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Sample records for 3-year period 2008-2010

  1. Coincident 1.3-year Periodicities in the ap Geomagnetic Index and the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paularena, K. I.; Szabo, A.; Richardson, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent observations show an approximately 1.3-year period in the speed of the solar wind detected by the IMP 8 and Voyager 2 spacecraft. A similar period is also seen in the north-south (GSE) component of the magnetic field observed by IMP 8. Since both parameters are commonly used as input to models of geomagnetic activity, the 'ap' index (a measure of geomagnetic disturbance) is examined to look for this periodicity. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram method is used on the ap, plasma, and magnetic field data during the 1973-1994 time range. A dynamic FFT periodogram method is also used to analyze the ap data during this time, as well as to look for periods present between 1932 and 1972. A clear 1.3-year periodicity is present in the post-1986 data when the same period is observed in the plasma and field data. The V(2)B(zsm) and V(2)B(s) proxies for geomagnetic activity also show this periodicity. However, the southward (GSM) component of the magnetic field does not have a 1.3-year period, and neither do solar wind or ap data from 1973-1985. This demonstrates that the ap geomagnetic index can act as a proxy for solar wind periodicities at this time scale. Historic ap data are examined, and show that a similar periodicity in ap exists around 1942. Since auroral data show a 1.4-year periodicity, all these similar periods may result from a common underlying solar mechanism.

  2. Successful stenting of four spontaneous oesophageal perforations in a single patient during a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Sundbom, Magnus; Hedberg, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous oesophageal perforation, a rare condition associated with high mortality due to mediastinitis and multi-organ failure, can be treated surgically or with endoscopic stents. We present a case of four right-sided oesophageal perforations during a 3-year period in a single patient, all successfully stented. The 51-year-old Caucasian male had his first oesophageal perforation in 2012, which was successfully treated with a fully covered endoscopic stent. No residual pathology was seen at stent removal. Two years later, the patient was successfully treated with stents twice for recurrent perforations. The fourth spontaneous perforation at the same site occurred this fall, and again endoscopic treatment was successful. The patient does not report any squeals. In spite of the successful outcome, we would like to emphasize the need for close surveillance and readiness for definitive surgical treatment. PMID:27154748

  3. Living with diabetes—Development of learning patterns over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Kneck, Åsa; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Eriksson, Lars E.; Lundman, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning involves acquiring new knowledge and skills, and changing our ways of thinking, acting, and feeling. Learning in relation to living with diabetes is a lifelong process where there is limited knowledge of how it is experienced and established over time. It was considered important to explore how learning was developed over time for persons living with diabetes. Aim The aim of the study was to identify patterns in learning when living with diabetes, from recently being diagnosed, and over a 3-year period. Materials and methods A longitudinal qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirteen participants, with both type I and type II diabetes, were interviewed at three different occasions during a 3-year period. Qualitative content analysis was used in different steps in order to distinguish patterns. Findings Five main patterns of learning were identified. Two of the patterns (I and II) were characterized by gradually becoming comfortable living with diabetes, whereas for one pattern (IV) living with diabetes became gradually more difficult. For pattern V living with diabetes was making only a limited impact on life, whereas for Pattern III there was a constant management of obstacles related to illness. The different patterns in the present study showed common and different ways of learning and using different learning strategies at different timespans. Conclusion The present study showed that duration of illness is not of importance for how far a person has come in his own learning process. A person-centered care is needed to meet the different and changing needs of persons living with diabetes in relation to learning to live with a lifelong illness. PMID:25030359

  4. Susceptibility to tulathromycin in Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Trevor W.; Cook, Shaun; Klima, Cassidy L.; Topp, Ed; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica isolated from feedlot cattle were tested for tulathromycin resistance. Cattle were sampled over a 3-year period, starting 12 months after approval of tulathromycin for prevention and treatment of bovine respiratory disease. Nasopharyngeal samples from approximately 5,814 cattle were collected when cattle entered feedlots (N = 4) and again from the same cattle after ≥60 days on feed. The antimicrobial use history for each animal was recorded. Mannheimia haemolytica was isolated from 796 (13.7%) entry samples and 1,038 (20.6%) ≥ 60 days samples. Of the cattle positive for M. haemolytica, 18.5, 2.9, and 2.4% were administered therapeutic concentrations of tulathromycin, tilmicosin, or tylosin tartrate, respectively. In addition, 13.2% were administered subtherapeutic concentrations of tylosin phosphate in feed. In years one and two, no tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica were detected, whereas five isolates (0.4%) were resistant in year three. These resistant isolates were collected from three cattle originating from a single pen, were all serotype 1, and were genetically related (≥89% similarity) according to pulsed-field gel electrophoreses patterns. The five tulathromycin-resistant isolates were multi-drug resistant also exhibiting resistance to oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, ampicillin, or penicillin. The macrolide resistance genes erm(42), erm(A), erm(B), erm(F), erm(X) and msr(E)-mph(E), were not detected in the tulathromycin-resistant M. haemolytica. This study showed that tulathromycin resistance in M. haemolytica from a general population of feedlot cattle in western Canada was low and did not change over a 3-year period after tulathromycin was approved for use in cattle. PMID:24130555

  5. Correlation between Seismicity and Mental Health: Crete, 2008-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, George C.

    2013-04-01

    We present, for the first time, the results from a research on the possible influence of seismicity to the mental health of a population not exposed to trauma. The research was inspired by the results of (a) recent research on various electromagnetic phenomena related with earthquakes, (b) several experiments of electric, magnetic and electromagnetic effects on animals' behavior, (c) the electric and electromagnetic activity of the neural network of the brain and (d) the treatment of brain functions with traditional electric or electromagnetic methods. The Research was basically baised on a comparison of the number of M>2 earthquakes NE in a area including the island of Crete (210-290E, 32.50-380N), Greece, to the admissions to the Psychiatric Inpatient Unit of the University of Crete IPU/UoC) during the years 2008-2010. It was found that the number of monthly admissions to the Acute Care Unit of the IPU/UoC NAA reached their lowest values during, and in particular at the end (NAA=2; July 2008) of "a storm of strong earthquakes" in 2008 (G. Papadopoulos, EOS, 90, 46, 2009). On the contrary, the number of monthly admissions NAA increased with increasing the monthly number NE of earthquakes (EQs) during the rest of the time period 2008-2010, and showed a maximum rate (NAA= 31) during the month with the highest number of EQs (NE=70; August 2010) throughout the entire period examined. During the second period (October 2008-December 2010) we found a positive correlation between the total number of monthly admissions NA with the number of EQs NE (r=0.601 / P=0.001). When a daily resolution analysis was performed for the month with highest number of EQs NE(August 2010), we found that an abrupt appearance of a cluster of small earthquakes near Crete was followed by an increase in the number of acute admissions NAA, with a delay time of ~2 days. We hypothesize that seismic activity might be a major factor influencing the frequency of admissions of psychotic disorders in

  6. Pyogenic liver abscess: a retrospective analysis of 107 patients during a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Chan, Khee-Siang; Chen, Chin-Ming; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Hou, Ching-Cheng; Lin, Hung-Jung; Yu, Wen-Liang

    2005-12-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a potentially life-threatening disease, and early diagnosis may be difficult. In order to provide diagnostic clues and to enhance the prompt management of such cases, we retrospectively investigated the clinical characteristics of PLA during a 3-year period in a tertiary-care hospital. The crude incidence rate of PLA in our study was 446.1 per 100,000 hospital admissions. Male predominance and a mean age of 57.6 +/- 14.4 years were observed. Diabetes mellitus was the most common concomitant disease, and biliary pathologies were the most common predisposing cause of this type of abscess. The most common clinical features were fever, chills, and abdominal pain. Leukocytosis was found in 67.3% of the patients, and the observed C-reactive protein (CRP) values were high. The most common pathogen was Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mortality rate was 6.5%. A complete history, physical examination, evaluation of the white blood cell count and CRP, and the prompt arrangement of imaging studies may lead to an earlier diagnosis. The aggressive performance of image-guided catheter drainage and the appropriate administration of antibiotics may reduce the mortality rate of PLA. PMID:16377869

  7. Bowhead whale acoustic activity in the southeast Beaufort Sea during late summer 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Charif, Russell A; Rahaman, Ashakur; Muirhead, Charles A; Pitzrick, Michael S; Warde, Ann M; Hall, James; Pyć, Cynthia; Clark, Christopher W

    2013-12-01

    Autonomous passive acoustic recorders were deployed to record sounds of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in the southeast Beaufort Sea for periods of 30-55 days during the late summer, open-water seasons of 2008-2010. Recordings were made in three areas licensed for hydrocarbon exploration, spanning the continental slope and adjacent outer shelf, and in a shallow inner-shelf area where bowheads have been observed congregating to feed in recent decades. Bowhead sounds were counted in samples comprising 10% of each recorded hour. In mid-August and September in all 3 years, the rate of bowhead calling at outer shelf sites exceeded that at adjacent continental slope sites by one to two orders of magnitude. Higher rates of calling occurred on the slope in late July and early August than at later dates. Calling rates varied by an order of magnitude between years in the one area that was monitored in different years. The highest rates of calling occurred on the inner shelf, offshore of the northern Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula. These trends are consistent with patterns of habitat use previously reported from aerial surveys in this and nearby areas of the Beaufort Sea and with the results of satellite tagging studies. PMID:25669244

  8. Pediatric encephaloceles: A series of 20 cases over a period of 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Ramdurg, Shashank Ravindra; Sukanya, M.; Maitra, Jayabrata

    2015-01-01

    Background: Encephalocele is the protrusion of the cranial contents beyond the normal confines of the skull through a defect in the calvarium and is far less common than spinal dysraphism. The exact worldwide frequency is not known. Aims and Objectives: To determine the epidemiological features, patterns of encephalocele, and its postsurgical results. Materials and Methods: The study was carried from year July 2012 to June 2015. Patients with encephalocele were evaluated for epidemiological characteristics, clinical features, imaging characteristics, and surgical results. Results: 20 encephaloceles patients were treated during the study period. Out of these 12 (60%) were male and 8 (40%) female. Age range was 1 day to 6 years. The most common type of encephalocele was occipital 12 (60%), occipito-cervical 4 (20%), parietal 2 (10%), fronto-nasal 1 (5%), and fronto-naso-ethmoidal 1 (5%). One patient had a double encephalocele (one atretic and other was occipital) with dermal sinus tract and limited dermal myeloschisis. Other associations: Chiari 3 malformation (2), meningomyeloceles (4), and syrinx (4). Three patients presented with rupture two of whom succumbed to meningitis and shock. Seventeen patients treated surgically did well with no immediate surgical mortality (except a case of Chiari 3 malformation who succumbed 6 months postsurgery to unrelated causes). Shunt was performed in 4 cases. Conclusion: The most common type of encephalocele is occipital in our set up. Early surgical management of encephalocele is not only for cosmetic reasons but also to prevent tethering, rupture, and future neurological deficits. PMID:26962334

  9. Doctoral Dissertation Research in Rehabilitation Counseling: 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, Timothy N.; Phillips, Brian N.; Zanskas, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    This article continues the tradition of reviews documenting doctoral rehabilitation research. Doctoral dissertations completed during calendar years 2008-2010 from recognized doctoral rehabilitation programs were identified and reviewed using the same approach used by Tansey, Zanskas, and Phillips. Analysis of 88 dissertations resulted in a…

  10. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated during a 3-year period (1993 to 1995) in Seville, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Safi, H; Aznar, J; Palomares, J C

    1997-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Seville, Spain, was studied by using computer-assisted analysis of the IS6110 fingerprint in order to determine the current situation and to evaluate the human-to-human transmission of this pathogen. One hundred seventy-six isolates from 175 patients among the 205 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB) during a 3-year period (1993 to 1995) were cultured and analyzed. One hundred nine patients (62%) were infected with genetically different isolates, and 67 isolates (38%) were grouped into 19 clusters. These results demonstrate that the level of clustering of strains in Seville is intermediate between those in developed and developing countries. Epidemiological relatedness was shown for isolates from only 10 of these clusters. Active and high transmission rates exist in children and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults, while in non-HIV-infected adults this transmission rate is moderate. Although transmission from children to adults is uncommon, the probability of transmission from HIV-infected patients to young adults not infected with HIV may be higher. On the basis of these observations, we predict a constant rise in the rate of TB transmission among HIV-infected patients and probably in young adult patients not infected with HIV if measures for the effective prevention of TB among the HIV-infected population are not implemented. PMID:9316891

  11. Methodology of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey - 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Morton, Jeremy; Hsia, Jason; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira; Talley, Brandon; Caixeta, Roberta D; Fouad, Heba; Khoury, Rula N; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Rarick, James; Sinha, Dhirendra N; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2016-06-01

    In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization developed the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), an instrument to monitor global tobacco use and measure indicators of tobacco control. GATS, a nationally representative household survey of persons aged 15 years or older, was conducted for the first time during 2008-2010 in 14 low- and middle-income countries. In each country, GATS used a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and procedures for data collection and management and, as needed, added country-specific questions that were reviewed and approved by international experts. The core questionnaire included questions about various characteristics of the respondents, their tobacco use (smoking and smokeless), and a wide range of tobacco-related topics (cessation; secondhand smoke; economics; media; and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions). In each country, a multistage cluster sample design was used, with households selected proportionate to the size of the population. Households were chosen randomly within a primary or secondary sampling unit, and one respondent was selected at random from each household to participate in the survey. Interviewers administered the survey in the country's local language(s) using handheld electronic data collection devices. Interviews were conducted privately, and same-sex interviewers were used in countries where mixed-sex interviews would be culturally inappropriate. All 14 countries completed the survey during 2008-2010. In each country, the ministry of health was the lead coordinating agency for GATS, and the survey was implemented by national statistical organizations or surveillance institutes. This article describes the background and rationale for GATS and includes a comprehensive description of the survey methods and protocol. PMID:24042975

  12. Variations and origin of the atmospheric pollen of Cannabis detected in the province of Tetouan (NW Morocco): 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Aboulaich, Nadia; Trigo, M Mar; Bouziane, Hassan; Cabezudo, Baltasar; Recio, Marta; El Kadiri, Mohamed; Ater, Mohammed

    2013-01-15

    Cannabis, also called marihuana or hemp, is a wind-pollinated plant that produces hundreds of flowers on large inflorescences. It is also one of the oldest psychoactive plants known to humanity. Morocco has become one of the main producers of Cannabis resin (hashish), primarily supplying the European market. The aim of this paper is to ascertain whether the atmospheric monitoring of Cannabis pollen can play a role, from a criminological point of view, in the surveillance of Cannabis cultivation in the area of Tetouan (NW Morocco) as well as to estimate pollen emission so that the sensitive population can be warned about the allergic diseases that its pollen can cause. Aerobiological samplings were made with the aid of a Hirst type volumetric trap (Hirst, 1952), which worked uninterruptedly during a 3-year period (2008-2010) according to the methodology proposed by the Spanish Aerobiology Network, the REA. Cannabis pollen was present in the atmosphere of Tetouan mainly from early April to late August, a period in which about 95% of the annual counts were registered. The highest levels were detected in June and July, with concentrations more or less evenly distributed throughout the day with slight increases of 5% between 12:00 and 16:00 h. The strong association between skin test reactivity, respiratory symptoms, and pollination period found by other authors, together with the levels registered, suggests that Cannabis pollen could be a clinically important aeroallergen for sensitive patients. On the other hand, the data obtained could serve as an indicator of the cultivation activity of this species and should be taken into account by the state authorities since they provide strong evidence of the existence of Cannabis crops in the region of Tetouan. PMID:23208276

  13. The Natural Course of Intermittent Exotropia over a 3-year Period and the Factors Predicting the Control Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Jeremy J. S. W.; Chong, Gabriela S. L.; Ko, Simon T. C.; Yam, Jason C.S.

    2016-01-01

    The natural course of intermittent exotropia and the factors affecting its control has been unclear. We aim to report the natural course of our cohort of 117 Chinese children with intermittent exotropia and to identify baseline parameters that may have predictive value in the control deterioration of the disease. The visual acuity, spherical equivalent, compliance to orthoptic exercise, angle of deviation fusional convergence parameters and Newcastle Control Score were recorded for all children at baseline and at 3 years apart. Patients were divided into two groups according to the change in control over the 3 years: group 1 included patients who had no deterioration or had improvement in disease control; and group 2 were those who had deteriorated control or had undergone surgery. There were 77 patients (66%) in group 1 and 40 (34%) patients in group 2. Comparing the baseline parameters of the two groups, group 1 had statistically significantly smaller angle of deviation, larger fusional reserve, larger fusional recovery, and higher fusional reserve ratio (p < 0.05). Other baseline parameters were similar between the two groups. The baseline fusional parameters may have predictive value in determining the control of intermittent exotropia. PMID:27257120

  14. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST37 clinical isolates producing plasmid-mediated AmpC recovered over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Illiaquer, Marina; Caroff, Nathalie; Bémer, Pascale; Aubin, Guillaume G; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Lepelletier, Didier; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the clinical and microbiological epidemiology of AmpC plasmidic cephalosporinases (pAmpC) in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains resistant to ceftazidime, during a 3-year period (2007-2009). Among 1505 K. pneumoniae, 7 were pAmpC producers. Molecular characterization revealed the spread of a ST37 strain producing DHA-1 within intensive care units and the diffusion of the same plasmid among unrelated strains. PMID:22749243

  15. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    PubMed

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories. PMID:27089364

  16. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries’ National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013–2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories. PMID:27089364

  17. Plumb as a cause of kidney cancer (case study: Iran from 2008-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Mazdak, Hamid; Rashidi, Maasoumeh; Zohary, Moien

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to plumb (Pb), cadmium, mercury, and arsenic. Some hazards that threat human health are the results of environmental factors and the relevant pollutions. Some important categories of diseases including (cancers) have considerable differences in various places, as observed in their spatial prevalence and distribution maps. The present study sets out to investigate the correlation between kidney cancer and the concentration of Pb in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, the first challenge was to collect some relevant information. In this connection, the authors managed to gain access to data concerning kidney cancer in Iran. The data were collected by a health centre for the period of 2008-2010. Besides, a map of Pb distribution in soil, drawn by the Mineral Exploration Organization, and Plumb Concentration Information, collected by Agriculture Jihad Organization, were used. Using a geographic information system (GIS) software such as ArcGIS (USA), the researchers drew the map of the spatial distribution of kidney cancer in the Iran country. In the indirect methods, one measures vegetation stress caused by heavy metal soil contamination. In direct methods, target detection algorithms are used to detect a selected material on the basis of its unique spectral signature. In this research, we applied target detection algorithms on moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images to detect Pb. MODIS is a sensor placed on the Terra satellite that collects data in 35 spectral bands with 250-1,000 m special resolutions. Results: The spatial distribution of kidney cancer in Iran country delineated above revealed a positive correlation between the amount of lead and the high frequency of kidney cancer. Regression analyses also confirmed this relationship (R2 = 0.77 and R = 0.87). Conclusion: The findings of the current study underscore not only the importance of

  18. Exploring Chlamydia Positivity among Females on College Campuses, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habel, Melissa A.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Torrone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe chlamydia positivity among young women tested at college health centers by student characteristics: age, race/ethnicity, and institution type. Participants: During 2008-2010, colleges participating in a national infertility prevention program provided chlamydia testing data from females aged 18-24. Methods: Chlamydia positivity…

  19. Monitoring and source tracking of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater adjacent to swine production facilities over a 3-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I.G.; Oliver, H.D.; Yannarell, A.C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Mackie, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Toxicology findings in cases of hanging in the City and County of San Francisco over the 3-year period from 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    San Nicolas, A C; Lemos, N P

    2015-10-01

    In postmortem cases where the cause of death is hanging, toxicological analyses may be considered unnecessary by some medical examiners, toxicologists, and other persons involved in medico-legal investigations because the cause of death seems "obvious." To ascertain if toxicological analyses are necessary when the cause of death is hanging, all 102 hanging cases (25 females; 77 males) from 2011 to 2013 that came under the jurisdiction of the San Francisco Office of the Chief Medical Examiner were examined from a total of 3912 sudden, unexpected, or violent death cases in the same period. Suicide was the manner of death in 99 of these cases, with two accidental and one undetermined death. The average age of decedents was 43.9 years (median 41), the youngest was an 11-year old male and the oldest was an 86-year old female. Of the 102 cases, 33 had negative toxicology while 69 cases had at least one positive toxicology result. Females were equally likely to have negative or positive results (12 and 13 cases respectively), but males were 37.5% more likely to have positive toxicology (n=56) rather than negative toxicology (n=21). For females, alcohol, mirtazapine, venlafaxine, and trazodone were the top psychoactive substances in peripheral blood while THC, cocaine, hydrocodone, bupropion, olanzapine, doxylamine, quetiapine and dextromethorphan were also reported. For males, alcohol, THC, cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, bupropion, and diphenhydramine were the top psychoactive substances in blood, but several other drugs were also found in individual cases. Our study of hanging cases over a 3-year period support the idea that complete postmortem toxicology investigation of hangings should be performed, even when the "obvious" cause of death is asphyxia due to hanging. Many of these cases involved psychoactive substances (most often alcohol and cannabis), and having such knowledge provides a better understanding of the circumstances surrounding the decedent's death

  1. Case Study: Variation in fatty acid profiles in milk from adjacent organic and conventional dairy farms over a 3-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring the seasonal variability of fatty acids (FAs) in milk improves our understanding of the nutritional and health values of milk. In collaboration with the Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA, a 3-year study evaluated the seasonal variation of FA profiles of milk obtained from two farms adjacent t...

  2. Do university students really have difficulty in duration judgments? Comment on Okazaki and Matsuda (2008, 2010).

    PubMed

    Francuz, Piotr; Oleś, Piotr

    2011-12-01

    Reinterpretation suggests that low performance of the participants studied by Okazaki and Matsuda (2008, 2010) may have been caused by using a procedure which overloads the cognitive capacities of undergraduate students. The questions asked participants about their reasoning could have led to cognitive overload because they performed two tasks: judgment of movement duration and paying attention to what kind of knowledge should be used (alpha or beta). Some interpretations are offered referring to possible effects of training procedures for applying both kinds of knowledge. PMID:22403918

  3. Composition and evolution of volcanic aerosol following three eruptions in 2008 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, S. M.; Martinsson, B. G.; Friberg, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Hermann, M.; Heue, K. P.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Zahn, A.

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of atmospheric aerosols by the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) platform following the Kasatochi (Alaska), Sarychev (Russia) and Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) eruptions in the period 2008-2010 are presented. The CARIBIC platform operates on a Lufthansa passenger aircraft usually on monthly inter-continental flights, measuring the atmospheric composition in the UT/LS at 8-12 km altitude (Brenninkmeijer et al., 2007). After the eruption of Kasatochi, analyses of the stratospheric aerosol composition showed enhanced concentrations of sulfur and carbon for several months. On the other hand the ash component, clearly seen in a sample seven days after the eruption, was not detected a month later (Martinsson et al., 2009). To further investigate the composition of the volcanic aerosol three flights trough the volcanic plume of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were carried out on April 20, May 16 and May 19, 2010. Aerosol sampling was performed by an impaction technique with a cut-off diameter of 2 μm (Nguyen et al., 2006). Collected samples were analyzed by quantitative multi-elemental analysis by PIXE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission), to obtain concentrations of elements with atomic number larger than 13, and PESA (Particle Elastic Scattering Analysis) for concentrations of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen (Nguyen and Martinsson, 2007). Three samples taken during the special flights to study the Eyjafjallajökull eruption contained unusually high concentrations of elements pointing to crustal origin. The composition of these samples was compared to ash from a fall out sample (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). The ratio of detected elements to iron in both sample types showed good agreement for most of the elements for all three aerosol samples. Volcanically influenced aerosol following the eruptions of Sarychev and Kasatochi were identified by high concentrations of sulfur and by using air mass

  4. Seaweeds as bioindicators of heavy metals off a hot spot area on the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast during 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Shams El-Din, N G; Mohamedein, L I; El-Moselhy, Kh M

    2014-09-01

    Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, and Hg were measured successively in water, sediments, and six macroalgal species belonging to three algal classes during 3 years (2008-2010) from Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt: Chlorophyceae (Enteromorpha compressa, Ulva fasciata), Phaeophyceae (Padina boryana), and Rhodophyceae (Jania rubens, Hypnea musciformis, Pterocladia capillacea). The study aimed to assess the bioaccumulation potential of the seaweeds, as well as to evaluate the extent of heavy metal contamination in the selected study site. Metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry coupled with MH-10 hydride system. The obtained data showed that the highest mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn were recorded in E. compressa; Cd, Ni, and Hg exhibited their highest mean concentrations in P. boryana, while Pb and Co were found in J. rubens. Abundance of the heavy metals in the algal species was as follow: Fe > Mn > Zn > Pb > Ni > Co > Cu > Cd > Hg. E. compressa showed the maximum metal pollution index (MPI) which was 11.55. Bioconcentration factor (BCF) for the metals in algae was relatively high with a maximum value for Mn. The Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) values for the recorded algal species were low, which ranged between 1.00 in P. boryana and 2.72 in E. compressa. Enrichment factors for sediments were low fluctuating between 0.43 for Hg to 2.33 for Mn. Accordingly, the green alga E. compressa, brown alga P. boryana, and red alga J. rubens can be nominated as bioindicators. Based on MPI and PLI indices, Abu Qir Bay in the present study is considered as low-contaminated area. PMID:24844431

  5. Sexual behaviors over a 3-year period among individuals with advanced HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy in an urban HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Wandera, Bonnie; Kamya, Moses R.; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Kiragga, Agnes; Kambugu, Andrew; Wanyama, Jane N; Easterbrook, Philippa; Sethi, Ajay K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Few studies have prospectively examined sexual behaviors of HIV-infected person on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods From 2004 to 2005, 559 HIV-infected, ART-naïve individuals initiating ART at an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda were enrolled into a prospective study and followed to 2008. Clinical and sexual behavior information was assessed at enrollment and semi-annually for three years after ART initiation. Using log-binomial regression models, we estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) to determine factors associated with being sexually active and having unprotected sex over three-years after initiating ART. Results 559 adults contributed 2,594 person-visits of follow-up. At the time of ART initiation, 323 (57.9%) were sexually active of which 176 (54.5%) had unprotected sex at last sexual intercourse. Majority (63.4%) of married individuals were unaware of their partner’s HIV status. Female gender (PR=2.97; 95% CI: 1.85, 4.79), being married (PR=1.48; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.06), and reporting unprotected sex prior to ART (PR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.42) were among factors independently associated with unprotected sex while on ART. Overall, 7.3% of visit intervals of unprotected sex, 1.0% of intervals of sexual activity, occurred when plasma viral load >1,500 copies/ml, representing periods of greater HIV transmission risk. Conclusions Although unprotected sex reduced over time, women reported unprotected sex more often than men. Disclosure of HIV status was low. Integration of comprehensive prevention programs into HIV care is needed, particularly ones specific for women. PMID:21297481

  6. Appalachian versus non-Appalachian US traffic fatalities, 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Motao; Zhao, Songzhu; Gurka, Kelly K.; Kandati, Sahiti; Coben, Jeffrey H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Though myriad health disparities exist in Appalachia, limited research has examined traffic fatalities in the region. This study compared traffic-fatality rates in Appalachia and the non-Appalachian US. Methods Fatality Analysis Reporting System and Census data from 2008-2010 were used to calculate traffic-fatality rates. Poisson models were used to estimate unadjusted (RR) and adjusted rate ratios (aRR), controlling for age, sex, and county-specific population density levels. Results: The Appalachian traffic-fatality rate was 45% (95% CI: 1.42, 1.47) higher than the non-Appalachian rate. Though only 29% of fatalities occur in rural counties in non-Appalachia versus 48% in Appalachia, rates in rural counties were similar (RR=0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.00). However, the rate for urban, Appalachian counties was 42% (95% CI: 1.38, 1.45) higher than among urban, non-Appalachian counties. Appalachian rates were higher for passenger-vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and all-terrain-vehicle riders, regardless of rurality, as well as for passenger-vehicle passengers overall and for urban counties. Conversely, Appalachia experienced lower rates among pedestrians and bicyclists, regardless of rurality. Conclusions Disparities in traffic fatality rates exist in Appalachia. Though elevated rates are partially explained by the proportion of residents living in rural settings, overall rates in urban Appalachia were consistently higher than in urban non-Appalachia. PMID:23619016

  7. Developmental milestones record - 3 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years ... provider. Physical and motor milestones for a typical 3-year-old include: Gains about 4 - 5 pounds ...

  8. New York City School Survey 2008-2010: Assessing the Reliability and Validity of a Progress Report Measure. Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori; Cole, Rachel; Kemple, James J.; Lent, Jessica; McCormick, Meghan; Segeritz, Micha

    2013-01-01

    The Research Alliance for New York City Schools examined Department of Education (DOE) School Survey data from 2008-2010 to better understand the richness and complexities of the information elicited by the Survey from parents, students, and teachers. This document provides the appendices to the technical report "New York City School Survey…

  9. New York City School Survey 2008-2010: Assessing the Reliability and Validity of a Progress Report Measure. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Lori; Cole, Rachel; Kemple, James J.; Lent, Jessica; McCormick, Meghan; Segeritz, Micha

    2013-01-01

    The Research Alliance for New York City Schools examined Department of Education (DOE) School Survey data from 2008-2010 to better understand the richness and complexities of the information elicited by the Survey from parents, students, and teachers. This report provides background information on the development of the NYC School Surveys during…

  10. Superintendent Perceptions of the Success and Failure of School Construction Referendums from 2008-2010 in the State of Indiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Walter Albert

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions of superintendents who have conducted both successful and unsuccessful school construction referendums in the state of Indiana from 2008-2010. This research will serve as a guide for superintendents who will undergo a school construction referendum, especially in Indiana. This study will…

  11. Evapotranspiration from marsh and open-water sites at Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2008--2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stannard, David I.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Polette, Danial J.; Cameron, Jason M.; Waibel, M. Scott; Spears, J. Mark

    2013-01-01

    begins each growing season submerged, emerges from the dead litter mat around late May or early June, reaches a maximum height of about 2.2 meters (m) during summer, senesces in October, and subsequently lodges over, contributing to the dead litter mat from previous years. Hydroperiods last about 5 to 6 months, typically beginning in January or February and ending in July or August, and have a minor influence on the annual ET cycle. These hydroperiods result from lake levels that typically vary about 1.3 m, from around 0.6 to 0.9 m above the wetland surface, to around 0.4 to 0.7 m below the wetland surface. An estimate of 3-year annual wetland ET, made by substituting early- and late-season data measured during 2009 for the missing periods in early 2008 and late 2010, is 0.938 meter per year (m/yr). Daily values of alfalfa-based reference ET (ETr) were retrieved from the Bureau of Reclamation AgriMet Web site (http://www.usbr.gov/pn/agrimet/index.html) and are aggregated into biweekly, annual, and 3-year values (for consistency, the 3-year values are also computed using substitute data from 2009 for early 2008 and late 2010). These ETr values are computed from weather data measured at the nearby Agency Lake weather station (AGKO), and are based on the assumption that the alfalfa crop is green and vigorous year-round. The 3-year value of ETr is 1.145 m/yr, about 22 percent greater than wetland ET. A comparison of 2008–2010 alfalfa and pasture growing season actual ET with wetland ET is made using data from the more distant Klamath Falls AgriMet weather station (KFLO) because actual alfalfa and pasture ET are not computed for the AGKO site. During the 190-day average alfalfa growing season, wetland ET (0.779 m) is about 7 percent less than alfalfa ET (0.838 m). During the 195-day average pasture growing season, wetland ET (0.789 m) is about 18 percent greater than pasture ET (0.671 m). Assuming alfalfa and pasture ET are equal to wetland ET during the non-growing season

  12. Blood Mercury and Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Koreans (KNHANES 2008-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyu-Nam; Park, Soo-Jung; Choi, Beomhee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Blood mercury levels are associated with inflammation, and chronic low-grade inflammation is a cause of insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the association between serum mercury and insulin resistance. Materials and Methods Subjects from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were selected (n=29235) and the relevant data of 5388 subjects (2643 males and 2745 females) were analyzed cross-sectionally. Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was compared according to blood mercury quartiles, and the odds ratio (OR) of having the highest quartile of HOMA-IR according to blood mercury quartiles was calculated. Results Blood mercury levels in men and women were 29.4 nmol/L and 20.5 nmol/L, respectively, and fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, and HOMA-IR were significantly correlated with blood mercury levels. The correlation was stronger in men than in women. In men, FBS and HOMA-IR showed step-wise increases as the quartiles of blood mercury increased; only HOMA-IR differed significantly in the third and fourth blood mercury quartiles, compared to the first quartile. In women, however, both FBS and HOMA-IR differed significantly in the third and fourth blood mercury quartiles, compared to the first quartile. Among men, the OR of being in the highest HOMA-IR quartile was greatest for the highest blood mercury quartile (OR=1.720, 95% CI; 1.172-2.526), compared with the lowest quartile. Conclusion In this large population-based study, blood mercury levels were weakly correlated with HOMA-IR and may be a risk factor for insulin resistance in nondiabetic Koreans. PMID:26069115

  13. The seismotectonic significance of the 2008-2010 seismic swarm in the Brabant Massif (Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas; Shah, Anjana K.; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Structural interpretations of the tectonic grain of orogenic mountain belts have often been based on the study of potential field data. The steep architecture of mountain belts can be highlighted by the inclination of the magnetic field and by the persistence of aeromagnetic lineaments with depth. With respect to seismology, matched filtering has proven to be very useful for linking seismicity with deep-seated tectonic structures by separating short-wavelength anomalies, that originate from shallow depths, from long-wavelength anomalies that generally originate at greater depths. Between 2008 and 2010 more than 300 low-magnitude earthquakes occurred 20 km SE of Brussels (Belgium). Thanks to a locally deployed temporary seismic network covering the epicentral area, very small events could be detected (magnitude variation between ML -0.7 and ML 3.2). The spatial distribution of the hypocenter locations show a dense spatial cluster displaying a narrow, 1.5-km long, NW-SE oriented fault zone at a depth range between 5 and 7 km, located in the Cambrian basement rocks of the Lower Palaeozoic Anglo-Brabant Massif. Its NW-SE orientation is in agreement with the structural grain in this part of the Brabant Massif. In order to find a relevant tectonic structure that could correspond to the 2008-2010 seismic swarm, we present a full seismotectonic analysis linking local geology to the seismic swarm. A systematic filtering approach was applied in which the magnetic field was carefully bandpass filtered to generate different aeromagnetic maps that highlight sources near the hypocenter depths. Filtering demonstrates that the structure responsible for the seismic swarm is limited in length as it is bordered at both ends by magnetic lineaments with different orientations than the seismic swarm. These observations explain the rather limited spatial distribution of the swarm, both in a vertical and horizontal direction. Although few of the largest historical seismic events in

  14. TRMM 3-Year Anniversary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ever wonder about the rain? Beyond the practicality of needing an umbrella, climate researchers have wondered about the science of rainfall for a long time. But it's only in the past few years that they've begun to roll back some of its secrets. One of their tools for doing so is a powerful satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM. Now, after three years of continual operation, project scientists have released dramatic new maps of rainfall patterns gathered across a wide band of the Earth. And with measurements from one of the satellite's advanced sensors, meteorologists are now able to calibrate ground-based rain monitoring systems with greater precision than ever before. A complete accounting of the world's total rainfall has long been a major goal of climate researchers. Rain acts as the atmosphere's fundamental engine for heat exchange; every time a raindrop falls, the atmosphere gets churned up and latent heat flows back into the total climate system. Considering that rainfall is the primary driving force of heat in the atmosphere, and that two thirds of all rain falls in the tropics, these measurements are significant for our understanding of overall climate. The above image shows a one month average of rainfall measurements taken by the TRMM's unique precipitation radar during January of 1998. Areas of low rainfall are colored light blue, while regions with heavy rainfal are colored orange and red. TRMM began collecting data in December of 1997, and continues today. For more information about TRMM's 3-year anniversary, read Maps of Falling Water To learn more about the TRMM mission or order TRMM data, see the TRMM Home Page. Image courtesy TRMM Science team and the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  15. Stratospheric Sudden Warming Effects on the Ionospheric Migrating Tides during 2008-2010 observed by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Lin, C.; Chang, L. C.; Liu, H.; Chen, W.; Chen, C.; Liu, J. G.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, ionospheric electron densities obtained from radio occultation soundings of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC are decomposed into their various constituent tidal components for studying the stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) effects on the ionosphere during 2008-2010. The tidal analysis indicates that the amplitudes of the zonal mean and major migrating tidal components (DW1, SW2 and TW3) decrease around the time of the SSW, with phase/time shifts in the daily time of maximum around EIA and middle latitudes. Meanwhile consistent enhancements of the SW2 and nonmigrating SW1 tides are seen after the stratospheric temperature increase. In addition to the amplitude changes of the tidal components, well matched phase shifts of the ionospheric migrating tides and the stratospheric temperatures are found for the three SSW events, suggesting a good indicator of the ionospheric response. Although the conditions of the planetary waves and the mean winds in the middle atmosphere region during the 2008-2010 SSW events may be different, similar variations of the ionospheric tidal components and their associated phase shifts are found. Futher, these ionospheric responses will be compared with realistic simulations of Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesophere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIME-GCM) by nudging Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data.

  16. Systematic evaluation of the impacts of GPSRO data on the prediction of typhoons over the Northwestern Pacific in 2008-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Hsieh, M.-E.; Hsiao, L.-F.; Kuo, Y.-H.; Yang, M.-J.; Huang, C.-Y.; Lee, C.-S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a systematic evaluation of the impact of Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPSRO) data on typhoon track prediction over the Northwestern Pacific. Specifically, we perform data assimilation and forecast experiments using the Typhoon Weather Research and Forecasting (TWRF) system at 45 km resolution on eleven typhoons (with a total of 327 cases) in the period of 2008-2010 over the Northwestern Pacific, with or without the use of GPSRO refractivity observations. On average, about 100 GPSRO soundings are assimilated over a 12 h partially cycling assimilation period. The results indicate that the assimilation of GPSRO data reduces the 72 h track forecast errors by approximately 12 km (5%). Although this is only a modest improvement, it is statistically significant. The assimilation of GPSRO data improves the analysis and the forecast of temperature, water vapour, and wind fields. Further analysis shows that the reduction in typhoon track forecast errors can be attributed to the improved prediction of Western Pacific Subtropical High (WPSH) and its associated circulation, which leads to better forecasting of the environmental steering flow.

  17. Systematic evaluation of the impacts of GPSRO data on the prediction of typhoons over the northwestern Pacific in 2008-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Hsieh, M.-E.; Hsiao, L.-F.; Kuo, Y.-H.; Yang, M.-J.; Huang, C.-Y.; Lee, C.-S.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we perform a systematic evaluation of the impact of Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPSRO) data on typhoon-track prediction over the northwestern Pacific. Specifically, we perform data assimilation and forecast experiments using the Typhoon Weather Research and Forecasting (TWRF) system at 45 km resolution on 11 typhoons (with a total of 327 cases) in the period of 2008-2010 over the northwestern Pacific, with or without the use of GPSRO refractivity observations. On average, about 100 GPSRO soundings are assimilated over a 12 h partially cycling assimilation period. The results indicate that the assimilation of GPSRO data reduces the 72 h track forecast errors by approximately 12 km (5 %). Although this is only a modest improvement, it is statistically significant. The assimilation of GPSRO data improves the analysis and the forecast of temperature, water vapor, and wind fields. Further analysis shows that the reduction in typhoon-track forecast errors can be attributed to the improved prediction of western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and its associated circulation, which leads to better forecasting of the environmental steering flow.

