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Sample records for 3-year os rate

  1. Rates of Mutation and Host Transmission for an Escherichia coli Clone over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Peter R.; Liu, Bin; Zhou, Zhemin; Li, Dan; Guo, Dan; Ren, Yan; Clabots, Connie; Lan, Ruiting; Johnson, James R.; Wang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Although over 50 complete Escherichia coli/Shigella genome sequences are available, it is only for closely related strains, for example the O55:H7 and O157:H7 clones of E. coli, that we can assign differences to individual evolutionary events along specific lineages. Here we sequence the genomes of 14 isolates of a uropathogenic E. coli clone that persisted for 3 years within a household, including a dog, causing a urinary tract infection (UTI) in the dog after 2 years. The 20 mutations observed fit a single tree that allows us to estimate the mutation rate to be about 1.1 per genome per year, with minimal evidence for adaptive change, including in relation to the UTI episode. The host data also imply at least 6 host transfer events over the 3 years, with 2 lineages present over much of that period. To our knowledge, these are the first direct measurements for a clone in a well-defined host community that includes rates of mutation and host transmission. There is a concentration of non-synonymous mutations associated with 2 transfers to the dog, suggesting some selection pressure from the change of host. However, there are no changes to which we can attribute the UTI event in the dog, which suggests that this occurrence after 2 years of the clone being in the household may have been due to chance, or some unknown change in the host or environment. The ability of a UTI strain to persist for 2 years and also to transfer readily within a household has implications for epidemiology, diagnosis, and clinical intervention. PMID:22046404

  2. Soil ingestion rates for children under 3 years old in Taiwan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil and dust ingestion rates by children are among the most critical exposure factors in determining risks to children from exposures to environmental contaminants in soil and dust. This is the first published soil ingestion study for children in Taiwan using tracer element meth...

  3. Rate of deaths due to child abuse and neglect in children 0-3 years of age in Germany.

    PubMed

    Banaschak, Sibylle; Janßen, Katharina; Schulte, Babette; Rothschild, Markus A

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the issue of (fatal) child abuse and neglect, largely due to the media attention garnered by some headline-grabbing cases. If media statements are to be believed, such cases may be an increasing phenomenon. With these published accounts in mind, publicly available statistics should be analysed with respect to the question of whether reliable statements can be formulated based on these figures. It is hypothesised that certain data, e.g., the Innocenti report published by UNICEF in 2003, may be based on unreliable data sources. For this reason, the generation of such data, and the reliability of the data itself, should also be discussed. Our focus was on publicly available German mortality and police crime statistics (Polizeiliche Kriminalstatistik). These data were classified with respect to child age, data origin, and cause of death (murder, culpable homicide, etc.). In our opinion, the available data could not be considered in formulating reliable scientific statements about fatal child abuse and neglect, given the lack of detail and the flawed nature of the basic data. Increasing the number of autopsies of children 0-3 years of age should be considered as a means to ensure the capture of valid, practical, and reliable data. This could bring about some enlightenment and assist in the development of preemptive strategies to decrease the incidence of (fatal) child abuse and neglect. PMID:25631691

  4. Prospective clinical and serological follow-up in early childhood reveals a high rate of subclinical RSV infection and a relatively high reinfection rate within the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Kutsaya, A; Teros-Jaakkola, T; Kakkola, L; Toivonen, L; Peltola, V; Waris, M; Julkunen, I

    2016-06-01

    Children encounter repeated respiratory tract infections during their early life. We conducted a prospective clinical and serological follow-up study to estimate the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) primary infection and reinfection rates in early childhood. Sera were collected from 291 healthy children at the ages of 13, 24 and 36 months and antibody levels against RSV antigens were determined by enzyme immunoassay. The RT-PCR method was also used for identifying the possible presence of RSV in symptomatic patients. At ages 1, 2 and 3 years, 37%, 68% and 86%, respectively, of studied children were seropositive for RSV. In children seropositive at age 1 year, RSV reinfection rate was at least 37%. Only one of reinfected children showed evidence for a third reinfection by age 3 years. Of children who turned RSV seropositive between ages 1 and 2 years, the reinfection rate was 32% during the third year of life. The mean antibody levels at primary infection were very similar in all age groups. The average decrease of antibody levels was 25-30% within a year. In 66 cases RSV infection was identified by RT-PCR. RSV infection rate in early childhood is 86% and reinfection rate is around 35%. This prospective serological follow-up study also provided evidence for the presence of RSV infections in children that did not show clinical signs warranting RSV RNA detection. PMID:26732801

  5. Developmental milestones record - 3 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years ... provider. Physical and motor milestones for a typical 3-year-old include: Gains about 4 - 5 pounds ...

  6. TRMM 3-Year Anniversary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ever wonder about the rain? Beyond the practicality of needing an umbrella, climate researchers have wondered about the science of rainfall for a long time. But it's only in the past few years that they've begun to roll back some of its secrets. One of their tools for doing so is a powerful satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM. Now, after three years of continual operation, project scientists have released dramatic new maps of rainfall patterns gathered across a wide band of the Earth. And with measurements from one of the satellite's advanced sensors, meteorologists are now able to calibrate ground-based rain monitoring systems with greater precision than ever before. A complete accounting of the world's total rainfall has long been a major goal of climate researchers. Rain acts as the atmosphere's fundamental engine for heat exchange; every time a raindrop falls, the atmosphere gets churned up and latent heat flows back into the total climate system. Considering that rainfall is the primary driving force of heat in the atmosphere, and that two thirds of all rain falls in the tropics, these measurements are significant for our understanding of overall climate. The above image shows a one month average of rainfall measurements taken by the TRMM's unique precipitation radar during January of 1998. Areas of low rainfall are colored light blue, while regions with heavy rainfal are colored orange and red. TRMM began collecting data in December of 1997, and continues today. For more information about TRMM's 3-year anniversary, read Maps of Falling Water To learn more about the TRMM mission or order TRMM data, see the TRMM Home Page. Image courtesy TRMM Science team and the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  7. Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating Rates through Retrieval Algorithm Differences: Analysis using 3-years of ARM data at Darwin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Protat, Alain; McFarlane, Sally A.; Delanoe, Julien; Deng, Min

    2013-05-22

    Ground-based radar and lidar observations obtained at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Tropical Western Pacific site located in Darwin, Australia are used to retrieve ice cloud properties in anvil and cirrus clouds. Cloud microphysical properties derived from four different retrieval algorithms (two radar-lidar and two radar only algorithms) are compared by examining mean profiles and probability density functions of effective radius (Re), ice water content (IWC), extinction, ice number concentration, ice crystal fall speed, and vertical air velocity. Retrieval algorithm uncertainty is quantified using radiative flux closure exercises. The effect of uncertainty in retrieved quantities on the cloud radiative effect and radiative heating rates are presented. Our analysis shows that IWC compares well among algorithms, but Re shows significant discrepancies, which is attributed primarily to assumptions of particle shape. Uncertainty in Re and IWC translates into sometimes-large differences in cloud radiative effect (CRE) though the majority of cases have a CRE difference of roughly 10 W m-2 on average. These differences, which we believe are primarily driven by the uncertainty in Re, can cause up to 2 K/day difference in the radiative heating rates between algorithms.

  8. High continental weathering rate during Early Cambrian: Evidence from Os isotopic composition of Early Cambrian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Yang, J.-H.; Ling, H.-F.; Feng, H.-Z.; Chen, Y.-Q.; Chen, J.-H.

    2003-04-01

    The paleo-ocean environmental change during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition is a key issue related to the causes for an explosive radiation of different metazoan phyla during Early Cambrian. The chemical and isotopic compositions of marine sediments and chemical precipitates such as carbonates, phosphorites, siliceous rocks, and black shales record the changing composition and physical conditions of the seawater in which these rocks accumulated. Organic carbon-rich black shales from marine environments are commonly enriched in a number of trace elements such as Ni, Mo, V, Co, Cr, Au, U, As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Re, and platinum-group-elements (PGE). Recent researches have demonstrated that Re-Os isotopes and PGE contents in black shales are useful proxies for seawater chemistry. It is believed that Re and Os in orgainc-carbon rich black shales are mostly hydrogeneous in origin which were largely sequestered from seawater at the time of deposition. In South China, the Lower Cambrian black shale sequence of the Niutitang Formation (and lateral equivalents) exists broadly several thousands kilometers. The lowermost sequence of this formation contain a thin sulfide ore horizon with an apparently unique and extreme case of metal enrichments such as Mo, Ni, Se, Re, Os, As, Hg, Sb, Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd. In this study, we conducted a preliminary investigation of Re-Os isotopes and Plantium Group Element (PGE) distribution patterns of the balck shales and intercalated Ni-Mo polymetallic sulfide bed from Guizhou and Hunan Provinces. The high rOs(t) values of the black shales indicate that the Early Cambrian ocean in Yangtze Platform had a highly radiogenic Os, possibly as a result of high continental weathering rate at that time. The Ni-Mo polymetallic sulfide ores within the black shales have lower rOs(t) values than the black shales, and they show similar REE and PGE patterns as the hydrothermal siliceous rocks within the Lower Cambrian strata, which suggest that the Ni

  9. Critical limb ischaemia in a diabetic population from an Asian Centre: angiographic pattern of disease and 3-year limb salvage rate with percutaneous angioplasty as first line of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tan, M; Pua, U; Wong, DES; Punamiya, SJ; Chua, GC; Teo, N

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Lower extremity amputation prevention (LEAP) is an ongoing program in our institution aimed at salvaging limbs in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Patients in the LEAP program with reconstructible anatomy on initial Doppler imaging received either bypass surgery or percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA). We present the 3 year limb salvage rate and angiographic disease patterns in 42 consecutive diabetic patients with CLI who received PTA in 2005. Methods and Material: 26 women and 16 men with diabetes between the ages of 45 and 91 years old (mean age, 70.8 years) received PTA in 2005. Presenting symptoms were rest pain (n = 22), pre-existing gangrene (n = 17), non-healing ulcer (n = 16) and cellulitis (n = 2). The aim of the PTA was to achieve straight-line flow from the abdominal aorta down to the patent dorsalis pedis or plantar arch, with limb salvage as the ultimate outcome. Failure of treatment was defined as any amputation above the level of a Syme’s amputation or the need for further surgical bypass. Technical success was achieved in 90% (38 out of 42 patients). Results: Limb salvage rates were 93% at 1 month, 87% at 3 months, 82% at 6 months, 78% at 1 year, 69% at 2 years and 66% at 3 years. Mortality was 17% (n = 7) at 3 years. Of the 13 patients with failed therapy, 3 underwent bypass, 9 had amputations and 1 had bypass followed by amputation. Four of the cases required further intervention due to worsening gangrene and infection, while the remaining was due to persistent rest pain. The rest of the 32 patients had no lower limb related issues at the end of 3 years, with improvement of the presenting symptoms. Patterns of treated segments were aortoiliac occlusions (n = 3), pure infrapopliteal disease (n = 3), femoropopliteal with at least 1 good infrapopliteal run-off vessel (n = 14) and combined femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal disease (n = 25). Conclusion: Involvement of infrapopliteal vessels that needs to be

  10. Does Percentage of Latinas/os Affect Graduation Rates at 4-Year Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs), Emerging HSIs, and Non-HSIs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gina A.

    2013-01-01

    As the population of college-aged Latinas/os grows, the number of Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) increases. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the percentage of Latinas/os has an effect on the institutional graduation rates of Latina/o students attending HSIs, emerging HSIs, and non-HSIs. Data were drawn from the Integrated…

  11. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.; Teo, Steven L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable—including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  12. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  13. How Grammatical Are 3-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu; Germezia, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the level of grammatical accuracy in typically developing 3-year-olds and the types of errors they produce. Method: Twenty-two 3-year-olds participated in a picture description task. The percentage of grammatical utterances was computed and error types were analyzed. Results: The mean level of grammatical accuracy…

  14. Fluorouracil-based preoperative chemoradiotherapy with or without oxaliplatin for stage II/III rectal cancer: a 3-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Dexin; Zhang, Rui; Gong, Zhiqiang; Liu, Fang; Chen, Yue; Yu, Qinrui; Sun, Liping; Duan, Hongyan; Zhu, Shendong; Liu, Fei; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Fluorouracil-based preoperative chemoradiotherapy has become the standard treatment for stage II/III rectal cancer. In order to improve the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), we added oxaliplatin to the standard treatment, and compared the effectiveness of these two treatment patterns. Methods A total of 206 patients enrolled in the prospective study had histologically confirmed rectal cancer of clinical stage II/III during July 2007 to July 2010. They were randomized into the experimental group received oxaliplatin and capecitabine in combination with radiotherapy, and the control group received capecitabine in combination with radiotherapy. All patients received surgery in 6−10 weeks after chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6. The primary endpoints were DFS and OS, and the secondary endpoints included toxicity, compliance, and histopathological response. Results The 3-year OS in the experimental group and the control group was 90.29% vs. 86.41% (P>0.05), and the 3-year DFS was 80.58% vs. 69.90% (P>0.05). The pathological complete remission (pCR) rates were 23.30% and 19.42%, respectively (P=0.497). The 3-year local recurrence rates were 4.85% vs. 5.83% (P=0.694), and the 3-year distant metastasis rates were 16.50% and 28.16%, respectively (P=0.045). There were no significant differences in most grade 3−4 toxicities between two groups, however, grade 3−4 diarrhea occurred in 16.50% (17/103) of the experimental group, compared with 6.80% (7/103) of the control group (P=0.030). Also, the total grade 3−4 acute toxicity showed a significant difference (10.68% vs. 21.36%, P=0.037). Conclusions The experimental treatment did not lead significantly improved OS and DFS, and thus longer follow-up is warranted for our patient cohort. Adding oxaliplatin to capecitabine-based preoperative chemoradiotherapy can significantly reduce metastasis, but has only minimal impact on local recurrence. Although grade 3−4

  15. Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old Print A A A ... 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms) and grow about 2 to 3 inches (5 to 8 centimeters). They' ...

  16. The Development of Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood: A Twin Study from 2-3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Parent- and lab-based observer ratings were employed to examine genetic and environmental influences on continuity and change in inhibitory control (IC) in over 300 twin-pairs assessed longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age. Genetic influences accounted for approximately 60% of the variance in parent-rated IC at both ages. Although many of the…

  17. The Relation between 3-Year-Old Children's Skills and Their Hyperactivity, Inattention, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman-Weieneth, Julie L.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Goldstein, Lauren H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relation between 3-year-old children's (N = 280) symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and aggression and their cognitive, motor, and preacademic skills. When the authors controlled for other types of attention and behavior problems, maternal ratings of hyperactivity and teacher ratings of inattention were uniquely and…

  18. Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

  19. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  20. Developing Dialogic Argumentation Skills: A 3-Year Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Amanda; Kuhn, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is increasingly recognized as a fundamental intellectual skill, but evidence suggests that few adolescents or adults are skilled arguers. This article reports on an extended (3-year, twice weekly) intervention designed to afford dense practice in dialogic argumentation to middle-school students from traditionally academically…

  1. The Structure of Executive Function in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Clark, Caron A. C.; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    Although the structure of executive function (EF) during adulthood is characterized by both unity and diversity, recent evidence suggests that preschool EF may be best described by a single factor. The latent structure of EF was examined in 228 3-year-olds using confirmatory factor analysis. Children completed a battery of executive tasks that…

  2. Chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. A 3-year study.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Graham, W L; Bowers, D C; Perfetto, S P

    1983-06-01

    Idiopathic (autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura (ATP) is accepted to be a disorder resulting from accelerated platelet destruction attributed to an autoimmune process. The patient whose case is presented in this article was first seen by a dentist. The oral findings have been documented as the case was followed for 3 years through acute exacerbations, pregnancy, and delivery of an infant with thrombocytopenia. The patient was managed with intermittent steroid therapy and splenectomy. PMID:6576288

  3. Articular cartilage of the knee 3 years after ACL reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ji-Hoon; Hosseini, Ali; Wang, Yang; Torriani, Martin; Gill, Thomas J; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose T1ρ or T2 relaxation imaging has been increasingly used to evaluate the cartilage of the knee. We investigated the cartilage of ACL-reconstructed knees 3 years after surgery using T2 relaxation times. Patients and methods 10 patients with a clinically successful unilateral ACL reconstruction were examined 3 years after surgery. Multiple-TE fast-spin echo sagittal images of both knees were acquired using a 3T MRI scanner for T2 mapping of the tibiofemoral cartilage. T2 values of the superficial and deep zones of the tibiofemoral cartilage were analyzed in sub-compartmental areas and compared between the ACL-reconstructed and uninjured contralateral knees. Results Higher T2 values were observed in 1 or more sub-compartmental areas of each ACL-reconstructed knee compared to the uninjured contralateral side. Most of the T2 increases were observed at the superficial zones of the cartilage, especially at the medial compartment. At the medial compartment of the ACL-reconstructed knee, the T2 values of the femoral and tibial cartilage were increased by 3–81% compared to the uninjured contralateral side, at the superficial zones of the weight-bearing areas. T2 values in the superficial zone of the central medial femoral condyle differed between the 2 groups (p = 0.002). Interpretation The articular cartilage of ACL-reconstructed knees, although clinically satisfactory, had higher T2 values in the superficial zone of the central medial femoral condyle than in the uninjured contralateral side 3 years after surgery. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these patients would undergo cartilage degeneration over time. PMID:25854533

  4. [Dermatobia hominis infection in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Meissner, M; Kippenberger, S; Valesky, E M; Kaufmann, R

    2012-04-01

    In the context of increasing travel to the tropics, outpatient services are more frequently confronted with non-domestic diseases in Europe. A 3-year old child presented with a painful tumor of the scalp. After incision of the furuncle-like lesion, we extracted a larva of the botfly Dermatobia hominis. Botflies are mainly encountered in Central and South America; they should be considered if patients demonstrate a furuncle-like lesion and have returned from a holiday in these endemic regions. PMID:22068935

  5. Blowout fracture in a 3-year-old.

    PubMed

    Pluijmers, Britt I; Koudstaal, Maarten J; Paridaens, Dion; van der Wal, Karel G H

    2013-06-01

    A 3-year-old patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial department with a fracture of the orbital floor. Due to the lack of clinical symptoms, a conservative approach was chosen. After 3 weeks, an enophthalmos developed. The orbital floor reconstruction was successfully performed through a transconjunctival approach. This case highlights the rarity of pure blowout fractures in young children. The specific presentation and diagnostics of orbital floor fractures in children and the related surgical planning and intervention are discussed. PMID:24436749

  6. Pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Holdaway, M. D.; Kennedy, J.; Ashcroft, T.; Kay-Butler, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Until 1960, 179 cases of infection with Nocardia asteroides had been described in the world literature. Seventeen cases in children were reported by 1963. The organism is a common saprophyte in nature with probably a world-wide distribution. Infection can be primary but is more common in patients with underlying malignancy, auto-immune disease or preceding tuberculosis. Sulphonamides, particularly sulphadiazine, are the drugs of choice in treatment; the value of antibiotics is less clearly established. The indications for surgical treatment have not yet been defined. We record a further case of primary pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child. Images PMID:6035802

  7. Blowout Fracture in a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pluijmers, Britt I.; Koudstaal, Maarten J.; Paridaens, Dion; van der Wal, Karel G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial department with a fracture of the orbital floor. Due to the lack of clinical symptoms, a conservative approach was chosen. After 3 weeks, an enophthalmos developed. The orbital floor reconstruction was successfully performed through a transconjunctival approach. This case highlights the rarity of pure blowout fractures in young children. The specific presentation and diagnostics of orbital floor fractures in children and the related surgical planning and intervention are discussed. PMID:24436749

  8. Cryoplasty Versus Conventional Angioplasty in Femoropopliteal Arterial Recanalization: 3-Year Analysis of Reintervention-Free Survival by Treatment Received

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Maria Lourdes; Urtasun, Fermin Barberena, Javier; Aranzadi, Carlos; Guillen-Grima, Francisco; Bilbao, Jose Ignacio

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To compare long-term efficacy of cryoplasty therapy versus conventional angioplasty in the treatment of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic stenosis on the basis of our 3-year clinical experience. Materials and Methods: From January 2006 to December 2008, a total of 155 patients with 192 lesions of the femoropopliteal sector were randomized to receive either cryoplasty or conventional balloon angioplasty. The primary study end point was lesion target patency. Follow-up with clinical evaluation of patient's symptoms, ankle-brachial index, and Doppler ultrasound was scheduled at 1, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months. Results: For the cryoplasty group (n = 86), technical immediate success was achieved in 74.4% of lesions. Rate of significant dissection was 13.5% and rate of stent placement of 22%. In the long term, target lesion patency rate at 6 months was 59.4%, with rates of 55.9, 52.6, and 49.1% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. For the conventional angioplasty group (n = 69), the immediate technical success rate was 83.7%. Rate of significant dissection was 19%, and rate of stent placement was 72.9%. Patency rates at 6 months and at 1, 2, and 3 years were 71.5, 61.2, 60, and 56%, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with conventional angioplasty, cryoplasty showed good immediate success rates with lower stent placement rates. During the 3-year follow-up, patency rates tended to equalize between the two modalities.

  9. The self-tapping and ICE 3i implants: a prospective 3-year multicenter evaluation.

    PubMed

    Davarpanah, M; Martinez, H; Tecucianu, J F; Alcoforado, G; Etienne, D; Celletti, R

    2001-01-01

    This multicenter prospective clinical evaluation was undertaken to determine the therapeutic success and marginal bone level stability of 3i's self-tapping and ICE implants after 3 years of prosthetic loading. Between July 1995 and June 1996, 189 completely or partially edentulous patients were treated with 614 machined-surface screw-type commercially pure titanium implants (self-tapping or ICE). Two hundred seventy-seven self-tapping implants were placed in 85 patients (average age of 56 years), and 337 ICE implants were placed in 104 patients (average age of 61 years). A total of 360 implants (58.6%) were placed in posterior segments. Easier placement was reported with the ICE implant in normal or dense bone. For the self-tapping implants, survival rates of 92.9% and 91.6% were noted after 1 and 3 years of prosthetic loading, respectively. Survival rates of 95.4% and 93.8% were obtained with the ICE implant for the same periods. Late failures (after loading) were more common than early failures (before loading) for both types of implants. The marginal bone level of 238 self-tapping implants (85.9%) and of 307 ICE implants (91%) was radiographically evaluated at 3 years. Marginal bone level was at the first thread for 95.1% of implants. A loss of marginal bone level of 2 to 4 threads was noted for 4.9% of the evaluated implants. No implant showed bone loss greater than the fourth thread. Overall survival rates of 94.3% and 92.9% were obtained after 1 and 3 years of prosthetic loading, respectively, for 596 and 588 implants. PMID:11280362

  10. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children. PMID:27084549

  11. Severe hypercholesterolemia and liver disease in a 3-year old.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amol M; Brautbar, Ariel; Desai, Nirav K; Wilson, Don P

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein-X, which is composed of phospholipids and non-esterified cholesterol, is an abnormal lipoprotein with a density range similar to LDL-C. The two most common ways which lipoprotein-X accumulates is from reflux of bile salts into plasma or deficiency in lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase. This is a case of severe hypercholesterolemia and liver disease in a 3- year old male that presented with pruritus, pale stool, scleral ictus, and abdominal distention. He was diagnosed with primary sclerosing cholangitis which was confirmed by liver biopsy. Our patient was treated with steroids and immunomodulator therapy which was associated with significant reduction in cholestasis and LDL-C levels. Lipoprotein-X has several properties that make it anti-atherogenic, which raises the question if treatment for hypercholesterolemia should be initiated. PMID:27206954

  12. ISS ECLSS: 3 Years of Logistics for Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkedi, Brienne; Thompson, Dean

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is designed to be maintainable. During the 3 years since the ISS US Lab became operational, there have been numerous ECLSS Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) launched and returned to Maintain the ECLSS operation in the US segments. The maintenance logistics have provided tools for maintenance, replaced limited life ORUs and failed ORUs, upgraded ECLSS hardware to improve reliability and placed critical spares onboard prior to need. In most cases, the removed ORUs have been returned for either failure analysis and repair or refurbishment. This paper describes the ECLSS manifesting history and maintenance events and quantifies the numbers of ECLSS items, weights, and volumes.

  13. GRB 030329: 3 years of radio afterglow monitoring.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, A J; Kamble, A; Wijers, R A M J; Resmi, L; Bhattacharya, D; Rol, E; Strom, R; Kouveliotou, C; Oosterloo, T; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2007-05-15

    Radio observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are essential for our understanding of the physics of relativistic blast waves, as they enable us to follow the evolution of GRB explosions much longer than the afterglows in any other wave band. We have performed a 3-year monitoring campaign of GRB 030329 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescopes and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Our observations, combined with observations at other wavelengths, have allowed us to determine the GRB blast wave physical parameters, such as the total burst energy and the ambient medium density, as well as to investigate the jet nature of the relativistic outflow. Further, by modelling the late-time radio light curve of GRB 030329, we predict that the Low-Frequency Array (30-240 MHz) will be able to observe afterglows of similar GRBs, and constrain the physics of the blast wave during its non-relativistic phase. PMID:17293318

  14. Predicting 3-year outcomes of early-identified children with hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ching, T.Y.C.; Day, J.; Seeto, M.; Dillon, H.; Marnane, V.; Street, L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem/Objectives Permanent childhood hearing loss has major negative impacts on children’s health and development. To improve outcomes, universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has been implemented widely. However, high-quality evidence on its efficacy was lacking. To address this evidence gap, we conducted the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study to directly compare outcomes of early- and late-identified children. This paper investigates whether early performance measured shortly after initial amplification predicts language development at 3 years of age. Methodology This is a prospective, population-based study. We assessed outcomes at 6- and 12-months after amplification, and then at 3 and 5 years of age. Main outcome measures included directly-assessed language, receptive vocabulary, speech production; and parent-reported functional performance in everyday life. A range of demographic and audiological information was also collected at evaluation intervals. Results About 450 children participated, and 3-year outcomes scores were available for 356 participants. Multiple regression analysis revealed that early language scores or functional performance ratings were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes. Other significant predictors included the presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at cochlear implant activation. Conclusions Early performance, either directly-assessed language ability (PLS-4) or parent-reported functional ratings (PEACH), were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes; along with presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at CI activation. Earlier implantation is possible with early detection of hearing loss via UNHS. Monitoring performance after initial amplification allows preventive strategies to be implemented early to improve outcomes. PMID:24383228

  15. A Multiple-Group Path Analysis of the Role of Everyday Discrimination on Self-Rated Physical Health among Latina/os in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Kristine M.; Alegría, Margarita; Mahalingam, Ramaswami

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the psychosocial mechanisms through which self-reported discrimination may influence the health status of Latinos. Purpose This study examined the mediating role of subjective social status in the US and psychological distress on the relation between everyday discrimination and self-rated physical health, and the moderating role of gender and ethnicity. Methods A US population-based sample of Latinos (N= 2,554) was drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed measures of everyday discrimination, subjective social status, psychological distress, and self-rated physical health. Results Path analysis revealed that among the total sample, subjective social status and psychological distress sequentially mediated the effect of everyday discrimination on self-rated physical health. Psychological distress was a more consistent mediator across Latino subgroups. Gender and ethnicity moderated the mediation model. Conclusions This study provides a systematic examination of how psychosocial mechanisms may operate differently or similarly across Latino subgroups. PMID:23054945

  16. The development of inhibitory control in early childhood: A twin study from 2-3 years

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Parent and lab-based observer ratings were employed to examine genetic and environmental influences on continuity and change in inhibitory control (IC) in over 300 twin-pairs assessed longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age. Genetic influences accounted for approximately 60% of the variance in parent-rated IC at both ages. Although many of the same genetic effects on parent-rated IC were stable across age, there were also novel genetic effects that emerged at age 3 (i.e., genetic factors contributed to both continuity and change in parent ratings of IC). Observed IC displayed a different developmental pattern. Genetic influences were moderate at age 2 (38%) and nonsignificant at age 3 (6%). Change in observed IC across early childhood was due to shared and nonshared environmental factors. Findings indicate that it is important to consider the measurement of IC when interpreting developmental and etiological findings. PMID:26784384

  17. Natural inflation: Status after WMAP 3-year data

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, Christopher; Freese, Katherine; Kinney, William H.

    2006-12-15

    The model of natural inflation is examined in light of recent 3-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and shown to provide a good fit. The inflaton potential is naturally flat due to shift symmetries, and in the simplest version takes the form V({phi})={lambda}{sup 4}[1{+-}cos(N{phi}/f)]. The model agrees with WMAP3 measurements as long as f>0.7m{sub Pl} (where m{sub Pl}=1.22x10{sup 19} GeV) and {lambda}{approx}m{sub GUT}. The running of the scalar spectral index is shown to be small--an order of magnitude below the sensitivity of WMAP3. The location of the field in the potential when perturbations on observable scales are produced is examined; for f>5m{sub Pl}, the relevant part of the potential is indistinguishable from a quadratic, yet has the advantage that the required flatness is well-motivated. Depending on the value of f, the model falls into the large field (f{>=}1.5m{sub Pl}) or small field (f<1.5m{sub Pl}) classification scheme that has been applied to inflation models. Natural inflation provides a good fit to WMAP3 data.

  18. A 3-year randomized therapeutic trial of nitisinone in alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Introne, Wendy J; Perry, Monique B; Troendle, James; Tsilou, Ekaterini; Kayser, Michael A; Suwannarat, Pim; O'Brien, Kevin E; Bryant, Joy; Sachdev, Vandana; Reynolds, James C; Moylan, Elizabeth; Bernardini, Isa; Gahl, William A

    2011-08-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of tyrosine degradation due to deficiency of the third enzyme in the catabolic pathway. As a result, homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is excreted in gram quantities in the urine, which turns dark upon alkalization. The first symptoms, occurring in early adulthood, involve a painful, progressively debilitating arthritis of the spine and large joints. Cardiac valvular disease and renal and prostate stones occur later. Previously suggested therapies have failed to show benefit, and management remains symptomatic. Nitisinone, a potent inhibitor of the second enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, is considered a potential therapy; proof-of-principle studies showed 95% reduction in urinary HGA. Based on those findings, a prospective, randomized clinical trial was initiated in 2005 to evaluate 40 patients over a 36-month period. The primary outcome parameter was hip total range of motion with measures of musculoskeletal function serving as secondary parameters. Biochemically, this study consistently demonstrated 95% reduction of HGA in urine and plasma over the course of 3 years. Clinically, primary and secondary parameters did not prove benefit from the medication. Side effects were infrequent. This trial illustrates the remarkable tolerability of nitisinone, its biochemical efficacy, and the need to investigate its use in younger individuals prior to development of debilitating arthritis. PMID:21620748

  19. Effects of Stimulant Medication on Growth Rates across 3 Years in the MTA Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, James M.; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Wigal, Timothy; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hechtman, Lily; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pelham, William E.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Wells, Karen C.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Stehli, Annamarie; Davies, Mark; March, John S.; Conners, C. Keith; Caron, Mark; Volkow, Nora D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypothesis of stimulant medication effect on physical growth in the follow-up phase of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD. Method: Naturalistic subgroups were established based on patterns of treatment with stimulant medication at baseline, 14-, 24-, and 36-month assessments: not medicated (n = 65),…

  20. Adherence to Competing Strategies for Colorectal Cancer Screening Over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Peter S.; Wheat, Chelle L.; Abhat, Anshu; Brenner, Alison T.; Fagerlin, Angela; Hayward, Rodney A.; Thomas, Jennifer P.; Vijan, Sandeep; Inadomi, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We have shown that, in a randomized trial comparing adherence to different colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies, participants assigned to either fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) or given a choice between FOBT and colonoscopy had significantly higher adherence than those assigned to colonoscopy during the first year. However, how adherence to screening changes over time is unknown. Methods In this trial, 997 participants were cluster randomized to one of the three screening strategies: (i) FOBT, (ii) colonoscopy, or (iii) a choice between FOBT and colonoscopy. Research assistants helped participants to complete testing only in the first year. Adherence to screening was defined as completion of three FOBT cards in each of 3 years after enrollment or completion of colonoscopy within the first year of enrollment. The primary outcome was adherence to assigned strategy over 3 years. Additional outcomes included identification of sociodemographic factors associated with adherence. Results Participants assigned to annual FOBT completed screening at a significantly lower rate over 3 years (14%) than those assigned to colonoscopy (38%, P<0.001) or choice (42%, P<0.001); however, completion of any screening test fell precipitously, indicating the strong effect of patient navigation. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, being randomized to the choice or colonoscopy group, Chinese language, homosexuality, being married/partnered, and having a non-nurse practitioner primary care provider were independently associated with greater adherence to screening (P<0.01). Conclusions In a 3-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing competing CRC screening strategies, participants offered a choice between FOBT and colonoscopy continued to have relatively high adherence, whereas adherence in the FOBT group fell significantly below that of the choice and colonoscopy groups. Patient navigation is crucial to achieving adherence to CRC screening, and FOBT is

  1. Timing of breast cancer surgery in relation to menstrual cycle phase: no effect on 3-year prognosis: The ITS Study

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, H; Brown, S R; Sainsbury, J R; Perren, T J; Hiley, V; Dowsett, M; Nejim, A; Brown, J M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of breast cancer surgery timing during the menstrual cycle on prognosis remains controversial. We conducted a multicentre prospective study to establish whether timing of interventions influences prognosis. We report 3-year overall and disease-free survival (OS/DFS) results for ‘primary analysis' patients (regular cycles, no oral contraceptives within previous 6 months). Data were collected regarding timing of interventions in relation to patients' last menstrual period (LMP) and first menstrual period after surgery (FMP). Hormone profiles were also measured. Cox's proportional hazards model incorporated LMP in continuous form. Exploratory analyses used menstrual cycle categorisations of Senie, Badwe and Hrushesky. Hormone profiles with LMP and FMP data were also used to define menstrual cycle phase. Four hundred and twelve ‘primary analysis' patients were recruited. Three-year OS from first surgery was 90.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) [87.9, 93.6%]. Menstrual cycle according to LMP was not statistically significant (OS: hazard ratio (HR)=1.02, 95%CI [0.995,1.042], P=0.14; DFS: HR=1.00, 95%CI [0.980,1.022], P=0.92). Timing of surgery in relation to menstrual cycle phase had no significant impact on 3-year survival. This may be due to 97% of patients receiving some form of adjuvant therapy. Survival curves to 10 years indicate results may remain true for longer-term survival. PMID:18087287

  2. Lung cancer drug therapy in Hungary – 3-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Moldvay, Judit; Rokszin, György; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Katona, Lajos; Fábián, Katalin; Kovács, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Hungary is a world leader in lung cancer deaths, so it is of crucial importance that patients have access to modern treatments. The aim of our analysis was to explore how drug treatments are used in Hungary and how they are compatible with international practice. The inpatient and prescription database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration of Hungary was used to study the frequency of certain chemotherapy protocols and duration of therapies during a 3-year period (2008–2010). During the study period, 12,326 lung cancer patients received first-line chemotherapy, a third of those (n=3,791) received second-line treatment, and a third of the latter (n=1,174) received third-line treatment. The average treatment duration was between 3 and 4 months. The first-line treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma mainly consisted of platinum treatment in combination with third-generation cytotoxic agents. A downward trend of gemcitabine, still the most common combination compound, was observed, in parallel with a significantly increased use of paclitaxel, and as a consequence carboplatin replaced cisplatin. Among the new agents, the use of pemetrexed and bevacizumab increased. Pemetrexed appeared mainly in second-line treatment, while erlotinib appeared also in second-line but mostly in third-line treatments. The first-line treatment of small-cell lung carcinoma consisted of a platinum–etoposide combination, while in the second-line setting topotecan was the most commonly used drug. According to our results, the chemotherapeutic combinations and sequencing are in accordance with international and national recommendations. Further detailed analysis of the available data may help to obtain a more accurate picture of the efficacy of lung cancer treatments as well. PMID:25999737

  3. Acute dapsone poisoning in a 3-year-old child: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS-diamino diphenyl sulphone) is a sulfone antibiotic being used for a variety of clinical conditions. Poisoning in children by DDS is rarely reported. Poisoning in acute cases will be frequently unrecognized due to relative lack of severe signs and symptoms. Methemoglobinemia is the major life-threatening situation associated with poisoning of DDS. Hence, any delay for medical attention can lead to increased rate of mortality. In this case, we describe acute DDS poisoning in a 3-year-old child and the successful management using intravenous methylene blue. PMID:26488029

  4. Tsunami-exposed tourist survivors: signs of recovery in a 3-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Kerstin Bergh; Lundin, Tom; Fröjd, Thomas; Hultman, Christina M; Michel, Per-Olof

    2011-03-01

    Long-term follow-up after disaster exposure indicates increased rates of psychological distress. However, trajectories and rates of recovery in large samples of disaster-exposed survivors are largely lacking. A group of 3457 Swedish survivors temporarily on vacation in Southeast Asia during the 2004 tsunami were assessed by postal questionnaire at 14 months and 3 years after the tsunami regarding post-traumatic stress reactions (IES-R) and general mental health (GHQ-12). There was a general pattern of resilience and recovery 3 years postdisaster. Severe exposure and traumatic bereavement were associated with increased post-traumatic stress reactions and heightened risk for impaired mental health. The rate of recovery was lower among respondents exposed to life threat and among bereaved. Severe trauma exposure and bereavement seem to have considerable long-term impact on psychological distress and appear to slow down the recovery process. Readiness among health agencies for identification of symptoms and provision of interventions might facilitate optimal recovery. PMID:21346486

  5. Fluoxetine in adolescents with comorbid major depression and an alcohol use disorder: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Jack R; Clark, Duncan B; Bukstein, Oscar G; Kelly, Thomas M; Salloum, Ihsan M; Wood, D Scott

    2005-05-01

    The goal of this 3-year follow-up evaluation was to determine whether the decreases in drinking and in depressive symptoms that were noted during our acute phase study with fluoxetine in comorbid adolescents persisted at a 3-year follow-up evaluation. At the 3-year follow-up evaluation, the group continued to demonstrate significantly fewer DSM criteria for an AUD and fewer BDI depressive symptoms and also consumed fewer standard drinks than they had demonstrated at the baseline of the acute phase study. However, 7 of the 10 participants demonstrated MDD at the 3-year follow-up assessment, and 4 demonstrated an AUD. The presence of a MDD was significantly correlated with the presence of an AUD at both the 1-year and the 3-year follow-up assessments. Four of the participants restarted SSRI medications during the follow-up period. Half of the subjects graduated from college during the 3-year assessment period, despite their residual depressive symptoms and drinking. We conclude that the long-term therapeutic effects of an acute phase trial of fluoxetine plus psychotherapy slowly decrease but did not disappear when fluoxetine is discontinued shortly after the acute phase trial. The high rate of MDD at follow-up suggests that longer term antidepressant medication treatment may be needed for at least some comorbid adolescents. PMID:15833583

  6. Vascular Calcification in Patients with Nondialysis CKD over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Pablo; Cerverón, M. Jesús; Vila, Rocío; Bover, Jordi; Nieto, Javier; Barril, Guillermina; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Fernández, Elvira; Escudero, Verónica; Piñera, Celestino; Adragao, Teresa; Navarro-Gonzalez, Juan F.; Molinero, Luis M.; Castro-Alonso, Cristina; Pallardó, Luis M.; Jamal, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Vascular calcification (VC) is common in CKD, but little is known about its prognostic effect on patients with nondialysis CKD. The prevalence of VC and its ability to predict death, time to hospitalization, and renal progression were assessed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Study of Mineral and Bone Disorders in CKD in Spain is a prospective, observational, 3-year follow-up study of 742 patients with nondialysis CKD stages 3–5 from 39 centers in Spain from April to May 2009. VC was assessed using Adragao (AS; x-ray pelvis and hands) and Kauppila (KS; x-ray lateral lumbar spine) scores from 572 and 568 patients, respectively. The primary end point was death. Secondary outcomes were hospital admissions and appearance of a combined renal end point (beginning of dialysis or drop >30% in eGFR). Factors related to VC were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Survival analysis was assessed by Cox proportional models. Results VC was present in 79% of patients and prominent in 47% (AS≥3 or KS>6). Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02 to 1.07; P<0.001), phosphorous (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.20; P<0.001), and diabetes (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.32 to 3.35; P=0.002) were independently related to AS≥3. After a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range=17–36), there were 70 deaths (10%). After multivariate adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, comorbidity, renal function, and level of phosphorous, AS≥3 but not KS>6 was independently associated with all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.07 to 4.01; P=0.03) and cardiovascular (HR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.27 to 9.45; P=0.02) mortality as well as a shorter hospitalization event–free period (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22; P<0.001). VC did not predict renal progression. Conclusions VC is highly prevalent in patients with CKD. VC assessment using AS independently predicts death and time to hospitalization. Therefore, it could be a useful

  7. A bioactive dental luting cement--its retentive properties and 3-year clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Steven R; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Appleby, David C; Boston, Daniel; Lööf, Jesper

    2013-02-01

    A clinical validation study was conducted to determine the performance of a new bioactive dental cement (Ceramir C&B, Doxa Dental AB) for permanent cementation. The cement is a new formulation class, which is a hybrid material comprised of calcium aluminate and glass-ionomer components. A total of 38 crowns and bridges were cemented in 17 patients; 31 of the abutment teeth were vital and seven were non-vital. Six restorations were bridges with a total of 14 abutment teeth (12 vital/ two non-vital). One fixed splint comprising two abutment teeth was also included. Preparation parameters were recorded, as well as cement characteristics such as working time, setting time, seating characteristics, and ease of cement removal. Baseline data were recorded for the handling of the cement, gingival inflammation, and pre-cementation sensitivity. Post-cementation parameters included post-cementation sensitivity, gingival tissue reaction, marginal integrity, and discoloration. All patients were seen for recall examinations at 30 days and 6 months. Fifteen of 17 subjects and 13 of 17 patients were also available for subsequent comprehensive 1- and 2-year recall examination, and 13 patients were available for a 3-year recall examination. Restorations available for the 3-year recall examination included 14 single-unit full-coverage crown restorations, four three-unit bridges comprising eight abutments, and one two-unit splint. Three-year recall data yielded no loss of retention, no secondary caries, no marginal discolorations, and no subjective sensitivity. All restorations rated excellent for marginal integrity. Average visual analogue scale (VAS) score for tooth sensitivity decreased from 7.63 mm at baseline to 0.44 mm at 6-month recall, 0.20 mm at 1-year recall, and 0.00 mm at 2- and 3-year recall. Average gingival index (GI) score for gingival inflammation decreased from 0.56 at baseline to 0.11 at 6-month recall, 0.16 at 1-year recall, 0.21 at 2-year recall, and 0.07 at 3

  8. Experience with 300 laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs with up to 3 years follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, N. M.; Dunn, D. C.; Appleton, B.; Bevington, E.

    1995-01-01

    The long-term results of 300 laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs are reported with 11 cases followed up more than 3 years, 104 cases more than 2 years, and 225 cases more than 1 year. There were five early failures owing to the use of too small a piece of mesh. There have been no long-term recurrences. The results indicate that transabdominal preperitoneal laparoscopic mesh repair of hernias is a satisfactory technique with a low recurrence rate and a low major complication rate (4%). Patients have found the procedure to be remarkably pain free and 51% have taken no analgesics after discharge from hospital. Of the patients, 78% returned to work within 2 weeks of the operation. These results suggest that laparoscopic hernia repair can be performed safely with excellent long-term results. PMID:8540657

  9. Randomized trial of partial vs. stepwise caries removal: 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Maltz, M; Garcia, R; Jardim, J J; de Paula, L M; Yamaguti, P M; Moura, M S; Garcia, F; Nascimento, C; Oliveira, A; Mestrinho, H D

    2012-11-01

    This randomized, multicenter clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of 2 treatments for deep caries lesions - partial caries removal (PCR) and stepwise excavation (SW) - with respect to the primary outcome of pulp vitality for a 3-year follow-up period. Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients with permanent molars presenting deep caries lesions (lesion affecting ≥ 1/2 of the dentin on radiographic examination), positive response to a cold test, absence of spontaneous pain, negative sensitivity to percussion, and absence of periapical lesions (radiographic examination). Teeth randomly assigned to PCR (test) received incomplete caries removal and filling in a single session. Outcome success was evaluated by assessment of pulp vitality, determined by pulp sensitivity to a cold test and the absence of periapical lesions. Data were analyzed by a Weibull regression model with shared frailty term (survival analysis). At baseline, 299 treatments were executed: PCR, 152 and SW, 147. By the end of the 3-year follow-up period, 213 teeth had been evaluated. Adjusted survival rates were 91% for PCR and 69% for SW (p = 0.004). These results suggest that there is no need to re-open a cavity and perform a second excavation for pulp vitality to be preserved (Clinical trials registration NCT00887952). PMID:22983407

  10. Miocene seawater 187Os/ 188Os ratios inferred from metalliferous carbonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, Douglas N.; Ravizza, Greg; Maasch, Kirk A.; Wright, James D.

    1998-07-01

    Seawater 187Os/ 188Os ratios for the Middle Miocene were reconstructed by measuring the 187Os/ 188Os ratios of metalliferous carbonates from the Pacific (DSDP 598) and Atlantic (DSDP 521) oceans. Atlantic and Pacific 187Os/ 188Os measurements are nearly indistinguishable and are consistent with previously published Os isotope records from Pacific cores. The Atlantic data reported here provide the first direct evidence that the long-term sedimentary 187Os/ 188Os record reflects whole-ocean changes in the Os isotopic composition of seawater. The Pacific and the Atlantic Os measurements confirm a long-term 0.01/Myr increase in marine 187Os/ 188Os ratios that began no later than 16 Ma. The beginning of the Os isotopic increase coincided with a decrease in the rate of increase of marine 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios at 16 Ma. A large increase of 1‰ in benthic foraminiferal δ18O values, interpreted to reflect global cooling and ice sheet growth, began approximately 1 million years later at 14.8 Ma, and the long-term shift toward lower bulk carbonate δ13C values began more than 2 Myr later around 13.6 Ma. The post-16 Ma increase in marine 187Os/ 188Os ratios was most likely forced by weathering of radiogenic materials, either old sediments or sialic crust with a sedimentary protolith. We consider two possible Miocene-specific geologic events that can account for both this increase in marine 187Os/ 188Os ratios and also nearly constant 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios: (1) the first glacial erosion of sediment-covered cratons in the Northern Hemisphere; (2) the exhumation of the Australian passive margin-New Guinea arc system. The latter event offers a mechanism, via enhanced availability of soluble Ca and Mg silicates in the arc terrane, for the maintenance of assumed low CO 2 levels after 15 Ma. The temporal resolution (three samples/Myr) of the 187Os/ 188Os record from Site 598, for which a stable isotope stratigraphy was also constructed, is significantly higher than that of previously

  11. Equal 3-Year Outcomes for Kidney Transplantation Alone in HCV-Positive Patients With Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Parsikia, Afshin; Campos, Stalin; Khanmoradi, Kamran; Pang, John; Balasubramanian, Manjula; Zaki, Radi; Ortiz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation alone in clinically compensated patients with cirrhosis is not well documented. Current guidelines list cirrhosis as a contraindication for kidney transplantation alone. This is an Institutional Review Board–approved retrospective study. We report our experience with a retrospective comparison between transplants in hepatitis C virus–positive (HCV+) patients without cirrhosis and HCV+ patients with cirrhosis. All of the patients were followed for at least a full 3-year period. All of the deaths and graft losses were recorded and analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methodology. One- and three-year cumulative patient survival rates for noncirrhotic patients were 91% and 82%, respectively. For cirrhotic patients, one- and three-year cumulative patient survival rates were 100% and 83%, respectively (P = NS). One- and three-year cumulative graft survival rates censored for death were 94% and 81%, and 95% and 82% for the noncirrhosis and cirrhosis groups, respectively (P = NS). Comparable patient and allograft survival rates were observed when standard kidney allograft recipients were analyzed separately. This study is the longest follow-up document in the literature showing that HCV+ clinically ompensated patients with cirrhosis may undergo kidney transplantation alone as a safe and viable practice. PMID:25594655

  12. Unicystic ameloblastoma in 3 year old paediatric patient – A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Priya; Urs, Aadithya B.; Augustine, Jeyaseelan

    2013-01-01

    Unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor of the jaws that commonly occurs in 2nd and 3rd decade of life. In fact, this entity is rare in children under 12 years of age. It is characterised as a distinct variant of ameloblastoma, exhibiting a less aggressive behaviour and a lower rate of recurrence than solid conventional ameloblastoma. There are very few reported cases of UA occurring in children below five years of age. The purpose of this case report is to describe a case of UA involving the crown of an unerupted maxillary second premolar in a 3 year old girl. The pathogenesis, clinical appearance, radiographic presentation, histological findings and management of the tumour have also been discussed. PMID:24455052

  13. How schizophrenic patients change during 3 years' treatment with depot neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Dencker, S J; Frankenberg, K; Lepp, M; Lindberg, D; Malm, U

    1978-02-01

    A group of patients, initially 67 individuals, with chronic schizophrenia were studied on repeated occasions during 1 year and followed up after 3 years. The patients were given depot neuroleptics, either fluphenazine decanoate or pipotiazine palmitate, at intervals of 1 month. The symptom scores from three rating scales were subjected to factor analysis. Four factors were found to explain the variance satisfactorily: one comprising psychopathological symptoms specific for schizophrenia, one relating to contact disturbances, one psychomotor activity and one representing neurotic symptoms. Analysis of these factors revealed certain differences between the treatment groups over time and demonstrated the effect of combination of psychotherapy and neuroleptic drugs in a subgroup of patients. This type of analysis of treatment results might contribute to improving our knowledge of rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients and help us to draw up giudelines for selection of suitable measures. PMID:24982

  14. Trajectories of maternal harsh parenting in the first 3 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their related longitudinal risk factors (contextual and intrapersonal). Partner aggression was also tested as a time-varying predictor to examine its time-specific influence on maternal harsh parenting. Methods Longitudinal data from four assessments of a community sample of 488 at-risk mothers were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Maternal risk factors and harsh parenting behaviors were assessed at birth and at ages 1, 2, and 3 years. Results There was a significant increase in maternal harsh parenting from birth to age 3, particularly between ages 1 and 2. There was a significant direct effect of maternal alcohol use and abuse history on maternal harsh parenting at age 3, and maternal age was positively associated with change in maternal harsh parenting over time. In addition, partner aggression was significantly and positively associated with maternal harsh parenting at each time point. Conclusions The findings suggest possible developmental trends in the emergence of maternal harsh parenting during infancy and toddlerhood. Further investigation is needed to elucidate individual differences in the developmental patterns and to differentiate predictive factors that persist across time and factors that are unique to specific developmental stages. Practice implications The overall high prevalence rates of harsh parenting behavior and growth of such behavior in infancy and toddlerhood support the need for developmentally sensitive early intervention programs. PMID:21030081

  15. Pyogenic liver abscess: a retrospective analysis of 107 patients during a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Chan, Khee-Siang; Chen, Chin-Ming; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Hou, Ching-Cheng; Lin, Hung-Jung; Yu, Wen-Liang

    2005-12-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a potentially life-threatening disease, and early diagnosis may be difficult. In order to provide diagnostic clues and to enhance the prompt management of such cases, we retrospectively investigated the clinical characteristics of PLA during a 3-year period in a tertiary-care hospital. The crude incidence rate of PLA in our study was 446.1 per 100,000 hospital admissions. Male predominance and a mean age of 57.6 +/- 14.4 years were observed. Diabetes mellitus was the most common concomitant disease, and biliary pathologies were the most common predisposing cause of this type of abscess. The most common clinical features were fever, chills, and abdominal pain. Leukocytosis was found in 67.3% of the patients, and the observed C-reactive protein (CRP) values were high. The most common pathogen was Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mortality rate was 6.5%. A complete history, physical examination, evaluation of the white blood cell count and CRP, and the prompt arrangement of imaging studies may lead to an earlier diagnosis. The aggressive performance of image-guided catheter drainage and the appropriate administration of antibiotics may reduce the mortality rate of PLA. PMID:16377869

  16. Immediate implants and immediate loading in periodontally compromised patients-a 3-year prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Alves, Celia Coutinho; Correia, Andre Ricardo; Neves, Manuel

    2010-10-01

    To avoid the necessity of a removable provisional prosthesis, and therefore preserve the patient's functional outcome, esthetics, and quality of life, a clinical protocol was developed to approach periodontally compromised patients presenting a full-arch irreversibly lost dentition: full-arch extraction and immediate replacement with a provisional acrylic resin implant-supported fixed partial denture (FPD). A total of 23 periodontally compromised patients (11 women, 12 men; 4 smokers, 4 controlled diabetics) were included in this study. Pretreatment casts were taken and vertical dimension of occlusion was determined. In most patients, 6 Straumann implants were distributed along the arch according to the surgical guide or bone availability, with the most distal ones in the maxilla slightly tilted so they could emerge more distally. A total of 168 implants (146 Straumann, 10 Nobel Biocare, 8 Biomet 3i, and 4 Lifecore) were placed (83 in the maxilla, 85 in the mandible). Of those in the maxilla, 74 were loaded immediately (implant stability quotient mentor [ISQm] > 70) and 9 placed with delayed loading (ISQm =/< 70). Of the 85 implants placed in the mandible, all were loaded immediately (ISQm > 70). If an FPD had not been fabricated already, impressions were taken during surgery to do so. The prosthesis was then adapted (cemented or screwed) to the 6 implants within the first 48 hours postsurgery. After 2 months, definitive impressions were taken, and a definitive porcelain-fused-to-metal implant-supported 12-element FPD was fabricated and cemented or screwed to all 6 implants. Of the 168 implants, 108 were immediate implants and 159 immediately loaded. Only 2 implants (1 in the mandible, 1 in the maxilla) did not osseointegrate. This yields a 3-year cumulative survival rate of 98.74% (98.65% in the maxilla, 98.82% in the mandible). From a total of 26 immediately loaded prostheses (12 in the maxilla, 14 in the mandible), 6 were cemented and 20 screw-retained. The 3

  17. Changes in Strength Abilities of Adolescent Girls: The Effect of a 3-Year Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate changes in strength abilities of adolescent girls that underwent a 3-year physical education curriculum. Material and methods: The research participants comprised 141 girls aged 13.3 plus or minus 0.35 years who participated in a 3-year physical education curriculum (PEC). Evaluation was based on the following EUROFIT…

  18. The Development of Reading and Spelling Abilities in the First 3 Years of Learning Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Wessam; Elbert, Thomas; Landerl, Karin

    2011-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the development of fluent reading and spelling in the first 3 years of learning Arabic. The goals of our study were to: (1) validate suitable measures for fluent reading and spelling in the first 3 years of learning Arabic; (2) trace the developmental course of the relationship between fluent reading and…

  19. Allocation of Resources to Collaborators and Free-Riders in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Alicia P.; Altrichter, Kristin; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in situations where resources have been acquired collaboratively, children at around 3 years of age share mostly equally. We investigated 3-year-olds' sharing behavior with a collaborating partner and a free-riding partner who explicitly expressed her preference not to collaborate. Children shared more equally with…

  20. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children’s communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  1. Negative cognitive styles synergistically predict suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Kleiman, Evan M; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K; Seligman, Nicole D; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-30

    Rates of suicidal ideation and behavior are extremely high in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). However, relatively little work has evaluated potentially synergistic relationships between cognitive and emotion-regulatory processes proposed by theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs. The present study evaluated whether negative cognitive style and subtypes of rumination would exacerbate the impact of self-criticism on suicidal ideation in a prospective study of individuals with BSDs. Seventy-two young adults with BSDs (bipolar II, bipolar NOS, or cyclothymia) completed diagnostic interviews and trait measures of self-criticism, negative cognitive style, and brooding and reflective rumination at a baseline assessment. The occurrence of suicidal ideation was assessed as part of diagnostic interviews completed every 4 months for an average of 3 years of follow-up. Negative cognitive style and reflective rumination strengthened the association between self-criticism and the prospective occurrence of suicidal ideation across follow-up. Individuals with high levels of self-criticism in conjunction with negative cognitive style or reflective rumination were most likely to experience the onset of suicidal ideation. Self-criticism may work synergistically with negative cognitive style and rumination to confer risk for suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders. These results support theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs and indicate that evaluating and understanding negative cognitive styles may help to identify individuals who are at risk of suicide. PMID:25660736

  2. The cultural and linguistic diversity of 3-year-old children with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y C

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children's communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  3. Cultural differences in visual object recognition in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B

    2016-07-01

    Recent research indicates that culture penetrates fundamental processes of perception and cognition. Here, we provide evidence that these influences begin early and influence how preschool children recognize common objects. The three tasks (N=128) examined the degree to which nonface object recognition by 3-year-olds was based on individual diagnostic features versus more configural and holistic processing. Task 1 used a 6-alternative forced choice task in which children were asked to find a named category in arrays of masked objects where only three diagnostic features were visible for each object. U.S. children outperformed age-matched Japanese children. Task 2 presented pictures of objects to children piece by piece. U.S. children recognized the objects given fewer pieces than Japanese children, and the likelihood of recognition increased for U.S. children, but not Japanese children, when the piece added was rated by both U.S. and Japanese adults as highly defining. Task 3 used a standard measure of configural progressing, asking the degree to which recognition of matching pictures was disrupted by the rotation of one picture. Japanese children's recognition was more disrupted by inversion than was that of U.S. children, indicating more configural processing by Japanese than U.S. children. The pattern suggests early cross-cultural differences in visual processing; findings that raise important questions about how visual experiences differ across cultures and about universal patterns of cognitive development. PMID:26985576

  4. Gestational weight gain and predicted changes in offspring anthropometrics between early infancy and 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Adair, Linda S.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine how gestational weight gain (GWG), categorized using the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, relates to changes in offspring weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) between early infancy and 3 years. Methods Women with singleton infants were recruited from the third cohort of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001-2005). Term infants with at least one weight or length measurement during the study period were included (n=476). Multivariable linear mixed effects regression models estimated longitudinal changes in WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ associated with GWG. Results In early infancy, compared to infants of women with adequate weight gain, those of women with excessive weight gains had higher WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. Excessive GWG≥200% of the recommended amount was associated with faster rates of change in WAZ and LAZ and noticeably higher predicted mean WAZ and WLZ that persisted across the study period. Conclusions GWG represents a modifiable behavioral factor that is associated with offspring anthropometric outcomes. More longitudinal studies that utilize maternal and pediatric body composition measures are necessary to understand the nature of this association. PMID:22434753

  5. Os trigonum syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nault, Marie-Lyne; Kocher, Mininder S; Micheli, Lyle J

    2014-09-01

    Os trigonum syndrome is the result of an overuse injury of the posterior ankle caused by repetitive plantar flexion stress. It is predominantly seen in ballet dancers and soccer players and is primarily a clinical diagnosis of exacerbated posterior ankle pain while dancing on pointe or demi-pointe or while doing push-off maneuvers. Symptoms may improve with rest or activity modification. Imaging studies, including a lateral radiographic view of the ankle in maximal plantar flexion, will typically reveal the os trigonum between the posterior tibial lip and calcaneus. If an os trigonum is absent on radiography, an MRI may reveal scar tissue behind the posterior talus, a condition associated with similar symptoms. Os trigonum syndrome is often associated with pathology of the flexor hallucis longus tendon. Treatment begins with nonsurgical measures. In addition to physical therapy, symptomatic athletes may need surgical excision of os trigonum secondary to unavoidable plantar flexion associated with their sport. This surgery can be performed using open or arthroscopic approaches. PMID:25157036

  6. 3-year real-world outcomes with the Swedish adjustable gastric band™ in France.

