediment cores from Chesapeake Bay tributaries, and traveled to the Organic Geochemistry Laboratory at UVA, in Charlottesville, VA to prepare and analyze samples for isotopic and palynological information. In a first of its kind connectivity, in June/July, 2006, using high speed internet connections, a summer class in Oceanography was live, interactively broadcast (teleducation) from UVA to Arcadia High School on

  19. Overview of the Field Phase of the NASA Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP)Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Zipser, Edward; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Kakar, Ramesh; Halverson Jeffery; Rogers, Robert; Black, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes experiment is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to investigate characteristics of tropical cyclone genesis, rapid intensification and rainfall using a three-pronged approach that emphasizes satellite information, suborbital observations and numerical model simulations. Research goals include demonstration and assessment of new technology, improvements to numerical model parameterizations, and advancements in data assimilation techniques. The field phase of the experiment was based in Costa Rica during July 2005. A fully instrumented NASA ER-2 high altitude airplane was deployed with Doppler radar, passive microwave instrumentation, lightning and electric field sensors and an airborne simulator of visible and infrared satellite sensors. Other assets brought to TCSP were a low flying uninhabited aerial vehicle, and a surface-based radiosonde network. In partnership with the Intensity Forecasting Experiment of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hurricane Research Division, two NOAA P-3 aircraft instrumented with radar, passive microwave, microphysical, and dropsonde instrumentation were also deployed to Costa Rica. The field phase of TCSP was conducted in Costa Rica to take advantage of the geographically compact tropical cyclone genesis region of the Eastern Pacific Ocean near Central America. However, the unusual 2005 hurricane season provided numerous opportunities to sample tropical cyclone development and intensification in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico as well. Development of Hurricane Dennis and Tropical Storm Gert were each investigated over several days in addition to Hurricane Emily as it was close to Saffir-Simpson Category 5 intensity. An overview of the characteristics of these storms along with the pregenesis environment of Tropical Storm Eugene in the Eastern Pacific will be presented.

  20. 3-D Modeling of Magnetic Fields for the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, N.; Berzak, L.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Zakharov, L.

    2010-11-01

    The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) is designed to investigate low-recycling operating regimes by surrounding 85% of the last closed flux surface with liquid lithium evaporated onto a copper and stainless steel shell conformal to the plasma. Fields generated by currents in this conducting shell have significant effects on magnetic configurations. To understand these effects, the commercially available code Aether [http://www.fieldp.com] is used to simulate time varying magnetic fields in a 3-D model of LTX. The model is built using LTX CAD files and divided into a regular mesh for computing the evolution of coupled electromagnetic vector quantities through time and space. Applicable boundary conditions and symmetries are analyzed. Comparisons with measured data, results from a 2-D code, and results from a 3-D code designed specifically for LTX demonstrate the possible benefits and limitations of using this commercial code.