  18. Coupling between parameters of Es layer and planetary waves during SSW 2008, 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenkova, N. A.; Leschenko, V. S.; Cherniak, Iu. V.; Korenkov, Yu. N.

    2015-11-01

    We report the features of the critical frequency foEs and probability of the sporadic E layer occurrence P(Es) estimated at the Kaliningrad ionosonde station (54°N, 20°E) during the sudden stratosphere warming (SSW) in winter during the years 2008 and 2010. Additionally we use the neutral atmosphere (temperature, wind circulation data at 10 hPa) data for the same temporal interval. Considered periods were characterized by the low solar and geomagnetic activities. We investigate the indirect relation of the neutral temperature in the stratosphere with the long-term variability in ionospheric Es layer parameters during SSW. We found a rather good correlation between the Es layer parameters and the stratospheric temperature increase during the SSW events. We used the continuous wavelet transforms in order to demonstrate the relationship between planetary wave (PW) activity and temporal variability of the sporadic E-layer parameters during SSW 2008 and SSW 2010. We detect a significant wave-like oscillation with periods covering a planetary oscillation in both Es layer parameters. Generally, the oscillations were observed in two bands that corresponded to the periods of 8-10 days before SSW and 12-16 and more days' band during SSW.

  19. Clinical evaluation of 860 anterior and posterior lithium disilicate restorations: retrospective study with a mean follow-up of 3 years and a maximum observational period of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Giacomo; Zarone, Fernando; Dellificorelli, Gianluca; Cannistraro, Giorgio; De Lorenzi, Marco; Mosca, Alberto; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the clinical performance of lithium disilicate restorations supported by natural teeth or implants. Eight hundred sixty lithium disilicate adhesive restorations, including crowns on natural teeth and implant abutments, veneers, and onlays, were made in 312 patients. Parafunctional patients were included, but subjects with uncontrolled periodontitis and gingival inflammation were excluded. Veneers up to 0.5 mm thick were luted with flowable composite resin or light curing cements, while dual-curing composite systems were used with veneers up to 0.8 mm thick. Onlays up to 2 mm in thickness were luted with flowable composite resins or dual-curing composite cements. Crowns up to 1 mm in thickness were cemented with self-adhesive or dual-curing resin cements. The observational period ranged from 12 to 72 months, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. The mechanical and esthetic outcomes of the restorations were evaluated according to the modified California Dental Association (CDA) criteria. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Twenty-six mechanical complications were observed: 17 porcelain chippings, 5 fractures, and 4 losses of retention. Structural drawbacks occurred mainly in posterior segments, and monolithic restorations showed the lowest number of mechanical complications. The clinical ratings of the successful restorations, both monolithic and layered, were satisfactory according to the modified CDA criteria for color match, porcelain surface, and marginal integrity. The cumulative survival rates of lithium disilicate restorations ranged from 95.46% to 100%, while cumulative success rates ranged from 95.39% to 100%. All restorations recorded very high survival and success rates. The use of lithium disilicate restorations in fixed prosthodontics proved to be effective and reliable in the short- and medium-term. PMID:24600653

  20. Dual resistance to adamantanes and oseltamivir among seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses: 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Tiffany G; Fry, Alicia M; Garten, Rebecca J; Deyde, Varough M; Shwe, Thein; Bullion, Lesley; Peebles, Patrick J; Li, Yan; Klimov, Alexander I; Gubareva, Larisa V

    2011-01-01

    Two distinct genetic clades of seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses have cocirculated in the recent seasons: clade 2B oseltamivir-resistant and adamantane-susceptible viruses, and clade 2C viruses that are resistant to adamantanes and susceptible to oseltamivir. We tested seasonal influenza A(H1N1) viruses collected in 2008-2010 from the United States and globally for resistance to antivirals approved by the Food and Drug Administration. We report 28 viruses with both adamantane and oseltamivir (dual) resistance from 5 countries belonging to 4 distinct genotypes. Because of limited options for antiviral treatment, emergence of dual-resistant influenza viruses poses a public health concern, and their circulation needs to be closely monitored. PMID:21148491

  1. Interannual summer variability in euphausiid populations on the eastern Bering Sea shelf during the recent cooling event (2008-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Hongsheng; Yu, Hao; Pinchuk, Alexei I.; Rodger Harvey, H.

    2015-01-01

    The recent cooling in the eastern Bering Sea resulted in a series of cold years (2008-2010) marked by extensive ice coverage and late ice retreat. In the present study, we examined the spatial and temporal variability of three predominant euphausiid species Thysanoessa raschii, Thysanoessa inermis, and Thysanoessa longipes in the summers of 2008-2010. Simple box-and-whisker plots as well as generalized additive models (GLMs) were applied to examine habitat selection for three euphausiid species. The coefficients of dispersion were calculated for three species to examine potential changes in spatial patterns. Results showed that T. raschii was broadly distributed in the inner and middle domains. The abundance of T. raschii was related to water temperature, salinity and chlorophyll a concentration. T. inermis was primarily distributed in the middle domain and was related to water temperature and salinity. T. longipes was mostly distributed in the outer domain and was only related to salinity. The proportion of T. raschii, a coastal species in the inner and middle domains, showed large interannual variation with the highest in 2008 and the lowest in 2009 (a >50% decline). This same species did not show large interannual variation in the spatial distribution. T. longipes, a shelf species in the outer domain, did not show large interannual variation in abundance, but the center of mass distribution consistently shifted northward and offshore from 2008 to 2010. T. inermis, a coastal species in the middle and coastal domains, did not show large interannual variation in abundance and spatial distribution. In summary, euphausiid populations showed large spatial and temporal variability among cold years. Different species could be affected by different processes in the southeastern Bering Sea.

  2. Spatial and temporal trends in occurrence of emerging and legacy contaminants in the Lower Columbia River 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, David; Perkins, Stephanie; Nilsen, Elena; Morace, Jennifer

    2014-06-15

    The Lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington, USA, is an important resource for aquatic and terrestrial organisms, agriculture, and commerce. An 86-mile stretch of the river was sampled over a 3year period in order to determine the spatial and temporal trends in the occurrence and concentration of water-borne organic contaminants. Sampling occurred at 10 sites along this stretch and at 1 site on the Willamette River using the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) passive samplers. Contaminant profiles followed the predicted trends of lower numbers of detections and associated concentrations in the rural areas to higher numbers and concentrations at the more urbanized sites. Industrial chemicals, plasticizers, and PAHs were present at the highest concentrations. Differences in concentrations between sampling periods were related to the amount of rainfall during the sampling period. In general, water concentrations of wastewater-related contaminants decreased and concentrations of legacy contaminants slightly increased with increasing rainfall amounts. PMID:23978701

  3. Spatial and temporal trends in occurrence of emerging and legacy contaminants in the Lower Columbia River 2008-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, David A.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Morace, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The Lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington, USA, is an important resource for aquatic and terrestrial organisms, agriculture, and commerce. An 86-mile stretch of the river was sampled over a 3 year period in order to determine the spatial and temporal trends in the occurrence and concentration of water-borne organic contaminants. Sampling occurred at 10 sites along this stretch and at 1 site on the Willamette River using the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) passive samplers. Contaminant profiles followed the predicted trends of lower numbers of detections and associated concentrations in the rural areas to higher numbers and concentrations at the more urbanized sites. Industrial chemicals, plasticizers, and PAHs were present at the highest concentrations. Differences in concentrations between sampling periods were related to the amount of rainfall during the sampling period. In general, water concentrations of wastewater-related contaminants decreased and concentrations of legacy contaminants slightly increased with increasing rainfall amounts.

  4. Coastal circulation and water column properties off Kalaupapa National Historical Park, Molokai, Hawaii, 2008-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Presto, Katherine; Brown, Eric K.

    2011-01-01

    More than 2.2 million measurements of oceanographic forcing and the resulting water-column properties were made off U.S. National Park Service's Kalaupapa National Historical Park on the north shore of Molokai, Hawaii, between 2008 and 2010 to understand the role of oceanographic processes on the health and sustainability of the area's marine resources. The tides off the Kalaupapa Peninsula are mixed semidiurnal. The wave climate is dominated by two end-members: large northwest Pacific winter swell that directly impacts the study site, and smaller, shorter-period northeast trade-wind waves that have to refract around the peninsula, resulting in a more northerly direction before propagating over the study site. The currents primarily are alongshore and are faster at the surface than close to the seabed; large wave events, however, tend to drive flow in a more cross-shore orientation. The tidal currents flood to the north and ebb to the south. The waters off the peninsula appear to be a mix of cooler, more saline, deeper oceanic waters and shallow, warmer, lower-salinity nearshore waters, with intermittent injections of freshwater, generally during the winters. Overall, the turbidity levels were low, except during large wave events. The low overall turbidity levels and rapid return to pre-event background levels following the cessation of forcing suggest that there is little fine-grained material. Large wave events likely inhibit the settlement of fine-grained sediment at the site. A number of phenomena were observed that indicate the complexity of coastal circulation and water-column properties in the area and may help scientists and resource managers to better understand the implications of the processes on marine ecosystem health.

  5. Composition and evolution of volcanic aerosol from eruptions of Kasatochi, Sarychev and Eyjafjallajökull in 2008-2010 based on CARIBIC observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, S. M.; Martinsson, B. G.; Friberg, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Hermann, M.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Zahn, A.

    2013-02-01

    Large volcanic eruptions impact significantly on climate and lead to ozone depletion due to injection of particles and gases into the stratosphere where their residence times are long. In this the composition of volcanic aerosol is an important but inadequately studied factor. Samples of volcanically influenced aerosol were collected following the Kasatochi (Alaska), Sarychev (Russia) and also during the Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) eruptions in the period 2008-2010. Sampling was conducted by the CARIBIC platform during regular flights at an altitude of 10-12 km as well as during dedicated flights through the volcanic clouds from the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in spring 2010. Elemental concentrations of the collected aerosol were obtained by accelerator-based analysis. Aerosol from the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic clouds was identified by high concentrations of sulphur and elements pointing to crustal origin, and confirmed by trajectory analysis. Signatures of volcanic influence were also used to detect volcanic aerosol in stratospheric samples collected following the Sarychev and Kasatochi eruptions. In total it was possible to identify 17 relevant samples collected between 1 and more than 100 days following the eruptions studied. The volcanically influenced aerosol mainly consisted of ash, sulphate and included a carbonaceous component. Samples collected in the volcanic cloud from Eyjafjallajökull were dominated by the ash and sulphate component (∼45% each) while samples collected in the tropopause region and LMS mainly consisted of sulphate (50-77%) and carbon (21-43%). These fractions were increasing/decreasing with the age of the aerosol. Because of the long observation period, it was possible to analyze the evolution of the relationship between the ash and sulphate components of the volcanic aerosol. From this analysis the residence time (1/e) of sulphur dioxide in the studied volcanic cloud was estimated to be 45 ± 22 days.

  6. Investigation of the concurrent emergence of Salmonella enteritidis in humans and poultry in British Columbia, Canada, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M; Leslie, M; Ritson, M; Stone, J; Cox, W; Hoang, L; Galanis, E; Bowes, Victoria; Byrne, Sean; de With, Nancy; Embree, Glen; Ekkert, Judi; Gully, Maritia; Gustafson, Larry; Nowakowski, Craig; Rice, George; Wong, Julie; Wilcott, Lynn

    2012-12-01

    An increase in the rate of human infections with Salmonella enteritidis (SE) occurred between 2007 and 2010 in British Columbia (BC). During the same time period, an increase in SE from poultry-sourced isolates and increased clinical severity in poultry were also observed in BC. This article describes a multi-sectoral collaboration during a 3-year investigation, and the actions taken by public health and animal health professionals. Human cases were interviewed, clusters were investigated, and a case-control study was conducted. Environmental investigations were conducted in food service establishments (FSE). Suspect foods were tested. Laboratory data from poultry-sourced isolates were analysed. Five hundred and eighty-four human cases of SE with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern were identified between May 2008 and August 2010. Seventy-three percentage of cases reported consumption of eggs. The odds of egg consumption were 2.4 times higher for cases than controls. Implicated FSE were found to use ungraded eggs, which had been distributed illegally. Investigation suggested that there were multiple suppliers of these eggs. Collaboration between public health and animal health professionals led to data sharing, improved understanding of SE, engagement with the poultry industry and public communication. Multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral and multi-pronged investigations are recommended to identify the likely source of illness in large, protracted foodborne outbreaks caused by commonly consumed foods. PMID:22639971

  7. Associations between dietary patterns and hypertension among Korean adults: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Ye; Kim, Ji-Myung

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the dietary patterns associated with the risk of hypertensions among Korean adults using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2010). This study analyzes data from 11,883 subjects who participated in the health and nutrition survey, aging from 20 to 64 years. We performed factor analysis based on the weekly mean intake frequencies of 36 food groups to identify major dietary patterns. We identified three major dietary patterns in both sexes, namely "traditional", "western" and "dairy and carbohydrate" patterns. Participants in the highest quartile of western pattern scores had significantly higher blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels than those in the lowest quartile. Although not statistically significant, a trend (P for trend = 0.0732) toward a positive association between the western dietary pattern and hypertension risk was observed after adjustments for age, sex, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, and energy intake. The dairy and carbohydrate pattern was inversely related with BMI and blood pressures and positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. After adjusting the age, sex, education, income, BMI, smoking, physical activity and energy intake, the dairy and carbohydrate pattern showed inverse associations with hypertension prevalence (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.55-0.75; P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber, sodium, and antioxidant vitamins were significantly higher in the top quartile for the traditional pattern than in the lowest quartile for the traditional pattern (P for trend < 0.0001). Intakes of fiber (P for trend < 0.0001), calcium (P for trend < 0.0001), retinol (P for trend = 0.0164), vitamin B1 (P for trend = 0.001), vitamin B2 (P for trend < 0.0001), niacin (P for trend = 0.0025), and vitamin C (P for trend < 0.0001) were significantly increased across quartiles for

  8. Distribution and structure of pranktonic Archaea in the Arctic Ocean using 2008 - 2010 R/V Mirai cruise samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano (Sato), C.; Akiyama, S.; Uchida, M.; Utsumi, M.

    2011-12-01

    Recent molecular biological techniques indicate that there is widely spreading marine planktonic Archaea in the world's ocean under euphotic zone, and those microbial metabolisms are now recognized the drive forces of the world ocean geochemical cycling. In addition, after the discovery of large amount of marine Archaea, it is pointed out to an accurate calculation of the ocean carbon cycling that the grasp of the Archaea quantitive distribution and their methabolism are indispensable. Remarkably, part of marine Archaea (Crenarchaeota) certainly has carbon fixing ability, thus there is currently great interest in the marine Archaea for getting to understand the carbon cycling. In this study, we evaluated the Archaeal spatial distribution and their biomass in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, where is the Archaeal quantitative data was less and strongly needed to reveal the marine bacterial carbon cycling due to resent changing the Arctic region such as extensive melting ice. The Arctic Ocean cruise by R/V MIRAI was done from August to October in 2008 - 2010 in the Chukchi Sea, Canada Basin and East Siberian Sea. In these cruises, vertical seawater samples were collected with 12 L Niskin bottles with CTD system at total 30 stations to investigate the distributions of bacterial population density. The Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD-FISH) technique targeting Crenarchaeal, Euryarchaeal and Eubacterial rRNA was used for identifying and enumerating marine microbial cells under florescent microscope. These cells were counted and measured the size, and calculated the biomass. From the results, in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean, it was determined that the fraction of Archaea was abundant under euphotic zone like as other oceans, and the vertical distribution of planktonic Archaea were obviously different by each sea area. Especially in East Siberian Sea, the fraction of Crenarchaeota was relatively high near bottom

  9. Hepatitis B outbreak associated with a home health care agency serving multiple assisted living facilities in Texas, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Zheteyeva, Yenlik A; Tosh, Pritish; Patel, Priti R; Martinez, Diana; Kilborn, Cindy; Awosika-Olumo, Debo; Khuwaja, Salma; Ibrahim, Syed; Ryder, Anthony; Tohme, Rania A; Khudyakov, Yury; Thai, Hong; Drobeniuc, Jan; Heseltine, Gary; Guh, Alice Y

    2014-01-01

    We investigated a multifacility outbreak of acute hepatitis B virus infection involving 21 residents across 10 assisted living facilities in Texas during the period January 2008 through July 2010. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggested that these infections belonged to a single outbreak. The only common exposure was receipt of assisted monitoring of blood glucose from the same home health care agency. Improved infection control oversight and training of assisted living facility and home health care agency personnel providing assisted monitoring of blood glucose is needed. PMID:24176604

  10. How Grammatical Are 3-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu; Germezia, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the level of grammatical accuracy in typically developing 3-year-olds and the types of errors they produce. Method: Twenty-two 3-year-olds participated in a picture description task. The percentage of grammatical utterances was computed and error types were analyzed. Results: The mean level of grammatical accuracy…

  11. A population-based study on infertility and its influencing factors in four selected provinces in Iran (2008-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Rostami Dovom, Marzieh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Amirshekari, Golshan; Hashemi, Somayeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infertility has a varied impact on multiple dimensions of health and functioning of women. Objective: We aimed to identify the burden of infertility and its influencing factors based on a population based study conducted in four provinces of Iran. Materials and Methods: A sample of 1126 women, aged 18-45 years, was selected using the multi stage, stratified probability sampling procedure; those met the eligibility criteria were invited for further comprehensive interview. This study used the definition of infertility proposed by World Health Organization “the woman has never conceived despite cohabitation and exposure to pregnancy for a period of 1 year”. Results : The overall prevalence of lifetime infertility and current primary infertility were 21.1% (95% CI: 18.4- 23.8) and 6.4% (95% CI: 4.8-8) respectively. The probability of first pregnancy at the end of 2 years of marriage was 94% for all ever-married women. Infertility were observed as significantly higher among women age 31-35 (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 1.9-11.5; p=0.001) and women with more than 9 years of education (OR: 2.8; 95% CI: 1.5-3.3; p<0.0001). Conclusion: The necessities of modern living have compelled many women to postpone childbearing to their late reproductive years; however they must be informed of being at risk of infertility with ageing. PMID:25408706

  12. Determination of flow losses in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington, North Carolina, 2008-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J. Curtis; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2013-01-01

    During 2008-2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic investigation in cooperation with the Triangle J Council of Governments Cape Fear River Flow Study Committee and the North Carolina Division of Water Resources to collect hydrologic data in the Cape Fear River between B. Everett Jordan Lake and Lillington in central North Carolina to help determine if suspected flow losses occur in the reach. Flow loss analyses were completed by summing the daily flow releases at Jordan Lake Dam with the daily discharges at Deep River at Moncure and Buckhorn Creek near Corinth, then subtracting these values from the daily discharges at Cape Fear River at Lillington. Examination of long-term records revealed that during 10,227 days of the 1983-2010 water years, 408 days (4.0 percent) had flow loss when conditions were relatively steady with respect to the previous day's records. The flow loss that occurred on these 40 days ranged from 0.49 to 2,150 cubic feet per second with a median flow loss of 37.2 cubic feet per second. The months with the highest number of days with flow losses were June (16. percent), September (16.9 percent), and October (19.4 percent). A series of synoptic discharge measurements made on six separate days in 2009 provided "snapshots" of overall flow conditions along the study reach. The largest water diversion is just downstream from the confluence of the Haw and Deep Rivers, and discharges substantially decrease in the main stem downstream from the intake point. Downstream from Buckhorn Dam, minimal gain or loss between the dam and Raven Rock State Park was noted. Analyses of discharge measurements and ratings for two streamgages-one at Deep River at Moncure and the other at Cape Fear River at Lillington-were completed to address the accuracy of the relation between stage and discharge at these sites. The ratings analyses did not indicate a particular time during the 1982-2011 water years in which a consistent bias occurred in the

  13. Interplate coupling model off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia, based on continuous GPS data in 2008-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanifa, Nuraini Rahma; Sagiya, Takeshi; Kimata, Fumiaki; Efendi, Joni; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Meilano, Irwan

    2014-09-01

    We present an interplate coupling model of the Australia-Java plate interface off the southwestern coast of Java, Indonesia, based on data from the Indonesian Permanent GPS Station Network from 2008 to 2010. The majority of vertical data indicate uplift, while the baseline change rate indicates coastal contraction in the middle of the network and coastal extension in the eastern part of the network. Using the rate of baseline length changes and the absolute rate of vertical displacements, we apply a geodetic inversion method by Yabuki and Matsu'ura (1992). From the inversion result, we interpret the main source of the observed velocity in West Java as resulting from contributions of (1) interplate coupling off Ujung Kulon-Pelabuhan Ratu at 20 to 40 km depth, with a slip rate range from 48 to 56 mm/yr, (2) interplate coupling off Pangandaran at 37 to 45 km depth with a slip rate of 48 to 55 mm/yr, (3) afterslip off Pangandaran within the rupture area of the 2006 M7.8 Java earthquake, in the depth range of 15-20 km, with a slip excess rate of 57-61 mm/yr. The absence of a megathrust earthquake for at least 300 years in this region implies seismic moment accumulation during this time period of 1.6×1021 Nm (˜Mw 8.7) off Ujung Kulon-Pelabuhan Ratu, and 3.9×1021 Nm (˜Mw 8.3) off Pangandaran, unless episodic slow slips release tectonic stress.

  14. Source apportionment of particles at Station Nord, North East Greenland during 2008-2010 using COPREM and PMF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. T.; Skov, H.; Sørensen, L. L.; Jensen, B. J.; Grube, A. G.; Massling, A.; Glasius, M.; Nøjgaard, J. K.

    2012-09-01

    In order to develop strategies for controlling and reducing Arctic air pollution, there is a need to understand the basic mechanisms for determining the fate of air pollution in the Arctic. Sources of atmospheric particles at Station Nord (81°36' N, 16°40' W) in North East Greenland were evaluated for a two-year period from March 2008 to February 2010. Source apportionment using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and COnstrained Physical Receptor Model (COPREM) was based on measurements of black carbon, elements (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pb) and inorganic ions (SO2, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, NO3-, Cl-). In general, source apportionment results by PMF and COPREM showed good agreement. Five sources adequately explained the measurements, which included a Marine and a Soil source of natural origin and three additional anthropogenic sources, which were all influenced by metal industries. One anthropogenic source was dominated by Zn of which air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model suggested a Canadian Arctic origin, despite certain influences from southern and eastern origins. Another anthropogenic source was characterised by high concentrations of Pb and As, which has been historically referred to as a Combustion source at Station Nord. The impacts of large-scale industry in Siberia, Russia were evident through high Cu concentrations in both the Combustion source and an additional Cu/Ni source. Br correlated well with the anthropogenic species S and Pb though the elements are unlikely to have a common origin. More likely, sulphuric acid aerosols serve as transport containers for Br species of marine or local origin. Of particular relevance to climate, sources of black carbon were identified to be mainly anthropogenic and most probably of Siberian origin (80-98%).

  15. Source apportionment of particles at Station Nord, North East Greenland during 2008-2010 using COPREM and PMF analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. T.; Skov, H.; Sørensen, L. L.; Jensen, B. J.; Grube, A. G.; Massling, A.; Glasius, M.; Nøjgaard, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop strategies for controlling and reducing Arctic air pollution, there is a need to understand the basic mechanisms for determining the fate of air pollution in the Arctic. Sources of atmospheric particles at Station Nord (81° 36' N, 16° 40' W) in North East Greenland were evaluated for a two-year period from March 2008 to February 2010. Source apportionment using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and COnstrained Physical REceptor Model (COPREM) was based on measurements of black carbon, elements (Al, Si, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Pb) and inorganic ions (SO2, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, NO3-, Cl2-. In general, source apportionment results by PMF and COPREM showed good agreement. Five sources adequately explained the measurements, which included a Marine and a Soil source of natural origin and three additional anthropogenic sources, which were all influenced by metal industries. One anthropogenic source was dominated by Zn of which air mass back trajectories using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model suggested a Canadian Arctic origin, despite certain influences from Southern and Eastern origins. Another anthropogenic source was characterised by high concentrations of Pb and As, which has been historically referred to as a Combustion source at Station Nord. The impacts of large-scale industry in Siberia, Russia were evident through high Cu concentrations in both the Combustion source and an additional Cu/Ni source. Br correlated well with the anthropogenic species S and Pb though the elements are unlikely to have a common origin. More likely, sulphuric acid aerosols serve as transport containers for Br species of marine origin. Of particular relevance to climate, sources of black carbon were identified to be mainly anthropogenic and most probably of Siberian origin (80-98%).

  16. Water resources of the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge, Genesee and Orleans counties, New York 2008-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.; Jennings, Matthew B.

    2012-01-01

    A 2-year study of the water resources of the Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) in western New York was carried out in 2009-2010 in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assist the Refuge in the development of a 15-year Comprehensive Conservtion plan. The study focused on Oak Orchard Creek, which flows through the Refuge, the groundwater resources that underlie the Refuge, and the possible changes to these resources related to the potential development of a bedrock quarry along the northern side of the Refuge. Oak Orchard Creek was monitored seasonally for flow and water quality; four tributary streams, which flowed only during early spring, also were monitored. A continuous streamgage was operated on Oak Orchard Creek, just north of the Refuge at Harrison Road. Four bedrock wells were drilled within the Refuge to determine the type and thickness of unconsolidated glacial sediments and to characterize the thickness and type of bedrock units beneath the Refuge, primarily the Lockport Dolomite. Water levels were monitored in 17 wells within and adjacent to the Refuge and water-quality samples were collected from 11 wells and 6 springs and analyzed for physical properties, nutrients, major ions, and trace metals. Flow in Oak Orchard Creek is from two different sources. During spring runoff, flow from the Onondaga Limestone Escarpment, several miles south of the Refuge, supplements surface-water runoff and groundwater discharge from the Salina Group to the south and east of the Refuge. Flow to Oak Orchard Creek also comes from surface-water runoff from the Lockport Dolomite Escarpment, north of the Refuge, and from groundwater discharging from the Lockport Dolomite and unconsolidated deposits that overlie the Lockport Dolomite. During the summer and fall low-flow period, only small quantities of groundwater flow from the Salina shales and Lockport Dolomite bedrock and the unconsolidated sediments that overlie them; most of this flow is lost to

  17. A 3-year dataset of sensible and latent heat fluxes from the Tibetan Plateau, derived using eddy covariance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Maoshan; Babel, Wolfgang; Chen, Xuelong; Zhang, Lang; Sun, Fanglin; Wang, Binbin; Ma, Yaoming; Hu, Zeyong; Foken, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) has become a focus of strong scientific interest due to its role in the global water cycle and its reaction to climate change. Regional flux estimates of sensible and latent heat are important variables for linking the energy and hydrological cycles at the TP's surface. Within this framework, a 3-year dataset (2008-2010) of eddy covariance measured turbulent fluxes was compiled from four stations on the TP into a standardised workflow: corrections and quality tests were applied using an internationally comparable software package. Second, the energy balance closure ( C EB) was determined and two different closure corrections applied. The four stations (Qomolangma, Linzhi, NamCo and Nagqu) represent different locations and typical land surface types on the TP (high altitude alpine steppe with sparse vegetation, a densely vegetated alpine meadow, and bare soil/gravel, respectively). We show that the C EB differs between each surface and undergoes seasonal changes. Typical differences in the turbulent energy fluxes occur between the stations at Qomolangma, Linzhi and NamCo, while Nagqu is quite similar to NamCo. Specific investigation of the pre-monsoon, the Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon, post-monsoon and winter periods within the annual cycle reinforces these findings. The energy flux of the four sites is clearly influenced by the Tibetan Plateau monsoon. In the pre-monsoon period, sensible heat flux is the major energy source delivering heat to the atmosphere, whereas latent heat flux is greater than sensible heat flux during the monsoon season. Other factors affecting surface energy flux are topography and location. Land cover type also affects surface energy flux. The energy balance residuum indicates a typically observed overall non-closure in winter, while closure (or `turbulent over-closure') is achieved during the Tibetan Plateau summer monsoon at the Nagqu site. The latter seems to depend on ground heat flux, which is higher in the

  18. Oral health behaviors and bone mineral density in South Korea: the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Yang-Hyun; Cho, Kyung-Hwan; Han, Byoung-Duck; Kim, Seon-Mee; Choi, Youn-Seon; Kim, Do-Hoon; Do Han, Kyung-; Lee, Yong-Joo; Kim, Chul-Min

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between oral health behaviors and bone mineral density (BMD) by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2008-2010. We included 6,620 subjects (3,140 men aged more than 50 years and 3,480 postmenopausal women). BMD was measured at three sites-namely, the lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck. Oral health behaviors were assessed by use of a self-administered questionnaire in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjustment for all covariates, BMD of the lumbar spine and femur neck tended to increase as the frequency of tooth brushing increased in men (p trend = 0.020 and p trend = 0.028, respectively). Women using secondary oral products had increased lumbar spine BMD compared with women who did not use secondary oral products. However, after adjustment for all covariates, no significant relationship was observed between BMD and the use of secondary oral products. As the frequency of tooth brushing and the number of secondary oral products used increased, the prevalence of osteoporosis decreased. The frequency of tooth brushing is associated with increased lumbar spine and femur neck BMD in South Korean men. PMID:26031936

  19. Serum ferritin levels are positively associated with bone mineral density in elderly Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Shik; Jang, Ji Su; Lee, Dong Ryul; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Do Han, Kyung; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Do Hoon

    2014-11-01

    A possible negative effect of iron overload on bone metabolism has been suggested by the fact that patients with hemochromatosis, thalassemia, and sickle cell anemia have lower bone mineral density than the general population. However, the influence of iron overload on bone health in the general population is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Koreans. A total of 2,943 subjects aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were included in this study. Age, physical activity, current smoking status, alcohol consumption, education level, household income, and dietary assessment were surveyed by a face-to-face interview. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and other biochemical markers, including serum ferritin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone, were assayed. After adjusting for age and body mass index, we found an association between BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck and levels of alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and daily intake of calcium and protein. Serum ferritin levels were positively associated with BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck after adjusting for all covariates in men, but not in women. This study suggests a positive association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in elderly South Korean men without hematologic disorders. Further study is warranted to verify the effects of iron on bone metabolism. PMID:24337956

  20. Association Between Obesity, Abdominal Obesity, and Adiposity and the Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis in Young Korean Adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Kyung Do; Jung, Han mi; Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Jun Young; Park, Yong Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Whether obesity is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD) remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between obesity and AD in Korean young adults. Methods We included nationally representative data of 5,202 Korean adults aged 19-40 years, obtained from the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010. Results Single (unmarried) status was more frequently observed in AD patients (male, [P=0.0002] and female, [P<0.0001]). AD prevalence exhibited a U-shape trend in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and total body fat (BF) percentage, especially in young adult women. Women with BMI ≥25 kg/m2, WC ≥80 cm, and highest quartile (Q4) of total BF percentage had the highest prevalence of AD. The odds ratio (OR) for participants with both BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and WC ≥80 cm was 3.29 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.55); therefore, having both general and abdominal obesity was considered a prominent risk factor for AD in young women. After adjustment for confounding factors, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, vitamin D, income level, and single status, high BMI (≥30 kg/m2) (OR=4.08, 95% CI: 1.53-10.93), high WC (≥80 cm) (OR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.07-3.94), and high BF percentage (Q4) (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.24-3.57) were shown to be significantly associated with AD in young adult women. Conclusions In this large-scale nation-wide study of Korean adults, obesity was positively related to the presence of AD in women. Our findings suggest that weight management may help prevent AD. PMID:26739403

  1. Association between long-term exposure to air pollutants and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in 108 South Korean communities in 2008-2010: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Whan Hee; Choo, Jee-Young; Son, Ji-Young; Kim, Ho

    2016-09-15

    Air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological association between the yearly concentration of air pollution and regional prevalence of cardiovascular disease in South Korea. In this cross-sectional study, data regarding the regional prevalence of cardiovascular disease (i.e., hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, and angina) and health behaviors were obtained from the Korean Community Health Survey conducted in 108 communities of South Korea in 2008-2010. Data on carbon monoxide (CO; ppb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2; ppb), and particulate matter up to 10μm in size (PM10; μg/m(3)) were collected from the National Institute of Environmental Research. We used a distributed lag model with generalized estimating equations to represent the corrected lag-response and correlation among repeated observations. Cumulative odds ratios of hypertension, hypertension in those aged >30years, stroke, and angina with an increase of 10μg/m(3) in PM10 were 1.042 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.009, 1.077), 1.044 (CI: 1.009, 1.079), 1.044 (CI: 0.979, 1.114), and 0.977 (CI: 0.901, 1.059), respectively; a 10ppb increase in NO2 was associated with an odds ratio of 1.077 (CI: 1.044, 1.112), 1.08 (CI: 1.043, 1.118), 1.073 (CI: 0.994, 1.157), and 1.047 (CI: 0.968, 1.134), respectively. A 10ppb increase in CO was associated with an odds ratio of 1.123 (CI: 0.963, 1.31), 1.129 (CI: 0.963, 1.387), and 1.336 (CI: 0.9887, 2.011) for hypertension, hypertension in patients >30years, and stroke >50, respectively. We found suggestive evidence of an association between the long-term exposure (i.e., delayed for 5years) to air pollutants (i.e., PM10, NO2, and CO) and the regional prevalence of chronic cardiovascular disease (i.e., hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, and angina) in 108 communities in South Korea. PMID:27177133

  2. Effectiveness of trivalent and pandemic influenza vaccines in England and Wales 2008-2010: results from a cohort study in general practice.

    PubMed

    Hardelid, Pia; Fleming, Douglas M; Andrews, Nick; Barley, Michele; Durnall, Hayley; Mangtani, Punam; Pebody, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Estimation of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is complicated by various degrees of mismatch between circulating and vaccine strains each season. We carried out a cohort study to estimate VE of trivalent (TIV) and pandemic influenza vaccines (PIV) in preventing various respiratory outcomes among general practice (GP) patients in England and Wales between 2008 and 2010. Dates of consultations for influenza-like illness (ILI), acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI), lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from the patient-level electronic records of the 100 practices enrolled in a national GP network. Dates of vaccination with TIV and PIV were also extracted. Confounders including age, time period and consultation frequency were adjusted for through Poisson regression models. In the winter of 2008/9, adjusted VE of TIV in preventing ILI was 22.3% (95% CI 13.5%, 30.2%). During the 2009/10 winter VE for PIV in preventing ILI was 21.0% (5.3%, 34.0%). The VE for PIV in preventing PCR-confirmed influenza A/H1N1 (2009) was 63.7% (-6.1%, 87.6%). TIV during the period of influenza circulation of 2008/9 and PIV in the winter of 2009/10 were effective in preventing GP consultations for ILI. The cohort study design could be used each season to estimate VE; however, residual confounding by indication could still present issues, despite adjustment for propensity to consult. PMID:22178524

  3. A 3-Year Retrospective Evaluation of the Clinical Performance of Fiber Posts.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Marina; Coppo, Priscilla Pessin; Rosalem, Cíntia Gonçalves Carvalho; Suaid, Fabricia Ferreira; Guerra, Selva Maria Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical outcome of 139 teeth restored with carbon fiber posts after 3 years of placement, considering the amount of remaining dentin as the main variable. Eighty-one patients received the fiber posts within a period of 16 months and were recalled after 3 years. The tooth type, amount of remaining dentin, and prosthetic crown material were evaluated. No loss of post or core retention was detected after 3 years of follow up. During the observed time, root or post fracture and secondary caries were not recorded. Only one failure concerning endodontic treatment was detected. The amount of remaining dentin was not an important characteristic in the restorative failure of endodontically treated teeth restored with carbon fiber posts within 3 years. PMID:26963206

  4. A 3-year randomized therapeutic trial of nitisinone in alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Introne, Wendy J; Perry, Monique B; Troendle, James; Tsilou, Ekaterini; Kayser, Michael A; Suwannarat, Pim; O'Brien, Kevin E; Bryant, Joy; Sachdev, Vandana; Reynolds, James C; Moylan, Elizabeth; Bernardini, Isa; Gahl, William A

    2011-08-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of tyrosine degradation due to deficiency of the third enzyme in the catabolic pathway. As a result, homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulates and is excreted in gram quantities in the urine, which turns dark upon alkalization. The first symptoms, occurring in early adulthood, involve a painful, progressively debilitating arthritis of the spine and large joints. Cardiac valvular disease and renal and prostate stones occur later. Previously suggested therapies have failed to show benefit, and management remains symptomatic. Nitisinone, a potent inhibitor of the second enzyme in the tyrosine catabolic pathway, is considered a potential therapy; proof-of-principle studies showed 95% reduction in urinary HGA. Based on those findings, a prospective, randomized clinical trial was initiated in 2005 to evaluate 40 patients over a 36-month period. The primary outcome parameter was hip total range of motion with measures of musculoskeletal function serving as secondary parameters. Biochemically, this study consistently demonstrated 95% reduction of HGA in urine and plasma over the course of 3 years. Clinically, primary and secondary parameters did not prove benefit from the medication. Side effects were infrequent. This trial illustrates the remarkable tolerability of nitisinone, its biochemical efficacy, and the need to investigate its use in younger individuals prior to development of debilitating arthritis. PMID:21620748

  5. Lung cancer drug therapy in Hungary – 3-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Moldvay, Judit; Rokszin, György; Abonyi-Tóth, Zsolt; Katona, Lajos; Fábián, Katalin; Kovács, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Hungary is a world leader in lung cancer deaths, so it is of crucial importance that patients have access to modern treatments. The aim of our analysis was to explore how drug treatments are used in Hungary and how they are compatible with international practice. The inpatient and prescription database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration of Hungary was used to study the frequency of certain chemotherapy protocols and duration of therapies during a 3-year period (2008–2010). During the study period, 12,326 lung cancer patients received first-line chemotherapy, a third of those (n=3,791) received second-line treatment, and a third of the latter (n=1,174) received third-line treatment. The average treatment duration was between 3 and 4 months. The first-line treatment of non-small-cell lung carcinoma mainly consisted of platinum treatment in combination with third-generation cytotoxic agents. A downward trend of gemcitabine, still the most common combination compound, was observed, in parallel with a significantly increased use of paclitaxel, and as a consequence carboplatin replaced cisplatin. Among the new agents, the use of pemetrexed and bevacizumab increased. Pemetrexed appeared mainly in second-line treatment, while erlotinib appeared also in second-line but mostly in third-line treatments. The first-line treatment of small-cell lung carcinoma consisted of a platinum–etoposide combination, while in the second-line setting topotecan was the most commonly used drug. According to our results, the chemotherapeutic combinations and sequencing are in accordance with international and national recommendations. Further detailed analysis of the available data may help to obtain a more accurate picture of the efficacy of lung cancer treatments as well. PMID:25999737

  6. Nativity status/length of stay in the US and excessive gestational weight gain in New York City teens, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Mary H; Borrell, Luisa N; Chambers, Earle C

    2015-02-01

    Nativity status/length of stay in the US has been found to be associated with obesity. However, little work has examined the role of nativity status/length of stay in excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) in adolescents. This study utilized New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene birth certificate data in a cross-sectional analysis of 15,715 singleton births to primiparous teen mothers (12-19 years) between 2008 and 2010. Nativity and length of stay in the United States (US) were obtained from birth certificates. EGWG was calculated using weight at delivery and pre-pregnancy weight. Prevalence ratios were calculated through generalized estimating equations to assess the strength of the association between nativity status/length of US residence and EGWG. For US-born teens, 43 % gained more weight than recommended as compared to 32 % for foreign-born teens who have lived in the US for less than 5 years (FB <5 years). Following adjustment for maternal demographics and other factors, US-born teens (adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) (CI) 1.26 [1.18,1.34]), FB 10+ years (APR (CI) 1.17 [1.07,1.28]), and FB 5-10 years (APR (CI) 1.11 [1.01,1.21]) were more likely to have gained weight excessively as compared to FB <5 years. US-born teens and FB teens that have been in the US longer than 5 years are more likely to gain weight excessively during pregnancy as compared to teens with fewer than 5 years in the US. These results identify a critical period when adolescents are in frequent contact with health care providers and can receive counseling regarding healthy weight gain. PMID:24974089

  7. Seroepidemiology of Coxsackievirus A6, Coxsackievirus A16, and Enterovirus 71 Infections among Children and Adolescents in Singapore, 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Li Wei; Tay, Joanne; Phoon, Meng Chee; Hsu, Jung Pu; Cutter, Jeffery; James, Lyn; Goh, Kee Tai; Chow, Vincent Tak-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Coxsackieviruses A6 (CV-A6) and A16 (CV-A16) and Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) have caused periodic epidemics of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) among children in Singapore. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the seroprevalence of these enteroviruses among Singapore children and adolescents. The study was conducted between August 2008 and July 2010. It involved 700 Singapore residents aged 1–17 years whose residual sera were obtained following the completion of routine biochemical investigations in two public acute-care hospitals. The levels of neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) against CV-A6, CV-A16 and EV-A71 were analyzed by the microneutralization test. The age-specific geometric mean titer (GMT) of antibodies against each of the three enteroviruses and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The seroprevalence of CV-A6 and CV-A16 was high at 62.7% (95% CI: 59.1–66.2%) and 60.6% (95% CI: 56.9–64.1%), respectively. However, the seroprevalence of EV-A71 was significantly lower at 29.3% (95% CI: 26.0–32.8%). About 89.7% of the children and adolescents had been infected by at least one of the three enteroviruses by 13–17 years of age. About half (52.3%) were seropositive for two or all three enteroviruses, while only 16.1% had no NtAb against any of the three enteroviruses. High NtAb levels were observed in the younger age groups. CV-A6 and CV-A16 infections are very common among Singapore children and adolescents, while EV-A71 infections are less common. Infection is continually acquired from early childhood to adolescent age. PMID:26011735

  8. Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old Print A A A ... 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms) and grow about 2 to 3 inches (5 to 8 centimeters). They' ...