    PubMed

    Ribaric, G; Buchwald, J N; d'Orsay, G; Daoud, F

    2013-02-01

    The study objective was to ascertain outcomes with the Swedish adjustable gastric band (SAGB) on an intention-to-treat basis in multiple centers across the French social health insurance system. SAGB results at 3-year follow-up are reported. The noncomparative, observational, prospective, consecutive cohort study design sought a 500-patient minimum recruitment geographically representative of continental France. Safety (adverse events [AEs], device-related morbidity, and mortality) and effectiveness (change in body mass index [BMI, kilograms per square meter], percentage excess weight loss, comorbidities, quality of life [QoL]) were assessed. Adjustable gastric band survival was calculated. Thirty-one surgeons in 28 multidisciplinary teams/sites enrolled patients between September 2, 2007 and April 30, 2008. SAGB was successfully implanted in 517 patients: 88.0 % female; mean age, 37.5 years; obesity duration, 15.3 years (baseline: mean BMI, 41.0; comorbidities, 773 in 74.3 % of patients; Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS), 1.4; EuroQoL 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D), 0.61; EuroQoL-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS), 52.3). At 3 years: BMI, 32.2 (mean change, -9.0; p < 0.0001); excess weight loss, 47.4 %; comorbidities, 161 in 27.2 %; BAROS, 3.6 (+2.2, p < 0.0001); EQ-5D, 0.84 (+0.22, p < 0.0001); EQ-VAS, 73.4 (+21.4, p < 0.0001). SAGB-induced weight loss was associated with substantially improved QoL. One death occurred and was unrelated to the treatment. No AE was reported in 68.3 % of patients, and no confirmed device-related AE in 77.0 %. Overall AE rate was 0.19 per patient year. Device retention was 87.0 %. Analysis of patients lost to follow-up showed a nonsignificant effect on overall study results. In a prospective, consecutive cohort, "real-world", nationwide study, the Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band was found safe and effective at 3-year follow-up. PMID:23054572

  7. Predicting caregiver-reported behavior problems in cocaine-exposed children at 3 years.

    PubMed

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Hou, Wei; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Wobie, Kathleen; Eyler, Fonda Davis

    2006-04-01

    Predictors of caregiver-reported behavior problems for 3-year-olds with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and matched controls were examined using structural equation modeling. We tested whether PCE had a direct effect on child behavior problems in a model that included other prenatal drug exposure, child sex, caregiver depression, and the quality of the child's home environment. The sample (N = 256) was drawn from a longitudinal, prospective study of children of (predominantly crack) cocaine-using women and controls matched on race, socioeconomic status, parity, and pregnancy risk. Child Behavior Problems was modeled as a latent variable composed of the 48-item Conners' Parent Report Scale Conduct Problem and Impulsive-Hyperactive scales and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory Intensity scale. Caregiver depression was the only significant predictor of Child Behavior Problems. Mean levels of caregiver self-reported depression and reported child behavior problems did not differ between groups. Mean depression scores were well above the recommended clinical cutoff while mean child behavior problems scores were within normal limits. The model explained 21% of the variance in caregiver-reported child behavior problems in our sample of rural African American, low SES youngsters. Non-maternal caregivers of cocaine-exposed children had significantly lower mean depression scores and mean child behavior problems ratings for 2 of 3 scales used in the study compared to biological mothers of children with PCE and controls. For all groups, much larger proportions of children were rated as having clinically significant behavior problems than would be expected based on the prevalence of behavior problems in the general population. PMID:16682870

  8. A 3-Year Retrospective Evaluation of the Clinical Performance of Fiber Posts.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Marina; Coppo, Priscilla Pessin; Rosalem, Cíntia Gonçalves Carvalho; Suaid, Fabricia Ferreira; Guerra, Selva Maria Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical outcome of 139 teeth restored with carbon fiber posts after 3 years of placement, considering the amount of remaining dentin as the main variable. Eighty-one patients received the fiber posts within a period of 16 months and were recalled after 3 years. The tooth type, amount of remaining dentin, and prosthetic crown material were evaluated. No loss of post or core retention was detected after 3 years of follow up. During the observed time, root or post fracture and secondary caries were not recorded. Only one failure concerning endodontic treatment was detected. The amount of remaining dentin was not an important characteristic in the restorative failure of endodontically treated teeth restored with carbon fiber posts within 3 years. PMID:26963206

  9. Enhancing the executive functions of 3-year-olds in the dimensional change card sort task

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF) model that prior experience with the post-switch dimension can enhance 3-year-old’s performance in the DCCS task. In Experiment 1A, a matching game was used to pre-expose 3-year-olds (n=36) to color. This facilitated switching from sorting by shape to color. In Experiment 1B, 3-year-olds (n=18) were pre-exposed to shape. This did not facilitate switching from sorting by color to shape. The DNF model was used to provide a mechanistic explanation for this asymmetry. PMID:25441395

  10. Final Results of a 3-Year Literacy-Informed Intervention to Promote Annual Fecal Occult Blood Test Screening.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Connie L; Rademaker, Alfred; Wolf, Michael S; Liu, Dachao; Lucas, Geoffrey; Hancock, Jill; Davis, Terry C

    2016-08-01

    This three arm study was designed to make CRC screening with FOBTs more accessible, understandable and actionable for patients cared for in predominantly rural Federally Qualified Health Centers. Patients in an enhanced version of usual care received an annual CRC recommendation and FOBT kit; those in the education arm additionally received brief literacy and culturally appropriate education and those in the nurse arm received the education by a nurse manager who followed up by telephone. Baseline FOBT rates in this population were 3 %. We evaluated if FOBT rates could be sustained over 3 years. A three-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted among eight clinics in Louisiana. Screening efforts included: (1) enhanced usual care, (2) literacy-informed education of patients, and (3) education plus nurse support. Overall, 961 average-risk patients, ages 50-85, eligible for routine CRC screenings were recruited. The primary outcome was completing three annual FOBT tests. Of 961 patients enrolled, 381 (39.6 %) participants did not complete a single FOBT, 60.4 % completed at least one FOBT of which 318 (33.1 %) completed only one, 162 (16.9 %) completed two and 100 (10.4 %) completed three FOBTs over the 3-year period (the primary study outcome). The primary outcome, return of three FOBT kits over the 3-year period, was achieved by 4.7 % in enhanced care, 11.4 % in education and 13.6 % in the nurse arm (p = 0.005). Overall 3-year FOBT screening rates were not sustained with any of the three interventions, despite reports of promising interim results at years 1 and 2. New strategies for sustaining FOBT screening over several years must be developed. PMID:26769026

  11. Parental Styles and Religious Values among Teenagers: A 3-Year Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of Grade 7 parental styles on Grade 10 religious values. The authors surveyed 784 participants (382 boys, 394 girls; 8 unreported) in Grade 7. The mean age of the group at Time 1 was 12.3 years (SD = 0.5 years). Time 2 occurred 3 years later when students were in Grade 10 (372 boys, 375 girls). In addition to…

  12. Os Trigonum Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACFAS | Información en Español Advanced Search Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Os Trigonum Syndrome Text Size Print Bookmark ... extra (accessory) bone that sometimes develops behind the ankle bone (talus). It is connected to the talus ...

  13. The acquisition of allophones among bilingual Spanish-English and French-English 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Fabiano-Smith, Leah

    2015-03-01

    Children are exposed to highly variable input from multiple sources within their speech community. This study examines the acquisition of allophones in Spanish and French by monolingual and bilingual children. We hypothesised that two factors would influence allophone acquisition: (1) the amount of exposure to phonological input, and (2) the degree of variability of the allophonic pattern. Thirty-four typically developing 3-year-old participated in the study. The analyses revealed that regardless of the language, the monolingual children produced similar error rates in the production of the target allophones. In contrast, the bilingual children produced different patterns of acquisition of the allophones: the Spanish-English bilinguals produced higher error rates than the monolinguals, whereas the French-English bilinguals produced lower error rates than the monolinguals. Possibilities for these differences are discussed within the context of structural complexity as well as in light of the effects of between-language interaction on bilingual phonological development. PMID:25421431

  14. Intrathecal opioid treatment for chronic non-malignant pain: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Thimineur, Mark A; Kravitz, Edward; Vodapally, Mohan S

    2004-06-01

    Intrathecal (IT) opioid therapy is a treatment alternative for patients with severe chronic non-malignant pain. Several uncontrolled retrospective and prospective outcome studies have suggested a benefit in chronic non-malignant pain patients, but uncertainties about patient selection in these studies weaken the results. This study evaluated long-term outcome of IT opioid therapy in chronic non-malignant pain prospectively, and included two comparative groups to improve understanding of selection criteria and relative severity of intrathecal pump recipients (PRs). The study subjects included 38 PRs while the comparative groups included 31 intrathecal candidates who either had an unsuccessful trial, or declined the IT therapy, and another group of 41 newly referred patients. The following data were analyzed at study entry, and at 6 monthly intervals for a 3-year period: Symptom Check List 90 (SLC-90), SF-36 Health survey, Beck Depression Inventory, McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form), Oswestry Disability Index, Pain Drawings and Pain rating on visual analogue scale. Data analysis suggests the study group of PRs had improvements in pain, mood, and function from baseline to 36 months. These same parameters improved among new referrals (less severe patients receiving conservative pain management) while non-recipients significantly worsened. Although PRs improved, they were still worse off at 36 months than new referrals were at baseline. The study showed that when patients with extremely severe pain problems are selected as pump candidates, they will likely improve with the therapy, but their overall severity of pain and symptoms still remains high. PMID:15157684

  15. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26–67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  16. Implants and sinus-inlay bone grafts in a 1-stage procedure on severely atrophied maxillae: surgical aspects of a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, B; Wannfors, K; Ekenbäck, J; Smedberg, J I; Hirsch, J

    1999-01-01

    This 3-year follow-up study compares implant treatment in 39 1-stage sinus-inlay block-grafted patients (study group) with 37 patients treated without bone grafting (reference group), all of whom were edentulous in the maxilla and were treated over the same time period. The cumulative success rate (CSR) of implant stability after 3 years in the study group was 75.3% in grafted areas and 82.2% in non-grafted areas. The CSR after 3 years in the reference group was 93.1%. The mean marginal bone resorption after 3 years of loading was 1.4 mm in grafted areas and 1.6 mm in non-grafted areas in the study group and 1.1 mm in the reference group. Complications noted during the postoperative healing periods correlated significantly with implant failures later on (P < .05). Since prosthesis stability (CSR) after 3 years was 94.9% in the study group and 97.3% in the reference group, it can be concluded that 1-stage sinus-inlay block grafts can be regarded as a safe method with a predictable outcome for use on patients with severely atrophied edentulous maxillae, although increased failure rates are to be expected for implants placed in bone-grafted regions. PMID:10612917

  17. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Tunchel, Samy; Blay, Alberto; Kolerman, Roni; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26-67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  18. Allocation of resources to collaborators and free-riders in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Melis, Alicia P; Altrichter, Kristin; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that in situations where resources have been acquired collaboratively, children at around 3 years of age share mostly equally. We investigated 3-year-olds' sharing behavior with a collaborating partner and a free-riding partner who explicitly expressed her preference not to collaborate. Children shared more equally with the collaborating partner than with the free rider. These results suggest that young children are sensitive to the contributions made by others to a collaborative effort (and possibly their reasons for not collaborating) and distribute resources accordingly. PMID:23073366

  19. Determinants of physician antibiotic prescribing behavior: a 3 year cohort study in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Teixeira Rodrigues, António; Ferreira, Mónica; Piñeiro-Lamas, Maria; Falcão, Amílcar; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria T

    2016-05-01

    Objectives Antibiotic misprescription is a major driver of resistance, which is a worldwide public health problem. Therefore, our aim is to assess the influence of the determinants of physician prescribing on the quality of antibiotic use. Methods A 3 year cohort study including all primary-care physicians working in Portugal's Central Regional Health Administration (n = 1094) was conducted. We assessed the determinants of prescribing using a pre-validated, personally addressed, reply-paid, self-administered questionnaire (sent four times to non-responders, between September 2011 and February 2012) designed to collect information on physicians' attitudes to and knowledge of antibiotic prescribing as well as their socio-demographic and professional data. To evaluate antibiotic prescribing, we've calculated ESAC 12 quality indicators per physician per year, allowing us to stratify them as good or poor prescribers according to their performance on those indicators. Associations between determinants and outcomes were fitted with generalized linear mixed models. Results The overall response rate was 46.1%. Emergency activity (OR [95% CI] = 0.29 [0.16-0.54]; p < 0.05) and workload (number of patients seen per day: OR [95% CI] = 0.97 [0.94-1.00]; p < 0.05; number of patients seen per week in emergencies: OR [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.97-0.99]; p < 0.05) were both related to poor quality of antibiotic prescribing. Statistically significant odds ratios were also obtained for ignorance (IqOR [95% CI] = 2.14 [1.31-3.52]), complacency (1/IqOR [95% CI] = 1.19 [1.01-1.41]) and responsibility of others (1/IqOR [95% CI] = 1.78 [1.10-3.06]). Conclusions The above results serve to emphasize workload, working at emergency departments and physicians' attitudes identified as critical factors affecting antibiotic prescribing. This provides new insights for clinicians, researchers and policy makers when it comes to developing and improving the clinical and

  20. Does Attention Constrain Developmental Trajectories in Fragile X Syndrome? A 3-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim; Cole, Victoria; Longhi, Elena; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Scerif, Gaia

    2012-01-01

    Basic attentional processes and their impact on developmental trajectories in fragile X syndrome were assessed in a 3-year prospective study. Although fragile X syndrome is a monogenic X-linked disorder, there is striking variability in outcomes even in young boys with the condition. Attention is a key factor constraining interactions with the…

  1. Crusted scabies misdiagnosed as erythrodermic psoriasis in a 3-year-old girl with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Vanessa; Price, Harper N; Jeffries, Michelle; Alder, Steven L; Hansen, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a highly contagious infestation with the Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis mite. The variety of clinical presentations make timely, accurate diagnosis problematic. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with Down syndrome and crusted scabies initially misdiagnosed as erythrodermic psoriasis. PMID:24138478

  2. Directly Observed Physical Activity among 3-Year-Olds in Finnish Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Villberg, Jari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Gubbels, Jessica; Mehtälä, Anette; Kettunen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine 3-year-olds' physical activity levels and how these vary across season, gender, time of day, location, and the physical and social environment in childcare settings in Finland. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used…

  3. Paternal Psychosocial Characteristics and Corporal Punishment of Their 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Guterman, Neil B.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the…

  4. 3-Year-Old Children Make Relevance Inferences in Indirect Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Cornelia; Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated 3-year-old children's ability to determine a speaker's communicative intent when the speaker's overt utterance related to that intent only indirectly. Studies 1 and 2 examined children's comprehension of indirectly stated requests (e.g., "I find Xs good" can imply, in context, a request for…

  5. Interest and Agency in 2- and 3-Year-Olds' Participation in Emergent Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah Wells; Neitzel, Carin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated 2- and 3-year-olds' personal interests as a possible source of variation in preschool writing activities. Structured observations of the play behaviors of 11 preschool children in a childcare classroom were conducted one to two days per week for one school year. These data were analyzed to determine choices of play…

  6. How Selective Are 3-Year-Olds in Imitating Novel Linguistic Material?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannard, Colin; Klinger, Jörn; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In 3 studies we explored when 3-year-olds would imitate novel words in utterances produced by adult speakers. Child and experimenter took turns in requesting objects from a game master. The experimenter always went first and always preceded the object's familiar name with a novel adjective (e.g., "the dilsige duck"). In the first 2…

  7. Abstract Sentence Representations in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence from Language Production and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencini, Giulia M. L.; Valiana, Virginia V.

    2008-01-01

    We use syntactic priming to test the abstractness of the sentence representations of young 3-year-olds (35-42 months). In describing pictures with inanimate participants, 18 children primed with passives produced more passives (11 with a strict scoring scheme, 16 with lax scoring) than did 18 children primed with actives (2 on either scheme) or 12…

  8. The Development of Core Cognitive Skills in Autism: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the veracity of one candidate multiple-deficits account of autism by assessing 37 children with autism (M age = 67.9 months) and 31 typical children (M age = 65.2 months) on tasks tapping components of theory of mind (ToM), executive function (EF), and central coherence (CC) at intake and again 3 years later. As a…

  9. Modifying Primary Grade Classrooms for Inclusion: Darrell's 3 Years of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Kathleen A.; McDermott, Peter C.

    This 3-year study examined how primary grade teachers and their teacher assistants taught reading and the language arts to a boy with multiple disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Qualitative research strategies are used to describe and explain the boy's participation in literacy activities from kindergarten through second grade. Findings are…

  10. A Field Training Model for Creative Arts Therapies: Report from a 3-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkibi, Hod

    2012-01-01

    Clinical field training is an essential component of educating future therapists. This article discusses a creative arts therapies field training model in Israel as designed and modified from 3 years of program evaluation in a changing regulatory context. A clinical seminar structure puts beginning students in the role of participant-observer in…

  11. Pequenitos en Accion. Edgewood ISD Model Program for 3-Year-Olds Replication Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for Hope, Inc., San Antonio, TX.

    This guide describes "Pequenitos en Accion" (Small Children in Action), the Edgewood (Texas) Independent School District (ISD) early childhood intervention program for Spanish-speaking 3-year-old preschool children. The program is an innovative early childhood education model involving educational programming, collaboration and integration with…

  12. Two-and 3-Year-Olds Know What Others Have and Have Not Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have established that even infants can determine what others know based on previous visual experience. In the current study, we investigated whether 2-and 3-year-olds know what others know based on previous auditory experience. A child and an adult heard the sound of one object together, but only the child heard the sound of another…

  13. Words, Shape, Visual Search and Visual Working Memory in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated…

  14. Behavioral and Emotional Problems among Turkish Children at Ages 2 to 3 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Within the framework of the Mental Health Surveys of Turkey, the authors investigated the distribution and prevalence of parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems in a nationally representative sample of 2- to 3-year-old children. Method: A cross-sectional population-based survey from October 1996 through March 1997 using a…

  15. Enhancing Students' Engagement: Report of a 3-Year Intervention with Middle School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Julianne C.; Christensen, Andrea; Kackar-Cam, Hayal Z.; Trucano, Meg; Fulmer, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    All teachers (N = 32) at one middle school participated in a university-led intervention to improve student engagement. Teachers discussed four principles of motivation and related instructional strategies. Teachers enacted instructional strategies in their classrooms. We observed six randomly selected teachers and their students over 3 years.…

  16. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 3 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Our very youngest children--infants and toddlers under age 3 years--appear to be particularly…

  17. A Study of Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum for 3-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary F.

    Based on classroom observations, developmental assessment, individual educational planning, and research, this curriculum describes developmentally appropriate practices to assist adults who work with young children (primarily 3-year-olds) in providing quality care and education. Chapter 1 sets out the study's specific questions, procedures,…

  18. Earth Science. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (3-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on earth sciences for 3-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…

  19. The Semiotic Landscape and 3-Year-Olds' Emerging Understanding of Multimodal Communication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of the increasing use of the visual mode in texts found in urban landscapes on two 3-year-olds' understanding of communication practices. The data discussed are taken from a study into a group of 3- to 6-year-olds' interaction with and emerging comprehension of the visual mode and its connection to…

  20. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in 3-Year-Old Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Penelo, Eva; Domenech, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To test the factor structure of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and to study the relationships between the proposed dimensions and external variables in a community sample of preschool children. Method: A sample of 1,341 3-year-old preschoolers was randomly selected and screened for a double-phase design. In total, 622…

  1. Enhancing the Executive Functions of 3-Year-Olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J.; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that…

  2. Can 2- and 3-Year-Old Children Be Trained to Perform Visual Perception Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Children aged 2 and 3 years were exposed to a novel paradigm designed to train visual perception skills. The results indicate that children of this age could be trained to perform both percept deprivation and percept diagnosis tasks. Results are discussed with reference to engagement, a precursor to an adult-like understanding of perception.

  3. Predictors of Reading Development in Deaf Children: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Harris, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted…

  4. Creppy Crawlies. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (3-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This science teaching guide on insects and animals for 3-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early…

  5. Leadership Coaching in an Induction Program for Novice Principals: A 3-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochmiller, Chad R.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results from a study of leadership coaches who worked with novice principals in a university-based induction program for a 3-year period. The qualitative case study describes how the support the coaches provided to the novice principals changed over time. The study reveals that coaches adapted their leadership coaching…

  6. Premarital Education and Training Sequence (PETS): A 3-year Follow-up of an Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagarozzi, Dennis A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews and critiques premarital counseling programs and discusses the development of the Premarital Education and Training Sequence (PETS). A study of the long-term effects of the PETS program (N=36) showed significant immediate differences between the experimental and control groups, but differences were not maintained at 3-year follow-up…

  7. Risk of Mother-Reported Child Abuse in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Amy M.; Rosenberg, Leon; Fuddy, Loretta; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Sia, Calvin; Duggan, Anne K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate, within an at-risk population, parent and child characteristics associated with a mother's self-reports of severe physical assault and assault on the self-esteem of the child in the first 3 years of life. Design: The study population consisted of a community-based sample of mothers of…

  8. Standards for Day Care Centers for Infants and Children Under 3 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Evanston, IL.

    The Committee on Infant and Preschool Child of the American Academy of Pediatrics has developed basic standards for quality day care for children under 3 years of age. The availability of day care provides a mother with the choice of group day care as one of the means of providing for her children. Options should include full-time or part-time day…

  9. [Assessment of the course of ischemic heart disease after placement of stents with drug covering and uncovered metal stents: data of 3 years follow-up].

    PubMed

    Buza, V V; Karpov, Iu A; Samko, A N; Deev, A D; Lopukhova, V V; Levitskiĭ, I V; Sozykin, A V

    2009-01-01

    The placement of sirolimus-eluting stents decreases the frequency of repeat revascularization procedures in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in randomized clinical trials. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of sirolimus-eluting stents, and increasing concern about their safety in routine clinical practice. From the prof. Samko PCI laboratory in Moscow, Russia, we identified 426 patients, who received either bare-metal stents alone or sirolimus-eluting stents alone during an index PCI procedure between March 1, 2002, and September 31, 2004.The primary outcomes of the study were the rates of target-lesion revascularization, myocardial infarction, death, late stent thrombosis. The 3-year rate of target-lesion revascularization was significantly lower among patients who received sirolimus-eluting stents than among those who received bare-metal stents (3.1% vs. 19 %, p=0.001). The 3-year mortality rate was not different between the bare-metal stent group and the sirolimus eluting stent group (5.9% vs. 7.2%, p=0.68), the 3-year rate of all ARC late stent thrombosis was similar in the two groups (5.9% and 7.2%, respectively; p=0.95). Sirolimus-eluting stents are effective in reducing the need for target-vessel revascularization without significantly increased rates of death, late stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction. PMID:19166395

  10. Utilization of matrix population models to assess a 3-year single treatment nonsurgical contraception program versus surgical sterilization in feral cat populations.

    PubMed

    Budke, Christine M; Slater, Margaret R

    2009-01-01

    This study constructed matrix population models to explore feral cat population growth for a hypothetical population (a) in the absence of intervention; (b) with a traditional surgical sterilization-based trap, neuter, and return program; and (c) with a single treatment 3-year nonsurgical contraception program. Model outcomes indicated that cessation of population growth would require surgical sterilization for greater than 51% of adult and 51% of juvenile (<1 year) intact female cats annually, assuming an approximate 3-year mean life span. After the population stabilizes, this would equate to sterilizing approximately 14% of the total female population per year or having approximately 71% of the total female and 81% of the adult female population sterilized at all times. In the absence of juvenile sterilization, 91% of adult intact females would need to be sterilized annually to halt population growth. In comparison, with a 3-year nonsurgical contraception program, an annual contraception rate of 60% of female juvenile and adult intact cats would be required to halt population growth, assuming that treated cats were retrapped at the same rate after 3 years. PMID:20183481

  11. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:27255804

  12. Parental styles and religious values among teenagers: a 3-year prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Heaven, Patrick C L; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of Grade 7 parental styles on Grade 10 religious values. The authors surveyed 784 participants (382 boys, 394 girls; 8 unreported) in Grade 7. The mean age of the group at Time 1 was 12.3 years (SD = 0.5 years). Time 2 occurred 3 years later when students were in Grade 10 (372 boys, 375 girls). In addition to assessing parental styles at Time 1, we also controlled for a number of Time 1 variables thought to possibly influence Time 2 religious values, namely, self-esteem, trait hope, and students' levels of conscientiousness. Time 1 measures (except self-esteem) were significantly correlated with Time 2 religious values, but only parental authoritativeness and hope significantly predicted religious values. The authors discuss these results with reference to the nature of parental styles and hope and their impact on religious values. PMID:20333897

  13. A 3 Year-Old Male Child Ingested Approximately 750 Grams of Elemental Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Uysalol, Metin; Parlakgül, Güneş; Yılmaz, Yasin; Çıtak, Agop; Uzel, Nedret

    2016-01-01

    Background: The oral ingestion of elemental mercury is unlikely to cause systemic toxicity, as it is poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal system. However, abnormal gastrointestinal function or anatomy may allow elemental mercury into the bloodstream and the peritoneal space. Systemic effects of massive oral intake of mercury have rarely been reported. Case Report: In this paper, we are presenting the highest single oral intake of elemental mercury by a child aged 3 years. A Libyan boy aged 3 years ingested approximately 750 grams of elemental mercury and was still asymptomatic. Conclusion: The patient had no existing disease or abnormal gastrointestinal function or anatomy. The physical examination was normal. His serum mercury level was 91 µg/L (normal: <5 µg/L), and he showed no clinical manifestations. Exposure to mercury in children through different circumstances remains a likely occurrence. PMID:27606146

  14. Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2012-07-01

    Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years. PMID:22686384

  15. Successful reuse of a transplanted kidney: 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ali; Saglam, Funda; Cavdar, Caner; Sifil, Aykut; Gungor, Ozkan; Bora, Seymen; Gulay, Huseyin; Camsari, Taner

    2007-07-01

    The number of new transplantations has not kept pace with the ever-growing number of patients waiting for a kidney transplant, and there has been a growing shortage of deceased donor kidneys. Previously transplanted organs have been used to increase the donor pool. There is very little data about the reuse of a transplanted kidney. We report a case of successful reuse of a kidney graft after the death of the first recipient with a 3-year follow-up. PMID:17591534

  16. The Neural Correlates of Processing Newborn and Adult Faces in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Westerlund, Alissa; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Kuefner, Dana; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the processing of upright and inverted faces in 3-year-old children (n = 35). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive looking paradigm including adult and newborn face stimuli. We observed three face-sensitive components, the P1, the N170 and the P400. Inverted faces elicited shorter P1 latency and…

  17. Dystonia as acute adverse reaction to cough suppressant in a 3-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, A; Incorpora, G; Ruggieri, M

    2001-01-01

    Cough suppressant preparations containing mixtures of dextromethorphan or codeine with antihistamines, decongestants (sympathomimetic), expectorants and antipyretics with either sedative or anticholinergic activity have been associated with dystonic reactions in children. We report on a 3-year-old girl who presented with episodic stiffness and abnormal posturing with rigidity after arbitrary maternal administration of a mixture of methylcodeine and extract from Hedera plant. PMID:11587381

  18. Emergent retrograde tracheal intubation in a 3-year-old with stevens-johnsons syndrome.

    PubMed

    He, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl suffering from Stevens-Johnsons Syndrome with severe sloughing of the oropharyngeal mucosa was brought to the operating room for an emergent tracheostomy after multiple failed attempts to intubate the trachea in the pediatric intensive care unit. However, a retrograde tracheal intubation was successfully performed in the operating room to secure her airway, after which a tracheostomy was performed. Retrograde intubation can be a quick and effective method for securing the difficult airway. PMID:25612259

  19. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Kajale, Neha A.; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP) and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR) and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR) has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i) compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii) effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years) randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A), 88 with 1–2 years (Group-B) and 84 with 3–4-year-old-children (Group-C) were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB), by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX) were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg) than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg) (median [IQR]). Android fat % (central obesity) increased (P < 0.05) at 1-year PP (47 ± 10.0%) when compared to 1-week PP (44.3 ± 6.7%) and remained elevated at 3-year PP (45.6 ± 10.2%). Regression analysis revealed that at 1-year PP, increase in PPWR (Odd Ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.2, 2.5], P < 0.001) and inactivity (OR 1.4, 95% CI= (0.97, 2.0), P < 0.1) were predictors for CMR. At 3-year PP, only PPWR was responsible for increase in CMR parameters (OR 1.6, 95% CI = (1.3, 2.3), P < 0.001) and not inactivity (P > 0.1). Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women. PMID:26180762

  20. Racial and Ethnic Differentials in Overweight and Obesity Among 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated racial/ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in a national sample of 3-year-olds from urban, low-income families and assessed possible determinants of differences. Methods. Survey, in-home observation, and interview data were collected at birth, 1 year, and 3 years. We used logistic regression analyses and adjusted for a range of covariates in examining overweight and obesity differentials according to race/ethnicity. Results. Thirty-five percent of the study children were overweight or obese. Hispanic children were twice as likely as either Black or White children to be overweight or obese. Although we controlled for a wide variety of characteristics, we were unable to explain either White–Hispanic or Black–Hispanic differences in overweight and obesity. However, birthweight, taking a bottle to bed, and mother’s weight status were important predictors of children’s overweight or obesity at age 3 years. Conclusions. Children’s problems with overweight and obesity begin as early as age 3, and Hispanic children and those with obese mothers are especially at risk. PMID:17194857

  1. Radiological evaluation of the Cresco system in combination with Osseospeed implants: a preliminary 3-year report

    PubMed Central

    BALDINI, N.; DE SANCTIS, M.; CAGIDIACO, M.C.; BALLERI, P.; VIGNOLETTI, F.; GORACCI, C.; FERRARI, M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim. In this preliminary study, the 3-year radiological outcomes of Osseospeed implant-supported fixed complete or partial prostheses made with two different laboratory protocols were compared. Methods. A convenience sample of 34 patients, who were either partially or completely edentulous in either jaw, were randomly assigned to two groups, of 17 patients each, using either a traditional laboratory protocol (control group) or the Cresco one (test group). The study’s objective was an assessment of marginal bone loss around implants, measured on intraoral radiographs at 3-year follow-up. Results. None of the implants inserted was lost during the study and radiological measurements of marginal bone level changes revealed that the mean marginal bone loss was respectively 0,73±0,33mm for test group and 0,88±1,13mm for control group. The differences between test and control groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion. This preliminary study did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in marginal bone loss around implant-prostheses prepared with the two different laboratory protocols, over the 3-year observational period. PMID:25694796

  2. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated during a 3-year period (1993 to 1995) in Seville, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Safi, H; Aznar, J; Palomares, J C

    1997-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Seville, Spain, was studied by using computer-assisted analysis of the IS6110 fingerprint in order to determine the current situation and to evaluate the human-to-human transmission of this pathogen. One hundred seventy-six isolates from 175 patients among the 205 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) during a 3-year period (1993 to 1995) were cultured and analyzed. One hundred nine patients (62%) were infected with genetically different isolates, and 67 isolates (38%) were grouped into 19 clusters. These results demonstrate that the level of clustering of strains in Seville is intermediate between those in developed and developing countries. Epidemiological relatedness was shown for isolates from only 10 of these clusters. Active and high transmission rates exist in children and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, while in non-HIV-infected adults this transmission rate is moderate. Although transmission from children to adults is uncommon, the probability of transmission from HIV-infected patients to young adults not infected with HIV may be higher. On the basis of these observations, we predict a constant rise in the rate of TB transmission among HIV-infected patients and probably in young adult patients not infected with HIV if measures for the effective prevention of TB among the HIV-infected population are not implemented. PMID:9316891

  3. Age of Achievement of Gross Motor Milestones in Infancy and Adiposity at Age 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E. Benjamin; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Early life physical activity may help prevent obesity but is difficult to measure. The purpose of this study was to examine associations of age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy with adiposity at age 3 years. Seven forty one mother/infant dyads participated in a longitudinal study in Massachusetts. Exposures were age of attainment of 4 gross motor milestones—rolling over, sitting up, crawling, and walking. Outcomes were 3-year sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (SS + TR) for overall adiposity, their ratio (SS:TR) for central adiposity, and body mass index (BMI) z-score. We used linear regression models adjusted for confounders to examine motor milestone achievement and later adiposity. Rolling over (0.04, 95% CI: 0.008, 0.07) and sitting up (0.02, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) at ≥6 months were associated with increased SS:TR compared with attainment before 6 months. Walking at ≥15 months was associated with 0.98 mm higher SS + TR (95% CI: 0.05, 1.91) compared with walking before 12 months. Age at crawling was not associated with the outcomes. None of the milestones were associated with BMI z-score. Age of motor milestone achievement was only a modest predictor of adiposity. Later rolling over and sitting up were associated with greater central adiposity, and later age at walking was associated with greater overall adiposity at age 3 years. Although we controlled for birth weight and 6-month weight-for-length in our models, more detailed assessment of early adiposity prior to achievement of motor milestones is needed to help determine causality. PMID:21643834

  4. MyoRing Implantation in Keratoconic Patients: 3 years Follow-up Data

    PubMed Central

    Janani, Leila; Jadidi, Khosrow; Mosavi, Seyed Aliasghar; Nejat, Farhad; Naderi, Mostafa; Nourijelyani, Keramat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term follow-up data on implantation of a full-ring intra-corneal implant (MyoRing) for management of keratoconus. Methods: A total of 40 keratoconic eyes of 37 consecutive patients who had undergone MyoRing implantation using the Pocket Maker microkeratome (Dioptex, GmbH, Linz, Austria) and completed 3 years of follow-up appointments were included in this retrospective study. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refraction and keratometry (K) readings were measured and evaluated preoperatively, and 3 years, postoperatively. Results: No intraoperative complications were observed in this case series. Three years postoperatively, there was a significant improvement in UDVA, CDVA, K readings, spherical equivalent (SE), and manifest sphere and cylinder (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). UDVA was significantly improved from 1.14 ± 0.27 to 0.30 ± 0.21 LogMAR (P = 0.001), CDVA was also improved from 0.52 ± 0.23 to 0.18 ± 0.12 LogMAR (P = 0.001), SE was decreased by 4.35 diopters (D) and average keratometric values were reduced by 2.34 D (P = 0.001). Overall, 81% of subjects were moderately to highly satisfied 3 years after surgery and 64.90% agreed to have the fellow eye implanted with MyoRing. Conclusion: MyoRing implantation using the Pocket Maker microkeratome was found to be a minimally invasive procedure for improving visual acuity and refraction in the majority of the patients with keratoconus. PMID:27195081

  5. Coincident 1.3-year Periodicities in the ap Geomagnetic Index and the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paularena, K. I.; Szabo, A.; Richardson, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent observations show an approximately 1.3-year period in the speed of the solar wind detected by the IMP 8 and Voyager 2 spacecraft. A similar period is also seen in the north-south (GSE) component of the magnetic field observed by IMP 8. Since both parameters are commonly used as input to models of geomagnetic activity, the 'ap' index (a measure of geomagnetic disturbance) is examined to look for this periodicity. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram method is used on the ap, plasma, and magnetic field data during the 1973-1994 time range. A dynamic FFT periodogram method is also used to analyze the ap data during this time, as well as to look for periods present between 1932 and 1972. A clear 1.3-year periodicity is present in the post-1986 data when the same period is observed in the plasma and field data. The V(2)B(zsm) and V(2)B(s) proxies for geomagnetic activity also show this periodicity. However, the southward (GSM) component of the magnetic field does not have a 1.3-year period, and neither do solar wind or ap data from 1973-1985. This demonstrates that the ap geomagnetic index can act as a proxy for solar wind periodicities at this time scale. Historic ap data are examined, and show that a similar periodicity in ap exists around 1942. Since auroral data show a 1.4-year periodicity, all these similar periods may result from a common underlying solar mechanism.

  6. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Myopia in 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Valencia Hui Xian; Verkicharla, Pavan Kumar; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Chua, Sharon Yu Lin; Cai, Shirong; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter; Wong, Tien-Yin; Ngo, Cheryl; Saw, Seang-Mei; on behalf of the GUSTO study group

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the association of axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CRC) ratio with spherical equivalent (SE) in a 3-year old Asian cohort. Methods Three-hundred forty-nine 3-year old Asian children from The Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study underwent AL and CRC measurements with a noncontact ocular biometer and cycloplegic refraction using an autorefractor. The ratio of AL to CRC (AL/CRC) was calculated for all the participants, and subsequently AL, CRC, and AL/CRC were analyzed in relationship to SE. Results The SE showed better correlation with AL/CRC (Spearman's correlation coefficient, ρ = −0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.66; −0.49; P < 0.001) compared to either AL or CRC alone ([ρ = −0.36; 95% CI: −0.51 to 0.51; P = 0.01] and [ρ = 0.05; 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.17; P = 0.34], respectively). Mean AL/CRC was 2.91 ± 0.06 among myopes and decreased to 2.79 ± 0.06 among hyperopes. Axial length to corneal radius of curvature was strongly correlated with SE in myopes (ρ = −0.78; 95% CI: −3.76; −0.79; P = < 0.001), but not in emmetropes and hyperopes ([ρ = −0.39; 95% CI: −10.73; −0.57; P = 0.01] and [ρ = −0.18; 95% CI: −17.28; 12.42; P = 0.38], respectively). Linear regression adjusted for gender and ethnicity showed a 0.74-diopter shift in SE towards myopia with every 0.1 increase in AL/CRC ratio (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.33). Conclusion The correlation between SE and AL/CRC is stronger than that between AL or CRC alone. This suggests that in a research setting, when cycloplegic refraction is difficult to perform on 3-year-old children, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error. Translational Relevance In the research setting, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error over AL alone when cycloplegic refraction is unavailable in 3-year old children. PMID:26929885

  7. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog.

    PubMed

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-02-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination. PMID:24489399

  8. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog

    PubMed Central

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination. PMID:24489399

  9. [Results of 3-year study of toothbrushing with a fluoride amine gel].

    PubMed

    Szöke, J; Kozma, M

    1989-12-01

    265 6-year-old children were investigated over a period of 3 years. In the test group, 6 toothbrushing exercises and 25-30 controlled applications of Elmex Gelèe were carried out yearly. The effect was analyzed by oral hygiene, caries frequency, caries intensity, and caries increase. The improvement of the oral hygiene index according to Silness-Löe was 30% and can be characterized as highly statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The inhibition of caries increase related to the surface (delta DMF-S) was 53% in the case of caries with substance loss and was also highly significant. PMID:2639721

  10. Discoid medial meniscus with a horizontal cleavage tear: a juvenile who suffered for 3 years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingqing; Gao, Shijun; Chen, Baicheng

    2012-09-01

    It is very rare to see medial discoid meniscus, and there have been only 82 knees in 61 cases reported to date. The investigators found discoid medial meniscus with horizontal cleavage tear in a 13-year-old juvenile who had been injured while playing basketball, and endured for 3 years. Both magnetic resonance images and the arthroscopic findings were presented. Saucerization of the torn discoid medial meniscus was performed successfully, and the clinical outcomes were satisfying according to the follow-up of 14 months. PMID:21912338

  11. Early epileptic encephalopathies including West syndrome: a 3-year retrospective study from Klang Hospital, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thambyayah, M

    2001-11-01

    It is difficult to give a country report from Malaysia. A study done in 1999 reported the incidence of West Syndrome to be 3% among newly diagnosed cases of epilepsy. In this 3 year retrospective hospital-based study (1997-1999), the prevalence of early epileptic encephalopathy (EEE) and West Syndrome were 4.1 and 2.5% respectively. There is difficulty classifying EEE cases into distinct sub-groups of EIEE (early infantile epileptic encephalopathy), WS (West Syndrome) and SMEI (severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy), using a combination of clinical features, EEG and CT/MRI findings. PMID:11701263

  12. Predictive value of health-related quality of life in progression of disability and depression in persons with multiple sclerosis: a 3-year study.

    PubMed

    Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Stojsavljevic, Nebojsa; Kostic, Jelena; Dujmovic Basuroski, Irena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena

    2013-12-01

    In our study, we examined whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) could predict changes in disability, depression, and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) over a 3-year follow-up period. A group of 109 consecutive MS patients (McDonald's criteria) referring to the Institute of Neurology, Belgrade were enrolled in the study. At two time points during the study (baseline, and after a 3-year period) an HRQoL (measured by MSQoL-54), EDSS, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were assessed. At the end of a 3-year follow-up, 12 out of 109 patients (11%) had dropped out. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Physical Health scale of MSQoL-54 is significant independent predictor of change in EDSS after 3 years (p = 0.035). Mental health composite score of MSQoL-54 was predictor of change in HDRS score (p = 0.049). In separate regression analysis, only social function was independent predictor of the development of depression (p = 0.041). None of the HRQoL domains had predictive effect on the change of FSS. Our study suggests that baseline HRQoL scores, measured by MSQoL-54, could be applied as a prognostic marker for progression of both, disability, and severity of depressive symptoms in MS. PMID:23460394

  13. Mitochondrial compromise in 3-year old patas monkeys exposed in utero to human-equivalent antiretroviral therapies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongmin; Shim Park, Eunwoo; Gibbons, Alexander T; Shide, Eric D; Divi, Rao L; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C

    2016-08-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) drug therapy, given during pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), induces fetal mitochondrial dysfunction in some children. However, the persistence/reversibility of that dysfunction is unclear. Here we have followed Erythrocebus patas (patas) monkey offspring for up to 3 years of age (similar in development to a 15-year old human) after exposure of the dams to human-equivalent in utero ARV exposure protocols. Pregnant patas dams (3-5/exposure group) were given ARV drug combinations that included zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC)/abacavir (ABC), or AZT/3TC/nevirapine (NVP), for the last 10 weeks (50%) of gestation. Infants kept for 1 and 3 years also received drug for the first 6 weeks of life. In offpsring at birth, 1 and 3 years of age mitochondrial morphology, examined by electron microscopy (EM), was compromised compared to the unexposed controls. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), measured by hybrid capture chemiluminescence assay (HCCA) was depleted in hearts of patas exposed to AZT/3TC/NVP at all ages (P < 0.05), but not in those exposed to AZT/3TC/ABC at any age. Compared to unexposed controls, mitochondrial reserve capacity oxygen consumption rate (OCR by Seahorse) in cultured bone marrow mesenchymal fibroblasts from 3-year-old patas offspring was ∼50% reduced in AZT/3TC/ABC-exposed patas (P < 0.01), but not in AZT/3TC/NVP-exposed patas. Overall the data show that 3-year-old patas sustain persistent mitochondrial dysfunction as a result of perinatal ARV drug exposure. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:526-534, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27452341

  14. Job embeddedness factors and retention of nurses with 1 to 3 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Halfer, Diana

    2011-10-01

    An aging work force, predictions of job growth in health care, and an eventual economic recovery suggest that the current reprieve from the national nursing shortage is temporary. New graduate nurses are an important part of the work force and are needed to replace nurses who will retire in the next decade. Organizational leaders can address the forecasted work force demand by proactively investing in programs for workplace development and retention. Recent literature reports an increased focus on understanding the work experience and career support needed for new graduate nurses. Several studies report improvements in job satisfaction and retention after implementation of structured mentoring programs for new graduate nurses. However, despite successful transition programs, turnover for these same nurses after 1 to 3 years of organizational tenure remains high. Studying factors that contribute to retention and supporting careers beyond the first year of practice may have a significant effect on improving retention and will contribute new knowledge to the nursing literature. This study, undertaken at a Midwestern pediatric academic medical center, examined job factors and career development support that lead to retention of nurses with 1 to 3 years of experience. Understanding these issues may guide nursing leaders and staff development educators in investing in focused retention and career development plans during an economic recession. PMID:21667873

  15. Mental Health Diagnoses 3 Years After Receiving or Being Denied an Abortion in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, John M.; Foster, Diana G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We set out to assess the occurrence of new depression and anxiety diagnoses in women 3 years after they sought an abortion. Methods. We conducted semiannual telephone interviews of 956 women who sought abortions from 30 US facilities. Adjusted multivariable discrete-time logistic survival models examined whether the study group (women who obtained abortions just under a facility’s gestational age limit, who were denied abortions and carried to term, who were denied abortions and did not carry to term, and who received first-trimester abortions) predicted depression or anxiety onset during seven 6-month time intervals. Results. The 3-year cumulative probability of professionally diagnosed depression was 9% to 14%; for anxiety it was 10% to 15%, with no study group differences. Women in the first-trimester group and women denied abortions who did not give birth had greater odds of new self-diagnosed anxiety than did women who obtained abortions just under facility gestational limits. Conclusions. Among women seeking abortions near facility gestational limits, those who obtained abortions were at no greater mental health risk than were women who carried an unwanted pregnancy to term. PMID:26469674

  16. Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Martin, Vivienne; Day, Julia; Mahler, Nicole; Youn, Samantha; Street, Laura; Cook, Cassandra; Orsini, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports language ability and everyday functioning of 133 children with hearing impairment who were evaluated at 3 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. The language abilities of children were evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) and Child Development Inventory (CDI). Everyday functioning of children was evaluated by interviewing parents using the Parents’ Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children (PEACH) questionnaire. There were significant correlations among language measures, and also between the standardized language measures and the PEACH. On average, children who had language deficits exhibited difficulties in everyday functioning. The evidence lends support to a systematic use of parents’ observations to evaluate communicative functioning of children in real life. On average, children’s language attainment decreased as hearing loss increased, more so for children of less highly educated parents. Factors that were not significantly associated with speech and language outcomes at 3 years were age of amplification and socioeconomic status. As multiple factors affect children’s outcomes, it will be possible to examine their effects on outcomes of children when all data in the LOCHI study are available. PMID:20420353

  17. Slow roll reconstruction: constraints on inflation from the 3 year WMAP data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiris, Hiranya V.; Easther, Richard

    2006-10-01

    We study the constraints on the inflationary parameter space derived from the 3 year WMAP data set using 'slow roll reconstruction', using the SDSS galaxy power spectrum to gain further leverage where appropriate. This approach inserts the inflationary slow roll parameters directly into a Monte Carlo Markov chain estimate of the cosmological parameters, and uses the inflationary flow hierarchy to compute the parameters' scale dependence. We work with the first three parameters (epsi, η and ξ) and pay close attention to the possibility that the 3 year WMAP data set contains evidence for a 'running' spectral index, which is dominated by the ξ term. Mirroring the WMAP team's analysis we find that the permitted distribution of ξ is broad, and centred away from zero. However, when we require that inflationary parameters yield at least 30 additional e-folds of inflation after the largest observable scales leave the horizon, the bounds on ξ tighten dramatically. We make use of the absence of an explicit pivot scale in the slow roll reconstruction formalism to determine the dependence of the computed parameter distributions on the pivot. We show that the choice of pivot has a significant effect on the inferred constraints on the inflationary variables, and the spectral index and running derived from them. Finally, we argue that the next round of cosmological data can be expected to place very stringent constraints on the region of parameter space open to single field models of slow roll inflation.

  18. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance. PMID:21479943

  19. The relation between student motivation and student grades in physical education: A 3-year investigation.

    PubMed

    Barkoukis, V; Taylor, I; Chanal, J; Ntoumanis, N

    2014-10-01

    Enhancing students' academic engagement is the key element of the educational process; hence, research in this area has focused on understanding the mechanisms that can lead to increased academic engagement. The present study investigated the relation between motivation and grades in physical education (PE) employing a 3-year longitudinal design. Three hundred fifty-four Greek high school students participated in the study. Students completed measures of motivation to participate in PE on six occasions; namely, at the start and the end of the school year in the first, second, and third year of junior high school. Students' PE grades were also recorded at these time points. The results of the multilevel growth models indicated that students' PE grades increased over the 3 years and students had better PE grades at the end of each year than at the beginning of the subsequent year. In general, students and classes with higher levels of controlling motivation achieved lower PE grades, whereas higher levels of autonomous motivation were associated with higher PE grades. These findings provide new insight on the associations between class- and individual-level motivation with objectively assessed achievement in PE. PMID:24433528

  20. Effects of prosthetic limb prescription on 3-year mortality among lower extremity veteran amputees

    PubMed Central

    Kurichi, Jibby E.; Kwong, Pui; Vogel, W. Bruce; Xie, Dawei; Ripley, Diane Cowper; Bates, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the relationship between receipt of a prescription for a prosthetic limb and three-year mortality post-surgery among veterans with lower extremity amputation. We conducted a retrospective observational study that included 4,578 veterans hospitalized for lower extremity amputation and discharged in Fiscal Years 2003 and 2004. The outcome was time to all-cause mortality from the amputation surgical date up to the 3-year anniversary of the surgical date. There were 1,300 (28.4%) veterans with lower extremity amputations who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb within a year after the surgical amputation. About 46% (n=2086) died within three-years of the surgical anniversary. Among those who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb, only 25.2% died within 3 years of the surgical anniversary. After adjustment, veterans who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb were less likely to die after the surgery than veterans without a prescription with a hazard ratio of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.60-0.77). Findings demonstrated that veterans with lower extremity amputations who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb within a year after the surgical amputation were less likely to die within three years of the surgical amputation after controlling for patient-, treatment-, and facility-level characteristics. PMID:26348602

  1. Lessons after 3 years of running GENIUS-TF in Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivosheina, I. V.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.

    2006-10-01

    After operation of GENIUS-TF over 3 years with finally six naked Ge detectors (15 kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso, we realize serious problems for realization of a full-size GENIUS-like experiment: (i) background from 222Rn diffusing into the setup, on a level far beyond the expectation. (ii) Limited long-term stability of naked detectors in liquid nitrogen. None of the six detectors is running after 3 years with the nominal high voltage. Three of the six detectors do not work at all any more. The HDMS (Heidelberg Dark Matter Search) setup at LNGS, operates the first enriched 73Ge detector worldwide, and looks for spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon coupling at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. The results (85.48 kg d) improve the best present existing limits on the WIMP neutron spin-dependent cross-section (obtained from 129Xe) for low WIMP masses (Klapdor-Kleingrothaus et al 2005 Phys. Lett. B 609 226 31).

  2. 186Os- 187Os systematics of Hawaiian picrites revisited: New insights into Os isotopic variations in ocean island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. J.; Walker, R. J.; Brandon, A. D.

    2011-08-01

    Eighteen picrites (MgO > 13 wt.%) and three related basalts from six Hawaiian volcanoes were analyzed for 187Os/ 188Os and 186Os/ 188Os. Variations in these ratios reflect long-term Re/Os and Pt/Os differences in the mantle source regions of these volcanoes. 187Os/ 188Os ratios vary from ˜0.129 to 0.136, consistent with the range defined by previous studies of Hawaiian picrites and basalts. Samples with lower 187Os/ 188Os are mainly from Kea trend volcanoes (Mauna Kea and Kilauea), and the more radiogenic samples are mainly from Loa trend volcanoes (Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Koolau and Loihi). As previously suggested, differences in 187Os/ 188Os between volcanic centers are most consistent with the presence of variable proportions of recycled materials and/or pyroxenitic components in the Hawaiian source. 186Os/ 188Os ratios vary from 0.1198332 ± 26 to 0.1198480 ± 20, with some samples having ratios that are significantly higher than current estimates for the ambient upper mantle. Although the range of 186Os/ 188Os for the Hawaiian suite is consistent with that reported by previous studies, the new data reveal significant heterogeneities among picrites from individual volcanoes. The linear correlation between 187Os/ 188Os and 186Os/ 188Os reported by a previous study is no longer apparent with the larger dataset. The postulated recycled materials and pyroxenites responsible for the dominant variations in 187Os/ 188Os are likely not responsible for the variations in 186Os/ 188Os. Such materials are typically characterized by both insufficiently high Os concentrations and Pt/Os to account for the 186Os/ 188Os heterogeneities. The lack of correspondence between 186Os/ 188Os variations and the Kea and Loa trends supports this conclusion. The primary cause of 186Os/ 188Os variations are evaluated within the framework of two mixing scenarios: (1) metasomatic transport of Pt and/or 186Os-rich Os into some portions of the Hawaiian source, and (2) interaction between an

  3. Cognitive Function at 3 Years of Age after Fetal Exposure to Antiepileptic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Combs-Cantrell, Deborah T.; Cohen, Morris; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal exposure of animals to antiepileptic drugs at doses lower than those required to produce congenital malformations can produce cognitive and behavioral abnormalities, but cognitive effects of fetal exposure of humans to antiepileptic drugs are uncertain. METHODS Between 1999 and 2004, we enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy who were taking a single antiepileptic agent (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate) in a prospective, observational, multicenter study in the United States and the United Kingdom. The primary analysis is a comparison of neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 6 years after exposure to different antiepileptic drugs in utero. This report focuses on a planned interim analysis of cognitive outcomes in 309 children at 3 years of age. RESULTS At 3 years of age, children who had been exposed to valproate in utero had significantly lower IQ scores than those who had been exposed to other antiepileptic drugs. After adjustment for maternal IQ, maternal age, antiepileptic-drug dose, gestational age at birth, and maternal preconception use of folate, the mean IQ was 101 for children exposed to lamotrigine, 99 for those exposed to phenytoin, 98 for those exposed to carbamazepine, and 92 for those exposed to valproate. On average, children exposed to valproate had an IQ score 9 points lower than the score of those exposed to lamotrigine (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1 to 14.6; P = 0.009), 7 points lower than the score of those exposed to phenytoin (95% CI, 0.2 to 14.0; P = 0.04), and 6 points lower than the score of those exposed to carbamazepine (95% CI, 0.6 to 12.0; P = 0.04). The association between valproate use and IQ was dose dependent. Children’s IQs were significantly related to maternal IQs among children exposed to carbamazepine, lamotrigine, or phenytoin but not among those exposed to valproate. CONCLUSIONS In utero exposure to valproate, as compared with other commonly used antiepileptic drugs, is associated

  4. Bidirectionally positioned flap surgery: a case report with 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shuichi; Ito, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    A new technique to cover recessions to take advantage of connective tissue grafts and coronally advanced flaps is proposed. A 34-year-old woman presented with a 2-mm Class I recession on the buccal aspect of her maxillary right canine. A full-thickness flap was placed coronally to cover the exposed root, and a partial thickness flap was positioned apically. Complete root coverage was obtained, and the width of keratinized tissue had increased from 2 to 4 mm at the 6-month postoperative visit. These clinical outcomes were maintained for 3 years. This single surgical approach benefits from obtaining not only complete root coverage but also increasing width of keratinized tissue, without requiring a second surgical site. PMID:23444158

  5. Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome. Magnetic resonance findings in a 3-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Salafia, Stefania; Praticò, Andrea D; Pizzo, Enza; Greco, Filippo; Di Bella, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The term 'hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome' (HHE) was first used by Gastaut et al. to describe the se-quential combination of unilateral or predominantly unilateral clonic seizures (hemiconvulsion), occurring during the first 2 years of life, immediately followed by an ipsilateral flaccid hemiplegia lasting 7 or more days. In the following phase partial epileptic seizures occur. We report a case of HHE syndrome in a 3-year-old boy with partial seizures (hemiconvulsion lasting 15-30 minutes) followed by left hemiplegia and hyporeflexia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse and high signal hyperintensity of the whole right cerebral hemisphere. Diffusion-weighted images showed a reduction of the apparent diffusion coefficient in the subcortical region. Magnetic resonance arterio-graphy showed a narrow flow signal in the distal territory of the right middle cerebral artery. The authors emphasize the importance of neuroradiological findings in early diagnosis and in the follow-up of HHE syndrome. PMID:24375005

  6. The SWAP EUV imager onboard PROBA2: 3 years of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Matthew; Berghmans, David; Seaton, Daniel

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) imager is an EUV solar telescope on board ESA's Project for Onboard Autonomy 2 (PROBA2) mission launched on 2 November 2009. SWAP has a spectral bandpass centered on 17.4 nm and provides images of the low solar corona over a 54x54 arcmin field-of-view with 3.2 arcsec pixels and an imaging cadence of about two minutes. SWAP is designed to monitor all space-weather-relevant events and features in the low solar corona. The SWAP telescope is designed with various innovative technologies, including an off-axis optical design and a CMOS-APS detector. I will present what has been learnt from 3 years of SWAP operations, the advantages of the CMOS detector and SWAPs setup, and a few unique PROBA2/SWAP observations.

  7. Paternal psychosocial characteristics and corporal punishment of their 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Perron, Brian E; Taylor, Catherine A; Guterman, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the past month, 23% reported using CP once or twice, and 16% reported using CP a few times in the past month or more. In multivariate models controlling for important sociodemographic factors as well as characteristics of the child, fathers' parenting stress, major depression, heavy alcohol use, and drug use were significantly associated with greater use of CP, whereas involvement with the child and generalized anxiety disorder were not. Girls were less likely to be the recipient of CP than were boys, and child externalizing behavior problems but not internalizing behavior problems were associated with more CP. PMID:20522884

  8. An unlikely cause of severe malnutrition in a 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, J J; Blackburn, S; Burge, D; Beattie, R M

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis associated with jejunal and colonic atresia presented with severe oedema, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Clinically she was malnourished. Serum albumin and concentrations of micronutrients were low. A barium meal examination showed jejunal dilation. A stricture was suspected and the patient was taken to theatre where an 8 cm length of bowel was resected including a jejunal stricture at the point of previous atresia repair. Inside the proximal dilated jejunum was a large trichobezoar (hairball), thought to be acting as a ball valve inside the bowel. This girl made a rapid recovery after surgery. Her nutritional state improved, symptoms resolved and serum biochemistry normalised. She remains well at follow-up with normal blood results, normal albumin and no diarrhoea. PMID:25183805

  9. Myxomatous stromal changes and necrosis of bone marrow--a retrospective study of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nalini; Kumar, Vijay; Varma, Neelam; Garewal, Gurjeevan; Das, Reena; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Dash, Sumitra

    2004-07-01

    Myxomatous stromal changes and bone marrow necrosis (BMN) are uncommon histologic findings. These changes have been found in various conditions like disseminated carcinomatosis, postchemotherapy cases, chronic infections, infiltrative disorders of the marrow etc. The present study is a retrospective study of 3 years (Jan, 1999 to Dec. 2001) from Deptt. Of Hematology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India). During this period, 3740 bone marrow samples were examined. Myxomatous stromal changes and bone marrow necrosis were noted in 0.43% (16/3740) and 0.45% (17/3740) samples respectively. In addition to common causes of myxomatous stromal changes and bone marrow necrosis as described in the literature, this study highlights the association of these conditions with some of the rarer entities like hyperoxalosis, leishmaniasis, parvovirus induced marrow aplasia and cryptococcal infection. There is paucity of such associations in the literature. PMID:16295422

  10. An unlikely cause of severe malnutrition in a 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis.

    PubMed

    Ashton, J J; Blackburn, S; Burge, D; Beattie, R M

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis associated with jejunal and colonic atresia presented with severe oedema, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Clinically she was malnourished. Serum albumin and concentrations of micronutrients were low. A barium meal examination showed jejunal dilation. A stricture was suspected and the patient was taken to theatre where an 8 cm length of bowel was resected including a jejunal stricture at the point of previous atresia repair. Inside the proximal dilated jejunum was a large trichobezoar (hairball), thought to be acting as a ball valve inside the bowel. This girl made a rapid recovery after surgery. Her nutritional state improved, symptoms resolved and serum biochemistry normalised. She remains well at follow-up with normal blood results, normal albumin and no diarrhoea. PMID:25183805

  11. Successful stenting of four spontaneous oesophageal perforations in a single patient during a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Sundbom, Magnus; Hedberg, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous oesophageal perforation, a rare condition associated with high mortality due to mediastinitis and multi-organ failure, can be treated surgically or with endoscopic stents. We present a case of four right-sided oesophageal perforations during a 3-year period in a single patient, all successfully stented. The 51-year-old Caucasian male had his first oesophageal perforation in 2012, which was successfully treated with a fully covered endoscopic stent. No residual pathology was seen at stent removal. Two years later, the patient was successfully treated with stents twice for recurrent perforations. The fourth spontaneous perforation at the same site occurred this fall, and again endoscopic treatment was successful. The patient does not report any squeals. In spite of the successful outcome, we would like to emphasize the need for close surveillance and readiness for definitive surgical treatment. PMID:27154748

  12. The 3-year Solar Wind Charge Exchange Campaign with Suzaku: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, Eugenio; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Liu, Wenhao; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kuntz, K. D.