  9. Plethora or paucity: a systematic search and bibliometric study of the application and design of qualitative methods in nursing research 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Ball, Elaine; McLoughlin, Moira; Darvill, Angela

    2011-04-01

    Qualitative methodology has increased in application and acceptability in all research disciplines. In nursing, it is appropriate that a plethora of qualitative methods can be found as nurses pose real-world questions to clinical, cultural and ethical issues of patient care (Johnson, 2007; Long and Johnson, 2007), yet the methods nurses readily use in pursuit of answers remains under intense scrutiny. One of the problems with qualitative methodology for nursing research is its place in the hierarchy of evidence (HOE); another is its comparison to the positivist constructs of what constitutes good research and the measurement of qualitative research against this. In order to position and strengthen its evidence base, nursing may well seek to distance itself from a qualitative perspective and utilise methods at the top of the HOE; yet given the relation of qualitative methods to nursing this would constrain rather than broaden the profession in search of answers and an evidence base. The comparison between qualitative and quantitative can be both mutually exclusive and rhetorical, by shifting the comparison this study takes a more reflexive position and critically appraises qualitative methods against the standards set by qualitative researchers. By comparing the design and application of qualitative methods in nursing over a two year period, the study examined how qualitative stands up to independent rather than comparative scrutiny. For the methods, a four-step mixed methods approach newly constructed by the first author was used to define the scope of the research question and develop inclusion criteria. 2. Synthesis tables were constructed to organise data, 3. Bibliometrics configured data. 4. Studies selected for inclusion in the review were critically appraised using a critical interpretive synthesis (Dixon-Woods et al., 2006). The paper outlines the research process as well as findings. Results showed of the 240 papers analysed, 27% used ad hoc or no

  10. The long-lasting activity of 3C 454.3. GASP-WEBT and satellite observations in 2008-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Aller, M. F.; Gurwell, M. A.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionov, V. M.; Romano, P.; Vercellone, S.; Agudo, I.; Aller, H. D.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bach, U.; Benítez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Blinov, D. A.; Borisova, E. V.; Böttcher, M.; Bravo Calle, O. J. A.; Buemi, C. S.; Calcidese, P.; Carosati, D.; Casas, R.; Chen, W.-P.; Efimova, N. V.; Gómez, J. L.; Gusbar, C.; Hawkins, K.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Hsiao, H. Y.; Jordan, B.; Jorstad, S. G.; Joshi, M.; Kimeridze, G. N.; Koptelova, E.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Leto, P.; Li, Y.; Ligustri, R.; Lindfors, E.; Lister, M.; Marscher, A. P.; Molina, S. N.; Morozova, D. A.; Nieppola, E.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Nilsson, K.; Palma, N.; Pasanen, M.; Reinthal, R.; Roberts, V.; Ros, J. A.; Roustazadeh, P.; Sadun, A. C.; Sakamoto, T.; Schwartz, R. D.; Sigua, L. A.; Sillanpää, A.; Takalo, L. O.; Tammi, J.; Taylor, B.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Troitsky, I. S.; Umana, G.; Volvach, A.; Yuldasheva, T. A.

    2011-10-01

    Context. The blazar 3C 454.3 is one of the most active sources from the radio to the γ-ray frequencies observed in the past few years. Aims: We present multiwavelength observations of this source from April 2008 to March 2010. The radio to optical data are mostly from the GASP-WEBT, UV and X-ray data from Swift, and γ-ray data from the AGILE and Fermi satellites. The aim is to understand the connection among emissions at different frequencies and to derive information on the emitting jet. Methods: Light curves in 18 bands were carefully assembled to study flux variability correlations. We improved the calibration of optical-UV data from the UVOT and OM instruments and estimated the Lyα flux to disentangle the contributions from different components in this spectral region. Results: The observations reveal prominent variability above 8 GHz. In the optical-UV band, the variability amplitude decreases with increasing frequency due to a steadier radiation from both a broad line region and an accretion disc. The optical flux reaches nearly the same levels in the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 observing seasons; the mm one shows similar behaviour, whereas the γ and X-ray flux levels rise in the second period. Two prominent γ-ray flares in mid 2008 and late 2009 show a double-peaked structure, with a variable γ/optical flux ratio. The X-ray flux variations seem to follow the γ-ray and optical ones by about 0.5 and 1 d, respectively. Conclusions: We interpret the multifrequency behaviour in terms of an inhomogeneous curved jet, where synchrotron radiation of increasing wavelength is produced in progressively outer and wider jet regions, which can change their orientation in time. In particular, we assume that the long-term variability is due to this geometrical effect. By combining the optical and mm light curves to fit the γ and X-ray ones, we find that the γ (X-ray) emission may be explained by inverse-Comptonisation of synchrotron optical (IR) photons by their parent

  11. Predictors of Reading Development in Deaf Children: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Harris, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted…

  12. Leadership Coaching in an Induction Program for Novice Principals: A 3-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochmiller, Chad R.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results from a study of leadership coaches who worked with novice principals in a university-based induction program for a 3-year period. The qualitative case study describes how the support the coaches provided to the novice principals changed over time. The study reveals that coaches adapted their leadership coaching…

  13. Individual whole-body concentration of ¹³⁷Cesium is associated with decreased blood counts in children in the Chernobyl-contaminated areas, Ukraine, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Anna; Stepanova, Eugenia; Vdovenko, Vitaliy; McMahon, Daria; Litvinetz, Oksana; Leonovich, Elena; Karmaus, Wilfried

    2015-05-01

    The Narodichesky region, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine, is situated ∼80 km from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which exploded in 1986 and polluted the environment. A previous study found that children living in villages with high activity of (137)Cesium (Cs) in the soil had decreased levels of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and thrombocytes. These findings motivated the present study that used a more comprehensive exposure assessment, including individual whole-body concentrations (WBC) of (137)Cs (Bq/kg). This cross-sectional sample examined between 2008-2010, included 590 children in the age 0-18 years. Children with higher individual log(WBC) activity in the body had significantly decreased hemoglobin, erythrocyte and thrombocyte counts. The effect of log(WBC) on decreased thrombocyte count was only seen in children older than 12 years. The average village activity of (137)Cs (kBq/m(2)) in soil was associated with decreased blood counts only indirectly, through (137)Cs in the body as an intermediate variable. Children in this study were born at least 4 years after the accident and thus exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation from (137)Cs. This cross-sectional study indicates that low levels may be associated with decreased blood counts, but we cannot exclude that these results are due to residual confounding factors. PMID:24064533

  14. Vascular Calcification in Patients with Nondialysis CKD over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Pablo; Cerverón, M. Jesús; Vila, Rocío; Bover, Jordi; Nieto, Javier; Barril, Guillermina; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Fernández, Elvira; Escudero, Verónica; Piñera, Celestino; Adragao, Teresa; Navarro-Gonzalez, Juan F.; Molinero, Luis M.; Castro-Alonso, Cristina; Pallardó, Luis M.; Jamal, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Vascular calcification (VC) is common in CKD, but little is known about its prognostic effect on patients with nondialysis CKD. The prevalence of VC and its ability to predict death, time to hospitalization, and renal progression were assessed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Study of Mineral and Bone Disorders in CKD in Spain is a prospective, observational, 3-year follow-up study of 742 patients with nondialysis CKD stages 3–5 from 39 centers in Spain from April to May 2009. VC was assessed using Adragao (AS; x-ray pelvis and hands) and Kauppila (KS; x-ray lateral lumbar spine) scores from 572 and 568 patients, respectively. The primary end point was death. Secondary outcomes were hospital admissions and appearance of a combined renal end point (beginning of dialysis or drop >30% in eGFR). Factors related to VC were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Survival analysis was assessed by Cox proportional models. Results VC was present in 79% of patients and prominent in 47% (AS≥3 or KS>6). Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02 to 1.07; P<0.001), phosphorous (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.20; P<0.001), and diabetes (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.32 to 3.35; P=0.002) were independently related to AS≥3. After a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range=17–36), there were 70 deaths (10%). After multivariate adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, comorbidity, renal function, and level of phosphorous, AS≥3 but not KS>6 was independently associated with all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.07 to 4.01; P=0.03) and cardiovascular (HR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.27 to 9.45; P=0.02) mortality as well as a shorter hospitalization event–free period (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22; P<0.001). VC did not predict renal progression. Conclusions VC is highly prevalent in patients with CKD. VC assessment using AS independently predicts death and time to hospitalization. Therefore, it could be a useful

  15. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  16. Developing Dialogic Argumentation Skills: A 3-Year Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Amanda; Kuhn, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is increasingly recognized as a fundamental intellectual skill, but evidence suggests that few adolescents or adults are skilled arguers. This article reports on an extended (3-year, twice weekly) intervention designed to afford dense practice in dialogic argumentation to middle-school students from traditionally academically…

  17. The Structure of Executive Function in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Clark, Caron A. C.; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    Although the structure of executive function (EF) during adulthood is characterized by both unity and diversity, recent evidence suggests that preschool EF may be best described by a single factor. The latent structure of EF was examined in 228 3-year-olds using confirmatory factor analysis. Children completed a battery of executive tasks that…

  18. Chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. A 3-year study.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Graham, W L; Bowers, D C; Perfetto, S P

    1983-06-01

    Idiopathic (autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura (ATP) is accepted to be a disorder resulting from accelerated platelet destruction attributed to an autoimmune process. The patient whose case is presented in this article was first seen by a dentist. The oral findings have been documented as the case was followed for 3 years through acute exacerbations, pregnancy, and delivery of an infant with thrombocytopenia. The patient was managed with intermittent steroid therapy and splenectomy. PMID:6576288

  19. Associations of blood lead, cadmium, and mercury with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Korean general population: Analysis of 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yangho; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2012-10-15

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between blood lead, cadmium, and mercury levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate in a general population of South Korean adults. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on data obtained in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2010). The final analytical sample consisted of 5924 participants. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the MDRD Study equation as an indicator of glomerular function. Results: In multiple linear regression analysis of log2-transformed blood lead as a continuous variable on eGFR, after adjusting for covariates including cadmium and mercury, the difference in eGFR levels associated with doubling of blood lead were -2.624 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -3.803 to -1.445). In multiple linear regression analysis using quartiles of blood lead as the independent variable, the difference in eGFR levels comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest quartiles of blood lead was -3.835 mL/min per 1.73 m Superscript-Two (95% CI: -5.730 to -1.939). In a multiple linear regression analysis using blood cadmium and mercury, as continuous or categorical variables, as independent variables, neither metal was a significant predictor of eGFR. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI values for reduced eGFR calculated for log2-transformed blood metals and quartiles of the three metals showed similar trends after adjustment for covariates. Discussion: In this large, representative sample of South Korean adults, elevated blood lead level was consistently associated with lower eGFR levels and with the prevalence of reduced eGFR even in blood lead levels below 10 {mu}g/dL. In conclusion, elevated blood lead level was associated with lower eGFR in a Korean general population, supporting the role of lead as a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.

  20. A water and sediment budget for the lower Mississippi-Atchafalaya River in flood years 2008-2010: Implications for sediment discharge to the oceans and coastal restoration in Louisiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Mead A.; Demas, Charles R.; Ebersole, Bruce A.; Kleiss, Barbara A.; Little, Charles D.; Meselhe, Ehab A.; Powell, Nancy J.; Pratt, Thad C.; Vosburg, Brian M.

    2012-04-01

    SummaryThe Mississippi is the largest riverine system in North America and one of the most engineered rivers in the world. The challenges of studying the Mississippi River are due to its complex sediment-water dynamics and the multi (and often competing) uses for its resources. Flood control and navigation are primary factors that control how the river is managed. A third factor is the use of river resources, namely water and sediment, for nourishing the degrading coastal wetlands of the states of Louisiana and Mississippi. As such, these factors must be fully considered and coordinated while investigating and developing techniques to harness the sediment resources of the River for coastal restoration. This paper presents a detailed suspended sediment budget analysis for the lowermost Mississippi and Atchafalaya River systems for the flood years of 2008, 2009, and 2010. Data were derived mainly from Federal and State of Louisiana measurements of water discharge and suspended sediment load at (1) monitoring stations along the river channel and (2) boat-based measurements made during specific project studies at natural passes and man-made channel diversions. The present study was focused on flood years 2008-2010 to (1) minimize the influence on the budgets of a historical decline in sediment loads carried by the river as observed by previous investigators and (2) take advantage of recent improvements in the monitoring network. The results show that both the Mississippi and Atchafalaya distributary pathways were efficient at sequestering suspended sediments, particularly the larger (sand) size fraction. Approximately 44% of the total Mississippi + Red River suspended load (80% of the sand) reaching Old River Control structures split between the distributaries was sequestered upstream of the Gulf of Mexico by overbank storage and channel bed aggradation. Increases in bed aggradation in the Mississippi distributary are linked to a loss of stream power associated with

  1. Articular cartilage of the knee 3 years after ACL reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ji-Hoon; Hosseini, Ali; Wang, Yang; Torriani, Martin; Gill, Thomas J; Grodzinsky, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose T1ρ or T2 relaxation imaging has been increasingly used to evaluate the cartilage of the knee. We investigated the cartilage of ACL-reconstructed knees 3 years after surgery using T2 relaxation times. Patients and methods 10 patients with a clinically successful unilateral ACL reconstruction were examined 3 years after surgery. Multiple-TE fast-spin echo sagittal images of both knees were acquired using a 3T MRI scanner for T2 mapping of the tibiofemoral cartilage. T2 values of the superficial and deep zones of the tibiofemoral cartilage were analyzed in sub-compartmental areas and compared between the ACL-reconstructed and uninjured contralateral knees. Results Higher T2 values were observed in 1 or more sub-compartmental areas of each ACL-reconstructed knee compared to the uninjured contralateral side. Most of the T2 increases were observed at the superficial zones of the cartilage, especially at the medial compartment. At the medial compartment of the ACL-reconstructed knee, the T2 values of the femoral and tibial cartilage were increased by 3–81% compared to the uninjured contralateral side, at the superficial zones of the weight-bearing areas. T2 values in the superficial zone of the central medial femoral condyle differed between the 2 groups (p = 0.002). Interpretation The articular cartilage of ACL-reconstructed knees, although clinically satisfactory, had higher T2 values in the superficial zone of the central medial femoral condyle than in the uninjured contralateral side 3 years after surgery. Further studies are warranted to determine whether these patients would undergo cartilage degeneration over time. PMID:25854533

  2. [Dermatobia hominis infection in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Meissner, M; Kippenberger, S; Valesky, E M; Kaufmann, R

    2012-04-01

    In the context of increasing travel to the tropics, outpatient services are more frequently confronted with non-domestic diseases in Europe. A 3-year old child presented with a painful tumor of the scalp. After incision of the furuncle-like lesion, we extracted a larva of the botfly Dermatobia hominis. Botflies are mainly encountered in Central and South America; they should be considered if patients demonstrate a furuncle-like lesion and have returned from a holiday in these endemic regions. PMID:22068935

  3. Blowout fracture in a 3-year-old.

    PubMed

    Pluijmers, Britt I; Koudstaal, Maarten J; Paridaens, Dion; van der Wal, Karel G H

    2013-06-01

    A 3-year-old patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial department with a fracture of the orbital floor. Due to the lack of clinical symptoms, a conservative approach was chosen. After 3 weeks, an enophthalmos developed. The orbital floor reconstruction was successfully performed through a transconjunctival approach. This case highlights the rarity of pure blowout fractures in young children. The specific presentation and diagnostics of orbital floor fractures in children and the related surgical planning and intervention are discussed. PMID:24436749

  4. Pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Holdaway, M. D.; Kennedy, J.; Ashcroft, T.; Kay-Butler, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Until 1960, 179 cases of infection with Nocardia asteroides had been described in the world literature. Seventeen cases in children were reported by 1963. The organism is a common saprophyte in nature with probably a world-wide distribution. Infection can be primary but is more common in patients with underlying malignancy, auto-immune disease or preceding tuberculosis. Sulphonamides, particularly sulphadiazine, are the drugs of choice in treatment; the value of antibiotics is less clearly established. The indications for surgical treatment have not yet been defined. We record a further case of primary pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child. Images PMID:6035802

  5. Blowout Fracture in a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pluijmers, Britt I.; Koudstaal, Maarten J.; Paridaens, Dion; van der Wal, Karel G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial department with a fracture of the orbital floor. Due to the lack of clinical symptoms, a conservative approach was chosen. After 3 weeks, an enophthalmos developed. The orbital floor reconstruction was successfully performed through a transconjunctival approach. This case highlights the rarity of pure blowout fractures in young children. The specific presentation and diagnostics of orbital floor fractures in children and the related surgical planning and intervention are discussed. PMID:24436749

  6. Fluoxetine in adolescents with comorbid major depression and an alcohol use disorder: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Jack R; Clark, Duncan B; Bukstein, Oscar G; Kelly, Thomas M; Salloum, Ihsan M; Wood, D Scott

    2005-05-01

    The goal of this 3-year follow-up evaluation was to determine whether the decreases in drinking and in depressive symptoms that were noted during our acute phase study with fluoxetine in comorbid adolescents persisted at a 3-year follow-up evaluation. At the 3-year follow-up evaluation, the group continued to demonstrate significantly fewer DSM criteria for an AUD and fewer BDI depressive symptoms and also consumed fewer standard drinks than they had demonstrated at the baseline of the acute phase study. However, 7 of the 10 participants demonstrated MDD at the 3-year follow-up assessment, and 4 demonstrated an AUD. The presence of a MDD was significantly correlated with the presence of an AUD at both the 1-year and the 3-year follow-up assessments. Four of the participants restarted SSRI medications during the follow-up period. Half of the subjects graduated from college during the 3-year assessment period, despite their residual depressive symptoms and drinking. We conclude that the long-term therapeutic effects of an acute phase trial of fluoxetine plus psychotherapy slowly decrease but did not disappear when fluoxetine is discontinued shortly after the acute phase trial. The high rate of MDD at follow-up suggests that longer term antidepressant medication treatment may be needed for at least some comorbid adolescents. PMID:15833583

  7. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children. PMID:27084549

  8. Severe hypercholesterolemia and liver disease in a 3-year old.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amol M; Brautbar, Ariel; Desai, Nirav K; Wilson, Don P

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein-X, which is composed of phospholipids and non-esterified cholesterol, is an abnormal lipoprotein with a density range similar to LDL-C. The two most common ways which lipoprotein-X accumulates is from reflux of bile salts into plasma or deficiency in lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase. This is a case of severe hypercholesterolemia and liver disease in a 3- year old male that presented with pruritus, pale stool, scleral ictus, and abdominal distention. He was diagnosed with primary sclerosing cholangitis which was confirmed by liver biopsy. Our patient was treated with steroids and immunomodulator therapy which was associated with significant reduction in cholestasis and LDL-C levels. Lipoprotein-X has several properties that make it anti-atherogenic, which raises the question if treatment for hypercholesterolemia should be initiated. PMID:27206954

  9. ISS ECLSS: 3 Years of Logistics for Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkedi, Brienne; Thompson, Dean

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is designed to be maintainable. During the 3 years since the ISS US Lab became operational, there have been numerous ECLSS Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) launched and returned to Maintain the ECLSS operation in the US segments. The maintenance logistics have provided tools for maintenance, replaced limited life ORUs and failed ORUs, upgraded ECLSS hardware to improve reliability and placed critical spares onboard prior to need. In most cases, the removed ORUs have been returned for either failure analysis and repair or refurbishment. This paper describes the ECLSS manifesting history and maintenance events and quantifies the numbers of ECLSS items, weights, and volumes.

  10. GRB 030329: 3 years of radio afterglow monitoring.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, A J; Kamble, A; Wijers, R A M J; Resmi, L; Bhattacharya, D; Rol, E; Strom, R; Kouveliotou, C; Oosterloo, T; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2007-05-15

    Radio observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are essential for our understanding of the physics of relativistic blast waves, as they enable us to follow the evolution of GRB explosions much longer than the afterglows in any other wave band. We have performed a 3-year monitoring campaign of GRB 030329 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescopes and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Our observations, combined with observations at other wavelengths, have allowed us to determine the GRB blast wave physical parameters, such as the total burst energy and the ambient medium density, as well as to investigate the jet nature of the relativistic outflow. Further, by modelling the late-time radio light curve of GRB 030329, we predict that the Low-Frequency Array (30-240 MHz) will be able to observe afterglows of similar GRBs, and constrain the physics of the blast wave during its non-relativistic phase. PMID:17293318

  11. Radiological evaluation of the Cresco system in combination with Osseospeed implants: a preliminary 3-year report

    PubMed Central

    BALDINI, N.; DE SANCTIS, M.; CAGIDIACO, M.C.; BALLERI, P.; VIGNOLETTI, F.; GORACCI, C.; FERRARI, M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim. In this preliminary study, the 3-year radiological outcomes of Osseospeed implant-supported fixed complete or partial prostheses made with two different laboratory protocols were compared. Methods. A convenience sample of 34 patients, who were either partially or completely edentulous in either jaw, were randomly assigned to two groups, of 17 patients each, using either a traditional laboratory protocol (control group) or the Cresco one (test group). The study’s objective was an assessment of marginal bone loss around implants, measured on intraoral radiographs at 3-year follow-up. Results. None of the implants inserted was lost during the study and radiological measurements of marginal bone level changes revealed that the mean marginal bone loss was respectively 0,73±0,33mm for test group and 0,88±1,13mm for control group. The differences between test and control groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion. This preliminary study did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in marginal bone loss around implant-prostheses prepared with the two different laboratory protocols, over the 3-year observational period. PMID:25694796

  12. [Results of 3-year study of toothbrushing with a fluoride amine gel].

    PubMed

    Szöke, J; Kozma, M

    1989-12-01

    265 6-year-old children were investigated over a period of 3 years. In the test group, 6 toothbrushing exercises and 25-30 controlled applications of Elmex Gelèe were carried out yearly. The effect was analyzed by oral hygiene, caries frequency, caries intensity, and caries increase. The improvement of the oral hygiene index according to Silness-Löe was 30% and can be characterized as highly statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The inhibition of caries increase related to the surface (delta DMF-S) was 53% in the case of caries with substance loss and was also highly significant. PMID:2639721

  13. The self-tapping and ICE 3i implants: a prospective 3-year multicenter evaluation.

    PubMed

    Davarpanah, M; Martinez, H; Tecucianu, J F; Alcoforado, G; Etienne, D; Celletti, R

    2001-01-01

    This multicenter prospective clinical evaluation was undertaken to determine the therapeutic success and marginal bone level stability of 3i's self-tapping and ICE implants after 3 years of prosthetic loading. Between July 1995 and June 1996, 189 completely or partially edentulous patients were treated with 614 machined-surface screw-type commercially pure titanium implants (self-tapping or ICE). Two hundred seventy-seven self-tapping implants were placed in 85 patients (average age of 56 years), and 337 ICE implants were placed in 104 patients (average age of 61 years). A total of 360 implants (58.6%) were placed in posterior segments. Easier placement was reported with the ICE implant in normal or dense bone. For the self-tapping implants, survival rates of 92.9% and 91.6% were noted after 1 and 3 years of prosthetic loading, respectively. Survival rates of 95.4% and 93.8% were obtained with the ICE implant for the same periods. Late failures (after loading) were more common than early failures (before loading) for both types of implants. The marginal bone level of 238 self-tapping implants (85.9%) and of 307 ICE implants (91%) was radiographically evaluated at 3 years. Marginal bone level was at the first thread for 95.1% of implants. A loss of marginal bone level of 2 to 4 threads was noted for 4.9% of the evaluated implants. No implant showed bone loss greater than the fourth thread. Overall survival rates of 94.3% and 92.9% were obtained after 1 and 3 years of prosthetic loading, respectively, for 596 and 588 implants. PMID:11280362

  14. Natural inflation: Status after WMAP 3-year data

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, Christopher; Freese, Katherine; Kinney, William H.

    2006-12-15

    The model of natural inflation is examined in light of recent 3-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe and shown to provide a good fit. The inflaton potential is naturally flat due to shift symmetries, and in the simplest version takes the form V({phi})={lambda}{sup 4}[1{+-}cos(N{phi}/f)]. The model agrees with WMAP3 measurements as long as f>0.7m{sub Pl} (where m{sub Pl}=1.22x10{sup 19} GeV) and {lambda}{approx}m{sub GUT}. The running of the scalar spectral index is shown to be small--an order of magnitude below the sensitivity of WMAP3. The location of the field in the potential when perturbations on observable scales are produced is examined; for f>5m{sub Pl}, the relevant part of the potential is indistinguishable from a quadratic, yet has the advantage that the required flatness is well-motivated. Depending on the value of f, the model falls into the large field (f{>=}1.5m{sub Pl}) or small field (f<1.5m{sub Pl}) classification scheme that has been applied to inflation models. Natural inflation provides a good fit to WMAP3 data.

  15. Intergenerational Transmission of Warm-Sensitive-Stimulating Parenting: A Prospective Study of Mothers and Fathers of 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Jaffee, Sara R.; Sligo, Judith; Woodward, Lianne; Silva, Phil A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 200 New Zealand men and women studied repeatedly since age 3 were videotaped interacting with their own 3-year-old children to determine (a) whether childrearing and family climate experienced in 3 distinct developmental periods while growing up (i.e., early childhood, middle childhood, early adolescence) predicted parenting and (b)…

  16. Qualitative Feasibility of Using Three Accelerometers With 2-3-Year-Old Children and Both Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Silvia; Barber, Sally E.; Griffiths, Paula L.; Cameron, Noël; Clemes, Stacy A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed mothers' opinions about the feasibility and acceptability of using the ActiGraph GT3X+, Actiheart, and activPAL3 with their 2- to 3-year-old children, as well as with themselves and their husbands/partners, for an 8-day period. Method: Six focus groups were run with Pakistani and White British mothers…

  17. Randomized trial of partial vs. stepwise caries removal: 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Maltz, M; Garcia, R; Jardim, J J; de Paula, L M; Yamaguti, P M; Moura, M S; Garcia, F; Nascimento, C; Oliveira, A; Mestrinho, H D

    2012-11-01

    This randomized, multicenter clinical trial evaluated the effectiveness of 2 treatments for deep caries lesions - partial caries removal (PCR) and stepwise excavation (SW) - with respect to the primary outcome of pulp vitality for a 3-year follow-up period. Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients with permanent molars presenting deep caries lesions (lesion affecting ≥ 1/2 of the dentin on radiographic examination), positive response to a cold test, absence of spontaneous pain, negative sensitivity to percussion, and absence of periapical lesions (radiographic examination). Teeth randomly assigned to PCR (test) received incomplete caries removal and filling in a single session. Outcome success was evaluated by assessment of pulp vitality, determined by pulp sensitivity to a cold test and the absence of periapical lesions. Data were analyzed by a Weibull regression model with shared frailty term (survival analysis). At baseline, 299 treatments were executed: PCR, 152 and SW, 147. By the end of the 3-year follow-up period, 213 teeth had been evaluated. Adjusted survival rates were 91% for PCR and 69% for SW (p = 0.004). These results suggest that there is no need to re-open a cavity and perform a second excavation for pulp vitality to be preserved (Clinical trials registration NCT00887952). PMID:22983407

  18. A 3-year community-based periodontal disease prevention programme for adults in a developing nation.

    PubMed

    Cutress, T W; Powell, R N; Kilisimasi, S; Tomiki, S; Holborow, D

    1991-12-01

    A field trail of a community programme for improving periodontal health of adults was carried out in a geographically remote, unsophisticated rural population in the South Pacific islands of Tonga. The 3-year project (1986-89) involved three village communities, each with a population of approximately 1200. Village N received supplies of toothbrushes and toothpaste without charge, health education (videos, talks, posters) and periodic dental scaling (ultrasonic). Village K received the same as N except that dental scaling was not provided. Village E received none of the services provided to the villages N and K. Baseline and final examinations of 20-44-year olds showed that unsupervised self-care promoted at the community level, when supplemented with periodic removal of subgingival calculus, significantly improved periodontal health. Improvement was age dependent. PMID:1800382

  19. A bioactive dental luting cement--its retentive properties and 3-year clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Steven R; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Appleby, David C; Boston, Daniel; Lööf, Jesper

    2013-02-01

    -year recall. After periodic recalls up to 3 years, Ceramir C&B thus far has performed quite favorably as a luting agent for permanent cementation of permanent restorations. In-vitro crown-coping retention studies were also conducted using this cement and various control cementation materials. Mean laboratory retentive forces measured for Ceramir C&B were comparable to other currently available luting agents for both metal and all-ceramic indirect restorative materials. PMID:23577551

  20. 7 CFR 3015.21 - Retention period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for 3 years from the starting date specified in § 3015.22. (b) If any litigation, claim, negotiation, audit or other action involving the records has been started before the end of the 3-year period, the records shall be kept until all issues are resolved, or until the end of the regular 3-year...

  1. 7 CFR 3015.21 - Retention period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for 3 years from the starting date specified in § 3015.22. (b) If any litigation, claim, negotiation, audit or other action involving the records has been started before the end of the 3-year period, the records shall be kept until all issues are resolved, or until the end of the regular 3-year...

  2. Myxomatous stromal changes and necrosis of bone marrow--a retrospective study of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nalini; Kumar, Vijay; Varma, Neelam; Garewal, Gurjeevan; Das, Reena; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Dash, Sumitra

    2004-07-01

    Myxomatous stromal changes and bone marrow necrosis (BMN) are uncommon histologic findings. These changes have been found in various conditions like disseminated carcinomatosis, postchemotherapy cases, chronic infections, infiltrative disorders of the marrow etc. The present study is a retrospective study of 3 years (Jan, 1999 to Dec. 2001) from Deptt. Of Hematology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh (India). During this period, 3740 bone marrow samples were examined. Myxomatous stromal changes and bone marrow necrosis were noted in 0.43% (16/3740) and 0.45% (17/3740) samples respectively. In addition to common causes of myxomatous stromal changes and bone marrow necrosis as described in the literature, this study highlights the association of these conditions with some of the rarer entities like hyperoxalosis, leishmaniasis, parvovirus induced marrow aplasia and cryptococcal infection. There is paucity of such associations in the literature. PMID:16295422

  3. Predictors of reading development in deaf children: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Fiona E; Harris, Margaret

    2010-11-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted longitudinal growth in reading achievement. The relations between reading and the predictor variables showed developmental change. Earlier reading ability was related to later phonological awareness skills, suggesting that deaf children might develop their phonological awareness through reading. Deaf children who had the most age-appropriate reading skills tended to have less severe hearing losses and earlier diagnoses and also preferred to communicate through speech. The theoretical implications of the role for speechreading, vocabulary and phonological awareness in deaf children's literacy are discussed. PMID:20570282

  4. A 3-year postoperative clinical evaluation of posts and cores beneath existing crowns.

    PubMed

    Hatzikyriakos, A H; Reisis, G I; Tsingos, N

    1992-04-01

    Fabrication of posts and cores for fixed partial denture (FPD) and removable partial denture (RPD) abutment restorations is common in dentistry. The biocompatibility of various post and core techniques with the restorations was clinically evaluated according to location and function. In this study, 154 post and core constructions for 150 patients were observed for a 3-year period to determine if the function of the original restorations remained unsatisfactory. The following techniques were included: (1) screw post and light-curing composite resins, (2) cemented post with parallel sides and light-curing composite resins, and (3) a cast and core technique. Seventeen of the 154 restorations failed; four failures were attributed to root fractures, three to radicular caries, and five to crown dislodgement, while five failures were from detachment of the post and core from the root. The statistical analysis revealed that only the factor "type of abutment" (RPDs and FPDs) had some effect on the failure of the restorations. PMID:1507125

  5. [Chemical characteristics of 3-year atmospheric precipitation in summer, Taiyuan].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-fang; Cui, Yang; Wang, Kai-yang; He, Qiu-sheng; Wang, Xin-ming

    2015-02-01

    The chemical characteristics of the precipitation in Taiyuan in summer of 2011-2013 were investigated. The results showed that the pH of precipitation varied from 4.63 to 8.02 with a volume-weighted mean of 5.19. The frequency of acid rain was 37.0%, 31.2% and 17.4%, respectively, in 2011-2013. SO4(2-) and NO3(-) were dominant anions in the precipitation, which accounted for 67.2% and 22.0% of the total anions, respectively. While Ca2+ and NH4+ were dominant cations in the precipitation, which accounted for 55.1% and 29.0% of the total cations, respectively. There were evident declining trends in the concentration of SO4(2-), NO3-, Ca2+ and NH4+ in the precipitation over the study period. The mean ratio of SO4(2-) to NO3(-) in summer precipitation was 3.02, indicating that the acid rain was of sulfuric-nitrous mixed type, however, NO3- was very important for the acidity of rain water. Neutralization factors (NF) were calculated to show that Ca2+ and NH4+ were the predominant neutralizers in rainwater samples, but Mg2+ could also not be negligible. The correlation analysis revealed that coal combustion was the dominant source of chemical composition of rainwater in summer of Taiyuan. The back trajectory analysis demonstrated that the air pollutants of Taiyuan were from the local plants and the coal coking plants in the southern Taiyuan basin. However, to improve the air quality in this city, both industrial emissions from thermal power plants and coal coking plants in Taiyuan basin need to be controlled. PMID:26031061

  6. Typing and Antibiogram of Vibrio cholerae Isolates from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pune: A 3 Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Palewar, Meghna S; Choure, Archana C; Mudshingkar, Swati; Dohe, Vaishali; Kagal, Anju; Bhardwaj, Renu; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Sarkar, Banwarilal

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective analysis was done over a period of 3 years (January 2010- December 2012) in a tertiary care hospital, Pune, to note the changes in the prevalence and distribution of biotypes, serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and phage types of Vibrio cholerae isolates from clinical samples so as to be vigilant and curtail major outbreak in future. Vibrio cholerae isolates were obtained from 4.4% of the 1126 fecal specimens processed from cases of acute watery diarrhea. Majority of the isolates were identified as V. cholerae O1 biotype El Tor serotype Ogawa (98%); Phage 27 was the predominant type (77.5%). Majority of the cases were encountered during the months June-August (68%). Antibiogram over a period of 3 years showed that isolates were consistently resistant to Ampicillin (90%) and Furazolidone (88%). Low level of resistance was seen with Norfloxacin (8%), Gentamicin (8%) and Tetracycline (6%). All isolates were susceptible to Chloramphenicol. PMID:25722619

  7. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Jensen, Signe M; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2015-07-01

    Early excessive weight gain is positively associated with later obesity, and yet the effect of weight gain during specific periods and the impact of infant feeding practices are debated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of weight gain in periods of early childhood on body composition at 3 years, and whether infant feeding modified the relationship between early growth and body composition at 3 years. We studied 233 children from the prospective cohort study, SKOT (in Danish: Småbørns Kost og Trivsel). Birth weight z-scores (BWZ) and change in weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) from 0 to 5, 5 to 9, 9 to 18 and 18 to 36 months were analysed for relations with body composition (anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance) at 3 years by multivariate regression analysis. BWZ and change in WAZ from 0 to 5 months were positively associated with BMI, fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 3 years. Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) eliminated the effect of early growth (P = 0.01). Full breastfeeding for 6 months (compared to less than 1 month) also eliminated the positive relation between BWZ and FMI (P = 0.009). No effect modification of infant feeding was found for FFMI. In conclusion, high birth weight and rapid growth from 0 to 5 months were associated with increased FMI and FFMI at 3 years. Longer duration of full breastfeeding reduced the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on fat mass. PMID:26131962

  8. Gestational weight gain and predicted changes in offspring anthropometrics between early infancy and 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Deierlein, Andrea L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy H.; Adair, Linda S.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine how gestational weight gain (GWG), categorized using the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, relates to changes in offspring weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ), and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) between early infancy and 3 years. Methods Women with singleton infants were recruited from the third cohort of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001-2005). Term infants with at least one weight or length measurement during the study period were included (n=476). Multivariable linear mixed effects regression models estimated longitudinal changes in WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ associated with GWG. Results In early infancy, compared to infants of women with adequate weight gain, those of women with excessive weight gains had higher WAZ, LAZ, and WLZ. Excessive GWG≥200% of the recommended amount was associated with faster rates of change in WAZ and LAZ and noticeably higher predicted mean WAZ and WLZ that persisted across the study period. Conclusions GWG represents a modifiable behavioral factor that is associated with offspring anthropometric outcomes. More longitudinal studies that utilize maternal and pediatric body composition measures are necessary to understand the nature of this association. PMID:22434753

  9. Latent class analysis of alcohol treatment utilization patterns and 3-year alcohol related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Orion; Glass, Joseph E; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette L

    2015-07-01

    People who obtain treatment for alcohol use problems often utilize multiple sources of help. While prior studies have classified treatment use patterns for alcohol use, an empirical classification of these patterns is lacking. For the current study, we created an empirically derived classification of treatment use and described how these classifications were prospectively associated with alcohol-related outcomes. Our sample included 257 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who first received alcohol treatment in the 3-year period prior to their baseline interview. We used latent class analysis to identify classes of treatment users based on their patterns of treatment use of 13 types of alcohol treatment. Regression models examined how classes of treatment use at baseline were associated with alcohol-related outcomes assessed at a 3-year follow-up interview. Outcomes included a continuous measure of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use and DSM-IV alcohol use disorder status. Four classes of treatment users were identified: (1) multiservice users (8.7%), (2) private professional service users (32.8%), (3) alcoholics anonymous (AA) paired with specialty addiction service users (22.0%), and (4) users of AA alone (36.5%). Those who utilized AA paired with specialty addiction services had better outcomes compared to those who used AA alone. In addition to elucidating the most common treatment utilization patterns executed by people seeking help for their alcohol problems, the results from this study suggest that increased efforts may be needed to refer individuals across sectors of care to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:25744651

  10. Rates of Mutation and Host Transmission for an Escherichia coli Clone over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Peter R.; Liu, Bin; Zhou, Zhemin; Li, Dan; Guo, Dan; Ren, Yan; Clabots, Connie; Lan, Ruiting; Johnson, James R.; Wang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Although over 50 complete Escherichia coli/Shigella genome sequences are available, it is only for closely related strains, for example the O55:H7 and O157:H7 clones of E. coli, that we can assign differences to individual evolutionary events along specific lineages. Here we sequence the genomes of 14 isolates of a uropathogenic E. coli clone that persisted for 3 years within a household, including a dog, causing a urinary tract infection (UTI) in the dog after 2 years. The 20 mutations observed fit a single tree that allows us to estimate the mutation rate to be about 1.1 per genome per year, with minimal evidence for adaptive change, including in relation to the UTI episode. The host data also imply at least 6 host transfer events over the 3 years, with 2 lineages present over much of that period. To our knowledge, these are the first direct measurements for a clone in a well-defined host community that includes rates of mutation and host transmission. There is a concentration of non-synonymous mutations associated with 2 transfers to the dog, suggesting some selection pressure from the change of host. However, there are no changes to which we can attribute the UTI event in the dog, which suggests that this occurrence after 2 years of the clone being in the household may have been due to chance, or some unknown change in the host or environment. The ability of a UTI strain to persist for 2 years and also to transfer readily within a household has implications for epidemiology, diagnosis, and clinical intervention. PMID:22046404

  11. Association of Maternal Short Sleep Duration with Adiposity and Cardio-Metabolic Status at 3 Years Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gunderson, Erica P.; Stuebe, Alison M.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of short sleep duration among women in the first year postpartum with adiposity and cardio-metabolic status at 3-years postpartum. We studied 586 women in Project Viva, a prospective cohort. At 6 months and 1 year postpartum, women reported the number of hours they slept in a 24-hour period, from which we calculated a weighted average of daily sleep. We used multivariable regression analyses to predict the independent effects of short sleep duration (≤ 5 h/d v.> 5 h/d) on adiposity, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and adipokines at 3-years postpartum. Women’s mean (SD) hours of daily sleep in the first year postpartum was 6.7 (0.97) hours. After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and excessive gestational weight gain, we found that postpartum sleep ≤ 5 h/d was associated with higher postpartum weight retention (β 1.50 kg; 95% CI: 0.02, 2.86), higher subscapular + triceps skinfold thickness (β 3.94 mm; 95% CI: 1.27, 6.60) and higher waist circumference (β 3.10 cm; 95% CI: 1.25, 4.94) at 3-years postpartum. We did not observe associations of short sleep duration with measures of cardio-metabolic status at 3-years postpartum. In conclusion, short sleep duration in the first year postpartum is associated with higher adiposity at 3-years postpartum. PMID:20489690

  12. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach in a child with a 3-year follow-up period-Case report.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marcelo Eller; Alberti, Luiz Ronaldo; Tatsuo, Edson Samesima; Piçarro, Clécio; Rausch, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of a nine-year-old boy with a 4-week history of general fatigue, loss of appetite, vomits and hematemesis. Laboratory evaluation revealed a hemoglobin level of 4.4 g/dl. After a transfusion of packed red blood cells the patient underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy, which showed a smooth, rounded 6-8 cm submucosal lesion with a central depression with ulceration and active bleeding in the cardia extending to the fundus.Computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed a large mass originating from the gastric wall but not infiltrating surrounding organs, approximately 8.0 cm × 7.0 cm × 5 cm. Despite the tumor size, no metastases were diagnosed. The patient underwent a total gastrectomy in an en-bloc resection including the distal part of the esophagus (3 cm) and omentum with oncologic margins. Reconstruction was performed with a mediastinal end-to-side esophago-jejunal anastomosis. Immunehistochemic confirmed GIST. He remains well without evidence of disease after 36 months of follow-up with a multiprofessional team. PMID:22096700

  13. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  14. Equal 3-Year Outcomes for Kidney Transplantation Alone in HCV-Positive Patients With Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Parsikia, Afshin; Campos, Stalin; Khanmoradi, Kamran; Pang, John; Balasubramanian, Manjula; Zaki, Radi; Ortiz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation alone in clinically compensated patients with cirrhosis is not well documented. Current guidelines list cirrhosis as a contraindication for kidney transplantation alone. This is an Institutional Review Board–approved retrospective study. We report our experience with a retrospective comparison between transplants in hepatitis C virus–positive (HCV+) patients without cirrhosis and HCV+ patients with cirrhosis. All of the patients were followed for at least a full 3-year period. All of the deaths and graft losses were recorded and analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methodology. One- and three-year cumulative patient survival rates for noncirrhotic patients were 91% and 82%, respectively. For cirrhotic patients, one- and three-year cumulative patient survival rates were 100% and 83%, respectively (P = NS). One- and three-year cumulative graft survival rates censored for death were 94% and 81%, and 95% and 82% for the noncirrhosis and cirrhosis groups, respectively (P = NS). Comparable patient and allograft survival rates were observed when standard kidney allograft recipients were analyzed separately. This study is the longest follow-up document in the literature showing that HCV+ clinically ompensated patients with cirrhosis may undergo kidney transplantation alone as a safe and viable practice. PMID:25594655

  15. NASA IKONOS Multispectral Radiometric Calibration and 3-Year Temporal Stability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen; Aaran, David

    2003-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other system. In addition, the user community has little or no insight into the design and operation of commercial sensors or into the methods involved in generating commercial products. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) Directorate established a commercial satellite imaging radiometric calibration team consisting of three independent groups: NASA, SSC,ESA, the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group, and South Dacota State University. Each group determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Space Imaging IKONOS 4-band, 4 m multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a three year period beginning in 2000, each team employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, requiring ground-based measurements coincident with IKONOS image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. Several study sites throughout the United States were employed that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the IKONOS sensor. IKONOS at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent group to determine the IKONOS sensor's radiometric accuracy and stability. Over 10 individual vicariously determined at-sensor radiance estimates were used each year. When combined, these estimates provided a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. No significant calibration offset was observed. The results of this evaluation provide the scientific community with an independent assessment of the IKONOS sensor's absolute calibration and temporal stability over the 3

  16. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both. PMID:26041449

  17. Changes in Strength Abilities of Adolescent Girls: The Effect of a 3-Year Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate changes in strength abilities of adolescent girls that underwent a 3-year physical education curriculum. Material and methods: The research participants comprised 141 girls aged 13.3 plus or minus 0.35 years who participated in a 3-year physical education curriculum (PEC). Evaluation was based on the following EUROFIT…

  18. The Development of Reading and Spelling Abilities in the First 3 Years of Learning Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Wessam; Elbert, Thomas; Landerl, Karin

    2011-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the development of fluent reading and spelling in the first 3 years of learning Arabic. The goals of our study were to: (1) validate suitable measures for fluent reading and spelling in the first 3 years of learning Arabic; (2) trace the developmental course of the relationship between fluent reading and…

  19. Allocation of Resources to Collaborators and Free-Riders in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Alicia P.; Altrichter, Kristin; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in situations where resources have been acquired collaboratively, children at around 3 years of age share mostly equally. We investigated 3-year-olds' sharing behavior with a collaborating partner and a free-riding partner who explicitly expressed her preference not to collaborate. Children shared more equally with…

  20. Transoral robotic surgery for hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: 3-year oncologic and functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Min; Kim, Won Shik; De Virgilio, Armando; Lee, So Yoon; Seol, Jeong Hun; Kim, Se-Heon

    2012-06-01

    The recent trend in treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer is organ preservation in order to maintain swallowing and speech function as well as improve quality of life. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) can remove hypopharyngeal lesions successfully without an external incision, preserving physiologic functions of affected organs. However, studies have yet to assess the oncologic and functional results of TORS for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer. This prospective study evaluated the oncologic and functional results of TORS for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer obtained at our institution over a period of 3 years and confirmed the validity of TORS as a surgical organ-preserving strategy. Between April 2008 and September 2011, 23 patients who were diagnosed with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent TORS for removal of a primary lesion. The da Vinci Robotic system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, California) was used to remove the lesion. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze overall survival and disease-free survival. Videopharyngogram study (VEF) was performed and functional outcome swallowing scale (FOSS) was utilized to measure and evaluate swallowing function. Acoustic wave form analysis was conducted to evaluate voice status. Overall survival at 3 years was 89% and disease-free survival was 84%. On the VEF study, serious aspiration or delay of swallowing was not observed during the pharyngeal stage of the swallowing process. Overall, 96% of the patients showed favorable swallowing abilities with an FOSS score ranging from 0 to 2. The fundamental frequency variation (vF0) and jitter were increased upon acoustic waveform analysis (vF0=2.71 ± 0.063, Jitter=2.01 ± 0.034), but the harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) and shimmer were maintained close to the normal range (HNR=1.28 ± 0.001, Shim=1.74 ± 0.036). The oncologic and functional results of TORS were quite acceptable for the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer. TORS is a valid treatment option as a

  1. MentorLinks: Advancing Technological Education, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hause, Ellen M., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    MentorLinks, part of the Advancing Technological Education program supported by the National Science Foundation and administered by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), provides technical assistance and networking opportunities to improve community college programs that prepare technicians in the science, technology, engineering,…

  2. Carbon Isotopic Constraints on Arctic Methane Sources, 2008-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R. E.; Lowry, D.; Lanoiselle, M.; Sriskantharajah, S.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2010-12-01

    Arctic methane source strengths are particularly vulnerable to large changes with year-to year meteorological variations and with climatic change. A global increase in methane seen in 2007 (Dlugokencky et al., 2009) may have been in part be due to elevated wetland emissions caused by a warm, wet summer over large parts of Siberia. In 2010 wildfires over large areas of Russia will have added methane to the Arctic atmosphere. Carbon isotopic composition of methane in air from the Arctic arriving at a measurement station can be used to identify sources of the gas. Measurement of methane δ13C in air close to sources, including wetlands, permafrost, pine forest and submarine methane clathrate has extended the available data of source signatures of methane from northern sources. Keeling plot analysis of diurnal records from field campaigns in Arctic wetlands show that bulk wetland methane emissions are typically close to δ13CCH4 -69±1 ‰. Air samples from Zeppelin (Spitsbergen, Norway), Pallas (Finland) and Barra (Outer Hebrides, Scotland) have been regularly analysed for methane δ13C. Summer campaigns at Zeppelin point to a 13C depleted bulk Arctic source of dominantly biogenic origin, at -67‰. In spring, while the wetlands are still frozen, the source signature is more enriched, -53‰, with trajectory analysis implying a large contribution from onshore gas fields. Arctic methane emissions respond rapidly to warming with strong positive feedbacks. With rapid warming there is the potential to release large stores of carbon from permafrost and methane hydrates. Isotopic data are powerful discriminants of sources. High frequency, ideally continuous, monitoring of methane δ13C from a number of Arctic sites, onshore and offshore, coupled with back-trajectory analysis and regional modelling, will be important if future changes in Arctic source strengths are to be quantified. Reference: Dlugokencky, E. J., et al. (2009), Observational constraints on recent increases in the atmospheric CH4 burden, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L18803, doi:10.1029/2009GL039780.

  3. Professional Student Exchange Program (PSEP), 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) Professional Student Exchange Program enables students in 12 Western states to enroll in selected out-of-state professional programs, usually because those fields of study are not available at public institutions in their home states. Exchange students receive preference in admission.…

  4. Bidirectional Relations between Parenting Practices and Child Externalizing Behavior: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis in the Context of a Psychosocial Treatment and 3-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or…

  5. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients: a 3-year multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV(+); the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774

  6. Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompromised Patients: a 3-Year Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV+; the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774

  7. Intrathecal opioid treatment for chronic non-malignant pain: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Thimineur, Mark A; Kravitz, Edward; Vodapally, Mohan S

    2004-06-01

    Intrathecal (IT) opioid therapy is a treatment alternative for patients with severe chronic non-malignant pain. Several uncontrolled retrospective and prospective outcome studies have suggested a benefit in chronic non-malignant pain patients, but uncertainties about patient selection in these studies weaken the results. This study evaluated long-term outcome of IT opioid therapy in chronic non-malignant pain prospectively, and included two comparative groups to improve understanding of selection criteria and relative severity of intrathecal pump recipients (PRs). The study subjects included 38 PRs while the comparative groups included 31 intrathecal candidates who either had an unsuccessful trial, or declined the IT therapy, and another group of 41 newly referred patients. The following data were analyzed at study entry, and at 6 monthly intervals for a 3-year period: Symptom Check List 90 (SLC-90), SF-36 Health survey, Beck Depression Inventory, McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form), Oswestry Disability Index, Pain Drawings and Pain rating on visual analogue scale. Data analysis suggests the study group of PRs had improvements in pain, mood, and function from baseline to 36 months. These same parameters improved among new referrals (less severe patients receiving conservative pain management) while non-recipients significantly worsened. Although PRs improved, they were still worse off at 36 months than new referrals were at baseline. The study showed that when patients with extremely severe pain problems are selected as pump candidates, they will likely improve with the therapy, but their overall severity of pain and symptoms still remains high. PMID:15157684

  8. Final Results of a 3-Year Literacy-Informed Intervention to Promote Annual Fecal Occult Blood Test Screening.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Connie L; Rademaker, Alfred; Wolf, Michael S; Liu, Dachao; Lucas, Geoffrey; Hancock, Jill; Davis, Terry C

    2016-08-01

    This three arm study was designed to make CRC screening with FOBTs more accessible, understandable and actionable for patients cared for in predominantly rural Federally Qualified Health Centers. Patients in an enhanced version of usual care received an annual CRC recommendation and FOBT kit; those in the education arm additionally received brief literacy and culturally appropriate education and those in the nurse arm received the education by a nurse manager who followed up by telephone. Baseline FOBT rates in this population were 3 %. We evaluated if FOBT rates could be sustained over 3 years. A three-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted among eight clinics in Louisiana. Screening efforts included: (1) enhanced usual care, (2) literacy-informed education of patients, and (3) education plus nurse support. Overall, 961 average-risk patients, ages 50-85, eligible for routine CRC screenings were recruited. The primary outcome was completing three annual FOBT tests. Of 961 patients enrolled, 381 (39.6 %) participants did not complete a single FOBT, 60.4 % completed at least one FOBT of which 318 (33.1 %) completed only one, 162 (16.9 %) completed two and 100 (10.4 %) completed three FOBTs over the 3-year period (the primary study outcome). The primary outcome, return of three FOBT kits over the 3-year period, was achieved by 4.7 % in enhanced care, 11.4 % in education and 13.6 % in the nurse arm (p = 0.005). Overall 3-year FOBT screening rates were not sustained with any of the three interventions, despite reports of promising interim results at years 1 and 2. New strategies for sustaining FOBT screening over several years must be developed. PMID:26769026

  9. Implants and sinus-inlay bone grafts in a 1-stage procedure on severely atrophied maxillae: surgical aspects of a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, B; Wannfors, K; Ekenbäck, J; Smedberg, J I; Hirsch, J

    1999-01-01

    This 3-year follow-up study compares implant treatment in 39 1-stage sinus-inlay block-grafted patients (study group) with 37 patients treated without bone grafting (reference group), all of whom were edentulous in the maxilla and were treated over the same time period. The cumulative success rate (CSR) of implant stability after 3 years in the study group was 75.3% in grafted areas and 82.2% in non-grafted areas. The CSR after 3 years in the reference group was 93.1%. The mean marginal bone resorption after 3 years of loading was 1.4 mm in grafted areas and 1.6 mm in non-grafted areas in the study group and 1.1 mm in the reference group. Complications noted during the postoperative healing periods correlated significantly with implant failures later on (P < .05). Since prosthesis stability (CSR) after 3 years was 94.9% in the study group and 97.3% in the reference group, it can be concluded that 1-stage sinus-inlay block grafts can be regarded as a safe method with a predictable outcome for use on patients with severely atrophied edentulous maxillae, although increased failure rates are to be expected for implants placed in bone-grafted regions. PMID:10612917

  10. Enhancing the executive functions of 3-year-olds in the dimensional change card sort task

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF) model that prior experience with the post-switch dimension can enhance 3-year-old’s performance in the DCCS task. In Experiment 1A, a matching game was used to pre-expose 3-year-olds (n=36) to color. This facilitated switching from sorting by shape to color. In Experiment 1B, 3-year-olds (n=18) were pre-exposed to shape. This did not facilitate switching from sorting by color to shape. The DNF model was used to provide a mechanistic explanation for this asymmetry. PMID:25441395

  11. Timing of breast cancer surgery in relation to menstrual cycle phase: no effect on 3-year prognosis: The ITS Study

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, H; Brown, S R; Sainsbury, J R; Perren, T J; Hiley, V; Dowsett, M; Nejim, A; Brown, J M

    2007-01-01

    The effect of breast cancer surgery timing during the menstrual cycle on prognosis remains controversial. We conducted a multicentre prospective study to establish whether timing of interventions influences prognosis. We report 3-year overall and disease-free survival (OS/DFS) results for ‘primary analysis' patients (regular cycles, no oral contraceptives within previous 6 months). Data were collected regarding timing of interventions in relation to patients' last menstrual period (LMP) and first menstrual period after surgery (FMP). Hormone profiles were also measured. Cox's proportional hazards model incorporated LMP in continuous form. Exploratory analyses used menstrual cycle categorisations of Senie, Badwe and Hrushesky. Hormone profiles with LMP and FMP data were also used to define menstrual cycle phase. Four hundred and twelve ‘primary analysis' patients were recruited. Three-year OS from first surgery was 90.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) [87.9, 93.6%]. Menstrual cycle according to LMP was not statistically significant (OS: hazard ratio (HR)=1.02, 95%CI [0.995,1.042], P=0.14; DFS: HR=1.00, 95%CI [0.980,1.022], P=0.92). Timing of surgery in relation to menstrual cycle phase had no significant impact on 3-year survival. This may be due to 97% of patients receiving some form of adjuvant therapy. Survival curves to 10 years indicate results may remain true for longer-term survival. PMID:18087287

  12. Parental Styles and Religious Values among Teenagers: A 3-Year Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of Grade 7 parental styles on Grade 10 religious values. The authors surveyed 784 participants (382 boys, 394 girls; 8 unreported) in Grade 7. The mean age of the group at Time 1 was 12.3 years (SD = 0.5 years). Time 2 occurred 3 years later when students were in Grade 10 (372 boys, 375 girls). In addition to…

  13. Development and implementation of the Clinical Tooth Shade Differentiation Course – an evaluation over 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Olms, Constanze; Haak, Rainer; Jakstat, Holger A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tooth shade differentiation concerns the identification and classification of tooth shades. The objective of this project was to implement the Clinical Tooth Shade Differentiation Course in the preclinical stage of studies and to evaluate the students' perspective over a period of 3 years. Methodology: The course is planned for a duration of 10 weeks with two 45-minute sessions per semester week. The entire attendance time was 10:15 h. 2 lectures of 90 minutes each, 2 seminars of 60 min each and 2 teaching units with the phantom head and role playing took place. In addition to the various parameters of tooth shade, changes in tooth shade and the basics of dental esthetics, clinical procedures for manual and digital tooth shade determination were explained and practiced. 96% (69 of 72) of the students participated in the first evaluation in 2012/2013 (T1), and 68% of these were women. In the following year, 2013/2014 (T2), 92% (45 of 48 students) took part; 62% of these were women and 38% men. The 2014/2015 evaluation (T3) comprised 94% (45 of 48 students). Of these, 67% were women. Results: In the evaluation, the students gave the course a positive grade. The questions in "General/Organization" were given a mean (M) of 1.5 (SD=0.7) in T1 and T2 , and 1.2 (SD=0.3) in T3. The "Overall Assessment" yielded MT1=1.6 (SD=0.6), MT2=1.5 (SD=0.5) and MT3=1.1 (SD=0.3). In T1 and T2, the item "The instructor actively involved the students in the course" was given a mean of 2.1 (SD=0.9), and in T3 a mean of 1.2 (SD=0.5). Conclusions: The course presented here conceptually shows how practical dental skills can be taught in a theoretical and clinical context. Educational objectives from the role of a dental expert were taken from the national competence-based catalog of educational objectives for dentistry and can also be supplemented. The objectives can be transferred to other dental faculties. PMID:26958650

  14. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26–67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  15. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Tunchel, Samy; Blay, Alberto; Kolerman, Roni; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26-67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  16. Allocation of resources to collaborators and free-riders in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Melis, Alicia P; Altrichter, Kristin; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that in situations where resources have been acquired collaboratively, children at around 3 years of age share mostly equally. We investigated 3-year-olds' sharing behavior with a collaborating partner and a free-riding partner who explicitly expressed her preference not to collaborate. Children shared more equally with the collaborating partner than with the free rider. These results suggest that young children are sensitive to the contributions made by others to a collaborative effort (and possibly their reasons for not collaborating) and distribute resources accordingly. PMID:23073366

  17. Predictive value of health-related quality of life in progression of disability and depression in persons with multiple sclerosis: a 3-year study.

    PubMed

    Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Stojsavljevic, Nebojsa; Kostic, Jelena; Dujmovic Basuroski, Irena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena

    2013-12-01

    In our study, we examined whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) could predict changes in disability, depression, and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) over a 3-year follow-up period. A group of 109 consecutive MS patients (McDonald's criteria) referring to the Institute of Neurology, Belgrade were enrolled in the study. At two time points during the study (baseline, and after a 3-year period) an HRQoL (measured by MSQoL-54), EDSS, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were assessed. At the end of a 3-year follow-up, 12 out of 109 patients (11%) had dropped out. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Physical Health scale of MSQoL-54 is significant independent predictor of change in EDSS after 3 years (p = 0.035). Mental health composite score of MSQoL-54 was predictor of change in HDRS score (p = 0.049). In separate regression analysis, only social function was independent predictor of the development of depression (p = 0.041). None of the HRQoL domains had predictive effect on the change of FSS. Our study suggests that baseline HRQoL scores, measured by MSQoL-54, could be applied as a prognostic marker for progression of both, disability, and severity of depressive symptoms in MS. PMID:23460394

  18. Final Report for 3-year grant no. DE-FG05-85ER40226. Investigations in Elementary Particle Theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, Thomas W.; Scherrer, Robert J.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2014-11-23

    The research interests of our three Co-PI’s complement each other very well. Kephart works mainly on models of particle unification in four or higher dimensions, on aspects of gravity such as inflation, black-holes, and the very early Universe, and on applications of knot theory and topology to various physical systems (including gluon dynamics). Scherrer works mainly on aspects of the intermediate-aged Universe, including dark matter and dark energy, and particle physics in the early Universe. Weiler works mainly on neutrino physics, dark matter signatures, and extreme particle-astrophysics in the late Universe, including origins of the highest-energy cosmic-rays and gamma-rays, and the future potential of neutrino astrophysics. Kephart and Weiler have lately devoted some research attention to the LHC and its reach for probing physics beyond the Standard Model. During the 3-year funding period, our grant supported one postdoc (Chiu Man Ho) and partially supported two students, Peter Denton and Lingjun Fu. Chiu Man collaborated with all three of the Co-PI’s during the 3-year funding period and published 16 refereed papers. Chiu Man has gone on to a postdoc with Steve Hsu at Michigan State University. Denton and Fu will both receive their PhDs during the 2014-15 academic year. The total number of our papers published in refereed journals by the three co-PIs during the period of this grant (2011-present) is 54. The total number of talks given by the group members during this time period, including seminars, colloquia, and conference presentations, is 47. Some details of the accomplishments of our DOE funded researchers during the grant period include Weiler being named a Simons Fellow in 2013. He presented an invited TEDx talk in 2012. His paper on closed timelike curves (2013) garnered a great deal of national publicity. Scherrer’s paper on the “little rip” (2011) fostered a new area of cosmological research, and the name “little rip” has now entered

  19. Acute Corneal Hydrops 3 Years after Intra-corneal Ring Segments and Corneal Collagen Cross-linking

    PubMed Central

    Antonios, Rafic; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Chelala, Elias; Hamadeh, Adib; Jarade, Elias

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a 15-year-old male with allergic conjunctivitis and keratoconus, who underwent uneventful intra-corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation and corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in the right eye. During the follow-up periods, the patient was noted to have several episodes of allergic conjunctivitis that were treated accordingly. At the 2 years postoperatively, he presented with another episode of allergic conjunctivitis and progression of keratoconus was suspected on topography. However, the patient was lost to follow-up, until he presented with acute hydrops at 3 years postoperatively. There are no reported cases of acute corneal hydrops in cross-linked corneas. We suspect the young age, allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing may be a risk factors associated with possible progression of keratoconus after CXL. Prolonged follow-up and aggressive control of the allergy might be necessary in similar cases. PMID:26957859

  20. Early Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Under 3 Years of Age: Recommendations for Practice and Research.

    PubMed

    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bauman, Margaret L; Choueiri, Roula; Kasari, Connie; Carter, Alice; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Mailloux, Zoe; Smith Roley, Susanne; Wagner, Sheldon; Fein, Deborah; Pierce, Karen; Buie, Timothy; Davis, Patricia A; Newschaffer, Craig; Robins, Diana; Wetherby, Amy; Stone, Wendy L; Yirmiya, Nurit; Estes, Annette; Hansen, Robin L; McPartland, James C; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews current evidence for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) interventions for children aged <3 years, based on peer-reviewed articles published up to December 2013. Several groups have adapted treatments initially designed for older, preschool-aged children with ASD, integrating best practice in behavioral teaching methods into a developmental framework based on current scientific understanding of how infants and toddlers learn. The central role of parents has been emphasized, and interventions are designed to incorporate learning opportunities into everyday activities, capitalize on "teachable moments," and facilitate the generalization of skills beyond the familiar home setting. Our review identified several comprehensive and targeted treatment models with evidence of clear benefits. Although some trials were limited to 8- to 12-week outcome data, enhanced outcomes associated with some interventions were evaluated over periods as long as 2 years. Based on this review, recommendations are proposed for clinical practice and future research. PMID:26430170

  1. [Epidemiologic aspects of gastroduodenal ulcer in Burundi. Apropos of 1,476 new cases seen in 3 years].

    PubMed

    Ndabaneze, E; Kadende, P; Laroche, R; Aubry, P

    1989-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the main epidemiological characteristics of gastroduodenal ulcer in Burundi, from 3,282 high gastrointestinal endoscopies, performed over a 3-year period, permitting the diagnosis of 1,476 ulcers (45%): the duodenal ulcer is predominant, almost 93 p. cent. The sex-ratio is 2.75/1. There is a peak of maximum frequency between the ages of 20 and 29 years for duodenal ulcer. The results of this study are consistent with the series published in Africa regarding the location of the ulcer, sex and age. The frequency is high in relation with the series coming from West Africa. Two provinces in the 15 which form Burundi, share between them 50% of ulcer patients. These are the highest regions of the country (average attitude = 1,800 meters), but where the socio-cultural and dietary customs are the same as in the other provinces. PMID:2817766

  2. Does Attention Constrain Developmental Trajectories in Fragile X Syndrome? A 3-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim; Cole, Victoria; Longhi, Elena; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Scerif, Gaia

    2012-01-01

    Basic attentional processes and their impact on developmental trajectories in fragile X syndrome were assessed in a 3-year prospective study. Although fragile X syndrome is a monogenic X-linked disorder, there is striking variability in outcomes even in young boys with the condition. Attention is a key factor constraining interactions with the…

  3. Crusted scabies misdiagnosed as erythrodermic psoriasis in a 3-year-old girl with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Vanessa; Price, Harper N; Jeffries, Michelle; Alder, Steven L; Hansen, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    Scabies is a highly contagious infestation with the Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis mite. The variety of clinical presentations make timely, accurate diagnosis problematic. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with Down syndrome and crusted scabies initially misdiagnosed as erythrodermic psoriasis. PMID:24138478

  4. Directly Observed Physical Activity among 3-Year-Olds in Finnish Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Villberg, Jari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Gubbels, Jessica; Mehtälä, Anette; Kettunen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine 3-year-olds' physical activity levels and how these vary across season, gender, time of day, location, and the physical and social environment in childcare settings in Finland. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used…

  5. Paternal Psychosocial Characteristics and Corporal Punishment of Their 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Guterman, Neil B.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the…

  6. 3-Year-Old Children Make Relevance Inferences in Indirect Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Cornelia; Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated 3-year-old children's ability to determine a speaker's communicative intent when the speaker's overt utterance related to that intent only indirectly. Studies 1 and 2 examined children's comprehension of indirectly stated requests (e.g., "I find Xs good" can imply, in context, a request for…

  7. Interest and Agency in 2- and 3-Year-Olds' Participation in Emergent Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah Wells; Neitzel, Carin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated 2- and 3-year-olds' personal interests as a possible source of variation in preschool writing activities. Structured observations of the play behaviors of 11 preschool children in a childcare classroom were conducted one to two days per week for one school year. These data were analyzed to determine choices of play…

  8. How Selective Are 3-Year-Olds in Imitating Novel Linguistic Material?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannard, Colin; Klinger, Jörn; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In 3 studies we explored when 3-year-olds would imitate novel words in utterances produced by adult speakers. Child and experimenter took turns in requesting objects from a game master. The experimenter always went first and always preceded the object's familiar name with a novel adjective (e.g., "the dilsige duck"). In the first 2…

  9. Abstract Sentence Representations in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence from Language Production and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencini, Giulia M. L.; Valiana, Virginia V.

    2008-01-01

    We use syntactic priming to test the abstractness of the sentence representations of young 3-year-olds (35-42 months). In describing pictures with inanimate participants, 18 children primed with passives produced more passives (11 with a strict scoring scheme, 16 with lax scoring) than did 18 children primed with actives (2 on either scheme) or 12…

  10. The Development of Core Cognitive Skills in Autism: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the veracity of one candidate multiple-deficits account of autism by assessing 37 children with autism (M age = 67.9 months) and 31 typical children (M age = 65.2 months) on tasks tapping components of theory of mind (ToM), executive function (EF), and central coherence (CC) at intake and again 3 years later. As a…

  11. Modifying Primary Grade Classrooms for Inclusion: Darrell's 3 Years of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Kathleen A.; McDermott, Peter C.

    This 3-year study examined how primary grade teachers and their teacher assistants taught reading and the language arts to a boy with multiple disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Qualitative research strategies are used to describe and explain the boy's participation in literacy activities from kindergarten through second grade. Findings are…

  12. A Field Training Model for Creative Arts Therapies: Report from a 3-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkibi, Hod

    2012-01-01

    Clinical field training is an essential component of educating future therapists. This article discusses a creative arts therapies field training model in Israel as designed and modified from 3 years of program evaluation in a changing regulatory context. A clinical seminar structure puts beginning students in the role of participant-observer in…

  13. Pequenitos en Accion. Edgewood ISD Model Program for 3-Year-Olds Replication Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for Hope, Inc., San Antonio, TX.

    This guide describes "Pequenitos en Accion" (Small Children in Action), the Edgewood (Texas) Independent School District (ISD) early childhood intervention program for Spanish-speaking 3-year-old preschool children. The program is an innovative early childhood education model involving educational programming, collaboration and integration with…

  14. Two-and 3-Year-Olds Know What Others Have and Have Not Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have established that even infants can determine what others know based on previous visual experience. In the current study, we investigated whether 2-and 3-year-olds know what others know based on previous auditory experience. A child and an adult heard the sound of one object together, but only the child heard the sound of another…

  15. Words, Shape, Visual Search and Visual Working Memory in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated…

  16. Behavioral and Emotional Problems among Turkish Children at Ages 2 to 3 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Within the framework of the Mental Health Surveys of Turkey, the authors investigated the distribution and prevalence of parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems in a nationally representative sample of 2- to 3-year-old children. Method: A cross-sectional population-based survey from October 1996 through March 1997 using a…

  17. Enhancing Students' Engagement: Report of a 3-Year Intervention with Middle School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Julianne C.; Christensen, Andrea; Kackar-Cam, Hayal Z.; Trucano, Meg; Fulmer, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    All teachers (N = 32) at one middle school participated in a university-led intervention to improve student engagement. Teachers discussed four principles of motivation and related instructional strategies. Teachers enacted instructional strategies in their classrooms. We observed six randomly selected teachers and their students over 3 years.…

  18. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 3 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Our very youngest children--infants and toddlers under age 3 years--appear to be particularly…

  19. A Study of Developmentally Appropriate Curriculum for 3-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary F.

    Based on classroom observations, developmental assessment, individual educational planning, and research, this curriculum describes developmentally appropriate practices to assist adults who work with young children (primarily 3-year-olds) in providing quality care and education. Chapter 1 sets out the study's specific questions, procedures,…

  20. The Development of Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood: A Twin Study from 2-3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Parent- and lab-based observer ratings were employed to examine genetic and environmental influences on continuity and change in inhibitory control (IC) in over 300 twin-pairs assessed longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age. Genetic influences accounted for approximately 60% of the variance in parent-rated IC at both ages. Although many of the…

  1. Earth Science. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (3-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on earth sciences for 3-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…

  2. The Semiotic Landscape and 3-Year-Olds' Emerging Understanding of Multimodal Communication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of the increasing use of the visual mode in texts found in urban landscapes on two 3-year-olds' understanding of communication practices. The data discussed are taken from a study into a group of 3- to 6-year-olds' interaction with and emerging comprehension of the visual mode and its connection to…

  3. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in 3-Year-Old Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Penelo, Eva; Domenech, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To test the factor structure of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and to study the relationships between the proposed dimensions and external variables in a community sample of preschool children. Method: A sample of 1,341 3-year-old preschoolers was randomly selected and screened for a double-phase design. In total, 622…

  4. Enhancing the Executive Functions of 3-Year-Olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J.; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that…

  5. Can 2- and 3-Year-Old Children Be Trained to Perform Visual Perception Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Children aged 2 and 3 years were exposed to a novel paradigm designed to train visual perception skills. The results indicate that children of this age could be trained to perform both percept deprivation and percept diagnosis tasks. Results are discussed with reference to engagement, a precursor to an adult-like understanding of perception.

  6. Creppy Crawlies. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (3-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This science teaching guide on insects and animals for 3-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early…

  7. Premarital Education and Training Sequence (PETS): A 3-year Follow-up of an Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagarozzi, Dennis A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews and critiques premarital counseling programs and discusses the development of the Premarital Education and Training Sequence (PETS). A study of the long-term effects of the PETS program (N=36) showed significant immediate differences between the experimental and control groups, but differences were not maintained at 3-year follow-up…

  8. Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

  9. The Relation between 3-Year-Old Children's Skills and Their Hyperactivity, Inattention, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman-Weieneth, Julie L.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Goldstein, Lauren H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relation between 3-year-old children's (N = 280) symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and aggression and their cognitive, motor, and preacademic skills. When the authors controlled for other types of attention and behavior problems, maternal ratings of hyperactivity and teacher ratings of inattention were uniquely and…

  10. Risk of Mother-Reported Child Abuse in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Amy M.; Rosenberg, Leon; Fuddy, Loretta; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Sia, Calvin; Duggan, Anne K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate, within an at-risk population, parent and child characteristics associated with a mother's self-reports of severe physical assault and assault on the self-esteem of the child in the first 3 years of life. Design: The study population consisted of a community-based sample of mothers of…

  11. Standards for Day Care Centers for Infants and Children Under 3 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Academy of Pediatrics, Evanston, IL.

    The Committee on Infant and Preschool Child of the American Academy of Pediatrics has developed basic standards for quality day care for children under 3 years of age. The availability of day care provides a mother with the choice of group day care as one of the means of providing for her children. Options should include full-time or part-time day…

  12. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  13. A 3-years full-scale mechanical ice deformation test from the artificial drainages of the Tête Rousse cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardini, Olivier; Krug, Jean; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Durand, Gaël; Gilbert, Adrien; Thibert, Emmanuel; Vincent, Christian; Weiss, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    History of the city of Saint Gervais Mont Blanc, in the french Alps, is deeply marked by the 1892 disaster which killed 175 persons, after the unexpected release of 100000 m3 of water contained in a hidden cavity inside the Tête-Rousse glacier. During summer 2010, a pressurised water-filled cavity of at least 50000 m3 was again discovered within the glacier. To avoid a repetition of the 1892 disaster, an unprecedented initiative has been risen up to drain the water cavity under this high altitude glacier. This procedure was further repeated in Autumns 2011 and 2012 since the cavity was permanently refiled in-between two drainages. However, as the cavity was decreasing in size due to the creep of ice when the water level was low, the total water volume drained out of the cavity was decreased each Autumn. At the same time, a dense network of stakes was deployed to survey the glacier surface displacements above the cavity during the pumping. Record of the water level evolution within the cavity together with the surface displacement measurements along an almost 3-years period constitute a very well documented full-scale experiment to characterise ice deformation. When the water level is low, the cavity is shrinking, whereas when the cavity is full of pressurised water, the cavity is growing. Because of the density ratio between ice and water, closing is approximately 9 time faster than opening. This dataset is completed by recently acquired surface and bedrock DEMs, as well as an image of the cavity geometry from sonar and radar measurements. This unique dataset was then used to constraint the finite-element ice flow model Elmer/Ice and perform transient simulations over the 3-years period. Both the evolution of the surface displacements and of the cavity volume are compared to measurements. We show the importance of accounting for ice damage to reproduce the observed surface displacements.