    2016-04-01

    We performed a 3-year monitoring campaign of the Solar Wind Charge Exchange (SWCX) heliospheric emission with Suzaku. We targeted four nearby (~100 pc) high column density clouds that absorb the X-ray contribution from distant sources so that the leftover signal has local origin (and is expected to be dominated by SWCX). The targets have been selected for their position in the sky, in order to maximize the latitude and longitude range, to model how SWCX depends on the distribution of neutrals, and to follow the seasonal variations of the SWCX. Here we present the results of data analysis of the three years of observations and we show how they compare with existing models.

  13. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  14. Effect of Breastfeeding Duration on Cognitive Development in Infants: 3-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in infants during their first 3 years. The present study was a part of the Mothers’ and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which was a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. A total of 697 infants were tested at age 12, 24, and 36 months using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II). The use and duration of breastfeeding and formula feeding were measured. The relationship between breastfeeding and the mental development index (MDI) score was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated a positive correlation between breastfeeding duration and MDI score. After adjusting for covariates, infants who were breastfed for ≥ 9 months had significantly better cognitive development than those who had not been breastfed. These results suggest that the longer duration of breastfeeding improves cognitive development in infants. PMID:27051242

  15. Epidermoid Cyst in the Floor of the Mouth of a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pascual Dabán, Rossana; García Díez, Eloy; González Navarro, Beatriz; López-López, José

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are a rare entity in the oral cavity and are even less frequent in the floor of the mouth, representing less than 0.01% of all the cases. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a growth in the floor of the mouth with 2 months of evolution and without changes since it was discovered by her parents. The lesion was asymptomatic; it did not cause dysphagia, dyspnea, or any other alteration. A CT scan with contrast was done which revealed the location and exact size of the lesion, allowing an intraoral approach for its excision. The histological examination confirmed the clinical speculation of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:25694831

  16. Suppurative Meckel Diiverticulum in a 3-Year-Old Girl Presenting with Periumbilical Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Sook; Lim, Chun Woo; Park, Taejin; Cho, Jae-Min; Youn, Hee-Shang

    2015-01-01

    Meckel diverticulum (MD) is one of the most common congenital gastrointestinal anomalies and occurs in 1.2-2% of the general population. MD usually presents with massive painless rectal bleeding, intestinal obstruction or inflammation in children and adults. Suppurative Meckel diverticulitis is uncommon in children. An experience is described of a 3-year-old girl with suppurative inflammation in a tip of MD. She complained of acute colicky abdominal pain, vomiting and periumbilical erythema. Laparoscopic surgery found a relatively long MD with necrotic and fluid-filled cystic end, which was attatched to abdominal wall caused by inflammation. Herein, we report an interesting and unusual case of a suppurative Meckel diverticulitis presenting as periumbilical cellulitis in a child. Because of its varied presentations, MD might always be considered as one of the differential diagonosis. PMID:25866736

  17. Epidermoid cyst in the floor of the mouth of a 3-year-old.

    PubMed

    Pascual Dabán, Rossana; García Díez, Eloy; González Navarro, Beatriz; López-López, José

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are a rare entity in the oral cavity and are even less frequent in the floor of the mouth, representing less than 0.01% of all the cases. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a growth in the floor of the mouth with 2 months of evolution and without changes since it was discovered by her parents. The lesion was asymptomatic; it did not cause dysphagia, dyspnea, or any other alteration. A CT scan with contrast was done which revealed the location and exact size of the lesion, allowing an intraoral approach for its excision. The histological examination confirmed the clinical speculation of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:25694831

  18. Nephrotic Syndrome Following H1N1 Influenza in a 3-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Pietro; Gatto, Antonio; Vitelli, Ottavio; Liberatore, Pio; del Bufalo, Francesca; Bottaro, Giorgia

    2012-01-01

    Background The pandemic influenza A/H1N1, spread through the world in 2009, producing a serious epidemic in Italy. Complications are generally limited to patients at the extremes of age (<6 months or >65 years) and those with comorbid medical illness. The most frequent complications of influenza involve the respiratory system. Case Presentation A 3-year-old boy with a recent history of upper respiratory tract infection developed a nephrotic syndrome. Together with prednisone, furosemide and albumin bolus, a therapy with oseltamivir was started since the nasopharyngeal swab resulted positive for influenza A/H1N1. Clinical conditions and laboratory findings progressively improved during hospitalization, becoming normal during a 2 month follow up. Conclusion The possibility of a renal involvement after influenza A/H1N1 infection should be considered. PMID:23056898

  19. Predictors of reading development in deaf children: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Fiona E; Harris, Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted longitudinal growth in reading achievement. The relations between reading and the predictor variables showed developmental change. Earlier reading ability was related to later phonological awareness skills, suggesting that deaf children might develop their phonological awareness through reading. Deaf children who had the most age-appropriate reading skills tended to have less severe hearing losses and earlier diagnoses and also preferred to communicate through speech. The theoretical implications of the role for speechreading, vocabulary and phonological awareness in deaf children's literacy are discussed. PMID:20570282

  20. A 3-year community-based periodontal disease prevention programme for adults in a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W; Powell, R N; Kilisimasi, S; Tomiki, S; Holborow, D

    1991-12-01

    A field trail of a community programme for improving periodontal health of adults was carried out in a geographically remote, unsophisticated rural population in the South Pacific islands of Tonga. The 3-year project (1986-89) involved three village communities, each with a population of approximately 1200. Village N received supplies of toothbrushes and toothpaste without charge, health education (videos, talks, posters) and periodic dental scaling (ultrasonic). Village K received the same as N except that dental scaling was not provided. Village E received none of the services provided to the villages N and K. Baseline and final examinations of 20-44-year olds showed that unsupervised self-care promoted at the community level, when supplemented with periodic removal of subgingival calculus, significantly improved periodontal health. Improvement was age dependent. PMID:1800382

  1. A 3-year postoperative clinical evaluation of posts and cores beneath existing crowns.

    PubMed

    Hatzikyriakos, A H; Reisis, G I; Tsingos, N

    1992-04-01

    Fabrication of posts and cores for fixed partial denture (FPD) and removable partial denture (RPD) abutment restorations is common in dentistry. The biocompatibility of various post and core techniques with the restorations was clinically evaluated according to location and function. In this study, 154 post and core constructions for 150 patients were observed for a 3-year period to determine if the function of the original restorations remained unsatisfactory. The following techniques were included: (1) screw post and light-curing composite resins, (2) cemented post with parallel sides and light-curing composite resins, and (3) a cast and core technique. Seventeen of the 154 restorations failed; four failures were attributed to root fractures, three to radicular caries, and five to crown dislodgement, while five failures were from detachment of the post and core from the root. The statistical analysis revealed that only the factor "type of abutment" (RPDs and FPDs) had some effect on the failure of the restorations. PMID:1507125

  2. Effect of Breastfeeding Duration on Cognitive Development in Infants: 3-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungmin; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Kim, Yangho

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in infants during their first 3 years. The present study was a part of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which was a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. A total of 697 infants were tested at age 12, 24, and 36 months using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II). The use and duration of breastfeeding and formula feeding were measured. The relationship between breastfeeding and the mental development index (MDI) score was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated a positive correlation between breastfeeding duration and MDI score. After adjusting for covariates, infants who were breastfed for ≥ 9 months had significantly better cognitive development than those who had not been breastfed. These results suggest that the longer duration of breastfeeding improves cognitive development in infants. PMID:27051242

  3. Primate disease and breeding rates.

    PubMed

    Chamove, A; Cameron, G; Nash, V

    1979-10-01

    33 species were compared for 12 disease categories over 3 years of laboratory housing. There were low correlations between popularity, birth, death, and illness rates. Highest rates were: birth, Macaca nemestrina; illness, Pongo pygmaeus; death, Cercopithecus aethiops. Lowest rates were: birth, Lemur catta; illness, Sanguinus mystax; death, Galago crassicaudatus. Galago crassicaudatus and Macaca fasicularus had low disease and high birth rates. PMID:119108

  4. Living with diabetes—Development of learning patterns over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Kneck, Åsa; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Eriksson, Lars E.; Lundman, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning involves acquiring new knowledge and skills, and changing our ways of thinking, acting, and feeling. Learning in relation to living with diabetes is a lifelong process where there is limited knowledge of how it is experienced and established over time. It was considered important to explore how learning was developed over time for persons living with diabetes. Aim The aim of the study was to identify patterns in learning when living with diabetes, from recently being diagnosed, and over a 3-year period. Materials and methods A longitudinal qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirteen participants, with both type I and type II diabetes, were interviewed at three different occasions during a 3-year period. Qualitative content analysis was used in different steps in order to distinguish patterns. Findings Five main patterns of learning were identified. Two of the patterns (I and II) were characterized by gradually becoming comfortable living with diabetes, whereas for one pattern (IV) living with diabetes became gradually more difficult. For pattern V living with diabetes was making only a limited impact on life, whereas for Pattern III there was a constant management of obstacles related to illness. The different patterns in the present study showed common and different ways of learning and using different learning strategies at different timespans. Conclusion The present study showed that duration of illness is not of importance for how far a person has come in his own learning process. A person-centered care is needed to meet the different and changing needs of persons living with diabetes in relation to learning to live with a lifelong illness. PMID:25030359

  5. Estimation of primordial spectrum with post-WMAP 3-year data

    SciTech Connect

    Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-15

    In this paper we implement an improved (error-sensitive) Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm on the measured angular power spectrum from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 3 year data to determine the primordial power spectrum assuming different points in the cosmological parameter space for a flat {lambda}CDM cosmological model. We also present the preliminary results of the cosmological parameter estimation by assuming a free form of the primordial spectrum, for a reasonably large volume of the parameter space. The recovered spectrum for a considerably large number of the points in the cosmological parameter space has a likelihood far better than a 'best fit' power law spectrum up to {delta}{chi}{sub eff}{sup 2}{approx_equal}-30. We use discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for smoothing the raw recovered spectrum from the binned data. The results obtained here reconfirm and sharpen the conclusion drawn from our previous analysis of the WMAP 1st year data. A sharp cut off around the horizon scale and a bump after the horizon scale seem to be a common feature for all of these reconstructed primordial spectra. We have shown that although the WMAP 3 year data prefers a lower value of matter density for a power law form of the primordial spectrum, for a free form of the spectrum, we can get a very good likelihood to the data for higher values of matter density. We have also shown that even a flat cold dark matter model, allowing a free form of the primordial spectrum, can give a very high likelihood fit to the data. Theoretical interpretation of the results is open to the cosmology community. However, this work provides strong evidence that the data retains discriminatory power in the cosmological parameter space even when there is full freedom in choosing the primordial spectrum.

  6. Estimation of primordial spectrum with post-WMAP 3-year data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we implement an improved (error-sensitive) Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm on the measured angular power spectrum from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 3 year data to determine the primordial power spectrum assuming different points in the cosmological parameter space for a flat ΛCDM cosmological model. We also present the preliminary results of the cosmological parameter estimation by assuming a free form of the primordial spectrum, for a reasonably large volume of the parameter space. The recovered spectrum for a considerably large number of the points in the cosmological parameter space has a likelihood far better than a “best fit” power law spectrum up to Δχeff2≈-30. We use discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for smoothing the raw recovered spectrum from the binned data. The results obtained here reconfirm and sharpen the conclusion drawn from our previous analysis of the WMAP 1st year data. A sharp cut off around the horizon scale and a bump after the horizon scale seem to be a common feature for all of these reconstructed primordial spectra. We have shown that although the WMAP 3 year data prefers a lower value of matter density for a power law form of the primordial spectrum, for a free form of the spectrum, we can get a very good likelihood to the data for higher values of matter density. We have also shown that even a flat cold dark matter model, allowing a free form of the primordial spectrum, can give a very high likelihood fit to the data. Theoretical interpretation of the results is open to the cosmology community. However, this work provides strong evidence that the data retains discriminatory power in the cosmological parameter space even when there is full freedom in choosing the primordial spectrum.

  7. Latent class analysis of alcohol treatment utilization patterns and 3-year alcohol related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Orion; Glass, Joseph E; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette L

    2015-07-01

    People who obtain treatment for alcohol use problems often utilize multiple sources of help. While prior studies have classified treatment use patterns for alcohol use, an empirical classification of these patterns is lacking. For the current study, we created an empirically derived classification of treatment use and described how these classifications were prospectively associated with alcohol-related outcomes. Our sample included 257 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who first received alcohol treatment in the 3-year period prior to their baseline interview. We used latent class analysis to identify classes of treatment users based on their patterns of treatment use of 13 types of alcohol treatment. Regression models examined how classes of treatment use at baseline were associated with alcohol-related outcomes assessed at a 3-year follow-up interview. Outcomes included a continuous measure of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder status. Four classes of treatment users were identified: (1) multiservice users (8.7%), (2) private professional service users (32.8%), (3) alcoholics anonymous (AA) paired with specialty addiction service users (22.0%), and (4) users of AA alone (36.5%). Those who utilized AA paired with specialty addiction services had better outcomes compared to those who used AA alone. In addition to elucidating the most common treatment utilization patterns executed by people seeking help for their alcohol problems, the results from this study suggest that increased efforts may be needed to refer individuals across sectors of care to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:25744651

  8. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Trevor W.; Cook, Shaun; Klima, Cassidy L.; Topp, Ed; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a 3-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4) and again from the same cattle after ≥60 days on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7%) entry samples and 1,038 (20.6%) ≥ 60 days samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5, 2.9, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas five isolates (0.4%) were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥89% similarity) according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42), erm(A), erm(B), erm(F), erm(X) and msr(E)-mph(E), were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a 3-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle. PMID:24130555

  9. Changes in plant biomass and nutrient removal over 3 years in a constructed wetland in Cairns, Australia.

    PubMed

    Greenway, M; Woolley, A

    2001-01-01

    The surface flow wetland in Cairns, Australia consists of 3 linear channels each 65 m long. Channels 1 and 2 are 5 m wide and Channel 3 is 15 m wide. The wetland was constructed in 1994 and band planted with emergent macrophyte species and alternating open water sections. The wetland was monitored for plant growth and nutrient removal until 1997. During that period HRT was 16 days in Channel 1 and 10 days in Channels 2 and 3; mass loading rates were 2.4 kg Total N and 2.0 kg Total P ha(-1) d(-1) in Channel 1 and 3.7 kg TN and 3.3 kg TP ha(-1) d(-1) in Channels 2 and 3. The aim of this work was to determine the proportion of nutrient removal that could be attributed to direct uptake by macrophytes and incorporated into plant biomass. Over the 3 year monitoring period reduction in total mass of nutrients was: Channel 1: 26% P, 85% N; Channel 2: 28% P, 87% N; Channel 3: 21% P, 81% N. Percentage reduction of FRP (Filterable Reactive Phosphorus) was similar to TP; NOx removal was 97-98%. Mass removal rates for TN and TP were higher in Channels 2 and 3 despite greater nutrient loading rates and shorter detention times. Total FRP removal was 23 kg P in Channel 1, 33 kg P in Channel 2 and 70 kg P in Channel 3 of which plant biomass accounted for 65%, 44% and 47% respectively. Total nitrogen removal was 92 kg in Channel 1,154 kg in Channel 2 and 386 kg in Channel 3 of which plant biomass accounted for 47%, 27% and 27% respectively. Thus, in this tropical surface flow wetland supporting a mixture of emergent macrophytes and floating duckweed, vegetation is an important mechanism for direct nutrient removal. PMID:11804111

  10. [sup 187]Os-[sup 186]Os and [sup 187]Os-[sup 188]Os method of dating: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Q.Z.; Jagoutz, E.; Waenke, H. ); Verkhovskiy, A.B. )

    1993-08-01

    A Re-containing sample is irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor. The following reactions occur with high cross sections: [sup 185]Re(n, [gamma])[sup 186]Re and [sup 187]Re(n, [gamma])[sup 188]Re. Both [sup 186]Re (half-life 90.6 h) and [sup 188]Re (16.7 h) [beta]-decay to the stable isotopes [sup 186]Os and [sup 188]Os. Thus [sup 186]Os and [sup 188]Os are enriched in proportion to the neutron fluence and R/Os ratio of the sample being irradiated. Analyzing merely the isotopic composition of the sample, the authors get two ages that should be consistent. In one irradiated molybdenite sample from Kingsgate molybdenum mine in New South Wales, Australia, the measured [sup 186]Os/[sup 192]Os and [sup 188]Os/[sup 192]Os are 0.3284 and 0.6299, whereas in an unirradiated sample they are assumed to be 0.0390 and 0.3248. These ratios are measurable with negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (N-TIMS) to a precision of 1[per thousand]. The derived ages for this sample are t[sub 186] = 220.5 [+-] 8.6 Ma and t[sub 188] = 214.9 [+-] 8.9 Ma, respectively (or [+-] 1.4 Ma and [+-] 1.7 Ma, respectively, when excluding the uncertainty of [sup 187]Re half-life). These values are in close agreement with the 221--238 Ma K-Ar ages of the leucogranites emplacement that causes the Mo mineralization at Kingsgate. The major limiting factor on the precision of this age determination is the uncertainty in the half-life of [sup 187]Re. The errors associated with the irradiation parameters are greatly reduced by choosing an appropriate neutron flux monitor. The advantage of this method is that the Re/Os ratio is determined on the same sample and that only one measurement of the isotope composition of osmium is required, thus overcoming some of the experimental difficulties of the conventional Re-Os analysis. The problem of sample inhomogeneity and the need to measure the absolute concentrations of rhenium and osmium are thus eliminated. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Maxillary Overdentures Supported by Four Splinted Direct Metal Laser Sintering Implants: A 3-Year Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Francesco; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Nowadays, the advancements in direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technology allow the fabrication of titanium dental implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate implant survival, complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss of DMLS implants used to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures. Materials and Methods. Over a 2-year period, 120 implants were placed in the maxilla of 30 patients (18 males, 12 females) to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures (ODs). Each OD was supported by 4 implants splinted by a rigid cobalt-chrome bar. At each annual follow-up session, clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed. The outcome measures were implant failure, biological and prosthetic complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss (distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-to-implant contact, DIB). Results. The 3-year implant survival rate was 97.4% (implant-based) and 92.9% (patient-based). Three implants failed. The incidence of biological complication was 3.5% (implant-based) and 7.1% (patient-based). The incidence of prosthetic complication was 17.8% (patient-based). No detrimental effects on marginal bone level were evidenced. Conclusions. The use of 4 DMLS titanium implants to support bar-retained maxillary ODs seems to represent a safe and successful procedure. Long-term clinical studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25580124

  12. Airway accidents in critical care unit: A 3-year retrospective study in a Public Teaching Hospital of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sugata; Singh, Shipti Shradha; Chaudhuri, Arunima; Bhattacharya, Dipasri; Choudhury, Sourav Das

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although tracheal tubes are essential devices to control and protect airway in a critical care unit (CCU), they are not free from complications. Aims: To document the incidence and nature of airway accidents in the CCU of a government teaching hospital in Eastern India. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all airway accidents in a 5-bedded (medical and surgical) CCU. The number, types, timing, and severity of airway accidents were analyzed. Results: The total accident rate was 19 in 233 intubated and/or tracheostomized patients over 1657 tube days (TDs) during 3 years. Fourteen occurred in 232 endotracheally intubated patients over 1075 endotracheal tube (ETT) days, and five occurred in 44 tracheostomized patients over 580 tracheostomy TDs. Fifteen accidents were due to blocked tubes. Rest four were unplanned extubations (UEs), all being accidental extubations. All blockages occurred during night shifts and all UEs during day shifts. Five accidents were mild, the rest moderate. No major accident led to cardiorespiratory arrest or death. All blockages occurred after 7th day of intubation. The outcome of accidents were more favorable in tracheostomy group compared to ETT group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of airway accidents was 8.2 accidents per 100 patients. Blockages were the most common accidents followed by UEs. Ten out of the 15 blockages and all 4 UEs were in endotracheally intubated patients. Tracheostomized patients had 5 blockages and no UEs. PMID:27076709

  13. Reliability of biologic indicators in a mail-return sterilization-monitoring service: a review of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Andrés, M T; Tejerina, J M; Fierro, J F

    1995-12-01

    Most mail-return sterilization-monitoring services use spore strips to test sterilizers in dental clinics, but factors such as delay caused by mailing to the laboratory could cause false negatives. The aims of this study were to determine the influence of poststerilization time and temperature on the biologic indicator recovery system and to evaluate sterilization failure and its possible causes in dental clinics subscribing to a mail-return sterilization-monitoring service. Spore strips used in independent tests revealed the poststerilization time and temperature after a 7-day delay to have no significant influence. Sixty-six dental clinics that received quarterly biologic indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of their sterilizers had sterilization failure rates of 28.7% in 1992, 18.1% in 1993, and 9.1% in 1994, a statistically significant decrease in sterilization failure during the 3-year period. The usual causes of failure were operator error in wrapping of instruments, loading, operating temperature, or exposure time. PMID:8596817

  14. 3-years Occurrence Variability of Concentric Gravity Waves in the Mesopause Observed by IMAP/VISI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perwitasari, S.; Sakanoi, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Yamazaki, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Hozumi, Y.; Saito, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report a study of 3-years occurrence variability of concentric gravity waves (CGWs) in the mesopause observed by IMAP/VISI instrument. CGWs are fascinating to be studied because of its unique characteristic that shows the direct coupling between lower and upper atmosphere. The Visible and near-Infrared Spectral Imager (VISI) of the IMAP mission was launched successfully on July 21, 2012 with H-IIB/HTV-3 and installed onto the International Space Station (ISS). IMAP/VISI is now operated in the night side hemisphere with a range of +/- 51 deg. in geographic latitude and measuring three airglow emissions of OI (630 nm), OH Meinel (730 nm) and O2 (762 nm) with a typical spatial resolution of 16 - 50 km in the nadir direction. In this study, we analyzed 3 years data taken by IMAP/VISI from October 2012 to June 2015. We found total 172 CGWs events in the O2 (762nm) airglow emissions out of 4853 data paths in 2013, 92 events out of 4809 data paths in 2014 and 46 events from 2112 data paths in 2015. The monthly occurrence probability shows a similar trend for each year, a clear seasonal dependence with the peak around March-April and August-September. The weak background winds in the middle atmosphere during the equinoxes are likely responsible for the seasonal dependence. We calculated the horizontal wavelength and radius maximum by fitting the circular wavefronts to a circle. The source of CGWs then identified from meteorological satellite data around the estimated center. The horizontal wavelength was found varying from 44-300 km and radius maximum up to 3000 km, showing that CGWs can affect large area in mesopause. In most cases, the CGWs appeared as arc-like shape instead of full circle. It indicates that the background wind filter allows the wave to propagate in a particular direction and filter out the other directions. The detailed discussion on horizontal wavelength distribution, the sources and background profiles influence on the variability of the CGWs

  15. Transoral robotic surgery for hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: 3-year oncologic and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Min; Kim, Won Shik; De Virgilio, Armando; Lee, So Yoon; Seol, Jeong Hun; Kim, Se-Heon

    2012-06-01

    The recent trend in treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer is organ preservation in order to maintain swallowing and speech function as well as improve quality of life. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) can remove hypopharyngeal lesions successfully without an external incision, preserving physiologic functions of affected organs. However, studies have yet to assess the oncologic and functional results of TORS for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer. This prospective study evaluated the oncologic and functional results of TORS for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer obtained at our institution over a period of 3 years and confirmed the validity of TORS as a surgical organ-preserving strategy. Between April 2008 and September 2011, 23 patients who were diagnosed with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent TORS for removal of a primary lesion. The da Vinci Robotic system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, California) was used to remove the lesion. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze overall survival and disease-free survival. Videopharyngogram study (VEF) was performed and functional outcome swallowing scale (FOSS) was utilized to measure and evaluate swallowing function. Acoustic wave form analysis was conducted to evaluate voice status. Overall survival at 3 years was 89% and disease-free survival was 84%. On the VEF study, serious aspiration or delay of swallowing was not observed during the pharyngeal stage of the swallowing process. Overall, 96% of the patients showed favorable swallowing abilities with an FOSS score ranging from 0 to 2. The fundamental frequency variation (vF0) and jitter were increased upon acoustic waveform analysis (vF0=2.71 ± 0.063, Jitter=2.01 ± 0.034), but the harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) and shimmer were maintained close to the normal range (HNR=1.28 ± 0.001, Shim=1.74 ± 0.036). The oncologic and functional results of TORS were quite acceptable for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer. TORS is a valid treatment option as a

  16. Sustained favorable long-term outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia: a 3-year prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study of chronically ill patients with schizophrenia aimed to identify patients who achieve sustained favorable long-term outcome - when the outcome incorporates severity of symptoms, level of functioning, and use of acute care services - and to identify the best baseline predictors of achieving this sustained favorable long-term outcome. Methods Using data from the United States Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program (US-SCAP) (N = 2327), a large 3-year prospective, multisite, observational study of individuals treated for schizophrenia in the US, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to group patients based upon baseline symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores, level of functioning, and use of acute care services. Level of functioning reflected patient-reported productivity and clinician-rated occupational role functioning. Use of acute care services reflected self-reported psychiatric hospitalization and emergency service use. Change of health state was determined over the 3-year period. A patient was classified as having a sustained favorable long-term outcome if their health state values had the closest distance to the defined "best baseline cluster" at each point over the length of the study. Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine baseline predictors of sustained favorable long-term outcome. Results At baseline, 5 distinct health state clusters were identified, ranging from "best" to "worst." Of 1635 patients with sufficient data, only 157 (10%) experienced sustained favorable long-term outcome during the 2-years postbaseline. The baseline predictors associated with sustained favorable long-term outcome included better quality of life, more daily activities, patient-reported clearer thinking from medication, better global functioning, being employed, not being a victim of a crime, not having received individual therapy, and not having received help

  17. Impacts of anemia on 3-year ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a propensity-matched study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Miaohan; Li, Jing; Wang, Heyang; Qi, Jing; Wang, Geng; Xu, Kai; Liu, Haiwei; Zhao, Xin; Jing, Quanmin; Han, Yaling

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia correlates with worse outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), improved anemia can improve the outcomes in patients who underwent PCI. But the influence of anemia on long-term ischemic events after PCI remains unknown. Methods We analyzed 8,825 consecutive patients who underwent PCI at General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region and identified 581 patients with anemia. Patients (anemia vs. no anemia) were compared using a propensity score analysis to best match between groups. The main outcome of this study is 3-year ischemic events after PCI, the secondary outcome of this study is 3-year mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after PCI. Results Compared with nonanemic patients, anemic patients were often female (38.90% vs. 14.51%) and elder patients (66.44% vs. 34.95%). Anemic patients have lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and creatinine clearance (Ccr) and were more likely to have history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, peripheral vascular diseases (PVD) (P<0.05). However, the prevalences of diabetes and hyperlipidemia were lower in anemic patients (P<0.01). Anemia was an independent predictor for 3-year ischemic events [hazard ratio (HR): 2.20, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.61-3.00, P<0.01], 3-year mortality (HR: 3.58, 95% CI: 1.75-7.32, P<0.01) and 3-year MACE (HR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.64-2.79, P<0.01) after PCI in post-match samples. The incidence of 3-year ischemic events was 41.0% and 19.3% in anemic and nonanemic patients, respectively. Conclusions Anemia is an independent predictor for 3-year ischemic events, 3-year mortality and 3-year MACE in patients who underwent PCI. Further studies need to explore the impact of the pathogenesis and progress, prevention and therapy of anemia on the outcome of patients undergoing PCI. PMID:26716033

  18. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene as a Biomarker of PAH Exposure in 3-Year-Old Ukrainian Children

    PubMed Central

    Mucha, Amy Pelka; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Serdyuk, Andrij; Nakonechny, Joseph; Zvinchuk, Alexander; Erdal, Serap; Caudill, Motria; Scheff, Peter; Lukyanova, Elena; Shkiryak-Nyzhnyk, Zoreslava; Chislovska, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. We measured urinary 1-OHP in 48 children 3 years of age in Mariupol, Ukraine, who lived near a steel mill and coking facility and compared these with 1-OHP concentrations measured in 42 children of the same age living in the capital city of Kiev, Ukraine. Children living in Mariupol had significantly higher urinary 1-OHP and creatinine-adjusted urinary 1-OHP than did children living in Kiev (adjusted: 0.69 vs. 0.34 μmol/mol creatinine, p < 0.001; unadjusted: 0.42 vs. 0.30 ng/mL, p = 0.002). Combined, children in both cities exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes had higher 1-OHP than did children not exposed (0.61 vs. 0.42 μmol/mol creatinine; p = 0.04; p = 0.07 after adjusting for city). In addition, no significant differences were seen with sex of the children. Our sample of children in Mariupol has the highest reported mean urinary 1-OHP concentrations in children studied to date, most likely due to their proximity to a large industrial point source of PAHs. PMID:16581553

  19. Diffuse Spinal Leptomeningeal Spread of a Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a 3-year-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Alyeldien, Ameer; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Cheko, Azad; Höll, Tanja; Scholz, Martin; Petridis, Athanasios K.

    2016-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas correspond to low-grade gliomas and therefore metastasize exceedingly rare. However, pilocytic astrocytomas are able to and leptomeningeal dissemination may be seen. What are the treatment options of these cases? We present a case report of a 3-year-old child with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm with leptomeningeal dissemination of the spinal meninges. Partial resection of the cerebral tumor has been performed. Since the leptomeningeal dissemination was seen all over the spinal meninges, the child did not undergo further surgical treatment. A wait and watch strategy were followed. Chemotherapy was initiated, if a 25% tumor growth was seen. Leptomeningeal dissemination of a pilocytic astrocytoma is seen so infrequently that no standard therapy is established. Since these metastases may occur even up to 2 decades after primary tumor resection, long-term follow-up is indicated. In case of spinal metastases, surgical treatment should be performed if feasible. Otherwise observation should be possessed and/or chemotherapy should be initiated. PMID:27162602

  20. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72 hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day. Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment. PMID:25906092

  1. [Transfer of cardiac catheterisation from a paediatric to an adult cardiological centre: results at 3 years].

    PubMed

    Agnoletti, G; Boudjemline, Y; Ladouceur, M; Iserin, L

    2007-05-01

    The advances of surgical and interventional treatment of congenital heart diseases have allowed a large number of patients with congenital heart disease to reach adult age. This population involves almost 0.3/1000 of total population in West Europe and North America and can be estimated around 200000 patients in France. Patients with operated Tetralogy of Fallot, benign forms of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, simple or complex transposition of the great arteries usually survive beyond childhood. These patients can need repeated interventions to treat lesions of native or reconstructed pulmonary arteries and/or aortic arch, to occlude residual shunts, to treat pulmonary incompetence. More complex heart diseases such as single ventricle, rarely allow survival until the adult age. The majority of these patients undergo heart transplant, often made difficult by multiple cardiac surgeries, anomalies of pulmonary arteries, chronic cyanosis, aorto-pulmonary shunts. Patients with relatively simple or complex congenital heart diseases need to be followed-up in specialized units, like those created more than twenty years ago in the United States, Canada, and United Kingdom. Interventional cardiac catheterisation play a major role in the management of this population. The results of 3 years of activity in a new centre treating GUCH patients are illustrated. PMID:17646764

  2. Successful Medical Treatment of Adult Nesidioblastosis With Pasireotide over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Schwetz, Verena; Horvath, Karl; Kump, Patrizia; Lackner, Carolin; Perren, Aurel; Forrer, Flavio; Pieber, Thomas R.; Treiber, Gerlies; Sourij, Harald; Mader, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nesidioblastosis is a rare cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults. Diagnosis is often challenging and therapeutic options are scarce. In 2009, a 46-year-old female patient presented with recurrent severe hypoglycemia and immediate recovery after glucose ingestion. Although 72-h-fasting test was positive, various imaging technologies (sonography, computed tomography, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, dopamine receptor positron emission tomography [DOPA-PET]) were negative. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a lesion in the pancreatic corpus, whereas selective arterial calcium stimulation test, portal venous sampling and GLP-1-receptor scintigraphy were indicative of a lesion in the pancreatic tail, which was surgically removed. The histopathologic examination revealed beta cell hyperplasia and microadenomas expressing glucagon. After surgery, the patient was free of symptoms for 6 months, after which hypoglycemic episodes recurred. After unsuccessful treatment with corticosteroids and somatostatin analogs, treatment with pasireotide, a novel somatostatin analog with high affinity to somatostatin receptor 5 and a possible side effect of hyperglycemia, was initiated (0.6 mg BID). To date, our patient has been free of severe hypoglycemic episodes ever since. Yearly repeated imaging procedures have shown no abnormities over the last 3 years. We report for the first time that pasireotide was successfully used in the treatment of adult nesidioblastosis. PMID:27057885

  3. Corticotomy-assisted rapid maxillary expansion: A novel approach with a 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Echchadi, Mohamed Elmehdi; Benchikh, Basma; Bellamine, Meriem; Kim, Seong-Hun

    2015-07-01

    This case report introduces a new approach of corticotomy-assisted rapid maxillary expansion for treating a severe maxillary transverse discrepancy in a skeletally mature patient. This approach uses piezo-bone perforation in conjunction with a fixed appliance and an expander. This report describes the treatment of a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary transverse discrepancy. She had a straight profile, severe maxillary crowding, a maxillomandibular transverse differential index of 9 mm, and a Class I skeletal relationship. The treatment protocol consisted of surgical intervention with piezo-bone perforation and active orthodontic therapy. Immediately after the piezo-bone perforation on the lateral buccal side of the maxilla, active orthodontic therapy was started with activation of an expander. The expander was reactivated weekly. Treatment duration was 5 months 2 weeks. Proper overbite and overjet, facial balance, and occlusion were achieved. The treatment outcome was stable at the 3-year follow up. This treatment approach considerably reduced the treatment time and gained bony volume. Additionally, it transformed the periodontal biotype in contrast to conventional therapy. This approach is a good alternative for treating a severe maxillary transverse discrepancy in a skeletally mature patient, especially for a patient who does not want surgical rapid palatal expansion. PMID:26124037

  4. Gender Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use Among Transgender Women: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Results. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Conclusions. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population. PMID:25211716

  5. Periosteal desmoplastic fibroma of the tibia in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Sferopoulos, N K

    2015-12-01

    Desmoplastic fibroma is a rare benign fibrogenic, locally aggressive, primary bone tumor. It is the intraosseous counterpart of soft tissue aggressive fibromatosis. The lesion may very rarely appear as a superficial bone lesion arising from the periosteum; in such cases, a soft tissue mass with changes in the adjacent bone is evident. Periosteal lesions are very rare in the literature; diagnosis is usually based on the radiographic findings, and histological proof of the tumor origin is missing. A periosteal desmoplastic fibroma of the distal tibial metaphysis in a 3-year-old boy is presented. Radiographic investigation included plain radiographs and computed tomography imaging. Both demonstrated a soft tissue lesion involving the superficial bone tissues with non-aggressive looking borders and a pressure effect with a sclerotic rim in the bone. The lesion was excised, and the surgical as well as the histological findings indicated the diagnosis of a desmoplastic fibroma of bone arising from the periosteum. No recurrence was detected 5 years after surgery. PMID:26265404

  6. Psychiatric diagnoses among quitters versus continuing smokers 3 years after their quit day

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Megan E.; Rodock, Matthew; Cook, Jessica W.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    Background People with psychiatric disorders are more likely to smoke and smoke more heavily than the general population, and they suffer disproportionally from smoking-related illnesses. However, little is known about how quitting versus continuing to smoke affects mental health and the likelihood of developing a psychiatric diagnosis. This study used data from a large prospective clinical trial to examine the relations of smoking cessation success with psychiatric diagnoses 1 and 3 years after the target quit day. Methods This study enrolled 1504 smokers (83.9% white; 58.2% female) in a cessation trial that involved the completion of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric diagnoses and biochemical confirmation of point-prevalence abstinence at Baseline and Years 1 and 3. Results Regression analyses showed that, after controlling for pre-quit (past-year) diagnoses, participants who were smoking at the Year 3 follow-up were more likely to have developed and maintained a substance use or major depressive disorder by that time than were individuals who were abstinent at Year 3. Conclusions Quitting smoking does not appear to negatively influence mental health in the long-term and may be protective with respect to depression and substance use diagnoses; this should encourage smokers to make quit attempts and encourage clinicians to provide cessation treatment. PMID:22995766

  7. How selective are 3-year-olds in imitating novel linguistic material?

    PubMed

    Bannard, Colin; Klinger, Jörn; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-12-01

    In 3 studies we explored when 3-year-olds would imitate novel words in utterances produced by adult speakers. Child and experimenter took turns in requesting objects from a game master. The experimenter always went first and always preceded the object's familiar name with a novel adjective (e.g., "the dilsige duck"). In the first 2 experiments, we found that children were more likely to reproduce the adjective when there were 2 different instances of the same object present in the situation than when there was only 1 or when there were 2 objects of different types present. Thus, children seemed to be sensitive to the descriptive and contrastive function of the adjectives in determining which parts of the utterances to reproduce. Nonetheless, replication of even redundant material was over 50%, suggesting a strategy of somewhat blind copying. In the 3rd experiment, we found that children were less likely to reproduce a redundant adjective when the speaker indicated gesturally that he did not intend to produce it than when he clearly produced it intentionally. We distinguish insightful imitation (the copying of a speaker's goal and means when motivated by insight into why those particular means were chosen) and blind imitation (the copying of a speaker's goal and means with no awareness of why those specific means were chosen) from mimicry. We explore the roles that these modes of imitation might play in language development. PMID:23458663

  8. Conservative management of external root resorption after tooth reimplantation: a 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ionta, Franciny Querobim; de Oliveira, Gabriela Cristina; de Alencar, Catarina Ribeiro Barros; Gonçalves, Priscilla Santana Pinto; Alcalde, Murilo Priori; Minotti, Paloma Gagliardi; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Rios, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a 9-year-old patient who suffered external root resorption of the permanent maxillary left lateral incisor following reimplantation of the avulsed left central and lateral incisors. Sixteen days after reimplantation and splinting of the incisors in a hospital emergency department, the patient was brought to the pediatric department of a dental school for further treatment. Root canal access was created in the maxillary left lateral and central incisors, and calcium hydroxide paste was used as intracanal dressing. At the 5-month follow-up, a radiograph revealed extensive external root resorption, a communicating root canal, and a periodontal lesion affecting the left lateral incisor. Management of the root resorption included obturation of the apical third of the canal with gutta percha and the middle third with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). At the 3-year recall examination, the patient was asymptomatic, and no mobility or soft tissue alterations were observed clinically. There was no radiographic sign that resorption had progressed. Despite the success of treatment, observation is still required. The use of MTA may be considered an alternative treatment for external root resorption after tooth reimplantation. The technique may allow tooth preservation in children until skeletal growth and development are completed and implant treatment may be considered. PMID:27367632

  9. Association of maternal prenatal depressive symptoms with child cognition at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Tse, Alison C; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2010-05-01

    We examined the association of prenatal depressive symptoms at mid-pregnancy with child cognition at age 3 years in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study of 1030 mother-child pairs in eastern Massachusetts. We measured maternal depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), a self-report measure validated for use during pregnancy. Measures of child cognition included the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and the Wide Range Achievement of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). At mid-pregnancy, 81 mothers (7.9%) scored 13 or above on the EPDS, indicating probable depression. In the unadjusted model, children born to mothers with prenatal depressive symptoms had PPVT scores that were 3.8 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI) -7.1, -0.5]. With adjustment for sociodemographic variables, the association substantially attenuated [adjusted regression coefficient b for PPVT score = -0.7 (95% CI -3.6, 2.3)]. In both unadjusted and multivariable models, prenatal depressive symptoms were not associated with WRAVMA scores [adjusted b for total WRAVMA score = -0.5 (95% CI -3.0, 2.1)]. We found no evidence to suggest that maternal prenatal depression is independently associated with early child cognition. PMID:20415752

  10. The Megha-Tropiques Mission: Review and Status after 3 Years in Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Megha-Tropiques satellite is the indo-french contribution to the Global Precipitation Mission constellation.The operation of the MT mission has recently been formally extended for 2015 and 2016 after reaching in october this year its original 3 years duration. While the MADRAS instrument stopped data acquisition in January 2013, the SAPHIR multichannel 183 GHz sounder is up and running nominally. Real time distribution of SAPHIR is performed by EUMETSAT via the EUMETcast system since mid-2014.In this presentation, I will review the performances of the microwave radiometers on-board MT and illustrate thescientific outcome of the mission as well as the results of the extensive validation exercices which have been finalized. I will put the emphasis on the impact of the low inclinaison orbit on assimilation, convective systems monitoring and estimation of precipitation. In particular, I will show how the SAPHIR radiometer data are used in our GPM multiple platforms merged 1°-1day accumulated rainfall product to mitigate the loss of MADRAS.

  11. A Statistical Skull Geometry Model for Children 0-3 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Park, Byoung-Keon; Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Jinhuan; Reed, Matthew P.; Rupp, Jonathan D.; Hoff, Carrie N.; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Head injury is the leading cause of fatality and long-term disability for children. Pediatric heads change rapidly in both size and shape during growth, especially for children under 3 years old (YO). To accurately assess the head injury risks for children, it is necessary to understand the geometry of the pediatric head and how morphologic features influence injury causation within the 0–3 YO population. In this study, head CT scans from fifty-six 0–3 YO children were used to develop a statistical model of pediatric skull geometry. Geometric features important for injury prediction, including skull size and shape, skull thickness and suture width, along with their variations among the sample population, were quantified through a series of image and statistical analyses. The size and shape of the pediatric skull change significantly with age and head circumference. The skull thickness and suture width vary with age, head circumference and location, which will have important effects on skull stiffness and injury prediction. The statistical geometry model developed in this study can provide a geometrical basis for future development of child anthropomorphic test devices and pediatric head finite element models. PMID:25992998

  12. Amorphous and crystalline polyetheretherketone: Mechanical properties and tissue reactions during a 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Kallela, Ilkka; Wuolijoki, Erkki; Kainulainen, Heikki; Hiidenheimo, Ilmari; Rantala, Immo

    2008-02-01

    The study was aimed to test the mechanical strength, structural stability, and tissue reactions of optically amorphous and crystalline polyetheretherketone (PEEK) plates during a 3-year follow-up in vivo and in vitro. The injection-moulded PEEK plates were implanted to the dorsal subcutis of 12 sheep, which were sacrificed at 6-156 weeks. Thereafter, the plates were subjected to tensile tests, and levels of crystallinity were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Histological evaluation was carried out using the paraffin technique. In vitro properties were examined with the tensile test and DSC at 0-156 weeks. Tissue reactions were mild and fairly similar for the amorphous and crystalline plates at corresponding points in time. The mechanical characteristics of the plates remained stable over the entire follow-up. The tensile yield load and elongation at the yield load of the crystalline plates were roughly double ( approximately 500 vs. 270 N and 2.4 vs. 1.4 mm, respectively) in comparison to the amorphous plates. The elongation at break load of the crystalline plates was smaller than that of the amorphous ones (6 vs. 10). The level of crystallinity in both the optically amorphous ( approximately 15%) and crystalline (32-34%) plates remained invariable during the follow-up. The in vitro and in vivo data coincided remarkably well. In conclusion, both optically amorphous and crystalline PEEK plates are suitable for the fixation of fractures and osteotomies. PMID:17618477

  13. Dietary intake by Dutch 1- to 3-year-old children at childcare and at home.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Raaijmakers, Lieke G M; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Kremers, Stef P J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to assess dietary intake in a large sample (N=1016) of Dutch toddlers (1-3 years old), both at childcare and at home. Dietary intake during two weekdays was recorded using an observation format applied by childcare staff for intake at childcare, and partially pre-coded dietary journals filled out by parents for intake at home. Children's intake of energy, macronutrients and energy balance-related food groups (fruit, vegetables, sweet snacks, savoury snacks) were compared with Dutch dietary guidelines. In addition, differences between the dietary intake by various subgroups (based on gender, age, childcare attendance, socio-economic status of childcare centre) were explored using multilevel regression analyses, adjusting for nesting of children within centres. Energy intake was high relative to dietary guidelines, and children consumed more or less equal amounts of energy at home and at childcare. Dietary fibre, fruit and vegetable and snack intakes were low. Intake at childcare mainly consisted of carbohydrates, while intake at home contained more proteins and fat. The findings imply various opportunities for childcare centres to improve children's dietary intake, such as providing fruit and vegetables at snacking moments. In addition, the findings underline the importance of assessing dietary intake over a whole day, both at childcare and at home, to allow intake to be compared with dietary guidelines. PMID:24406847

  14. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Do words cue children’s visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information. PMID:24720802

  15. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information. PMID:24720802

  16. A Case of Dentin Dysplasia with Full Mouth Rehabilitation: A 3-year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Dheeraj; Likhyani, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dentin dysplasia, a rare hereditary disorder of dentin formation, is characterized by normal enamel but atypical dentin formation along with abnormal pulpal morphology. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. It has been divided into two clinical entities: type I (radicular) and type II (coronal). Early diagnosis and initiation of effective regular dental treatments may help the patients with this condition to delay or prevent the loss of the entire dentition and help them in cope up with edentulous state in early ages. The condition undoubtedly has a negative impact on the physical and psychological well-being of the affected individual. Numerous factors have to be considered during the prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with dentin dysplasia. Treatment protocol varies according to clinical case. Although literature reports suggest general guidelines for treatment planning, the present case report describes a full mouth rehabilitation of an 8-year-old female patient with dentin dysplasia. How to cite this article: Khandelwal S, Gupta D, Likhyani L. A Case of Dentin Dysplasia with Full Mouth Rehabilitation: A 3-year Longitudinal Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2): 119-124. PMID:25356011

  17. Diffuse Spinal Leptomeningeal Spread of a Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a 3-year-old Child.

    PubMed

    Alyeldien, Ameer; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Cheko, Azad; Höll, Tanja; Scholz, Martin; Petridis, Athanasios K

    2016-03-25

    Pilocytic astrocytomas correspond to low-grade gliomas and therefore metastasize exceedingly rare. However, pilocytic astrocytomas are able to and leptomeningeal dissemination may be seen. What are the treatment options of these cases? We present a case report of a 3-year-old child with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm with leptomeningeal dissemination of the spinal meninges. Partial resection of the cerebral tumor has been performed. Since the leptomeningeal dissemination was seen all over the spinal meninges, the child did not undergo further surgical treatment. A wait and watch strategy were followed. Chemotherapy was initiated, if a 25% tumor growth was seen. Leptomeningeal dissemination of a pilocytic astrocytoma is seen so infrequently that no standard therapy is established. Since these metastases may occur even up to 2 decades after primary tumor resection, long-term follow-up is indicated. In case of spinal metastases, surgical treatment should be performed if feasible. Otherwise observation should be possessed and/or chemotherapy should be initiated. PMID:27162602

  18. Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections during the First 3 Years of Life in the Tropics; Findings from a Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Stefanie K.; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha; Sandoval, Carlos; Broncano, Nely; Guadalupe, Irene; Cooper, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infect more than 2 billion humans worldwide, causing significant morbidity in children. There are few data on the epidemiology and risk factors for infection in pre-school children. To investigate risk factors for infection in early childhood, we analysed data prospectively collected in the ECUAVIDA birth cohort in Ecuador. Methods and Findings Children were recruited at birth and followed up to 3 years of age with periodic collection of stool samples that were examined microscopically for STH parasites. Data on social, demographic, and environmental risk factors were collected from the mother at time of enrolment. Associations between exposures and detection of STH infections were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Data were analysed from 1,697 children for whom a stool sample was obtained at 3 years. 42.3% had at least one STH infection in the first 3 years of life and the most common infections were caused by A. lumbricoides (33.2% of children) and T. trichiura (21.2%). Hookworm infection was detected in 0.9% of children. Risk of STH infection was associated with factors indicative of poverty in our study population such as Afro-Ecuadorian ethnicity and low maternal educational level. Maternal STH infections during pregnancy were strong risk factors for any childhood STH infection, infections with either A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura, and early age of first STH infection. Children of mothers with moderate to high infections intensities with A. lumbricoides were most at risk. Conclusions Our data show high rates of infection with STH parasites during the first 3 years of life in an Ecuadorian birth cohort, an observation that was strongly associated with maternal STH infections during pregnancy. The targeted treatment of women of childbearing age, in particular before pregnancy, with anthelmintic drugs could offer a novel approach to the prevention of STH infections in pre-school children. PMID:24587469

  19. Everolimus and early calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal: 3-year results from a randomized trial in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sterneck, M; Kaiser, G M; Heyne, N; Richter, N; Rauchfuss, F; Pascher, A; Schemmer, P; Fischer, L; Klein, C G; Nadalin, S; Lehner, F; Settmacher, U; Neuhaus, P; Gotthardt, D; Loss, M; Ladenburger, S; Paulus, E M; Mertens, M; Schlitt, H J

    2014-03-01

    The feasibility of de novo everolimus without calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy following liver transplantation was assessed in a multicenter, prospective, open-label trial. Liver transplant patients were randomized at 4 weeks to start everolimus and discontinue CNI, or continue their current CNI-based regimen. The primary endpoint was adjusted estimated GFR (eGFR; Cockcroft-Gault) at month 11 post randomization. A 24-month extension phase followed 81/114 (71.1%) of eligible patients to month 35 post randomization. The adjusted mean eGFR benefit from randomization to month 35 was 10.1 mL/min (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.3, 21.5 mL/min, p = 0.082) in favor of CNI-free versus CNI using Cockcroft-Gault, 9.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI -0.4, 18.9, p = 0.053) with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (four-variable) and 9.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI -1.1, 17.9, p = 0.028) using Nankivell. The difference in favor of the CNI-free regimen increased gradually over time due to a small progressive decline in eGFR in the CNI cohort despite a reduction in CNI exposure. Biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss and death were similar between groups. Adverse events led to study drug discontinuation in five CNI-free patients and five CNI patients (12.2% vs. 12.5%, p = 1.000) during the extension phase. Everolimus-based CNI-free immunosuppression is feasible following liver transplantation and patients benefit from sustained preservation of renal function versus patients on CNI for at least 3 years. PMID:24502384

  20. High concordance of daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes in individuals measured 1 to 3 years apart.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; Atkinson, Charlotte; Thomas, Wendy K; Gonzalez, Alex; Jokela, Tuija; Wähälä, Kristiina; Schwartz, Stephen M; Li, Shuying S; Lampe, Johanna W

    2005-12-01

    Particular intestinal bacteria are capable of metabolizing the soya isoflavone daidzein to equol and/or O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), and the presence of these metabolites in urine after soya consumption are markers of particular intestinal bacteria profiles. Prevalences of equol producers and O-DMA producers are approximately 30-50 % and 80-90 %, respectively, and limited observations have suggested that these daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes are stable within individuals over time. Characterizing stability of these phenotypes is important to understand their potential as markers of long-term exposure to particular intestinal bacteria and their associations with disease risk. We evaluated concordance within an individual for the equol-producer and O-DMA-producer phenotypes measured at two time points (T1, T2), 1-3 years apart. Phenotypes were ascertained by analysing equol and O-DMA using GC-MS in a spot urine sample collected after 3 d soya (source of daidzein) supplementation. In ninety-two individuals without recent (within 3 months before phenotyping) or current antibiotics use, 41 % were equol producers at T1 and 45 % were equol producers at T2, and 90 % were O-DMA producers at T1 and 95 % were O-DMA producers at T2. The percentage agreement for the equol-producer phenotype was 82 and for the O-DMA-producer phenotype was 89. These results indicate that these phenotypes are stable in most individuals over time, suggesting that they provide a useful biomarker for evaluating disease risk associated with harbouring particular intestinal bacteria responsible for, or associated with, the metabolism of the soya isoflavone daidzein. PMID:16351761

  1. Breastfeeding and dietary variety among preterm children aged 1-3 years.

    PubMed

    Husk, Jesse S; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-04-01

    Among infants born at term, breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety in childhood. Preterm birth can limit early feeding options while simultaneously increasing risk for negative health outcomes that could benefit from dietary-based preventative measures. We assessed whether breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety at 1-3 years amongst children born preterm. We analyzed baseline data from two clinical trials investigating cognitive development after fatty-acid supplementation for 10-39 month-old children born before 35 weeks gestation (n = 189). At baseline, mothers reported breastfeeding history and completed a 161-item food-frequency questionnaire for their child. Dietary variety was assessed via 3 measures: (1) proportion items consumed at least once per month, (2) servings of a given item consumed relative to total monthly food servings, (3) daily probability of consuming a given item. Overall, 88% of children were ever breastfed (median duration = 89 days, range = 0-539), and 48% of children were ever exclusively breastfed (median duration = 59 days, range = 3-240). Exclusive breastfeeding duration was associated with dietary variety increases of 0.9% (95% CI = 0.1-1.7) for vegetables, 1.6% (95% CI = 0.2-3.0) for meat/fish, and 1.3% (95% CI = 0.2-2.4) for grain/starch, for each additional month of exclusive breastfeeding after adjustment for key confounders. Correspondingly, the variety of sweets consumed decreased by 1.2% (CI: -2.1, -0.3) per month of any breastfeeding after adjustment. These results are consistent with those in children born at term, and if causal, could provide additional support for exclusive breastfeeding to improve diet and health in children born preterm. PMID:26792771

  2. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 μg/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  3. Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Rural Cambodia: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844

  4. NASA IKONOS Multispectral Radiometric Calibration and 3-Year Temporal Stability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen; Aaran, David

    2003-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other system. In addition, the user community has little or no insight into the design and operation of commercial sensors or into the methods involved in generating commercial products. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) Directorate established a commercial satellite imaging radiometric calibration team consisting of three independent groups: NASA, SSC,ESA, the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group, and South Dacota State University. Each group determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Space Imaging IKONOS 4-band, 4 m multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a three year period beginning in 2000, each team employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, requiring ground-based measurements coincident with IKONOS image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. Several study sites throughout the United States were employed that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the IKONOS sensor. IKONOS at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent group to determine the IKONOS sensor's radiometric accuracy and stability. Over 10 individual vicariously determined at-sensor radiance estimates were used each year. When combined, these estimates provided a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. No significant calibration offset was observed. The results of this evaluation provide the scientific community with an independent assessment of the IKONOS sensor's absolute calibration and temporal stability over the 3

  5. Biomass and morphology of fine roots of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) after 3 years of nitrogen fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nagakura, Junko; Kaneko, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition may affect carbon and nutrient dynamics in forest ecosystems. To better understand the effects of N deposition, we need to improve our knowledge of N effects on fine roots (roots <2 mm in diameter), as they are a key factor in carbon and nutrient dynamics. In this study, we fertilized 1 × 2 m plots in a sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) stand (336 kg ha-1 y-1) for 3 years and evaluated the responses of the fine roots to high N load. After fertilization, the concentration of NO3–N in the soil of N-fertilized (NF) plots was five-times as large as that in the control plots and the effect was more remarkable in the subsurface soil than in the surface soil. The biomass of fine roots <2 mm in diameter appeared to be greater in the NF plots (88 ± 19 g m-2) than in the control plots (56 ± 14 g m-2), but this difference was not statistically significant. In both plots, 76% of the biomass was accounted for by fine roots that were <1 mm in diameter. In the surface soil, the specific root length of fine roots <1 mm in diameter was significantly greater, and the diameter of those fine roots was marginally smaller, in the NF plots than in the control plots. In addition, the concentration of N in fine roots <1 mm in diameter was marginally greater in the NF plots than in the control plots. There may have been increased production of thinner fine roots or increased root branching in the NF plots. This study suggests that, in general, high N load is likely to have positive effects on sugi in terms of fine root characteristics and the effects on fine-root morphology are more evident than the effects on fine-root biomass. PMID:24027575

  6. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients: a 3-year multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV(+); the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774

  7. Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompromised Patients: a 3-Year Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV+; the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774

  8. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both. PMID:26041449

  9. Thyrotoxicosis after a massive levothyroxine ingestion in a 3-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Hays, Hannah L; Jolliff, Heath A; Casavant, Marcel J

    2013-11-01

    Most children with exploratory levothyroxine ingestions remain asymptomatic or suffer only minor effects, and most patients can be managed in the home or with supportive care in the hospital. We present a case of a 3-year-old girl who was found after a witnessed massive ingestion of levothyroxine. The patient was initially seen in an emergency department and discharged in stable condition, only to return 4 days after ingestion with thyrotoxicosis, hypertension, tachycardia, 24 hours of persistent vomiting, and clinical and laboratory evidence of dehydration. On the day of hospital admission, her thyroid-stimulating hormone was 0.018 µIU/mL (reference range, 0.6-4.5 µIU/mL); free T4 (tetraiodothyronine) was greater than 6.0 ng/dL (reference range, 0.7-2.1 ng/dL); and T3 (triiodothyronine) total was 494 ng/dL (reference range, 100-200 ng/dL). During a 3-day hospital admission, she was managed with supportive care, including intravenous fluid rehydration and antiemetics, and was ultimately discharged in good condition. The patient was followed up until 2 months after ingestion and remained asymptomatic. Although most exploratory levothyroxine ingestions suffer little to no clinical effects, serious symptoms can occur. Because serious symptoms can occur in a delayed fashion, it is important for clinicians to give proper anticipatory guidance regarding home symptom monitoring, follow-up, and reasons to return to the emergency department when patients present for medical evaluation. PMID:24196094

  10. Predictors of child-to-parent aggression: A 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-05-01

    Although we rarely hear about it, children sometimes aggress against their parents. This is a difficult topic to study because abused parents and abusive children are both reluctant to admit the occurrence of child-to-parent aggression. There are very few research studies on this topic, and even fewer theoretical explanations of why it occurs. We predicted that exposure to violence in the home (e.g., parents aggressing against each other) and ineffective parenting (i.e., parenting that is overly permissive or lacks warmth) influences cognitive schemas of how children perceive themselves and the world around them (i.e., whether aggression is normal, whether they develop grandiose self-views, and whether they feel disconnected and rejected), which, in turn, predicts child-to-parent aggression. In a 3-year longitudinal study of 591 adolescents and their parents, we found that exposure to violence in Year 1 predicted child-to-parent aggression in Year 3. In addition, parenting characterized by lack of warmth in Year 1 was related to narcissistic and entitled self-views and disconnection and rejection schemas in Year 2, which, in turn, predicted child-to-mother and child-to-father aggression in Year 3. Gender comparisons indicated that narcissism predicted child-to-parent aggression only in boys and that exposure to violence was a stronger predictor of child-to-father violence in boys. This longitudinal study increases our understanding of the understudied but important topic of child-to-parent aggression, and will hopefully stimulate future research. PMID:25822895

  11. Summary of Medipix Technology's 3-Years in Space and Plans for Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    NASA has evaluated 7 Timepix-based radiation imaging detectors from the CERN-based Medipix2 collaboration on the International Space Station (ISS), collecting more than 3-years of data, as well on the December, 2014 EFT-1 mission testing the new Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. These data along with data collected at ground-based accelerator facilities including the NASA Space Radiation Lab (NSRL) at Brookhaven in the US, as well as at the HIMAC facility at the National Institute for Radiological Sciences in Japan, have allowed the development of software analysis techniques sufficient to provide a stand-alone accurate assessment of the space radiation environment for dosimetric purposes. Recent comparisons of the performance of the Timepix with both n-on-p and p-on-n Si sensors will be presented. The further evolution of the Timepix technology by the Medipix3 collaboration in the form of the Timepix3 chip, which employs a continuous data-driven readout scheme, is being evaluated for possible use in future space research applications. Initial performance evaluations at accelerators will be reported. The Medipix2 Collaboration is also in the process of designing an updated version of the Timepix chip, called the Timepix2, which will continue the frame-based readout scheme of the current Timepix chip, but add simultaneous charge encoding using the Time-Over-Threshold (TOT) and first-hit Time-of-Arrival (TOA) encoding. Current plans are to replace the Timepix by the Timepix2 with minimal reconfiguration of the supporting electronics. Longer-term plans include participation in the currently forming Medipix4 collaboration. A summary of these prospects will also be included.