  14. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:27255804

  15. Parental styles and religious values among teenagers: a 3-year prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Heaven, Patrick C L; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of Grade 7 parental styles on Grade 10 religious values. The authors surveyed 784 participants (382 boys, 394 girls; 8 unreported) in Grade 7. The mean age of the group at Time 1 was 12.3 years (SD = 0.5 years). Time 2 occurred 3 years later when students were in Grade 10 (372 boys, 375 girls). In addition to assessing parental styles at Time 1, we also controlled for a number of Time 1 variables thought to possibly influence Time 2 religious values, namely, self-esteem, trait hope, and students' levels of conscientiousness. Time 1 measures (except self-esteem) were significantly correlated with Time 2 religious values, but only parental authoritativeness and hope significantly predicted religious values. The authors discuss these results with reference to the nature of parental styles and hope and their impact on religious values. PMID:20333897

  16. A 3 Year-Old Male Child Ingested Approximately 750 Grams of Elemental Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Uysalol, Metin; Parlakgül, Güneş; Yılmaz, Yasin; Çıtak, Agop; Uzel, Nedret

    2016-01-01

    Background: The oral ingestion of elemental mercury is unlikely to cause systemic toxicity, as it is poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal system. However, abnormal gastrointestinal function or anatomy may allow elemental mercury into the bloodstream and the peritoneal space. Systemic effects of massive oral intake of mercury have rarely been reported. Case Report: In this paper, we are presenting the highest single oral intake of elemental mercury by a child aged 3 years. A Libyan boy aged 3 years ingested approximately 750 grams of elemental mercury and was still asymptomatic. Conclusion: The patient had no existing disease or abnormal gastrointestinal function or anatomy. The physical examination was normal. His serum mercury level was 91 µg/L (normal: <5 µg/L), and he showed no clinical manifestations. Exposure to mercury in children through different circumstances remains a likely occurrence. PMID:27606146

  17. Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2012-07-01

    Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years. PMID:22686384

  18. Predicting 3-year outcomes of early-identified children with hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ching, T.Y.C.; Day, J.; Seeto, M.; Dillon, H.; Marnane, V.; Street, L.

    2013-01-01

    Problem/Objectives Permanent childhood hearing loss has major negative impacts on children’s health and development. To improve outcomes, universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) has been implemented widely. However, high-quality evidence on its efficacy was lacking. To address this evidence gap, we conducted the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study to directly compare outcomes of early- and late-identified children. This paper investigates whether early performance measured shortly after initial amplification predicts language development at 3 years of age. Methodology This is a prospective, population-based study. We assessed outcomes at 6- and 12-months after amplification, and then at 3 and 5 years of age. Main outcome measures included directly-assessed language, receptive vocabulary, speech production; and parent-reported functional performance in everyday life. A range of demographic and audiological information was also collected at evaluation intervals. Results About 450 children participated, and 3-year outcomes scores were available for 356 participants. Multiple regression analysis revealed that early language scores or functional performance ratings were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes. Other significant predictors included the presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at cochlear implant activation. Conclusions Early performance, either directly-assessed language ability (PLS-4) or parent-reported functional ratings (PEACH), were significant predictors of 3-year outcomes; along with presence or absence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, and age at CI activation. Earlier implantation is possible with early detection of hearing loss via UNHS. Monitoring performance after initial amplification allows preventive strategies to be implemented early to improve outcomes. PMID:24383228

  19. Successful reuse of a transplanted kidney: 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ali; Saglam, Funda; Cavdar, Caner; Sifil, Aykut; Gungor, Ozkan; Bora, Seymen; Gulay, Huseyin; Camsari, Taner

    2007-07-01

    The number of new transplantations has not kept pace with the ever-growing number of patients waiting for a kidney transplant, and there has been a growing shortage of deceased donor kidneys. Previously transplanted organs have been used to increase the donor pool. There is very little data about the reuse of a transplanted kidney. We report a case of successful reuse of a kidney graft after the death of the first recipient with a 3-year follow-up. PMID:17591534

  20. The Neural Correlates of Processing Newborn and Adult Faces in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Westerlund, Alissa; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Kuefner, Dana; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the processing of upright and inverted faces in 3-year-old children (n = 35). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive looking paradigm including adult and newborn face stimuli. We observed three face-sensitive components, the P1, the N170 and the P400. Inverted faces elicited shorter P1 latency and…

  1. Dystonia as acute adverse reaction to cough suppressant in a 3-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, A; Incorpora, G; Ruggieri, M

    2001-01-01

    Cough suppressant preparations containing mixtures of dextromethorphan or codeine with antihistamines, decongestants (sympathomimetic), expectorants and antipyretics with either sedative or anticholinergic activity have been associated with dystonic reactions in children. We report on a 3-year-old girl who presented with episodic stiffness and abnormal posturing with rigidity after arbitrary maternal administration of a mixture of methylcodeine and extract from Hedera plant. PMID:11587381

  2. Emergent retrograde tracheal intubation in a 3-year-old with stevens-johnsons syndrome.

    PubMed

    He, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl suffering from Stevens-Johnsons Syndrome with severe sloughing of the oropharyngeal mucosa was brought to the operating room for an emergent tracheostomy after multiple failed attempts to intubate the trachea in the pediatric intensive care unit. However, a retrograde tracheal intubation was successfully performed in the operating room to secure her airway, after which a tracheostomy was performed. Retrograde intubation can be a quick and effective method for securing the difficult airway. PMID:25612259

  3. Adherence to Competing Strategies for Colorectal Cancer Screening Over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Peter S.; Wheat, Chelle L.; Abhat, Anshu; Brenner, Alison T.; Fagerlin, Angela; Hayward, Rodney A.; Thomas, Jennifer P.; Vijan, Sandeep; Inadomi, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We have shown that, in a randomized trial comparing adherence to different colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies, participants assigned to either fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) or given a choice between FOBT and colonoscopy had significantly higher adherence than those assigned to colonoscopy during the first year. However, how adherence to screening changes over time is unknown. Methods In this trial, 997 participants were cluster randomized to one of the three screening strategies: (i) FOBT, (ii) colonoscopy, or (iii) a choice between FOBT and colonoscopy. Research assistants helped participants to complete testing only in the first year. Adherence to screening was defined as completion of three FOBT cards in each of 3 years after enrollment or completion of colonoscopy within the first year of enrollment. The primary outcome was adherence to assigned strategy over 3 years. Additional outcomes included identification of sociodemographic factors associated with adherence. Results Participants assigned to annual FOBT completed screening at a significantly lower rate over 3 years (14%) than those assigned to colonoscopy (38%, P<0.001) or choice (42%, P<0.001); however, completion of any screening test fell precipitously, indicating the strong effect of patient navigation. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, being randomized to the choice or colonoscopy group, Chinese language, homosexuality, being married/partnered, and having a non-nurse practitioner primary care provider were independently associated with greater adherence to screening (P<0.01). Conclusions In a 3-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing competing CRC screening strategies, participants offered a choice between FOBT and colonoscopy continued to have relatively high adherence, whereas adherence in the FOBT group fell significantly below that of the choice and colonoscopy groups. Patient navigation is crucial to achieving adherence to CRC screening, and FOBT is

  4. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Kajale, Neha A.; Khadilkar, Anuradha V.; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Khadilkar, Vaman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP) and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR) and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR) has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i) compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii) effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years) randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A), 88 with 1–2 years (Group-B) and 84 with 3–4-year-old-children (Group-C) were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB), by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX) were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg) than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg) (median [IQR]). Android fat % (central obesity) increased (P < 0.05) at 1-year PP (47 ± 10.0%) when compared to 1-week PP (44.3 ± 6.7%) and remained elevated at 3-year PP (45.6 ± 10.2%). Regression analysis revealed that at 1-year PP, increase in PPWR (Odd Ratio [OR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.2, 2.5], P < 0.001) and inactivity (OR 1.4, 95% CI= (0.97, 2.0), P < 0.1) were predictors for CMR. At 3-year PP, only PPWR was responsible for increase in CMR parameters (OR 1.6, 95% CI = (1.3, 2.3), P < 0.001) and not inactivity (P > 0.1). Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women. PMID:26180762

  5. Racial and Ethnic Differentials in Overweight and Obesity Among 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated racial/ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in a national sample of 3-year-olds from urban, low-income families and assessed possible determinants of differences. Methods. Survey, in-home observation, and interview data were collected at birth, 1 year, and 3 years. We used logistic regression analyses and adjusted for a range of covariates in examining overweight and obesity differentials according to race/ethnicity. Results. Thirty-five percent of the study children were overweight or obese. Hispanic children were twice as likely as either Black or White children to be overweight or obese. Although we controlled for a wide variety of characteristics, we were unable to explain either White–Hispanic or Black–Hispanic differences in overweight and obesity. However, birthweight, taking a bottle to bed, and mother’s weight status were important predictors of children’s overweight or obesity at age 3 years. Conclusions. Children’s problems with overweight and obesity begin as early as age 3, and Hispanic children and those with obese mothers are especially at risk. PMID:17194857

  6. Mitochondrial compromise in 3-year old patas monkeys exposed in utero to human-equivalent antiretroviral therapies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongmin; Shim Park, Eunwoo; Gibbons, Alexander T; Shide, Eric D; Divi, Rao L; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C

    2016-08-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) drug therapy, given during pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), induces fetal mitochondrial dysfunction in some children. However, the persistence/reversibility of that dysfunction is unclear. Here we have followed Erythrocebus patas (patas) monkey offspring for up to 3 years of age (similar in development to a 15-year old human) after exposure of the dams to human-equivalent in utero ARV exposure protocols. Pregnant patas dams (3-5/exposure group) were given ARV drug combinations that included zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC)/abacavir (ABC), or AZT/3TC/nevirapine (NVP), for the last 10 weeks (50%) of gestation. Infants kept for 1 and 3 years also received drug for the first 6 weeks of life. In offpsring at birth, 1 and 3 years of age mitochondrial morphology, examined by electron microscopy (EM), was compromised compared to the unexposed controls. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), measured by hybrid capture chemiluminescence assay (HCCA) was depleted in hearts of patas exposed to AZT/3TC/NVP at all ages (P < 0.05), but not in those exposed to AZT/3TC/ABC at any age. Compared to unexposed controls, mitochondrial reserve capacity oxygen consumption rate (OCR by Seahorse) in cultured bone marrow mesenchymal fibroblasts from 3-year-old patas offspring was ∼50% reduced in AZT/3TC/ABC-exposed patas (P < 0.01), but not in AZT/3TC/NVP-exposed patas. Overall the data show that 3-year-old patas sustain persistent mitochondrial dysfunction as a result of perinatal ARV drug exposure. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:526-534, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27452341

  7. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  8. Age of Achievement of Gross Motor Milestones in Infancy and Adiposity at Age 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Neelon, Sara E. Benjamin; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Early life physical activity may help prevent obesity but is difficult to measure. The purpose of this study was to examine associations of age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy with adiposity at age 3 years. Seven forty one mother/infant dyads participated in a longitudinal study in Massachusetts. Exposures were age of attainment of 4 gross motor milestones—rolling over, sitting up, crawling, and walking. Outcomes were 3-year sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (SS + TR) for overall adiposity, their ratio (SS:TR) for central adiposity, and body mass index (BMI) z-score. We used linear regression models adjusted for confounders to examine motor milestone achievement and later adiposity. Rolling over (0.04, 95% CI: 0.008, 0.07) and sitting up (0.02, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) at ≥6 months were associated with increased SS:TR compared with attainment before 6 months. Walking at ≥15 months was associated with 0.98 mm higher SS + TR (95% CI: 0.05, 1.91) compared with walking before 12 months. Age at crawling was not associated with the outcomes. None of the milestones were associated with BMI z-score. Age of motor milestone achievement was only a modest predictor of adiposity. Later rolling over and sitting up were associated with greater central adiposity, and later age at walking was associated with greater overall adiposity at age 3 years. Although we controlled for birth weight and 6-month weight-for-length in our models, more detailed assessment of early adiposity prior to achievement of motor milestones is needed to help determine causality. PMID:21643834

  9. MyoRing Implantation in Keratoconic Patients: 3 years Follow-up Data

    PubMed Central

    Janani, Leila; Jadidi, Khosrow; Mosavi, Seyed Aliasghar; Nejat, Farhad; Naderi, Mostafa; Nourijelyani, Keramat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term follow-up data on implantation of a full-ring intra-corneal implant (MyoRing) for management of keratoconus. Methods: A total of 40 keratoconic eyes of 37 consecutive patients who had undergone MyoRing implantation using the Pocket Maker microkeratome (Dioptex, GmbH, Linz, Austria) and completed 3 years of follow-up appointments were included in this retrospective study. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refraction and keratometry (K) readings were measured and evaluated preoperatively, and 3 years, postoperatively. Results: No intraoperative complications were observed in this case series. Three years postoperatively, there was a significant improvement in UDVA, CDVA, K readings, spherical equivalent (SE), and manifest sphere and cylinder (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). UDVA was significantly improved from 1.14 ± 0.27 to 0.30 ± 0.21 LogMAR (P = 0.001), CDVA was also improved from 0.52 ± 0.23 to 0.18 ± 0.12 LogMAR (P = 0.001), SE was decreased by 4.35 diopters (D) and average keratometric values were reduced by 2.34 D (P = 0.001). Overall, 81% of subjects were moderately to highly satisfied 3 years after surgery and 64.90% agreed to have the fellow eye implanted with MyoRing. Conclusion: MyoRing implantation using the Pocket Maker microkeratome was found to be a minimally invasive procedure for improving visual acuity and refraction in the majority of the patients with keratoconus. PMID:27195081

  10. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Myopia in 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Valencia Hui Xian; Verkicharla, Pavan Kumar; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Chua, Sharon Yu Lin; Cai, Shirong; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter; Wong, Tien-Yin; Ngo, Cheryl; Saw, Seang-Mei; on behalf of the GUSTO study group

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the association of axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CRC) ratio with spherical equivalent (SE) in a 3-year old Asian cohort. Methods Three-hundred forty-nine 3-year old Asian children from The Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study underwent AL and CRC measurements with a noncontact ocular biometer and cycloplegic refraction using an autorefractor. The ratio of AL to CRC (AL/CRC) was calculated for all the participants, and subsequently AL, CRC, and AL/CRC were analyzed in relationship to SE. Results The SE showed better correlation with AL/CRC (Spearman's correlation coefficient, ρ = −0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.66; −0.49; P < 0.001) compared to either AL or CRC alone ([ρ = −0.36; 95% CI: −0.51 to 0.51; P = 0.01] and [ρ = 0.05; 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.17; P = 0.34], respectively). Mean AL/CRC was 2.91 ± 0.06 among myopes and decreased to 2.79 ± 0.06 among hyperopes. Axial length to corneal radius of curvature was strongly correlated with SE in myopes (ρ = −0.78; 95% CI: −3.76; −0.79; P = < 0.001), but not in emmetropes and hyperopes ([ρ = −0.39; 95% CI: −10.73; −0.57; P = 0.01] and [ρ = −0.18; 95% CI: −17.28; 12.42; P = 0.38], respectively). Linear regression adjusted for gender and ethnicity showed a 0.74-diopter shift in SE towards myopia with every 0.1 increase in AL/CRC ratio (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.33). Conclusion The correlation between SE and AL/CRC is stronger than that between AL or CRC alone. This suggests that in a research setting, when cycloplegic refraction is difficult to perform on 3-year-old children, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error. Translational Relevance In the research setting, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error over AL alone when cycloplegic refraction is unavailable in 3-year old children. PMID:26929885

  11. Acute dapsone poisoning in a 3-year-old child: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS-diamino diphenyl sulphone) is a sulfone antibiotic being used for a variety of clinical conditions. Poisoning in children by DDS is rarely reported. Poisoning in acute cases will be frequently unrecognized due to relative lack of severe signs and symptoms. Methemoglobinemia is the major life-threatening situation associated with poisoning of DDS. Hence, any delay for medical attention can lead to increased rate of mortality. In this case, we describe acute DDS poisoning in a 3-year-old child and the successful management using intravenous methylene blue. PMID:26488029

  12. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog.

    PubMed

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-02-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination. PMID:24489399

  13. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog

    PubMed Central

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination. PMID:24489399

  14. Discoid medial meniscus with a horizontal cleavage tear: a juvenile who suffered for 3 years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingqing; Gao, Shijun; Chen, Baicheng

    2012-09-01

    It is very rare to see medial discoid meniscus, and there have been only 82 knees in 61 cases reported to date. The investigators found discoid medial meniscus with horizontal cleavage tear in a 13-year-old juvenile who had been injured while playing basketball, and endured for 3 years. Both magnetic resonance images and the arthroscopic findings were presented. Saucerization of the torn discoid medial meniscus was performed successfully, and the clinical outcomes were satisfying according to the follow-up of 14 months. PMID:21912338

  15. Early epileptic encephalopathies including West syndrome: a 3-year retrospective study from Klang Hospital, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Thambyayah, M

    2001-11-01

    It is difficult to give a country report from Malaysia. A study done in 1999 reported the incidence of West Syndrome to be 3% among newly diagnosed cases of epilepsy. In this 3 year retrospective hospital-based study (1997-1999), the prevalence of early epileptic encephalopathy (EEE) and West Syndrome were 4.1 and 2.5% respectively. There is difficulty classifying EEE cases into distinct sub-groups of EIEE (early infantile epileptic encephalopathy), WS (West Syndrome) and SMEI (severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy), using a combination of clinical features, EEG and CT/MRI findings. PMID:11701263

  16. A retrospective study of the changing trends of antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from urine samples over last 3 years (2012-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neetu; Gupta, Anita K.; Walia, Geeta; Bakhshi, Rupinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: In our country, the problem of antibiotic resistance is compounding because of overuse and misuse of antibiotics. There is no systematic national surveillance of antibiotic resistance and insufficient data are available to quantify the problem. Objectives: To study the changing pattern of antimicrobial resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from patients of urinary tract infections over last 3 years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, record-based study carried out based on the records culture sensitivity reports of indoor patients, during past 3 years (2012-2014). The type of organisms most common in urine sample was noted, and the drugs still effective for the particular organism were noted. Results: Klebsiella was the second most frequent isolate throughout the 3 years (14%) of the total isolates). Analysis of the results year wise indicated that the lowest percentage of resistance was manifested against imipenem between 11.94% (2012) and 13.75% (2014). Over the successive years, resistance to ceftriaxone tends to increase from 74.95 % (2012) to 81% (2014). Klebsiella showed very high resistance 90.78% (2012) and 95.63% (2012) to co-trimoxazole and tetracycline, respectively with increasing trend to absolute resistance to both groups over the 3 years period. On an average over the 3 years Klebsiella showed a high amount of resistances to fluoroquinolones (72.71%) and aminoglycosides (76.22%). While multi-drug resistant Klebsiella range between 65% (2012) and 67% (2014). Conclusion: The antimicrobial resistance patterns are constantly evolving and vary from region to region it has become a necessity to do constant antimicrobial sensitivity surveillance. This will help clinicians to provide safe and effective empirical therapies. PMID:27003967

  17. Outcomes of population based language promotion for slow to talk toddlers at ages 2 and 3 years: Let’s Learn Language cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Sherryn; Girolametto, Luigi; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gold, Lisa; Levickis, Penny; Sheehan, Jane; Goldfeld, Sharon; Reilly, Sheena

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the benefits of a low intensity parent-toddler language promotion programme delivered to toddlers identified as slow to talk on screening in universal services. Design Cluster randomised trial nested in a population based survey. Setting Three local government areas in Melbourne, Australia. Participants Parents attending 12 month well child checks over a six month period completed a baseline questionnaire. At 18 months, children at or below the 20th centile on an expressive vocabulary checklist entered the trial. Intervention Maternal and child health centres (clusters) were randomly allocated to intervention (modified “You Make the Difference” programme over six weekly sessions) or control (“usual care”) arms. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was expressive language (Preschool Language Scale-4) at 2 and 3 years; secondary outcomes were receptive language at 2 and 3 years, vocabulary checklist raw score at 2 and 3 years, Expressive Vocabulary Test at 3 years, and Child Behavior Checklist/1.5-5 raw score at 2 and 3 years. Results 1217 parents completed the baseline survey; 1138 (93.5%) completed the 18 month checklist, when 301 (26.4%) children had vocabulary scores at or below the 20th centile and were randomised (158 intervention, 143 control). 115 (73%) intervention parents attended at least one session (mean 4.5 sessions), and most reported high satisfaction with the programme. Interim outcomes at age 2 years were similar in the two groups. Similarly, at age 3 years, adjusted mean differences (intervention−control) were −2.4 (95% confidence interval −6.2 to 1.4; P=0.21) for expressive language; −0.3 (−4.2 to 3.7; P=0.90) for receptive language; 4.1 (−2.3 to 10.6; P=0.21) for vocabulary checklist; −0.5 (−4.4 to 3.4; P=0.80) for Expressive Vocabulary Test; −0.1 (−1.6 to 1.4; P=0.86) for externalising behaviour problems; and −0.1 (−1.3 to 1.2; P=0. 92) for internalising behaviour problems. Conclusion

  18. Job embeddedness factors and retention of nurses with 1 to 3 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Halfer, Diana

    2011-10-01

    An aging work force, predictions of job growth in health care, and an eventual economic recovery suggest that the current reprieve from the national nursing shortage is temporary. New graduate nurses are an important part of the work force and are needed to replace nurses who will retire in the next decade. Organizational leaders can address the forecasted work force demand by proactively investing in programs for workplace development and retention. Recent literature reports an increased focus on understanding the work experience and career support needed for new graduate nurses. Several studies report improvements in job satisfaction and retention after implementation of structured mentoring programs for new graduate nurses. However, despite successful transition programs, turnover for these same nurses after 1 to 3 years of organizational tenure remains high. Studying factors that contribute to retention and supporting careers beyond the first year of practice may have a significant effect on improving retention and will contribute new knowledge to the nursing literature. This study, undertaken at a Midwestern pediatric academic medical center, examined job factors and career development support that lead to retention of nurses with 1 to 3 years of experience. Understanding these issues may guide nursing leaders and staff development educators in investing in focused retention and career development plans during an economic recession. PMID:21667873

  19. Mental Health Diagnoses 3 Years After Receiving or Being Denied an Abortion in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, John M.; Foster, Diana G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We set out to assess the occurrence of new depression and anxiety diagnoses in women 3 years after they sought an abortion. Methods. We conducted semiannual telephone interviews of 956 women who sought abortions from 30 US facilities. Adjusted multivariable discrete-time logistic survival models examined whether the study group (women who obtained abortions just under a facility’s gestational age limit, who were denied abortions and carried to term, who were denied abortions and did not carry to term, and who received first-trimester abortions) predicted depression or anxiety onset during seven 6-month time intervals. Results. The 3-year cumulative probability of professionally diagnosed depression was 9% to 14%; for anxiety it was 10% to 15%, with no study group differences. Women in the first-trimester group and women denied abortions who did not give birth had greater odds of new self-diagnosed anxiety than did women who obtained abortions just under facility gestational limits. Conclusions. Among women seeking abortions near facility gestational limits, those who obtained abortions were at no greater mental health risk than were women who carried an unwanted pregnancy to term. PMID:26469674

  20. Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Martin, Vivienne; Day, Julia; Mahler, Nicole; Youn, Samantha; Street, Laura; Cook, Cassandra; Orsini, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports language ability and everyday functioning of 133 children with hearing impairment who were evaluated at 3 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. The language abilities of children were evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) and Child Development Inventory (CDI). Everyday functioning of children was evaluated by interviewing parents using the Parents’ Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children (PEACH) questionnaire. There were significant correlations among language measures, and also between the standardized language measures and the PEACH. On average, children who had language deficits exhibited difficulties in everyday functioning. The evidence lends support to a systematic use of parents’ observations to evaluate communicative functioning of children in real life. On average, children’s language attainment decreased as hearing loss increased, more so for children of less highly educated parents. Factors that were not significantly associated with speech and language outcomes at 3 years were age of amplification and socioeconomic status. As multiple factors affect children’s outcomes, it will be possible to examine their effects on outcomes of children when all data in the LOCHI study are available. PMID:20420353

  1. Slow roll reconstruction: constraints on inflation from the 3 year WMAP data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiris, Hiranya V.; Easther, Richard

    2006-10-01

    We study the constraints on the inflationary parameter space derived from the 3 year WMAP data set using 'slow roll reconstruction', using the SDSS galaxy power spectrum to gain further leverage where appropriate. This approach inserts the inflationary slow roll parameters directly into a Monte Carlo Markov chain estimate of the cosmological parameters, and uses the inflationary flow hierarchy to compute the parameters' scale dependence. We work with the first three parameters (epsi, η and ξ) and pay close attention to the possibility that the 3 year WMAP data set contains evidence for a 'running' spectral index, which is dominated by the ξ term. Mirroring the WMAP team's analysis we find that the permitted distribution of ξ is broad, and centred away from zero. However, when we require that inflationary parameters yield at least 30 additional e-folds of inflation after the largest observable scales leave the horizon, the bounds on ξ tighten dramatically. We make use of the absence of an explicit pivot scale in the slow roll reconstruction formalism to determine the dependence of the computed parameter distributions on the pivot. We show that the choice of pivot has a significant effect on the inferred constraints on the inflationary variables, and the spectral index and running derived from them. Finally, we argue that the next round of cosmological data can be expected to place very stringent constraints on the region of parameter space open to single field models of slow roll inflation.

  2. Tsunami-exposed tourist survivors: signs of recovery in a 3-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Kerstin Bergh; Lundin, Tom; Fröjd, Thomas; Hultman, Christina M; Michel, Per-Olof

    2011-03-01

    Long-term follow-up after disaster exposure indicates increased rates of psychological distress. However, trajectories and rates of recovery in large samples of disaster-exposed survivors are largely lacking. A group of 3457 Swedish survivors temporarily on vacation in Southeast Asia during the 2004 tsunami were assessed by postal questionnaire at 14 months and 3 years after the tsunami regarding post-traumatic stress reactions (IES-R) and general mental health (GHQ-12). There was a general pattern of resilience and recovery 3 years postdisaster. Severe exposure and traumatic bereavement were associated with increased post-traumatic stress reactions and heightened risk for impaired mental health. The rate of recovery was lower among respondents exposed to life threat and among bereaved. Severe trauma exposure and bereavement seem to have considerable long-term impact on psychological distress and appear to slow down the recovery process. Readiness among health agencies for identification of symptoms and provision of interventions might facilitate optimal recovery. PMID:21346486

  3. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance. PMID:21479943

  4. The relation between student motivation and student grades in physical education: A 3-year investigation.

    PubMed

    Barkoukis, V; Taylor, I; Chanal, J; Ntoumanis, N

    2014-10-01

    Enhancing students' academic engagement is the key element of the educational process; hence, research in this area has focused on understanding the mechanisms that can lead to increased academic engagement. The present study investigated the relation between motivation and grades in physical education (PE) employing a 3-year longitudinal design. Three hundred fifty-four Greek high school students participated in the study. Students completed measures of motivation to participate in PE on six occasions; namely, at the start and the end of the school year in the first, second, and third year of junior high school. Students' PE grades were also recorded at these time points. The results of the multilevel growth models indicated that students' PE grades increased over the 3 years and students had better PE grades at the end of each year than at the beginning of the subsequent year. In general, students and classes with higher levels of controlling motivation achieved lower PE grades, whereas higher levels of autonomous motivation were associated with higher PE grades. These findings provide new insight on the associations between class- and individual-level motivation with objectively assessed achievement in PE. PMID:24433528

  5. Effects of prosthetic limb prescription on 3-year mortality among lower extremity veteran amputees

    PubMed Central

    Kurichi, Jibby E.; Kwong, Pui; Vogel, W. Bruce; Xie, Dawei; Ripley, Diane Cowper; Bates, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the relationship between receipt of a prescription for a prosthetic limb and three-year mortality post-surgery among veterans with lower extremity amputation. We conducted a retrospective observational study that included 4,578 veterans hospitalized for lower extremity amputation and discharged in Fiscal Years 2003 and 2004. The outcome was time to all-cause mortality from the amputation surgical date up to the 3-year anniversary of the surgical date. There were 1,300 (28.4%) veterans with lower extremity amputations who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb within a year after the surgical amputation. About 46% (n=2086) died within three-years of the surgical anniversary. Among those who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb, only 25.2% died within 3 years of the surgical anniversary. After adjustment, veterans who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb were less likely to die after the surgery than veterans without a prescription with a hazard ratio of 0.68 (95% CI, 0.60-0.77). Findings demonstrated that veterans with lower extremity amputations who received a prescription for a prosthetic limb within a year after the surgical amputation were less likely to die within three years of the surgical amputation after controlling for patient-, treatment-, and facility-level characteristics. PMID:26348602

  6. Lessons after 3 years of running GENIUS-TF in Gran Sasso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivosheina, I. V.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.

    2006-10-01

    After operation of GENIUS-TF over 3 years with finally six naked Ge detectors (15 kg) in liquid nitrogen in Gran Sasso, we realize serious problems for realization of a full-size GENIUS-like experiment: (i) background from 222Rn diffusing into the setup, on a level far beyond the expectation. (ii) Limited long-term stability of naked detectors in liquid nitrogen. None of the six detectors is running after 3 years with the nominal high voltage. Three of the six detectors do not work at all any more. The HDMS (Heidelberg Dark Matter Search) setup at LNGS, operates the first enriched 73Ge detector worldwide, and looks for spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon coupling at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. The results (85.48 kg d) improve the best present existing limits on the WIMP neutron spin-dependent cross-section (obtained from 129Xe) for low WIMP masses (Klapdor-Kleingrothaus et al 2005 Phys. Lett. B 609 226 31).

  7. Prescription pain reliever misuse and levels of pain impairment: 3-year course in a nationally representative outpatient sample of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Scott P; Glasheen, Cristie; Roland, Carl L

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this work was to present the prevalence data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a representative 3-year longitudinal survey (ages 18+ years) that captured information on patterns of self-reported pain interference and prescription pain reliever misuse. A second aim was to assess the degree to which the risk of various types of opioid misuse (onset, desistance, and incidence of dependence) was related to the longitudinal course of self-reported pain interference over the 3-year period. Methods We used a two-wave, nationally representative sample of adults (aged 18+ years) in which the baseline data were collected during 2001–2002 and a single follow-up was obtained ~3 years later (2004–2005 with 34,332 respondents with complete data on study variables for both waves). Results Our findings indicated that ~10% reported high pain interference in the past month at each wave. There was tremendous stability in levels of pain, with ~5% reporting consistent levels of high impairment over the 3-year study, a proxy for chronic pain. Levels of pain were more strongly associated with prescription pain reliever misuse concurrently rather than prospectively, and the association was largely linear, with the likelihood of misuse increasing with levels of pain. Finally, health service factors were also prominent predictors of onset, but not the outcomes, of desistance or transitions to problem use. Conclusion This study is the first to use a nationally representative sample with measures of pain and drug use history collected over an extended period. These results may help provide clinicians with an understanding that the risk of misuse is greatest when pain is active and may help guide the selection of appropriate intervention materials and monitor strategies for those at greatest risk. PMID:27418863

  8. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  9. Cognitive Function at 3 Years of Age after Fetal Exposure to Antiepileptic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Combs-Cantrell, Deborah T.; Cohen, Morris; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fetal exposure of animals to antiepileptic drugs at doses lower than those required to produce congenital malformations can produce cognitive and behavioral abnormalities, but cognitive effects of fetal exposure of humans to antiepileptic drugs are uncertain. METHODS Between 1999 and 2004, we enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy who were taking a single antiepileptic agent (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate) in a prospective, observational, multicenter study in the United States and the United Kingdom. The primary analysis is a comparison of neurodevelopmental outcomes at the age of 6 years after exposure to different antiepileptic drugs in utero. This report focuses on a planned interim analysis of cognitive outcomes in 309 children at 3 years of age. RESULTS At 3 years of age, children who had been exposed to valproate in utero had significantly lower IQ scores than those who had been exposed to other antiepileptic drugs. After adjustment for maternal IQ, maternal age, antiepileptic-drug dose, gestational age at birth, and maternal preconception use of folate, the mean IQ was 101 for children exposed to lamotrigine, 99 for those exposed to phenytoin, 98 for those exposed to carbamazepine, and 92 for those exposed to valproate. On average, children exposed to valproate had an IQ score 9 points lower than the score of those exposed to lamotrigine (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1 to 14.6; P = 0.009), 7 points lower than the score of those exposed to phenytoin (95% CI, 0.2 to 14.0; P = 0.04), and 6 points lower than the score of those exposed to carbamazepine (95% CI, 0.6 to 12.0; P = 0.04). The association between valproate use and IQ was dose dependent. Children’s IQs were significantly related to maternal IQs among children exposed to carbamazepine, lamotrigine, or phenytoin but not among those exposed to valproate. CONCLUSIONS In utero exposure to valproate, as compared with other commonly used antiepileptic drugs, is associated

  10. Patterns of paediatric facial fractures in a hospital of São Paulo, Brazil: a retrospective study of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Nardis, Amanda da Costa; Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; da Silva, Rogério Almeida; Kaba, Shajadi Carlos Pardo

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze patterns of facial fractures in children treated at the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Vila Penteado General Hospital (HGVP), in São Paulo, Brazil, in a period of 3 years. Between May 2008 and April 2011 the authors reviewed 110 records of patients under 12 years old with facial fractures. The following parameters were evaluated: age and sex distribution, aetiology of trauma, incidence and type of fractures, monthly distribution and treatment modality. Male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1, and the mean age was 8.13. The majority of the involved patients were aged between 6 and 12 years. The most prevalent cause was fall (58%) and nasal fractures were the most common type of fracture (69%). Monthly distribution was similar in all seasons. Of 110 patients, 69 (62%) were treated conservatively. The incidence of facial fractures in the area of study is high. The high incidence of nasal fractures should be a warning to maxillofacial surgeons, so that they are not overlooked. Safety programs should be installed in Brazil to increase public awareness and to decrease morbidity resulting from paediatric trauma. PMID:23062741

  11. Maxillary Overdentures Supported by Four Splinted Direct Metal Laser Sintering Implants: A 3-Year Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Francesco; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Nowadays, the advancements in direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technology allow the fabrication of titanium dental implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate implant survival, complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss of DMLS implants used to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures. Materials and Methods. Over a 2-year period, 120 implants were placed in the maxilla of 30 patients (18 males, 12 females) to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures (ODs). Each OD was supported by 4 implants splinted by a rigid cobalt-chrome bar. At each annual follow-up session, clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed. The outcome measures were implant failure, biological and prosthetic complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss (distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-to-implant contact, DIB). Results. The 3-year implant survival rate was 97.4% (implant-based) and 92.9% (patient-based). Three implants failed. The incidence of biological complication was 3.5% (implant-based) and 7.1% (patient-based). The incidence of prosthetic complication was 17.8% (patient-based). No detrimental effects on marginal bone level were evidenced. Conclusions. The use of 4 DMLS titanium implants to support bar-retained maxillary ODs seems to represent a safe and successful procedure. Long-term clinical studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25580124

  12. Rehabilitation of resorbed mandibular ridges using mini implant retained overdentures: A case series with 3 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Pooja; Verma, Mahesh; Sainia, Vikrant; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing average life expectancy of human beings, the need to cater geriatric patients is ever increasing. Complete dentures are an indispensable tool in this regard. The loose and unstable lower complete denture owing to residual ridge resorption is one of the most common problems faced by edentulous patients. Dental implant retained overdentures have emerged as an efficient treatment modality for such patients. Though useful, not every patient is a suitable candidate to go for conventional implant-borne prosthesis, limitation being the available bone width. In such cases, mini implants may be used for augmenting the retention of the dentures and improving the quality of life of patients. In this case series, rehabilitation of three compromised cases with mini implant retained overdentures have been described wherein patients are experiencing instability of lower denture due to thin resorbed mandibular ridges. In one of the cases, three mini implants placed in A, C, and E position were splinted using a cemented bar to retain the mandibular denture. The other two cases were rehabilitated using unsplinted ball type one piece mini implants placed in A, C, and E position in one case and B and D position in another case. Though splinted bar design should be preferred but the lack of available vertical space precluded the utilization of bar in other two cases. The results were found to be satisfactory with no complications reported during a follow-up period of over 3 years in all the cases. PMID:27141177

  13. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vinay Kumar; Bansal, Rajesh; Gupta, Vineeta; Bansal, Manish; Patne, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), previously known as histio-cytosis X, is a rare idiopathic disorder of reticulo-endothelial system with abnormal proliferation of bone marrow derived Langerhans cells along with a variable number of leukocytes, such as eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Three years old male child presented with multifocal osteolytic lesions and papulosquamous skin lesions. Clinical and radio-graphic features, such as severe alveolar bone loss, mobility of teeth, precocious eruption of teeth, foating appearance of teeth in orthopantomogram (OPG), osteolytic lesion in skull and cutaneous lesions were highly suggestive of LCH disease. Skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of LCH. Induction chemotherapy with oral prednisolone and intravenous vinblastine was started. Child responded well to chemotherapy. The clinical significance of the presented case is to diagnose the case of LCH on the basis of the manifestation of severe periodontal disease as this can be first or only manifestation of LCH. A dentist plays a major role in the multidisciplinary treatment of LCH through routine examination and periodic follow-up. How to cite this article: Bansal M, Srivastava VK, Bansal R, Gupta V, Bansal M, Patne S. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):217-219. PMID:25709306

  14. [Anemia management in French hemodialysis patients: DiaNE study results at 3 years (DiaNE2)].

    PubMed

    Kessler, Michèle; Landais, Paul; Bataille, Pierre; Yver, Laurent; Koné, Sébastien; Kraemer, Sandrine; Brillet, Georges; Canivet, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The observational study DiaNE provides a current state of anemia management with Epoetine bêta in hemodialysis patients regarding European recommendations over a 3-year period in France. Patients still treated with Epoetine bêta twelve months after their inclusion in DiaNE were eligible for a 24-month extension phase entitled DiaNE 2. Data regarding 439 patients followed during three years, from M0 to M36, were analyzed. Hemoglobin (Hb) level of the cohort remained over the target value of 11g/dL during the study (M0: 11.3±1.2g/dL; M36: 11.8±1.3g/dL). The anemia management had evolved with European recommendations updates and was in accordance with the last recommended target range (11-12g/dL) in a third of patients. During the follow-up, the majority of patients (97%) had at least one modification of treatment with Epoetine bêta (change in frequency of injections, adjustment of doses) mainly justified by excursion of Hb level out of the target range. However, the median dose of Epoetine bêta was relatively stable. The number of patients with iron treatment remained stable (60%). In spite of undertaken efforts, anemia management of hemodialysed patients in France still needs optimization for maintaining Hb level in the recommended target range. PMID:21227765

  15. Reliability of biologic indicators in a mail-return sterilization-monitoring service: a review of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Andrés, M T; Tejerina, J M; Fierro, J F

    1995-12-01

    Most mail-return sterilization-monitoring services use spore strips to test sterilizers in dental clinics, but factors such as delay caused by mailing to the laboratory could cause false negatives. The aims of this study were to determine the influence of poststerilization time and temperature on the biologic indicator recovery system and to evaluate sterilization failure and its possible causes in dental clinics subscribing to a mail-return sterilization-monitoring service. Spore strips used in independent tests revealed the poststerilization time and temperature after a 7-day delay to have no significant influence. Sixty-six dental clinics that received quarterly biologic indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of their sterilizers had sterilization failure rates of 28.7% in 1992, 18.1% in 1993, and 9.1% in 1994, a statistically significant decrease in sterilization failure during the 3-year period. The usual causes of failure were operator error in wrapping of instruments, loading, operating temperature, or exposure time. PMID:8596817

  16. A 3-Year Climatology of Cloud and Radiative Properties Derived from GOES-8 Data Over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaiyer, M. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Doelling, D. R.; Nordeen, M. L.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Nguyen, L.