  12. A 3 year update on the influence of noise on performance and behavior.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    The effect of noise exposure on human performance and behavior continues to be a focus for research activities. This paper reviews developments in the field over the past 3 years, highlighting current areas of research, recent findings, and ongoing research in two main research areas: Field studies of noise effects on children's cognition and experimental studies of auditory distraction. Overall, the evidence for the effects of external environmental noise on children's cognition has strengthened in recent years, with the use of larger community samples and better noise characterization. Studies have begun to establish exposure-effect thresholds for noise effects on cognition. However, the evidence remains predominantly cross-sectional and future research needs to examine whether sound insulation might lessen the effects of external noise on children's learning. Research has also begun to explore the link between internal classroom acoustics and children's learning, aiming to further inform the design of the internal acoustic environment. Experimental studies of the effects of noise on cognitive performance are also reviewed, including functional differences in varieties of auditory distraction, semantic auditory distraction, individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction, and the role of cognitive control on the effects of noise on understanding and memory of target speech materials. In general, the results indicate that there are at least two functionally different types of auditory distraction: One due to the interruption of processes (as a result of attention being captured by the sound), another due to interference between processes. The magnitude of the former type is related to individual differences in cognitive control capacities (e.g., working memory capacity); the magnitude of the latter is not. Few studies address noise effects on behavioral outcomes, emphasizing the need for researchers to explore noise effects on behavior in more

  13. Etiology and Audiological Outcomes at 3 Years for 364 Children in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Hans-Henrik M.; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Hutchison, Wendy; Hou, Sanna; Seeto, Mark; Sjahalam-King, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss is an etiologically heterogeneous trait with differences in the age of onset, severity and site of lesion. It is caused by a combination of genetic and/or environmental factors. A longitudinal study to examine the efficacy of early intervention for improving child outcomes is ongoing in Australia. To determine the cause of hearing loss in these children we undertook molecular testing of perinatal “Guthrie” blood spots of children whose hearing loss was either detected via newborn hearing screening or detected later in infancy. We analyzed the GJB2 and SLC26A4 genes for the presence of mutations, screened for the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) A1555G mutation, and screened for congenital CMV infection in DNA isolated from dried newborn blood spots. Results were obtained from 364 children. We established etiology for 60% of children. One or two known GJB2 mutations were present in 82 children. Twenty-four children had one or two known SLC26A4 mutations. GJB2 or SLC26A4 changes with unknown consequences on hearing were found in 32 children. The A1555G mutation was found in one child, and CMV infection was detected in 28 children. Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed in 26 children whose DNA evaluations were negative. A secondary objective was to investigate the relationship between etiology and audiological outcomes over the first 3 years of life. Regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between hearing levels and etiology. Data analysis does not support the existence of differential effects of etiology on degree of hearing loss or on progressiveness of hearing loss. PMID:23555729

  14. Perfectionism, neuroticism, and daily stress reactivity and coping effectiveness 6 months and 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Mandel, Tobey; Ma, Denise

    2014-10-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing longitudinal explanatory conceptualizations of stress and coping processes that trigger daily affect in the short- and long-term for individuals with higher levels of personality vulnerability. Community adults completed measures of 2 higher order dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards [PS], self-criticism [SC]), neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Then, 6 months later and again 3 years later, participants completed daily questionnaires of stress, coping, and affect for 14 consecutive days. PS was associated with aggregated daily problem-focused coping and positive reinterpretation, whereas SC was uniquely associated with daily negative social interactions, avoidant coping, negative affect, and sadness at Month 6 and Year 3. Multilevel modeling results demonstrated that both individuals with higher PS and those with higher SC were emotionally reactive to event stress, negative social interactions, and avoidant coping at Month 6 and Year 3 and to less perceived control at Year 3. Positive reinterpretation was especially effective for individuals with higher SC at Month 6 and Year 3. The effects of PS on daily stress reactivity and coping (in)effectiveness were clearly distinguished from the effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness, whereas the SC effects were due to shared overlap with PS and neuroticism. The present findings demonstrate the promise of using repeated daily diary methodologies to help therapists and clients reliably predict future client reactions to daily stressors, which, in turn, could help guide interventions to break apart dysfunctional patterns connected to distress and build resilience for vulnerable individuals. PMID:25111703

  15. Coronary revascularization in diabetic patients. A focus on the 3-year SYNTAX trial outcomes.

    PubMed

    Groot, M W; Head, S J; Bogers, Ad J J C; Kappetein, A P

    2012-05-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is growing worldwide. Diabetics are predisposed to coronary artery disease due to an increased rate of atherosclerosis. The optimal treatment for these patients remains uncertain. Randomized trials compared percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) to determine the most suitable revascularization strategy. Meta-analyses suggest a survival advantage in favor of surgery over angioplasty or stenting with bare-metal stents (BMS). New evidence was needed since advances in medical therapy, PCI technology, and surgical techniques have emerged. The Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) trial was the first to compare a drug-eluting stent to CABG and showed an increased rate of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events after PCI. Results are mainly driven by the increased rates in patients with high lesion complexity; therefore, the current evidence suggests that diabetic patients with complex coronary disease have better outcomes with CABG. PMID:22430286

  16. Effects of remifentanil on the sphincter of Oddi in a 3-year-old child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sato, Makoto; Kikuchi, Chika; Sasakawa, Tomoki; Kunisawa, Takayuki

    2016-08-01

    Opioids cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Remifentanil is metabolized enzymatically throughout the body. Its context-sensitive half-time is 3 to 4minutes. The effect of remifentanil on the sphincter of Oddi is unknown, especially in children. We recently encountered a patient in whom the administration of remifentanil caused spasm of the sphincter of Oddi, which resolved rapidly after discontinuation of remifentanil. A 3-year-old girl weighing 11.3kg was scheduled to undergo common bile duct excision with ductoplasty. Her diagnosis was congenital biliary dilatation. In the operating room, after achieving the initial induction through sevoflurane (5%) and intravenous rocuronium (10mg), she was intubated and administered a continuous paravertebral block by levobupivacaine (25mg/10mL +2.5mg/h). General anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane (2%), remifentanil (0.5 μg kg(-1) min(-1)), and oxygen (fractional inspired oxygen tension, 0.33). The first intraoperative cholangiogram obtained via the cystic duct tube showed obstruction at the terminal end of the common bile duct. We injected scopolamine butylbromide (5mg, intravenous) to relax the sphincter of Oddi. However, the next cholangiogram obtained 3minutes later still showed an obstruction. We speculated that the obstruction may have been caused by remifentanil-induced spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Therefore, we stopped administering remifentanil; 2minutes later, we achieved satisfactory passage of the contrast material to the duodenum. The predicted plasma concentrations of remifentanil at the time of stopping its administration and at the time of disobliteration were 6.38and 2.55ng/mL, respectively. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. In patients who have spasms of the sphincter of Oddi during the administration of remifentanil, the resultant obstruction can be treated effectively by reducing the infusion rate of remifentanil. PMID:27290986

  17. Observational prospective study of viral infections in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a 3-year GETMON experience.

    PubMed

    Verdeguer, A; de Heredia, C D; González, M; Martínez, A M; Fernández-Navarro, J M; Pérez-Hurtado, J M; Badell, I; Gómez, P; González, M E; Muñoz, A; Díaz, M A

    2011-01-01

    We studied surveillance, incidence and outcome of viral infections in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the main pediatric transplant units in Spain. We prospectively collected data from first year post-HCT in every consecutive allogeneic HCT performed during 3 years (N = 215): first HCT = 188 and second HCT = 27; median age = 6.6 years (0.1-20.7). Most patients had acute leukemia (N = 137) and 135 recipients (63%) were CMV seropositive. A total of 46 patients underwent cord blood transplant, 133 patients underwent HCT from alternative donors (62%) and 101 patients received anti-thymocyte globulin. Observational time was completed in 137 patients, whereas the remaining 78 died after a median survival time of 99 days (3-352). CMV was monitored in all patients; adenovirus (ADV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) were monitored in 101 and 33 patients, respectively. We found 145 viral infections in 103 patients: CMV (n = 42), ADV (n = 32), HHV-6 (n = 7), polyomavirus (n = 20), EBV (n = 6), VZV (n=17) and others (n = 8). CMV infection was significantly higher in seropositive patients (25 vs 7%) (P = 0.02). Extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was significantly associated with an increased rate of viral infections (12 of 16 patients with cGVHD had infections vs 91 of 199 without GVHD) (P = 0.035). In total, 10 patients (4.6%) died of viral infections (CMV = 5, ADV = 3, respiratory = 2). We found a high incidence of viral infection, but mortality was low. PMID:20228849

  18. Everolimus and Early Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal: 3-Year Results From a Randomized Trial in Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sterneck, M; Kaiser, G M; Heyne, N; Richter, N; Rauchfuss, F; Pascher, A; Schemmer, P; Fischer, L; Klein, C G; Nadalin, S; Lehner, F; Settmacher, U; Neuhaus, P; Gotthardt, D; Loss, M; Ladenburger, S; Paulus, E M; Mertens, M; Schlitt, H J

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of de novo everolimus without calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy following liver transplantation was assessed in a multicenter, prospective, open-label trial. Liver transplant patients were randomized at 4 weeks to start everolimus and discontinue CNI, or continue their current CNI-based regimen. The primary endpoint was adjusted estimated GFR (eGFR; Cockcroft-Gault) at month 11 postrandomization. A 24-month extension phase followed 81/114 (71.1%) of eligible patients to month 35 postrandomization. The adjusted mean eGFR benefit from randomization to month 35 was 10.1 mL/min (95% confidence interval [CI] −1.3, 21.5 mL/min, p = 0.082) in favor of CNI-free versus CNI using Cockcroft-Gault, 9.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI −0.4, 18.9, p = 0.053) with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (four-variable) and 9.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI −1.1, 17.9, p = 0.028) using Nankivell. The difference in favor of the CNI-free regimen increased gradually over time due to a small progressive decline in eGFR in the CNI cohort despite a reduction in CNI exposure. Biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss and death were similar between groups. Adverse events led to study drug discontinuation in five CNI-free patients and five CNI patients (12.2% vs. 12.5%, p = 1.000) during the extension phase. Everolimus-based CNI-free immunosuppression is feasible following liver transplantation and patients benefit from sustained preservation of renal function versus patients on CNI for at least 3 years. The beneficial effect on renal function achieved by early CNI withdrawal and treatment with everolimus after liver transplantation is still evident after three years. PMID:24502384

  19. Development and implementation of the Clinical Tooth Shade Differentiation Course – an evaluation over 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Olms, Constanze; Haak, Rainer; Jakstat, Holger A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tooth shade differentiation concerns the identification and classification of tooth shades. The objective of this project was to implement the Clinical Tooth Shade Differentiation Course in the preclinical stage of studies and to evaluate the students' perspective over a period of 3 years. Methodology: The course is planned for a duration of 10 weeks with two 45-minute sessions per semester week. The entire attendance time was 10:15 h. 2 lectures of 90 minutes each, 2 seminars of 60 min each and 2 teaching units with the phantom head and role playing took place. In addition to the various parameters of tooth shade, changes in tooth shade and the basics of dental esthetics, clinical procedures for manual and digital tooth shade determination were explained and practiced. 96% (69 of 72) of the students participated in the first evaluation in 2012/2013 (T1), and 68% of these were women. In the following year, 2013/2014 (T2), 92% (45 of 48 students) took part; 62% of these were women and 38% men. The 2014/2015 evaluation (T3) comprised 94% (45 of 48 students). Of these, 67% were women. Results: In the evaluation, the students gave the course a positive grade. The questions in "General/Organization" were given a mean (M) of 1.5 (SD=0.7) in T1 and T2 , and 1.2 (SD=0.3) in T3. The "Overall Assessment" yielded MT1=1.6 (SD=0.6), MT2=1.5 (SD=0.5) and MT3=1.1 (SD=0.3). In T1 and T2, the item "The instructor actively involved the students in the course" was given a mean of 2.1 (SD=0.9), and in T3 a mean of 1.2 (SD=0.5). Conclusions: The course presented here conceptually shows how practical dental skills can be taught in a theoretical and clinical context. Educational objectives from the role of a dental expert were taken from the national competence-based catalog of educational objectives for dentistry and can also be supplemented. The objectives can be transferred to other dental faculties. PMID:26958650

  20. Delayed Complications in Patients Surviving at Least 3 Years After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Kawabe, Takuya; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Sato, Yasunori; Nariai, Tadashi; Barfod, Bierta E.; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Urakawa, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about delayed complications after stereotactic radiosurgery in long-surviving patients with brain metastases. We studied the actual incidence and predictors of delayed complications. Patients and Methods: This was an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study that used our database. Among our consecutive series of 2000 patients with brain metastases who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) from 1991-2008, 167 patients (8.4%, 89 women, 78 men, mean age 62 years [range, 19-88 years]) who survived at least 3 years after GKRS were studied. Results: Among the 167 patients, 17 (10.2%, 18 lesions) experienced delayed complications (mass lesions with or without cyst in 8, cyst alone in 8, edema in 2) occurring 24.0-121.0 months (median, 57.5 months) after GKRS. The actuarial incidences of delayed complications estimated by competing risk analysis were 4.2% and 21.2% at the 60th month and 120th month, respectively, after GKRS. Among various pre-GKRS clinical factors, univariate analysis demonstrated tumor volume-related factors: largest tumor volume (hazard ratio [HR], 1.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.018-1.154; P=.0174) and tumor volume {<=}10 cc vs >10 cc (HR, 4.343; 95% CI, 1.444-12.14; P=.0108) to be the only significant predictors of delayed complications. Univariate analysis revealed no correlations between delayed complications and radiosurgical parameters (ie, radiosurgical doses, conformity and gradient indexes, and brain volumes receiving >5 Gy and >12 Gy). After GKRS, an area of prolonged enhancement at the irradiated lesion was shown to be a possible risk factor for the development of delayed complications (HR, 8.751; 95% CI, 1.785-157.9; P=.0037). Neurosurgical interventions were performed in 13 patients (14 lesions) and mass removal for 6 lesions and Ommaya reservoir placement for the other 8. The results were favorable. Conclusions: Long-term follow-up is crucial for patients with brain metastases

  1. Ice Hockey Injuries in a Japanese Elite Team: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kuzuhara, Kenji; Shimamoto, Hideki; Mase, Yasuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Context: As the Asian Ice Hockey League gradually expands and becomes more competitive, ice hockey-related injuries may increase. However, no reports have been published on ice hockey injuries in Japan, including the method of injury and the daily supervision of the players during the regular season. Objective: To prospectively study the incidence, types, and mechanisms of ice hockey injuries in an elite Japanese ice hockey team. Design: Prospective observational cohort study design. Setting: An elite ice hockey team, Tokyo, Japan. Patients or Other Participants: Ninety-four players during the 2002–2005 seasons. Main Outcome Measure(s): Data were collected for 3 consecutive seasons using an injury reporting form. Results: The overall game injury rate was 74.3 per 1000 player-game hours and 11.7 per 1000 player-game hours for injuries resulting in any time loss. The overall practice injury rates were 11.2 per 1000 player-practice hours and 1.1 per 1000 player-practice hours for injuries resulting in any time loss. Forwards had the highest rate of injury, followed by defensemen and then goalkeepers. Contusions were the most common injury, followed by strains, lacerations, and sprains. Conclusions: Most injuries among Japanese ice hockey players occurred during games. Game or play intensity may influence the injury rate during games. PMID:19295967

  2. Emotional and Behavioral Problems Reported in Child Welfare over 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrae, Julie S.

    2009-01-01

    Child welfare agencies are required to provide services that ensure that children receive adequate mental health care. This study provides a comprehensive view of the emotional and behavioral problems of children who are referred to child welfare services, using nationally representative data. Bivariate analyses compare rates by child…

  3. BE, DO, and Modal Auxiliaries of 3-Year-Old African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Stockman, Ida J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined African American English--speaking children's use of BE, DO, and modal auxiliaries. Method: The data were based on language samples obtained from 48 three-year-olds. Analyses examined rates of marking by auxiliary type, auxiliary surface form, succeeding element, and syntactic construction and by a number of child…

  4. Estimation of continental 187Os/186Os values by using 187Os/186Os and 143Nd/144Nd ratios in marine manganese nodules

    PubMed Central

    Turekian, Karl K.; Luck, Jean-Marc

    1984-01-01

    The relationship between 187Os/186Os and 143Nd/144Nd in different manganese nodule fields is used to determine the 187Os/186Os ratio of the continental terrains bounding the major ocean basins. The Atlantic Ocean drainages yield 187Os/186Os of about 11; the Pacific Ocean, between 25 and 36; and the western Indian Ocean, 20. By assuming a two-component continental crust composed of “ultramafic rocks” (high Os concentration, low 187Os/186Os) and “granite” with only radiogenic 187Os produced in accessory Re-bearing molybdenite, the ultramafic contribution to weathering is about 0.2%. Some or most of this may come from the alteration of oceanic ultramafics. PMID:16578780

  5. Predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years in the EDEN mother–child cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Forhan, Anne; Charles, Marie-Aline; De Agostini, Maria; Heude, Barbara; Ramus, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the factors predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years. Methods. By using longitudinal data concerning 1002 children from the EDEN study, linear regression was used to predict 3-year language performance from 2-year language performance and the risk factors associated with language delays. Logistic regressions were performed to examine two change trajectories: children who fall below the 10th percentile of language skills between 2 and 3 years (declining trajectory), and those who rose above the 10th percentile (resilient trajectory). Results. The final linear model accounted for 43% of the variance in 3-year language scores, with 2-year language scores accounting for 22%. Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, earlier birth term, lower level of parental education and lower frequency of maternal stimulation were associated with the declining trajectory. Breastfeeding was associated with the resilient trajectory. Conclusions. This study provides a better understanding of the natural history of early language delays by identifying biological and social factors that predict changes in language skills between the ages of 2 and 3 years. PMID:24749012

  6. Immunological persistence of a seasonal influenza vaccine in people more than 3 years old.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yunhua; Shi, Nianmin; Lu, Qiang; Yang, Liqing; Wang, Zhaoyun; Li, Li; Han, HuiXia; Zheng, Dongyi; Luo, FengJi; Zhang, Zheng; Ai, Xing

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate antibody persistence of Aleph inactivated split influenza vaccine, 3308 healthy Chinese people more than 3 years old were enrolled in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay before vaccination, 641 were screened by HI assay negative, 437 of which received one dose of Aleph inactivated split influenza vaccine and 204 of which received one dose of control vaccine (recombinant hepatitis B). After vaccination, the receivers were collected blood at 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and 12th month for Aleh influenza vaccine antibody persistence assess. The antibody test were determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. There were significant difference in antibody geometric mean titer between experimental group and control at 1st month and 3rd month after vaccination. Influenza antibody could persist at least up to 3rd month. Because of the local spring influenza epidemic, we could not analyze the results of 6th and 12th month. Aleph influenza vaccines showed good immune persistence in healthy volunteers at least in the 3 months after vaccination. Influenza viruses are important human respiratory pathogens. Immunization is widely acknowledged to currently be the most effective method of minimizing the impact of pandemic influenza. Through we have checked many references about Influenza vaccine, the duration of protective antibody for influenza vaccines are still not available. Based on this situation and our previous work, (11) Influenza vaccine antibody duration analyze are necessary. This manuscript presents data on the persistence of Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) immune response against the A/California/7/2009(H1N1), A/Peth/16/2009(H3N2) strain and B/Brisbane/60/2008. 641 were screened from 3302 volunteers by HI test of influenza A and confirmed enrollment based on the antibodies titer less than 1:10. After administered with one dose of Aleph influenza vaccine, blood samples were collected. 437 subjects (3-10 y: 131; 11-17 y: 110; 18-54 y: 69;

  7. Mortality and Return to Work of Drug Abusers From Therapeutic Community Treatment 3 Years After Entry.

    PubMed

    Berg, John E.

    2003-08-01

    BACKGROUND: The outcome of therapeutic community treatment for drug abuse has been disputed with regard to mortality and rehabilitation to school or work as compared with other treatment modalities. METHOD: All patients (N = 130) admitted to a therapeutic community during 3 consecutive years (1996-1998), who had failed to stop abusing drugs after ambulatory and primary care initiatives, were assessed 1 to 4 years (mean = 36.5 months) after end of treatment. Rates of rehabilitation to school or work, changes in drug use patterns, and mortality were observed. RESULTS: Nine persons died during the observation period (the observation time to death seemed to be shorter in women than in men). The mortality rate per 100 observation years was 2.28. Among the surviving drug abusers, 39% were working or attending school at study endpoint. One fourth currently used drugs, and approximately 14% were enrolled in a methadone maintenance program. Another 13% were in treatment or prison. CONCLUSION: Drug abuse is an activity that increases the mortality rate, but among the surviving persons, a considerable number are rehabilitated, as assessed after a longer observation period. The authors suggest that this outcome could not have been attained with ambulatory general practice-driven services, even with empathic follow-up. PMID:15213778

  8. A 3-year randomized clinical trial evaluating two different bonded posterior restorations: Amalgam versus resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Kemaloglu, Hande; Pamir, Tijen; Tezel, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the performance and postoperative sensitivity of a posterior resin composite with that of bonded amalgam in 40 (n = 20) large sized cavities and to evaluate whether resin composite could be an alternative for bonded amalgam. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial. Twenty patients in need of at least two posterior restorations were recruited. Authors randomly assigned one half of the restorations to receive bonded amalgam and the other half to composite restorations. Forty bonded amalgams (n = 20) and composites (n = 20) were evaluated for their performance on modified-US Public Health Service criteria and postoperative sensitivity using visual analogue scale (VAS) for 36-months. Results: Success rate of this study was 100%. First clinical alterations were rated as Bravo after 1 year in marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, anatomical form, and surface roughness for both amalgam and composite. At the 3rd year, overall “Bravo” rated restorations were 12 for bonded amalgam and 13 for resin composites. There were no significant differences among the VAS scores of composites and bonded amalgams for all periods (P > 0.05) except for the comparisons at the 3rd year evaluation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, both resin composite and bonded amalgam were clinically acceptable. Postoperative sensitivity results tend to decrease more in composite restorations rather than amalgams. Therefore, it was concluded that posterior resin composite can be used even in large sized cavities. PMID:27011734

  9. Influence of Shared Medical Appointments on Patient Satisfaction: A Retrospective 3-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Heyworth, Leonie; Rozenblum, Ronen; Burgess, James F.; Baker, Errol; Meterko, Mark; Prescott, Debra; Neuwirth, Zeev; Simon, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Shared medical appointments (SMAs) are becoming popular, but little is known about their association with patient experience in primary care. We performed an exploratory analysis examining overall satisfaction and patient-centered care experiences across key domains of the patient-centered medical home among patients attending SMAs vs usual care appointments. METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study using a mailed questionnaire measuring levels of patient satisfaction and other indicators of patient-centered care among 921 SMA and 921 usual care patients between 2008 and 2010. Propensity scores adjusted for potential case mix differences between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression assessed propensity-matched patients’ ratings of care. Generalized estimating equations accounted for physician-level clustering. RESULTS A total of 40% of SMA patients and 31% of usual care patients responded. In adjusted analyses, SMA patients were more likely to rate their overall satisfaction with care as “very good” when compared with usual care counterparts (odds ratio = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.05–1.52). In the analysis of patient-centered medical home elements, SMA patients rated their care as more accessible and more sensitive to their needs, whereas usual care patients reported greater satisfaction with physician communication and time spent during their appointment. CONCLUSIONS Overall, SMA patients appear more satisfied with their care relative to patients receiving usual care. SMAs may also improve access to care and deliver care that patients find to be sensitive to their needs. Further research should focus on enhancing patient-clinician communication within an SMA as this model of care becomes more widely adopted. PMID:25024240

  10. 3-Year follow-up after Lasik: assessing the risk factors for retreatment.

    PubMed

    Valdez-García, Jorge E; Hernandez-Camarena, Julio C; Martínez-Muñoz, Rosa

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of important risk factors for LASIK retreatment and the retreatment rate. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Records of patients who underwent LASIK between January 2011 and January 2012 at the Zambrano-Hellion Medical Center, Tec de Monterrey (México), and posteriorly underwent LASIK retreatment were identified and risk factors to receive retreatment were assessed using relative risk. Main outcomes were retreatment rate, risk factors for retreatment, and uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA). 482 eyes from 241 patients were available for a 36-month follow-up analysis. 68.5 % had primary myopic LASIK; 37 % were ≤ 2 diopters (D), 52 % were > 2 and < 6 D, and 11 % were ≥ 6 D of myopia. 31.5 % of the eyes had hyperopic LASIK. Retreatment was performed in 6.85 % eyes. Myopia > 6 D (RR 4.13), hyperopic refraction (RR 3.18), and age > 40 (RR 3.07) were the most important risk factors for retreatment (P = 0.004, P = 0.007, P = 0.006, respectively). UDVA was ≥ 20/40 in 92.1 % and ≥ 20/20 in 81.6 % of the retreated eyes and 82 % of the eyes within ± 0.50 D of target refraction. Increasing degrees of myopia, followed by hyperopic refraction, and age were the most important associated factors to retreatment. LASIK retreatment was safe and effective. PMID:25985886

  11. Empathic responsivity at 3 years of age in a sample of cocaine-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Pamela; Eiden, Rina D; Molnar, Danielle S; Colder, Craig D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between prenatal exposure to cocaine and behavioral and physiological responsivity. Participants were 216 mother-infant dyads (116 cocaine exposed-CE, 100 nonexposed-NCE) recruited at birth. Measures of heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were obtained during baseline and during a task designed to elicit empathy (exposure to infant crying). When the effects of prenatal cocaine use were examined in the context of polydrug use, results of model testing indicated that lower gestational age, prenatal exposure to cocaine and postnatal exposure to alcohol were each associated with a reduced suppression of RSA during the empathy task. These findings provide additional support for an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and dysregulation during early childhood during affect-eliciting environmental challenges. PMID:24444666

  12. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h−1 (0.375 to 0.453 h−1), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens. PMID:27067333

  13. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard; Roy, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h(-1) (0.375 to 0.453 h(-1)), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens. PMID:27067333

  14. Effectiveness of Video Self-Modeling to Promote Social Initiations by 3-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video Self-Modeling (VSM) provides individuals the opportunity to view themselves performing a task beyond their present functioning level through the careful editing of videos. In this study, a single-case multiple-baseline design was used to determine whether VSM would facilitate social initiations across three young children (M = 3 years 10…

  15. Impacts of a Violence Prevention Program for Middle Schools: Findings after 3 Years of Implementation. NCEE 2011-4017

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvia, Suyapa; Blitstein, Jonathan; Williams, Jason; Ringwalt, Chris; Dusenbury, Linda; Hansen, William

    2011-01-01

    This is the second and final report summarizing findings from an impact evaluation of a violence prevention intervention for middle schools. This report provides findings from the second and third years of the 3-year intervention. The U.S. Department of Education (ED) contracted with RTI International and its subcontractors, Pacific Institute for…

  16. "This Way!", "No! That Way!"--3-Year Olds Know that Two People Can Have Mutually Incompatible Desires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In theory of mind research, there is a long standing dispute about whether children come to understand the subjectivity of both desires and beliefs at the same time (around age 4), or whether there is an asymmetry such that desires are understood earlier. To address this issue, 3-year olds' understanding of situations in which two persons have…

  17. The Lights Pre-Project: Implementation of the Project Approach with Children under 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzegorzewska, Katarzyna; Konieczna-Blicharz, Jagoda

    2011-01-01

    A group of children 18 months to 3 years old and their parents studied lights in a preschool program at the Astrid Lindgren Institute for Early Childhood Development in Poland. The goal of the preschool program is to help children gain positive social experience through safe and interesting contact with a new group of children and adults in the…

  18. 42 CFR 412.273 - Withdrawing an application, terminating an approved 3-year reclassification, or canceling a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawing an application, terminating an approved 3-year reclassification, or canceling a previous withdrawal or termination. 412.273 Section 412.273 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS...

  19. Results of a 3-Year, Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention for Children in Rural, Low-Socioeconomic Status Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kristi McClary; Ling, Jiying

    2015-01-01

    Improving children's nutrition and physical activity have become priorities in the United States. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a 3-year, school-based, health promotion intervention (i.e. nutrition and physical education, classroom physical activity, professional development and health promotion for teachers…

  20. The Magic Shrinking Machine Revisited: The Presence of Props at Recall Facilitates Memory in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Jonna J.; Kingo, Osman S.; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a seminal study Simcock and Hayne (2002) showed that 3-year-olds were unable to use newly acquired words to describe a "magic" event experienced 6 or 12 months earlier. In the reference study the children's verbal recall was tested without props being present. Inspired by recent evidence, the original design was replicated, testing…

  1. Eudaimonic growth: Narrative growth goals predict increases in ego development and subjective well-being 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2010-07-01

    We examine (a) the normative course of eudaimonic well-being in emerging adulthood and (b) whether people's narratives of major life goals might prospectively predict eudaimonic growth 3 years later. We define eudaimonic growth as longitudinal increases in eudaimonic well-being, which we define as the combination of psychosocial maturity and subjective well-being (SWB). College freshmen and seniors took measures of ego development (ED; to assess maturity; Loevinger, 1976) and SWB at Time 1 (T1) and again 3 years later (Time 2). ED levels increased longitudinally across that time for men and T1 freshmen, but SWB levels did not change. Participants also wrote narratives of 2 major life goals at T1 that were coded for an explicit emphasis on specific kinds of personal growth. Participants' intellectual-growth goals (especially agentic ones) predicted increases in ED 3 years later, whereas participants' socioemotional-growth goals (especially communal ones) predicted increases in SWB 3 years later. These findings were independent of the effects of Big Five personality traits-notably conscientiousness, which on its own predicted increases in SWB. We discuss (a) emerging adulthood as the last stop for normative eudaimonic growth in modern society and (b) empirical and theoretical issues surrounding the relations among narrative identity, life planning, dispositional traits, eudaimonia, and 2 paths of personal growth. PMID:20604600

  2. Intergenerational Transmission of Warm-Sensitive-Stimulating Parenting: A Prospective Study of Mothers and Fathers of 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Jaffee, Sara R.; Sligo, Judith; Woodward, Lianne; Silva, Phil A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 200 New Zealand men and women studied repeatedly since age 3 were videotaped interacting with their own 3-year-old children to determine (a) whether childrearing and family climate experienced in 3 distinct developmental periods while growing up (i.e., early childhood, middle childhood, early adolescence) predicted parenting and (b)…

  3. Why 3-Year-Old Children Get Spanked: Parent and Child Determinants as Reported by College-Educated Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, George W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 39 college-educated mothers of 3-year-old children to examine the conditions surrounding the occurrence of physical punishment. Responses suggest that certain types of misbehavior, notably aggression, were more likely to elicit spanking than other misbehavior. In addition, parents' positive attitudes toward…

  4. 1 to 3-Year-Old Children in Day Care Centres in Finland: An Overview of Eight Doctoral Dissertations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannikainen, Maritta

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a general picture of the policy and main structural features of early childhood education services for the younger children in Finland. It also provides an overview of the research on 1 to 3-year-old children in day care centres carried out in Finland during the last 15 years, the focus being on a review of all the eight…

  5. The Internal Validity and Acceptability of the Danish SI-3: A Language-Screening Instrument for 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Jorgensen, Rune N.; Worm, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To document the development of a new parent- and day care-administered screening instrument (the Screening Instrument for 3-Year-Olds [SI-3]) to be used in a newly implemented, educationally motivated population language screening in Denmark. The authors investigated whether the basic principles of the SI-3 were working satisfactorily and…

  6. Professional Learning Communities in Partnership: A 3-Year Journey of Action and Advocacy to Bridge the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Patricia; Dahlman, Anne; Zierdt, Ginger

    2009-01-01

    This article details a strategic planning model and concurrent 3-year research study focusing on the benefits of preK-16 professional development school learning communities for the participating preK-16 educational leaders in a midwestern school-university partnership network. Results of the study, along with the strategic plan's success at…

  7. Combined Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Parent Training for Childhood Depression: 2- to 3-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver-Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2- to 3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at…

  8. Determinants of Imitation of Hand-to-Body Gestures in 2- and 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty children, ten 2-year-olds and ten 3-year-olds, participated in an AB procedure. In the baseline phase, each child was trained the same four matching relations to criterion under intermittent reinforcement. During the subsequent imitation test, the experimenter modeled a total of 20 target gestures (six trials each) interspersed with…

  9. Poorly differentiated cutaneous carcinoma of non-sebaceous origin in a 3-year-old Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Fenton, Heather; Forzán, María J; Desmarchelier, Marion; Woodland, Meghan; Sayi, Soraya; Gilroy, Cornelia V

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old female gerbil developed a non-healing skin wound due to a malignant neoplasm. Histology, immunohistochemistry (cytokeratin 19 positive; vimentin, estrogen, and progesterone receptor negative), and electron microscopy (no desmosomes or melanosomes) revealed an undifferentiated carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis. Unlike in previous reports, it did not arise from the abdominal pad's sebaceous gland. PMID:26740704

  10. Sustaining "Truth": Changes in Youth Tobacco Attitudes and Smoking Intentions after 3 Years of a National Antismoking Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Duke, Jennifer; Messeri, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the American Legacy Foundation's "truth[R]" campaign and Philip Morris's "Think. Don't Smoke" (TDS) campaign have influenced youth's tobacco-related attitudes, beliefs and intentions during the first 3 years of the truth campaign. We use data from eight nationally representative cross-sectional telephone surveys of 35,074…

  11. "A Spinach with a V on It": What 3-Year-Olds See in Standard and Enhanced Blissymbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavendra, Parimala; Fristoe, Macalyne

    1990-01-01

    Standard or enhanced Blissymbols, designed to represent familiar actions, attributes, and objects, were shown to 20 3 year olds, who guessed their meaning. The number of their guesses that referred to the enhancements was twice as great as the number that referred to the standard Blissymbol base. (Author/JDD)

  12. Qualitative Feasibility of Using Three Accelerometers With 2-3-Year-Old Children and Both Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Silvia; Barber, Sally E.; Griffiths, Paula L.; Cameron, Noël; Clemes, Stacy A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed mothers' opinions about the feasibility and acceptability of using the ActiGraph GT3X+, Actiheart, and activPAL3 with their 2- to 3-year-old children, as well as with themselves and their husbands/partners, for an 8-day period. Method: Six focus groups were run with Pakistani and White British mothers…

  13. The First Year Inventory: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of 12-Month-Old to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Baranek, Grace T.; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory--regulatory and social--communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of…

  14. Rational Action Selection in 1 1/2- to 3-Year-Olds Following an Extended Training Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klossek, Ulrike M. H.; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1 1/2 and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen…

  15. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the third eyelid in a 3-year-old Rhodesian Ridgeback

    PubMed Central

    vom Hagen, Franziska; Romkes, Gwendolyna; Kershaw, Olivia; Eule, J Corinna

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A 3-year-old Rhodesian Ridgeback was presented with conjunctivitis, enlargement of the third eyelid and a dorsotemporal deviation of the right eye. A mass within the third eyelid was detected and excised. The histopathologic examination showed a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, which most likely is a neurofibrosarcoma based on immunohistochemistry. PMID:25678975

  16. Emotion Situation Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory in Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…

  17. Replication of an Inter-Disciplinary Approach to Early Education of Handicapped Children 0-3 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Constance J.; And Others

    Presented is the guide to the Illinois project entitled "An Inter-Disciplinary Approach to Early Education of Handicapped Children Ages 0 - 3 Years" which includes information on funding and public awareness, diagnosis and evaluation, child development-home program, speech and language, structuring the day program, job descriptions and training,…

  18. Association of Maternal Short Sleep Duration with Adiposity and Cardio-Metabolic Status at 3 Years Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gunderson, Erica P.; Stuebe, Alison M.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of short sleep duration among women in the first year postpartum with adiposity and cardio-metabolic status at 3-years postpartum. We studied 586 women in Project Viva, a prospective cohort. At 6 months and 1 year postpartum, women reported the number of hours they slept in a 24-hour period, from which we calculated a weighted average of daily sleep. We used multivariable regression analyses to predict the independent effects of short sleep duration (≤ 5 h/d v.> 5 h/d) on adiposity, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and adipokines at 3-years postpartum. Women’s mean (SD) hours of daily sleep in the first year postpartum was 6.7 (0.97) hours. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and excessive gestational weight gain, we found that postpartum sleep ≤ 5 h/d was associated with higher postpartum weight retention (β 1.50 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 2.86), higher subscapular + triceps skinfold thickness (β 3.94 mm; 95% CI: 1.27, 6.60) and higher waist circumference (β 3.10 cm; 95% CI: 1.25, 4.94) at 3-years postpartum. We did not observe associations of short sleep duration with measures of cardio-metabolic status at 3-years postpartum. In conclusion, short sleep duration in the first year postpartum is associated with higher adiposity at 3-years postpartum. PMID:20489690

  19. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Jensen, Signe M; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2015-07-01

    Early excessive weight gain is positively associated with later obesity, and yet the effect of weight gain during specific periods and the impact of infant feeding practices are debated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of weight gain in periods of early childhood on body composition at 3 years, and whether infant feeding modified the relationship between early growth and body composition at 3 years. We studied 233 children from the prospective cohort study, SKOT (in Danish: Småbørns Kost og Trivsel). Birth weight z-scores (BWZ) and change in weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) from 0 to 5, 5 to 9, 9 to 18 and 18 to 36 months were analysed for relations with body composition (anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance) at 3 years by multivariate regression analysis. BWZ and change in WAZ from 0 to 5 months were positively associated with BMI, fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 3 years. Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) eliminated the effect of early growth (P = 0.01). Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) also eliminated the positive relation between BWZ and FMI (P = 0.009). No effect modification of infant feeding was found for FFMI. In conclusion, high birth weight and rapid growth from 0 to 5 months were associated with increased FMI and FFMI at 3 years. Longer duration of full breastfeeding reduced the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on fat mass. PMID:26131962

  20. Outcomes and Complications of the Midline Anterior Approach 3 Years after Lumbar Spine Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Braaksma, Brian; Weinreb, Jeffrey H.; Nalbandian, Matthew; Spivak, Jeffrey M.; Petrizzo, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new questionnaire to assess outcomes related to the midline anterior lumbar approach and to identify risk factors for negative patient responses. Methods. A retrospective review of 58 patients who underwent anterior lumbar surgery at a single institution for either degenerative disc disease or spondylolisthesis in 2009 was performed. The outcome measures included our newly developed Anterior Lumbar Surgery Questionnaire (ALSQ), ODI, and EQ-5D. Results. There were 58 patients available for followup, 27 women and 31 men. The average age at surgery was 50.8 years, with an average followup of 2.92 years. The average change in ODI was 34.94 (22.7) and EQ-5D was 0.28 (0.29). The rate of complications with the anterior approach was 10.3% and there was one male patient (3.2%) with retrograde ejaculation. Determination of the effectiveness of the new ALSQ revealed that it significantly correlated to the EQ-5D and ODI (P < 0.05). Smoking was associated with a negative response on thirteen questions. BMP use was not associated with a negative response on any sexual function questions. Conclusions. Our new Anterior Lumbar Surgery Questionnaire determines patient perceived complications related to the midline anterior lumbar surgical approach. PMID:25610657

  1. Long-term post-marketing surveillance of mizoribine for the treatment of lupus nephritis: Safety and efficacy during a 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kenya; Sudo, Yohei; Itoh, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Hisao; Kuroda, Tatsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of long-term use of mizoribine by undertaking a 3-year post-marketing surveillance study. Methods: Subjects were all lupus nephritis patients newly treated with mizoribine between 1 October 2003 and 30 September 2005 at contracted study sites. Results: Mizoribine was administered to 881 lupus nephritis patients in the safety analysis set consisting of 946 patients recruited from 281 contracted study sites after satisfying the eligibility criteria. There were 301 events of adverse drug reactions that were observed in 196 (20.7%) of the 946 subjects. There were 34 events of serious adverse drug reactions in 31 patients (3.2%). No deterioration in hematological and biochemical test values was observed, but immunological testing showed significant improvements in C3, CH50, and anti-DNA antibody titers. The negative rate of proteinuria also increased over time. The median steroid dosage was 15 mg/day at the commencement of treatment, but was reduced to 10 mg/day at 12 months and 8 mg/day at 36 months. Conclusion: The findings of the 3-year long-term drug use surveillance study indicated that mizoribine can be used over the long term with relatively few adverse drug reactions, suggesting its suitability for use in maintenance drug therapy. PMID:26770729

  2. Community vs. Clinic-based modular treatment of children with early-onset ODD or CD: A clinical trial with 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kolko, David J.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Padini, Dustin; Holden, Elizabeth A.; Hart, Jonathan; Dorn, Lorah D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the treatment outcomes of 144, 6–11 year-old, clinically referred boys and girls diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) or Conduct Disorder (CD) who were randomly assigned to a modular-based treatment protocol that was applied by research study clinicians either in the community (COMM) or a clinic office (CLINIC). To examine normative comparisons, a matched sample of 69 healthy control children was included. Multiple informants completed diagnostic interviews and self-reports at six assessment timepoints (pretreatment to 3-year follow-up) to evaluate changes in the child’s behavioral and emotional problems, psychopathic features, functional impairment, diagnostic status, and service involvement. Using HLM and logistic regression models, COMM and CLINIC showed significant and comparable improvements on all outcomes. By 3-year follow-up, 36% of COMM and 47% of CLINIC patients no longer met criteria for either ODD or CD, and 48% and 57% of the children in these two respective conditions had levels of parent-rated externalizing behavior problems in the normal range. We discuss the nature and implications of these novel findings regarding the role of treatment context or setting for the treatment and long-term outcome of behavior disorders. PMID:19221871

  3. Gender Differences in Outcome of an Attempt to Stop Smoking Among Smokers Attending a Smoking Cessation Clinic in Taiwan: 3-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pin-Chieh; Hsueh, Kuang-Chieh; Mar, Guang-Yuan; Hsueh, Shu-Chun; Tu, Ming-Shium; McRobbie, Hayden; Hajek, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Studies that have examined gender differences in smoking cessation have produced mixed results. The purpose of the study was to examine whether there are gender differences in long-term smoking abstinence rates in smokers treated with nicotine patches at a smoking cessation clinic in Taiwan, where 39% of men and 5% of women smoke. This study included 1,065 smokers, comprising of 940 men and 125 women. Smokers were invited to attend the clinic every 1-2 weeks for a maximum of eight visits over 90 days, where they received prescriptions for nicotine patches, counseling, and educational materials. Participants were contacted by telephone at 1 and 3 years after the first visit and were asked whether they had smoked at all over the past 7 days. The results showed that women were significantly less likely than men to be abstinent at 1 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% CI [confidence interval] = [0.41, 0.99]; p = .044) and 3 years (aOR = 0.44; 95% CI = [0.27, 0.74]; p = .02). More effective ways are needed to help female smokers quit in societies where smoking in women is rare and may be associated with social stigma. PMID:26604017

  4. Lasting Effects of Workplace Strength Training for Neck/Shoulder/Arm Pain among Laboratory Technicians: Natural Experiment with 3-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Anders I.; Zebis, Mette K.; Pedersen, Mogens T.; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated long-term effects and implementation processes of workplace strength training for musculoskeletal disorders. Methods. 333 and 140 laboratory technicians from private and public sector companies, respectively, replied to a 3-year follow-up questionnaire subsequent to a 1-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) with high-intensity strength training for prevention and treatment of neck, shoulder, and arm pain. Being a natural experiment, the two participating companies implemented and modified the initial training program in different ways during the subsequent 2 years after the RCT. Results. At 3-year follow-up the pain reduction in neck, shoulder, elbow, and wrist achieved during the first year was largely maintained at both companies. However, the private sector company was rated significantly better than the public sector company in (1) training adherence, (2) training culture, that is, relatively more employees trained at the workplace and with colleagues, (3) self-reported health changes, and (4) prevention of neck and wrist pain development among initially pain-free employees. Conclusions. This natural experiment shows that strength training can be implemented successfully at different companies during working hours on a long-term basis with lasting effects on pain in neck, shoulder, and arm. PMID:24734247

  5. Association of Perioperative Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Levels with 3-Year Mortality after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Moledina, Dennis G.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Garg, Amit X.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Koyner, Jay L.; Patel, Uptal D.; Devarajan, Prasad; Shlipak, Michael G.; Coca, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher levels of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (pNGAL) are an early marker of acute kidney injury and are associated with increased risk of short-term adverse outcomes. The independent association between pNGAL and long-term mortality is unknown. Methods In this prospective observational cohort study, we studied 1191 adults who underwent cardiac surgery between 2007 and 2009 at 6 centers in the TRIBE-AKI cohort. We measured the pNGAL on the pre-operative and first 3 post-operative days and assessed the relationship of peri-operative pNGAL concentrations with all-cause mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 3.0 years, 139 participants died (50/1000 person-years). Pre-operative levels of pNGAL were associated with 3-year mortality (unadjusted HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.34,2.85) and the association persisted after adjustment for pre-operative variables including estimated glomerular filtration rate (adjusted HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.04–2.12). After adjustment for pre- and intra-operative variables, including pre-operative NGAL levels, the highest tertiles of first post-operative and peak post-operative pNGAL were also independently associated with 3-year mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.0–1.7 and adjusted HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.2–2.7, respectively). However, after adjustment for peri-operative changes in serum creatinine, there was no longer an independent association between the first post-operative and peak post-operative pNGAL and long-term mortality (adjusted HR 0.98,95% CI 0.79–1.2 for first pNGAL and adjusted HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87–1.61 for peak pNGAL). Conclusions Pre-operative pNGAL levels were independently associated with 3-year mortality after cardiac surgery. While post-operative pNGAL levels were also associated with 3-year mortality, this relationship was not independent of changes in serum creatinine. These findings suggest that while pre-operative pNGAL adds prognostic value for mortality beyond routinely available

  6. Mercury's gravity field and ephemeris after 3 years of MESSENGER orbital observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander J.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-05-01

    gravitational oblateness of the Sun. This quantity is not only of interest for solar system dynamics but also a fundamental parameter for general relativity and a target for improved determination by the BepiColombo mission. We summarize the latest analysis of radio tracking data of MESSENGER. Range and range-rate data have been processed to update Mercury's gravity field, expanded in spherical harmonics to degree and order 50, and ephemeris. The inclusion of range data stabilized our solution and mitigated non-gravitational perturbations (such as those from solar radiation pressure and surface thermal emission), which markedly affect the recovery of Mercury's rotational parameters and tides. We also present preliminary results on Mercury's obliquity, libration amplitude, and Love number k2.

  7. Typing and Antibiogram of Vibrio cholerae Isolates from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pune: A 3 Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Palewar, Meghna S; Choure, Archana C; Mudshingkar, Swati; Dohe, Vaishali; Kagal, Anju; Bhardwaj, Renu; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Sarkar, Banwarilal

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was done over a period of 3 years (January 2010- December 2012) in a tertiary care hospital, Pune, to note the changes in the prevalence and distribution of biotypes, serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and phage types of Vibrio cholerae isolates from clinical samples so as to be vigilant and curtail major outbreak in future. Vibrio cholerae isolates were obtained from 4.4% of the 1126 fecal specimens processed from cases of acute watery diarrhea. Majority of the isolates were identified as V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa (98%); Phage 27 was the predominant type (77.5%). Majority of the cases were encountered during the months June-August (68%). Antibiogram over a period of 3 years showed that isolates were consistently resistant to Ampicillin (90%) and Furazolidone (88%). Low level of resistance was seen with Norfloxacin (8%), Gentamicin (8%) and Tetracycline (6%). All isolates were susceptible to Chloramphenicol. PMID:25722619

  8. Effectiveness of Dietary Allergen Exclusion Therapy on Eosinophilic Colitis in Chinese Infants and Young Children ≤ 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Geng, Lanlan; Chen, Peiyu; Wang, Fenghua; Xu, Zhaohui; Liang, Cuiping; Li, Huiwen; Fang, Tiefu; Friesen, Craig A.; Gong, Sitang; Li, Dingyou

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is a well recognized clinical entity mainly associated with food allergies. Empiric treatment options include dietary allergen exclusion (extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and elimination diet), anti-allergy medications (antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists) and corticosteroids. We evaluated the effectiveness of dietary antigen exclusion on clinical remission of eosinophilic colitis in infants and young children. We retrospectively reviewed charts of all infants and children ≤3 years of age who were diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (defined as mucosal eosinophilia ≥20 hpf−1) from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 at a tertiary children’s hospital in China. Forty-nine children were identified with eosinophilic colitis. Elemental formula, simple elimination diet or combination therapy resulted in clinical improvement in 75%, 88.2% and 80% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic colitis in infants and children ≤3 years of age responded well to dietary allergen exclusion. PMID:25768952

  9. 187Os-186Os and He Isotope Systematics of Iceland Picrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, A. D.; Brandon, A. D.; Graham, D.; Gautason, B.

    2001-12-01

    Iceland is one of the longest-lived modern plumes, and seismic imaging supports a model where the roots of this plume are at the base of the lower mantle. Hence, Os isotopic data for lavas from this plume are ideal for further testing the role of core-mantle chemical exchange at the site of plume generation in the lower mantle, and for addressing the origin of Os-He isotopic variation in plumes. Recent work has shown that lavas from some plume systems (Hawaii, Noril'sk-Siberia, Gorgona) show coupled enrichments in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os, not observed in upper mantle materials including abyssal peridotites. Picrites from Hawaii display a positive correlation between 186Os/188Os and He isotopes (R/Ra), where range in 186Os/188Os of 0.119834+/-28 to 0.1198475+/-29 and corresponding R/Ra from +7 to +25. These systematics are consistent with a lower mantle source for the radiogenic 186Os signal in the Hawaiian plume. The coupled Os enrichments in these plumes has been attributed to core-mantle chemical exchange, consistent with generation of the Hawaiian plume at the base of the lower mantle in D". Other potentially viable models await additional scrutiny. New He isotope and high precision 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os measurements for Iceland picrites show unique systematics compared to Hawaii. These picrites have 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.1297 to 0.1381 and R/Ra of +9 to +18, with generally higher R/Ra correlating with higher 187Os/188Os. Unlike the Hawaiian picrites from Hualalai and Loihi, which have coupled enrichments in 186Os/188Os and 187Os/188Os, the Iceland picrites show no enrichment 186Os/188Os - 0.1198363+/-28 (2s, n=14). Such Os-He isotopic variations require one end-member source that has high R/Ra, coupled with a long term elevated Re/Os and Pt/Os similar to that of the upper mantle. These systematics are inconsistent with either known upper mantle materials or those purported for ancient recycled slabs and may be a previously unidentified component

  10. Successful HeartWare Bridge to Recovery in a 3-Year Old: A Game Changer?

    PubMed

    Kirk, Richard; Peng, Ed; Woods, Andrew; Flett, Julie; Hewitt, Terry; Griselli, Massimo; Schueler, Stephen; Wrightson, Neil; Hasan, Asif

    2016-05-01

    We report a 3-year-old boy weighing 13.5 kg who presented with intractable cardiac failure resulting from myocarditis and was treated by implantation of a HeartWare (HVAD) device. He was discharged home with the device. His cardiac function subsequently recovered, and the device was decommissioned. We believe this to be the youngest HVAD recipient and the only child to have recovered and had the device decommissioned. PMID:27106437

  11. Increasing Fruit, Vegetable and Water Consumption in Summer Day Camps-3-Year Findings of the Healthy Lunchbox Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Moore, Justin B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the 3-year outcomes (2011-2013) from the healthy lunchbox challenge (HLC) delivered in the US-based summer day camps (SDC) (8-10 hours day-1, 10-11 weeks summer-1, SDC) to increase children and staff bringing fruit, vegetables and water (FVW) each day. A single group pre- with multiple post-test design…

  12. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with bilateral papilledema and vision loss in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Anthony G; Gouws, Pieter; Headland, Sophie; Oades, Patrick; Pople, Ian; Taylor, David; Benton, J Sarah; Buncic, J Raymond; Henderson, John; Fleming, Peter

    2008-04-01

    We describe bilateral papilledema and vision loss in a 3-year-old child with obstructive sleep apnea. Although lumbar puncture initially disclosed a normal opening pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure monitoring during sleep confirmed intermittent episodes of elevated intracranial pressure corresponding to increased airway resistance. The association of obstructive sleep apnea and raised intracranial pressure is recognized in children with craniosynostosis but has not been reported in its absence. PMID:18289895

  13. A 3-year follow-up of stroke patients: relationships between activities of daily living and personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elmståhl, S; Sommer, M; Hagberg, B

    1996-01-01

    The importance of some personality characteristics for improvement of activities of daily life (ADL) was studied in sixty-six stroke patients, initially admitted to geriatric rehabilitation (n=37) or the department of medicine (n=29), 3 years after stroke. Outcome measurements were activities of daily life and motor and mental functions assessed using the Activity Index (AI) by Hamrin and Wohlin (1982). Neuroticism and extroversion were measured with the Eysenck Personality Inventory Scale. Preferred coping strategies were assessed from interviews on how the patients handle difficult events. Major improvements of ADL and motor functions were seen the first year after stroke. There was no major differences between patients admitted, either to geriatric rehabilitation or traditional medical wards regarding the outcome measurements except for better eating ability in the former group 3 years later. Subjects living alone showed deteriorated ADL functions after 3 years. Extrovert personality and active coping strategy predicted improved ADL functions. Multiple regression analyses with AI as the dependent variable proved active coping to predict functional outcome. In conclusion; increased knowledge about personality characteristics can improve possibilities for a more individual rehabilitation program. PMID:15374173

  14. Two- and 3-year-olds integrate linguistic and pedagogical cues in guiding inductive generalization and exploration.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lucas P; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Young children can in principle make generic inferences (e.g., "doffels are magnetic") on the basis of their own individual experience. Recent evidence, however, shows that by 4years of age children make strong generic inferences on the basis of a single pedagogical demonstration with an individual (e.g., an adult demonstrates for the child that a single "doffel" is magnetic). In the current experiments, we extended this to look at younger children, investigating how the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are integrated with other aspects of inductive inference during early development. We found that both 2- and 3-year-olds used pedagogical cues to guide such generic inferences, but only so long as the "doffel" was linguistically labeled. In a follow-up study, 3-year-olds, but not 2-year-olds, continued to make this generic inference even if the word "doffel" was uttered incidentally and non-referentially in a context preceding the pedagogical demonstration, thereby simply marking the opportunity to learn about a culturally important category. By 3years of age, then, young children show a remarkable ability to flexibly combine different sources of culturally relevant information (e.g., linguistic labeling, pedagogy) to make the kinds of generic inferences so central in human cultural learning. PMID:26826468

  15. The Effectiveness of Child Restraint Systems for Children Aged 3 Years or Younger During Motor Vehicle Collisions: 1996 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Craig L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effectiveness of child restraints in preventing death during motor vehicle collisions among children 3 years or younger. Methods. We conducted a matched cohort study using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data from 1996 to 2005. We estimated death risk ratios using conditional Poisson regression, bootstrapping, multiple imputation, and a sensitivity analysis of misclassification bias. We examined possible effect modification by selected factors. Results. The estimated death risk ratios comparing child safety seats with no restraint were 0.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21, 0.34) for infants, 0.24 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.30) for children aged 1 year, 0.40 (95% CI = 0.32, 0.51) for those aged 2 years, and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.52) for those aged 3 years. Estimated safety seat effectiveness was greater during rollover collisions, in rural environments, and in light trucks. We estimated seat belts to be as effective as safety seats in preventing death for children aged 2 and 3 years. Conclusions. Child safety seats are highly effective in reducing the risk of death during severe traffic collisions and generally outperform seat belts. Parents should be encouraged to use child safety seats in favor of seat belts. PMID:19059860

  16. The nitrogen efficiency of MSW composts as measured by triticale uptake in a 3-year field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Jerzy; Licznar, Michal; Bekier, Jakub; Drozd, Jerzy; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Kocowicz, Andrzej; Parylak, Danuta; Kordas, Leszek; Licznar, Stanislawa

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents results of three year field experiment, where two different composts produced from municipal solid wastes were applied to sandy soil. The experiment was established on soil developed from loam sand, according to U.S.D.A. textural classes (81% of sand, 12% of silt, and 7% of clay), of a slightly acidic reaction (pH KCl 6.05 - 6.44). The plough layer (0 - 25 cm) contained about 5.0 g/kg of organic carbon. Both composts were alkaline in reaction and contained high amounts of plant available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Composts were used non-recurrently in rates of 18, 36, and 72 t/ha, calculated on dry matter basis. Control objects (0 and NPK) were plots without fertilization, as well as plots fertilized each year with mineral forms of NPK. Field experiment was conducted in 15 m2 plots, using five replications in a randomized block design. Spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) cultivated in a 3-year monoculture was used as the experiment plant. Soil samples were collected each year after harvesting. Changes in triticale yield were considered in relation to soil properties and nitrogen content in triticale straw and grain. Application of composts caused beneficial changes in soil fertility, connected mainly with an increase of soil organic matter and content of available forms of P, K, and Mg. These effects were observed throughout three years of the experiment. However, significantly higher values of organic carbon - as compared to control (0 and NPK) - were observed only in plots with medium and highest compost doses. This effect was very clear in the first year, while significant differences in soil carbon content were still observed in next two years. The yield of triticale straw and grain depended significantly on fertilization with composts, but beneficial effect of compost was observed only in the first year. Yield similar to NPK control was found only on plots where the highest dose of compost was applied. Next two

  17. Usefulness of the Baseline Syntax Score to Predict 3-Year Outcome After Complete Revascularization by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeehoon; Park, Kyung Woo; Han, Jung-Kyu; Yang, Han-Mo; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-09-01

    Although we strive to achieve complete revascularization (CR) in those receiving percutaneous coronary intervention, it is uncertain which of these patients are at increased risk of clinical events. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the baseline SYNTAX score (bSS) can predict adverse clinical events in patients receiving CR. From the Efficacy of Xience/Promus Versus Cypher in Reducing Late Loss After Stenting registry, the 3-year patient-oriented composite end point (POCE; all cause death, any myocardial infarction, and any revascularization) was compared according to bSS tertiles (1 ≤ low bSS < 6, 6 ≤ mid-bSS < 10, high bSS ≥ 10). Of the 5,088 patients, CR was achieved in 2,173 by percutaneous coronary intervention. The 3-year POCE increased significantly along with bSS tertile (7.3% vs 8.4% vs 14.8%, p <0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that, despite having the same residual SS of 0, the bSS was an independent predictor of 3-year POCE (hazard ratio 1.038, 95% confidence interval 1.018 to 1.058, p <0.001 per bSS point). In subgroup analysis, bSS was a predictor for 3-year POCE in multivessel diseases (hazard ratio 1.029, 95% confidence interval 1.004 to 1.054, p = 0.025 per bSS point), whereas in single-vessel diseases, the discriminative value of bSS was less significant. Also the clinical SYNTAX score, which added age, creatinine level, and ejection fraction to the bSS, was superior to the bSS in predicting 3-year POCE (area under the curve 0.595 vs 0.649, p = 0.008). In conclusion, the bSS was an independent predictor of long-term clinical outcomes in patients receiving CR, especially in those with multivessel coronary artery disease. Adding clinical factors to the bSS could increase the predictive power of clinical outcomes. PMID:27394412

  18. 46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY karyotype in a 3-year-old boy ascertained because of radioulnar synostosis

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.; Robson, L.; Jackson, J.

    1995-05-08

    Chromosome analysis was performed on a 3-year-old boy because of bilateral radioulnar synostosis and demonstrated a mosaic karyotype 46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY. He had minor facial anomalies and mild intellectual delay. He appears to be the youngest patient reported with this rare chromosome complement. His father, mother, and brother had normal chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on the propositus and his father with the Y chromosome heterochromatic probe (pHY3.4) to add to the evaluation of mosaicism. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. [Bevacizumab as first-line therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma : Progression-free survival for 3 years].

    PubMed

    Pichler, R; Horninger, W; Aigner, F; Heidegger, I

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 72-year-old woman who was diagnosed in 2006 with renal cell cancer (RCC) and had undergone consecutive tumor nephrectomy (clear-cell RCC, Fuhrmann grade II, stage pT3a, R0). Over the years, the patient underwent several surgical and radiological interventions due to various metastatic lesions. This case report describes the 3-year progression-free survival in a patient who underwent first-line therapy with the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. Except for hypertension, the patient does not suffer currently from any other side effects of bevacizumab therapy. PMID:26471795

  20. Hospital Organization and Importance of an Interventional Radiology Inpatient Admitting Service: Italian Single-Center 3-Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Simonetti, Giovanni; Bollero, Enrico; Ciarrapico, Anna Micaela; Gandini, Roberto; Konda, Daniel Bartolucci, Alberto; Di Primio, Massimiliano; Mammucari, Matteo; Chiocchi, Marcello; D'Alba, Fabrizio; Masala, Salvatore

    2009-03-15

    In June 2005 a Complex Operating Unit of Interventional Radiology (COUIR), consisting of an outpatient visit service, an inpatient admitting service with four beds, and a day-hospital service with four beds was installed at our department. Between June 2005 and May 2008, 1772 and 861 well-screened elective patients were admitted to the inpatient ward of the COUIR and to the Internal Medicine Unit (IMU) or Surgery Unit (SU) of our hospital, respectively, and treated with IR procedures. For elective patients admitted to the COUIR's inpatient ward, hospital stays were significantly shorter and differences between reimbursements and costs were significantly higher for almost all IR procedures compared to those for patients admitted to the IMU and SU (Student's t-test for unpaired data, p < 0.05). The results of the 3-year activity show that the activation of a COUIR with an inpatient admitting service, and the better organization of the patient pathway that came with it, evidenced more efficient use of resources, with the possibility for the hospital to save money and obtain positive margins (differences between reimbursements and costs). During 3 years of activity, the inpatient admitting service of our COUIR yielded a positive difference between reimbursements and effective costs of Euro 1,009,095.35. The creation of an inpatient IR service and the admission of well-screened elective patients allowed short hospitalization times, reduction of waiting lists, and a positive economic outcome.

  1. Predictors of Obesity in a Cohort of Children Enrolled in WIC as Infants and Retained to 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, M A; Scheinmann, R; Hartel, D; McLeod, N; Sekhobo, J; Edmunds, L S; Findley, S

    2016-02-01

    This longitudinal study of children enrolled as infants in the New York State (NYS) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) examined predictors of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile) at 3 years of age. NYS WIC administrative data which included information from parent interviews and measured heights and weights for children were used. All 50,589 children enrolled as infants in WIC between July to December 2008 and July to December 2009 and retained in WIC through age three were included. At 3 years of age, 15.1% of children were obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that children of mothers who received the Full Breastfeeding Food Package when their infant was enrolled in WIC (adjusted OR = 0.52) and children with ≤2 h screen time daily at age 3 (adjusted OR = 0.88) were significantly less likely to be obese (p < 0.001) controlling for race/ethnicity, birth weight, and birthplace. In this cohort of NYS WIC participants, maternal receipt of the Full Breastfeeding Food Package (a surrogate measure of exclusive breastfeeding) is associated with lower levels of obesity in their children at age 3. The relationships between participation in WIC, exclusive breastfeeding, and obesity prevention merit further study. PMID:26280211

  2. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed. PMID:22201248

  3. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    PubMed Central

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T.; Jensen, Signe M.; Christensen, Line B.; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height2/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2–4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity. PMID:24463487

  4. The Natural Course of Intermittent Exotropia over a 3-year Period and the Factors Predicting the Control Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Jeremy J. S. W.; Chong, Gabriela S. L.; Ko, Simon T. C.; Yam, Jason C.S.

    2016-01-01

    The natural course of intermittent exotropia and the factors affecting its control has been unclear. We aim to report the natural course of our cohort of 117 Chinese children with intermittent exotropia and to identify baseline parameters that may have predictive value in the control deterioration of the disease. The visual acuity, spherical equivalent, compliance to orthoptic exercise, angle of deviation fusional convergence parameters and Newcastle Control Score were recorded for all children at baseline and at 3 years apart. Patients were divided into two groups according to the change in control over the 3 years: group 1 included patients who had no deterioration or had improvement in disease control; and group 2 were those who had deteriorated control or had undergone surgery. There were 77 patients (66%) in group 1 and 40 (34%) patients in group 2. Comparing the baseline parameters of the two groups, group 1 had statistically significantly smaller angle of deviation, larger fusional reserve, larger fusional recovery, and higher fusional reserve ratio (p < 0.05). Other baseline parameters were similar between the two groups. The baseline fusional parameters may have predictive value in determining the control of intermittent exotropia. PMID:27257120

  5. [Potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old: review of literature].

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Inga; Sikorska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The literature review regarding potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old, is presented. In this article, cognitive aspects of development include acquisition of language, attention, learning and later school performance. The constant increase of children's access to television is noted, indicating that 60% of infants and toddlers watch TV regularly for 1-2 hours per day. The review included 40 articles and book chapters of significant such as Anderson, Barr, Christakis, Zimmerman, Meltzoff, Courage, Setliff, Troseth. The data was selected from electronic databases of scientific publications: Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and Humanities Full Text (H.W. Wilson) available in Poland. Cited articles provide evidence of the negative impact of exposure to television, media and video on the cognitive functioning of children under 3 years old. The potential impact of watching TV for difficulties in ability to focus attention appears as a core danger. Furthermore, studies suggest a possible connection between early exposure to television and ADHD as well as difficulties with language acquisition, learning and poorer school results. PMID:27416629

  6. Family function of the families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Joh, Ju-Youn; Shin, Il-Seon

    2015-03-01

    Marriages between Korean men and immigrant women from elsewhere in Asia have increased rapidly during recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship within families consisting of immigrant women and to identify the relevant factors. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a baseline study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and family APGAR (adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve) scores were measured. Family APGAR has been widely used to study the relationship of family function and health problems in the busy clinician's office. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the baseline study results. Family APGAR scores were higher at the 3-year follow-up than those at baseline. Changes in family APGAR scores were found to be influenced by the birthplace, reported subjective ability to read Korean, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale score. PMID:22652245

  7. Coal home heating and environmental tobacco smoke in relation to lower respiratory illness in Czech children, from birth to 3 years of age

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.J.; Hert-Picciotto, I.; Dostal, M.; Keller, J.A.; Nozicka, J.; Kotesovec, F.; Dejmek, J.; Loomis, D.; Sram, R.J.

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how indoor pollution from tobacco and home heating may adversely affect respiratory health in young children. A total of 452 children born 1994-1996 in two districts in the Czech Republic participated. Lower respiratory illness (LRI) diagnoses occurred more frequently in children from homes heated by coal (vs. other energy sources or distant furnaces; rate ratio (RR) = 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07-1.97). Maternal prenatal smoking and other adult smokers also increased LRI rates (respectively: RR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10-2.01; and RR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.65). Cooking fuels (primarily electricity, natural gas, or propane) were not associated with LRI incidence. For children never breast-fed, coal home heating and mother's smoking conferred substantially greater risks: RR = 2.77 (95% CI, 1.45-5.27) and RR = 2.52 (95% CI, 1.31-4.85), respectively. This maternal smoking and coal home heating increased risk for LRI in the first 3 years of life, particularly in children not breast-fed.

  8. Neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 189}Os for the Re-Os chronology

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, M.; Masaki, T.; Nagai, Y.; Temma, Y.; Shima, T.; Mishima, K.; Igashira, M.; Goriely, S.; Koning, A.; Hilaire, S.

    2007-08-15

    Discrete as well as continuum {gamma}-ray energy spectra from the neutron capture by {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 189}Os have been taken for the first time at 5{<=}E{sub n}{<=}90 keV by an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The detection of a weak discrete {gamma}-ray, about 0.5% of total {gamma}-ray strength, demonstrates the high sensitivity of the present measurement. The energy spectra enabled us to accurately determine the reaction cross sections with a small systematic uncertainty. Based on the new cross sections, we reestimate on the basis of a careful reaction cross section calculation the correction factor F{sub {sigma}} for the neutron capture on the 9.75-keV first excited state in {sup 187}Os as a function of stellar temperature, as required to derive the age of the galaxy within the Re-Os chronology.

  9. Effect of 3 years of treatment with a dorzolamide/timolol (1%/0.5%) combination on intraocular pressure

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Sakurako; Mimura, Tatsuya; Matsubara, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the effect on the intraocular pressure (IOP) of a dorzolamide/timolol (1%/0.5%) fixed combination (DTFC) ophthalmic agent for 3 years. Participants A total of 19 consecutive patients who had previously been treated with mono-therapy or any combination of a beta-blocker, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, or prostaglandin analog, for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) (n=5) or normal tension glaucoma (N=14) were enrolled. Methods Patients were switched to DTFC from their prior glaucoma therapy. The IOP was measured at intervals of 4–6 weeks for 3 years. Treatment failure was defined as an increase of IOP by ≥10% from baseline after switching to DTFC. Results The average IOP decreased significantly from 14.1±2.9 mmHg at baseline to 12.2±2.2, 11.8±2.4, 12.1±2.5, 11.6±1.8, and 12.1±2.7 mmHg at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after switching therapy (all P<0.05). The mean percent decrease of IOP was 12.0%±13.0%, 14.5%±14.2%, 12.2%±18.7%, 16.0%±12.8%, and 12.8%±15.2% at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after switching. Univariate or multivariate analysis revealed the percent decrease of IOP was associated with the type of glaucoma (POAG) at 3 and 12 months, and with the baseline IOP at 3, 12, 24, and 36 months. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that the percentage of patients who remained on treatment with DTFC was 94.7%, 94.7%, 84.2%, 78.9%, and 78.9% at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that the type of glaucoma (POAG) was associated with an increased risk of failure to control the IOP. Conclusion The IOP-lowering effect of DTFC was demonstrated for 3 years in this study. The baseline IOP had an important influence on the reduction of IOP achieved by DTFC. PMID:25228795

  10. Post-traumatic left ventricular aneurysm with massive hemopericardium in a child presenting 3 years after a fall.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei-Ting; Lin, Shan-Miao; Wu, Shyr-Jao; Hwang, Haw-Kwei; Peng, Chun-Chih; Chen, Ming-Ren

    2013-12-01

    A 7-year-old boy developed a left ventricular aneurysm with massive hemopericardium 3 years ago due to a fall from a fourth-floor window. He had mild neurological sequelae including cranial nerve III palsy and abnormal electroencephalography findings at that time. He had no chest pain until recently when he presented with chest tightness and abdominal pain for 2 days prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed marked cardiomegaly. Echocardiography revealed massive pericardial effusion and a large left ventricular aneurysm. The massive hemopericardium was surgically drained, and the aneurysm was resected under cardiopulmonary bypass. He was discharged uneventfully 1 week after operation. Because symptoms and signs can vary in patients with ventricular aneurysm, we strongly suggest a close clinical follow-up, preferably with chest X-ray or echocardiography, for patients experiencing a blunt chest trauma. PMID:23597547

  11. Dental Provider Attitudes Are a Barrier to Expanded Oral Health Care for Children ≤3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Sophia; Fontana, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the perspectives of general dentists regarding oral health care for children ≤3 years. Methods. Mailed survey of 444 general dentists in Michigan. Results. Although most dentists were aware of recommendations for early dental visits, only 36% recommended their own patients begin dental visits by 1 year of age. Only 37% dentists felt that screening for oral health problems can be done by medical providers, whereas 34% agreed administration of fluoride varnish by medical providers would be effective in preventing dental problems in young children. Conclusions. Dentists’ failure to recommend 1-year dental visits is due neither to lack of awareness nor to capacity problems. The limited enthusiasm for involving children’s medical providers in oral health promotion signals attitudinal barriers that must be overcome to improve children’s oral health. Primary care providers should identify and refer to dentists in their community who are willing to see young children. PMID:27335915

  12. Fifty-four-month survival in a 3-year-old child presenting with an aggressive metastatic dedifferentiated clival chordoma.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Ciléin; Kearns, Cónail

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated chordoma is a rare, aggressive, chemoresistant and radioresistant malignancy arising from notochord remnants that can occur anywhere along the spine. Incidence in patients under 20 years of age is 1 per 250 million. We report a case of dedifferentiated clival chordoma presenting in a 3-year-old boy with pulmonary metastasis, which responded unusually well to chemotherapy, achieving complete metastatic clearance and debulking of the primary tumour. Proton beam therapy achieved further tumour control, with excellent quality of life for multiple years. On disease relapse, an atypical lateral transcondylar surgical approach achieved complete macroscopic clearance but there was cutaneous seeding. This, and continued primary site activity, failed to be controlled with targeted therapy, traditional chemotherapy and photon radiation, resulting in gradual neurological decline and death. Intensive management resulted in above-average survival despite diagnosis late in the disease course, which may be of value directing investigation into optimal management. PMID:27284102

  13. Nonsurgical approach to Class I open-bite malocclusion with extrusion mechanics: a 3-year retention case report.

    PubMed

    Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Hohlt, William; Evans, Carla A

    2015-04-01

    Anterior open bite is one of the most challenging malocclusions for orthodontic treatment. The high incidence of relapse is a major concern. Therefore, accurate initial examination, diagnosis, treatment plan, and consideration of habitual risk factors are crucial for a successful outcome without unwanted sequelae. Excellent patient compliance for retainer wear is also a critical factor. This case report shows the 3-year stability of a nonsurgical and nonextraction orthodontic treatment of a 5-mm anterior open-bite malocclusion in a 12-year-old girl with extrusion mechanics and habit modification. After 2 years of orthodontic treatment, excellent outcomes were achieved. With an appropriate retention protocol, the long-term stability of the treatment was favorable. PMID:25836010

  14. Substrate reduction therapy with miglustat in chronic GM2 gangliosidosis type Sandhoff: results of a 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Masciullo, Marcella; Santoro, Massimo; Modoni, Anna; Ricci, Enzo; Guitton, Jerome; Tonali, Pietro; Silvestri, Gabriella

    2010-12-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis type Sandhoff is caused by a defect of beta-hexosaminidase, an enzyme involved in the catabolism of gangliosides. It has been proposed that substrate reduction therapy using N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (miglustat) may delay neurological progression, at least in late-onset forms of GM2 gangliosidosis. We report the results of a 3-year treatment with miglustat (100 mg t.i.d) in a patient with chronic Sandhoff disease manifesting with an atypical, spinal muscular atrophy phenotype. The follow-up included serial neurological examinations, blood tests, abdominal ultrasound, and neurophysiologic, cognitive, brain, and muscle MRI studies. We document some minor effects on neurological progression in chronic Sandhoff disease by miglustat treatment, confirming the necessity of phase II therapeutic trials including early-stage patients in order to assess its putative efficacy in chronic Sandhoff disease. PMID:20821051

  15. The magic shrinking machine revisited: The presence of props at recall facilitates memory in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Jonna J; Kingo, Osman S; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2015-12-01

    In a seminal study Simcock and Hayne (2002) showed that 3-year-olds were unable to use newly acquired words to describe a "magic" event experienced 6 or 12 months earlier. In the reference study the children's verbal recall was tested without props being present. Inspired by recent evidence, the original design was replicated, testing 33-and 39-month-olds (n = 180), but with props present at recall while controlling for potential online reasoning. The results revealed that the children did use newly acquired words to describe their preverbal memory. Thus, the present study shows that nonverbal memories can be verbalized if the recall setting provides a high level of contextual support, a finding relevant to researchers investigating the offset of childhood amnesia. PMID:26436869

  16. Acute Corneal Hydrops 3 Years after Intra-corneal Ring Segments and Corneal Collagen Cross-linking

    PubMed Central

    Antonios, Rafic; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Chelala, Elias; Hamadeh, Adib; Jarade, Elias

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a 15-year-old male with allergic conjunctivitis and keratoconus, who underwent uneventful intra-corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation and corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in the right eye. During the follow-up periods, the patient was noted to have several episodes of allergic conjunctivitis that were treated accordingly. At the 2 years postoperatively, he presented with another episode of allergic conjunctivitis and progression of keratoconus was suspected on topography. However, the patient was lost to follow-up, until he presented with acute hydrops at 3 years postoperatively. There are no reported cases of acute corneal hydrops in cross-linked corneas. We suspect the young age, allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing may be a risk factors associated with possible progression of keratoconus after CXL. Prolonged follow-up and aggressive control of the allergy might be necessary in similar cases. PMID:26957859

  17. Secondary implantation of implantable collamer lens (ICL) for correction of anisometropic hyperopia in a 3-year-old pseudophakic child.

    PubMed

    Emara, Khalid E; Al Abdulsalam, Omar; Al Habash, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of secondary implantation of implantable collamer lens (ICL) for correction of anisometropic hyperopia in a 3-year-old pseudophakic child. The ICL implantation was considered in our patient due to parental noncompliance for contact lens and spectacles use for one year. In terms of efficacy, the preoperative refractive error of +7.00-1.75 diopter (D) reduced to +1.00-1.75 D. The uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) significantly improved from 20/400 (preoperatively) to 20/50 (postoperatively). In terms of safety, after an uneventful implantation surgery, the ICL was well tolerated, and remained well centered, with no serious postoperative complications encountered over a 22-month follow-up. PMID:26949366

  18. Secondary implantation of implantable collamer lens (ICL) for correction of anisometropic hyperopia in a 3-year-old pseudophakic child

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Khalid E.; Al Abdulsalam, Omar; Al Habash, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of secondary implantation of implantable collamer lens (ICL) for correction of anisometropic hyperopia in a 3-year-old pseudophakic child. The ICL implantation was considered in our patient due to parental noncompliance for contact lens and spectacles use for one year. In terms of efficacy, the preoperative refractive error of +7.00–1.75 diopter (D) reduced to +1.00–1.75 D. The uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) significantly improved from 20/400 (preoperatively) to 20/50 (postoperatively). In terms of safety, after an uneventful implantation surgery, the ICL was well tolerated, and remained well centered, with no serious postoperative complications encountered over a 22-month follow-up. PMID:26949366

  19. Early Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Under 3 Years of Age: Recommendations for Practice and Research.

    PubMed

    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bauman, Margaret L; Choueiri, Roula; Kasari, Connie; Carter, Alice; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Mailloux, Zoe; Smith Roley, Susanne; Wagner, Sheldon; Fein, Deborah; Pierce, Karen; Buie, Timothy; Davis, Patricia A; Newschaffer, Craig; Robins, Diana; Wetherby, Amy; Stone, Wendy L; Yirmiya, Nurit; Estes, Annette; Hansen, Robin L; McPartland, James C; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews current evidence for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) interventions for children aged <3 years, based on peer-reviewed articles published up to December 2013. Several groups have adapted treatments initially designed for older, preschool-aged children with ASD, integrating best practice in behavioral teaching methods into a developmental framework based on current scientific understanding of how infants and toddlers learn. The central role of parents has been emphasized, and interventions are designed to incorporate learning opportunities into everyday activities, capitalize on "teachable moments," and facilitate the generalization of skills beyond the familiar home setting. Our review identified several comprehensive and targeted treatment models with evidence of clear benefits. Although some trials were limited to 8- to 12-week outcome data, enhanced outcomes associated with some interventions were evaluated over periods as long as 2 years. Based on this review, recommendations are proposed for clinical practice and future research. PMID:26430170

  20. [Epidemiologic aspects of gastroduodenal ulcer in Burundi. Apropos of 1,476 new cases seen in 3 years].

    PubMed

    Ndabaneze, E; Kadende, P; Laroche, R; Aubry, P

    1989-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the main epidemiological characteristics of gastroduodenal ulcer in Burundi, from 3,282 high gastrointestinal endoscopies, performed over a 3-year period, permitting the diagnosis of 1,476 ulcers (45%): the duodenal ulcer is predominant, almost 93 p. cent. The sex-ratio is 2.75/1. There is a peak of maximum frequency between the ages of 20 and 29 years for duodenal ulcer. The results of this study are consistent with the series published in Africa regarding the location of the ulcer, sex and age. The frequency is high in relation with the series coming from West Africa. Two provinces in the 15 which form Burundi, share between them 50% of ulcer patients. These are the highest regions of the country (average attitude = 1,800 meters), but where the socio-cultural and dietary customs are the same as in the other provinces. PMID:2817766

  1. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads. PMID:18184491

  2. Outcome from a Prospective, Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Cocaine Use: Preschool Development at 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Marylou; Eyler, Fonda Davis; Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Hou, Wei; Wobie, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child development. Methods This prospective, longitudinal study recruited 154 pregnant cocaine users who were matched on race, parity, socioeconomic status, and perinatal risk to 154 noncocaine users. Drug use status was determined by maternal history and urine screening. At 3 years of age, the child subjects were assessed by an evaluator blinded to maternal drug use history. During a home visit at age 3, caregiver, family, and home assessments were administered. Results Structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of the amount of prenatal cocaine exposure on the adjusted birth head circumference which in turn directly affected preschool development. Conclusions We could not demonstrate a direct effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on preschool development, a result that is consistent with that of earlier work and now extending findings to age 3. However, cocaine continued to exert an indirect effect on development through its direct effect on the head circumference at birth. PMID:15827349

  3. Operative management of traumatic cervical spine distraction and complete cord transection in a 3-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Davern, Monica Salazar; Garg, Sumeet; Hankinson, Todd C

    2015-02-01

    This report describes the presentation and operative treatment of a 3-year-old boy who survived a motor vehicle accident that resulted in a C6-7 distraction injury, complete avulsion of the spinal cord, and gross spinal instability. Only 5%-10% of all spinal cord and vertebral column injuries occur in children. Survival after such an injury is exceptionally rare in very young patients and is associated with severe neurological deficits. The authors discuss the substantial ethical challenges involved in the care of a patient with this injury. To their knowledge, only two other cases of survival have been reported in pediatric patients following motor vehicle trauma resulting in complete injury to the lower cervical spinal cord. PMID:25415253

  4. Periurethral and vulval condylomata acuminata: an unusual juvenile venereal disease in a 3-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Desai, Divyesh; Cherian, Abraham; Martyn-Simmons, Claire

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of giant condyloma acuminatum (CA) in a 3-year-old girl with rapidly growing vulval and periurethral lesions, which was investigated thoroughly and successfully treated with excision biopsy. Genital warts in the form of giant alarming vestibular, vulval and periurethral lesions of CA are very rare in children. There is need for a multidisciplinary approach with potential sociomedicolegal implications. Surgical excision is safe, effective and provides an opportunity to assess the extent of the lesion and tissue for accurate diagnosis. Genital warts in the form of giant alarming vestibular, vulval and periurethral lesions of CA are very rare in children. Indications for surgical treatment include large, recurrent or refractory lesions, as well as the need for histological identification and acquiring tissue for immunotherapy when necessary. The strategy of an extended follow-up is recommended so as to ensure identification of any risk situations. PMID:25199183

  5. Brief report: Lack of processing bias for the objects other people attend to in 3-year-olds with autism.

    PubMed

    Falck-Ytter, Terje; Thorup, Emilia; Bölte, Sven

    2015-06-01

    Whether gaze following--a key component of joint attention--is impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently debated. Functional gaze following involves saccading towards the attended rather than unattended targets (accuracy) as well as a subsequent processing bias for attended objects. Using non-invasive eye tracking technology, we show that gaze following accuracy is intact in intellectually low-functioning 3-year-olds with ASD. However, analyses of the duration of first fixations at the objects in the scene revealed markedly weaker initial processing bias for attended objects in children with ASD compared to children with typical development and non-autistic children with developmental delays. Limited processing bias for the objects other people attend to may negatively affect learning opportunities in ASD. PMID:25331324

  6. Ecthyma gangrenosum following toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome in a 3-year-old boy-a survivable series of events.

    PubMed

    Gresik, Christine M; Brewster, Luke P; Abood, Gerard; Supple, Kathy G; Silver, Geoffrey M; Gamelli, Richard L; Nickoloff, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome (TENS) is a severe but rare skin reaction leading to epidermal desquamation of greater than 30% of the TBSA. It is most commonly precipitated by the administration of medication. Frequent complications of this syndrome include local wound infections, respiratory, mucocutaneous, and ocular complications. Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a rare disease characterized by a milliary seeding of the cutaneous tissue with Gram-negative bacteria; it is most commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. Here we report a 3-year-old boy who developed EG subsequent to TENS. Although he had a complicated and prolonged hospital course, he survived these series of events. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of TENS/EG in the pediatric population, and the first report of survivability following these illnesses. PMID:18388562

  7. Pattern of sensitization to common environmental allergens amongst atopic Singapore children in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Khoo, J; Shek, L P; Shek, L; Khor, E S; Wang, D Y; Lee, B W

    2001-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the sensitization pattern to a range of common allergens in young Singaporean children. A cross-sectional study involving 75 children aged below 3 years was carried out. They presented between December 1995 and April 2000 with symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, eczema, or food allergy. Their levels of allergen-specific serum IgE to a panel of foods (egg white, milk, soy protein, shrimp, wheat and peanut), pet dander, dust mites and cockroaches were measured with Pharmacia CAP System radioallergosorbent test kits. Serum IgE levels greater than 0.35 kU/l represented a positive result. Four children could not be tested with the complete panel because of insufficient serum. The prevalence of sensitization was highest for cow's milk (45.9%) followed by egg white (38.7%), dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (31.4%) and Blomia tropicalis (25.5%). Sensitization to ingested allergens was significantly more prevalent in children aged 1 year or younger than in the older children (70.4% of those below 1 year, and 50% of those aged 1-3 years; p < 0.02). Sensitization to inhaled allergens, such as dust mites, was more likely to manifest as respiratory symptoms (allergic rhinitis and asthma), while ingested allergens were associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and eczema (p < 0.001). It was concluded that infants and young children are at high risk of sensitization to common environmental substances. Allergen avoidance is therefore important even in the very young. The prevalence of sensitization to food allergens is higher compared to inhalant allergens in young children. PMID:12009071

  8. Etiologic and clinical analysis of chronic complex anal and rectal inflammation in children less than 3 years old

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanlei; Zheng, Shan; Xiao, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the etiology and clinical diagnostic method for chronic complex anal and rectal inflammation in children less than 3 years old. Method: Seven children (5 males and 2 females; 1 year 8 months to 3 years of age at the time of physician evaluation) with chronic complex anal and rectal inflammation were enrolled between May 2008 and May 2013 at our hospital. Clinical history, results of auxiliary examinations, and empirical treatment of the children were analyzed retrospectively combined with the etiologic diagnosis. Results: Four patients were confirmed to have Crohn’s disease and one patient was confirmed to have intestinal tuberculosis; two patients were suspected to have Crohn’s disease. Anemia and low pre-albumin level were common (seven patients); serologic testing revealed four patients with elevated IgG levels and seven patients with elevated IgA levels; there were no patients with positive tuberculosis antibody titers and two patients were weakly positive for C-ANCA (one patient with Crohn’s disease and one patient intestinal tuberculosis). Colonoscopies revealed that the entire colon was affected in one patient, the left hemicolon was affected in four patients, and the sigmoid colon and rectum were affected in two patients. Two patients with Crohn’s disease and one patient with intestinal tuberculosis were diagnosed by colonoscopies in combination with histopathologic examinations. Two patients with Crohn’s disease were confirmed after empirical drug treatment, and two other patients were not definitely diagnosed. Conclusion: The possibility of Crohn’s disease or intestinal tuberculosis should be considered in the clinical diagnosis of complex chronic anal and rectal inflammation in younger children. Local surgery is sometimes unnecessary. Empirical drug treatment should be used if necessary. PMID:25550910

  9. NutricheQ Questionnaire assesses the risk of dietary imbalances in toddlers from 1 through 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Giuseppe S.; Cinelli, Giulia; Pietro, Ilaria Di; Papa, Vittoria; Spreghini, Nicola; Manco, Melania

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a nutrient-poor diet may affect children's growth, especially early in life, few tools to assess dietary imbalances in 1- to 3-year-old children have been developed. Objectives To investigate the accuracy and test–retest reliability of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in the identification of toddlers with the risk of inadequate intake of micro- and macronutrients in a sample of Italian toddlers. Design A 3-day weighed food record was performed, and results were compared with outcomes of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in 201 toddlers (training set: 1–3 years old). The accuracy of NutricheQ in the identification of categories of nutritional risk was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Test–retest of the tool was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Cronbach's alpha statistic, in a validation set of 50 toddlers. Results The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a valid tool for the identification of toddlers at risk for dietary imbalances. Significant differences in nutrient intake (p<0.005) were found among the three groups of risk identified by the questionnaire: toddlers included in the high-risk group had a lower intake of key nutrients such as iron, vitamin D and other vitamins, and fibre compared to those included in the low-risk group. NutricheQ is also reliable between administrations, as demonstrated by its test–retest reliability. ICC and Cronbach's alpha were 0.73 and 0.83, respectively, for Section 1 of NutricheQ, and 0.55 and 0.70 for Section 2. Conclusions The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a reliable and consistent tool for the assessment of possible dietary risk factors in Italian toddlers. It consistently identifies toddlers with a high probability of having poor iron and vitamin D intake, and other dietary imbalances. PMID:26689315

  10. A 3-years full-scale mechanical ice deformation test from the artificial drainages of the Tête Rousse cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardini, Olivier; Krug, Jean; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Durand, Gaël; Gilbert, Adrien; Thibert, Emmanuel; Vincent, Christian; Weiss, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    History of the city of Saint Gervais Mont Blanc, in the french Alps, is deeply marked by the 1892 disaster which killed 175 persons, after the unexpected release of 100000 m3 of water contained in a hidden cavity inside the Tête-Rousse glacier. During summer 2010, a pressurised water-filled cavity of at least 50000 m3 was again discovered within the glacier. To avoid a repetition of the 1892 disaster, an unprecedented initiative has been risen up to drain the water cavity under this high altitude glacier. This procedure was further repeated in Autumns 2011 and 2012 since the cavity was permanently refiled in-between two drainages. However, as the cavity was decreasing in size due to the creep of ice when the water level was low, the total water volume drained out of the cavity was decreased each Autumn. At the same time, a dense network of stakes was deployed to survey the glacier surface displacements above the cavity during the pumping. Record of the water level evolution within the cavity together with the surface displacement measurements along an almost 3-years period constitute a very well documented full-scale experiment to characterise ice deformation. When the water level is low, the cavity is shrinking, whereas when the cavity is full of pressurised water, the cavity is growing. Because of the density ratio between ice and water, closing is approximately 9 time faster than opening. This dataset is completed by recently acquired surface and bedrock DEMs, as well as an image of the cavity geometry from sonar and radar measurements. This unique dataset was then used to constraint the finite-element ice flow model Elmer/Ice and perform transient simulations over the 3-years period. Both the evolution of the surface displacements and of the cavity volume are compared to measurements. We show the importance of accounting for ice damage to reproduce the observed surface displacements.

  11. The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Nonword Repetition and Fast Mapping in 3-Year-Olds with a History of Expressive Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Dalton, Kevin Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability on sublexical (phonological) and lexical representations in 3-year-olds who had a history of being late talkers in comparison with their peers with typical language development. Method: Ten 3-year-olds who were late talkers and 10 age-matched typically…

  12. Monosyllabic Mandarin Tone Productions by 3-Year-Olds Growing up in Taiwan and in the United States: Interjudge Reliability and Perceptual Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Puisan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The author compared monosyllabic Mandarin lexical tones produced by 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and in the United States. Method: Following the procedures in Wong, Schwartz, and Jenkins (2005), the author collected monosyllabic tone productions from 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children in Taiwan and…

  13. Expression of a gene encoding a rice RING zinc-finger protein, OsRZFP34, enhances stomata opening.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kuo-Hsuan; Liu, Chia-Chin; Wu, Shaw-Jye; Kuo, Ying-Yu; Lu, Chung-An; Wu, Ching-Rong; Lian, Pei-Jyun; Hong, Chwan-Yang; Ke, Yi-Ting; Huang, Juin-Hua; Yeh, Ching-Hui

    2014-09-01

    By oligo microarray expression profiling, we identified a rice RING zinc-finger protein (RZFP), OsRZFP34, whose gene expression increased with high temperature or abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. As compared with the wild type, rice and Arabidopsis with OsRZFP34 overexpression showed increased relative stomata opening even with ABA treatment. Furthermore, loss-of-function mutation of OsRZFP34 and AtRZFP34 (At5g22920), an OsRZFP34 homolog in Arabidopsis, decreased relative stomata aperture under nonstress control conditions. Expressing OsRZFP34 in atrzfp34 reverted the mutant phenotype to normal, which indicates a conserved molecular function between OsRZFP34 and AtRZFP34. Analysis of water loss and leaf temperature under stress conditions revealed a higher evaporation rate and cooling effect in OsRZFP34-overexpressing Arabidopsis and rice than the wild type, atrzfp34 and osrzfp34. Thus, stomata opening, enhanced leaf cooling, and ABA insensitivity was conserved with OsRZFP34 expression. Transcription profiling of transgenic rice overexpressing OsRZFP34 revealed many genes involved in OsRZFP34-mediated stomatal movement. Several genes upregulated or downregulated in OsRZFP34-overexpressing plants were previously implicated in Ca(2+) sensing, K(+) regulator, and ABA response. We suggest that OsRZFP34 may modulate these genes to control stomata opening. PMID:25002225

  14. Functions of OsDof25 in regulation of OsC4PPDK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Verhoeff, N I; Chen, Z; Chen, S; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Zhen; Ouwerkerk, P B F

    2015-10-01

    Relative little is known about the functions of the so-called Dof zinc factors in plants. Here we report on the analysis of OsDof25 and show a function in regulation of the important C4 photosynthesis gene, OsC4PPDK in rice. Over-expression of OsDof25 enhanced the expression of OsC4PPDK in transient expression experiments by binding in a specific way to a conserved Dof binding site which was confirmed by yeast and in vitro binding studies. Expression studies using promoter GUS plants as well as qPCR experiments showed that OsDof25 expressed in different tissues including both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs and that expression of OsDof25 was partially overlapping with the OsC4PPDK gene. Conclusive evidence for a role of OsDof25 in regulation of C4PPDK came from loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments with transgenic rice, which showed that down-regulation or over-expression of OsDof25 correlated with OsC4PPDK expression and that OsDof25 has functions as transcriptional activator. PMID:26337938

  15. Neutron capture and inelastic scattering cross sections for {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 189}Os and the Re-Os chronology

    SciTech Connect

    Segawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Masaki, T.; Temma, Y.; Shima, T.; Mishima, K.; Igashira, M.; Goriely, S.; Koning, A.; Hilaire, S.

    2008-05-21

    We measured the neutron capture cross sections of {sup 186,187,189}Os taking for the first time their pulse height spectra for neutrons between 5 and 90 keV by means of an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The neutron inelastic scattering cross section for {sup 187}Os as well as the neutron elastic scattering cross sections for {sup 186,187}Os were also observed with use of {sup 6}Li-glass scintillation detectors with a small systematic uncertainty.

  16. Development of Risk Score for Predicting 3-Year Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Akiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Okazaki, Hiroko; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Tomita, Kentaro; Nagahama, Satsue; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Sasaki, Naoko; Hori, Ai; Sakamoto, Nobuaki; Nishiura, Chihiro; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Kato, Noritada; Fukasawa, Kenji; Huanhuan, Hu; Akter, Shamima; Kurotani, Kayo; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk models and scores have been developed to predict incidence of type 2 diabetes in Western populations, but their performance may differ when applied to non-Western populations. We developed and validated a risk score for predicting 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. Methods Participants were 37,416 men and women, aged 30 or older, who received periodic health checkup in 2008–2009 in eight companies. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dl, random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%, or receiving medical treatment for diabetes. Risk scores on non-invasive and invasive models including FPG and HbA1c were developed using logistic regression in a derivation cohort and validated in the remaining cohort. Results The area under the curve (AUC) for the non-invasive model including age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, and smoking status was 0.717 (95% CI, 0.703–0.731). In the invasive model in which both FPG and HbA1c were added to the non-invasive model, AUC was increased to 0.893 (95% CI, 0.883–0.902). When the risk scores were applied to the validation cohort, AUCs (95% CI) for the non-invasive and invasive model were 0.734 (0.715–0.753) and 0.882 (0.868–0.895), respectively. Participants with a non-invasive score of ≥15 and invasive score of ≥19 were projected to have >20% and >50% risk, respectively, of developing type 2 diabetes within 3 years. Conclusions The simple risk score of the non-invasive model might be useful for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, and its predictive performance may be markedly improved by incorporating FPG and HbA1c. PMID:26558900

  17. Final Report for 3-year grant no. DE-FG05-85ER40226. Investigations in Elementary Particle Theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, Thomas W.; Scherrer, Robert J.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2014-11-23

    The research interests of our three Co-PI’s complement each other very well. Kephart works mainly on models of particle unification in four or higher dimensions, on aspects of gravity such as inflation, black-holes, and the very early Universe, and on applications of knot theory and topology to various physical systems (including gluon dynamics). Scherrer works mainly on aspects of the intermediate-aged Universe, including dark matter and dark energy, and particle physics in the early Universe. Weiler works mainly on neutrino physics, dark matter signatures, and extreme particle-astrophysics in the late Universe, including origins of the highest-energy cosmic-rays and gamma-rays, and the future potential of neutrino astrophysics. Kephart and Weiler have lately devoted some research attention to the LHC and its reach for probing physics beyond the Standard Model. During the 3-year funding period, our grant supported one postdoc (Chiu Man Ho) and partially supported two students, Peter Denton and Lingjun Fu. Chiu Man collaborated with all three of the Co-PI’s during the 3-year funding period and published 16 refereed papers. Chiu Man has gone on to a postdoc with Steve Hsu at Michigan State University. Denton and Fu will both receive their PhDs during the 2014-15 academic year. The total number of our papers published in refereed journals by the three co-PIs during the period of this grant (2011-present) is 54. The total number of talks given by the group members during this time period, including seminars, colloquia, and conference presentations, is 47. Some details of the accomplishments of our DOE funded researchers during the grant period include Weiler being named a Simons Fellow in 2013. He presented an invited TEDx talk in 2012. His paper on closed timelike curves (2013) garnered a great deal of national publicity. Scherrer’s paper on the “little rip” (2011) fostered a new area of cosmological research, and the name “little rip” has now entered

  18. Problems with Re-Os isochron determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Ngo, H. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-07-01

    We have developed closed-system techniques for the equilibration of Os isotopes and for the calibration of Re and Os tracers using high-purity metals. The results show reproducibility of +/- 0.5% for calibrations of Os using different chunks of the same high-purity Os metal produced by vacuum arc melting. On a Re-Os evolution diagram the analyses of Negrillos and of Tocopilla are displaced along horizontal lines and are not consistent with a well-defined isochron. We conclude that is unclear whether whole-rock samples of irons of individual classes of iron meteorites (including the IIA class) define isochrons.In light of these observations, one must consider the evidence for phases in which Re and Os may become redistributed. We note that the IIA irons are composed of large or single kamacite crystals and do not contain taenite. This may hinder redistribution of Re and Os and may allow the IIA irons to define isochrons in preference to other magmatic iron classes. However, the IIA irons also include ubiquitous rhabdites, up to 20 mm in length, and troilite-daubreelite nodules. It has been observed that rhabdites are extremely rich in Pt-group elements. In addition to these considerations, Negrillos and Tocopilla were found in nitrate deposits and show evidence of corrosion. Therefore, it is possible that different samples of these meteorites have been differentially weathered, although our samples appeared fresh. We conclude that it is important to identify the phases in which Re and the PGEs are located and to address in detail the evidence for Re and Os remobilization.

  19. The causes for geographical variations in OS187/OS186 at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turekian, K. K.; Esser, B. K.; Ravizza, G. E.

    1988-01-01

    Researchers at Yale has approached the problem of the osmium isotopic composition of marine deposits formed in contact with both oxidized and reduced bottom waters. The measured (187) Os/(186) Os ratios of modern bulk sediment can be explained using mixing equations involving continental detrital, volcaniclastic, cosmogenic and hydrogeneous components. These studies show that sediments deposited under reducing marine conditions contain a hydrogenous component which is enriched in Re and has a radiogenic (187) Os/(186) Os ratio. The presence of such a hydrogenous component in the marine fish clay at Stevns Klint can account for the elevation of its (187) Os/(186) Os ration above the expected meteoritic value. Mass balance considerations require the Re/Os ratio of the phase precipitated from the terminal Cretaceous sea at Stevns Klint to have been about one tenth the value observed in contemporary deposits in the Black Sea, assuming Re has not been lost (or Os gained) subsequent to precipitation. In continental sections, the elevation of the (187) Os/(186) Os ratio in boundary layers may be due to precipitation from continental waters of crustally-derived radiogenic osmium either contemporaneous with the meteoritic (or mantle) osmium deposition or later during diagenesis.

  20. Progression of cardiovascular risk factors in black Africans: 3 year follow up of the SABPA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; von Känel, Roland; Reimann, Manja; Malan, Nico T.; Schutte, Alta E.; Huisman, Hugo W.; Malan, Leone

    2015-01-01

    Recent work identified a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among urban black South Africans. The aim was to track the progression of CVD risk factors in a multi-ethnic sample of South Africans. Participants were 173 black (aged 47.5 ± 7.8 yrs) and 186 white teachers (aged 49.6 ± 9.9 yrs) that were examined at baseline and 3 years follow-up. Blacks demonstrated a substantially higher prevalence of composite CVD burden (defined as history of physician diagnosed heart disease, use of anti-hypertensives, anti-diabetic, or statin medications at either time point) compared to whites (49.1 vs. 32.0%, p = 0.012) respectively. After controlling for baseline, the black participants demonstrated greater increases in 24 h systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and waist circumference in comparison with whites. In summary, an adverse progression of CVD risk factors was observed in the whole sample, although to a larger degree in black participants. Aggressive treatment strategies for controlling risk factors in black Africans are needed to reduce the increasing burden of CVD in South Africa. PMID:25437890

  1. The First Year Inventory: a longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-old to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Baranek, Grace T; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R; Crais, Elizabeth R

    2013-09-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the First Year Inventory when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool version and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at risk for autism spectrum disorder based on liberal cut points on the First Year Inventory, Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool, and/or Developmental Concerns Questionnaire were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder from the sample of 699. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cutoffs had autism spectrum disorder and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age 3. These results suggest that the First Year Inventory is a promising tool for identifying 12-month-old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. PMID:22781058

  2. Patterns of paediatric facial fractures in a hospital of São Paulo, Brazil: a retrospective study of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Nardis, Amanda da Costa; Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; da Silva, Rogério Almeida; Kaba, Shajadi Carlos Pardo

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze patterns of facial fractures in children treated at the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Vila Penteado General Hospital (HGVP), in São Paulo, Brazil, in a period of 3 years. Between May 2008 and April 2011 the authors reviewed 110 records of patients under 12 years old with facial fractures. The following parameters were evaluated: age and sex distribution, aetiology of trauma, incidence and type of fractures, monthly distribution and treatment modality. Male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1, and the mean age was 8.13. The majority of the involved patients were aged between 6 and 12 years. The most prevalent cause was fall (58%) and nasal fractures were the most common type of fracture (69%). Monthly distribution was similar in all seasons. Of 110 patients, 69 (62%) were treated conservatively. The incidence of facial fractures in the area of study is high. The high incidence of nasal fractures should be a warning to maxillofacial surgeons, so that they are not overlooked. Safety programs should be installed in Brazil to increase public awareness and to decrease morbidity resulting from paediatric trauma. PMID:23062741

  3. Testing the predictive power of cognitive atypicalities in autistic children: evidence from a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    This follow-up study investigated the predictive power of early cognitive atypicalities. Specifically, it examined whether early individual differences in specific cognitive skills, including theory of mind, executive function, and central coherence, could uniquely account for variation in autistic children's behaviors-social communication, repetitive behaviors, and interests and insistence on sameness-at follow-up. Thirty-seven cognitively able children with an autism spectrum condition were assessed on tests tapping verbal and nonverbal ability, theory of mind (false-belief prediction), executive function (planning ability, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control), and central coherence (local processing) at intake and their behavioral functioning (social communication, repetitive behaviors and interests, insistence on sameness) 3 years later. Individual differences in early executive but not theory of mind skills predicted variation in children's social communication. Individual differences in children's early executive function also predicted the degree of repetitive behaviors and interests at follow-up. There were no predictive relationships between early central coherence and children's insistence on sameness. These findings challenge the notion that distinct cognitive atypicalities map on to specific behavioral features of autism. Instead, early variation in executive function plays a key role in helping to shape autistic children's emerging behaviors, including their social communication and repetitive behaviors and interests. PMID:23495146

  4. Ocular biometric parameters among 3-year-old Chinese children: testability, distribution and association with anthropometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dan; Chen, Xuejuan; Gong, Qi; Yuan, Chaoqun; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Zhu, Hui; Fu, Zhujun; Yu, Rongbin; Liu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This survey was conducted to determine the testability, distribution and associations of ocular biometric parameters in Chinese preschool children. Ocular biometric examinations, including the axial length (AL) and corneal radius of curvature (CR), were conducted on 1,688 3-year-old subjects by using an IOLMaster in August 2015. Anthropometric parameters, including height and weight, were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The testability was 93.7% for the AL and 78.6% for the CR overall, and both measures improved with age. Girls performed slightly better in AL measurements (P = 0.08), and the difference in CR was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The AL distribution was normal in girls (P = 0.12), whereas it was not in boys (P < 0.05). For CR1, all subgroups presented normal distributions (P = 0.16 for boys; P = 0.20 for girls), but the distribution varied when the subgroups were combined (P < 0.05). CR2 presented a normal distribution (P = 0.11), whereas the AL/CR ratio was abnormal (P < 0.001). Boys exhibited a significantly longer AL, a greater CR and a greater AL/CR ratio than girls (all P < 0.001). PMID:27384307

  5. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis.We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72  hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day.Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment. PMID:25906092

  6. Rehabilitation of resorbed mandibular ridges using mini implant retained overdentures: A case series with 3 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Pooja; Verma, Mahesh; Sainia, Vikrant; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing average life expectancy of human beings, the need to cater geriatric patients is ever increasing. Complete dentures are an indispensable tool in this regard. The loose and unstable lower complete denture owing to residual ridge resorption is one of the most common problems faced by edentulous patients. Dental implant retained overdentures have emerged as an efficient treatment modality for such patients. Though useful, not every patient is a suitable candidate to go for conventional implant-borne prosthesis, limitation being the available bone width. In such cases, mini implants may be used for augmenting the retention of the dentures and improving the quality of life of patients. In this case series, rehabilitation of three compromised cases with mini implant retained overdentures have been described wherein patients are experiencing instability of lower denture due to thin resorbed mandibular ridges. In one of the cases, three mini implants placed in A, C, and E position were splinted using a cemented bar to retain the mandibular denture. The other two cases were rehabilitated using unsplinted ball type one piece mini implants placed in A, C, and E position in one case and B and D position in another case. Though splinted bar design should be preferred but the lack of available vertical space precluded the utilization of bar in other two cases. The results were found to be satisfactory with no complications reported during a follow-up period of over 3 years in all the cases. PMID:27141177

  7. Ocular biometric parameters among 3-year-old Chinese children: testability, distribution and association with anthropometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan; Chen, Xuejuan; Gong, Qi; Yuan, Chaoqun; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Zhu, Hui; Fu, Zhujun; Yu, Rongbin; Liu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This survey was conducted to determine the testability, distribution and associations of ocular biometric parameters in Chinese preschool children. Ocular biometric examinations, including the axial length (AL) and corneal radius of curvature (CR), were conducted on 1,688 3-year-old subjects by using an IOLMaster in August 2015. Anthropometric parameters, including height and weight, were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The testability was 93.7% for the AL and 78.6% for the CR overall, and both measures improved with age. Girls performed slightly better in AL measurements (P = 0.08), and the difference in CR was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The AL distribution was normal in girls (P = 0.12), whereas it was not in boys (P < 0.05). For CR1, all subgroups presented normal distributions (P = 0.16 for boys; P = 0.20 for girls), but the distribution varied when the subgroups were combined (P < 0.05). CR2 presented a normal distribution (P = 0.11), whereas the AL/CR ratio was abnormal (P < 0.001). Boys exhibited a significantly longer AL, a greater CR and a greater AL/CR ratio than girls (all P < 0.001). PMID:27384307

  8. Revascularization of an Immature Tooth with Apical Periodontitis Using Calcium Hydroxide: A 3-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mauro Henrique Chagas; Campos, Celso Neiva; Coelho, Marcelo Santos

    2015-01-01

    Root canal treatment of teeth presenting immature development is a great challenge for both the patient and the professional. The thinness of the root canal walls of immature teeth may lead to root fracture and thus the outcomes of such treatments are uncertain. Revascularization is based on root canal decontamination followed by the induction of blood migration from the periapical tissues and the development of new vascular tissue in the canal space. The principle of disinfection in regenerative endodontics is that it should be achieved with minimum root canal instrumentation; an intracanal medication is used to inhibit bacterial growth and appropriate sealing of the coronal portion is performed. The American Association of Endodontists (AAE) considerations for regenerative endodontics include calcium hydroxide as an alternative intracanal dressing. This material has also been claimed to diminish the possibility of dental staining during revascularization procedures. The relatively new treatment protocol has been widely reported in the last few years; however it should be performed only when other alternatives are not reasonable. This case report presents a 3-year follow-up of a case of revascularization of a maxillary central incisor using calcium hydroxide as a root canal disinfection dressing. PMID:26962377

  9. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vinay Kumar; Bansal, Rajesh; Gupta, Vineeta; Bansal, Manish; Patne, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), previously known as histio-cytosis X, is a rare idiopathic disorder of reticulo-endothelial system with abnormal proliferation of bone marrow derived Langerhans cells along with a variable number of leukocytes, such as eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Three years old male child presented with multifocal osteolytic lesions and papulosquamous skin lesions. Clinical and radio-graphic features, such as severe alveolar bone loss, mobility of teeth, precocious eruption of teeth, foating appearance of teeth in orthopantomogram (OPG), osteolytic lesion in skull and cutaneous lesions were highly suggestive of LCH disease. Skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of LCH. Induction chemotherapy with oral prednisolone and intravenous vinblastine was started. Child responded well to chemotherapy. The clinical significance of the presented case is to diagnose the case of LCH on the basis of the manifestation of severe periodontal disease as this can be first or only manifestation of LCH. A dentist plays a major role in the multidisciplinary treatment of LCH through routine examination and periodic follow-up. How to cite this article: Bansal M, Srivastava VK, Bansal R, Gupta V, Bansal M, Patne S. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):217-219. PMID:25709306

  10. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively. PMID:25289014

  11. [Anemia management in French hemodialysis patients: DiaNE study results at 3 years (DiaNE2)].

    PubMed

    Kessler, Michèle; Landais, Paul; Bataille, Pierre; Yver, Laurent; Koné, Sébastien; Kraemer, Sandrine; Brillet, Georges; Canivet, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The observational study DiaNE provides a current state of anemia management with Epoetine bêta in hemodialysis patients regarding European recommendations over a 3-year period in France. Patients still treated with Epoetine bêta twelve months after their inclusion in DiaNE were eligible for a 24-month extension phase entitled DiaNE 2. Data regarding 439 patients followed during three years, from M0 to M36, were analyzed. Hemoglobin (Hb) level of the cohort remained over the target value of 11g/dL during the study (M0: 11.3±1.2g/dL; M36: 11.8±1.3g/dL). The anemia management had evolved with European recommendations updates and was in accordance with the last recommended target range (11-12g/dL) in a third of patients. During the follow-up, the majority of patients (97%) had at least one modification of treatment with Epoetine bêta (change in frequency of injections, adjustment of doses) mainly justified by excursion of Hb level out of the target range. However, the median dose of Epoetine bêta was relatively stable. The number of patients with iron treatment remained stable (60%). In spite of undertaken efforts, anemia management of hemodialysed patients in France still needs optimization for maintaining Hb level in the recommended target range. PMID:21227765

  12. The 3-year evolution of a preschool physical activity intervention through a collaborative partnership between research interventionists and preschool teachers

    PubMed Central

    Howie, E. K.; Brewer, A.; Brown, W. H.; Pfeiffer, K. A.; Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that preschoolers spend the majority of their time in sedentary activities, few physical activity interventions have focused on preschool-age children. Health promotion interventions that can be integrated into the daily routines of a school or other setting are more likely to be implemented. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments employed a flexible approach to increasing physical activity opportunities in preschools’ daily schedules through recess, indoor physical activity and physical activity integrated into academic lessons. Eight preschools were randomly assigned to receive the study’s physical activity intervention. Teachers in these schools partnered with university-based interventionists across 3 years to design and implement a flexible and adaptive intervention. The intervention approach included trainings and workshops, site visits and feedback from intervention personnel, newsletters, and physical activity equipment and materials. Teachers reported a high acceptability of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschools, including (i) a description of the intervention components, (ii) an explanation of the intervention process and approach, and (iii) a report of teachers’ perceptions of barriers to implementation. PMID:24659421

  13. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-09-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively. PMID:25289014

  14. The First Year Inventory: A longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-olds to 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Brown, L. M.; Baranek, G. T.; Reznick, J. S.; Watson, L. R.; Crais, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    The First Year Inventory (FYI) is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FYI taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the FYI when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale – Preschool version (SRS-P) and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire (DCQ) to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at-risk for ASD based on liberal cut points on the FYI, SRS-P, and/or DCQ were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of ASD from the sample of 699. ROC analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cut-offs had ASD and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age three. These results suggest that the FYI is a promising tool for identifying 12-month old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of ASD. PMID:22781058

  15. Natural experience modulates the processing of older adult faces in young adults and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Just like other face dimensions, age influences the way faces are processed by adults as well as by children. However, it remains unclear under what conditions exactly such influence occurs at both ages, in that there is some mixed evidence concerning the presence of a systematic processing advantage for peer faces (own-age bias) across the lifespan. Inconsistency in the results may stem from the fact that the individual's face representation adapts to represent the most predominant age traits of the faces present in the environment, which is reflective of the individual's specific living conditions and social experience. In the current study we investigated the processing of younger and older adult faces in two groups of adults (Experiment 1) and two groups of 3-year-old children (Experiment 2) who accumulated different amounts of experience with elderly people. Contact with elderly adults influenced the extent to which both adult and child participants showed greater discrimination abilities and stronger sensitivity to configural/featural cues in younger versus older adult faces, as measured by the size of the inversion effect. In children, the size of the inversion effect for older adult faces was also significantly correlated with the amount of contact with elderly people. These results show that, in both adults and children, visual experience with older adult faces can tune perceptual processing strategies to the point of abolishing the discrimination disadvantage that participants typically manifest for those faces in comparison to younger adult faces. PMID:23460867

  16. Predictive Factors for Subjective Improvement in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Patients with Nonsurgical Treatment: A 3-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsudaira, Ko; Hara, Nobuhiro; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kunogi, Junichi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Atsushi, Seichi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the predictive factors for subjective improvement with nonsurgical treatment in consecutive patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Materials and Methods Patients with LSS were enrolled from 17 medical centres in Japan. We followed up 274 patients (151 men; mean age, 71 ± 7.4 years) for 3 years. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the predictive factors for subjective symptom improvement with nonsurgical treatment. Results In 30% of patients, conservative treatment led to a subjective improvement in the symptoms; in 70% of patients, the symptoms remained unchanged, worsened, or required surgical treatment. The multivariable analysis of predictive factors for subjective improvement with nonsurgical treatment showed that the absence of cauda equina symptoms (only radicular symptoms) had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50–7.31); absence of degenerative spondylolisthesis/scoliosis had an OR of 2.53 (95% CI: 1.13–5.65); <1-year duration of illness had an OR of 3.81 (95% CI: 1.46–9.98); and hypertension had an OR of 2.09 (95% CI: 0.92–4.78). Conclusions The predictive factors for subjective symptom improvement with nonsurgical treatment in LSS patients were the presence of only radicular symptoms, absence of degenerative spondylolisthesis/scoliosis, and an illness duration of <1 year. PMID:26863214

  17. The 3-year evolution of a preschool physical activity intervention through a collaborative partnership between research interventionists and preschool teachers.

    PubMed

    Howie, E K; Brewer, A; Brown, W H; Pfeiffer, K A; Saunders, R P; Pate, R R

    2014-06-01

    Despite evidence that preschoolers spend the majority of their time in sedentary activities, few physical activity interventions have focused on preschool-age children. Health promotion interventions that can be integrated into the daily routines of a school or other setting are more likely to be implemented. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments employed a flexible approach to increasing physical activity opportunities in preschools' daily schedules through recess, indoor physical activity and physical activity integrated into academic lessons. Eight preschools were randomly assigned to receive the study's physical activity intervention. Teachers in these schools partnered with university-based interventionists across 3 years to design and implement a flexible and adaptive intervention. The intervention approach included trainings and workshops, site visits and feedback from intervention personnel, newsletters, and physical activity equipment and materials. Teachers reported a high acceptability of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschools, including (i) a description of the intervention components, (ii) an explanation of the intervention process and approach, and (iii) a report of teachers' perceptions of barriers to implementation. PMID:24659421

  18. Younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia in remission for ≥3 years have a high likelihood of cure: the ECOG experience in over 1200 patients

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Justin M.; Wang, Xin Victoria; Litzow, Mark R.; Luger, Selina M.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Cassileth, Peter A.; Fernandez, Hugo F.; Douer, Dan; Zickl, Lynette; Paietta, Elisabeth; Rowe, Jacob M.; Tallman, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    We examined 1229 younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia who achieved CR1 on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trials. We defined late relapse as occurring after ≥3 years of CR1. With median follow-up of 11.3 years, there were 14 late relapses (1.1% of CR1 patients; 3.3% of 3-year CR1 patients). Eight achieved second CR and median overall survival after late relapse was 3.2 years. Most patients tested (9/11) had a normal karyotype at diagnosis; none had new cytogenetic abnormalities at relapse. Late relapse is rare and nearly all 3-year CR1 patients are cured. If late relapse occurs, outcomes are relatively favorable. PMID:24986381

  19. Stress Hyperglycaemia in Hospitalised Patients and Their 3-Year Risk of Diabetes: A Scottish Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, David A.; Hughes, Katherine A.; Lone, Nazir; Mills, Nicholas L.; Sattar, Naveed; McKnight, John; Wild, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperglycaemia during hospital admission is common in patients who are not known to have diabetes and is associated with adverse outcomes. The risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes, however, is not known. We linked a national database of hospital admissions with a national register of diabetes to describe the association between admission glucose and the risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes. Methods and Findings In a retrospective cohort study, patients aged 30 years or older with an emergency admission to hospital between 2004 and 2008 were included. Prevalent and incident diabetes were identified through the Scottish Care Information (SCI)-Diabetes Collaboration national registry. Patients diagnosed prior to or up to 30 days after hospitalisation were defined as prevalent diabetes and were excluded. The predicted risk of developing incident type 2 diabetes during the 3 years following hospital discharge by admission glucose, age, and sex was obtained from logistic regression models. We performed separate analyses for patients aged 40 and older, and patients aged 30 to 39 years. Glucose was measured in 86,634 (71.0%) patients aged 40 and older on admission to hospital. The 3-year risk of developing type 2 diabetes was 2.3% (1,952/86,512) overall, was <1% for a glucose ≤5 mmol/l, and increased to approximately 15% at 15 mmol/l. The risks at 7 mmol/l and 11.1 mmol/l were 2.6% (95% CI 2.5–2.7) and 9.9% (95% CI 9.2–10.6), respectively, with one in four (21,828/86,512) and one in 40 (1,798/86,512) patients having glucose levels above each of these cut-points. For patients aged 30–39, the risks at 7 mmol/l and 11.1 mmol/l were 1.0% (95% CI 0.8–1.3) and 7.8% (95% CI 5.7–10.7), respectively, with one in eight (1,588/11,875) and one in 100 (120/11,875) having glucose levels above each of these cut-points. The risk of diabetes was also associated with age, sex, and socio-economic deprivation, but not with specialty (medical versus

  20. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  1. Florida Initiative for Quality Cancer Care: Improvements on Colorectal Cancer Quality of Care Indicators during a 3-Year Interval

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erin M; Jacobsen, Paul B; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Malafa, Mokenge; Fulp, William; Fletcher, Michelle; Smith, Jesusa Corazon R; Brown, Richard; Levine, Richard; Cartwright, Thomas; Abesada-Terk, Guillermo; Kim, George; Alemany, Carlos; Faig, Douglas; Sharp, Philip; Markham, Merry-Jennifer; Shibata, David

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The quality of cancer care has become a national priority; however, there are few ongoing efforts to assist medical oncology practices in identifying areas for improvement. The Florida Initiative for Quality Cancer Care is a consortium of 11 medical oncology practices that evaluates the quality of cancer care across Florida. Within this practice-based system of self-assessment, we determined adherence to colorectal cancer quality of care indicators (QCIs) in 2006, disseminated results to each practice and reassessed adherence in 2009. The current report focuses on evaluating the direction and magnitude of change in adherence to QCIs for colorectal cancer patients between the 2 assessments. STUDY DESIGN Medical records were reviewed for all colorectal cancer patients seen by a medical oncologist in 2006 (n = 489) and 2009 (n = 511) at 10 participating practices. Thirty-five indicators were evaluated individually and changes in QCI adherence over time and by site were examined. RESULTS Significant improvements were noted from 2006 to 2009, with large gains in surgical/pathological QCIs (eg, documenting rectal radial margin status, lymphovascular invasion, and the review of ≥12 lymph nodes) and medical oncology QCIs (documenting planned treatment regimen and providing recommended neoadjuvant regimens). Documentation of perineural invasion and radial margins significantly improved; however, adherence remained low (47% and 71%, respectively). There was significant variability in adherence for some QCIs across institutions at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The Florida Initiative for Quality Cancer Care practices conducted self-directed quality-improvement efforts during a 3-year interval and overall adherence to QCIs improved. However, adherence remained low for several indicators, suggesting that organized improvement efforts might be needed for QCIs that remained consistently low over time. Findings demonstrate how efforts such as the Florida Initiative for

  2. A 3-Year Climatology of Cloud and Radiative Properties Derived from GOES-8 Data Over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaiyer, M. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Doelling, D. R.; Nordeen, M. L.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Nguyen, L.