    2001-01-01

    While the various instruments maintained at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF) provide detailed cloud and radiation measurements for a small area, satellite cloud property retrievals provide a means of examining the large-scale properties of the surrounding region over an extended period of time. Seasonal and inter-annual climatological trends can be analyzed with such a dataset. For this purpose, monthly datasets of cloud and radiative properties from December 1996 through November 1999 over the SGP region have been derived using the layered bispectral threshold method (LBTM). The properties derived include cloud optical depths (ODs), temperatures and albedos, and are produced on two grids of lower (0.5 deg) and higher resolution (0.3 deg) centered on the ARM SGP CF. The extensive time period and high-resolution of the inner grid of this dataset allows for comparison with the suite of instruments located at the ARM CF. In particular, Whole-Sky Imager (WSI) and the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) cloud products can be compared to the cloud amounts and heights of the LBTM 0.3 deg grid box encompassing the CF site. The WSI provides cloud fraction and the ARSCL computes cloud fraction, base, and top heights using the algorithms by Clothiaux et al. (2001) with a combination of Belfort Laser Ceilometer (BLC), Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR), and Micropulse Lidar (MPL) data. This paper summarizes the results of the LBTM analysis for 3 years of GOES-8 data over the SGP and examines the differences between surface and satellite-based estimates of cloud fraction.

  17. Changes in plant biomass and nutrient removal over 3 years in a constructed wetland in Cairns, Australia.

    PubMed

    Greenway, M; Woolley, A

    2001-01-01

    The surface flow wetland in Cairns, Australia consists of 3 linear channels each 65 m long. Channels 1 and 2 are 5 m wide and Channel 3 is 15 m wide. The wetland was constructed in 1994 and band planted with emergent macrophyte species and alternating open water sections. The wetland was monitored for plant growth and nutrient removal until 1997. During that period HRT was 16 days in Channel 1 and 10 days in Channels 2 and 3; mass loading rates were 2.4 kg Total N and 2.0 kg Total P ha(-1) d(-1) in Channel 1 and 3.7 kg TN and 3.3 kg TP ha(-1) d(-1) in Channels 2 and 3. The aim of this work was to determine the proportion of nutrient removal that could be attributed to direct uptake by macrophytes and incorporated into plant biomass. Over the 3 year monitoring period reduction in total mass of nutrients was: Channel 1: 26% P, 85% N; Channel 2: 28% P, 87% N; Channel 3: 21% P, 81% N. Percentage reduction of FRP (Filterable Reactive Phosphorus) was similar to TP; NOx removal was 97-98%. Mass removal rates for TN and TP were higher in Channels 2 and 3 despite greater nutrient loading rates and shorter detention times. Total FRP removal was 23 kg P in Channel 1, 33 kg P in Channel 2 and 70 kg P in Channel 3 of which plant biomass accounted for 65%, 44% and 47% respectively. Total nitrogen removal was 92 kg in Channel 1,154 kg in Channel 2 and 386 kg in Channel 3 of which plant biomass accounted for 47%, 27% and 27% respectively. Thus, in this tropical surface flow wetland supporting a mixture of emergent macrophytes and floating duckweed, vegetation is an important mechanism for direct nutrient removal. PMID:11804111

  18. Bidirectionally positioned flap surgery: a case report with 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shuichi; Ito, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    A new technique to cover recessions to take advantage of connective tissue grafts and coronally advanced flaps is proposed. A 34-year-old woman presented with a 2-mm Class I recession on the buccal aspect of her maxillary right canine. A full-thickness flap was placed coronally to cover the exposed root, and a partial thickness flap was positioned apically. Complete root coverage was obtained, and the width of keratinized tissue had increased from 2 to 4 mm at the 6-month postoperative visit. These clinical outcomes were maintained for 3 years. This single surgical approach benefits from obtaining not only complete root coverage but also increasing width of keratinized tissue, without requiring a second surgical site. PMID:23444158

  19. Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome. Magnetic resonance findings in a 3-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Salafia, Stefania; Praticò, Andrea D; Pizzo, Enza; Greco, Filippo; Di Bella, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The term 'hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome' (HHE) was first used by Gastaut et al. to describe the se-quential combination of unilateral or predominantly unilateral clonic seizures (hemiconvulsion), occurring during the first 2 years of life, immediately followed by an ipsilateral flaccid hemiplegia lasting 7 or more days. In the following phase partial epileptic seizures occur. We report a case of HHE syndrome in a 3-year-old boy with partial seizures (hemiconvulsion lasting 15-30 minutes) followed by left hemiplegia and hyporeflexia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse and high signal hyperintensity of the whole right cerebral hemisphere. Diffusion-weighted images showed a reduction of the apparent diffusion coefficient in the subcortical region. Magnetic resonance arterio-graphy showed a narrow flow signal in the distal territory of the right middle cerebral artery. The authors emphasize the importance of neuroradiological findings in early diagnosis and in the follow-up of HHE syndrome. PMID:24375005

  20. The SWAP EUV imager onboard PROBA2: 3 years of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Matthew; Berghmans, David; Seaton, Daniel

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) imager is an EUV solar telescope on board ESA's Project for Onboard Autonomy 2 (PROBA2) mission launched on 2 November 2009. SWAP has a spectral bandpass centered on 17.4 nm and provides images of the low solar corona over a 54x54 arcmin field-of-view with 3.2 arcsec pixels and an imaging cadence of about two minutes. SWAP is designed to monitor all space-weather-relevant events and features in the low solar corona. The SWAP telescope is designed with various innovative technologies, including an off-axis optical design and a CMOS-APS detector. I will present what has been learnt from 3 years of SWAP operations, the advantages of the CMOS detector and SWAPs setup, and a few unique PROBA2/SWAP observations.

  1. Paternal psychosocial characteristics and corporal punishment of their 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Perron, Brian E; Taylor, Catherine A; Guterman, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the past month, 23% reported using CP once or twice, and 16% reported using CP a few times in the past month or more. In multivariate models controlling for important sociodemographic factors as well as characteristics of the child, fathers' parenting stress, major depression, heavy alcohol use, and drug use were significantly associated with greater use of CP, whereas involvement with the child and generalized anxiety disorder were not. Girls were less likely to be the recipient of CP than were boys, and child externalizing behavior problems but not internalizing behavior problems were associated with more CP. PMID:20522884

  2. An unlikely cause of severe malnutrition in a 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, J J; Blackburn, S; Burge, D; Beattie, R M

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis associated with jejunal and colonic atresia presented with severe oedema, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Clinically she was malnourished. Serum albumin and concentrations of micronutrients were low. A barium meal examination showed jejunal dilation. A stricture was suspected and the patient was taken to theatre where an 8 cm length of bowel was resected including a jejunal stricture at the point of previous atresia repair. Inside the proximal dilated jejunum was a large trichobezoar (hairball), thought to be acting as a ball valve inside the bowel. This girl made a rapid recovery after surgery. Her nutritional state improved, symptoms resolved and serum biochemistry normalised. She remains well at follow-up with normal blood results, normal albumin and no diarrhoea. PMID:25183805

  3. Experience with 300 laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs with up to 3 years follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, N. M.; Dunn, D. C.; Appleton, B.; Bevington, E.

    1995-01-01

    The long-term results of 300 laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs are reported with 11 cases followed up more than 3 years, 104 cases more than 2 years, and 225 cases more than 1 year. There were five early failures owing to the use of too small a piece of mesh. There have been no long-term recurrences. The results indicate that transabdominal preperitoneal laparoscopic mesh repair of hernias is a satisfactory technique with a low recurrence rate and a low major complication rate (4%). Patients have found the procedure to be remarkably pain free and 51% have taken no analgesics after discharge from hospital. Of the patients, 78% returned to work within 2 weeks of the operation. These results suggest that laparoscopic hernia repair can be performed safely with excellent long-term results. PMID:8540657

  4. An unlikely cause of severe malnutrition in a 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis.

    PubMed

    Ashton, J J; Blackburn, S; Burge, D; Beattie, R M

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis associated with jejunal and colonic atresia presented with severe oedema, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Clinically she was malnourished. Serum albumin and concentrations of micronutrients were low. A barium meal examination showed jejunal dilation. A stricture was suspected and the patient was taken to theatre where an 8 cm length of bowel was resected including a jejunal stricture at the point of previous atresia repair. Inside the proximal dilated jejunum was a large trichobezoar (hairball), thought to be acting as a ball valve inside the bowel. This girl made a rapid recovery after surgery. Her nutritional state improved, symptoms resolved and serum biochemistry normalised. She remains well at follow-up with normal blood results, normal albumin and no diarrhoea. PMID:25183805

  5. Unicystic ameloblastoma in 3 year old paediatric patient – A rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Priya; Urs, Aadithya B.; Augustine, Jeyaseelan

    2013-01-01

    Unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor of the jaws that commonly occurs in 2nd and 3rd decade of life. In fact, this entity is rare in children under 12 years of age. It is characterised as a distinct variant of ameloblastoma, exhibiting a less aggressive behaviour and a lower rate of recurrence than solid conventional ameloblastoma. There are very few reported cases of UA occurring in children below five years of age. The purpose of this case report is to describe a case of UA involving the crown of an unerupted maxillary second premolar in a 3 year old girl. The pathogenesis, clinical appearance, radiographic presentation, histological findings and management of the tumour have also been discussed. PMID:24455052

  6. The 3-year Solar Wind Charge Exchange Campaign with Suzaku: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursino, Eugenio; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Liu, Wenhao; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Kuntz, K. D.

    2016-04-01

    We performed a 3-year monitoring campaign of the Solar Wind Charge Exchange (SWCX) heliospheric emission with Suzaku. We targeted four nearby (~100 pc) high column density clouds that absorb the X-ray contribution from distant sources so that the leftover signal has local origin (and is expected to be dominated by SWCX). The targets have been selected for their position in the sky, in order to maximize the latitude and longitude range, to model how SWCX depends on the distribution of neutrals, and to follow the seasonal variations of the SWCX. Here we present the results of data analysis of the three years of observations and we show how they compare with existing models.

  7. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  8. Effect of Breastfeeding Duration on Cognitive Development in Infants: 3-Year Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in infants during their first 3 years. The present study was a part of the Mothers’ and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which was a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. A total of 697 infants were tested at age 12, 24, and 36 months using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II). The use and duration of breastfeeding and formula feeding were measured. The relationship between breastfeeding and the mental development index (MDI) score was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated a positive correlation between breastfeeding duration and MDI score. After adjusting for covariates, infants who were breastfed for ≥ 9 months had significantly better cognitive development than those who had not been breastfed. These results suggest that the longer duration of breastfeeding improves cognitive development in infants. PMID:27051242

  9. Epidermoid Cyst in the Floor of the Mouth of a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pascual Dabán, Rossana; García Díez, Eloy; González Navarro, Beatriz; López-López, José

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are a rare entity in the oral cavity and are even less frequent in the floor of the mouth, representing less than 0.01% of all the cases. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a growth in the floor of the mouth with 2 months of evolution and without changes since it was discovered by her parents. The lesion was asymptomatic; it did not cause dysphagia, dyspnea, or any other alteration. A CT scan with contrast was done which revealed the location and exact size of the lesion, allowing an intraoral approach for its excision. The histological examination confirmed the clinical speculation of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:25694831

  10. Suppurative Meckel Diiverticulum in a 3-Year-Old Girl Presenting with Periumbilical Cellulitis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Sook; Lim, Chun Woo; Park, Taejin; Cho, Jae-Min; Youn, Hee-Shang

    2015-01-01

    Meckel diverticulum (MD) is one of the most common congenital gastrointestinal anomalies and occurs in 1.2-2% of the general population. MD usually presents with massive painless rectal bleeding, intestinal obstruction or inflammation in children and adults. Suppurative Meckel diverticulitis is uncommon in children. An experience is described of a 3-year-old girl with suppurative inflammation in a tip of MD. She complained of acute colicky abdominal pain, vomiting and periumbilical erythema. Laparoscopic surgery found a relatively long MD with necrotic and fluid-filled cystic end, which was attatched to abdominal wall caused by inflammation. Herein, we report an interesting and unusual case of a suppurative Meckel diverticulitis presenting as periumbilical cellulitis in a child. Because of its varied presentations, MD might always be considered as one of the differential diagonosis. PMID:25866736

  11. Epidermoid cyst in the floor of the mouth of a 3-year-old.

    PubMed

    Pascual Dabán, Rossana; García Díez, Eloy; González Navarro, Beatriz; López-López, José

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are a rare entity in the oral cavity and are even less frequent in the floor of the mouth, representing less than 0.01% of all the cases. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a growth in the floor of the mouth with 2 months of evolution and without changes since it was discovered by her parents. The lesion was asymptomatic; it did not cause dysphagia, dyspnea, or any other alteration. A CT scan with contrast was done which revealed the location and exact size of the lesion, allowing an intraoral approach for its excision. The histological examination confirmed the clinical speculation of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:25694831

  12. Nephrotic Syndrome Following H1N1 Influenza in a 3-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ferrara, Pietro; Gatto, Antonio; Vitelli, Ottavio; Liberatore, Pio; del Bufalo, Francesca; Bottaro, Giorgia

    2012-01-01

    Background The pandemic influenza A/H1N1, spread through the world in 2009, producing a serious epidemic in Italy. Complications are generally limited to patients at the extremes of age (<6 months or >65 years) and those with comorbid medical illness. The most frequent complications of influenza involve the respiratory system. Case Presentation A 3-year-old boy with a recent history of upper respiratory tract infection developed a nephrotic syndrome. Together with prednisone, furosemide and albumin bolus, a therapy with oseltamivir was started since the nasopharyngeal swab resulted positive for influenza A/H1N1. Clinical conditions and laboratory findings progressively improved during hospitalization, becoming normal during a 2 month follow up. Conclusion The possibility of a renal involvement after influenza A/H1N1 infection should be considered. PMID:23056898

  13. How schizophrenic patients change during 3 years' treatment with depot neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Dencker, S J; Frankenberg, K; Lepp, M; Lindberg, D; Malm, U

    1978-02-01

    A group of patients, initially 67 individuals, with chronic schizophrenia were studied on repeated occasions during 1 year and followed up after 3 years. The patients were given depot neuroleptics, either fluphenazine decanoate or pipotiazine palmitate, at intervals of 1 month. The symptom scores from three rating scales were subjected to factor analysis. Four factors were found to explain the variance satisfactorily: one comprising psychopathological symptoms specific for schizophrenia, one relating to contact disturbances, one psychomotor activity and one representing neurotic symptoms. Analysis of these factors revealed certain differences between the treatment groups over time and demonstrated the effect of combination of psychotherapy and neuroleptic drugs in a subgroup of patients. This type of analysis of treatment results might contribute to improving our knowledge of rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients and help us to draw up giudelines for selection of suitable measures. PMID:24982

  14. The development of inhibitory control in early childhood: A twin study from 2-3 years

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Parent and lab-based observer ratings were employed to examine genetic and environmental influences on continuity and change in inhibitory control (IC) in over 300 twin-pairs assessed longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age. Genetic influences accounted for approximately 60% of the variance in parent-rated IC at both ages. Although many of the same genetic effects on parent-rated IC were stable across age, there were also novel genetic effects that emerged at age 3 (i.e., genetic factors contributed to both continuity and change in parent ratings of IC). Observed IC displayed a different developmental pattern. Genetic influences were moderate at age 2 (38%) and nonsignificant at age 3 (6%). Change in observed IC across early childhood was due to shared and nonshared environmental factors. Findings indicate that it is important to consider the measurement of IC when interpreting developmental and etiological findings. PMID:26784384

  15. Effect of Breastfeeding Duration on Cognitive Development in Infants: 3-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyungmin; Park, Hyewon; Ha, Eunhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Yeon; Kim, Ja Hyeong; Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Kim, Yangho

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in infants during their first 3 years. The present study was a part of the Mothers' and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study, which was a multi-center birth cohort project in Korea that began in 2006. A total of 697 infants were tested at age 12, 24, and 36 months using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II). The use and duration of breastfeeding and formula feeding were measured. The relationship between breastfeeding and the mental development index (MDI) score was analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis. The results indicated a positive correlation between breastfeeding duration and MDI score. After adjusting for covariates, infants who were breastfed for ≥ 9 months had significantly better cognitive development than those who had not been breastfed. These results suggest that the longer duration of breastfeeding improves cognitive development in infants. PMID:27051242

  16. Estimation of primordial spectrum with post-WMAP 3-year data

    SciTech Connect

    Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-15

    In this paper we implement an improved (error-sensitive) Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm on the measured angular power spectrum from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 3 year data to determine the primordial power spectrum assuming different points in the cosmological parameter space for a flat {lambda}CDM cosmological model. We also present the preliminary results of the cosmological parameter estimation by assuming a free form of the primordial spectrum, for a reasonably large volume of the parameter space. The recovered spectrum for a considerably large number of the points in the cosmological parameter space has a likelihood far better than a 'best fit' power law spectrum up to {delta}{chi}{sub eff}{sup 2}{approx_equal}-30. We use discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for smoothing the raw recovered spectrum from the binned data. The results obtained here reconfirm and sharpen the conclusion drawn from our previous analysis of the WMAP 1st year data. A sharp cut off around the horizon scale and a bump after the horizon scale seem to be a common feature for all of these reconstructed primordial spectra. We have shown that although the WMAP 3 year data prefers a lower value of matter density for a power law form of the primordial spectrum, for a free form of the spectrum, we can get a very good likelihood to the data for higher values of matter density. We have also shown that even a flat cold dark matter model, allowing a free form of the primordial spectrum, can give a very high likelihood fit to the data. Theoretical interpretation of the results is open to the cosmology community. However, this work provides strong evidence that the data retains discriminatory power in the cosmological parameter space even when there is full freedom in choosing the primordial spectrum.

  17. Estimation of primordial spectrum with post-WMAP 3-year data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafieloo, Arman; Souradeep, Tarun

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we implement an improved (error-sensitive) Richardson-Lucy deconvolution algorithm on the measured angular power spectrum from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 3 year data to determine the primordial power spectrum assuming different points in the cosmological parameter space for a flat ΛCDM cosmological model. We also present the preliminary results of the cosmological parameter estimation by assuming a free form of the primordial spectrum, for a reasonably large volume of the parameter space. The recovered spectrum for a considerably large number of the points in the cosmological parameter space has a likelihood far better than a “best fit” power law spectrum up to Δχeff2≈-30. We use discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for smoothing the raw recovered spectrum from the binned data. The results obtained here reconfirm and sharpen the conclusion drawn from our previous analysis of the WMAP 1st year data. A sharp cut off around the horizon scale and a bump after the horizon scale seem to be a common feature for all of these reconstructed primordial spectra. We have shown that although the WMAP 3 year data prefers a lower value of matter density for a power law form of the primordial spectrum, for a free form of the spectrum, we can get a very good likelihood to the data for higher values of matter density. We have also shown that even a flat cold dark matter model, allowing a free form of the primordial spectrum, can give a very high likelihood fit to the data. Theoretical interpretation of the results is open to the cosmology community. However, this work provides strong evidence that the data retains discriminatory power in the cosmological parameter space even when there is full freedom in choosing the primordial spectrum.

  18. Trajectories of maternal harsh parenting in the first 3 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their related longitudinal risk factors (contextual and intrapersonal). Partner aggression was also tested as a time-varying predictor to examine its time-specific influence on maternal harsh parenting. Methods Longitudinal data from four assessments of a community sample of 488 at-risk mothers were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Maternal risk factors and harsh parenting behaviors were assessed at birth and at ages 1, 2, and 3 years. Results There was a significant increase in maternal harsh parenting from birth to age 3, particularly between ages 1 and 2. There was a significant direct effect of maternal alcohol use and abuse history on maternal harsh parenting at age 3, and maternal age was positively associated with change in maternal harsh parenting over time. In addition, partner aggression was significantly and positively associated with maternal harsh parenting at each time point. Conclusions The findings suggest possible developmental trends in the emergence of maternal harsh parenting during infancy and toddlerhood. Further investigation is needed to elucidate individual differences in the developmental patterns and to differentiate predictive factors that persist across time and factors that are unique to specific developmental stages. Practice implications The overall high prevalence rates of harsh parenting behavior and growth of such behavior in infancy and toddlerhood support the need for developmentally sensitive early intervention programs. PMID:21030081

  19. 18 CFR 225.3 - Schedule of records and periods of retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COMPANIES § 225.3 Schedule of records and periods of retention. Table of Contents Corporate and General 1...) Statements of periodic deposits with fund administrators or trustees Retain records for the most recent 3 years. (b) Statements of periodic withdrawals from fund Retain records for the most recent 3 years....

  20. 18 CFR 225.3 - Schedule of records and periods of retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COMPANIES § 225.3 Schedule of records and periods of retention. Table of Contents Corporate and General 1...) Statements of periodic deposits with fund administrators or trustees Retain records for the most recent 3 years. (b) Statements of periodic withdrawals from fund Retain records for the most recent 3 years....

  1. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  2. Sustained favorable long-term outcome in the treatment of schizophrenia: a 3-year prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study of chronically ill patients with schizophrenia aimed to identify patients who achieve sustained favorable long-term outcome - when the outcome incorporates severity of symptoms, level of functioning, and use of acute care services - and to identify the best baseline predictors of achieving this sustained favorable long-term outcome. Methods Using data from the United States Schizophrenia Care and Assessment Program (US-SCAP) (N = 2327), a large 3-year prospective, multisite, observational study of individuals treated for schizophrenia in the US, a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to group patients based upon baseline symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores, level of functioning, and use of acute care services. Level of functioning reflected patient-reported productivity and clinician-rated occupational role functioning. Use of acute care services reflected self-reported psychiatric hospitalization and emergency service use. Change of health state was determined over the 3-year period. A patient was classified as having a sustained favorable long-term outcome if their health state values had the closest distance to the defined "best baseline cluster" at each point over the length of the study. Stepwise logistic regression was used to determine baseline predictors of sustained favorable long-term outcome. Results At baseline, 5 distinct health state clusters were identified, ranging from "best" to "worst." Of 1635 patients with sufficient data, only 157 (10%) experienced sustained favorable long-term outcome during the 2-years postbaseline. The baseline predictors associated with sustained favorable long-term outcome included better quality of life, more daily activities, patient-reported clearer thinking from medication, better global functioning, being employed, not being a victim of a crime, not having received individual therapy, and not having received help

  3. Development of Risk Score for Predicting 3-Year Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Akiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Honda, Toru; Okazaki, Hiroko; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Tomita, Kentaro; Nagahama, Satsue; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Sasaki, Naoko; Hori, Ai; Sakamoto, Nobuaki; Nishiura, Chihiro; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Kato, Noritada; Fukasawa, Kenji; Huanhuan, Hu; Akter, Shamima; Kurotani, Kayo; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Sone, Tomofumi; Dohi, Seitaro

    2015-01-01

    Objective Risk models and scores have been developed to predict incidence of type 2 diabetes in Western populations, but their performance may differ when applied to non-Western populations. We developed and validated a risk score for predicting 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population. Methods Participants were 37,416 men and women, aged 30 or older, who received periodic health checkup in 2008–2009 in eight companies. Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dl, random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%, or receiving medical treatment for diabetes. Risk scores on non-invasive and invasive models including FPG and HbA1c were developed using logistic regression in a derivation cohort and validated in the remaining cohort. Results The area under the curve (AUC) for the non-invasive model including age, sex, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, and smoking status was 0.717 (95% CI, 0.703–0.731). In the invasive model in which both FPG and HbA1c were added to the non-invasive model, AUC was increased to 0.893 (95% CI, 0.883–0.902). When the risk scores were applied to the validation cohort, AUCs (95% CI) for the non-invasive and invasive model were 0.734 (0.715–0.753) and 0.882 (0.868–0.895), respectively. Participants with a non-invasive score of ≥15 and invasive score of ≥19 were projected to have >20% and >50% risk, respectively, of developing type 2 diabetes within 3 years. Conclusions The simple risk score of the non-invasive model might be useful for predicting incident type 2 diabetes, and its predictive performance may be markedly improved by incorporating FPG and HbA1c. PMID:26558900

  4. Corpus callosum atrophy as a predictor of age-related cognitive and motor impairment: a 3-year follow-up of the LADIS study cohort.

    PubMed

    Ryberg, C; Rostrup, E; Paulson, O B; Barkhof, F; Scheltens, P; van Straaten, E C W; van der Flier, W M; Fazekas, F; Schmidt, R; Ferro, J M; Baezner, H; Erkinjuntti, T; Jokinen, H; Wahlund, L-O; Poggesi, A; Pantoni, L; Inzitari, D; Waldemar, G

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this 3-year follow-up study was to investigate whether corpus callosum (CC) atrophy may predict future motor and cognitive impairment in an elderly population. On baseline MRI from 563 subjects with age-related white matter changes (ARWMC) from the Leukoaraiosis And DISability (LADIS) study, the CC was segmented and subdivided into five anterior-posterior regions (CC1-CC5). Associations between the CC areas and decline in motor performance and cognitive functions over a 3-year period were analyzed. CC atrophy at baseline was significantly associated with impaired cognitive performance (p<0.01 for CC1, p<0.05 for CC5), motor function (p<0.05 for CC2 and CC5), and walking speed (p<0.01 for CC2 and CC5, p<0.05 for CC3 and total CC), and with development of dementia at 3 years (p<0.05 for CC1) after correction for appropriate confounders (ARWMC volume, atrophy, age, gender and handedness). In conclusion, CC atrophy, an indicator of reduced functional connectivity between cortical areas, seems to contribute, independently of ARWMC load, to future cognitive and motor decline in the elderly. PMID:21621224

  5. Risk Factors for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections during the First 3 Years of Life in the Tropics; Findings from a Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Menzies, Stefanie K.; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Chico, Martha; Sandoval, Carlos; Broncano, Nely; Guadalupe, Irene; Cooper, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infect more than 2 billion humans worldwide, causing significant morbidity in children. There are few data on the epidemiology and risk factors for infection in pre-school children. To investigate risk factors for infection in early childhood, we analysed data prospectively collected in the ECUAVIDA birth cohort in Ecuador. Methods and Findings Children were recruited at birth and followed up to 3 years of age with periodic collection of stool samples that were examined microscopically for STH parasites. Data on social, demographic, and environmental risk factors were collected from the mother at time of enrolment. Associations between exposures and detection of STH infections were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. Data were analysed from 1,697 children for whom a stool sample was obtained at 3 years. 42.3% had at least one STH infection in the first 3 years of life and the most common infections were caused by A. lumbricoides (33.2% of children) and T. trichiura (21.2%). Hookworm infection was detected in 0.9% of children. Risk of STH infection was associated with factors indicative of poverty in our study population such as Afro-Ecuadorian ethnicity and low maternal educational level. Maternal STH infections during pregnancy were strong risk factors for any childhood STH infection, infections with either A. lumbricoides or T. trichiura, and early age of first STH infection. Children of mothers with moderate to high infections intensities with A. lumbricoides were most at risk. Conclusions Our data show high rates of infection with STH parasites during the first 3 years of life in an Ecuadorian birth cohort, an observation that was strongly associated with maternal STH infections during pregnancy. The targeted treatment of women of childbearing age, in particular before pregnancy, with anthelmintic drugs could offer a novel approach to the prevention of STH infections in pre-school children. PMID:24587469

  6. Immediate implants and immediate loading in periodontally compromised patients-a 3-year prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Alves, Celia Coutinho; Correia, Andre Ricardo; Neves, Manuel

    2010-10-01

    To avoid the necessity of a removable provisional prosthesis, and therefore preserve the patient's functional outcome, esthetics, and quality of life, a clinical protocol was developed to approach periodontally compromised patients presenting a full-arch irreversibly lost dentition: full-arch extraction and immediate replacement with a provisional acrylic resin implant-supported fixed partial denture (FPD). A total of 23 periodontally compromised patients (11 women, 12 men; 4 smokers, 4 controlled diabetics) were included in this study. Pretreatment casts were taken and vertical dimension of occlusion was determined. In most patients, 6 Straumann implants were distributed along the arch according to the surgical guide or bone availability, with the most distal ones in the maxilla slightly tilted so they could emerge more distally. A total of 168 implants (146 Straumann, 10 Nobel Biocare, 8 Biomet 3i, and 4 Lifecore) were placed (83 in the maxilla, 85 in the mandible). Of those in the maxilla, 74 were loaded immediately (implant stability quotient mentor [ISQm] > 70) and 9 placed with delayed loading (ISQm =/< 70). Of the 85 implants placed in the mandible, all were loaded immediately (ISQm > 70). If an FPD had not been fabricated already, impressions were taken during surgery to do so. The prosthesis was then adapted (cemented or screwed) to the 6 implants within the first 48 hours postsurgery. After 2 months, definitive impressions were taken, and a definitive porcelain-fused-to-metal implant-supported 12-element FPD was fabricated and cemented or screwed to all 6 implants. Of the 168 implants, 108 were immediate implants and 159 immediately loaded. Only 2 implants (1 in the mandible, 1 in the maxilla) did not osseointegrate. This yields a 3-year cumulative survival rate of 98.74% (98.65% in the maxilla, 98.82% in the mandible). From a total of 26 immediately loaded prostheses (12 in the maxilla, 14 in the mandible), 6 were cemented and 20 screw-retained. The 3

  7. 3-year real-world outcomes with the Swedish adjustable gastric band™ in France.

    PubMed

    Ribaric, G; Buchwald, J N; d'Orsay, G; Daoud, F

    2013-02-01

    The study objective was to ascertain outcomes with the Swedish adjustable gastric band (SAGB) on an intention-to-treat basis in multiple centers across the French social health insurance system. SAGB results at 3-year follow-up are reported. The noncomparative, observational, prospective, consecutive cohort study design sought a 500-patient minimum recruitment geographically representative of continental France. Safety (adverse events [AEs], device-related morbidity, and mortality) and effectiveness (change in body mass index [BMI, kilograms per square meter], percentage excess weight loss, comorbidities, quality of life [QoL]) were assessed. Adjustable gastric band survival was calculated. Thirty-one surgeons in 28 multidisciplinary teams/sites enrolled patients between September 2, 2007 and April 30, 2008. SAGB was successfully implanted in 517 patients: 88.0 % female; mean age, 37.5 years; obesity duration, 15.3 years (baseline: mean BMI, 41.0; comorbidities, 773 in 74.3 % of patients; Bariatric Analysis and Reporting Outcome System (BAROS), 1.4; EuroQoL 5-Dimensions (EQ-5D), 0.61; EuroQoL-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS), 52.3). At 3 years: BMI, 32.2 (mean change, -9.0; p < 0.0001); excess weight loss, 47.4 %; comorbidities, 161 in 27.2 %; BAROS, 3.6 (+2.2, p < 0.0001); EQ-5D, 0.84 (+0.22, p < 0.0001); EQ-VAS, 73.4 (+21.4, p < 0.0001). SAGB-induced weight loss was associated with substantially improved QoL. One death occurred and was unrelated to the treatment. No AE was reported in 68.3 % of patients, and no confirmed device-related AE in 77.0 %. Overall AE rate was 0.19 per patient year. Device retention was 87.0 %. Analysis of patients lost to follow-up showed a nonsignificant effect on overall study results. In a prospective, consecutive cohort, "real-world", nationwide study, the Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band was found safe and effective at 3-year follow-up. PMID:23054572

  8. 3-years Occurrence Variability of Concentric Gravity Waves in the Mesopause Observed by IMAP/VISI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perwitasari, S.; Sakanoi, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Yamazaki, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Hozumi, Y.; Saito, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report a study of 3-years occurrence variability of concentric gravity waves (CGWs) in the mesopause observed by IMAP/VISI instrument. CGWs are fascinating to be studied because of its unique characteristic that shows the direct coupling between lower and upper atmosphere. The Visible and near-Infrared Spectral Imager (VISI) of the IMAP mission was launched successfully on July 21, 2012 with H-IIB/HTV-3 and installed onto the International Space Station (ISS). IMAP/VISI is now operated in the night side hemisphere with a range of +/- 51 deg. in geographic latitude and measuring three airglow emissions of OI (630 nm), OH Meinel (730 nm) and O2 (762 nm) with a typical spatial resolution of 16 - 50 km in the nadir direction. In this study, we analyzed 3 years data taken by IMAP/VISI from October 2012 to June 2015. We found total 172 CGWs events in the O2 (762nm) airglow emissions out of 4853 data paths in 2013, 92 events out of 4809 data paths in 2014 and 46 events from 2112 data paths in 2015. The monthly occurrence probability shows a similar trend for each year, a clear seasonal dependence with the peak around March-April and August-September. The weak background winds in the middle atmosphere during the equinoxes are likely responsible for the seasonal dependence. We calculated the horizontal wavelength and radius maximum by fitting the circular wavefronts to a circle. The source of CGWs then identified from meteorological satellite data around the estimated center. The horizontal wavelength was found varying from 44-300 km and radius maximum up to 3000 km, showing that CGWs can affect large area in mesopause. In most cases, the CGWs appeared as arc-like shape instead of full circle. It indicates that the background wind filter allows the wave to propagate in a particular direction and filter out the other directions. The detailed discussion on horizontal wavelength distribution, the sources and background profiles influence on the variability of the CGWs

  9. Impacts of anemia on 3-year ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a propensity-matched study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Miaohan; Li, Jing; Wang, Heyang; Qi, Jing; Wang, Geng; Xu, Kai; Liu, Haiwei; Zhao, Xin; Jing, Quanmin; Han, Yaling

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia correlates with worse outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), improved anemia can improve the outcomes in patients who underwent PCI. But the influence of anemia on long-term ischemic events after PCI remains unknown. Methods We analyzed 8,825 consecutive patients who underwent PCI at General Hospital of Shenyang Military Region and identified 581 patients with anemia. Patients (anemia vs. no anemia) were compared using a propensity score analysis to best match between groups. The main outcome of this study is 3-year ischemic events after PCI, the secondary outcome of this study is 3-year mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after PCI. Results Compared with nonanemic patients, anemic patients were often female (38.90% vs. 14.51%) and elder patients (66.44% vs. 34.95%). Anemic patients have lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and creatinine clearance (Ccr) and were more likely to have history of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, hypertension, peripheral vascular diseases (PVD) (P<0.05). However, the prevalences of diabetes and hyperlipidemia were lower in anemic patients (P<0.01). Anemia was an independent predictor for 3-year ischemic events [hazard ratio (HR): 2.20, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.61-3.00, P<0.01], 3-year mortality (HR: 3.58, 95% CI: 1.75-7.32, P<0.01) and 3-year MACE (HR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.64-2.79, P<0.01) after PCI in post-match samples. The incidence of 3-year ischemic events was 41.0% and 19.3% in anemic and nonanemic patients, respectively. Conclusions Anemia is an independent predictor for 3-year ischemic events, 3-year mortality and 3-year MACE in patients who underwent PCI. Further studies need to explore the impact of the pathogenesis and progress, prevention and therapy of anemia on the outcome of patients undergoing PCI. PMID:26716033

  10. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene as a Biomarker of PAH Exposure in 3-Year-Old Ukrainian Children

    PubMed Central

    Mucha, Amy Pelka; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Serdyuk, Andrij; Nakonechny, Joseph; Zvinchuk, Alexander; Erdal, Serap; Caudill, Motria; Scheff, Peter; Lukyanova, Elena; Shkiryak-Nyzhnyk, Zoreslava; Chislovska, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. We measured urinary 1-OHP in 48 children 3 years of age in Mariupol, Ukraine, who lived near a steel mill and coking facility and compared these with 1-OHP concentrations measured in 42 children of the same age living in the capital city of Kiev, Ukraine. Children living in Mariupol had significantly higher urinary 1-OHP and creatinine-adjusted urinary 1-OHP than did children living in Kiev (adjusted: 0.69 vs. 0.34 μmol/mol creatinine, p < 0.001; unadjusted: 0.42 vs. 0.30 ng/mL, p = 0.002). Combined, children in both cities exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes had higher 1-OHP than did children not exposed (0.61 vs. 0.42 μmol/mol creatinine; p = 0.04; p = 0.07 after adjusting for city). In addition, no significant differences were seen with sex of the children. Our sample of children in Mariupol has the highest reported mean urinary 1-OHP concentrations in children studied to date, most likely due to their proximity to a large industrial point source of PAHs. PMID:16581553

  11. Diffuse Spinal Leptomeningeal Spread of a Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a 3-year-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Alyeldien, Ameer; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Cheko, Azad; Höll, Tanja; Scholz, Martin; Petridis, Athanasios K.

    2016-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas correspond to low-grade gliomas and therefore metastasize exceedingly rare. However, pilocytic astrocytomas are able to and leptomeningeal dissemination may be seen. What are the treatment options of these cases? We present a case report of a 3-year-old child with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm with leptomeningeal dissemination of the spinal meninges. Partial resection of the cerebral tumor has been performed. Since the leptomeningeal dissemination was seen all over the spinal meninges, the child did not undergo further surgical treatment. A wait and watch strategy were followed. Chemotherapy was initiated, if a 25% tumor growth was seen. Leptomeningeal dissemination of a pilocytic astrocytoma is seen so infrequently that no standard therapy is established. Since these metastases may occur even up to 2 decades after primary tumor resection, long-term follow-up is indicated. In case of spinal metastases, surgical treatment should be performed if feasible. Otherwise observation should be possessed and/or chemotherapy should be initiated. PMID:27162602

  12. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children’s communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  13. Negative cognitive styles synergistically predict suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Kleiman, Evan M; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K; Seligman, Nicole D; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-30

    Rates of suicidal ideation and behavior are extremely high in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). However, relatively little work has evaluated potentially synergistic relationships between cognitive and emotion-regulatory processes proposed by theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs. The present study evaluated whether negative cognitive style and subtypes of rumination would exacerbate the impact of self-criticism on suicidal ideation in a prospective study of individuals with BSDs. Seventy-two young adults with BSDs (bipolar II, bipolar NOS, or cyclothymia) completed diagnostic interviews and trait measures of self-criticism, negative cognitive style, and brooding and reflective rumination at a baseline assessment. The occurrence of suicidal ideation was assessed as part of diagnostic interviews completed every 4 months for an average of 3 years of follow-up. Negative cognitive style and reflective rumination strengthened the association between self-criticism and the prospective occurrence of suicidal ideation across follow-up. Individuals with high levels of self-criticism in conjunction with negative cognitive style or reflective rumination were most likely to experience the onset of suicidal ideation. Self-criticism may work synergistically with negative cognitive style and rumination to confer risk for suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders. These results support theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs and indicate that evaluating and understanding negative cognitive styles may help to identify individuals who are at risk of suicide. PMID:25660736

  14. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72 hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day. Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment. PMID:25906092

  15. [Transfer of cardiac catheterisation from a paediatric to an adult cardiological centre: results at 3 years].