    2001-01-01

    While the various instruments maintained at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF) provide detailed cloud and radiation measurements for a small area, satellite cloud property retrievals provide a means of examining the large-scale properties of the surrounding region over an extended period of time. Seasonal and inter-annual climatological trends can be analyzed with such a dataset. For this purpose, monthly datasets of cloud and radiative properties from December 1996 through November 1999 over the SGP region have been derived using the layered bispectral threshold method (LBTM). The properties derived include cloud optical depths (ODs), temperatures and albedos, and are produced on two grids of lower (0.5 deg) and higher resolution (0.3 deg) centered on the ARM SGP CF. The extensive time period and high-resolution of the inner grid of this dataset allows for comparison with the suite of instruments located at the ARM CF. In particular, Whole-Sky Imager (WSI) and the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) cloud products can be compared to the cloud amounts and heights of the LBTM 0.3 deg grid box encompassing the CF site. The WSI provides cloud fraction and the ARSCL computes cloud fraction, base, and top heights using the algorithms by Clothiaux et al. (2001) with a combination of Belfort Laser Ceilometer (BLC), Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR), and Micropulse Lidar (MPL) data. This paper summarizes the results of the LBTM analysis for 3 years of GOES-8 data over the SGP and examines the differences between surface and satellite-based estimates of cloud fraction.

  3. Aggregate exposure approaches for parabens in personal care products: a case assessment for children between 0 and 3 years old.

    PubMed

    Gosens, Ilse; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; Ter Burg, Wouter; de Heer, Cees; Schuur, A Gerlienke

    2014-01-01

    In the risk assessment of chemical substances, aggregation of exposure to a substance from different sources via different pathways is not common practice. Focusing the exposure assessment on a substance from a single source can lead to a significant underestimation of the risk. To gain more insight on how to perform an aggregate exposure assessment, we applied a deterministic (tier 1) and a person-oriented probabilistic approach (tier 2) for exposure to the four most common parabens through personal care products in children between 0 and 3 years old. Following a deterministic approach, a worst-case exposure estimate is calculated for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. As an illustration for risk assessment, Margins of Exposure (MoE) are calculated. These are 991 and 4966 for methyl- and ethylparaben, and 8 and 10 for propyl- and butylparaben, respectively. In tier 2, more detailed information on product use has been obtained from a small survey on product use of consumers. A probabilistic exposure assessment is performed to estimate the variability and uncertainty of exposure in a population. Results show that the internal exposure for each paraben is below the level determined in tier 1. However, for propyl- and butylparaben, the percentile of the population with an exposure probability above the assumed "safe" MoE of 100, is 13% and 7%, respectively. In conclusion, a tier 1 approach can be performed using simple equations and default point estimates, and serves as a starting point for exposure and risk assessment. If refinement is warranted, the more data demanding person-oriented probabilistic approach should be used. This probabilistic approach results in a more realistic exposure estimate, including the uncertainty, and allows determining the main drivers of exposure. Furthermore, it allows to estimate the percentage of the population for which the exposure is likely to be above a specific value. PMID:23801276

  4. Retrospective Analysis on the Effects of House Dust Mite Specific Immunotherapy for More Than 3 Years in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungsoo; Lee, Hemin; Noh, Seongmin; Bae, Byung Gi; Shin, Jung U; Park, Chang Ook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In extrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD), house dust mites (HDM) play a role in eliciting or aggravating allergic lesions. The nature of skin inflammation in AD has raised a growing interest in allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). Thus, we assessed clinical improvement and laboratory parameters for evaluation of the benefit of long-term SIT. Materials and Methods A total of 217 AD patients who were treated with SIT for at least 3 years were retrospectively assessed, by using their investigator global assessment, pruritus scores, loss of sleep (LOS), total serum IgE, and eosinophil counts collected. Patients were additionally classified into subgroups according to age, initial AD severity and mono- or multi-sensitization to include different individual factors in the evaluation of SIT efficacy. Lastly, we compared laboratory data of good responders to SIT with that of poor responders to SIT. Results Improvement after SIT therapy was observed in 192 out of 217 patients (88.4%). Among these patients, 138 (63.5%) achieved excellent, near-complete or complete clinical remission. Significant reduction of pruritus, LOS, and the mean value of total serum IgE were observed (p<0.01). Better outcome was found in patients younger than 12 years of age (p=0.024). Patients with moderate to severe AD showed better treatment outcomes (p=0.036). Patients sensitized only to HDM had the better response to treatment, but SIT was also effective in multi-sensitized groups (p=1.051). No significant differences in baseline laboratory results were observed between good and poor responders (p>0.05). Conclusion We emphasize the usefulness of long-term HDM SIT as a disease-modifying therapy for AD. PMID:26847292

  5. Predictors for Progression of Sleep Disordered Breathing among Public Transport Drivers: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Chou, Tzu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. This study aimed to understand SDB progression and related factors among professional drivers. Methods: A total of 524 professional male drivers from a transportation company were included in this study. These drivers completed overnight in-home pulse oximetry studies both in 2006 and in 2009. Participants with abnormal results (oxygen desaturation index [ODI] ≥ 10 events/h) comprised the SDB group. Data included questionnaire information on demographics, medical history, SDB symptoms, and anthropometric measurements. Results: A total of 318 male workers were recruited for further analysis. Fifty of these workers belonged to the SDB group. Workers with untreated SDB significantly progressed to a more severe state after three years. Baseline body mass index (BMI), baseline ODI, and change in BMI were all significant positive predictors of SDB progression (β = 0.823, 0.242, and 1.626; p = 0.047, 0.013, and 0.004, respectively). Compared with non-SDB drivers, SDB subjects showed a greater proportion of newly diagnosed cardiovascular disease (38.0%) at follow-up. Conclusions: Untreated SDB was a gradually progressive disorder in professional drivers over a three-year period. Subjects with high BMI and moderate to severe SDB should be closely monitored to allow for early detection of worsening SDB. Weight control should be highlighted in the management of SDB. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 409. Citation: Lin CY, Shih TS, Liou SH, Lin MH, Chang CP, Chou TC. Predictors for progression of sleep disordered breathing among public transport drivers: a 3-year follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):419–425. PMID:25766707

  6. Objective Assessment of Changes in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Pre-through 3-Years Post- Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Bond, Dale S; Belle, Steven H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Patterson, Emma J; Mitchell, James E; Inabnet, William B; Dakin, George F; Flum, David R; Cook, Brian; Wolfe, Bruce M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate change in sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) over three years following bariatric surgery. Methods A subset of participants in an observational study (n=473 of 2458; 79% female, median body mass index 45kg/m2) wore an activity monitor pre-surgery and at 1–3 annual post-surgery assessments. Results Over the first year, on average, sedentary time decreased from 573 (95%CI 563–582) to 545 (95%CI 534–555) min/d and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) increased from 77 (95%CI: 71–84) to 106 (95%CI: 98–116) min/wk, or 7 (95%CI: 5–10) to 24 (95%CI: 18–29) min/wk in MVPA bouts ≥10 minutes. There were no changes in these parameters from years 1 to 3 (P for all>.05). The percentage of participants achieving ≥150 min/wk of bout-related MVPA was not different at year 3 [6.5% (95%CI: 3.1–12.7)] vs. pre-surgery [3.4% (95%CI: 1.8–5.0); p=.45]. Most participants followed SB and PA trajectories that paralleled mean change and were consistent with their pre-surgery position in relation to the group. Conclusions On average, bariatric surgical patients make small reductions in SB and increases in PA during the first post-surgery year, which are maintained through 3 years. Still, post-surgery PA levels fall short of PA guidelines for general health or weight control. PMID:26010326

  7. Regional Mapping and Resource Assessment of Shallow Gas Hydrates of Japan Sea - METI Launched 3 Years Project in 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of METI launched a 3 years shallow gas hydrate exploration project in 2013 to make a precise resource assessment of shallow gas hydrates in the eastern margin of Japan Sea and around Hokkaido. Shallow gas hydrates of Japan Sea occur in fine-grained muddy sediments of shallow subsurface of mounds and gas chimneys in the form of massive nodular to platy accumulation. Gas hydrate bearing mounds are often associated with active methane seeps, bacterial mats and carbonate concretions and pavements. Gases of gas hydrates are derived either from deep thermogenic, shallow microbial or from the mixed gases, contrasting with totally microbial deep-seated stratigraphically controlled hydrates. Shallow gas hydrates in Japan Sea have not been considered as energy resource due to its limited distribution in narrow Joetsu basin. However recently academic research surveys have demonstrated regional distribution of gas chimney and hydrate mound in a number of sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of Japan Sea. Regional mapping of gas chimney and hydrate mound by means of MBES and SBP surveys have confirmed that more than 200 gas chimneys exist in 100 km x 100 km area. ROV dives have identified dense accumulation of hydrates on the wall of half collapsed hydrate mound down to 30 mbsf. Sequential LWD and shallow coring campaign in the Summer of 2014, R/V Hakurei, which is equipped with Fugro Seacore R140 drilling rig, drilled through hydrate mounds and gas chimneys down to the BGHS (base of gas hydrate stability) level and successfully recovered massive gas hydrates bearing sediments from several horizons.

  8. Long-term impact of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami on functional disability among older people: A 3-year longitudinal comparison of disability prevalence among Japanese municipalities.

    PubMed

    Tomata, Yasutake; Suzuki, Yoshinori; Kawado, Miyuki; Yamada, Hiroya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Mieno, Makiko Naka; Shibata, Yosuke; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Hashimoto, Shuji; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2015-12-01

    It has been unclear whether the prevalence of disability is higher in an area affected by natural disaster than in other areas even if more than one year has passed since the disaster. The aim of this ecological study was to examine whether the rate of increase in disability prevalence among the older population was higher in disaster-stricken areas during the 3 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and tsunami. This analysis used public Long-term Care Insurance (LTCI) data covering 1570 municipalities. "Disaster areas" were considered to be the three prefectures most affected by the earthquake and tsunami: Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima. The outcome measure was the number of aged people (≥65 years) with LTCI disability certification. Rates of change in disability prevalence from January 2011 to January 2014 were used as the primary outcome variable, and compared by analysis of covariance between "coastal disaster areas", "inland disaster areas" and "non-disaster areas". The mean rate of increase in disability prevalence in coastal (14.7%) and inland (10.0%) disaster areas was higher than in non-disaster areas (6.2%) (P < 0.001). During the 3 years after the earthquake, the increase of disability prevalence from before the GEJE continued to be higher in the disaster-stricken areas. PMID:26613535

  9. Work Engagement as a Predictor of Onset of Major Depressive Episode (MDE) among Workers, Independent of Psychological Distress: A 3-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito; Inoue, Akiomi; Shimazu, Akihito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Takahashi, Masaya; Totsuzaki, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated work engagement as a baseline predictor of onset of major depressive episode (MDE). Methods The study used a prospective cohort design, conforming to the STROBE checklist. Participants were recruited from the employee population of a private think tank company (N = 4,270), and 1,058 (24.8%) of them completed a baseline survey, of whom 929 were included in this study. Work engagement and psychological distress at baseline were assessed as predictor variables. MDE was measured at baseline and at each of the follow-ups as the outcome, using the web-based, self-administered version of the Japanese WHO-CIDI 3.0 depression section based upon DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5 criteria. Cox discrete-time hazards analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals CIs). Results Follow-up rates of participants (N = 929) were 78.4%, 67.2%, and 51.6% at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-ups, respectively. The association between work engagement at baseline and the onset of MDE was U-shaped. Compared with a group with low work engagement scores, groups with the middle and high scores showed significantly (HR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.64; p = 0.007) and marginally significantly (HR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.20 to 1.15, p = 0.099) lower risks of MDE, respectively, over the follow-ups, after adjusting for covariates. The pattern remained the same after additionally adjusting for psychological distress. Conclusions The present study first demonstrated work engagement as an important predictor of the onset of MDE diagnosed according to an internationally standard diagnostic criteria of mental disorders. PMID:26841020

  10. Factor XI replacement for inherited factor XI deficiency in routine clinical practice: results of the HEMOLEVEN prospective 3-year postmarketing study

    PubMed Central

    Bauduer, F; de Raucourt, E; Boyer-Neumann, C; Trossaert, M; Beurrier, P; Faradji, A; Peynet, J; Borg, J-Y; Chamouni, P; Chatelanaz, C; Henriet, C; Bridey, F; Goudemand, J

    2015-01-01

    Factor XI (FXI)-deficient patients may develop excessive bleeding after trauma or surgery. Replacement therapy should be considered in high-risk situations, especially when FXI levels are below 20 IU dL−1. HEMOLEVEN is a human plasma-derived factor XI concentrate available in France since 1992, but there are few data regarding its use by physicians. This prospective study assessed the use, efficacy and safety of HEMOLEVEN in common clinical practice. HEMOLEVEN was evaluated in FXI-deficient patients in 13 French centres in a 3-year postmarketing study. Forty-four patients (30 females, 14 males) received 67 treatments. The median age was 37 years (8 months–91 years). Basal FXI levels were <1 to 51 IU dL−1 (median: 5.5); 29 patients were severely FXI-deficient (<20 IU dL−1). FXI was administered prophylactically before 43 surgical procedures, 10 invasive procedures, 8 vaginal deliveries, or as curative treatment for six bleeds. The efficacy was assessed as excellent/good in 63, moderate in two and undetermined in two treatments. Seven patients experienced seven adverse effects, including two rated as serious: one sudden massive pulmonary embolism with fatal outcome and one case of inhibitor to FXI. HEMOLEVEN is effective for bleeding prevention in FXI deficiency. However, considering the benefit/risk ratio observed in relation to dosage in this study; firstly, it should be used sparingly due to its potential prothrombotic effect; secondly, new prescription procedures should be defined to adapt the dosage, especially in patients with intrinsic and/or acquired risk factors for thrombosis. PMID:25817556

  11. Frailty Change and Major Osteoporotic Fracture in the Elderly: Data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women 3-Year Hamilton Cohort.

    PubMed

    Li, Guowei; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Thabane, Lehana; Cheng, Ji; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2016-04-01

    Investigating the cumulative rate of deficits and the change of a frailty index (FI) chronologically is helpful in clinical and research settings in the elderly. However, limited evidence for the change of frailty before and after some nonfatal adverse health event such as a major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) is available. Data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women 3-Year Hamilton cohort were used in this study. The changes of FI before and after onset of MOF were compared between the women with and without incident MOF. We also evaluated the relationship between risk of MOF, falls, and death and the change of FI and the absolute FI measures. There were 3985 women included in this study (mean age 69.4 years). The change of FI was significantly larger in the women with MOF than those without MOF at year 1 (0.085 versus 0.067, p = 0.036) and year 2 (0.080 versus 0.052, p = 0.042) post-baseline. The FI change was not significantly related with risk of MOF independently of age. However, the absolute FI measures were significantly associated with increased risk of MOF, falls, and death independently of age. In summary, the increase of the FI is significantly larger in the elderly women experiencing a MOF than their peer controls, indicating their worsening frailty and greater deficit accumulation after a MOF. Measures of the FI change may aid in the understanding of cumulative aging nature in the elderly and serve as an instrument for intervention planning and assessment. PMID:26547825

  12. Sex differences in the quality of life of patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention after a 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Polańska, Beata; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Dudek, Krzysztof; Łoboz-Grudzień, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to analyze the dynamics of quality of life (QoL) changes after 36 months from the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) depending on sex and identify baseline predictors of the follow-up QoL of patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and subjected to PCI. Methods and results The study included 137 patients, females (n=67) and males (n=70), with ACS who underwent PCI. The QoL was assessed using the MacNew Heart Disease Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire. The group of females scored lower in all the domains of the MacNew Heart Disease Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire in the initial measurement (B1), in the measurement after 6 months (B2), and in the long-term follow-up measurement (36 months – B3). Despite the fact that both groups achieved improved QoL, its values were higher in the males. The average growth rate of the QoL score in the period from the sixth month to 36th month was higher in females than in males. In the univariate and multivariate analyses, significant independent predictors with a negative influence on the long-term QoL score included female sex (ρ=−0.190, β=−0.21), age >60 years (ρ=−0.255, β=−0.186), and diabetes (ρ=−0.216, β=−0.216). Conclusion In a 36-month follow-up of ACS patients treated with PCI, there were no statistically significant differences in QoL between sexes. In the entire cohort, there was improvement in QoL, which was higher in the case of the females studied. For the entire group, significant independent determinants of lower QoL 3 years after ACS included female sex, age >60 years, and diabetes. PMID:27499616

  13. A prospective 3-year follow-up trial of implantation of two trabecular microbypass stents in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Donnenfeld, Eric D; Solomon, Kerry D; Voskanyan, Lilit; Chang, David F; Samuelson, Thomas W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Katz, L Jay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate 3-year safety and intraocular pressure (IOP) following two trabecular microbypass stents in phakic and pseudophakic subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) not controlled on preoperative medication. Patients and methods In this prospective pilot study, phakic or pseudophakic subjects with OAG and IOP between 18 mmHg and 30 mmHg on one preoperative topical ocular hypotensive medication underwent medication washout. Thirty-nine qualified subjects with preoperative unmedicated IOP ≥22 mmHg and ≤38 mmHg received two stents. Postoperative examinations were scheduled at Day 1, Week 1, Months 1, 3, 6, and 12, and semiannually through Month 60. Ocular hypotensive medication was considered if postoperative IOP exceeded 21 mmHg. IOP, medication use, and safety were assessed at each visit. Subject follow-up through Month 36 was completed. Results Thirty-six eyes (92.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.1%, 98.4%) achieved the primary efficacy end point of Month 12 reduction in IOP ≥20% from baseline (unmedicated IOP) without ocular hypotensive medication. Four subjects required medication during the Month 36 follow-up period. Mean IOP at 36 months for subjects not taking medication was 15.2 mmHg. At 36 months, subjects sustained mean IOP decrease of 9.1±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 8.0 mmHg, 10.14 mmHg), or 37% IOP reduction, from unmedicated baseline IOP. Compared to preoperative medicated IOP, subjects had mean reduction at Month 36 of 5.5±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 4.5 mmHg, 6.6 mmHg), or 26% reduction. Both measures of IOP reduction were highly significant (P<0.001). Other than one case of early postoperative hyphema that resolved at 1 week, no postoperative adverse events were attributed to stent implantation. Conclusion In a pilot study, two trabecular microbypass stents to treat OAG subjects on one preoperative medication provided statistically significant, sustained, and safe reduction of IOP to ≤15 mmHg without medication through 36 months. PMID:26604675

  14. Contribution of dysregulated serum magnesium to mortality in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a 3-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Noriaki; Akizawa, Tadao; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    Background The extent of contribution of disturbed magnesium balance to mortality remains unclear among hemodialysis patients. Methods This was a cohort study involving 3276 patients on maintenance hemodialysis at 86 facilities in Japan from 2008 to 2010 who had secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Baseline serum magnesium (sMg) values were categorized into quintiles (≤2.3, >2.3–2.5, >2.5–2.7, >2.7–3.0 and >3.0 mg/dL), and the middle quintile was set as the reference. Outcome was all-cause death. Independent contribution to all-cause death was assessed via Cox regression to generate population-attributable fractions (PAFs). Results A total of 2165 patients from 68 facilities were analyzed. The lowest quintile of sMg was positively associated with lower serum potassium and albumin levels, higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and prevalence of atrial fibrillation and cerebrovascular disease than the other quintiles. The highest sMg quintile was positively associated with higher potassium levels, and negatively associated with lower serum albumin levels and higher intact parathyroid hormone and CRP levels and prevalence of cerebrovascular disease than the other quintiles. During a median follow-up of 3 years, the lowest and the second lowest quintiles of sMg were associated with all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.737, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.200–2.512 and HR 1.675, 95% CI 1.254–2.238, respectively). Point estimates of adjusted HRs of the highest and the second highest sMg quintiles were higher than those of the middle quintile for all-cause death. Adjusted PAFs of lower sMg and of higher and lower sMg for all-cause death were 24.0% (95% CI 13.0–35.0%) and 30.7% (95% CI 14.5–46.8%), respectively. Conclusion In hemodialysis patients with SHPT, dysregulated sMg is an important contributor to all-cause death. Further studies are warranted to examine whether or not correction of sMg improves survival. PMID:26613035

  15. A 3-year dataset of sensible and latent heat fluxes from the Tibetan Plateau, derived using eddy covariance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Maoshan; Babel, Wolfgang; Chen, Xuelong; Zhang, Lang; Sun, Fanglin; Wang, Binbin; Ma, Yaoming; Hu, Zeyong; Foken, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has become a focus of strong scientific interest due to its role in the global water cycle and its reaction to climate change. Regional flux estimates of sensible and latent heat are important variables for linking the energy and hydrological cycles at the TP's surface. Within this framework, a 3-year dataset (2008-2010) of eddy covariance measured turbulent fluxes was compiled from four stations on the TP into a standardised workflow: corrections and quality tests were applied using an internationally comparable software package. Second, the energy balance closure ( C EB) was determined and two different closure corrections applied. The four stations (Qomolangma, Linzhi, NamCo and Nagqu) represent different locations and typical land surface types on the TP (high altitude alpine steppe with sparse vegetation, a densely vegetated alpine meadow, and bare soil/gravel, respectively). We show that the C EB differs between each surface and undergoes seasonal changes. Typical differences in the turbulent energy fluxes occur between the stations at Qomolangma, Linzhi and NamCo, while Nagqu is quite similar to NamCo. Specific investigation of the pre-monsoon, the Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon, post-monsoon and winter periods within the annual cycle reinforces these findings. The energy flux of the four sites is clearly influenced by the Tibetan Plateau monsoon. In the pre-monsoon period, sensible heat flux is the major energy source delivering heat to the atmosphere, whereas latent heat flux is greater than sensible heat flux during the monsoon season. Other factors affecting surface energy flux are topography and location. Land cover type also affects surface energy flux. The energy balance residuum indicates a typically observed overall non-closure in winter, while closure (or `turbulent over-closure') is achieved during the Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon at the Nagqu site. The latter seems to depend on ground heat flux, which is higher in the

  16. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  17. 186Os/188Os Isotopic Compositions of Peridotites: Constraints on Melt Depletion and Pt/Os Evolution of the Upper Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, R. N.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Global correlations between Al2O3 and Pt/Os in mantle peridotites suggest that Pt behaves incompatibly relative to Os during partial melting [c.f., 1]. Because 190Pt decays to 186Os (t1/2 = 468 Ga), correlations between 186Os/188Os and peridotite fertility can be used to constrain the long-term Pt/Os evolution of the depleted mantle and the initial Pt/Os ratio of the primitive upper mantle (PUM). We examined 186Os/188Os in mantle peridotites from continental (Rio Grande Rift/Colorado Plateau) and oceanic (Lena Trough, Hawaiian Islands) settings that span a wide range in fertility (Al2O3 ~0.67-4.42 %) and 187Os/188Os ratios (0.1138-0.1305). The new data define a narrow range in 186Os/188Os (0.1198338 to 0.1198393, 2 SD~24 ppm), placing constraints on long-term Pt/Os variability in the DMM. 186Os/188Os is broadly correlated with indices of melt depletion including spinel Cr#, clinopyroxene Cr#, and clinopyroxene Yb content, consistent with the inferred relative compatibility of Pt and Os during partial melting. Extrapolation of the alumina-186Os/188Os trend to PUM alumina content (~4.5 wt% Al2O3; [2]) suggests a PUM 186Os/188Os of ~0.1198380±15, similar to the 186Os/188Os of H chondrites (~0.1198398±16; [3]). This 186Os/188Os value is consistent with a PUM Pt/Os of 1.8±0.3, similar to Pt/Os values measured in several classes of chondrites (Carbonaceous ~1.9±0.2, Ordinary ~2.0±0.3 and Enstatite ~1.9±0.2; [3]). Whereas ~84% of peridotites worldwide [excluding low-[Os] samples (<1 ppb Os) that may have been compromised by melt-rock reaction and/or weathering and alteration] with measured Pt/Os ratios have Pt/Os between 0.3 and 3.1 (the range permissible from 186Os/188Os variations for melt extraction from PUM at ~1.5 Ga), only ~36% fall between 1.3 and 2.2 (a narrower range consistent with an older ~4.5 Ga melt depletion age). This suggests that much of the observed Pt/Os variability in mantle peridotites is relatively recent. Close agreement between our inferred

  18. Nitinol stent implantation for femoropopliteal disease in patients on hemodialysis: results of the 3-year retrospective multicenter APOLLON study.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Masahiko; Higashimori, Akihiro; Kato, Yoshihiro; Taniguchi, Hiromasa; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Amano, Tomonori; Sumiyoshi, Akinori; Nishiya, Daisuke; Yokoi, Yoshiaki

    2016-09-01

    The clinical outcomes of nitinol stents for femoropopliteal arterial (FP) disease in patients on hemodialysis were assessed. Endovascular therapy (EVT) is accepted for symptomatic FP disease. However, the clinical outcomes of patients on dialysis are not well known. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted with data between November 2010 and August 2013. A total of 484 consecutive patients who successfully underwent EVT for FP disease with nitinol stents were recruited and analyzed. Patients were categorized into the hemodialysis group (N = 161) and non-hemodialysis group (N = 323). The primary measure was primary patency verified by duplex ultrasound at a rest peak systolic velocity (PSVR) of >2.5, and secondary measures were freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR) and major amputation-free survival (AFS). Average follow-up duration was 19.5 ± 13.5 months. The primary patency rate at 3 years was significantly lower in the hemodialysis group than the non-hemodialysis group (33.8 vs. 43.7 %; p = 0.036). Freedom from TLR at 3 years was 55.0 % in the hemodialysis group and 66.1 % in the non-hemodialysis group (p = 0.032). The hemodialysis group showed a significantly lower AFS rate at 3 years than the non-hemodialysis group (86.4 vs. 58.2 %; p < 0.001). In hemodialysis patients, nitinol stent use resulted in a lower patency rate, higher TLR rate, and lower AFS rate compared to non-hemodialysis patients. These data suggest that nitinol stent implantation for FP arteries in hemodialysis patient needs to be reconsidered. PMID:26337619

  19. Long-term performance of the second-generation cobalt-chromium sirolimus-eluting stents in real-world clinical practice: 3-year clinical outcomes from the prospective multicenter FOCUS registry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Yang, Ji’e; Qian, Juying; Ge, Lei; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background The short- and mid-term outcomes of the second-generation cobalt-chromium sirolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-SES) in real-world patients had been reported previously, but the long-term performance remained unclear. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the second-generation CoCr-SES from the FOCUS registry. Methods The FOCUS registry (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00868829) enrolled all-comers eligible to receive Firebird-2 CoCr-SES. Follow-up was continued to 3 years to evaluate long-term safety and effectiveness of the second-generation CoCr-SES in real-world practice. Results of the extended-use group and standard-use group are compared to explore performance of CoCr-SES in more severe patients with more complex lesions. Results The rate of 3-year MACE was 7.37%, consisting of 84 cases (1.78%) of cardiac death, 166 cases (3.52%) of MI and 98 cases (2.08%) of TVR. ARC definite/probable stent thrombosis happened in 34 (0.72%) patients, only 3 new cases (<0.1%) of very late stent thrombosis was reported in the third year. Meanwhile, the difference of MACE (7.77% vs. 6.06%; P=0.058), TLF (4.71% vs. 3.49%; P=0.085) and ARC definite/probable stent thrombosis (0.83% vs. 0.37%; P=0.116) between extended-use group and standard-use group showed no significance. Conclusions The second-generation CoCr-SES was associated with continued low rates of 3-year MACE, TLF and stent thrombosis in a broad spectrum of patients. PMID:27499948

  20. Regional background aerosols over the Balearic Islands over the last 3 years: ground-based concentrations, atmospheric deposition and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerro, Jose Carlos; Pey, Jorge; Bujosa, Carles; Caballero, Sandra; Alastuey, Andres; Sicard, Michael; Artiñano, Begoña; Querol, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    In the context of the ChArMEx (The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, https://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr) initiative, a 3-year study over a regional background environment (Can Llompart, CLP) in Mallorca has been conducted. Ground-based PM mass concentrations, gaseous pollutants and meteorological parameters were continuously registered from 2010 to 2012. Since the beginning of the campaign, PM10 daily samples for chemical determinations were obtained every 4 days, and dry and wet deposition samples were collected every week. Moreover, additional instruments (condensation particle counter, multi-angle absorption photometer, airpointer, sequential high and low volume samplers) were deployed during intensive filed campaigns in 2011 and 2012, as well as the sampling frequency was intensified. In the laboratory, PM samples were analyzed for inorganic compounds, and organic and elemental carbon following different approaches. In addition, n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, antiso-alkanes, levoglucosan, alkanoic acids and cholesterol were determined by GC-MS chromatography in a selection of 30 samples. Mean PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations in the period 2010-2012 reached 17, 11, and 8 µg/m3 respectively. Mass concentrations displayed marked seasonal trends, with much higher background levels in summer due to stagnant conditions over the western Mediterranean and increased frequency of Saharan dust events. Likewise, diverse-intensity peaks of coarse PM due to African dust inputs were observed along the year. On average, African dust in PM10 accounted for 1.0-1.5 µg/m3. Sporadic pollution events, characterized by most of the particles in the fine mode, were related to the transport of anthropogenic polluted air masses from central and eastern Europe. Wet and dry atmospheric deposition samples are being analyzed to quantify the deposition fluxes for different soluble and insoluble compounds. On average, PM10 composition is made up of organic matter (23%), mineral components (17

  1. Overview of 3 years of ChemCam' chemical compositions along the Curiosity's traverse at Gale Crater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Agnès; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Curiosity rover has been in Gale crater for more than3 years now. It drove ~12 km from its landing point up to the Bagnold Dunes. The ChemCam instrument is widely used to assess the chemistry of rocks and soils at the submillimeter scale. As of sol 1200, ChemCam sampled >1000 targets, corresponding to >300000 laser shots, >6000 images, and many passive spectra. The Bradbury landing site, a plain located at a distal portion of the alluvial fan from Peace Vallis, exposed several float rocks presenting igneous compositions ranging from mafic up to a trachytic end-member. These observations provided an important clue concerning the diversity of early Mars magmatism that was not previously recognized. More igneous float rocks have been observed all along the traverse, being more felsic closer to the landing site, and more mafic near the cratered unit, after the Kimberley formation. The Sheepbed area is essentially composed of mudstones that show a very homogeneous composition, close to the average Martian crust, providing evidence of aqueous episodes with little alteration in this area. ChemCam showed that the bedrock host experienced other diagenetic events with Mg- and Fe-rich clays in erosion-resistant raised ridges on one hand, and calcium sulfate veins on the other hand. The nearby Shaler fluvial sandstone outcrop, the first outcrop of potential deltaic foreset beds, shows K enrichment. This enrichment is also observed at the Kimberley formation (another drill site flanked by foreset beds), located 7 km SW of Shaler, with up to 5.3 wt % at the Mount Remarkable member. Conglomerates have been analyzed in detail all along the traverse as they represent a link between the source rocks and the finer-grained sediments such as the sandstones and mudstones. They have shown an average composition that is enriched in alkalis, Al, and Si compared to the average Martian crust, with a clear enrichment in K2O in the vicinity of the Kimberley formation. Enrichment in K2O at

  2. Involvement of the OsMKK4-OsMPK1 Cascade and its Downstream Transcription Factor OsWRKY53 in the Wounding Response in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung Jin; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ryu, Choong-Min; Kim, Young Cheol; Cho, Baik Ho; Yang, Kwang-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Plant has possessed diverse stress signals from outside and maintained its fitness. Out of such plant responses, it is well known that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays important role in wounding and pathogen attack in most dicot plants. However, little is understood about its role in wounding response for the economically important monocot rice plant. In this study, therefore, the involvement of MAPK was investigated to understand the wounding signaling pathway in rice. The OsMPK1 was rapidly activated by wounding within 10 min, and OsMPK1 was also activated by challenge of rice blast fungus. Further analysis revealed that OsMKK4, the upstream kinase of OsMPK1, phosphorylated OsMPK1 by wounding in vivo. Furthermore, OsMPK1 directly interacted with a rice defense-related transcription factor OsWRKY53. To understand a functional link between MAPK and its target transcription factor, we showed that OsMPK1 activated by the constitutively active mutant OsMKK4DD phosphorylated OsWRKY53 in vitro. Taken together, components involving in the wounding signaling pathway, OsMKK4-OsMPK1-OsWRKY53, can be important players in regulating crosstalk between abiotic stress and biotic stress. PMID:25288999

  3. Involvement of the OsMKK4-OsMPK1 Cascade and its Downstream Transcription Factor OsWRKY53 in the Wounding Response in Rice.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Jin; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Ryu, Choong-Min; Kim, Young Cheol; Cho, Baik Ho; Yang, Kwang-Yeol

    2014-06-01

    Plant has possessed diverse stress signals from outside and maintained its fitness. Out of such plant responses, it is well known that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays important role in wounding and pathogen attack in most dicot plants. However, little is understood about its role in wounding response for the economically important monocot rice plant. In this study, therefore, the involvement of MAPK was investigated to understand the wounding signaling pathway in rice. The OsMPK1 was rapidly activated by wounding within 10 min, and OsMPK1 was also activated by challenge of rice blast fungus. Further analysis revealed that OsMKK4, the upstream kinase of OsMPK1, phosphorylated OsMPK1 by wounding in vivo. Furthermore, OsMPK1 directly interacted with a rice defense-related transcription factor OsWRKY53. To understand a functional link between MAPK and its target transcription factor, we showed that OsMPK1 activated by the constitutively active mutant OsMKK4(DD) phosphorylated OsWRKY53 in vitro. Taken together, components involving in the wounding signaling pathway, OsMKK4-OsMPK1-OsWRKY53, can be important players in regulating crosstalk between abiotic stress and biotic stress. PMID:25288999

  4. Re-Os Isotope Systematics in Lunar Soils and Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar soil and breccia samples show a narrow range in 187Os/188Os, in the range for H-chondrites and unfractionated irons. All samples show enrichments in 187Re/188Os, possibly reflecting loss of Os, associated with the terminal lunar cataclysm. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. [Advances in baculovirus per os infection and per os infectivity factor--A review].

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Guo, Caiping; Zhu, Shimao

    2015-04-01

    Baculoviruses are a family of arthropod-specific viruses that mainly affect insects of the orders Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, and Diptera. In nature, baculoviruses establish infection in their hosts orally and a battery of proteins designated as per os infectivity factors play pivotal roles in baculovirus per os infection. This review summarizes the basic characteristics of baculovirus and discusses the main events that baculovirus establishes per os infection, including the evolutionary advantages for baculovirus to initiate infection through the oral route, the binding and fusion of baculovirus virions with insect midgut microvilli and the functional roles of baculovirus per os infectivity factors. These achievements and advances should promise to shed light on the understanding and utilization of baculovirus for bio-control and exogenous gene expression in the future. PMID:26211313

  6. Low-lying excited states in the neutron-deficient isotopes 163Os and 165Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, M. C.; Joss, D. T.; Page, R. D.; Simpson, J.; O'Donnell, D.; Andgren, K.; Bianco, L.; Cederwall, B.; Darby, I. G.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Gomez-Hornillos, M. B.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Hadinia, B.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leppänen, A.-P.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sapple, P. J.; Sarén, J.; Saygi, B.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Thomson, J.; Uusitalo, J.; Venhart, M.

    2013-05-01

    Excited states in the neutron-deficient isotopes 163Os and 165Os were identified using the JUROGAM and GREAT spectrometers in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled separator. The 163Os and 165Os nuclei were populated via the 106Cd(60Ni,3n) and 92Mo(78Kr,2p3n) reactions at bombarding energies of 270 MeV and 357 MeV, respectively. Gamma-ray emissions from these nuclei have been established unambiguously using the recoil-decay tagging technique and a coincidence analysis has allowed level schemes to be established. These results suggest that the yrast states are based upon negative-parity configurations originating from the νf7/2 and νh9/2 orbitals.

  7. Mapping of decadal middle Adriatic oceanographic variability and its relation to the BiOS regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihanović, Hrvoje; Vilibić, Ivica; Dunić, Natalija; Å epić, Jadranka

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed long-term time series of temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations collected along the Palagruža Sill transect (middle Adriatic) between 1952 and 2010. The data have been mostly collected on seasonal basis, allowing for extraction of seasonal signal from the series. By applying Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) method, a kind of unsupervised neural network method, the processes on a decadal time scale emerged as the most relevant for changes of oceanographic properties in the middle Adriatic area. Sensitivity studies revealed that oceanographic patterns obtained by SOM were not sensitive to shortening of time series, to removal of data from one station or to removal of DO from the analysis. Simultaneous SOM-based mapping of sea surface heights in the northern Ionian Sea, with these heights serving as a proxy for the Adriatic-Ionian Bimodal Oscillating System (BiOS), revealed asymmetry between anticyclonic and cyclonic BiOS patterns and correlated the decadal oscillations in the middle Adriatic with the reversals in the BiOS circulation regimes. These reversals are found to either rapidly change oceanographic properties in the middle Adriatic (e.g., during the Eastern Mediterranean Transient) or to change them with a time lag of 2-3 years. The mapped connections may be used for a short-time (a few years) forecasting of the Adriatic oceanographic properties or for mapping future climate decadal oscillations as seen by ocean climate models.

  8. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  9. Physical activity and academic achievement across the curriculum (A + PAAC): rationale and design of a 3-year, cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Improving academic achievement and reducing the rates of obesity in elementary school students are both of considerable interest. Increased physical activity during academic instruction time during school offers a potential intervention to address both issues. A program titled “Physical Activity Across the Curriculum” (PAAC) was developed in which classroom teachers in 22 elementary schools were trained to deliver academic instruction using physical activity with a primary aim of preventing increased BMI. A secondary analysis of data assessed the impact of PAAC on academic achievement using the Weschler Individual Achievement Test-II and significant improvements were shown for reading, math and spelling in students who participated in PAAC. Based on the results from PAAC, an adequately powered trial will be conducted to assess differences in academic achievement between intervention and control schools called, “Academic Achievement and Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (A + PAAC).” Methods/design Seventeen elementary schools were cluster randomized to A + PAAC or control for a 3-year trial. Classroom teachers were trained to deliver academic instruction through moderate-to-vigorous physical activity with a target of 100+ minutes of A + PAAC activities per week. The primary outcome measure is academic achievement measured by the Weschler Individual Achievement Test-III, which was administered at baseline (Fall 2011) and will be repeated in the spring of each year by assessors blinded to condition. Potential mediators of any association between A + PAAC and academic achievement will be examined on the same schedule and include changes in cognitive function, cardiovascular fitness, daily physical activity, BMI, and attention-to-task. An extensive process analysis will be conducted to document the fidelity of the intervention. School and student recruitment/randomization, teacher training, and baseline testing for A

  10. PSA Bounce and Biochemical Failure After Brachytherapy for Prostate Cancer: A Study of 820 Patients With a Minimum of 3 Years of Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Caloglu, Murat; Ciezki, Jay P.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Angermeier, Kenneth; Ulchaker, James; Chehade, Nabil; Altman, Andrew; Magi-Galuzzi, Christina; Klein, Eric A.

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: To determine clinical or dosimetric factors associated with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) bounce, as well as an association between a PSA bounce and biochemical relapse-free survival (bRFS), in patients treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A variety of clinical and treatment factors were examined in 820 patients who had a minimum of 3 years of PSA follow-up with T1-T2cN0M0 prostate cancer. Four different PSA threshold values were used for defining a PSA bounce: a PSA rise of {>=}0.2, {>=}0.4, {>=}0.6, and {>=}0.8 ng/mL. Results: A PSA bounce of {>=}0.2, {>=}0.4, {>=}0.6, and {>=}0.8 ng/mL was noted in 247 patients (30.1%), 161 (19.6%), 105 (12.8%), and 78 (9.5%), respectively. The median time to the first PSA rise was 17.4, 16.25, 16.23, and 15.71 months, respectively, vs. 34.35 months for a biochemical failure (p < 0.0001). A PSA rise of {>=}0.2 ng/mL was the only definition for which there was a significant difference in bRFS between bounce and non-bounce patients. The 5-year bRFS rate of patients having a PSA bounce of {>=}0.2 was 97.7% vs. 91% for those who did not have a PSA bounce (p = 0.0011). On univariate analysis for biochemical failure, age, risk group, and PSAs per year had a statistically significant correlation with PSA bounce of {>=}0.2 ng/mL. On multivariate analysis, age and PSAs per year remained statistically significant (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0456, respectively). Conclusions: A bounce definition of a rise {>=}0.2 ng/mL is a reliable definition among several other definitions. The time to first PSA rise is the most valuable factor for distinguishing between a bounce and biochemical failure.

  11. Neutron physics of the Re/Os clock. III. Resonance analyses and stellar (n,gamma) cross sections of {sup 186,187,188}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Abbondanno, U.; Belloni, F.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Audouin, L.; Dillmann, I.; Heil, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wisshak, K.; Mengoni, A.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.

    2010-07-15

    Neutron resonance analyses have been performed for the capture cross sections of {sup 186}Os, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 188}Os measured at the n{sub T}OF facility at cern. Resonance parameters have been extracted up to 5, 3, and 8 keV, respectively, using the sammy code for a full R-matrix fit of the capture yields. From these results average resonance parameters were derived by a statistical analysis to provide a comprehensive experimental basis for modeling of the stellar neutron capture rates of these isotopes in terms of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. Consistent calculations for the capture and inelastic reaction channels are crucial for the evaluation of stellar enhancement factors to correct the Maxwellian averaged cross sections obtained from experimental data for the effect of thermally populated excited states. These factors have been calculated for the full temperature range of current scenarios of s-process nucleosynthesis using the combined information of the experimental data in the region of resolved resonances and in the continuum. The consequences of this analysis for the s-process component of the {sup 187}Os abundance and the related impact on the evaluation of the time duration of galactic nucleosynthesis via the Re/Os cosmochronometer are discussed.

  12. Case Study: Variation in fatty acid profiles in milk from adjacent organic and conventional dairy farms over a 3-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring the seasonal variability of fatty acids (FAs) in milk improves our understanding of the nutritional and health values of milk. In collaboration with the Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA, a 3-year study evaluated the seasonal variation of FA profiles of milk obtained from two farms adjacent t...

  13. Life Stress and the Long-Term Treatment Course of Recurrent Depression: III. Nonsevere Life Events Predict Recurrence for Medicated Patients over 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Torres, Leandro D.; Guillaumot, Julien; Harkness, Kate L.; Roberts, John E.; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David

    2006-01-01

    Research has consistently documented the significance of severe life events for onset of major depression. Theory, however, suggests other forms of stress are relevant for depression's recurrence. Nonsevere life events were tested in relation to depression for 126 patients with recurrent depression in a 3-year randomized maintenance protocol. Life…

  14. Reading Intervention Outcomes for Adults with Disabilities in a Vocational Rehabilitation Setting: Results of a 3-Year Research and Demonstration Grant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderberg, Laura E.; Pierce, Margaret E.; Disney, Laurel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on an examination of the effectiveness of a reading intervention for adults with disabilities in a vocational rehabilitation setting. Participants were 57 adults with disabilities and low reading skills enrolled at the Reading Clinic at the Michigan Career and Technical Institute. As part of a 3-year research and demonstration…

  15. Bidirectional Relations between Parenting Practices and Child Externalizing Behavior: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis in the Context of a Psychosocial Treatment and 3-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or…

  16. Acting and Planning on the Basis of a False Belief: Its Effects on 3-Year-Old Children's Reasoning About Their Own False Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atance, Cristina M.; O'Neill, Daniela K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 3-year-olds' explanations for actions of theirs that were premised on a false belief. In Experiment 1, children stated what they thought was inside a crayon box. After stating "crayons," they went to retrieve some paper to draw on. Children were then shown that the box contained candles and were asked to (a) state their initial…

  17. Lifestyle, Dwelling Conditions and Daily Routine as Qualitative Indicators of Infant Development: A Study of 0-3 Years Old Children from Rural Brazilian Northeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    The developing child and his/her eco-social-cultural context is the focus of study of 28 children ages 0-3 years in the rural area of Cocal, Piaui in Northeast Brazil. Ethnographic methods, naturalistic observations and semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain the physical context (the house and its surroundings), as well as maternal…

  18. The Impact of Body-Part-Naming Training on the Accuracy of Imitative Performances in 2- to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camoes-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training…

  19. No Own-Age Bias in 3-Year-Old Children: More Evidence for the Role of Early Experience in Building Face-Processing Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Pisacane, Antonella; Gava, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of an own-age bias in young children who accumulated different amounts of early experience with child faces. Discrimination abilities for upright and inverted adult and child faces were tested using a delayed two-alternative, forced-choice matching-to-sample task in two groups of 3-year-old children,…

  20. The Predictive Value of Cognitive Impairments Measured at the Start of Clinical Rehabilitation for Health Status 1 Year and 3 Years Poststroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Clara L.; Schepers, Vera P.; Post, Marcel W.; van Heugten, Caroline M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the value of screening for cognitive functions at the start of an inpatient rehabilitation programme to predict the health status 1 and 3 years poststroke. In this longitudinal cohort study of stroke patients in inpatient rehabilitation data of 134 participants were analysed. Cognitive and clinical…

  1. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  2. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  3. Can Severely Language Delayed 3-Year-Olds Be Identified at 18 Months? Evaluation of a Screening Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Monica; Berglund, Eva; Eriksson, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's…

  4. Is the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd Edition a Reliable Instrument to Measure Motor Performance in 3 Year Old Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Formal testing of 3 year old children is a new feature in the revised version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC-2). Our study evaluated the reliability and explored the clinical applicability of the Movement ABC-2 Test in this young age group. A total of 50 typically children were given two trials of the test within a…

  5. Attachment-Based Intervention for Enhancing Sensitive Discipline in Mothers of 1- to 3-Year-Old Children at Risk for Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zeijl, Jantien; Mesman, Judi; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; Stolk, Mirjam N.; Koot, Hans M.; Alink, Lenneke R. A.

    2006-01-01

    The home-based intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) was tested in a randomized controlled trial with 237 families screened for their 1- to 3-year-old children's relatively high scores on externalizing behavior. VIPP-SD, based on attachment theory and coercion theory,…

  6. Outcomes of population based language promotion for slow to talk toddlers at ages 2 and 3 years: Let’s Learn Language cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Sherryn; Girolametto, Luigi; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gold, Lisa; Levickis, Penny; Sheehan, Jane; Goldfeld, Sharon; Reilly, Sheena

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the benefits of a low intensity parent-toddler language promotion programme delivered to toddlers identified as slow to talk on screening in universal services. Design Cluster randomised trial nested in a population based survey. Setting Three local government areas in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Parents attending 12 month well child checks over a six month period completed a baseline questionnaire. At 18 months, children at or below the 20th centile on an expressive vocabulary checklist entered the trial. Intervention Maternal and child health centres (clusters) were randomly allocated to intervention (modified “You Make the Difference” programme over six weekly sessions) or control (“usual care”) arms. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was expressive language (Preschool Language Scale-4) at 2 and 3 years; secondary outcomes were receptive language at 2 and 3 years, vocabulary checklist raw score at 2 and 3 years, Expressive Vocabulary Test at 3 years, and Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 raw score at 2 and 3 years. Results 1217 parents completed the baseline survey; 1138 (93.5%) completed the 18 month checklist, when 301 (26.4%) children had vocabulary scores at or below the 20th centile and were randomised (158 intervention, 143 control). 115 (73%) intervention parents attended at least one session (mean 4.5 sessions), and most reported high satisfaction with the programme. Interim outcomes at age 2 years were similar in the two groups. Similarly, at age 3 years, adjusted mean differences (intervention−control) were −2.4 (95% confidence interval −6.2 to 1.4; P=0.21) for expressive language; −0.3 (−4.2 to 3.7; P=0.90) for receptive language; 4.1 (−2.3 to 10.6; P=0.21) for vocabulary checklist; −0.5 (−4.4 to 3.4; P=0.80) for Expressive Vocabulary Test; −0.1 (−1.6 to 1.4; P=0.86) for externalising behaviour problems; and −0.1 (−1.3 to 1.2; P=0. 92) for internalising behaviour problems. Conclusion

  7. Re-Os systematics of St. Paul's Rocks, equatorial Atlantic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blusztajn, J.; Hart, S. R.

    2006-12-01

    St. Paul's Rocks, small islets in the middle of the equatorial Atlantic (0°56'N, 29°22'W) just north of the St. Paul's Fracture zone, represent oceanic peridotites that are unique compared to abyssal peridotites. The main difference is the occurrence of modally metasomatized peridotites containing hornblende and pargasite. These mantle peridotites from St. Paul's Rocks show large Os isotopic heterogeneity, with present day 187Os/188Os ratios ranging from 0.1179 to 0.1273. In contrast, two hornblendite samples have very radiogenic Os isotopic compositions of 0.221 and 0.284. The Os concentrations vary from 0.003 ppb (hornblendite) to 5.8 ppb (spinel peridotite). Pargasite peridotites contain on average about 1.6 ppb Os. Even modally metasomatized samples with hornblende and pargasite have subchondritic Os isotopic ratios, indicating that enrichment processes did not disturb the Os isotopic system. The only indication of pervasive enrichment is a very high Re content in two of the amphibole peridotites (0.7 and 2.2 ppb). The unradiogenic Os isotopic ratios in the peridotites record ancient melting events with model ages of about 1.5 Ga. Three alkali basalts dredged on the flank of St. Paul's Rocks (1966 Atlantis II-20 cruise) have relatively high Os contents (62 to 167 ppt) and are quite radiogenic, with 187Os/188Os ranging from 0.167 to 0.239. Data from this study indicates that mixing of the different lithologies observed on St. Paul's Rocks cannot produce 187Os/188Os as high as that observed in the dredged basalts. On the other hand, the similar 187Os/188Os in the hornblendites and alkali basalts show that interaction between basalts and mantle peridotites took place. The very low Os isotopic ratios in St. Paul's Rocks, in conjunction with other Os studies from the equatorial Atlantic, indicate dispersed heterogeneities of old subcontinental lithospheric material in the oceanic mantle.

  8. A retrospective study of the changing trends of antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from urine samples over last 3 years (2012-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neetu; Gupta, Anita K.; Walia, Geeta; Bakhshi, Rupinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: In our country, the problem of antibiotic resistance is compounding because of overuse and misuse of antibiotics. There is no systematic national surveillance of antibiotic resistance and insufficient data are available to quantify the problem. Objectives: To study the changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients of urinary tract infections over last 3 years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, record-based study carried out based on the records culture sensitivity reports of indoor patients, during past 3 years (2012-2014). The type of organisms most common in urine sample was noted, and the drugs still effective for the particular organism were noted. Results: Klebsiella was the second most frequent isolate throughout the 3 years (14%) of the total isolates). Analysis of the results year wise indicated that the lowest percentage of resistance was manifested against imipenem between 11.94% (2012) and 13.75% (2014). Over the successive years, resistance to ceftriaxone tends to increase from 74.95 % (2012) to 81% (2014). Klebsiella showed very high resistance 90.78% (2012) and 95.63% (2012) to co-trimoxazole and tetracycline, respectively with increasing trend to absolute resistance to both groups over the 3 years period. On an average over the 3 years Klebsiella showed a high amount of resistances to fluoroquinolones (72.71%) and aminoglycosides (76.22%). While multi-drug resistant Klebsiella range between 65% (2012) and 67% (2014). Conclusion: The antimicrobial resistance patterns are constantly evolving and vary from region to region it has become a necessity to do constant antimicrobial sensitivity surveillance. This will help clinicians to provide safe and effective empirical therapies. PMID:27003967

  9. Clinical evaluation of meniscus repair with a bioabsorbable arrow: a 2- to 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ellermann, A; Siebold, R; Buelow, J U; Sobau, C

    2002-09-01

    In a clinical study with the bioabsorbable Bionx Meniscus Arrow we prospectively evaluated 113 consecutive patients (113 menisci) after all-inside meniscus repair. Repairs were performed in either the medial (80.5%) or lateral (19.5%) posterior horn in the red-red or red-white meniscal zone; 66% of patients underwent concomitant ACL reconstruction. Assessment was based on history, clinical examination, and Lysholm [37] and Cincinnati Knee Scores. After a mean follow-up was 33 months (range 24-43; n=105) 21 (20%) patients showed signs and symptoms consistent with a meniscus tear (16 medial, 5 lateral) and underwent partial meniscectomy. In 11 (52%) of the revised patients concomitant ACL reconstruction was performed; 4 (19%) of revised patients were older than 35 years. In the nonrevised the average Lysholm Score was 92.5 and the average Cincinnati Score 90.4. Two patients showed a distinct femoral cartilage damage. Patient's age did not significantly affect the revision rate. Meniscus repair with the bioabsorbable arrow leads to clinical results comparable to those of traditional suture techniques. When stabilized, patients with concomitant ACL reconstruction showed comparable results to patients without ACL rupture. The simple and time saving all-inside insertion obviates the need for additional incisions and avoids knot tying. A proper tear selection and arrow positioning is necessary and should avoid cartilage damage. PMID:12355303

  10. Surgical treatment of os acromiale with and without associated rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Joseph A; Silverberg, David; Pepe, Mathew; Beredjiklian, Pedro K; Iannotti, Joseph P; Williams, Gerald R; Ramsey, Matthew L

    2006-01-01

    Nineteen consecutive patients treated surgically for meso-os acromiale and subacromial pathology were reviewed retrospectively, with a mean length of follow-up of 40 months (range, 24-94 months). Of the patients, 11 (58%) were treated with acromioplasty in the presence of a stable os acromiale; 8 patients (42%) underwent open reduction-internal fixation for an unstable and painful os fragment. Of the 19 patients, 8 (42%) with an os acromiale had an associated full-thickness rotator cuff tear. Overall, only 10 of 19 patients (53%) achieved a satisfactory result. All 8 patients (100%) treated with open reduction-internal fixation achieved union of the os fragment, although only 3 (37.5%) achieved a satisfactory result. Of the 11 patients who underwent acromioplasty, only 7 (64%) achieved a satisfactory result. The outcome of surgical management of symptomatic meso-os acromiale with concomitant rotator cuff pathology was satisfactory in 4 of 8 patients in our study group. The rate of satisfactory results was similar in patients with (50%) and without (55%) associated rotator cuff tears. When we analyzed our results to exclude workers' compensation patients, 80% achieved satisfactory results (compared with only 22% in our workers' compensation group). PMID:16679224

  11. Effectiveness, Good Tolerability, and High Compliance of Doses of Risperidone Long-Acting Injectable Higher Than 75 mg in People With Severe Schizophrenia: A 3-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miranda, Juan J; Caramés-García, Victoria; Sánchez-García, Arantxa

    2015-12-01

    Tolerability and effectiveness of antipsychotics are important to increase treatment compliance in people with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate effectiveness, tolerability, and adherence to treatment with high doses of risperidone long-acting injectable (RLAI) in patients with severe schizophrenia.It is a 3-year prospective, observational study of patients with severe (Clinical Global Impression Severity scale [CGI-S] score of ≥5) schizophrenia according to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. Subjects were the consecutive 60 who first underwent treatment with RLAI with doses of 75 mg or higher every 14 days to get clinical stabilization.Assessment included the following: CGI-S, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN), Medication Adherence Rating Scale, laboratory tests, weight, and hospital admissions.The mean (SD) dose of RLAI was 111.2 (9.1) mg per 14 days. Tolerability was good and there were almost no interruptions due to adverse effects or to relevant biological parameters alterations. Also, weight gain was not significant.Retention rate in treatment after 3 years was 95%. Clinical Global Impression Severity (P < 0.01) and Camberwell Assessment of Need (P < 0.01) decreased and also Disability Assessment Schedule in the 4 areas (P < 0.01). Medication Adherence Rating Scale score increased from 3.6 (0.7) to 8.9 (0.9) (P < 0.001). There were significantly few hospital admissions than during the previous 36 months (1.9 [1.3] vs 0.31 [0.2], P < 0.001).As a conclusion, we highlight that the effectiveness and tolerability of 75 mg or higher every 14 days of RLAI were high, being useful in improving treatment adherence in patients with severe schizophrenia, getting good clinical and functional outcomes. PMID:26421461

  12. Investigation into the mechanism of action of the antimicrobial peptides Os and Os-C derived from a tick defensin.

    PubMed

    Taute, Helena; Bester, Megan J; Neitz, Albert W H; Gaspar, Anabella R M

    2015-09-01

    Os and Os-C are two novel antimicrobial peptides, derived from a tick defensin, which have been shown to have a larger range of antimicrobial activity than the parent peptide, OsDef2. The aim of this study was to determine whether the peptides Os and Os-C are mainly membrane acting, or if these peptides have possible additional intracellular targets in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that both peptides adversely affected intracellular structure of both bacteria causing different degrees of granulation of the intracellular contents. At the minimum bactericidal concentrations, permeabilization as determined with the SYTOX green assay seemed not to be the principle mode of killing when compared to melittin. However, fluorescent triple staining indicated that the peptides caused permeabilization of stationary phase bacteria and TEM indicated membrane effects. Studies using fluorescently labeled peptides revealed that the membrane penetrating activity of Os and Os-C was similar to buforin II. Os-C was found to associate with the septa of B. subtilis. Plasmid binding studies showed that Os and Os-C binds E. coli plasmid DNA at a similar charge ratio as melittin. These studies suggest membrane activity for Os and Os-C with possible intracellular targets such as DNA. The differences in permeabilization at lower concentrations and binding to DNA between Os and Os-C, suggest that the two peptides have dissimilar modes of action. PMID:26215047

  13. 3-year results of transvaginal cystocele repair with transobturator four-arm mesh: A prospective study of 105 patients

    PubMed Central

    Kdous, Moez; Zhioua, Fethi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of transobturator four-arm mesh for treating cystoceles. Patients and methods In this prospective study, 105 patients had a cystocele corrected between January 2004 and December 2008. All patients had a symptomatic cystocele of stage ⩾2 according to the Baden–Walker halfway stratification. We used only the transobturator four-arm mesh kit (Surgimesh®, Aspide Medical, France). All surgical procedures were carried out by the same experienced surgeon. The patients’ characteristics and surgical variables were recorded prospectively. The anatomical outcome, as measured by a physical examination and postoperative stratification of prolapse, and functional outcome, as assessed by a questionnaire derived from the French equivalents of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse–Urinary Incontinence-Sexual Questionnaire, were considered as the primary outcome measures. Peri- and postoperative complications constituted the secondary outcome measures. Results At 36 months after surgery the anatomical success rate (stage 0 or 1) was 93%. On a functional level, all the scores of quality of life and sexuality were improved. The overall satisfaction score (visual analogue scale) was 71.4%. There were no perioperative adverse events. Mesh erosion was reported in 7.6% and mesh retraction in 5.7% of the patients. Conclusions If the guidelines and precautions are followed, vaginal prosthetic surgery for genitourinary prolapse has shown long-term benefits. It provides excellent results both anatomically and functionally. However, complications are not negligible and some are specific to prosthetic surgery. PMID:26019962

  14. Lymphoma in patients treated with anti-TNF: results of the 3-year prospective French RATIO registry

    PubMed Central

    Mariette, Xavier; Tubach, Florence; Bagheri, Haleh; Bardet, Michel; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Gaudin, Philippe; Heresbach, Denis; Martin, Antoine; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Salmon, Dominique; Lemann, Marc; Hermine, Olivier; Raphael, Martine; Ravaud, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe cases of lymphoma associated with anti-TNF therapy, identify risk factors, estimate the incidence and compare risks for different anti-TNF agents. Methods We designed a national prospective registry (RATIO) from 2004 to 2006, for collecting all cases of lymphoma in French patients receiving anti-TNF therapy, whatever the indication. We conducted a case-control analysis including two controls treated with anti-TNF per case and an incidence study of lymphoma with the French population used as reference.. Results We collected 38 cases of lymphoma, 31 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) (26 B-cell and 5 T-cell), 5 Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and 2 Hodgkin’s-like lymphoma. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected in 2 of 2 Hodgkin’s-like lymphoma, 3 of 5 HL and one NHL. Patients receiving adalimumab or infliximab had a higher risk than those treated with etanercept: SIR = 4.1 (2.3–7.1) and 3.6 (2.3–5.6) versus 0.9 (0.4– 1.8). The exposure to adalimumab or infliximab versus etanercept was an independent risk factor for lymphoma in the case-control study: odds ratio=4.7 (1.3– 17.7) and 4.1 (1.4–12.5), respectively. The sex and age- adjusted incidence rate of lymphoma was 42.1 per 100,000 patient-years. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–3.2). Conclusion Some lymphomas associated with immunosuppression may occur in patients receiving anti TNF therapy, and the risk of lymphoma is higher with monoclonal-antibody therapy than with soluble-receptor therapy. PMID:19828563

  15. Re-Os geochronology and coupled Os-Sr isotope constraints on the Sturtian snowball Earth.

    PubMed

    Rooney, Alan D; Macdonald, Francis A; Strauss, Justin V; Dudás, Francis Ö; Hallmann, Christian; Selby, David

    2014-01-01

    After nearly a billion years with no evidence for glaciation, ice advanced to equatorial latitudes at least twice between 717 and 635 Mya. Although the initiation mechanism of these Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth events has remained a mystery, the broad synchronicity of rifting of the supercontinent Rodinia, the emplacement of large igneous provinces at low latitude, and the onset of the Sturtian glaciation has suggested a tectonic forcing. We present unique Re-Os geochronology and high-resolution Os and Sr isotope profiles bracketing Sturtian-age glacial deposits of the Rapitan Group in northwest Canada. Coupled with existing U-Pb dates, the postglacial Re-Os date of 662.4 ± 3.9 Mya represents direct geochronological constraints for both the onset and demise of a Cryogenian glaciation from the same continental margin and suggests a 55-My duration of the Sturtian glacial epoch. The Os and Sr isotope data allow us to assess the relative weathering input of old radiogenic crust and more juvenile, mantle-derived substrate. The preglacial isotopic signals are consistent with an enhanced contribution of juvenile material to the oceans and glacial initiation through enhanced global weatherability. In contrast, postglacial strata feature radiogenic Os and Sr isotope compositions indicative of extensive glacial scouring of the continents and intense silicate weathering in a post-Snowball Earth hothouse. PMID:24344274

  16. Re-Os geochronology and coupled Os-Sr isotope constraints on the Sturtian snowball Earth

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Alan D.; Macdonald, Francis A.; Strauss, Justin V.; Dudás, Francis Ö.; Hallmann, Christian; Selby, David

    2014-01-01

    After nearly a billion years with no evidence for glaciation, ice advanced to equatorial latitudes at least twice between 717 and 635 Mya. Although the initiation mechanism of these Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth events has remained a mystery, the broad synchronicity of rifting of the supercontinent Rodinia, the emplacement of large igneous provinces at low latitude, and the onset of the Sturtian glaciation has suggested a tectonic forcing. We present unique Re-Os geochronology and high-resolution Os and Sr isotope profiles bracketing Sturtian-age glacial deposits of the Rapitan Group in northwest Canada. Coupled with existing U-Pb dates, the postglacial Re-Os date of 662.4 ± 3.9 Mya represents direct geochronological constraints for both the onset and demise of a Cryogenian glaciation from the same continental margin and suggests a 55-My duration of the Sturtian glacial epoch. The Os and Sr isotope data allow us to assess the relative weathering input of old radiogenic crust and more juvenile, mantle-derived substrate. The preglacial isotopic signals are consistent with an enhanced contribution of juvenile material to the oceans and glacial initiation through enhanced global weatherability. In contrast, postglacial strata feature radiogenic Os and Sr isotope compositions indicative of extensive glacial scouring of the continents and intense silicate weathering in a post–Snowball Earth hothouse. PMID:24344274

  17. Helping Italian science teachers to make earth and climate active lessons. Results of 3 years support with the ICLEEN project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattadori, M.