    PubMed

    Agnoletti, G; Boudjemline, Y; Ladouceur, M; Iserin, L

    2007-05-01

    The advances of surgical and interventional treatment of congenital heart diseases have allowed a large number of patients with congenital heart disease to reach adult age. This population involves almost 0.3/1000 of total population in West Europe and North America and can be estimated around 200000 patients in France. Patients with operated Tetralogy of Fallot, benign forms of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, simple or complex transposition of the great arteries usually survive beyond childhood. These patients can need repeated interventions to treat lesions of native or reconstructed pulmonary arteries and/or aortic arch, to occlude residual shunts, to treat pulmonary incompetence. More complex heart diseases such as single ventricle, rarely allow survival until the adult age. The majority of these patients undergo heart transplant, often made difficult by multiple cardiac surgeries, anomalies of pulmonary arteries, chronic cyanosis, aorto-pulmonary shunts. Patients with relatively simple or complex congenital heart diseases need to be followed-up in specialized units, like those created more than twenty years ago in the United States, Canada, and United Kingdom. Interventional cardiac catheterisation play a major role in the management of this population. The results of 3 years of activity in a new centre treating GUCH patients are illustrated. PMID:17646764

  16. Successful Medical Treatment of Adult Nesidioblastosis With Pasireotide over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Schwetz, Verena; Horvath, Karl; Kump, Patrizia; Lackner, Carolin; Perren, Aurel; Forrer, Flavio; Pieber, Thomas R.; Treiber, Gerlies; Sourij, Harald; Mader, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nesidioblastosis is a rare cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults. Diagnosis is often challenging and therapeutic options are scarce. In 2009, a 46-year-old female patient presented with recurrent severe hypoglycemia and immediate recovery after glucose ingestion. Although 72-h-fasting test was positive, various imaging technologies (sonography, computed tomography, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, dopamine receptor positron emission tomography [DOPA-PET]) were negative. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a lesion in the pancreatic corpus, whereas selective arterial calcium stimulation test, portal venous sampling and GLP-1-receptor scintigraphy were indicative of a lesion in the pancreatic tail, which was surgically removed. The histopathologic examination revealed beta cell hyperplasia and microadenomas expressing glucagon. After surgery, the patient was free of symptoms for 6 months, after which hypoglycemic episodes recurred. After unsuccessful treatment with corticosteroids and somatostatin analogs, treatment with pasireotide, a novel somatostatin analog with high affinity to somatostatin receptor 5 and a possible side effect of hyperglycemia, was initiated (0.6 mg BID). To date, our patient has been free of severe hypoglycemic episodes ever since. Yearly repeated imaging procedures have shown no abnormities over the last 3 years. We report for the first time that pasireotide was successfully used in the treatment of adult nesidioblastosis. PMID:27057885

  17. The cultural and linguistic diversity of 3-year-old children with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y C

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children's communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  18. Cultural differences in visual object recognition in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B

    2016-07-01

    Recent research indicates that culture penetrates fundamental processes of perception and cognition. Here, we provide evidence that these influences begin early and influence how preschool children recognize common objects. The three tasks (N=128) examined the degree to which nonface object recognition by 3-year-olds was based on individual diagnostic features versus more configural and holistic processing. Task 1 used a 6-alternative forced choice task in which children were asked to find a named category in arrays of masked objects where only three diagnostic features were visible for each object. U.S. children outperformed age-matched Japanese children. Task 2 presented pictures of objects to children piece by piece. U.S. children recognized the objects given fewer pieces than Japanese children, and the likelihood of recognition increased for U.S. children, but not Japanese children, when the piece added was rated by both U.S. and Japanese adults as highly defining. Task 3 used a standard measure of configural progressing, asking the degree to which recognition of matching pictures was disrupted by the rotation of one picture. Japanese children's recognition was more disrupted by inversion than was that of U.S. children, indicating more configural processing by Japanese than U.S. children. The pattern suggests early cross-cultural differences in visual processing; findings that raise important questions about how visual experiences differ across cultures and about universal patterns of cognitive development. PMID:26985576

  19. Corticotomy-assisted rapid maxillary expansion: A novel approach with a 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Echchadi, Mohamed Elmehdi; Benchikh, Basma; Bellamine, Meriem; Kim, Seong-Hun

    2015-07-01

    This case report introduces a new approach of corticotomy-assisted rapid maxillary expansion for treating a severe maxillary transverse discrepancy in a skeletally mature patient. This approach uses piezo-bone perforation in conjunction with a fixed appliance and an expander. This report describes the treatment of a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary transverse discrepancy. She had a straight profile, severe maxillary crowding, a maxillomandibular transverse differential index of 9 mm, and a Class I skeletal relationship. The treatment protocol consisted of surgical intervention with piezo-bone perforation and active orthodontic therapy. Immediately after the piezo-bone perforation on the lateral buccal side of the maxilla, active orthodontic therapy was started with activation of an expander. The expander was reactivated weekly. Treatment duration was 5 months 2 weeks. Proper overbite and overjet, facial balance, and occlusion were achieved. The treatment outcome was stable at the 3-year follow up. This treatment approach considerably reduced the treatment time and gained bony volume. Additionally, it transformed the periodontal biotype in contrast to conventional therapy. This approach is a good alternative for treating a severe maxillary transverse discrepancy in a skeletally mature patient, especially for a patient who does not want surgical rapid palatal expansion. PMID:26124037

  20. Gender Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use Among Transgender Women: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Results. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Conclusions. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population. PMID:25211716

  1. Periosteal desmoplastic fibroma of the tibia in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Sferopoulos, N K

    2015-12-01

    Desmoplastic fibroma is a rare benign fibrogenic, locally aggressive, primary bone tumor. It is the intraosseous counterpart of soft tissue aggressive fibromatosis. The lesion may very rarely appear as a superficial bone lesion arising from the periosteum; in such cases, a soft tissue mass with changes in the adjacent bone is evident. Periosteal lesions are very rare in the literature; diagnosis is usually based on the radiographic findings, and histological proof of the tumor origin is missing. A periosteal desmoplastic fibroma of the distal tibial metaphysis in a 3-year-old boy is presented. Radiographic investigation included plain radiographs and computed tomography imaging. Both demonstrated a soft tissue lesion involving the superficial bone tissues with non-aggressive looking borders and a pressure effect with a sclerotic rim in the bone. The lesion was excised, and the surgical as well as the histological findings indicated the diagnosis of a desmoplastic fibroma of bone arising from the periosteum. No recurrence was detected 5 years after surgery. PMID:26265404

  2. Psychiatric diagnoses among quitters versus continuing smokers 3 years after their quit day

    PubMed Central

    Piper, Megan E.; Rodock, Matthew; Cook, Jessica W.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    Background People with psychiatric disorders are more likely to smoke and smoke more heavily than the general population, and they suffer disproportionally from smoking-related illnesses. However, little is known about how quitting versus continuing to smoke affects mental health and the likelihood of developing a psychiatric diagnosis. This study used data from a large prospective clinical trial to examine the relations of smoking cessation success with psychiatric diagnoses 1 and 3 years after the target quit day. Methods This study enrolled 1504 smokers (83.9% white; 58.2% female) in a cessation trial that involved the completion of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric diagnoses and biochemical confirmation of point-prevalence abstinence at Baseline and Years 1 and 3. Results Regression analyses showed that, after controlling for pre-quit (past-year) diagnoses, participants who were smoking at the Year 3 follow-up were more likely to have developed and maintained a substance use or major depressive disorder by that time than were individuals who were abstinent at Year 3. Conclusions Quitting smoking does not appear to negatively influence mental health in the long-term and may be protective with respect to depression and substance use diagnoses; this should encourage smokers to make quit attempts and encourage clinicians to provide cessation treatment. PMID:22995766

  3. How selective are 3-year-olds in imitating novel linguistic material?

    PubMed

    Bannard, Colin; Klinger, Jörn; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-12-01

    In 3 studies we explored when 3-year-olds would imitate novel words in utterances produced by adult speakers. Child and experimenter took turns in requesting objects from a game master. The experimenter always went first and always preceded the object's familiar name with a novel adjective (e.g., "the dilsige duck"). In the first 2 experiments, we found that children were more likely to reproduce the adjective when there were 2 different instances of the same object present in the situation than when there was only 1 or when there were 2 objects of different types present. Thus, children seemed to be sensitive to the descriptive and contrastive function of the adjectives in determining which parts of the utterances to reproduce. Nonetheless, replication of even redundant material was over 50%, suggesting a strategy of somewhat blind copying. In the 3rd experiment, we found that children were less likely to reproduce a redundant adjective when the speaker indicated gesturally that he did not intend to produce it than when he clearly produced it intentionally. We distinguish insightful imitation (the copying of a speaker's goal and means when motivated by insight into why those particular means were chosen) and blind imitation (the copying of a speaker's goal and means with no awareness of why those specific means were chosen) from mimicry. We explore the roles that these modes of imitation might play in language development. PMID:23458663

  4. Conservative management of external root resorption after tooth reimplantation: a 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ionta, Franciny Querobim; de Oliveira, Gabriela Cristina; de Alencar, Catarina Ribeiro Barros; Gonçalves, Priscilla Santana Pinto; Alcalde, Murilo Priori; Minotti, Paloma Gagliardi; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; Rios, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a 9-year-old patient who suffered external root resorption of the permanent maxillary left lateral incisor following reimplantation of the avulsed left central and lateral incisors. Sixteen days after reimplantation and splinting of the incisors in a hospital emergency department, the patient was brought to the pediatric department of a dental school for further treatment. Root canal access was created in the maxillary left lateral and central incisors, and calcium hydroxide paste was used as intracanal dressing. At the 5-month follow-up, a radiograph revealed extensive external root resorption, a communicating root canal, and a periodontal lesion affecting the left lateral incisor. Management of the root resorption included obturation of the apical third of the canal with gutta percha and the middle third with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). At the 3-year recall examination, the patient was asymptomatic, and no mobility or soft tissue alterations were observed clinically. There was no radiographic sign that resorption had progressed. Despite the success of treatment, observation is still required. The use of MTA may be considered an alternative treatment for external root resorption after tooth reimplantation. The technique may allow tooth preservation in children until skeletal growth and development are completed and implant treatment may be considered. PMID:27367632

  5. Association of maternal prenatal depressive symptoms with child cognition at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Tse, Alison C; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2010-05-01

    We examined the association of prenatal depressive symptoms at mid-pregnancy with child cognition at age 3 years in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study of 1030 mother-child pairs in eastern Massachusetts. We measured maternal depressive symptoms using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), a self-report measure validated for use during pregnancy. Measures of child cognition included the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and the Wide Range Achievement of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA). At mid-pregnancy, 81 mothers (7.9%) scored 13 or above on the EPDS, indicating probable depression. In the unadjusted model, children born to mothers with prenatal depressive symptoms had PPVT scores that were 3.8 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI) -7.1, -0.5]. With adjustment for sociodemographic variables, the association substantially attenuated [adjusted regression coefficient b for PPVT score = -0.7 (95% CI -3.6, 2.3)]. In both unadjusted and multivariable models, prenatal depressive symptoms were not associated with WRAVMA scores [adjusted b for total WRAVMA score = -0.5 (95% CI -3.0, 2.1)]. We found no evidence to suggest that maternal prenatal depression is independently associated with early child cognition. PMID:20415752

  6. The Megha-Tropiques Mission: Review and Status after 3 Years in Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Megha-Tropiques satellite is the indo-french contribution to the Global Precipitation Mission constellation.The operation of the MT mission has recently been formally extended for 2015 and 2016 after reaching in october this year its original 3 years duration. While the MADRAS instrument stopped data acquisition in January 2013, the SAPHIR multichannel 183 GHz sounder is up and running nominally. Real time distribution of SAPHIR is performed by EUMETSAT via the EUMETcast system since mid-2014.In this presentation, I will review the performances of the microwave radiometers on-board MT and illustrate thescientific outcome of the mission as well as the results of the extensive validation exercices which have been finalized. I will put the emphasis on the impact of the low inclinaison orbit on assimilation, convective systems monitoring and estimation of precipitation. In particular, I will show how the SAPHIR radiometer data are used in our GPM multiple platforms merged 1°-1day accumulated rainfall product to mitigate the loss of MADRAS.

  7. A Statistical Skull Geometry Model for Children 0-3 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Park, Byoung-Keon; Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Jinhuan; Reed, Matthew P.; Rupp, Jonathan D.; Hoff, Carrie N.; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Head injury is the leading cause of fatality and long-term disability for children. Pediatric heads change rapidly in both size and shape during growth, especially for children under 3 years old (YO). To accurately assess the head injury risks for children, it is necessary to understand the geometry of the pediatric head and how morphologic features influence injury causation within the 0–3 YO population. In this study, head CT scans from fifty-six 0–3 YO children were used to develop a statistical model of pediatric skull geometry. Geometric features important for injury prediction, including skull size and shape, skull thickness and suture width, along with their variations among the sample population, were quantified through a series of image and statistical analyses. The size and shape of the pediatric skull change significantly with age and head circumference. The skull thickness and suture width vary with age, head circumference and location, which will have important effects on skull stiffness and injury prediction. The statistical geometry model developed in this study can provide a geometrical basis for future development of child anthropomorphic test devices and pediatric head finite element models. PMID:25992998

  8. Amorphous and crystalline polyetheretherketone: Mechanical properties and tissue reactions during a 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Tuomo; Kallela, Ilkka; Wuolijoki, Erkki; Kainulainen, Heikki; Hiidenheimo, Ilmari; Rantala, Immo

    2008-02-01

    The study was aimed to test the mechanical strength, structural stability, and tissue reactions of optically amorphous and crystalline polyetheretherketone (PEEK) plates during a 3-year follow-up in vivo and in vitro. The injection-moulded PEEK plates were implanted to the dorsal subcutis of 12 sheep, which were sacrificed at 6-156 weeks. Thereafter, the plates were subjected to tensile tests, and levels of crystallinity were assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Histological evaluation was carried out using the paraffin technique. In vitro properties were examined with the tensile test and DSC at 0-156 weeks. Tissue reactions were mild and fairly similar for the amorphous and crystalline plates at corresponding points in time. The mechanical characteristics of the plates remained stable over the entire follow-up. The tensile yield load and elongation at the yield load of the crystalline plates were roughly double ( approximately 500 vs. 270 N and 2.4 vs. 1.4 mm, respectively) in comparison to the amorphous plates. The elongation at break load of the crystalline plates was smaller than that of the amorphous ones (6 vs. 10). The level of crystallinity in both the optically amorphous ( approximately 15%) and crystalline (32-34%) plates remained invariable during the follow-up. The in vitro and in vivo data coincided remarkably well. In conclusion, both optically amorphous and crystalline PEEK plates are suitable for the fixation of fractures and osteotomies. PMID:17618477

  9. Dietary intake by Dutch 1- to 3-year-old children at childcare and at home.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Raaijmakers, Lieke G M; Gerards, Sanne M P L; Kremers, Stef P J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to assess dietary intake in a large sample (N=1016) of Dutch toddlers (1-3 years old), both at childcare and at home. Dietary intake during two weekdays was recorded using an observation format applied by childcare staff for intake at childcare, and partially pre-coded dietary journals filled out by parents for intake at home. Children's intake of energy, macronutrients and energy balance-related food groups (fruit, vegetables, sweet snacks, savoury snacks) were compared with Dutch dietary guidelines. In addition, differences between the dietary intake by various subgroups (based on gender, age, childcare attendance, socio-economic status of childcare centre) were explored using multilevel regression analyses, adjusting for nesting of children within centres. Energy intake was high relative to dietary guidelines, and children consumed more or less equal amounts of energy at home and at childcare. Dietary fibre, fruit and vegetable and snack intakes were low. Intake at childcare mainly consisted of carbohydrates, while intake at home contained more proteins and fat. The findings imply various opportunities for childcare centres to improve children's dietary intake, such as providing fruit and vegetables at snacking moments. In addition, the findings underline the importance of assessing dietary intake over a whole day, both at childcare and at home, to allow intake to be compared with dietary guidelines. PMID:24406847

  10. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Do words cue children’s visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information. PMID:24720802

  11. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information. PMID:24720802

  12. A Case of Dentin Dysplasia with Full Mouth Rehabilitation: A 3-year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Dheeraj; Likhyani, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dentin dysplasia, a rare hereditary disorder of dentin formation, is characterized by normal enamel but atypical dentin formation along with abnormal pulpal morphology. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. It has been divided into two clinical entities: type I (radicular) and type II (coronal). Early diagnosis and initiation of effective regular dental treatments may help the patients with this condition to delay or prevent the loss of the entire dentition and help them in cope up with edentulous state in early ages. The condition undoubtedly has a negative impact on the physical and psychological well-being of the affected individual. Numerous factors have to be considered during the prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with dentin dysplasia. Treatment protocol varies according to clinical case. Although literature reports suggest general guidelines for treatment planning, the present case report describes a full mouth rehabilitation of an 8-year-old female patient with dentin dysplasia. How to cite this article: Khandelwal S, Gupta D, Likhyani L. A Case of Dentin Dysplasia with Full Mouth Rehabilitation: A 3-year Longitudinal Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2): 119-124. PMID:25356011

  13. Diffuse Spinal Leptomeningeal Spread of a Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a 3-year-old Child.

    PubMed

    Alyeldien, Ameer; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Cheko, Azad; Höll, Tanja; Scholz, Martin; Petridis, Athanasios K

    2016-03-25

    Pilocytic astrocytomas correspond to low-grade gliomas and therefore metastasize exceedingly rare. However, pilocytic astrocytomas are able to and leptomeningeal dissemination may be seen. What are the treatment options of these cases? We present a case report of a 3-year-old child with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm with leptomeningeal dissemination of the spinal meninges. Partial resection of the cerebral tumor has been performed. Since the leptomeningeal dissemination was seen all over the spinal meninges, the child did not undergo further surgical treatment. A wait and watch strategy were followed. Chemotherapy was initiated, if a 25% tumor growth was seen. Leptomeningeal dissemination of a pilocytic astrocytoma is seen so infrequently that no standard therapy is established. Since these metastases may occur even up to 2 decades after primary tumor resection, long-term follow-up is indicated. In case of spinal metastases, surgical treatment should be performed if feasible. Otherwise observation should be possessed and/or chemotherapy should be initiated. PMID:27162602

  14. Predictors for Progression of Sleep Disordered Breathing among Public Transport Drivers: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Yu; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Chou, Tzu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. This study aimed to understand SDB progression and related factors among professional drivers. Methods: A total of 524 professional male drivers from a transportation company were included in this study. These drivers completed overnight in-home pulse oximetry studies both in 2006 and in 2009. Participants with abnormal results (oxygen desaturation index [ODI] ≥ 10 events/h) comprised the SDB group. Data included questionnaire information on demographics, medical history, SDB symptoms, and anthropometric measurements. Results: A total of 318 male workers were recruited for further analysis. Fifty of these workers belonged to the SDB group. Workers with untreated SDB significantly progressed to a more severe state after three years. Baseline body mass index (BMI), baseline ODI, and change in BMI were all significant positive predictors of SDB progression (β = 0.823, 0.242, and 1.626; p = 0.047, 0.013, and 0.004, respectively). Compared with non-SDB drivers, SDB subjects showed a greater proportion of newly diagnosed cardiovascular disease (38.0%) at follow-up. Conclusions: Untreated SDB was a gradually progressive disorder in professional drivers over a three-year period. Subjects with high BMI and moderate to severe SDB should be closely monitored to allow for early detection of worsening SDB. Weight control should be highlighted in the management of SDB. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 409. Citation: Lin CY, Shih TS, Liou SH, Lin MH, Chang CP, Chou TC. Predictors for progression of sleep disordered breathing among public transport drivers: a 3-year follow-up study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(4):419–425. PMID:25766707

  15. A prospective clinical evaluation of different single-tooth restoration designs on osseointegrated implants. A 3-year follow-up of Brånemark implants.

    PubMed

    Wannfors, K; Smedberg, J I

    1999-12-01

    Since single-tooth implant restorations were introduced 12 years ago (Jemt 1986), there has been continuous development both in the technical design and the aesthetic outcome of the treatment. In order to ensure high quality in single-tooth implant treatments a clinical follow-up study was carried out on patients treated with modifications to the original regimen. In this study 69 consecutive patients were provided with 80 single-tooth implant restorations. The patients were followed for 3 years. There was continuous development of the prosthetic design during the time of the study, allowing us to analyse possible prognostic differences for the different prosthetic treatments. This study confirms earlier reports which describe the single-tooth implant treatment as a safe method with few surgical complications and minimal marginal bone loss. Only 1 implant was lost during the follow-up period and the average marginal bone loss was 0.48 mm over the 3-year follow-up period. Crowns veneered with acrylic and with gold casted directly to the abutments, screwed onto the implants, led to recurring prosthetic complications and gave an appearance of rapid ageing. The first generation of crowns made following the Cera-One design, sometimes produced a gap between the crown and the abutment associated with significant marginal bone loss during the first year. Few surgical or prosthetic complications were noted with cemented all-ceramic constructions, although the number of these crowns in this study was limited. PMID:10740454

  16. Everolimus and early calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal: 3-year results from a randomized trial in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sterneck, M; Kaiser, G M; Heyne, N; Richter, N; Rauchfuss, F; Pascher, A; Schemmer, P; Fischer, L; Klein, C G; Nadalin, S; Lehner, F; Settmacher, U; Neuhaus, P; Gotthardt, D; Loss, M; Ladenburger, S; Paulus, E M; Mertens, M; Schlitt, H J

    2014-03-01

    The feasibility of de novo everolimus without calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy following liver transplantation was assessed in a multicenter, prospective, open-label trial. Liver transplant patients were randomized at 4 weeks to start everolimus and discontinue CNI, or continue their current CNI-based regimen. The primary endpoint was adjusted estimated GFR (eGFR; Cockcroft-Gault) at month 11 post randomization. A 24-month extension phase followed 81/114 (71.1%) of eligible patients to month 35 post randomization. The adjusted mean eGFR benefit from randomization to month 35 was 10.1 mL/min (95% confidence interval [CI] -1.3, 21.5 mL/min, p = 0.082) in favor of CNI-free versus CNI using Cockcroft-Gault, 9.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI -0.4, 18.9, p = 0.053) with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (four-variable) and 9.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI -1.1, 17.9, p = 0.028) using Nankivell. The difference in favor of the CNI-free regimen increased gradually over time due to a small progressive decline in eGFR in the CNI cohort despite a reduction in CNI exposure. Biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss and death were similar between groups. Adverse events led to study drug discontinuation in five CNI-free patients and five CNI patients (12.2% vs. 12.5%, p = 1.000) during the extension phase. Everolimus-based CNI-free immunosuppression is feasible following liver transplantation and patients benefit from sustained preservation of renal function versus patients on CNI for at least 3 years. PMID:24502384

  17. High concordance of daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes in individuals measured 1 to 3 years apart.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; Atkinson, Charlotte; Thomas, Wendy K; Gonzalez, Alex; Jokela, Tuija; Wähälä, Kristiina; Schwartz, Stephen M; Li, Shuying S; Lampe, Johanna W

    2005-12-01

    Particular intestinal bacteria are capable of metabolizing the soya isoflavone daidzein to equol and/or O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), and the presence of these metabolites in urine after soya consumption are markers of particular intestinal bacteria profiles. Prevalences of equol producers and O-DMA producers are approximately 30-50 % and 80-90 %, respectively, and limited observations have suggested that these daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes are stable within individuals over time. Characterizing stability of these phenotypes is important to understand their potential as markers of long-term exposure to particular intestinal bacteria and their associations with disease risk. We evaluated concordance within an individual for the equol-producer and O-DMA-producer phenotypes measured at two time points (T1, T2), 1-3 years apart. Phenotypes were ascertained by analysing equol and O-DMA using GC-MS in a spot urine sample collected after 3 d soya (source of daidzein) supplementation. In ninety-two individuals without recent (within 3 months before phenotyping) or current antibiotics use, 41 % were equol producers at T1 and 45 % were equol producers at T2, and 90 % were O-DMA producers at T1 and 95 % were O-DMA producers at T2. The percentage agreement for the equol-producer phenotype was 82 and for the O-DMA-producer phenotype was 89. These results indicate that these phenotypes are stable in most individuals over time, suggesting that they provide a useful biomarker for evaluating disease risk associated with harbouring particular intestinal bacteria responsible for, or associated with, the metabolism of the soya isoflavone daidzein. PMID:16351761

  18. Breastfeeding and dietary variety among preterm children aged 1-3 years.

    PubMed

    Husk, Jesse S; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-04-01

    Among infants born at term, breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety in childhood. Preterm birth can limit early feeding options while simultaneously increasing risk for negative health outcomes that could benefit from dietary-based preventative measures. We assessed whether breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety at 1-3 years amongst children born preterm. We analyzed baseline data from two clinical trials investigating cognitive development after fatty-acid supplementation for 10-39 month-old children born before 35 weeks gestation (n = 189). At baseline, mothers reported breastfeeding history and completed a 161-item food-frequency questionnaire for their child. Dietary variety was assessed via 3 measures: (1) proportion items consumed at least once per month, (2) servings of a given item consumed relative to total monthly food servings, (3) daily probability of consuming a given item. Overall, 88% of children were ever breastfed (median duration = 89 days, range = 0-539), and 48% of children were ever exclusively breastfed (median duration = 59 days, range = 3-240). Exclusive breastfeeding duration was associated with dietary variety increases of 0.9% (95% CI = 0.1-1.7) for vegetables, 1.6% (95% CI = 0.2-3.0) for meat/fish, and 1.3% (95% CI = 0.2-2.4) for grain/starch, for each additional month of exclusive breastfeeding after adjustment for key confounders. Correspondingly, the variety of sweets consumed decreased by 1.2% (CI: -2.1, -0.3) per month of any breastfeeding after adjustment. These results are consistent with those in children born at term, and if causal, could provide additional support for exclusive breastfeeding to improve diet and health in children born preterm. PMID:26792771

  19. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 μg/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  20. Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Rural Cambodia: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844

  1. Biomass and morphology of fine roots of sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) after 3 years of nitrogen fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Kyotaro; Nagakura, Junko; Kaneko, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition may affect carbon and nutrient dynamics in forest ecosystems. To better understand the effects of N deposition, we need to improve our knowledge of N effects on fine roots (roots <2 mm in diameter), as they are a key factor in carbon and nutrient dynamics. In this study, we fertilized 1 × 2 m plots in a sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) stand (336 kg ha-1 y-1) for 3 years and evaluated the responses of the fine roots to high N load. After fertilization, the concentration of NO3–N in the soil of N-fertilized (NF) plots was five-times as large as that in the control plots and the effect was more remarkable in the subsurface soil than in the surface soil. The biomass of fine roots <2 mm in diameter appeared to be greater in the NF plots (88 ± 19 g m-2) than in the control plots (56 ± 14 g m-2), but this difference was not statistically significant. In both plots, 76% of the biomass was accounted for by fine roots that were <1 mm in diameter. In the surface soil, the specific root length of fine roots <1 mm in diameter was significantly greater, and the diameter of those fine roots was marginally smaller, in the NF plots than in the control plots. In addition, the concentration of N in fine roots <1 mm in diameter was marginally greater in the NF plots than in the control plots. There may have been increased production of thinner fine roots or increased root branching in the NF plots. This study suggests that, in general, high N load is likely to have positive effects on sugi in terms of fine root characteristics and the effects on fine-root morphology are more evident than the effects on fine-root biomass. PMID:24027575

  2. Thyrotoxicosis after a massive levothyroxine ingestion in a 3-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Hays, Hannah L; Jolliff, Heath A; Casavant, Marcel J

    2013-11-01

    Most children with exploratory levothyroxine ingestions remain asymptomatic or suffer only minor effects, and most patients can be managed in the home or with supportive care in the hospital. We present a case of a 3-year-old girl who was found after a witnessed massive ingestion of levothyroxine. The patient was initially seen in an emergency department and discharged in stable condition, only to return 4 days after ingestion with thyrotoxicosis, hypertension, tachycardia, 24 hours of persistent vomiting, and clinical and laboratory evidence of dehydration. On the day of hospital admission, her thyroid-stimulating hormone was 0.018 µIU/mL (reference range, 0.6-4.5 µIU/mL); free T4 (tetraiodothyronine) was greater than 6.0 ng/dL (reference range, 0.7-2.1 ng/dL); and T3 (triiodothyronine) total was 494 ng/dL (reference range, 100-200 ng/dL). During a 3-day hospital admission, she was managed with supportive care, including intravenous fluid rehydration and antiemetics, and was ultimately discharged in good condition. The patient was followed up until 2 months after ingestion and remained asymptomatic. Although most exploratory levothyroxine ingestions suffer little to no clinical effects, serious symptoms can occur. Because serious symptoms can occur in a delayed fashion, it is important for clinicians to give proper anticipatory guidance regarding home symptom monitoring, follow-up, and reasons to return to the emergency department when patients present for medical evaluation. PMID:24196094

  3. Predicting caregiver-reported behavior problems in cocaine-exposed children at 3 years.

    PubMed

    Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Behnke, Marylou; Hou, Wei; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Wobie, Kathleen; Eyler, Fonda Davis

    2006-04-01

    Predictors of caregiver-reported behavior problems for 3-year-olds with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and matched controls were examined using structural equation modeling. We tested whether PCE had a direct effect on child behavior problems in a model that included other prenatal drug exposure, child sex, caregiver depression, and the quality of the child's home environment. The sample (N = 256) was drawn from a longitudinal, prospective study of children of (predominantly crack) cocaine-using women and controls matched on race, socioeconomic status, parity, and pregnancy risk. Child Behavior Problems was modeled as a latent variable composed of the 48-item Conners' Parent Report Scale Conduct Problem and Impulsive-Hyperactive scales and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory Intensity scale. Caregiver depression was the only significant predictor of Child Behavior Problems. Mean levels of caregiver self-reported depression and reported child behavior problems did not differ between groups. Mean depression scores were well above the recommended clinical cutoff while mean child behavior problems scores were within normal limits. The model explained 21% of the variance in caregiver-reported child behavior problems in our sample of rural African American, low SES youngsters. Non-maternal caregivers of cocaine-exposed children had significantly lower mean depression scores and mean child behavior problems ratings for 2 of 3 scales used in the study compared to biological mothers of children with PCE and controls. For all groups, much larger proportions of children were rated as having clinically significant behavior problems than would be expected based on the prevalence of behavior problems in the general population. PMID:16682870

  4. Predictors of child-to-parent aggression: A 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-05-01

    Although we rarely hear about it, children sometimes aggress against their parents. This is a difficult topic to study because abused parents and abusive children are both reluctant to admit the occurrence of child-to-parent aggression. There are very few research studies on this topic, and even fewer theoretical explanations of why it occurs. We predicted that exposure to violence in the home (e.g., parents aggressing against each other) and ineffective parenting (i.e., parenting that is overly permissive or lacks warmth) influences cognitive schemas of how children perceive themselves and the world around them (i.e., whether aggression is normal, whether they develop grandiose self-views, and whether they feel disconnected and rejected), which, in turn, predicts child-to-parent aggression. In a 3-year longitudinal study of 591 adolescents and their parents, we found that exposure to violence in Year 1 predicted child-to-parent aggression in Year 3. In addition, parenting characterized by lack of warmth in Year 1 was related to narcissistic and entitled self-views and disconnection and rejection schemas in Year 2, which, in turn, predicted child-to-mother and child-to-father aggression in Year 3. Gender comparisons indicated that narcissism predicted child-to-parent aggression only in boys and that exposure to violence was a stronger predictor of child-to-father violence in boys. This longitudinal study increases our understanding of the understudied but important topic of child-to-parent aggression, and will hopefully stimulate future research. PMID:25822895

  5. Summary of Medipix Technology's 3-Years in Space and Plans for Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    NASA has evaluated 7 Timepix-based radiation imaging detectors from the CERN-based Medipix2 collaboration on the International Space Station (ISS), collecting more than 3-years of data, as well on the December, 2014 EFT-1 mission testing the new Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. These data along with data collected at ground-based accelerator facilities including the NASA Space Radiation Lab (NSRL) at Brookhaven in the US, as well as at the HIMAC facility at the National Institute for Radiological Sciences in Japan, have allowed the development of software analysis techniques sufficient to provide a stand-alone accurate assessment of the space radiation environment for dosimetric purposes. Recent comparisons of the performance of the Timepix with both n-on-p and p-on-n Si sensors will be presented. The further evolution of the Timepix technology by the Medipix3 collaboration in the form of the Timepix3 chip, which employs a continuous data-driven readout scheme, is being evaluated for possible use in future space research applications. Initial performance evaluations at accelerators will be reported. The Medipix2 Collaboration is also in the process of designing an updated version of the Timepix chip, called the Timepix2, which will continue the frame-based readout scheme of the current Timepix chip, but add simultaneous charge encoding using the Time-Over-Threshold (TOT) and first-hit Time-of-Arrival (TOA) encoding. Current plans are to replace the Timepix by the Timepix2 with minimal reconfiguration of the supporting electronics. Longer-term plans include participation in the currently forming Medipix4 collaboration. A summary of these prospects will also be included.

  6. A 3 year update on the influence of noise on performance and behavior.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    The effect of noise exposure on human performance and behavior continues to be a focus for research activities. This paper reviews developments in the field over the past 3 years, highlighting current areas of research, recent findings, and ongoing research in two main research areas: Field studies of noise effects on children's cognition and experimental studies of auditory distraction. Overall, the evidence for the effects of external environmental noise on children's cognition has strengthened in recent years, with the use of larger community samples and better noise characterization. Studies have begun to establish exposure-effect thresholds for noise effects on cognition. However, the evidence remains predominantly cross-sectional and future research needs to examine whether sound insulation might lessen the effects of external noise on children's learning. Research has also begun to explore the link between internal classroom acoustics and children's learning, aiming to further inform the design of the internal acoustic environment. Experimental studies of the effects of noise on cognitive performance are also reviewed, including functional differences in varieties of auditory distraction, semantic auditory distraction, individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction, and the role of cognitive control on the effects of noise on understanding and memory of target speech materials. In general, the results indicate that there are at least two functionally different types of auditory distraction: One due to the interruption of processes (as a result of attention being captured by the sound), another due to interference between processes. The magnitude of the former type is related to individual differences in cognitive control capacities (e.g., working memory capacity); the magnitude of the latter is not. Few studies address noise effects on behavioral outcomes, emphasizing the need for researchers to explore noise effects on behavior in more

  7. Etiology and Audiological Outcomes at 3 Years for 364 Children in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Hans-Henrik M.; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Hutchison, Wendy; Hou, Sanna; Seeto, Mark; Sjahalam-King, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Hearing loss is an etiologically heterogeneous trait with differences in the age of onset, severity and site of lesion. It is caused by a combination of genetic and/or environmental factors. A longitudinal study to examine the efficacy of early intervention for improving child outcomes is ongoing in Australia. To determine the cause of hearing loss in these children we undertook molecular testing of perinatal “Guthrie” blood spots of children whose hearing loss was either detected via newborn hearing screening or detected later in infancy. We analyzed the GJB2 and SLC26A4 genes for the presence of mutations, screened for the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) A1555G mutation, and screened for congenital CMV infection in DNA isolated from dried newborn blood spots. Results were obtained from 364 children. We established etiology for 60% of children. One or two known GJB2 mutations were present in 82 children. Twenty-four children had one or two known SLC26A4 mutations. GJB2 or SLC26A4 changes with unknown consequences on hearing were found in 32 children. The A1555G mutation was found in one child, and CMV infection was detected in 28 children. Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was confirmed in 26 children whose DNA evaluations were negative. A secondary objective was to investigate the relationship between etiology and audiological outcomes over the first 3 years of life. Regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between hearing levels and etiology. Data analysis does not support the existence of differential effects of etiology on degree of hearing loss or on progressiveness of hearing loss. PMID:23555729

  8. Perfectionism, neuroticism, and daily stress reactivity and coping effectiveness 6 months and 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Mandel, Tobey; Ma, Denise

    2014-10-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing longitudinal explanatory conceptualizations of stress and coping processes that trigger daily affect in the short- and long-term for individuals with higher levels of personality vulnerability. Community adults completed measures of 2 higher order dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards [PS], self-criticism [SC]), neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Then, 6 months later and again 3 years later, participants completed daily questionnaires of stress, coping, and affect for 14 consecutive days. PS was associated with aggregated daily problem-focused coping and positive reinterpretation, whereas SC was uniquely associated with daily negative social interactions, avoidant coping, negative affect, and sadness at Month 6 and Year 3. Multilevel modeling results demonstrated that both individuals with higher PS and those with higher SC were emotionally reactive to event stress, negative social interactions, and avoidant coping at Month 6 and Year 3 and to less perceived control at Year 3. Positive reinterpretation was especially effective for individuals with higher SC at Month 6 and Year 3. The effects of PS on daily stress reactivity and coping (in)effectiveness were clearly distinguished from the effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness, whereas the SC effects were due to shared overlap with PS and neuroticism. The present findings demonstrate the promise of using repeated daily diary methodologies to help therapists and clients reliably predict future client reactions to daily stressors, which, in turn, could help guide interventions to break apart dysfunctional patterns connected to distress and build resilience for vulnerable individuals. PMID:25111703

  9. Everolimus and Early Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal: 3-Year Results From a Randomized Trial in Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Sterneck, M; Kaiser, G M; Heyne, N; Richter, N; Rauchfuss, F; Pascher, A; Schemmer, P; Fischer, L; Klein, C G; Nadalin, S; Lehner, F; Settmacher, U; Neuhaus, P; Gotthardt, D; Loss, M; Ladenburger, S; Paulus, E M; Mertens, M; Schlitt, H J

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of de novo everolimus without calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy following liver transplantation was assessed in a multicenter, prospective, open-label trial. Liver transplant patients were randomized at 4 weeks to start everolimus and discontinue CNI, or continue their current CNI-based regimen. The primary endpoint was adjusted estimated GFR (eGFR; Cockcroft-Gault) at month 11 postrandomization. A 24-month extension phase followed 81/114 (71.1%) of eligible patients to month 35 postrandomization. The adjusted mean eGFR benefit from randomization to month 35 was 10.1 mL/min (95% confidence interval [CI] −1.3, 21.5 mL/min, p = 0.082) in favor of CNI-free versus CNI using Cockcroft-Gault, 9.4 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI −0.4, 18.9, p = 0.053) with Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (four-variable) and 9.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (95% CI −1.1, 17.9, p = 0.028) using Nankivell. The difference in favor of the CNI-free regimen increased gradually over time due to a small progressive decline in eGFR in the CNI cohort despite a reduction in CNI exposure. Biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss and death were similar between groups. Adverse events led to study drug discontinuation in five CNI-free patients and five CNI patients (12.2% vs. 12.5%, p = 1.000) during the extension phase. Everolimus-based CNI-free immunosuppression is feasible following liver transplantation and patients benefit from sustained preservation of renal function versus patients on CNI for at least 3 years. The beneficial effect on renal function achieved by early CNI withdrawal and treatment with everolimus after liver transplantation is still evident after three years. PMID:24502384

  10. Delayed Complications in Patients Surviving at Least 3 Years After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Kawabe, Takuya; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Sato, Yasunori; Nariai, Tadashi; Barfod, Bierta E.; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Urakawa, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about delayed complications after stereotactic radiosurgery in long-surviving patients with brain metastases. We studied the actual incidence and predictors of delayed complications. Patients and Methods: This was an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study that used our database. Among our consecutive series of 2000 patients with brain metastases who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) from 1991-2008, 167 patients (8.4%, 89 women, 78 men, mean age 62 years [range, 19-88 years]) who survived at least 3 years after GKRS were studied. Results: Among the 167 patients, 17 (10.2%, 18 lesions) experienced delayed complications (mass lesions with or without cyst in 8, cyst alone in 8, edema in 2) occurring 24.0-121.0 months (median, 57.5 months) after GKRS. The actuarial incidences of delayed complications estimated by competing risk analysis were 4.2% and 21.2% at the 60th month and 120th month, respectively, after GKRS. Among various pre-GKRS clinical factors, univariate analysis demonstrated tumor volume-related factors: largest tumor volume (hazard ratio [HR], 1.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.018-1.154; P=.0174) and tumor volume {<=}10 cc vs >10 cc (HR, 4.343; 95% CI, 1.444-12.14; P=.0108) to be the only significant predictors of delayed complications. Univariate analysis revealed no correlations between delayed complications and radiosurgical parameters (ie, radiosurgical doses, conformity and gradient indexes, and brain volumes receiving >5 Gy and >12 Gy). After GKRS, an area of prolonged enhancement at the irradiated lesion was shown to be a possible risk factor for the development of delayed complications (HR, 8.751; 95% CI, 1.785-157.9; P=.0037). Neurosurgical interventions were performed in 13 patients (14 lesions) and mass removal for 6 lesions and Ommaya reservoir placement for the other 8. The results were favorable. Conclusions: Long-term follow-up is crucial for patients with brain metastases

  11. Determinants of physician antibiotic prescribing behavior: a 3 year cohort study in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Teixeira Rodrigues, António; Ferreira, Mónica; Piñeiro-Lamas, Maria; Falcão, Amílcar; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria T

    2016-05-01

    Objectives Antibiotic misprescription is a major driver of resistance, which is a worldwide public health problem. Therefore, our aim is to assess the influence of the determinants of physician prescribing on the quality of antibiotic use. Methods A 3 year cohort study including all primary-care physicians working in Portugal's Central Regional Health Administration (n = 1094) was conducted. We assessed the determinants of prescribing using a pre-validated, personally addressed, reply-paid, self-administered questionnaire (sent four times to non-responders, between September 2011 and February 2012) designed to collect information on physicians' attitudes to and knowledge of antibiotic prescribing as well as their socio-demographic and professional data. To evaluate antibiotic prescribing, we've calculated ESAC 12 quality indicators per physician per year, allowing us to stratify them as good or poor prescribers according to their performance on those indicators. Associations between determinants and outcomes were fitted with generalized linear mixed models. Results The overall response rate was 46.1%. Emergency activity (OR [95% CI] = 0.29 [0.16-0.54]; p < 0.05) and workload (number of patients seen per day: OR [95% CI] = 0.97 [0.94-1.00]; p < 0.05; number of patients seen per week in emergencies: OR [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.97-0.99]; p < 0.05) were both related to poor quality of antibiotic prescribing. Statistically significant odds ratios were also obtained for ignorance (IqOR [95% CI] = 2.14 [1.31-3.52]), complacency (1/IqOR [95% CI] = 1.19 [1.01-1.41]) and responsibility of others (1/IqOR [95% CI] = 1.78 [1.10-3.06]). Conclusions The above results serve to emphasize workload, working at emergency departments and physicians' attitudes identified as critical factors affecting antibiotic prescribing. This provides new insights for clinicians, researchers and policy makers when it comes to developing and improving the clinical and

  12. The PREMOS/PICARD Radiometer: An overview after 3 years of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cessateur, Gaël; Schmutz, Werner; Shapiro, Alexander

    Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance are key input parameters to atmospheric/oceanic and space weather models. We present here spectral solar irradiance data from the radiometer PREMOS onboard the PICARD satellite for three years, which covers covers the solar spectrum from the Ultraviolet to near-infrared. We will also introduce the algorithm COCOSIS (for Combination of COSI Spectra) which allows us to retrieve the solar variability of the irradiance. Our investigation shows that COCOSIS is highly successful at reproducing solar spectral irradiance over rotational periods for most of channels from PREMOS.