    2013-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that in Italy Earth and Climate System Sciences Education (ESS) is one of the scientific disciplines where science teachers show a greatest need in terms of professional support. Among the causes that have been reported we should mention: the predominance of science teachers with a degree in biological disciplines rather then geo-logical or physical topics, and the high interdisciplinarity of certain topics, in particular those related to the climate system. Furthermore, it was found that ESS topics are predominant in the science curricula of those grades in which have been reported the major students dropout rates during the whole italian school cycle . In this context, in 2010, the MUSE, the Museum of Science of Trento (Italy), created a web-based service named I-Cleen (Inquring on Climate and Energy www.icleen.muse.it). This is a tool aimed at promoting the collaboration among science teachers in order to share resources and enhance the professional collaboration by means of participatory methods and models belonging to the world of open source and open content. The main instrument of the I-CLEEN project is an online repository (with metadata compliant with the DCMI and LOM international standards) of teaching resources focused on Earth and Climate Sciences all published under the Creative Commons license Attribution 3.0 and therefore, belonging to the model of OER (Open Educational Resources). The service has been designed, developed and managed by a team consisting of very experiencing science teachers and scientists from the Museum and other partners research institutions. The editorial work is carried out online utilizing a specific platform made with LifeRay, a CMS (Content Management System) software that is open source and manageable in a single Java-frameworked environment using the dbase, the website, the editorial process and several web 2.0 services. The project has been subjected to two distinct testing activities in

  18. Success of 6-mm Implants with Single-Tooth Restorations: A 3-year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sahrmann, P; Naenni, N; Jung, R E; Held, U; Truninger, T; Hämmerle, C H F; Attin, T; Schmidlin, P R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether implants of 6 mm in length perform equally well as 10-mm implants in terms of survival and marginal bone-level changes when supporting single crowns. Patients with a posterior single-tooth gap were randomly allocated to either the placement of a 6-mm (test) or 10-mm implant (control). The treatment protocol allowed for internal sinus lift but not for lateral bone augmentation. After a healing period of 10 wk, implants were loaded with screw-retained single crowns. Survival rates, number of pockets ≥5 mm, and bleeding-on-probing were assessed clinically. The change of marginal bone level and crown-to-implant ratios were analyzed by 2 examiners. Longitudinal intragroup analyses for marginal bone levels were performed applying the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Intergroup differences at baseline and at 3 y were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The effect of implant length and crown-to-implant ratio on changes of marginal bone level also was determined. Of 94 implants placed (47 test and 47 control), 78 implants (40 test and 38 control) were available for follow-up examination at 3 y of loading. One test implant was lost during the second year. Hence, implant survival was not significantly different between the 2 groups after 3 y (98% test; 100% control). We found no significant change in the crestal bone level from baseline to 3 y for test and control implants with -0.19 ± 0.62 mm and -0.33 ± 0.71 mm, respectively. The intergroup difference was not significant. Crown-to-implant ratios were not associated with a statistically significant difference in marginal bone loss. However, the number of sites with pockets ≥5 mm was significantly higher in the test group. Based on the 3-y assessment, the use of 6-mm implants can be considered a viable option when reconstructing posterior single tooth gaps (German Clinical Trials Registry: DRKS00006290). PMID:26917439

  19. Cooperative application/OS DRAM fault recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G.; Heroux, Michael Allen; Hoemmen, Mark; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2012-05-01

    Exascale systems will present considerable fault-tolerance challenges to applications and system software. These systems are expected to suffer several hard and soft errors per day. Unfortunately, many fault-tolerance methods in use, such as rollback recovery, are unsuitable for many expected errors, for example DRAM failures. As a result, applications will need to address these resilience challenges to more effectively utilize future systems. In this paper, we describe work on a cross-layer application/OS framework to handle uncorrected memory errors. We illustrate the use of this framework through its integration with a new fault-tolerant iterative solver within the Trilinos library, and present initial convergence results.

  20. Effects of Early Auditory Experience on the Spoken Language of Deaf Children at 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Johanna Grant; Geers, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: By age three, typically developing children have achieved extensive vocabulary and syntax skills that facilitate both cognitive and social development. Substantial delays in spoken language acquisition have been documented for children with severe-profound deafness, even those with auditory oral training and early hearing aid use. This study documents the spoken language skills achieved by orally educated three-year-olds whose profound hearing loss was identified and hearing aids fitted between 1 and 30 months of age and who received a cochlear implant between 12 and 38 months of age. The purpose of the analysis was to examine the effects of age, duration and type of early auditory experience on spoken language competence at age 3.5. Design: The spoken language skills of 76 children who had used a cochlear implant for at least 7 months were evaluated via standardized 30-minute language sample analysis, a parent-completed vocabulary checklist, and a teacher language-rating scale. The children were recruited from and enrolled in oral education programs or therapy practices across the United States. Inclusion criteria included: presumed deaf since birth, English the primary language of the home, no other known conditions that interfere with speech/language development, enrolled in programs using oral education methods, and no known problems with the cochlear implant lasting over 30 days. Results: Strong correlations were obtained among all language measures. Therefore, principal components analysis was used to derive a single Language Factor score for each child. A number of possible predictors of language outcome were examined, including age at identification and intervention with a hearing aid, duration of use of a hearing aid, pre-implant PTA threshold with a hearing aid, PTA threshold with a cochlear implant, and duration of use of a cochlear implant/ age at implantation (the last two variables were practically identical since all children were tested

  1. Multilobular osteochondrosarcoma of the os penis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Jinelle A.; Liptak, Julius M.; Hewitt, Saundra A.; Vince, Andrew R.

    2009-01-01

    Multilobular osteochondrosarcoma (MLO) of the os penis was diagnosed in a dysuric dog. Recurrence was confirmed or suspected twice over a 22-month period. This is the first reported case of MLO occurring in the os penis, and the 5th reported case of neoplasia of the os penis in the dog. PMID:19337619

  2. Feeling Refreshed by Sleep Can Predict Psychological Wellbeing Assessed Using the General Health Questionnaire in Male Workers: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of psychological wellbeing based on several important predictors was conducted for ensuring maintenance of good mental health. A 3-year follow-up study to determine psychological well-being was conducted in 969 Japanese male workers. Age, body mass index, present history of medication and four lifestyle factors were used for the analysis. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for obtaining a score of ≥4 in the General Health Questionnaire-12-item version, among the subjects who felt refreshed by sleep was 0.559 (0.415-0.753). None of the other factors showed any statistically significant association. Feeling refreshed by sleep was identified as a predictor of maintained psychological wellbeing in this 3-year follow-up study. PMID:23251209

  3. Feeling refreshed by sleep can predict psychological wellbeing assessed using the general health questionnaire in male workers: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2012-12-01

    Prediction of psychological wellbeing based on several important predictors was conducted for ensuring maintenance of good mental health. A 3-year follow-up study to determine psychological well-being was conducted in 969 Japanese male workers. Age, body mass index, present history of medication and four lifestyle factors were used for the analysis. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for obtaining a score of ≥4 in the General Health Questionnaire-12-item version, among the subjects who felt refreshed by sleep was 0.559 (0.415-0.753). None of the other factors showed any statistically significant association. Feeling refreshed by sleep was identified as a predictor of maintained psychological wellbeing in this 3-year follow-up study. PMID:23251209

  4. Risk factors for death and the 3-year survival of patients with systemic sclerosis: the French ItinérAIR-Sclérodermie study

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Patrick; Gressin, Virginie; Diot, Elisabeth; Allanore, Yannick; Sibilia, Jean; Launay, David; Mouthon, Luc; Jego, Patrick; Cabane, Jean; de Groote, Pascal; Chabrol, Amélie; Lazareth, Isabelle; Guillevin, Loïc; Clerson, Pierre; Humbert, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. This longitudinal study investigated survival, risk factors and causes of death in the multicentre ItinérAIR-Sclérodermie cohort of patients with SSc without severe pulmonary fibrosis or severe left heart disease at baseline. Methods. At 3-year follow-up, vital status was obtained from investigators or French national death records. Causes of death were classified as SSc-related or otherwise. Data were censored at 37 months, time of death or loss to follow-up, whichever was earlier. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate survival analyses were conducted using the Cox model. Results. In total, 546 patients were followed for a median duration of 37 months, representing 1547 patient-years. At baseline, the majority of patients were female, with lcSSc, mean age 54.9 ± 13.0 years and mean duration of SSc of 8.8 ± 8.1 years. In total, 47 patients died, giving a 3-year survival of 91.1% and cumulative mortality of 3.04 deaths per 100 patient-years; 17 deaths (32.2%) resulted from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and eight (17.1%) from cancer. Of the 47 patients with PAH at baseline, 20 died during follow-up, giving a 3-year survival of 56.3%. In a multivariate analysis, PAH [hazard ratio (HR) 7.246], age at first symptom (HR 1.052), duration of SSc (HR 1.047 per year) and Rodnan skin score (per one point) (HR 1.045) were associated with increased mortality. Conclusion. This 3-year study observed survival and mortality estimates that were comparable with previous reports. PAH increased the HR for mortality in patients with SSc, justifying yearly echocardiographic screening. PMID:19174571

  5. Prescription pain reliever misuse and levels of pain impairment: 3-year course in a nationally representative outpatient sample of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Scott P; Glasheen, Cristie; Roland, Carl L

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this work was to present the prevalence data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a representative 3-year longitudinal survey (ages 18+ years) that captured information on patterns of self-reported pain interference and prescription pain reliever misuse. A second aim was to assess the degree to which the risk of various types of opioid misuse (onset, desistance, and incidence of dependence) was related to the longitudinal course of self-reported pain interference over the 3-year period. Methods We used a two-wave, nationally representative sample of adults (aged 18+ years) in which the baseline data were collected during 2001–2002 and a single follow-up was obtained ~3 years later (2004–2005 with 34,332 respondents with complete data on study variables for both waves). Results Our findings indicated that ~10% reported high pain interference in the past month at each wave. There was tremendous stability in levels of pain, with ~5% reporting consistent levels of high impairment over the 3-year study, a proxy for chronic pain. Levels of pain were more strongly associated with prescription pain reliever misuse concurrently rather than prospectively, and the association was largely linear, with the likelihood of misuse increasing with levels of pain. Finally, health service factors were also prominent predictors of onset, but not the outcomes, of desistance or transitions to problem use. Conclusion This study is the first to use a nationally representative sample with measures of pain and drug use history collected over an extended period. These results may help provide clinicians with an understanding that the risk of misuse is greatest when pain is active and may help guide the selection of appropriate intervention materials and monitor strategies for those at greatest risk. PMID:27418863

  6. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST37 clinical isolates producing plasmid-mediated AmpC recovered over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Illiaquer, Marina; Caroff, Nathalie; Bémer, Pascale; Aubin, Guillaume G; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Lepelletier, Didier; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the clinical and microbiological epidemiology of AmpC plasmidic cephalosporinases (pAmpC) in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains resistant to ceftazidime, during a 3-year period (2007-2009). Among 1505 K. pneumoniae, 7 were pAmpC producers. Molecular characterization revealed the spread of a ST37 strain producing DHA-1 within intensive care units and the diffusion of the same plasmid among unrelated strains. PMID:22749243

  7. Therapeutic Monitoring of Voriconazole in Children Less Than 3 Years of Age: A Case Report and Summary of Voriconazole Concentrations for 10 Children

    PubMed Central

    Doby, Elizabeth H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Blaschke, Anne J.; Ward, Robert M.; Pavia, Andrew T.; Martin, Paul L.; Driscoll, Timothy A.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    Voriconazole is the treatment of choice for invasive aspergillosis and its use is increasing in pediatrics. Minimal pharmacokinetic data exist in young children. We report voriconazole concentrations for 10 children less than <3 years of age and pharmacokinetic parameters for one infant who had therapeutic drug monitoring performed. Trough concentrations were unpredictable based on dose, highlighting the need to follow values during therapy. PMID:22301479

  8. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort.

    PubMed

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B; Barkhof, F; Scheltens, P; van Straaten, E C W; van der Flier, W M; Fazekas, F; Schmidt, R; Ferro, J M; Baezner, H; Erkinjuntti, T; Jokinen, H; Wahlund, L-O; Poggesi, A; Pantoni, L; Inzitari, D; Waldemar, G

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive performance (p<0.01 for CC1, p<0.05 for CC5), motor function (p<0.05 for CC2 and CC5), and walking speed (p<0.01 for CC2 and CC5, p<0.05 for CC3 and total CC), and with development of dementia at 3 years (p<0.05 for CC1) after correction for appropriate confounders (ARWMC volume, atrophy, age, gender and handedness). In conclusion, CC atrophy, an indicator of reduced functional connectivity between cortical areas, seems to contribute, independently of ARWMC load, to future cognitive and motor decline in the elderly. PMID:21621224

  9. Sample Length Affects the Reliability of Language Sample Measures in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence From Parent-Elicited Conversational Samples

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which sample length affected the reliability of total number of words (TNW), number of different words (NDW), and mean length of C-units in morphemes (MLCUm) in parent-elicited conversational samples for 3-year-olds. Method Participants were sixty 3-year-olds. A 22-min language sample was collected from each child during free play with the parent in the laboratory. Samples of 1, 3, 7, and 10 min were extracted from the 22-min samples. TNW, NDW, and MLCUm were computed from each shorter sample and the 22-min sample. TNW and NDW were adjusted by number of minutes for comparisons. The differences and correlations between each shorter sample cut and the 22-min sample on MLCUm and adjusted TNW and NDW were computed. Results The shorter samples and the 22-min samples significantly differed in adjusted TNW and NDW, but not in MLCUm. TNW reached an acceptable reliability level (i.e., r = .90) in 7-min samples. NDW and MLCUm approached the acceptable reliability level (rs = .88) in 7-min samples and reached it in 10-min samples. Conclusion For conversational language samples with similar collection procedures, samples of 7 to 10 min are desirable for calculating TNW, NDW, and MLCUm in 3-year-olds. PMID:25615272

  10. Interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy in locally advanced and recurrent vulvar cancer

    PubMed Central

    Białas, Brygida; Fijałkowski, Marek; Wojcieszek, Piotr; Szlag, Marta; Cholewka, Agnieszka; Ślęczka, Maciej; Kołosza, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to report our experience with high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) in locally advanced and recurrent vulvar cancer. Material and methods Between 2004 and 2014, fourteen women with locally advanced or recurrent vulvar cancer were treated using HDR-ISBT in our Centre. High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy was performed as a separate treatment or in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (given prior to brachytherapy). Results Patients were divided into: group I (n = 6) with locally advanced tumors, stages III-IVA after an incisional biopsy only, and group II (n = 8) with recurrent vulvar cancer after previous radical surgery. In group I, median follow up was 12 months (range 7-18 months); 1-year overall survival (OS) was 83%. Transient arrest of cancer growth or tumor regression was noticed in all patients but 4/6 developed relapse. Median time to failure was 6.3 months (range 3-11 months). The 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 33%. In group II, median follow up was 28 months (range 13-90 months). The 1-year and 3-year OS was 100% and 80%, respectively. The arrest of cancer growth or tumor regression was achieved in all patients. In 4/8 patients neither clinical nor histological symptoms of relapse were observed but 4/8 women experienced relapse. Median time to failure was 31 months (range 13-76 months). The 1-year and 3-year PFS was 100% and 62.5%, respectively. Two patients (14.3%) in group II had severe late toxicity (G3). Conclusions High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy is a well-tolerated treatment option in selected patients with advanced or recurrent vulvar cancer. It is a safe and effective treatment modality for advanced and recurrent vulvar cancer, yielding good local control with acceptable late treatment related side effects. In our study, patients with recurrent vulvar cancer had better results in HDR-ISBT treatment, probably because of the smaller tumor volume. This

  11. Low prevalence of HCV, HIV, and HTLV-I/II infection markers in northwestern Greece: results of a 3-year prospective donor study (1995-1997).

    PubMed

    Zervou, E K.; Boumba, D S.; Liaskos, Ch; Georgiadou, S; Tsianos, E V.; Dalekos, G N.

    2003-02-01

    Background: The risk of infection with transfusion-transmitted viruses has been reduced remarkably. A zero-risk blood supply, however, remains a popular goal. A 3-year prospective donor study was conducted in the Epirus region of Greece to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Herein, we report the prevalence of HIV, HTLV, and HCV infection markers in this area. Methodology: Between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 1997, 6696 donors were investigated for the presence of anti-HIV, anti-HTLV, and anti-HCV antibodies using standard enzyme immunoassays (EIA). Every sample with anti-HCV reactivity by third-generation EIA was further investigated using a third-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA 3.0) and HCV-RNA by a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA EIA. Results: None of the donors tested positive for anti-HIV or anti-HTLV antibodies. In contrast, anti-HCV was detected in 41 donors (0.61%). Using a RIBA 3.0 test, eight donors tested positive and eight had indeterminate results, while 25 tested negative. Seven of the eight donors with both EIA and RIBA 3.0 reactivity had increased levels of aminotransferases and detectable serum HCV-RNA. The remaining 34 donors had repeatedly normal aminotransferases and three times negative HCV-RNA. Liver biopsy was performed in anti-HCV/HCV-RNA-positive donors (7/41). The lesions were compatible with chronic hepatitis C in all of them. Conclusion: A zero prevalence of HIV and HTLV infection markers was found. Although the number of annual donations in this study was relatively low, the negative data for HIV and HTLV clearly indicate that rates of these infections are low in our region and that infected donors will be seen infrequently. HCV infection in blood donors remains very low in our region and is similar to the data reported in other industrialized countries. In fact, the prevalence of

  12. Os-187/Os-188 and Highly Siderophile Element Systematics of Apollo 17 Aphanitic Melt Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puchtel, I. S.; Walker, R. J.; James, O. B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Generally chondritic relative abundances and high absolute abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE: Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au) in Earth s upper mantle provide strong evidence that these elements were added to the Earth following the last major interaction between its metallic core and silicate fraction. So called "late accretion" may have added materials comprising as much as 0.8% of the total mass of the Earth and possibly a similar proportion of mass to the Moon. We have begun to study the chemical nature of late accreted materials to the Earth - Moon system by examining the HSE contained in lunar impact-melt rocks. The HSE contained in melt rocks were largely added to the Moon during the period of time from the origin of the lunar highlands crust (4.4- 4.5 Ga) to the end of the late bombardment period (ca. 3.9 Ga). These materials provide the only direct chemical link to the late accretionary period. The chemical fingerprints of the HSE in late accreted materials may enable us to ascertain under what conditions and where in the solar system the late accreted materials formed. The Os-187/Os-188 ratios (reflecting long-term Re/Os), coupled with ratios of other HSE, can be diagnostic for identifying the nature of the impactor. A critical issue, however, will be deconvolving the exogenous from indigenous components.

  13. Re-Os dating of 3AB iron meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esat, Tezer M.; Bennett, Victoria

    1993-01-01

    Recently, Creaser et al., and Volkening and Heumann, have demonstrated the efficient production of large (approximately 10 exp -11 A) ion beams by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS) using standard laboratory solutions of Os compounds. Horan et al., have applied NTIMS to a group of 7 IIA iron meteorites and obtained a Re-Os closure age of 4596 +/- 152 million years. The initial Os-187/Os-186 ratio was 0.8007 plus or minus 0.0029. In addition they analyzed 3 IIIA meteorite samples which indicated an age of 4554 +/- 180 million years and Os initial of 0.8120 +/- 0.0075 which does not overlap with the initial for the IIA irons. We have been independently pursuing a similar program with the direct aim of determining possible variations in the initial (Os-187)/(Os-186) ratio or Re-Os closure age of different classes of iron meteorite. We have applied NTIMS to Os extracted from the most common group of iron meteorites the IIIAB. These meteorites are believed to be of magmatic origin, formed by fractional crystallization of molten cores of asteroidal bodies. The present results point to a significantly lower initial (Os-187)/(Os-186) ratio of 0.7731 plus or minus 0.0050 than previously determined.

  14. Coulomb excitation of {sup 189}Os

    SciTech Connect

    Seale, W.A.; Botelho, S.; Ribas, R.V.

    1993-10-01

    The transitional nucleus {sup 189}Os has been studied by Coulomb excitation. Measurements with a Ge(HP) detector were made at 0{degrees}, 55{degrees}, 90{degrees} with beams of {sup 28}Si at 80 and 88 Me {sup 35}Cl at 80 MeV and {sup 16}O at 58 MeV. A total of gamma-ray transitions leading to 23 levels we used in the least-squares code GOSIA to determined reduced matrix elements. A theoretic understanding of this nucleus has been attempt from the point of view of current nuclear mode as they apply to systematics of the 1/2 {sup -}[510] 3/2 -[512], 1/2 [503] levels in this ma region.

  15. Functional characterization of rice OsDof12.

    PubMed

    Li, Dejun; Yang, Chunhua; Li, Xiaobing; Gan, Qiang; Zhao, Xianfeng; Zhu, Lihuang

    2009-05-01

    DNA-binding with one finger (Dof) proteins are a large family of transcription factors involved in a variety of biological processes in plants. In rice, 30 different Dof genes have been identified through genome analysis. Here we report the functional characteristics of a rice Dof gene, OsDof12, which encodes a predicted Dof protein. The nuclear localization of OsDof12 was investigated by the transient expression assays of the OsDof12-GFP fusion protein in onion epidermal cells. Trans-activation assays in a yeast one-hybrid system indicated that OsDof12 had transcriptional activity. RNA expression analyses showed that the expression of OsDof12 was not tissue-specific in general and fluctuated at different development stages in rice. In addition, OsDof12 was strongly inhibited by dark treatments. The transgenic lines overexpressing OsDof12 showed early flowering under long-day (LD) conditions, whereas OsDof12 overexpression had no effect on flowering time under short-day (SD) conditions. In transgenic lines overexpressing OsDof12, the transcription levels of Hd3a and OsMADS14 were up-regulated under LD conditions but not SD conditions, whereas the expression of Hd1, OsMADS51, Ehd1 and OsGI did not change under LD and SD conditions. These results suggested that OsDof12 might regulate flowering by controlling the expression of Hd3a and OsMADS14. PMID:19198875

  16. Developmental milestones record - 3 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... play area and constant supervision. Provide the necessary space for physical activity. Help your child take part in -- and learn the rules of -- sports and games. Limit both the time and content of television and computer viewing. Visit ...

  17. Definitive radiotherapy for primary vaginal cancer: correlation between treatment patterns and recurrence rate

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Naoyuki; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Baek, Sungjae; Chatani, Masashi; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Eiichi; Yoshida, Ken; Seo, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Mabuchi, Seiji; Shiki, Yasuhiko; Tatsumi, Keiji; Kimura, Tadashi; Teshima, Teruki; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes and optimal practice patterns of definitive radiotherapy for primary vaginal cancer. Between 1993 and 2012, 49 patients were treated with definitive radiotherapy for primary vaginal cancer in three hospitals. Of these, 15 patients (31%) had clinically positive regional lymph node metastasis. A total of 34 patients (70%) received external beam radiotherapy with high-dose-rate brachytherapy (interstitial or intracavitary), and 8 (16%) (with small superficial Stage I tumors) were treated with local radiotherapy. The median follow-up was 33 months (range: 1–169 months). The 3-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and loco-regional control (LRC) rates were 83%, 59% and 71%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the histological type (P = 0.044) was significant risk factors for LRC. In Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage I cases, 3 of 8 patients (38%) who did not undergo prophylactic lymph node irradiation had lymph node recurrence, compared with 2 of 12 patients (17%) who underwent prophylactic pelvic irradiation. For Stage III–IV tumors, the local recurrence rate was 50% and the lymph node recurrence rate was 40%. Patients with FIGO Stage I/II or clinical Stage N1 had a higher recurrence rate with treatment using a single modality compared with the recurrence rate using combined modalities. In conclusion, our treatment outcomes for vaginal cancer were acceptable, but external beam radiotherapy with brachytherapy (interstitial or intracavitary) was needed regardless of FIGO stage. Improvement of treatment outcomes in cases of FIGO Stage III or IV remains a significant challenge. PMID:25614068

  18. Reliability and Accuracy of Surgical Resident Peer Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutsky, Larry A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reliability and accuracy of peer ratings by 32, 28, 33 general surgery residents over 3 years were examined. Peer ratings were found highly reliable, with high level of test-retest reliability replicated across three years. Halo effects appear to pose greatest threat to rater accuracy, though chief residents tended to exhibit less halo effect than…

  19. 44 CFR 207.10 - Review of management cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Review of management cost..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.10 Review of management cost rates. (a) FEMA will review management cost rates not later than 3 years after this rule is in effect...

  20. 44 CFR 207.10 - Review of management cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review of management cost..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.10 Review of management cost rates. (a) FEMA will review management cost rates not later than 3 years after this rule is in effect...

  1. 44 CFR 207.10 - Review of management cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Review of management cost..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.10 Review of management cost rates. (a) FEMA will review management cost rates not later than 3 years after this rule is in effect...

  2. 44 CFR 207.10 - Review of management cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Review of management cost..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.10 Review of management cost rates. (a) FEMA will review management cost rates not later than 3 years after this rule is in effect...

  3. 44 CFR 207.10 - Review of management cost rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Review of management cost..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT COSTS § 207.10 Review of management cost rates. (a) FEMA will review management cost rates not later than 3 years after this rule is in effect...

  4. Outcomes of Early- and Late-identified Children at 3 Years of Age: Findings from a Prospective Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Dillon, Harvey; Marnane, Vivienne; Hou, Sanna; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark; Crowe, Kathryn; Street, Laura; Thomson, Jessica; Van Buynder, Patricia; Zhang, Vicky; Wong, Angela; Burns, Lauren; Flynn, Christopher; Cupples, Linda; Cowan, Robert S.C.; Leigh, Greg; Sjahalam-King, Jessica; Yeh, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To address the question of whether, on a population level, early detection and amplification improve outcomes of children with hearing impairment. Design All families of children who were born between 2002 and 2007, and who presented for hearing services below 3 years of age at Australian Hearing pediatric centers in New South Wales, Victoria and Southern Queensland were invited to participate in a prospective study on outcomes. Children’s speech, language, functional and social outcomes were assessed at 3 years of age, using a battery of age-appropriate tests. Demographic information relating to the child, family, and educational intervention was solicited through the use of custom-designed questionnaires. Audiological data were collected from the national database of Australian Hearing and records held at educational intervention agencies for children. Regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of each of 15 predictor variables, including age of amplification, on outcomes. Results Four hundred and fifty-one children enrolled in the study, 56% of whom received their first hearing-aid fitting before 6 months of age. Based on clinical records, 44 children (10%) were diagnosed with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. There were 107 children (24%) reported to have additional disabilities. At 3 years of age, 317 children (70%) were hearing-aid users and 134 children (30%) used cochlear implants. Based on parent reports, about 71% used an aural/oral mode of communication, and about 79% used English as the spoken language at home. Children’s performance scores on standardized tests administered at 3 years of age were used in a factor analysis to derive a global development factor score. On average, the global score of hearing-impaired children was more than one standard deviation (SD) below the mean of normal-hearing children at the same age. Regression analysis revealed that five factors, including female gender, absence of additional

  5. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  6. The influence of immediate complete anterior guidance development technique on subjective symptoms in Myofascial pain patients: Verified using digital analysis of occlusion (Tek-scan) for analysing occlusion: A 3 years clinical observation

    PubMed Central

    Thumati, Prafulla

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of occlusal equilibration using immediate complete anterior guidance development (ICAGD) technique by Kerstein and Farrell on the subjective symptoms of myofascial pain. This technique is the most advanced verifiable and measurable way of digitally analyzing the occlusion using T-scan technology. The primary objective is to reduce the anterior disclusion time to <0.4 s and the secondary objective is to reduce the signs and symptoms of myofascial pain. Materials and Methods: This study is to assess the reducing effects of subjective symptoms of 100 patients diagnosed as myofascial pain patients treated by ICAGD technique as described by Kerstein and Farrell. The common complaints of the patients were a pain in the masseter and temporal muscles, jaw tiredness in the mornings, night bruxing and difficulty in chewing. In this technique occlusal equilibration involves removal of posterior interferences and establish anterior guidance. The patients were treated over three visits 1-week apart and followed for 3 years with an interval of 3 months for the subsequent visits. A visual analog ordinal scale is used to rate the symptoms. The symptoms reduction occurred for all the patients after the first correction in about 5–10 days. In about a period of 3 years review, no recurrence was seen of the chronic myofascial symptoms. Results: In spite of the chronic nature of the patient's symptoms, symptom reduction occurred in a week's time. This was assessed by the results of the ordinal scale values. This agrees with the studies of Kerstein and Farrell. Conclusion: Equilibration of occlusion using digital analysis by T-scan in which force is quantified against time, should be done to establish free functional movements without any interference; otherwise the disturbances in the excursive movements may lead to muscle dysfunction at later years. PMID:26929516

  7. Comparison of paclitaxel-eluting stents (Taxus) and everolimus-eluting stents (Xience) in left main coronary artery disease with 3 years follow-up (from the ESTROFA-LM registry).

    PubMed

    De la Torre Hernandez, Jose M; Alfonso, Fernando; Sanchez Recalde, Angel; Jimenez Navarro, Manuel F; Perez de Prado, Armando; Hernandez, Felipe; Abdul-Jawad Altisent, Omar; Roura, Gerard; Garcia Camarero, Tamara; Elizaga, Jaime; Rivero, Fernando; Gimeno, Federico; Calviño, Ramon; Moreu, Jose; Bosa, Francisco; Rumoroso, Jose R; Bullones, Juan A; Gallardo, Arsenio; Fernandez Diaz, Jose A; Ruiz Arroyo, Jose R; Aragon, Victor; Masotti, Monica

    2013-03-01

    Evidence regarding therapy with drug-eluting stents in the left main coronary artery (LM) is based mostly on trials performed with first-generation drug-eluting stents. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term clinical outcomes after treatment for unprotected LM disease with paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) and everolimus-eluting stents (EES). The ESTROFA-LM is a multicenter retrospective registry including consecutive patients with unprotected LM disease treated with PES or EES. A total of 770 patients have been included at 21 centers, 415 with treated PES and 355 with EES. Treatment with 2 stents was more frequent with PES (17% vs 10.4%, p = 0.007), whereas intravascular ultrasound was more frequently used with EES (35.2% vs 26%, p = 0.006). The 3-year death and infarction survival rates were 86.1% for PES and 87.3% for EES (p = 0.50) and for death, infarction, and target lesion revascularization were 83.6% versus 82% (p = 0.60), respectively. Definite or probable thrombosis was 1.6% for PES and 1.4% for EES (p = 0.80). The use of 2 stents, age, diabetes, and acute coronary syndromes were independent predictors of mortality. In the subgroup of distal lesions, the use of intravascular ultrasound was an independent predictor of better outcome. Comparison of propensity score-matched groups did not yield differences between the 2 stents. In conclusion, the results of this multicenter registry show comparable safety and efficacy at 3 years for PES and EES in the treatment of LM disease. The use of bifurcation stenting techniques in distal lesions was a relevant independent predictor for events. The use of intravascular ultrasound appears to have a positive impact on patients treated for LM distal disease. PMID:23273715

  8. Os2 -Os4 Switch Controls DNA Knotting and Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ying; Romero, María J; Salassa, Luca; Cheng, Xi; Habtemariam, Abraha; Clarkson, Guy J; Prokes, Ivan; Rodger, Alison; Costantini, Giovanni; Sadler, Peter J

    2016-07-25

    Dinuclear trihydroxido-bridged osmium-arene complexes are inert and biologically inactive, but we show here that linking dihydroxido-bridged Os(II) -arene fragments by a bridging di-imine to form a metallacycle framework results in strong antiproliferative activity towards cancer cells and distinctive knotting of DNA. The shortened spacer length reduces biological activity and stability in solution towards decomposition to biologically inactive dimers. Significant differences in behavior toward plasmid DNA condensation are correlated with biological activity. PMID:27240103

  9. iOS and OS X Apps for Exploring Earthquake Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and many other agencies rapidly provide information following earthquakes. This timely information garners great public interest and provides a rich opportunity to engage students in discussion and analysis of earthquakes and tectonics. In this presentation I will describe a suite of iOS and Mac OS X apps that I use for teaching and that Penn State employs in outreach efforts in a small museum run by the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences. The iOS apps include a simple, global overview of earthquake activity, epicentral, designed for a quick review or event lookup. A more full-featured iPad app, epicentral-plus, includes a simple global overview along with views that allow a more detailed exploration of geographic regions of interest. In addition, epicentral-plus allows the user to monitor ground motions using seismic channel lists compatible with the IRIS web services. Some limited seismogram processing features are included to allow focus on appropriate signal bandwidths. A companion web site, which includes background material on earthquakes, and a blog that includes sample images and channel lists appropriate for monitoring earthquakes in regions of recent earthquake activity can be accessed through the a third panel in the app. I use epicentral-plus at the beginning of each earthquake seismology class to review recent earthquake activity and to stimulate students to formulate and to ask questions that lead to discussions of earthquake and tectonic processes. Less interactive OS X versions of the apps are used to display a global map of earthquake activity and seismograms in near real time in a small museum on the ground floor of the building hosting Penn State's Geoscience Department.

  10. A lipid transfer protein, OsLTPL36, is essential for seed development and seed quality in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Wei; Lu, Zhanhua; Ouyang, Yidan; O, Chol Su; Yao, Jialing

    2015-10-01

    Storage lipid is a vital component for maintaining structure of seed storage substances and valuable for rice quality and food texture. However, the knowledge of lipid transporting related genes and their function in seed development have not been well elucidated yet. In this study, we identified OsLTPL36, a homolog of putative lipid transport protein, and showed specific expression in rice developing seed. Transcriptional profiling and in situ hybridization analysis confirmed that OsLTPL36 was exclusively expressed in developing seed coat and endosperm aleurone cells. Down-regulated expression of OsLTPL36 led to decreased seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight in transgenic plants. Further studies showed that suppressed expression of OsLTPL36 caused chalky endosperm and resulted in reduced fat acid content in RNAi lines as compared with wild type (WT). Histological analysis showed that the embryo development was delayed after down regulation of OsLTPL36. Moreover, impeded seed germination and puny seedling were also observed in the OsLTPL36 RNAi lines. The data demonstrated that OsLTPL36, a lipid transporter, was critical important not only for seed quality but also for seed development and germination in rice. PMID:26398804

  11. A prospective clinical evaluation of different single-tooth restoration designs on osseointegrated implants. A 3-year follow-up of Brånemark implants.

    PubMed

    Wannfors, K; Smedberg, J I

    1999-12-01

    Since single-tooth implant restorations were introduced 12 years ago (Jemt 1986), there has been continuous development both in the technical design and the aesthetic outcome of the treatment. In order to ensure high quality in single-tooth implant treatments a clinical follow-up study was carried out on patients treated with modifications to the original regimen. In this study 69 consecutive patients were provided with 80 single-tooth implant restorations. The patients were followed for 3 years. There was continuous development of the prosthetic design during the time of the study, allowing us to analyse possible prognostic differences for the different prosthetic treatments. This study confirms earlier reports which describe the single-tooth implant treatment as a safe method with few surgical complications and minimal marginal bone loss. Only 1 implant was lost during the follow-up period and the average marginal bone loss was 0.48 mm over the 3-year follow-up period. Crowns veneered with acrylic and with gold casted directly to the abutments, screwed onto the implants, led to recurring prosthetic complications and gave an appearance of rapid ageing. The first generation of crowns made following the Cera-One design, sometimes produced a gap between the crown and the abutment associated with significant marginal bone loss during the first year. Few surgical or prosthetic complications were noted with cemented all-ceramic constructions, although the number of these crowns in this study was limited. PMID:10740454

  12. Early response with dasatinib or imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia: 3-year follow-up from a randomized phase 3 trial (DASISION).

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Elias; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Saglio, Giuseppe; Steegmann, Juan Luis; Shah, Neil P; Boqué, Concepción; Chuah, Charles; Pavlovsky, Carolina; Mayer, Jirí; Cortes, Jorge; Baccarani, Michele; Kim, Dong-Wook; Bradley-Garelik, M Brigid; Mohamed, Hesham; Wildgust, Mark; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2014-01-23

    This analysis explores the impact of early cytogenetic and molecular responses on the outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) in the phase 3 DASatinib versus Imatinib Study In treatment-Naive CML patients trial with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP were randomized to receive 100 mg dasatinib (n = 259) or 400 mg imatinib (n = 260) once daily. The retrospective landmark analysis included patients evaluable at the relevant time point (3, 6, or 12 months). Median time to complete cytogenetic response was 3 vs 6 months with dasatinib vs imatinib. At 3 and 6 months, the proportion of patients with BCR-ABL transcript levels ≤10% was higher in the dasatinib arm. Deeper responses at 3, 6, and 12 months were observed in a higher proportion of patients on dasatinib therapy and were associated with better 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival in both arms. First-line dasatinib resulted in faster and deeper responses compared with imatinib. The achievement of an early molecular response was predictive of improved progression-free survival and overall survival, supporting new milestones for optimal response in patients with early CML-CP treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00481247. PMID:24311723

  13. Early response with dasatinib or imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia: 3-year follow-up from a randomized phase 3 trial (DASISION)

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias; Saglio, Giuseppe; Steegmann, Juan Luis; Shah, Neil P.; Boqué, Concepción; Chuah, Charles; Pavlovsky, Carolina; Mayer, Jiří; Cortes, Jorge; Baccarani, Michele; Kim, Dong-Wook; Bradley-Garelik, M. Brigid; Mohamed, Hesham; Wildgust, Mark; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This analysis explores the impact of early cytogenetic and molecular responses on the outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) in the phase 3 DASatinib versus Imatinib Study In treatment-Naive CML patients trial with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP were randomized to receive 100 mg dasatinib (n = 259) or 400 mg imatinib (n = 260) once daily. The retrospective landmark analysis included patients evaluable at the relevant time point (3, 6, or 12 months). Median time to complete cytogenetic response was 3 vs 6 months with dasatinib vs imatinib. At 3 and 6 months, the proportion of patients with BCR-ABL transcript levels ≤10% was higher in the dasatinib arm. Deeper responses at 3, 6, and 12 months were observed in a higher proportion of patients on dasatinib therapy and were associated with better 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival in both arms. First-line dasatinib resulted in faster and deeper responses compared with imatinib. The achievement of an early molecular response was predictive of improved progression-free survival and overall survival, supporting new milestones for optimal response in patients with early CML-CP treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00481247. PMID:24311723

  14. Development of understory vegetation in pine and pine-hardwood shelterwood stands in the Ouachita mountains: The first 3 years. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    The shelterwood reproduction cutting method using two overstory compositions (a pine basal area of 30 square feet per acre with and without 15 square feet per acre of hardwoods) and two methods of submerchantable hardwood control (chain-saw felling with and without stump-applied herbicide) was tested in a 2x2 factorial, split-plot design with four randomized complete blocks. Total coverage of understory vegetation after 3 years was greater in the pine overstory treatment (68 percent) than in the pine-hardwood overstory treatment (46 percent) and was slightly greater for manual than chemical hardwood control (60 versus 55 percent). Results indicate that 15 square feet per acre of scattered hardwoods can be retained through at least 3 years after harvest, but additional monitoring will be needed to determine the long-term success of reproduction. Early results suggest that the herbicide treatment was not justified in the stand and site conditions tested in this study; contributing factors were the abundant pine seed production and low levels of competing vegetation.

  15. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A; Payzant, E Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB2-type OsB2 ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of 10B and 11B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched 11B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB2 phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os2B3 phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline 11B powder was used as a raw material, only Os2B3 boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB2 powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 C and cooling in vacuo down to 225 C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB2+3O2 2Os+2B2O3 took place due to presence of O2/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B2O3 and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB2 lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB2 changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276 426 C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB2 lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O2, the hexagonal OsB2 ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice parameters and no phase changes detected during cooling.

  16. Sociodemographic and psychiatric diagnostic predictors of 3-year incidence of DSM-IV substance use disorders among men and women in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Risë B; Smith, Sharon M; Dawson, Deborah A; Grant, Bridget F

    2015-12-01

    Incidence rates of alcohol and drug use disorders (AUDs and DUDs) are consistently higher in men than women, but information on whether sociodemographic and psychiatric diagnostic predictors of AUD and DUD incidence differ by sex is limited. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, sex-specific 3-year incidence rates of AUDs and DUDs among United States adults were compared by sociodemographic variables and baseline psychiatric disorders. Sex-specific logistic regression models estimated odds ratios for prediction of incident AUDs and DUDs, adjusting for potentially confounding baseline sociodemographic and diagnostic variables. Few statistically significant sex differences in predictive relationships were identified and those observed were generally modest. Prospective research is needed to identify predictors of incident DSM-5 AUDs and DUDs and their underlying mechanisms, including whether there is sex specificity by developmental phase, in the role of additional comorbidity in etiology and course, and in outcomes of prevention and treatment. PMID:26727008

  17. Clinical evaluation of 860 anterior and posterior lithium disilicate restorations: retrospective study with a mean follow-up of 3 years and a maximum observational period of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Giacomo; Zarone, Fernando; Dellificorelli, Gianluca; Cannistraro, Giorgio; De Lorenzi, Marco; Mosca, Alberto; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the clinical performance of lithium disilicate restorations supported by natural teeth or implants. Eight hundred sixty lithium disilicate adhesive restorations, including crowns on natural teeth and implant abutments, veneers, and onlays, were made in 312 patients. Parafunctional patients were included, but subjects with uncontrolled periodontitis and gingival inflammation were excluded. Veneers up to 0.5 mm thick were luted with flowable composite resin or light curing cements, while dual-curing composite systems were used with veneers up to 0.8 mm thick. Onlays up to 2 mm in thickness were luted with flowable composite resins or dual-curing composite cements. Crowns up to 1 mm in thickness were cemented with self-adhesive or dual-curing resin cements. The observational period ranged from 12 to 72 months, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. The mechanical and esthetic outcomes of the restorations were evaluated according to the modified California Dental Association (CDA) criteria. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Twenty-six mechanical complications were observed: 17 porcelain chippings, 5 fractures, and 4 losses of retention. Structural drawbacks occurred mainly in posterior segments, and monolithic restorations showed the lowest number of mechanical complications. The clinical ratings of the successful restorations, both monolithic and layered, were satisfactory according to the modified CDA criteria for color match, porcelain surface, and marginal integrity. The cumulative survival rates of lithium disilicate restorations ranged from 95.46% to 100%, while cumulative success rates ranged from 95.39% to 100%. All restorations recorded very high survival and success rates. The use of lithium disilicate restorations in fixed prosthodontics proved to be effective and reliable in the short- and medium-term. PMID:24600653

  18. Local control rates with five-fraction stereotactic body radiotherapy for oligometastatic cancer to the lung

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhchyau; Hare, Mary Z.; Usuki, Kenneth Y.; Zhang, Hong; Lundquist, Thomas; Joyce, Neil; Schell, Michael C.; Milano, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report our institutional experience with five fractions of daily 8-12 Gy stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for the treatment of oligometastatic cancer to the lung. Methods Thirty-four consecutive patients with oligometastatic cancers to the lung were treated with image-guided SBRT between 2008 and 2011. Patient age ranged from 38 to 81 years. There were 17 males and 17 females. Lung metastases were from the following primary cancer types: colon cancer (n=13 patients), head and neck cancer (n=6), breast cancer (n=4), melanoma (n=4), sarcoma (n=4) and renal cell carcinoma (n=3). The median prescription dose was 50 Gy in five fractions (range, 40-60 Gy) to the isocenter, with the 80% isodose line encompassing the planning target volume (PTV) [defined as gross tumor volume (GTV) + 7-11 mm volumetric expansion]. The follow-up interval ranged from 2.4-54 months, with a median of 16.7 months. Results The 1-, 2-, and 3-year patient local control (LC) rates for all patients were 93%, 88%, and 80% respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 62%, 44%, and 23% respectively. The 1- and 2-year patient LC rates were 95% and 88% for tumor size 1-2 cm (n=25), and 86% for tumor size 2-3 cm (n=7). The majority (n=4) of local failures occurred within 12 months. No patient experienced local failure after 12 months except for one patient with colon cancer whose tumors progressed locally at 26 months. All five patients with local recurrences had colorectal cancer. Statistical analyses showed that age, gender, previous chemotherapy, previous surgery or radiation had no significant effect on LC rates. No patient was reported to have any symptomatic pneumonitis at any time point. Conclusions SBRT for oligometastatic disease to the lung using 8-12 Gy daily fractions over five treatments resulted in excellent 1- and 2-year LC rates. Most local failures occurred within the first 12 months, with five local failures associated with colorectal cancer

  19. Spirobifluorene bridged Ir(III) and Os(II) polypyridyl arrays: synthesis, photophysical characterization, and energy transfer dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Barbara; Barbieri, Andrea; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Seneclauze, Julie Batcha; Ziessel, Raymond

    2012-03-01

    The synthesis, characterization, photophysics, and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations of spirobifluorene-bipyridine based iridium(III), osmium(II), and mixed Ir/Os complexes are presented. The preparation of the reference and mixed complexes proceeded step-by-step and microwave irradiation facilitated the complexation of osmium. The absorption of the target heterobimetallic derivative, Ir-L-Os, is described by linear combination of half of the absorption spectra of the homobimetallic analogues, Ir-L-Ir and Os-L-Os, due to the occurrence of mixed ligand and metal based transitions when the spirobifluorene-(bpy)(2) bridging ligand L is linked to the metal, confirming a negligible interaction between the substituted metallic chromophores. TD-DFT calculations on monometallic, homo- and hetero-bimetallic complexes fully disentangled the origin of the absorption features. Noticeably, in the mixed Ir-L-Os complex an almost quantitative energy transfer from the (3)Ir to the (3)Os MLCT state is occurring, with a rate constant of 4.1 × 10(8) s(-1) and nearly exclusively via a Dexter-type mechanism mediated by the orbitals of the spiroconjugated ligand. This result, together with the outcomes of the TD-DFT calculations, supports the existence of spiroconjugation and evidences the interesting role of this kind of bridge in the energy transfer dynamics of the arrays. In all the complexes, moreover, the ligand fluorescence is heavily quenched by energy transfer processes toward the metallic appended units; the rate constant is estimated in the order of 10(10) s(-1) for Ir-L-Os and higher than 10(12) s(-1) for the other complexes. In the heterometallic array, both at room temperature and at 77 K, all photons are thus funneled to the emissive Os (3)MLCT state, which acts as energy trap for the antenna cascade. PMID:22356478

  20. OsGL1-3 is Involved in Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis and Tolerance to Water Deficit in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoyun; Li, Linzhi; Xiang, Jianhua; Gao, Guofu; Xu, Faxi; Liu, Ailing; Zhang, Xianwen; Peng, Yan; Chen, Xinbo; Wan, Xiangyuan

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular wax covers aerial organs of plants and functions as the outermost barrier against non-stomatal water loss. We reported here the functional characterization of the Glossy1(GL1)-homologous gene OsGL1-3 in rice using overexpression and RNAi transgenic rice plants. OsGL1-3 gene was ubiquitously expressed at different level in rice plants except root and its expression was up-regulated under ABA and PEG treatments. The transient expression of OsGL1-3–GFP fusion protein indicated that OsGL1-3 is mainly localized in the plasma membrane. Compared to the wild type, overexpression rice plants exhibited stunted growth, more wax crystallization on leaf surface, and significantly increased total cuticular wax load due to the prominent changes of C30–C32 aldehydes and C30 primary alcohols. While the RNAi knockdown mutant of OsGL1-3 exhibited no significant difference in plant height, but less wax crystallization and decreased total cuticular wax accumulation on leaf surface. All these evidences, together with the effects of OsGL1-3 on the expression of some wax synthesis related genes, suggest that OsGL1-3 is involved in cuticular wax biosynthesis. Overexpression of OsGL1-3 decreased chlorophyll leaching and water loss rate whereas increased tolerance to water deficit at both seedling and late-tillering stages, suggesting an important role of OsGL1-3 in drought tolerance. PMID:25555239

  1. A key ABA catabolic gene, OsABA8ox3, is involved in drought stress resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shanlan; Jiang, Guobin; Ye, Nenghui; Chu, Zhizhan; Xu, Xuezhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhu, Guohui

    2015-01-01

    Expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes and catabolism genes are generally co-regulated in plant development and responses to environmental stress. Up-regulation of OsNCED3 gene, a key gene in ABA biosynthesis, has been suggested as a way to enhance plant drought resistance but little is known for the role of ABA catabolic genes during drought stress. In this study, we found that OsABA8ox3 was the most highly expressed gene of the OsABA8ox family in rice leaves. Expression of OsABA8ox3 was promptly induced by rehydration after PEG-mimic dehydration, a tendency opposite to the changes of ABA level. We therefore constructed rice OsABA8ox3 silencing (RNA interference, RNAi) and overexpression plants. There were no obvious phenotype differences between the transgenic seedlings and wild type under normal condition. However, OsABA8ox3 RNAi lines showed significant improvement in drought stress tolerance while the overexpression seedlings were hypersensitive to drought stress when compared with wild type in terms of plant survival rates after 10 days of unwatering. Enzyme activity analysis indicated that OsABA8ox3 RNAi plants had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and less malondialdehyde (MDA) content than those of wild type when the plants were exposed to dehydration treatment, indicating a better anti-oxidative stress capability and less membrane damage. DNA microarray and real-time PCR analysis under dehydration treatment revealed that expressions of a group of stress/drought-related genes, i.e. LEA genes, were enhanced with higher transcript levels in OsABA8ox3 RNAi transgenic seedlings. We therefore conclude that that OsABA8ox3 gene plays an important role in controlling ABA level and drought stress resistance in rice. PMID:25647508

  2. Os2–Os4 Switch Controls DNA Knotting and Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ying; Romero, María J.; Salassa, Luca; Cheng, Xi; Habtemariam, Abraha; Clarkson, Guy J.; Prokes, Ivan; Rodger, Alison; Costantini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dinuclear trihydroxido‐bridged osmium–arene complexes are inert and biologically inactive, but we show here that linking dihydroxido‐bridged OsII–arene fragments by a bridging di‐imine to form a metallacycle framework results in strong antiproliferative activity towards cancer cells and distinctive knotting of DNA. The shortened spacer length reduces biological activity and stability in solution towards decomposition to biologically inactive dimers. Significant differences in behavior toward plasmid DNA condensation are correlated with biological activity. PMID:27240103

  3. Reorganizing life: A qualitative study of fathers' lived experience in the 3 years subsequent to the very preterm birth of their child.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Pia; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a study that is following eight Swedish fathers of very preterm children using qualitative interviews. The aim was to illuminate fathers' lived experience of the 3 years since the birth of their very preterm child using a hermeneutic phenomenological method. The fathers described their lived experience as a process of reorganizing life, which constituted the overarching theme. They described a journey from the past to the present in which they adapted ordinary family life. The sub-themes identified were struggling to endure, experiencing empowerment, and building a secure base. The results may serve as a basis for neonatal staff to optimize care for both fathers and mothers during the child's hospitalization, as well as subsequent to their discharge. PMID:24239685

  4. Evolution of a filmless digital imaging and communications in medicine-conformant picture archiving and communications system: design issues and lessons learned over the last 3 years.

    PubMed

    Henri, C J; Cox, R D; Rubin, R; Bret, P M; Couch, G G

    1999-05-01

    This presentation describes our experience and lessons learned over the first 3 years of developing and operating a filmless picture archiving and communications system (PACS) for all computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine studies in our hospital. The PACS conforms to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard and includes a sophisticated Worldwide Web (WWW)-based interface to complement the regular DICOM services. The PACS has undergone many design modifications from its inception, which have addressed performance, functionality, support, and maintenance issues. The lessons we have learned through making these modifications are described here and may prove to be helpful to anyone planning to deploy a PACS of their own. PMID:10342204

  5. A Cross-sectional Study on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and General Psychiatric Morbidity Among Adult Survivors 3 Years After the Wenchuan Earthquake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Duan, Guangfeng; Xu, Qin; Jia, Zhaobao; Bai, Zhengyang; Liu, Weizhi; Pan, Xiao; Tian, Wenhua

    2015-11-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake, a large number of studies have focused on postearthquake psychological disorders among survivors; however, most of these studies were conducted within a relatively short period. This study was conducted to examine the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general psychiatric morbidity among adult survivors 3 years after the Wenchuan earthquake, China. Through a multistage systematic sampling approach, a cross-sectional survey of 360 participants, 18 years or older, was conducted. The prevalence of PTSD and general psychiatric morbidity was 10.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed significant predictors for PTSD, including female gender and having felt guilt concerning someone's death or injury. Significant predictors for general psychiatric morbidity included unmarried status and having been in serious danger. These results suggest that mental health services should be continuously available to earthquake survivors. PMID:26316500

  6. A randomised clinical trial on the influence of splinted and unsplinted oral implants in mandibular overdenture therapy. A 3-year report.

    PubMed

    Naert, I E; Gizani, S; Vuylsteke, M; van Steenberghe, D

    1997-06-01

    A randomised clinical trial was performed to investigate whether there is a need or advantage to splint two implants in the mandible retaining a hinging overdenture. Furthermore, patient satisfaction was evaluated for different attachment systems retaining the overdenture. Thirty-six edentulous patients were randomised into three groups of equal size and treated with either magnets, ball attachments or straight bars (reference group). After 3 years of observation no implants were lost in any of the groups. Besides, no statistically significant differences were noted for the peri-implant outcome. Although the bar group presented the highest retention force, the general satisfaction of the patients in the three groups did not differ. The patients with bar retentions showed less prosthetic complications of the retention elements but more at the level of the denture-supporting mucosa. Finally, the clinical outcome of all groups confirms that overdenture treatment demands regular controls with limited time intervals. PMID:9552823

  7. Atopic allergy and chronic inflammation of the oral mucosa in a 3-year-old boy after heart transplantation – diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Machura, Edyta; Chodór, Beata; Pindycka-Piaszczyńska, Małgorzata; Chrobak, Ewelina; Białkowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have been observing an increased proportion of atopic diseases in children after solid organ transplantation. The pathogenesis of post-transplantation allergy is not completely understood and probably involves several factors, including immunosuppressive therapy. In this paper we present a case of 3-year old boy, after orthotopic heart transplantation at 6 months of age, with symptoms of food allergy associated with atopic dermatitis and changes in the orofacial area. The mentioned symptoms and elevated levels of total and specific IgE occurred with a year of transplant. Because of failure to achieve remission after typical allergy therapy we suspected that the reason of allergy in this case can be immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:26336506

  8. Predictive Effects of Mother and Peer Influences on Increases in Adolescent Eating Disorder Risk Factors and Symptoms: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Linville, Deanna; Stice, Eric; Gau, Jeff; O'Neil, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relation of maternal and peer attitudes and behaviors to changes in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms in adolescent females. Method We tested whether maternal and peer eating attitudes, behaviors, and deficits in social support at baseline predicted subsequent increases in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms among 483 late adolescent females followed over 3 years. Results Data provide partial support for hypotheses, as eating disorder risk factors and symptoms increased over time and maternal thin ideal internalization significantly predicted a future increases in adolescent bulimic symptoms. There were no significant predictors of adolescent thin ideal internalization or body dissatisfaction. Discussion Findings only partially support the hypothesis that unhealthy attitudes and behaviors of mothers increase risk for eating disorder symptoms in their late adolescent daughters. These results underscore why eating disorder prevention programs should be based on risk factor research that has used prospective and rigorous designs. PMID:21344465

  9. Acting and planning on the basis of a false belief: its effects on 3-year-old children's reasoning about their own false beliefs.

    PubMed

    Atance, Cristina M; O'Neill, Daniela K

    2004-11-01

    This study examined 3-year-olds' explanations for actions of theirs that were premised on a false belief. In Experiment 1, children stated what they thought was inside a crayon box. After stating "crayons," they went to retrieve some paper to draw on. Children were then shown that the box contained candles and were asked to (a) state their initial belief and (b) explain their action of getting paper. Children who were unable to retrieve their false belief were unable to correctly explain their action. Experiments 2 and 3 ruled out several alternative interpretations for these findings. In Experiment 4, children planned and acted on their false belief. Again, children who were unable to retrieve their false belief were unable to correctly explain their action. PMID:15535750

  10. Extensive ameloblastic fibroma of the mandibula in a female adult patient: A case report with a follow-up of 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Tozoglu, Sinan; Hatipoglu, Mukerrem; Aytekin, Zeliha; Gurer, Elif Inanc

    2016-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibroma (AF) is rare benign odontogenic tumour which usually occurs in the first two decades of life. It can occur either the mandible or maxilla but it is most frequently found in the posterior region of the mandible. Treatment of AF in usual is a conservative approach, such as enucleation and curettage but the aggressive lesions require a radical approach. A more radical approach should be considered in older patients who have likely high recurrence tendency. This report describes a case of AF in a 38-year-old female patient identified during a routine radiographic exam. Tomographic examination through three-dimensional reconstruction indicated vestibular fenestration of the cortical bone, with involvement of lingual cortical bone as the lession extended to the posterior region. We removed the tumor under local anesthesia. In this case patient has continued to be followed frequently and has been disease-free for 3 years. PMID:27011753

  11. Project Teaches Students to Diagnose an Ailing Windows OS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Baijan

    2007-01-01

    Troubleshooting a corrupted Windows operating system (OS) is a must-learn experience for computer technology students. To teach OS troubleshooting, the simplest approach involves introducing the available tools followed by the "how-to's." But how does a teacher teach his or her students to apply their knowledge in real-life scenarios and help them…

  12. Abnormality in glutamine–glutamate cycle in the cerebrospinal fluid of cognitively intact elderly individuals with major depressive disorder: a 3-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, K; Bruno, D; Nierenberg, J; Marmar, C R; Zetterberg, H; Blennow, K; Pomara, N

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), common in the elderly, is a risk factor for dementia. Abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) have a key role in the pathophysiology of depression. This study examined whether depression was associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of NMDA-R neurotransmission-associated amino acids in cognitively intact elderly individuals with MDD and age- and gender-matched healthy controls. CSF was obtained from 47 volunteers (MDD group, N=28; age- and gender-matched comparison group, N=19) at baseline and 3-year follow-up (MDD group, N=19; comparison group, N=17). CSF levels of glutamine, glutamate, glycine, l-serine and d-serine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. CSF levels of amino acids did not differ across MDD and comparison groups. However, the ratio of glutamine to glutamate was significantly higher at baseline in subjects with MDD than in controls. The ratio decreased in individuals with MDD over the 3-year follow-up, and this decrease correlated with a decrease in the severity of depression. No correlations between absolute amino-acid levels and clinical variables were observed, nor were correlations between amino acids and other biomarkers (for example, amyloid-β42, amyloid-β40, and total and phosphorylated tau protein) detected. These results suggest that abnormalities in the glutamine–glutamate cycle in the communication between glia and neurons may have a role in the pathophysiology of depression in the elderly. Furthermore, the glutamine/glutamate ratio in CSF may be a state biomarker for depression. PMID:26926880

  13. Functional and Radiological Outcome of Schatzker type V and VI Tibial Plateau Fracture Treatment with Dual Plates with Minimum 3 years follow-up: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Suri, Harpreet Singh; Gangrade, Kewal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High energy intra-articular fractures involving the tibial plateau causes various problems related to management like wound dehiscence, severe comminution leading to malalignment and delayed complications like varus collapse, implant failure and arthritis of knee joint. Aim This study was done to determine functional, radiological outcome and the complications of Schatzker V and VI tibial plateau fractures treated with bipillar plating with dual plates with a regular follow-up of atleast 3 years. Materials and Methods Total 34 cases of tibial plateau fracture type V and VI treated with dual plating were studied from January 2011 to December 2013 in KIMS Hospital were followed for minimum of 3 years. The patients were operated through an anterolateral approach for lateral plate and a medial column plate was put through a minimally invasive medial approach or an open posteromedial approach. Results Total 34 patients were evaluated postoperatively thoroughly for functional outcome using The Knee Society Score and radiological outcomes by Modified Rasmussen Assessment criteria which showed 29 patients (85.29%) had excellent and 5 patients (14.71%) had good objective knee society score. 24 patients (70.59%) had excellent, 8 patients (23.53%) had good and 1patient (2.94%) were each of poor and fair functional knee society score. Eleven patients (32.35%) had excellent, 21patients (61.76%) had good and 2 patients (5.88%) had fair radiological outcome. Conclusion We conclude that open reduction and internal fixation of high-energy tibial plateau fractures with dual plates via 2 incisions gives excellent to good functional outcome with minimal soft tissue complications. Thus, a minimally invasive approach should be used which helps in preventing soft tissue problems and helps in early wound healing. Fixation done by bipillar plating is important for early mobilization of knee joint. Early mobilization leads to better range of movements and thereby better

  14. A 3-year follow-up study of β-cell function in patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shaoling; Meng, Xiaomei; Wang, Shuyan; Ren, Ruizhen; Hou, Weikai; Huang, Kuixiang; Shi, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance and reduced β-cell glucose sensitivity are present in patients with type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we investigated the changes in β-cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes during a 3-year follow-up study. A total of 48 patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes (EOD) and 55 patients with late-onset type 2 diabetes (LOD) were enrolled. Weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure and plasma levels of lipids, glucose, fasting serum C-peptide (CPR0) and serum C-peptide 6 min after glucagon stimulation (CPR6) were measured. In addition, islet β-cell secretory activity was detected. Subjects with EOD had lower Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), fasting CPR0, CPR6 and greater glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG) compared with subjects with LOD. CPR0, CPR6 and TG were decreased in both EOD and LOD groups 3 years later. The ratio of β-cell function failure was 29.17 and 10.91% in the EOD and LOD groups, respectively, and there was significant difference between the two groups. A positive correlation was identified between the CPR0 and waist-hip ratio, HbA1c in the EOD group. A similar positive correlation was observed between CPR0 and BMI in the LOD group. Collectively, islet β-cell function has declined in patients with EOD, and this change may be more evident when compared with those with LOD. PMID:27446326

  15. Relationship between working-memory network function and substance use: a 3-year longitudinal fMRI study in heavy cannabis users and controls.

    PubMed

    Cousijn, Janna; Vingerhoets, Wilhelmina A M; Koenders, Laura; de Haan, Lieuwe; van den Brink, Wim; Wiers, Reinout W; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2014-03-01

    Deficient executive functions play an important role in the development of addiction. Working-memory may therefore be a powerful predictor of the course of drug use, but chronic substance use may also impair working-memory. The aim of this 3-year longitudinal neuro-imaging study was to investigate the relationship between substance use (e.g. alcohol, cannabis, nicotine, illegal psychotropic drugs) and working-memory network function over time in heavy cannabis users and controls. Forty-nine participants performed an n-back working-memory task at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. At follow-up, there were 22 current heavy cannabis users, 4 abstinent heavy cannabis users and 23 non-cannabis-using controls. Tensor-independent component analysis (Tensor-ICA) was used to investigate individual differences in working-memory network functionality over time. Within the group of cannabis users, cannabis-related problems remained stable, whereas alcohol-related problems, nicotine dependence and illegal psychotropic substance use increased over time. At both measurements, behavioral performance and network functionality during the n-back task did not differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. Although n-back accuracy improved, working-memory network function remained stable over time. Within the group of cannabis users, working-memory network functionality was not associated with substance use. These results suggest that sustained moderate to heavy levels of cannabis, nicotine, alcohol and illegal psychotropic substance use do not change working-memory network functionality. Moreover, baseline network functionality did not predict cannabis use and related problems three years later, warranting longitudinal studies in more chronic or dependent cannabis users. PMID:24589297

  16. Meniscus treatment and age associated with narrower radiographic joint space width 2 – 3 years after ACL reconstruction: Data from the MOON onsite cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Morgan H.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Fleming, Braden C.; Duryea, Jeffrey; Obuchowski, Nancy A.; Scaramuzza, Erica A.; Oksendahl, Heidi L.; Winalski, Carl S.; Duong, Carol L.; Huston, Laura J.; Parker, Richard D.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Andrish, Jack T.; Flanigan, David C.; Dunn, Warren R.; Reinke, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for radiographic signs of post-traumatic OA 2–3 years after ACL reconstruction through multivariable analysis of minimum joint space width (mJSW) differences in a specially designed nested cohort. Methods A nested cohort within the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network cohort included 262 patients (148 females, average age 20) injured in sport who underwent ACL reconstruction in a previously uninjured knee, were 35 or younger, and did not have ACL revision or contralateral knee surgery. mJSW on semi-flexed radiographs was measured in the medial compartment using a validated computerized method. A multivariable generalized linear model was constructed to assess mJSW difference between the ACL reconstructed and contralateral control knees while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results Unexpectedly, we found the mean mJSW was 0.35 mm wider in ACL reconstructed than in control knees (5.06 mm (95% CI 4.96 – 5.15 mm) versus 4.71 mm (95% CI 4.62 – 4.80 mm), p<0.001). However, ACL reconstructed knees with meniscectomy had narrower mJSW compared to contralateral normal knees by 0.64 mm (95% C.I. 0.38 – 0.90 mm) (p<0.001). Age (p<0.001) and meniscus repair (p=0.001) were also significantly associated with mJSW difference. Conclusion Semi-flexed radiographs can detect differences in mJSW between ACL reconstructed and contralateral normal knees 2–3 years following ACL reconstruction, and the unexpected wider mJSW in ACL reconstructed knees may represent the earliest manifestation of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and warrants further study. PMID:25559582

  17. A Case for Regular Aflatoxin Monitoring in Peanut Butter in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from a 3-Year Survey in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Samuel M C; Matumba, Limbikani; Kanenga, Kennedy; Siambi, Moses; Waliyar, Farid; Maruwo, Joseph; Monyo, Emmanuel S

    2016-05-01

    A 3-year comprehensive analysis of aflatoxin contamination in peanut butter was conducted in Zambia, sub-Saharan Africa. The study analyzed 954 containers of 24 local and imported peanut butter brands collected from shops in Chipata, Mambwe, Petauke, Katete, and Nyimba districts and also in Lusaka from 2012 to 2014. For analysis, a sample included six containers of a single brand, from the same processing batch number and the same shop. Each container was quantitatively analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in six replicates by using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; thus, aflatoxin contamination level of a given sample was derived from an average of 36 test values. Results showed that 73% of the brands tested in 2012 were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 130 μg/kg. In 2013, 80% of the brands were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 10,740 μg/kg. Compared with brand data from 2012 and 2013, fewer brands in 2014, i.e., 53%, had aflatoxin B1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 1,000 μg/kg. Of the eight brands tested repeatedly across the 3-year period, none consistently averaged ≤20 μg/kg. Our survey clearly demonstrates the regular occurrence of high levels of AF B1 in peanut butter in Zambia. Considering that some of the brands tested originated from neighboring countries such as Malawi, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, the current findings provide a sub-Saharan regional perspective regarding the safety of peanut butter. PMID:27296427

  18. Treatment of Patients with Obese Type 2 Diabetes with Tantalus-DIAMOND® Gastric Electrical Stimulation: Normal Triglycerides Predict Durable Effects for at Least 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Lebovitz, H E; Ludvik, B; Yaniv, I; Schwartz, T; Zelewski, M; Gutterman, D D

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of the present work are to evaluate long-term benefit of nonexcitatory gastric electrical stimulation (GES) by the DIAMOND(®) device on glycemic control and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral agents and to determine the magnitude of the modulating effects of fasting plasma triglyceride (FTG) levels on these effects of GES. Sixty one patients with type 2 diabetes [HbA1c > 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) to < 10.5% (91 mmol/mol)] were implanted with the DIAMOND(®) GES device and treated with meal-mediated antral electrical stimulation for up to 36 months. The effects of baseline HbA1c and FTG on glycemic control, body weight, and systolic blood pressure were measured. GES reduced mean HbA1c by 0.9% and body weight by 5.7%. The effects were greater in patients with normal fasting plasma triglycerides (NTG) as compared to those with hypertriglyceridemia. The mean decrease in HbA1c in patients with NTG averaged 1.1% and was durable over 3 years of follow-up. ANCOVA indicated that improvement in HbA1c was a function of both baseline FTG group (p = 0.02) and HbA1c (p = 0.001) and their interaction (p = 0.01). Marked weight loss (≥ 10%) was observed in a significant proportion of NTG patients by 12 months of treatment and persisted through the 3 years. GES improves glycemic control and reduces body weight by a triglyceride-dependent mechanism in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on oral agents. It is postulated that this is through a gut-brain interaction that modulates effects on the liver and pancreatic islets. PMID:25993254

  19. Deviant fMRI patterns of brain activity to speech in 2–3 year-old children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Courchesne, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Background A failure to develop normal language is one of the most common first signs that a toddler might be at risk for autism. Currently the neural bases underlying this failure to develop language are unknown. Methods In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was utilized to identify the brain regions involved in speech perception in 12 2–3 year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during natural sleep. We also recorded fMRI data from two typically developing control groups: a mental age-matched (MA) (n=11) and a chronological age-matched (CA) (n=12) group. During fMRI data acquisition, forward and backward speech stimuli were presented with intervening periods of no sound presentation. Results Direct statistical comparison between groups revealed significant differences in regions recruited to process speech. In comparison to their MA-matched controls, the ASD group showed reduced activity in an extended network of brain regions, which are recruited in typical early language acquisition. In comparison to their CA-matched controls, ASD participants showed greater activation primarily within right and medial frontal regions. Laterality analyses revealed a trend towards greater recruitment of right hemisphere regions in the ASD group and left hemisphere regions in the CA group during the forward speech condition. Furthermore, correlation analyses revealed a significant positive relationship between right hemisphere frontal and temporal activity to forward speech and receptive language skill. Conclusions These findings suggest that at 2–3 years, children with ASD may be on a deviant developmental trajectory characterized by a greater recruitment of right hemisphere regions during speech perception. PMID:18672231

  20. Metabolomic pattern analysis after mediterranean diet intervention in a nondiabetic population: a 1- and 3-year follow-up in the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa; Llorach, Rafael; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Lupianez-Barbero, Ascension; Estruch, Ramón; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MD) is considered a dietary pattern with beneficial effects on human health. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an MD on urinary metabolome by comparing subjects at 1 and 3 years of follow-up, after an MD supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil (MD + EVOO) or nuts (MD + Nuts), to those on advice to follow a control low-fat diet (LFD). Ninety-eight nondiabetic volunteers were evaluated, using metabolomic approaches, corresponding to MD + EVOO (n = 41), MD + Nuts (n = 27), or LFD (n = 30) groups. The (1)H NMR urinary profiles were examined at baseline and after 1 and 3 years of follow-up. Multivariate data analysis (OSC-PLS-DA and HCA) methods were used to identify the potential biomarker discriminating groups, exhibiting a urinary metabolome separation between MD groups against baseline and LFD. Results revealed that the most prominent hallmarks concerning MD groups were related to the metabolism of carbohydrates (3-hydroxybutyrate, citrate, and cis-aconitate), creatine, creatinine, amino acids (proline, N-acetylglutamine, glycine, branched-chain amino acids, and derived metabolites), lipids (oleic and suberic acids), and microbial cometabolites (phenylacetylglutamine and p-cresol). Otherwise, hippurate, trimethylamine-N-oxide, histidine and derivates (methylhistidines, carnosine, and anserine), and xanthosine were predominant after LFD. The application of NMR-based metabolomics enabled the classification of individuals regarding their dietary pattern and highlights the potential of this approach for evaluating changes in the urinary metabolome at different time points of follow-up in response to specific dietary interventions. PMID:25353684

  1. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Zhilin; Blair, Richard G.; Orlovskaya, Nina; Cullen, David A.; Andrew Payzant, E.

    2014-11-15

    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB{sub 2}-type OsB{sub 2} ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched {sup 11}B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline {sup 11}B powder was used as a raw material, only Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to −225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB{sub 2}+3O{sub 2}→2Os+2B{sub 2}O{sub 3} took place due to presence of O{sub 2}/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB{sub 2} lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276–426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB{sub 2} lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O{sub 2}, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice

  2. Two-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy within a single day combined with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: single institution experience and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junyang; Kaidu, Motoki; Sasamoto, Ryuta; Ayukawa, Fumio; Yamana, Nobuko; Sato, Hiraku; Tanaka, Kensuke; Kawaguchi, Gen; Ohta, Atsushi; Maruyama, Katsuya; Abe, Eisuke; Kasahara, Takashi; Nishiyama, Tsutomu; Tomita, Yoshihiko; Aoyama, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the outcomes of treatment for patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) treated with 3D conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) followed by two-fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy within a single day (2-fr.-HDR-BT/day) at a single institution. A total of 156 consecutive Asian males (median age, 67 years) were enrolled. To compare our findings with those of other studies, we analyzed our results using the D'Amico classification, assigning the patients to low- (n =5; 3.2%), intermediate- (n =36; 23.1%) and high-risk (n =115; 73.7%) groups (Stage T3 PCa patients were classified as high-risk). One patient in the D'Amico low-risk group (20%), 13 intermediate-risk patients (36.1%) and 99 high-risk patients (86.1%) underwent androgen deprivation therapy. We administered a prescription dose of 39 Gy in 13 fractions of 3D-CRT combined with 18 Gy of HDR-BT in two 9-Gy fractions delivered within a single day. We did not distinguish between risk groups in determining the prescription dose. The median follow-up period was 38 months. Of the 156 patients, one died from primary disease and five died from other diseases. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 100%, 100% and 93.7%, and the 3-year ‘biochemical no evidence of disease (bNED)’ rates were 100%, 100% and 96.9% for the D'Amico low-, intermediate- and high-risk groups, respectively. No patient developed ≥ Grade 3 early toxicity. The Grade 3 late genitourinary toxicity rate was 2.6%, and no ≥ Grade 3 late gastrointestinal toxicity occurred. The efficacy and safety of this study were satisfactory, and longer-term follow-up is necessary. PMID:26983988

  3. Phosphate transporters OsPHT1;9 and OsPHT1;10 are involved in phosphate uptake in rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We characterized the function of two rice phosphate (Pi) transporters: OsPHT1;9 (OsPT9) and OsPHT1;10 (OsPT10). OsPT9 and OsPT10 were expressed in the root epidermis, root hairs, and lateral roots, with the expression being specifically induced by Pi-starvation. In leaves, the expression of the two ...

  4. The Phosphate Transporter Gene OsPht1;8 Is Involved in Phosphate Homeostasis in Rice1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Hongfang; Ren, Hongyan; Gu, Mian; Zhao, Jianning; Sun, Shubin; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Jieyu; Wu, Ping; Xu, Guohua

    2011-01-01

    Plant phosphate transporters (PTs) are active in the uptake of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from the soil and its translocation within the plant. Here, we report on the biological properties and physiological roles of OsPht1;8 (OsPT8), one of the PTs belonging to the Pht1 family in rice (Oryza sativa). Expression of a β-glucuronidase and green fluorescent protein reporter gene driven by the OsPT8 promoter showed that OsPT8 is expressed in various tissue organs from roots to seeds independent of Pi supply. OsPT8 was able to complement a yeast Pi-uptake mutant and increase Pi accumulation of Xenopus laevis oocytes when supplied with micromolar 33Pi concentrations at their external solution, indicating that it has a high affinity for Pi transport. Overexpression of OsPT8 resulted in excessive Pi in both roots and shoots and Pi toxic symptoms under the high-Pi supply condition. In contrast, knockdown of OsPT8 by RNA interference decreased Pi uptake and plant growth under both high- and low-Pi conditions. Moreover, OsPT8 suppression resulted in an increase of phosphorus content in the panicle axis and in a decrease of phosphorus content in unfilled grain hulls, accompanied by lower seed-setting rate. Altogether, our data suggest that OsPT8 is involved in Pi homeostasis in rice and is critical for plant growth and development. PMID:21502185

  5. Overexpression of stress-inducible OsBURP16, the β subunit of polygalacturonase 1, decreases pectin content and cell adhesion and increases abiotic stress sensitivity in rice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanhuan; Ma, Yan; Chen, Na; Guo, Siyi; Liu, Huili; Guo, Xiaoyu; Chong, Kang; Xu, Yunyuan

    2014-05-01

    Polygalacturonase (PG), one of the hydrolases responsible for cell wall pectin degradation, is involved in organ consenescence and biotic stress in plants. PG1 is composed of a catalytic subunit, PG2, and a non-catalytic PG1β subunit. OsBURP16 belongs to the PG1β-like subfamily of BURP-family genes and encodes one putative PG1β subunit precursor in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Transcription of OsBURP16 is induced by cold, salinity and drought stresses, as well as by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Analysis of plant survival rates, relative ion leakage rates, accumulation levels of H2 O2 and water loss rates of leaves showed that overexpression of OsBURP16 enhanced sensitivity to cold, salinity and drought stresses compared with controls. Young leaves of Ubi::OsBURP16 transgenic plants showed reduced cell adhesion and increased cuticular transpiration rate. Mechanical strength measurement of Ubi::OsBURP16 plants showed that reduced force was required to break leaves as compared with wild type. Transgenic rice showed enhanced PG activity and reduced pectin content. All these results suggested that overexpression of OsBURP16 caused pectin degradation and affected cell wall integrity as well as transpiration rate, which decreased tolerance to abiotic stresses. PMID:24237159

  6. Rice nitrate transporter OsNPF2.4 functions in low-affinity acquisition and long-distance transport.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiudong; Fan, Xiaorong; Wei, Jia; Feng, Huimin; Qu, Hongye; Xie, Dan; Miller, Anthony J; Xu, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Plant proteins belonging to the NPF (formerly NRT1/PTR) family are well represented in every genome and function in transporting a wide variety of substrates. In this study, we showed that rice OsNPF2.4 is located in the plasma membrane and is expressed mainly in the epidermis, xylem parenchyma, and phloem companion cells. Functional analysis in oocytes showed that OsNPF2.4 is a pH-dependent, low-affinity NO₃⁻ transporter. Short-term (¹⁵NO₃⁻) influx rate, long-term NO₃⁻ acquisition by root, and upward transfer from root to shoot were decreased by disruption of OsNPF2.4 and increased by OsNPF2.4 overexpression under high NO₃⁻ supply. Moreover, the redistribution of NO₃⁻ in the mutants in comparison with the wild type from the oldest leaf to other organs, particularly to N-starved roots, was dramatically changed. Knockout of OsNPF2.4 decreased rice growth and potassium (K) concentration in xylem sap, root, culm, and sheath, but increased the shoot:root ratio of tissue K under higher NO₃⁻. We conclude that OsNPF2.4 functions in acquisition and long-distance transport of NO₃⁻ , and that altering its expression has an indirect effect on K recycling between the root and shoot. PMID:25332358

  7. Central Nervous System Lymphoma in a 3-Year-Old Male Suffering from a Severe Juvenile Xanthogranuloma – the Usefulness of Perfusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Weighted Imaging in the Diagnostics of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Neska-Matuszewska, Małgorzata; Zimny, Anna; Kałwak, Krzysztof; Sąsiadek, Marek J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas (PCNSLs) are rare, malignant brain tumors derived from lymphocytes B. Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytic cell disorder in children which mostly affects the skin. Rare fatalities have been reported in extracutaneous manifestation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method of choice in the diagnostics of all neoplastic CNS lesions. Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) allow for more detailed analysis of brain tumors including the rate of neoangiogenesis and cellularity. We presented a pediatric patient suffering from JXG with CNS involvement and the role of brain MRI including DWI and PWI in the evaluation of brain focal lesions. Case Report A 3-year-old male with severe JXG underwent two stem cell transplantations with a development of neurological complications. The patient underwent emergency CT and MRI which revealed a non-specific enhancing focal brain lesion. In DWI it showed restricted diffusion while PWI revealed low values of rCBV and the signal intensity curve returning above the baseline level. Advanced MRI techniques such as DWI and PWI suggested PCNSL. Stereotactic biopsy confirmed PCNSL due to Ebstein-Barr virus reactivation. Conclusions The use of advanced MRI sequences is important to differentiate brain lesions in pediatric patients. The use of PWI and DWI facilitated the diagnosis of PCNSL. It is important to remember that PCNSLs show a very typical pattern of changes visualized with MRI such as: usually strong homogenous enhancement, restricted diffusion and low perfusion. PMID:25624957

  8. Determination of osmium concentrations and (187)Os/(188)Os of crude oils and source rocks by coupling high-pressure, high-temperature digestion with sparging OsO(4) into a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

    2014-03-18

    The (187)Os/(188)Os ratio that is based on the β(-)-decay of (187)Re to (187)Os (t1/2 = 41.6 billion years) is widely used to investigate petroleum system processes. Despite its broad applicability to studies of hydrocarbon deposits worldwide, a suitable matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis does not exist. In this study, a method that enables Os isotope measurement of crude oil with in-line Os separation and purification from the sample matrix is proposed. The method to analyze Os concentration and (187)Os/(187)Os involves sample digestion under high pressure and high temperature using a high pressure asher (HPA-S, Anton Paar), sparging of volatile osmium tetroxide from the sample solution, and measurements using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). This methods significantly reduced the total procedural time compared to conventional Carius tube digestion followed by Os separation and purification using solvent extraction, microdistillation and N-TIMS analysis. The method yields Os concentration (28 ± 4 pg g(-1)) and (187)Os/(188)Os (1.62 ± 0.15) of commercially available crude oil reference material NIST 8505 (1 S.D., n = 6). The reference material NIST 8505 is homogeneous with respect to Os concentration at a test portion size of 0.2 g. Therefore, (187)Os/(188)Os composition and Os concentration of NIST 8505 can serve as a matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis. Data quality was assessed by repeated measurements of the USGS shale reference material SCo-1 (sample matrix similar to petroleum source rock) and the widely used Liquid Os Standard solution (LOsSt). The within-laboratory reproducibility of (187)Os/(188)Os for a 5 pg of LOsSt solution, analyzed with this method over a period of 12 months was ∼1.4% (1 S.D., n = 26), respectively. PMID:24552484

  9. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  10. A TinyOS-based wireless neural interface.

    PubMed

    Farshchi, Shahin; Mody, Istvan; Judy, Jack W

    2004-01-01

    The overlay of a neural interface upon a TinyOS-based sensing and communication platform is described. The system amplifies, digitally encodes, and transmits two EEG channels of neural signals from an un-tethered subject to a remote gateway, which routes the signals to a client PC. This work demonstrates the viability of the TinyOS-based sensor technology as a foundation for chronic remote biological monitoring applications, and thus provides an opportunity to create a system that can leverage from the frequent networking and communications advancements being made by the global TinyOS-development community. PMID:17271263

  11. A TinyOS-enabled MICA2-based wireless neural interface.

    PubMed

    Farshchi, Shahin; Nuyujukian, Paul H; Pesterev, Aleksey; Mody, Istvan; Judy, Jack W

    2006-07-01

    Existing approaches used to develop compact low-power multichannel wireless neural recording systems range from creating custom-integrated circuits to assembling commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) PC-based components. Custom-integrated-circuit designs yield extremely compact and low-power devices at the expense of high development and upgrade costs and turn-around times, while assembling COTS-PC-technology yields high performance at the expense of large system size and increased power consumption. To achieve a balance between implementing an ultra-compact custom-fabricated neural transceiver and assembling COTS-PC-technology, an overlay of a neural interface upon the TinyOS-based MICA2 platform is described. The system amplifies, digitally encodes, and transmits neural signals real-time at a rate of 9.6 kbps, while consuming less than 66 mW of power. The neural signals are received and forwarded to a client PC over a serial connection. This data rate can be divided for recording on up to 6 channels, with a resolution of 8 bits/sample. This work demonstrates the strengths and limitations of the TinyOS-based sensor technology as a foundation for chronic remote biological monitoring applications and, thus, provides an opportunity to create a system that can leverage from the frequent networking and communications advancements being made by the global TinyOS-development community. PMID:16830946

  12. Expression of OsCAS (Calcium-Sensing Receptor) in an Arabidopsis Mutant Increases Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Rongrong; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaS), which is localized in the chloroplasts, is a crucial regulator of extracellular calcium-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis. It has homologs in Oryza sativa and other plants. These sequences all have a rhodanese-like protein domain, which has been demonstrated to be associated with specific stress conditions. In this study, we cloned the Oryza sativa calcium-sensing receptor gene (OsCAS) and demonstrated that OsCAS could sense an increase of extracellular Ca2+ concentration and mediate an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. The OsCAS gene was transformed into an Arabidopsis CaS knockout mutant (Salk) and overexpressed in the transgenic plants. OsCAS promoted stomatal closure. We screened homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis plants and determined physiological indices such as the oxidative damage biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA), relative membrane permeability (RMP), proline content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, after 21 days of drought treatment. Our results revealed lower RMP and MDA contents and a higher Proline content in transgenic Arabidopsis plants after drought stress, whereas the opposite was observed in Salk plants. With respect to chlorophyll fluorescence, the electron transport rate and effective PSII quantum yield decreased in all lines under drought stress; however, in the transgenic plants these two parameters changed fewer and were higher than those in wild-type and Salk plants. The quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation and nonregulated energy dissipation in PSII were higher in Salk plants, whereas these values were lower in the transgenic plants than in the wild type under drought stress. The above results suggest that the transgenic plants showed better resistance to drought stress by decreasing damage to the cell membrane, increasing the amount of osmoprotectants, and maintaining a relatively high photosynthetic capacity. In conclusion, OsCAS is an extracellular calcium-sensing receptor

  13. Expression of OsCAS (Calcium-Sensing Receptor) in an Arabidopsis Mutant Increases Drought Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Xu, Mengmeng; Wei, Rongrong; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaS), which is localized in the chloroplasts, is a crucial regulator of extracellular calcium-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis. It has homologs in Oryza sativa and other plants. These sequences all have a rhodanese-like protein domain, which has been demonstrated to be associated with specific stress conditions. In this study, we cloned the Oryza sativa calcium-sensing receptor gene (OsCAS) and demonstrated that OsCAS could sense an increase of extracellular Ca2+ concentration and mediate an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. The OsCAS gene was transformed into an Arabidopsis CaS knockout mutant (Salk) and overexpressed in the transgenic plants. OsCAS promoted stomatal closure. We screened homozygous transgenic Arabidopsis plants and determined physiological indices such as the oxidative damage biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA), relative membrane permeability (RMP), proline content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, after 21 days of drought treatment. Our results revealed lower RMP and MDA contents and a higher Proline content in transgenic Arabidopsis plants after drought stress, whereas the opposite was observed in Salk plants. With respect to chlorophyll fluorescence, the electron transport rate and effective PSII quantum yield decreased in all lines under drought stress; however, in the transgenic plants these two parameters changed fewer and were higher than those in wild-type and Salk plants. The quantum yield of regulated energy dissipation and nonregulated energy dissipation in PSII were higher in Salk plants, whereas these values were lower in the transgenic plants than in the wild type under drought stress. The above results suggest that the transgenic plants showed better resistance to drought stress by decreasing damage to the cell membrane, increasing the amount of osmoprotectants, and maintaining a relatively high photosynthetic capacity. In conclusion, OsCAS is an extracellular calcium-sensing receptor

  14. Sources of osmium to the modern oceans: New evidence from the 190Pt-186Os system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniel, D.K.; Walker, R.J.; Hemming, S.R.; Horan, M.F.; Becker, H.; Grauch, R.I.

    2004-01-01

    High precision Os isotope analysis of young marine manganese nodules indicate that whereas the composition of modern seawater is radiogenic with respect to 187Os/188Os, it has 186Os/188Os that is within uncertainty of the chondritic value. Marine Mn nodule compositions thus indicate that the average continental source of Os to modern seawater had long-term high Re/Os compared to Pt/Os. Analyses of loess and freshwater Mn nodules support existing evidence that average upper continental crust (UCC) has resolvably suprachondritic 186Os/188Os, as well as radiogenic 187Os/188Os. Modeling the composition of seawater as a two-component mixture of oceanic/cosmic Os with chondritic Os compositions and continentally-derived Os demonstrates that, insofar as estimates for the composition of average UCC are accurate, congruently weathered average UCC cannot be the sole continental source of Os to seawater. Our analysis of four Cambrian black shales confirm that organic-rich sediments can have 187Os/188Os ratios that are much higher than average UCC, but 186Os/188Os compositions that are generally between those of chondrites and average-UCC. Preferential weathering of black shales can result in dissolved Os discharged to the ocean basins that has a much lower 186Os/188Os than does average upper crust. Modeling the available data demonstrates that augmentation of estimated average UCC compositions with less than 0.1% additional black shale and 1.4% additional ultramafic rock can produce a continental end-member Os isotopic composition that satisfies the requirements imposed by the marine Mn nodule data. The interplay of these two sources provides a mechanism by which the 187Os/188Os of seawater can change as sources and weathering conditions change, yet seawater 186Os/188Os varies only minimally. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Weathering steel as a potential source for metal contamination: Metal dissolution during 3-year of field exposure in a urban coastal site.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Simona; Vassura, Ivano; Chiavari, Cristina; Martini, Carla; Bignozzi, Maria C; Passarini, Fabrizio; Bernardi, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Surface and building runoff can significantly contribute to the total metal loading in urban runoff waters, with potential adverse effects on the receiving ecosystems. The present paper analyses the corrosion-induced metal dissolution (Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu) from weathering steel (Cor-Ten A) with or without artificial patinas, exposed for 3 years in unsheltered conditions at a marine urban site (Rimini, Italy). The influence of environmental parameters, atmospheric pollutants and surface finish on the release of dissolved metals in rain was evaluated, also by means of multivariate analysis (two-way and three-way Principal Component Analysis). In addition, surface and cross-section investigations were performed so as to monitor the patina evolution. The contribution provided by weathering steel runoff to the dissolved Fe, Mn and Ni loading at local level is not negligible and pre-patination treatments seem to worsen the performance of weathering steel in term of metal release. Metal dissolution is strongly affected by extreme events and shows seasonal variations, with different influence of seasonal parameters on the behaviour of bare or artificially patinated steel, suggesting that climate changes could significantly influence metal release from this alloy. Therefore, it is essential to perform a long-term monitoring of the performance, the durability and the environmental impact of weathering steel. PMID:26995453

  16. Voice onset time of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers

    PubMed Central

    FABIANO-SMITH, LEAH; BUNTA, FERENC

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English. Twenty-four 3-year-olds participated in this study (8 bilingual Spanish–English, 8 monolingual Spanish and 8 monolingual English). The VOT productions of /p/ and /k/ in syllable-initial stressed singleton position were compared across participants. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed to examine differences (1) between monolinguals and bilinguals and (2) between English and Spanish. The main findings of the study were that monolingual and bilingual children generally differed on VOT in English, but not in Spanish. No statistically significant differences were found between the Spanish and the English VOT of the bilingual children, but the VOT values did differ significantly for monolingual Spanish-versus monolingual English-speaking participants. Our findings were interpreted in terms of Flege’s Speech Learning Model, finding possible evidence for equivalence classification. PMID:21787142

  17. Monitoring and Source Tracking of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Adjacent to Swine Production Facilities over a 3-Year Period▿

    PubMed Central

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I. G.; Oliver, H. D.; Yannarell, A. C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R. I.; Mackie, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. PMID:17545324

  18. Elevated frequency of sister chromatid exchanges of lymphocytes in sarin-exposed victims of the Tokyo sarin disaster 3 years after the event.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Hirata, Yukiyo; Kawada, Tomoyuki; Minami, Masayasu

    2004-09-01

    We previously reported that the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) among victims of the Tokyo subway sarin disaster was significantly higher than that of controls 2-3 months after the disaster. It has been reported that the victims were also exposed to the by-products generated during sarin synthesis, i.e., diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), diethyl methylphosphonate (DEMP) and N,N-diethylaniline (DEA) during the disaster and we previously found that DIMP, DEMP and DEA induced a significant SCE increase in human lymphocytes in vitro. To monitor the genetic aftereffects of the sarin exposure, SCEs of peripheral blood lymphocytes were measured in fire fighters and police officers involved in the disaster 3 years after the event. We found that the frequency of SCEs was still significantly higher in the exposed subjects than the controls, suggesting a risk of the genetic aftereffects of the sarin exposure. We further found a significant positive correlation between the frequency of SCEs and the inhibition of serum cholinesterase activity in the exposed subjects, suggesting that the elevated frequency of SCEs is related to the sarin exposure. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in natural killer activity between the exposed and the controls. PMID:15297034

  19. The shadow of the future: 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, adjust their sharing in anticipation of reciprocation.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation can be maintained if individuals reciprocate favors over repeated interactions. However, it is not known when during development the psychological capacities to engage in contingent reciprocation emerge. Therefore, we tested when children begin to differentiate between reciprocal and nonreciprocal interactions in their resource sharing. We compared the sharing behavior of 3- and 5-year-olds in two situations. In an experimental condition, the child and a puppet partner alternated the roles of donor and recipient. In a control condition, the puppet had no opportunity to reciprocate. Results showed that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, increased their sharing toward a potential reciprocator. In addition, we found that children's ability to delay gratification was positively related to their tendency to share in both conditions. These findings show that reciprocity in anticipation of repeated interactions emerges during middle childhood. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of the ability to delay gratification as a prerequisite for children's sharing. We discuss how children's emerging cognitive abilities enable reciprocal sharing in situations where a child must react to or anticipate a partner's behavior. PMID:25240748

  20. The Impact of Body-Part-Naming Training on the Accuracy of Imitative Performances in 2- to 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-01-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training that enabled them to (i) tact the target locations on their own and the experimenter's bodies or (ii) respond accurately as listeners to the experimenter's tacts of the target locations. Prompts for on-task naming of target body parts were also provided later in the procedure. In Experiment 1, only tact training followed by listener probes were conducted; in Experiment 2, tacting was trained first and listener behavior second, whereas in Experiment 3 listener training preceded tact training. Both tact and listener training resulted in emergence of naming together with significant and large improvements in the children's matching performances; this was true for each child and across most target gestures. The present series of experiments provides evidence that naming —the most basic form of self-instructional behavior—may be one means of establishing untrained matching as measured in generalized imitation tests. This demonstration has a bearing on our interpretation of imitation reported in the behavior analytic, cognitive developmental, and comparative literature. PMID:22084492

  1. Concerns of Indian Mothers with Children Having Severe-to-Profound Hearing Impairment at Diagnosis and after 1–3 Years of Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rout, Nachiketa; Khanna, Megha

    2012-01-01

    Counseling training in graduate programs continues to be underrepresented. If parental queries are not addressed adequately, they keep visiting one doctor after another. Objective. The aim of the study is to identify maternal needs of children with hearing impairment at two stages of habilitation, that is, just after diagnosis (group I) and after receiving 1 to 3 years of language therapy (group II). Methods. Two groups of mothers were asked to speak their queries about aural habilitation of their children. Queries were recorded, summarized, and categorized as per their priorities. Results. Group I mothers wanted to know about how the child would learn to listen and speak (45%), causes of hearing loss (33.7%), understanding the ear and hearing (10.2%), understanding the audiogram (7%), and coping with emotional aspects of hearing loss (5%), while group II parents had priorities concerning speech development (24.5%) followed by child independence and employment (17.3%), schooling (15.6%), problem behaviors (11%), amplification device (9.4%), duration of therapy (8%), future of the child (8%), and questions about how can my child get adjusted to the “normal” world (6%). Conclusions. Culture- and language-specific materials to explain these issues need to be developed. PMID:22919498

  2. Full-mouth rehabilitation with monolithic CAD/CAM-fabricated hybrid and all-ceramic materials: A case report and 3-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Selz, Christian F; Vuck, Alexander; Guess, Petra C

    2016-02-01

    Esthetic full-mouth rehabilitation represents a great challenge for clinicians and dental technicians. Computer-aided design/ computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology and novel ceramic materials in combination with adhesive cementation provide a reliable, predictable, and economic workflow. Polychromatic feldspathic CAD/CAM ceramics that are specifically designed for anterior indications result in superior esthetics, whereas novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramics provide sufficient fracture resistance and adsorption of the occlusal load in posterior areas. Screw-retained monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate crowns (ie, hybrid abutment crowns) represent a reliable and time- and cost-efficient prosthetic implant solution. This case report details a CAD/CAM approach to the full-arch rehabilitation of a 65-year-old patient with toothand implant-supported restorations and provides an overview of the applied CAD/CAM materials and the utilized chairside intraoral scanner. The esthetics, functional occlusion, and gingival and peri-implant tissues remained stable over a follow-up period of 3 years. No signs of fractures within the restorations were observed. PMID:26417616

  3. 3-Year-Old Children Selectively Generalize Object Functions Following a Demonstration from a Linguistic In-group Member: Evidence from the Phenomenon of Scale Error.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Katalin; Elekes, Fruzsina; Pető, Réka; Peres, Krisztina; Király, Ildikó

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated 3-year-old children's learning processes about object functions. We built on children's tendency to commit scale errors with tools to explore whether they would selectively endorse object functions from a linguistic in-group over an out-group model. Participants (n = 37) were presented with different object sets, and a model speaking either in their native or a foreign language demonstrated how to use the presented tools. In the test phase, children received the object sets with two modifications: the original tool was replaced by one that was too big to achieve the goal but was otherwise identical, and another tool was added to the set that looked different but was appropriately scaled for goal attainment. Children in the Native language condition were significantly more likely to commit scale errors - that is, choose the over-sized tool - than children in the Foreign language condition (48 vs. 30%). We propose that these results provide insight into the characteristics of human-specific learning processes by showing that children are more likely to generalize object functions to a category of artifacts following a demonstration from an in-group member. PMID:27445925

  4. The impact of body-part-naming training on the accuracy of imitative performances in 2- to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-11-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training that enabled them to (i) tact the target locations on their own and the experimenter's bodies or (ii) respond accurately as listeners to the experimenter's tacts of the target locations. Prompts for on-task naming of target body parts were also provided later in the procedure. In Experiment 1, only tact training followed by listener probes were conducted; in Experiment 2, tacting was trained first and listener behavior second, whereas in Experiment 3 listener training preceded tact training. Both tact and listener training resulted in emergence of naming together with significant and large improvements in the children's matching performances; this was true for each child and across most target gestures. The present series of experiments provides evidence that naming--the most basic form of self-instructional behavior--may be one means of establishing untrained matching as measured in generalized imitation tests. This demonstration has a bearing on our interpretation of imitation reported in the behavior analytic, cognitive developmental, and comparative literature. PMID:22084492

  5. 3-Year-Old Children Selectively Generalize Object Functions Following a Demonstration from a Linguistic In-group Member: Evidence from the Phenomenon of Scale Error

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Katalin; Elekes, Fruzsina; Pető, Réka; Peres, Krisztina; Király, Ildikó

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated 3-year-old children’s learning processes about object functions. We built on children’s tendency to commit scale errors with tools to explore whether they would selectively endorse object functions from a linguistic in-group over an out-group model. Participants (n = 37) were presented with different object sets, and a model speaking either in their native or a foreign language demonstrated how to use the presented tools. In the test phase, children received the object sets with two modifications: the original tool was replaced by one that was too big to achieve the goal but was otherwise identical, and another tool was added to the set that looked different but was appropriately scaled for goal attainment. Children in the Native language condition were significantly more likely to commit scale errors – that is, choose the over-sized tool – than children in the Foreign language condition (48 vs. 30%). We propose that these results provide insight into the characteristics of human-specific learning processes by showing that children are more likely to generalize object functions to a category of artifacts following a demonstration from an in-group member. PMID:27445925

  6. Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Varvin, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    Response to mental health treatment varies highly among refugee patients. Research has not established which factors relate to differences in outcome. This study is a follow-up of Opaas and Hartmann's (2013) Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Exner, 2003) pretreatment study of traumatized refugees, where 2 RIM principal components, Trauma Response and Reality Testing, were found descriptive of participants' trauma-related personality functioning. This study's aims were to examine relationships of the RIM components with measures of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, quality of life (QOL), employment, and exile language skills throughout 3 years. We found that impaired Reality Testing was related to more mental health symptoms and poorer QOL; furthermore, individuals with adequate Reality Testing improved in posttraumatic stress symptoms the first year and retained their improvement. Individuals with impaired Reality Testing deteriorated the first year and improved only slightly the next 2 years. The results of this study imply that traumatized refugee patients with impaired Reality Testing might need specific treatment approaches. Research follow-up periods should be long enough to detect changes. The reality testing impairment revealed by the RIM, mainly perceptual in quality, might not be easily detected by diagnostic interviews and self-report. PMID:26528822

  7. Performance of a full-scale biofilter with peat and ash as a medium for treating industrial landfill leachate: a 3-year study of pollutant removal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kängsepp, Pille; Mathiasson, Lennart

    2009-03-01

    Shredder residues of end-of-life vehicles and white goods are a complex waste stream, which nowadays most often is disposed of at industrial landfills. This paper describes the most important findings concerning the complex composition of the landfill leachate and its on-site, year-round treatment under cold-climate conditions. A 3-year investigation has confirmed that concentrations of different types of pollutants, most of them at low initial concentrations, can be simultaneously reduced in vertical-flow biofilters consisting of a mixture of peat and carbon-containing ash. For metals such as Mn, Cu, Sn, Cd, Pb, Fe and Ni the average removal was 73, 72, 66, 60, 55, 55 and 37%, respectively. An average reduction of NH(4)-N (45%), N(tot) (25%), total organic carbon (30%), dissolved organic carbon (28%) and suspended solids (38%) was also obtained. A good reduction was achieved for phenols (between 75 and 95%), polychlorinated biphenyls (between 22 and 99%), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry amenable pollutants, considered at initial concentration above 50 microg L( -1) (between 80 and 100%). The performance of the biofilter system was good in spite of large variations of inlet concentration during the considered period. PMID:19244414

  8. Evidence for Trait Related Theory of Mind Impairment in First Episode Psychosis Patients and Its Relationship with Processing Speed: A 3 Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl D.; Ferro, Adele; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Ríos-Lago, Marcos; Otero, Soraya; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jose M.; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether first-episode psychosis patients present a stable trait impairment in theory of mind (ToM) and to examine the potential relationship between ToM and clinical symptomatology and neurocognition. Patients with a first episode of psychosis (N = 160) and healthy controls (N = 159) were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery, which included a mental state decoding task known as “The Reading the Mind in the Eyes” (Eyes test), at baseline and reassessed after 1 and 3 years. The clinical group performed below healthy controls on the Eyes test while not showing test-retest differences between baseline and follow-up administrations. Analyses revealed age, education and premorbid IQ as potential moderators. Poorer performance on the Eyes test was not linked to clinical symptomatology but was associated with greater neurocognitive deficit, particularly related to processing speed. The persistence of ToM deficits in patients suggests that there are trait related metalizing impairments in first episode psychosis. This study shows the influence of processing speed and moderator variables on efficient ToM. PMID:27199826

  9. Evidence for Trait Related Theory of Mind Impairment in First Episode Psychosis Patients and Its Relationship with Processing Speed: A 3 Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl D; Ferro, Adele; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Ríos-Lago, Marcos; Otero, Soraya; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Jose M; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether first-episode psychosis patients present a stable trait impairment in theory of mind (ToM) and to examine the potential relationship between ToM and clinical symptomatology and neurocognition. Patients with a first episode of psychosis (N = 160) and healthy controls (N = 159) were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery, which included a mental state decoding task known as "The Reading the Mind in the Eyes" (Eyes test), at baseline and reassessed after 1 and 3 years. The clinical group performed below healthy controls on the Eyes test while not showing test-retest differences between baseline and follow-up administrations. Analyses revealed age, education and premorbid IQ as potential moderators. Poorer performance on the Eyes test was not linked to clinical symptomatology but was associated with greater neurocognitive deficit, particularly related to processing speed. The persistence of ToM deficits in patients suggests that there are trait related metalizing impairments in first episode psychosis. This study shows the influence of processing speed and moderator variables on efficient ToM. PMID:27199826

  10. Use of Centrifugal Filter Devices to Concentrate Dengue Virus in Mosquito per os Infection Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vaea; Viallon, Jérôme; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva. PMID:26372347

  11. 1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OS SOUTH FRONT OF BOILER HOUSE, WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING HEAVY SCALES OFFICE TO LEFT, LOOKING NORTH - Marvine Colliery, Boiler House No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  12. Research on Separation of Three Powers Architecture for Trusted OS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Zhao, Yong; Xin, Siyuan

    The privilege in the operating system (OS) often results in the break of confidentiality and integrity of the system. To solve this problem, several security mechanisms are proposed, such as Role-based Access Control, Separation of Duty. However, these mechanisms can not eliminate the privilege in OS kernel layer. This paper proposes a Separation of Three Powers Architecture (STPA). The authorizations in OS are divided into three parts: System Management Subsystem (SMS), Security Management Subsystem (SEMS) and Audit Subsystem (AS). Mutual support and mutual checks and balances which are the design principles of STPA eliminate the administrator in the kernel layer. Furthermore, the paper gives the formal description for authorization division using the graph theory. Finally, the implementation of STPA is given. Proved by experiments, the Separation of Three Powers Architecture we proposed can provide reliable protection for the OS through authorization division.

  13. Problems with Re-Os isochron determinations. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Ngo, H. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed closed-system techniques for the equilibration of Os isotopes and for the calibration of Re and Os tracers using high-purity metals. The results show reproducibility of +/- 0.5% for calibrations of Os using different chunks of the same high-purity Os metal produced by vacuum arc melting. On a Re-Os evolution diagram the analyses of Negrillos and of Tocopilla are displaced along horizontal lines and are not consistent with a well-defined isochron. We conclude that is unclear whether whole-rock samples of irons of individual classes of iron meteorites (including the IIA class) define isochrons.In light of these observations, one must consider the evidence for phases in which Re and Os may become redistributed. We note that the IIA irons are composed of large or single kamacite crystals and do not contain taenite. This may hinder redistribution of Re and Os and may allow the IIA irons to define isochrons in preference to other magmatic iron classes. However, the IIA irons also include ubiquitous rhabdites, up to 20 mm in length, and troilite-daubreelite nodules. It has been observed that rhabdites are extremely rich in Pt-group elements. In addition to these considerations, Negrillos and Tocopilla were found in nitrate deposits and show evidence of corrosion. Therefore, it is possible that different samples of these meteorites have been differentially weathered, although our samples appeared fresh. We conclude that it is important to identify the phases in which Re and the PGEs are located and to address in detail the evidence for Re and Os remobilization.

  14. Os trigonum syndrome on bone SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianmin; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2014-08-01

    A 16-year-old female athlete presented with increased pain in the distal left lower extremity. A possible stress fracture or shin splint of the left tibia was first considered. A 3-phase bone scintigraphy showed a very small focus of increased activity in the posterior left foot. A diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome was made after SPECT/CT images pinpointed the activity at the left os trigonum. PMID:24686218

  15. Neutron Capture Cross Sections for the Re/Os Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Mosconi, M.; Heil, M.; Kaeppeler, F.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Mengoni, A.; Cennini, P.; Chiaveri, E.; Ferrari, A.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Kadi, Y.; Sarchiapone, L.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wendler, H.; Aerts, G.; Andriamonje, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Dridi, W.

    2005-05-24

    The radioactive decay of 187Re {yields} 187Os (t1/2 = 43 Gyr) is suited for dating the onset of heavy-element nucleosynthesis. The radiogenic contribution to the 187Os abundance is the difference between the natural abundance and the corresponding s-process component. This component can be obtained via the well-established {sigma}N systematics using the neighboring s-only isotope 186Os, provided the neutron-capture cross sections of both isotopes are known with sufficient accuracy. We report on a new set of experiments performed with a C6D6 detector array at the n{sub T}OF neutron spallation facility of CERN. The capture cross sections of 186Os, 187Os, and 188Os have been measured in the neutron-energy range between 1 eV and 1 MeV, and Maxwellian-averaged cross sections were deduced for the relevant thermal energies from kT=5 keV to 100 keV.

  16. Activation cross sections for 190Os( n, p) 190m,gRe, 188Os( n, p) 188Re and 190Os( n, n') 190mOs reactions from 13.5 to 14.8 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Junhua; Zhang, Zhirong; Tian, Weisong; Tuo, Fei; Kong, Xiangzhong; Liu, Rong; Jiang, Li

    2009-04-01

    Cross sections for ( n, p) and ( n, n') reactions have been measured on osmium isotopes at the neutron energies from 13.5 to 14.8 MeV using the activation technique in combination with high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Neutrons were produced via the 3H( d, n) 4He reaction using solid TiT. The neutron fluences were determined using the monitor reaction 93Nb( n,2 n) 92mNb. Data are reported for the following reactions: 190Os( n, p) 190mRe, 190Os( n, p) 190gRe, 190Os( n, p) 190Re, 188Os( n, p) 188Re and 190Os( n, n') 190mOs. Nuclear model calculations using the code HFTT, which employs the Hauser-Feshbach (statistical model) and exciton model (precompound effects) formalisms, were undertaken to describe the formation of the products. The cross sections were discussed and compared with experimental data found in the literature, with values of model calculations including the pre-equilibrium contribution, and with evaluation data of JEFF-3.1/A.

  17. Estimation of hydrocarbon biodegradation rates in gasoline-contaminated sediment from measured respiration rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, R.J.; Baehr, A.L.; Lahvis, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    An open microcosm method for quantifying microbial respiration and estimating biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in gasoline-contaminated sediment samples has been developed and validated. Stainless-steel bioreactors are filled with soil or sediment samples, and the vapor-phase composition (concentrations of oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and selected hydrocarbons) is monitored over time. Replacement gas is added as the vapor sample is taken, and selection of the replacement gas composition facilitates real-time decision-making regarding environmental conditions within the bioreactor. This capability allows for maintenance of field conditions over time, which is not possible in closed microcosms. Reaction rates of CO2 and O2 are calculated from the vapor-phase composition time series. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation are either measured directly from the hydrocarbon mass balance, or estimated from CO2 and O2 reaction rates and assumed reaction stoichiometries. Open microcosm experiments using sediments spiked with toluene and p-xylene were conducted to validate the stoichiometric assumptions. Respiration rates calculated from O2 consumption and from CO2 production provide estimates of toluene and p- xylene degradation rates within about ??50% of measured values when complete mineralization stoichiometry is assumed. Measured values ranged from 851.1 to 965.1 g m-3 year-1 for toluene, and 407.2-942.3 g m-3 year-1 for p- xylene. Contaminated sediment samples from a gasoline-spill site were used in a second set of microcosm experiments. Here, reaction rates of O2 and CO2 were measured and used to estimate hydrocarbon respiration rates. Total hydrocarbon reaction rates ranged from 49.0 g m-3 year-1 in uncontaminated (background) to 1040.4 g m-3 year-1 for highly contaminated sediment, based on CO2 production data. These rate estimates were similar to those obtained independently from in situ CO2 vertical gradient and flux determinations at the

  18. New Applications of the Re-187 - Os-187 and Pt-190 - Os-186 Isotope Systems to the Study of Iron Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, D. L.; Walker, R. J.; Horan, M. F.

    2000-01-01

    Re-187 - Os-187 and Pt-190 - Os-186 isotope systems are applied to dating evolved iron meteorites. The Re-Os systematics of some evolved irons may indicate late stage system closure. This conclusion appears to be supported by a "young" Pt-Os isochron age.

  19. Rice Stress Associated Protein 1 (OsSAP1) Interacts with Aminotransferase (OsAMTR1) and Pathogenesis-Related 1a Protein (OsSCP) and Regulates Abiotic Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Kamakshi S.; Dansana, Prasant K.; Giri, Jitender; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Stress associated proteins (SAPs) are the A20/AN1 zinc-finger containing proteins which can regulate the stress signaling in plants. The rice SAP protein, OsSAP1 has been shown to confer abiotic stress tolerance to plants, when overexpressed, by modulating the expression of endogenous stress-related genes. To further understand the mechanism of OsSAP1-mediated stress signaling, OsSAP1 interacting proteins were identified using yeast two-hybrid analysis. Two novel proteins, aminotransferase (OsAMTR1) and a SCP/TAPS or pathogenesis-related 1 class of protein (OsSCP) were found to interact with OsSAP1. The genes encoding OsAMTR1 and OsSCP were stress-responsive and showed higher expression upon abiotic stress treatments. The role of OsAMTR1 and OsSCP under stress was analyzed by overexpressing them constitutively in Arabidopsis and responses of transgenic plants were assessed under salt and water-deficit stress. The OsAMTR1 and OsSCP overexpressing plants showed higher seed germination, root growth and fresh weight than wild-type plants under stress conditions. Overexpression of OsAMTR1 and OsSCP affected the expression of many known stress-responsive genes which were not affected by the overexpression of OsSAP1. Moreover, the transcript levels of OsSCP and OsAMTR1 were also unaffected by the overexpression of OsSAP1. Hence, it was concluded that OsSAP1 regulates the stress responsive signaling by interacting with these proteins which further regulate the downstream stress responsive gene expression. PMID:27486471

  20. Rice Stress Associated Protein 1 (OsSAP1) Interacts with Aminotransferase (OsAMTR1) and Pathogenesis-Related 1a Protein (OsSCP) and Regulates Abiotic Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Kamakshi S; Dansana, Prasant K; Giri, Jitender; Tyagi, Akhilesh K

    2016-01-01

    Stress associated proteins (SAPs) are the A20/AN1 zinc-finger containing proteins which can regulate the stress signaling in plants. The rice SAP protein, OsSAP1 has been shown to confer abiotic stress tolerance to plants, when overexpressed, by modulating the expression of endogenous stress-related genes. To further understand the mechanism of OsSAP1-mediated stress signaling, OsSAP1 interacting proteins were identified using yeast two-hybrid analysis. Two novel proteins, aminotransferase (OsAMTR1) and a SCP/TAPS or pathogenesis-related 1 class of protein (OsSCP) were found to interact with OsSAP1. The genes encoding OsAMTR1 and OsSCP were stress-responsive and showed higher expression upon abiotic stress treatments. The role of OsAMTR1 and OsSCP under stress was analyzed by overexpressing them constitutively in Arabidopsis and responses of transgenic plants were assessed under salt and water-deficit stress. The OsAMTR1 and OsSCP overexpressing plants showed higher seed germination, root growth and fresh weight than wild-type plants under stress conditions. Overexpression of OsAMTR1 and OsSCP affected the expression of many known stress-responsive genes which were not affected by the overexpression of OsSAP1. Moreover, the transcript levels of OsSCP and OsAMTR1 were also unaffected by the overexpression of OsSAP1. Hence, it was concluded that OsSAP1 regulates the stress responsive signaling by interacting with these proteins which further regulate the downstream stress responsive gene expression. PMID:27486471