  13. Mortality and Return to Work of Drug Abusers From Therapeutic Community Treatment 3 Years After Entry.

    PubMed

    Berg, John E.

    2003-08-01

    BACKGROUND: The outcome of therapeutic community treatment for drug abuse has been disputed with regard to mortality and rehabilitation to school or work as compared with other treatment modalities. METHOD: All patients (N = 130) admitted to a therapeutic community during 3 consecutive years (1996-1998), who had failed to stop abusing drugs after ambulatory and primary care initiatives, were assessed 1 to 4 years (mean = 36.5 months) after end of treatment. Rates of rehabilitation to school or work, changes in drug use patterns, and mortality were observed. RESULTS: Nine persons died during the observation period (the observation time to death seemed to be shorter in women than in men). The mortality rate per 100 observation years was 2.28. Among the surviving drug abusers, 39% were working or attending school at study endpoint. One fourth currently used drugs, and approximately 14% were enrolled in a methadone maintenance program. Another 13% were in treatment or prison. CONCLUSION: Drug abuse is an activity that increases the mortality rate, but among the surviving persons, a considerable number are rehabilitated, as assessed after a longer observation period. The authors suggest that this outcome could not have been attained with ambulatory general practice-driven services, even with empathic follow-up. PMID:15213778

  14. Predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years in the EDEN mother–child cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Forhan, Anne; Charles, Marie-Aline; De Agostini, Maria; Heude, Barbara; Ramus, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To examine the factors predicting changes in language skills between 2 and 3 years. Methods. By using longitudinal data concerning 1002 children from the EDEN study, linear regression was used to predict 3-year language performance from 2-year language performance and the risk factors associated with language delays. Logistic regressions were performed to examine two change trajectories: children who fall below the 10th percentile of language skills between 2 and 3 years (declining trajectory), and those who rose above the 10th percentile (resilient trajectory). Results. The final linear model accounted for 43% of the variance in 3-year language scores, with 2-year language scores accounting for 22%. Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy, earlier birth term, lower level of parental education and lower frequency of maternal stimulation were associated with the declining trajectory. Breastfeeding was associated with the resilient trajectory. Conclusions. This study provides a better understanding of the natural history of early language delays by identifying biological and social factors that predict changes in language skills between the ages of 2 and 3 years. PMID:24749012

  15. Immunological persistence of a seasonal influenza vaccine in people more than 3 years old.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yunhua; Shi, Nianmin; Lu, Qiang; Yang, Liqing; Wang, Zhaoyun; Li, Li; Han, HuiXia; Zheng, Dongyi; Luo, FengJi; Zhang, Zheng; Ai, Xing

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate antibody persistence of Aleph inactivated split influenza vaccine, 3308 healthy Chinese people more than 3 years old were enrolled in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay before vaccination, 641 were screened by HI assay negative, 437 of which received one dose of Aleph inactivated split influenza vaccine and 204 of which received one dose of control vaccine (recombinant hepatitis B). After vaccination, the receivers were collected blood at 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and 12th month for Aleh influenza vaccine antibody persistence assess. The antibody test were determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. There were significant difference in antibody geometric mean titer between experimental group and control at 1st month and 3rd month after vaccination. Influenza antibody could persist at least up to 3rd month. Because of the local spring influenza epidemic, we could not analyze the results of 6th and 12th month. Aleph influenza vaccines showed good immune persistence in healthy volunteers at least in the 3 months after vaccination. Influenza viruses are important human respiratory pathogens. Immunization is widely acknowledged to currently be the most effective method of minimizing the impact of pandemic influenza. Through we have checked many references about Influenza vaccine, the duration of protective antibody for influenza vaccines are still not available. Based on this situation and our previous work, (11) Influenza vaccine antibody duration analyze are necessary. This manuscript presents data on the persistence of Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) immune response against the A/California/7/2009(H1N1), A/Peth/16/2009(H3N2) strain and B/Brisbane/60/2008. 641 were screened from 3302 volunteers by HI test of influenza A and confirmed enrollment based on the antibodies titer less than 1:10. After administered with one dose of Aleph influenza vaccine, blood samples were collected. 437 subjects (3-10 y: 131; 11-17 y: 110; 18-54 y: 69;

  16. A prospective 3-year follow-up trial of implantation of two trabecular microbypass stents in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Donnenfeld, Eric D; Solomon, Kerry D; Voskanyan, Lilit; Chang, David F; Samuelson, Thomas W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Katz, L Jay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate 3-year safety and intraocular pressure (IOP) following two trabecular microbypass stents in phakic and pseudophakic subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) not controlled on preoperative medication. Patients and methods In this prospective pilot study, phakic or pseudophakic subjects with OAG and IOP between 18 mmHg and 30 mmHg on one preoperative topical ocular hypotensive medication underwent medication washout. Thirty-nine qualified subjects with preoperative unmedicated IOP ≥22 mmHg and ≤38 mmHg received two stents. Postoperative examinations were scheduled at Day 1, Week 1, Months 1, 3, 6, and 12, and semiannually through Month 60. Ocular hypotensive medication was considered if postoperative IOP exceeded 21 mmHg. IOP, medication use, and safety were assessed at each visit. Subject follow-up through Month 36 was completed. Results Thirty-six eyes (92.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.1%, 98.4%) achieved the primary efficacy end point of Month 12 reduction in IOP ≥20% from baseline (unmedicated IOP) without ocular hypotensive medication. Four subjects required medication during the Month 36 follow-up period. Mean IOP at 36 months for subjects not taking medication was 15.2 mmHg. At 36 months, subjects sustained mean IOP decrease of 9.1±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 8.0 mmHg, 10.14 mmHg), or 37% IOP reduction, from unmedicated baseline IOP. Compared to preoperative medicated IOP, subjects had mean reduction at Month 36 of 5.5±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 4.5 mmHg, 6.6 mmHg), or 26% reduction. Both measures of IOP reduction were highly significant (P<0.001). Other than one case of early postoperative hyphema that resolved at 1 week, no postoperative adverse events were attributed to stent implantation. Conclusion In a pilot study, two trabecular microbypass stents to treat OAG subjects on one preoperative medication provided statistically significant, sustained, and safe reduction of IOP to ≤15 mmHg without medication through 36 months. PMID:26604675

  17. Feeding the toddler: 12 months to 3 years--challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cowbrough, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The toddler stage from one to three years continues to be a period of rapid growth although not as rapid as in the first year. Energy needs are high as toddlers become more active, but stomachs are still small relative to nutrient needs so food provided for this age group needs to be nutrient dense. Toddlers are beginning to exert their independence in food choices and parents may be faced with a fussy eater who refuses food that they normally like and enjoy. Parents need to be encouraged to establish a routine of three meals and two snacks a day and not to allow the toddler to set the rules for eating. Making time to enjoy eating together as a family should be a priority to help toddlers establish good eating habits for the future. PMID:20518371

  18. Developmental Trajectories in Children With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders: The First 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Landa, Rebecca J.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Gross, Alden L.; Faherty, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Retrospective studies indicate 2 major classes of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) onset: early and later, after a period of relatively healthy development. This prospective, longitudinal study examined social, language, and motor trajectories in 235 children with and without a sibling with autism, ages 6–36 months. Children were grouped as: ASD identified by 14 months, ASD identified after 14 months, and no ASD. Despite groups’ initial similar developmental level at 6 months, ASD groups exhibited atypical trajectories thereafter. Impairment from 14 to 24 months was greater in the Early-ASD than the Later-ASD group, but comparable at 36 months. Developmental plateau and regression occurred in some children with ASD, regardless of timing of ASD diagnosis. Findings indicate a preclinical phase of varying duration for ASD. PMID:23110514

  19. The Sydney Multicentre Study of Parkinson's disease: a report on the first 3 years.

    PubMed Central

    Hely, M A; Morris, J G; Rail, D; Reid, W G; O'Sullivan, D J; Williamson, P M; Genge, S; Broe, G A

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and twenty nine de novo patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease are being followed over a 5 year period in a double-blind multicentre study comparing low-dose bromocriptine (less than 30 mg/day) with low-dose levodopa-carbidopa (less than 600/150 mg/day). Sixty six patients have been randomised to bromocriptine and 63 patients to levodopa-carbidopa. Improvement has been greater in the levodopa-carbidopa group than in the bromocriptine group. Involuntary movements have so far only occurred in patients on levodopa-carbidopa, the incidence being much lower than is usually described with conventional doses. Mild, end-of-dose failure has occurred in both treatment groups; however, no patient has developed the "on-off" phenomenon. Low-dose levodopa-carbidopa appears to be a more effective anti-Parkinsonian treatment than low-dose bromocriptine but more prone to cause dyskinesia. PMID:2647907

  20. 3 Years of Ammonia Monitoring in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, F. M.; Sewell, H.; Collett, J. L.; Molenar, J. V.; Archuleta, C.; Tigges, M.; Sherman, L.; Li, Y.; Raja, S.

    2009-12-01

    A multi-year ammonia air monitoring study was conducted at Boulder, Wyoming, in the Upper Green River Basin - a region experiencing rapid natural gas development with potential consequences of air quality and visibility impacts in the adjacent Class I Bridger Wilderness. The objective of this study is to characterize the local airborne nitrogen budget, specifically concentrations of ammonia and related gases and particles over one year. Samples were collected twice per week beginning December 15, 2006, using coated annular denuders and stacked filters in a URG sampler, analyzed at Colorado State University’s Atmospheric Science Department. NH3 concentrations are variable throughout the year and below 1 ppbv for most of the monitoring period, peaking in August 2007 at 1.55 ppbv (2.8 ppbv in Aug 2008), with a yearly mean value of 0.24 ppbv in 2007 (0.30 pppv in 2008). Concentrations are below or near detectable limits from December through February in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Elevated NH3 concentrations coincide with warmer summer months. A shift in ammonium nitrate equilibrium toward the gas phase might be responsible for some of this increase, although an increase in total reduced nitrogen (ammonium + ammonia) during the summer suggests that changes in emissions and or transport patterns are likely also important contributors. Increasingly strong nitrate and nitric acid cycles lasting several days, characterize the winter months, coinciding with observations of elevated ozone. This phenomenon dies off quickly with the onset of snowmelt. Two special studies were conducted in August 2008 and February/March 2009, representing typical peak summer and late winter conditions. Summer data show diurnal patterns likely driven by photochemical reactions and temperature changes, while winter observations indicate a coincidence of increased nitrogen loading with high ozone periods during stagnant conditions lasting several days. Changes of wind direction and speed in all cases

  1. Mercury's gravity field and ephemeris after 3 years of MESSENGER orbital observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Antonio; Mazarico, Erwan; Goossens, Sander J.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-05-01

    18 March 2014 will be the third anniversary of MESSENGER's insertion into orbit about Mercury. The initial orbit was highly eccentric and nearly polar, with a 12-h period and a periapsis at 200 km altitude and ~60°N latitude. The third-body perturbation of the Sun combined with the high eccentricity of the orbit led to a substantial evolution of the periapsis, which drifted slowly northward and reached an altitude of 500 km several times before orbit-corrections maneuvers returned the periapsis altitude to ~200 km. In March 2012, the mission orbital phase was extended for a second year, and the spacecraft transitioned to an 8-h orbit period one month later. A second extended mission started in March 2013, will last for another two years, and will eventually allow observations at very low altitudes (<100 km), starting in September 2014. One of the main mission goals is the determination of the interior structure of Mercury, enabled by a suite of instruments that includes the radio system and a laser altimeter. The X-band tracking system and NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) were used to determine the gravity field of Mercury. The effective spatial resolution of the gravity field is strongly dependent on latitude, however, because of MESSENGER's eccentric orbit and its high apoapsis over the southern hemisphere (~15,000 km in the first year, ~10,000 km subsequently). The gravity field of the southern hemisphere remains largely unconstrained at short wavelengths, although the global long-wavelength field has been determined robustly. Furthermore, MESSENGER radio tracking data represent an excellent opportunity to improve Mercury's ephemeris. The current knowledge of the orbit of Mercury around the Sun has been mainly defined by direct ranging. Range measurements from the three Mercury flybys and orbital phase of MESSENGER provide a strong data set to measure the motion of Mercury's center of mass. The 1-m range accuracy potentially allows the recovery of the

  2. [A 3-year follow-up study of the incidence of campylobacteriosis in a pediatric population].

    PubMed

    Hofstetr, A; Dvoráková, A; Nikodýmová, I; Sláma, J

    1990-11-01

    The authors investigated the incidence of campylobacteriosis in the population of five paediatric health communities of the Jihlava policlinic (5831 children) for a period of three years. A total of 2408 specimens faeces from 1501 subjects were examined. Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 151 subjects (10.1%), Salmonella sp. in 47 (3.1%), Shigella sp. in 18 (1.2%), Yersinia enterocolitica in 12 (0.8%) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in five subjects (0.3%). The total incidence of campylobacteriosis in the investigated group was 863 cases per 100,000 subjects per year. The incidence of campylobacteriosis was seasonal with a maximum during the summer months. To elucidate the source of infection and way of transmission 323 smears from animals, animal products and from the environment were made. Seventy were positive. Campylobacterosis is transmitted to man most frequently by ingestion of primarily or secondarily contamined food, by contact with animals and even interhuman transmission cannot be ruled out. The most frequent clinical symptoms of campylobacteriosis were diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. Seventeen children were hospitalized. For treatment most frequently Endiaron was used and dietotherapy. Campylobacteriosis affects significantly more frequently children of gipsy origin. PMID:2092913

  3. A 3-year randomized clinical trial evaluating two different bonded posterior restorations: Amalgam versus resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Kemaloglu, Hande; Pamir, Tijen; Tezel, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the performance and postoperative sensitivity of a posterior resin composite with that of bonded amalgam in 40 (n = 20) large sized cavities and to evaluate whether resin composite could be an alternative for bonded amalgam. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial. Twenty patients in need of at least two posterior restorations were recruited. Authors randomly assigned one half of the restorations to receive bonded amalgam and the other half to composite restorations. Forty bonded amalgams (n = 20) and composites (n = 20) were evaluated for their performance on modified-US Public Health Service criteria and postoperative sensitivity using visual analogue scale (VAS) for 36-months. Results: Success rate of this study was 100%. First clinical alterations were rated as Bravo after 1 year in marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, anatomical form, and surface roughness for both amalgam and composite. At the 3rd year, overall “Bravo” rated restorations were 12 for bonded amalgam and 13 for resin composites. There were no significant differences among the VAS scores of composites and bonded amalgams for all periods (P > 0.05) except for the comparisons at the 3rd year evaluation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, both resin composite and bonded amalgam were clinically acceptable. Postoperative sensitivity results tend to decrease more in composite restorations rather than amalgams. Therefore, it was concluded that posterior resin composite can be used even in large sized cavities. PMID:27011734

  4. A Cross-sectional Study on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and General Psychiatric Morbidity Among Adult Survivors 3 Years After the Wenchuan Earthquake, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Duan, Guangfeng; Xu, Qin; Jia, Zhaobao; Bai, Zhengyang; Liu, Weizhi; Pan, Xiao; Tian, Wenhua

    2015-11-01

    After the Wenchuan earthquake, a large number of studies have focused on postearthquake psychological disorders among survivors; however, most of these studies were conducted within a relatively short period. This study was conducted to examine the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general psychiatric morbidity among adult survivors 3 years after the Wenchuan earthquake, China. Through a multistage systematic sampling approach, a cross-sectional survey of 360 participants, 18 years or older, was conducted. The prevalence of PTSD and general psychiatric morbidity was 10.3% and 20.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed significant predictors for PTSD, including female gender and having felt guilt concerning someone's death or injury. Significant predictors for general psychiatric morbidity included unmarried status and having been in serious danger. These results suggest that mental health services should be continuously available to earthquake survivors. PMID:26316500

  5. Effectiveness of Video Self-Modeling to Promote Social Initiations by 3-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video Self-Modeling (VSM) provides individuals the opportunity to view themselves performing a task beyond their present functioning level through the careful editing of videos. In this study, a single-case multiple-baseline design was used to determine whether VSM would facilitate social initiations across three young children (M = 3 years 10…

  6. Impacts of a Violence Prevention Program for Middle Schools: Findings after 3 Years of Implementation. NCEE 2011-4017

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvia, Suyapa; Blitstein, Jonathan; Williams, Jason; Ringwalt, Chris; Dusenbury, Linda; Hansen, William

    2011-01-01

    This is the second and final report summarizing findings from an impact evaluation of a violence prevention intervention for middle schools. This report provides findings from the second and third years of the 3-year intervention. The U.S. Department of Education (ED) contracted with RTI International and its subcontractors, Pacific Institute for…

  7. "This Way!", "No! That Way!"--3-Year Olds Know that Two People Can Have Mutually Incompatible Desires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In theory of mind research, there is a long standing dispute about whether children come to understand the subjectivity of both desires and beliefs at the same time (around age 4), or whether there is an asymmetry such that desires are understood earlier. To address this issue, 3-year olds' understanding of situations in which two persons have…

  8. The Lights Pre-Project: Implementation of the Project Approach with Children under 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzegorzewska, Katarzyna; Konieczna-Blicharz, Jagoda

    2011-01-01

    A group of children 18 months to 3 years old and their parents studied lights in a preschool program at the Astrid Lindgren Institute for Early Childhood Development in Poland. The goal of the preschool program is to help children gain positive social experience through safe and interesting contact with a new group of children and adults in the…

  9. 42 CFR 412.273 - Withdrawing an application, terminating an approved 3-year reclassification, or canceling a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withdrawing an application, terminating an approved 3-year reclassification, or canceling a previous withdrawal or termination. 412.273 Section 412.273 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS...

  10. Results of a 3-Year, Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention for Children in Rural, Low-Socioeconomic Status Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kristi McClary; Ling, Jiying

    2015-01-01

    Improving children's nutrition and physical activity have become priorities in the United States. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a 3-year, school-based, health promotion intervention (i.e. nutrition and physical education, classroom physical activity, professional development and health promotion for teachers…

  11. The Magic Shrinking Machine Revisited: The Presence of Props at Recall Facilitates Memory in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Jonna J.; Kingo, Osman S.; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a seminal study Simcock and Hayne (2002) showed that 3-year-olds were unable to use newly acquired words to describe a "magic" event experienced 6 or 12 months earlier. In the reference study the children's verbal recall was tested without props being present. Inspired by recent evidence, the original design was replicated, testing…

  12. Eudaimonic growth: Narrative growth goals predict increases in ego development and subjective well-being 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2010-07-01

    We examine (a) the normative course of eudaimonic well-being in emerging adulthood and (b) whether people's narratives of major life goals might prospectively predict eudaimonic growth 3 years later. We define eudaimonic growth as longitudinal increases in eudaimonic well-being, which we define as the combination of psychosocial maturity and subjective well-being (SWB). College freshmen and seniors took measures of ego development (ED; to assess maturity; Loevinger, 1976) and SWB at Time 1 (T1) and again 3 years later (Time 2). ED levels increased longitudinally across that time for men and T1 freshmen, but SWB levels did not change. Participants also wrote narratives of 2 major life goals at T1 that were coded for an explicit emphasis on specific kinds of personal growth. Participants' intellectual-growth goals (especially agentic ones) predicted increases in ED 3 years later, whereas participants' socioemotional-growth goals (especially communal ones) predicted increases in SWB 3 years later. These findings were independent of the effects of Big Five personality traits-notably conscientiousness, which on its own predicted increases in SWB. We discuss (a) emerging adulthood as the last stop for normative eudaimonic growth in modern society and (b) empirical and theoretical issues surrounding the relations among narrative identity, life planning, dispositional traits, eudaimonia, and 2 paths of personal growth. PMID:20604600

  13. Why 3-Year-Old Children Get Spanked: Parent and Child Determinants as Reported by College-Educated Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, George W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 39 college-educated mothers of 3-year-old children to examine the conditions surrounding the occurrence of physical punishment. Responses suggest that certain types of misbehavior, notably aggression, were more likely to elicit spanking than other misbehavior. In addition, parents' positive attitudes toward…

  14. 1 to 3-Year-Old Children in Day Care Centres in Finland: An Overview of Eight Doctoral Dissertations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannikainen, Maritta

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a general picture of the policy and main structural features of early childhood education services for the younger children in Finland. It also provides an overview of the research on 1 to 3-year-old children in day care centres carried out in Finland during the last 15 years, the focus being on a review of all the eight…

  15. The Internal Validity and Acceptability of the Danish SI-3: A Language-Screening Instrument for 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Jorgensen, Rune N.; Worm, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To document the development of a new parent- and day care-administered screening instrument (the Screening Instrument for 3-Year-Olds [SI-3]) to be used in a newly implemented, educationally motivated population language screening in Denmark. The authors investigated whether the basic principles of the SI-3 were working satisfactorily and…

  16. Professional Learning Communities in Partnership: A 3-Year Journey of Action and Advocacy to Bridge the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Patricia; Dahlman, Anne; Zierdt, Ginger

    2009-01-01

    This article details a strategic planning model and concurrent 3-year research study focusing on the benefits of preK-16 professional development school learning communities for the participating preK-16 educational leaders in a midwestern school-university partnership network. Results of the study, along with the strategic plan's success at…

  17. Combined Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Parent Training for Childhood Depression: 2- to 3-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver-Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2- to 3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at…

  18. Determinants of Imitation of Hand-to-Body Gestures in 2- and 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty children, ten 2-year-olds and ten 3-year-olds, participated in an AB procedure. In the baseline phase, each child was trained the same four matching relations to criterion under intermittent reinforcement. During the subsequent imitation test, the experimenter modeled a total of 20 target gestures (six trials each) interspersed with…

  19. Poorly differentiated cutaneous carcinoma of non-sebaceous origin in a 3-year-old Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Fenton, Heather; Forzán, María J; Desmarchelier, Marion; Woodland, Meghan; Sayi, Soraya; Gilroy, Cornelia V

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old female gerbil developed a non-healing skin wound due to a malignant neoplasm. Histology, immunohistochemistry (cytokeratin 19 positive; vimentin, estrogen, and progesterone receptor negative), and electron microscopy (no desmosomes or melanosomes) revealed an undifferentiated carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis. Unlike in previous reports, it did not arise from the abdominal pad's sebaceous gland. PMID:26740704

  20. Cryoplasty Versus Conventional Angioplasty in Femoropopliteal Arterial Recanalization: 3-Year Analysis of Reintervention-Free Survival by Treatment Received

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Maria Lourdes; Urtasun, Fermin Barberena, Javier; Aranzadi, Carlos; Guillen-Grima, Francisco; Bilbao, Jose Ignacio

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To compare long-term efficacy of cryoplasty therapy versus conventional angioplasty in the treatment of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic stenosis on the basis of our 3-year clinical experience. Materials and Methods: From January 2006 to December 2008, a total of 155 patients with 192 lesions of the femoropopliteal sector were randomized to receive either cryoplasty or conventional balloon angioplasty. The primary study end point was lesion target patency. Follow-up with clinical evaluation of patient's symptoms, ankle-brachial index, and Doppler ultrasound was scheduled at 1, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months. Results: For the cryoplasty group (n = 86), technical immediate success was achieved in 74.4% of lesions. Rate of significant dissection was 13.5% and rate of stent placement of 22%. In the long term, target lesion patency rate at 6 months was 59.4%, with rates of 55.9, 52.6, and 49.1% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. For the conventional angioplasty group (n = 69), the immediate technical success rate was 83.7%. Rate of significant dissection was 19%, and rate of stent placement was 72.9%. Patency rates at 6 months and at 1, 2, and 3 years were 71.5, 61.2, 60, and 56%, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with conventional angioplasty, cryoplasty showed good immediate success rates with lower stent placement rates. During the 3-year follow-up, patency rates tended to equalize between the two modalities.

  1. Sustaining "Truth": Changes in Youth Tobacco Attitudes and Smoking Intentions after 3 Years of a National Antismoking Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Duke, Jennifer; Messeri, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the American Legacy Foundation's "truth[R]" campaign and Philip Morris's "Think. Don't Smoke" (TDS) campaign have influenced youth's tobacco-related attitudes, beliefs and intentions during the first 3 years of the truth campaign. We use data from eight nationally representative cross-sectional telephone surveys of 35,074…

  2. "A Spinach with a V on It": What 3-Year-Olds See in Standard and Enhanced Blissymbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavendra, Parimala; Fristoe, Macalyne

    1990-01-01

    Standard or enhanced Blissymbols, designed to represent familiar actions, attributes, and objects, were shown to 20 3 year olds, who guessed their meaning. The number of their guesses that referred to the enhancements was twice as great as the number that referred to the standard Blissymbol base. (Author/JDD)

  3. The First Year Inventory: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of 12-Month-Old to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Baranek, Grace T.; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory--regulatory and social--communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of…

  4. Rational Action Selection in 1 1/2- to 3-Year-Olds Following an Extended Training Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klossek, Ulrike M. H.; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1 1/2 and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen…

  5. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the third eyelid in a 3-year-old Rhodesian Ridgeback

    PubMed Central

    vom Hagen, Franziska; Romkes, Gwendolyna; Kershaw, Olivia; Eule, J Corinna

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A 3-year-old Rhodesian Ridgeback was presented with conjunctivitis, enlargement of the third eyelid and a dorsotemporal deviation of the right eye. A mass within the third eyelid was detected and excised. The histopathologic examination showed a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, which most likely is a neurofibrosarcoma based on immunohistochemistry. PMID:25678975

  6. Emotion Situation Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory in Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…

  7. Replication of an Inter-Disciplinary Approach to Early Education of Handicapped Children 0-3 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Constance J.; And Others

    Presented is the guide to the Illinois project entitled "An Inter-Disciplinary Approach to Early Education of Handicapped Children Ages 0 - 3 Years" which includes information on funding and public awareness, diagnosis and evaluation, child development-home program, speech and language, structuring the day program, job descriptions and training,…

  8. Regional background aerosols over the Balearic Islands over the last 3 years: ground-based concentrations, atmospheric deposition and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerro, Jose Carlos; Pey, Jorge; Bujosa, Carles; Caballero, Sandra; Alastuey, Andres; Sicard, Michael; Artiñano, Begoña; Querol, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    In the context of the ChArMEx (The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, https://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr) initiative, a 3-year study over a regional background environment (Can Llompart, CLP) in Mallorca has been conducted. Ground-based PM mass concentrations, gaseous pollutants and meteorological parameters were continuously registered from 2010 to 2012. Since the beginning of the campaign, PM10 daily samples for chemical determinations were obtained every 4 days, and dry and wet deposition samples were collected every week. Moreover, additional instruments (condensation particle counter, multi-angle absorption photometer, airpointer, sequential high and low volume samplers) were deployed during intensive filed campaigns in 2011 and 2012, as well as the sampling frequency was intensified. In the laboratory, PM samples were analyzed for inorganic compounds, and organic and elemental carbon following different approaches. In addition, n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, antiso-alkanes, levoglucosan, alkanoic acids and cholesterol were determined by GC-MS chromatography in a selection of 30 samples. Mean PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations in the period 2010-2012 reached 17, 11, and 8 µg/m3 respectively. Mass concentrations displayed marked seasonal trends, with much higher background levels in summer due to stagnant conditions over the western Mediterranean and increased frequency of Saharan dust events. Likewise, diverse-intensity peaks of coarse PM due to African dust inputs were observed along the year. On average, African dust in PM10 accounted for 1.0-1.5 µg/m3. Sporadic pollution events, characterized by most of the particles in the fine mode, were related to the transport of anthropogenic polluted air masses from central and eastern Europe. Wet and dry atmospheric deposition samples are being analyzed to quantify the deposition fluxes for different soluble and insoluble compounds. On average, PM10 composition is made up of organic matter (23%), mineral components (17

  9. Effectiveness of Dietary Allergen Exclusion Therapy on Eosinophilic Colitis in Chinese Infants and Young Children ≤ 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Geng, Lanlan; Chen, Peiyu; Wang, Fenghua; Xu, Zhaohui; Liang, Cuiping; Li, Huiwen; Fang, Tiefu; Friesen, Craig A.; Gong, Sitang; Li, Dingyou

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is a well recognized clinical entity mainly associated with food allergies. Empiric treatment options include dietary allergen exclusion (extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and elimination diet), anti-allergy medications (antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists) and corticosteroids. We evaluated the effectiveness of dietary antigen exclusion on clinical remission of eosinophilic colitis in infants and young children. We retrospectively reviewed charts of all infants and children ≤3 years of age who were diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (defined as mucosal eosinophilia ≥20 hpf−1) from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 at a tertiary children’s hospital in China. Forty-nine children were identified with eosinophilic colitis. Elemental formula, simple elimination diet or combination therapy resulted in clinical improvement in 75%, 88.2% and 80% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic colitis in infants and children ≤3 years of age responded well to dietary allergen exclusion. PMID:25768952

  10. New Direction for CCBD? Three Studies Examining the Future of the Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Alec; Albrecht, Susan Fread; George, Cheryl L.; Mathur, Sarup R.; Paget, Mike; Ryan, Joseph B.; White, Richard B.; Baker, Diana

    2011-01-01

    To determine if its current mission and purpose are in line with contemporary issues in the field, the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) commissioned a 3-year project that included three separate but related studies. This mixed-methods research, carried out over a 20-month period during 2008-2010, was conducted as three…

  11. Successful HeartWare Bridge to Recovery in a 3-Year Old: A Game Changer?

    PubMed

    Kirk, Richard; Peng, Ed; Woods, Andrew; Flett, Julie; Hewitt, Terry; Griselli, Massimo; Schueler, Stephen; Wrightson, Neil; Hasan, Asif

    2016-05-01

    We report a 3-year-old boy weighing 13.5 kg who presented with intractable cardiac failure resulting from myocarditis and was treated by implantation of a HeartWare (HVAD) device. He was discharged home with the device. His cardiac function subsequently recovered, and the device was decommissioned. We believe this to be the youngest HVAD recipient and the only child to have recovered and had the device decommissioned. PMID:27106437

  12. Increasing Fruit, Vegetable and Water Consumption in Summer Day Camps-3-Year Findings of the Healthy Lunchbox Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Moore, Justin B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the 3-year outcomes (2011-2013) from the healthy lunchbox challenge (HLC) delivered in the US-based summer day camps (SDC) (8-10 hours day-1, 10-11 weeks summer-1, SDC) to increase children and staff bringing fruit, vegetables and water (FVW) each day. A single group pre- with multiple post-test design…

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with bilateral papilledema and vision loss in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Anthony G; Gouws, Pieter; Headland, Sophie; Oades, Patrick; Pople, Ian; Taylor, David; Benton, J Sarah; Buncic, J Raymond; Henderson, John; Fleming, Peter

    2008-04-01

    We describe bilateral papilledema and vision loss in a 3-year-old child with obstructive sleep apnea. Although lumbar puncture initially disclosed a normal opening pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure monitoring during sleep confirmed intermittent episodes of elevated intracranial pressure corresponding to increased airway resistance. The association of obstructive sleep apnea and raised intracranial pressure is recognized in children with craniosynostosis but has not been reported in its absence. PMID:18289895

  14. A 3-year follow-up of stroke patients: relationships between activities of daily living and personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elmståhl, S; Sommer, M; Hagberg, B

    1996-01-01

    The importance of some personality characteristics for improvement of activities of daily life (ADL) was studied in sixty-six stroke patients, initially admitted to geriatric rehabilitation (n=37) or the department of medicine (n=29), 3 years after stroke. Outcome measurements were activities of daily life and motor and mental functions assessed using the Activity Index (AI) by Hamrin and Wohlin (1982). Neuroticism and extroversion were measured with the Eysenck Personality Inventory Scale. Preferred coping strategies were assessed from interviews on how the patients handle difficult events. Major improvements of ADL and motor functions were seen the first year after stroke. There was no major differences between patients admitted, either to geriatric rehabilitation or traditional medical wards regarding the outcome measurements except for better eating ability in the former group 3 years later. Subjects living alone showed deteriorated ADL functions after 3 years. Extrovert personality and active coping strategy predicted improved ADL functions. Multiple regression analyses with AI as the dependent variable proved active coping to predict functional outcome. In conclusion; increased knowledge about personality characteristics can improve possibilities for a more individual rehabilitation program. PMID:15374173

  15. Two- and 3-year-olds integrate linguistic and pedagogical cues in guiding inductive generalization and exploration.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lucas P; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Young children can in principle make generic inferences (e.g., "doffels are magnetic") on the basis of their own individual experience. Recent evidence, however, shows that by 4years of age children make strong generic inferences on the basis of a single pedagogical demonstration with an individual (e.g., an adult demonstrates for the child that a single "doffel" is magnetic). In the current experiments, we extended this to look at younger children, investigating how the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are integrated with other aspects of inductive inference during early development. We found that both 2- and 3-year-olds used pedagogical cues to guide such generic inferences, but only so long as the "doffel" was linguistically labeled. In a follow-up study, 3-year-olds, but not 2-year-olds, continued to make this generic inference even if the word "doffel" was uttered incidentally and non-referentially in a context preceding the pedagogical demonstration, thereby simply marking the opportunity to learn about a culturally important category. By 3years of age, then, young children show a remarkable ability to flexibly combine different sources of culturally relevant information (e.g., linguistic labeling, pedagogy) to make the kinds of generic inferences so central in human cultural learning. PMID:26826468

  16. The Effectiveness of Child Restraint Systems for Children Aged 3 Years or Younger During Motor Vehicle Collisions: 1996 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Craig L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effectiveness of child restraints in preventing death during motor vehicle collisions among children 3 years or younger. Methods. We conducted a matched cohort study using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data from 1996 to 2005. We estimated death risk ratios using conditional Poisson regression, bootstrapping, multiple imputation, and a sensitivity analysis of misclassification bias. We examined possible effect modification by selected factors. Results. The estimated death risk ratios comparing child safety seats with no restraint were 0.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21, 0.34) for infants, 0.24 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.30) for children aged 1 year, 0.40 (95% CI = 0.32, 0.51) for those aged 2 years, and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.52) for those aged 3 years. Estimated safety seat effectiveness was greater during rollover collisions, in rural environments, and in light trucks. We estimated seat belts to be as effective as safety seats in preventing death for children aged 2 and 3 years. Conclusions. Child safety seats are highly effective in reducing the risk of death during severe traffic collisions and generally outperform seat belts. Parents should be encouraged to use child safety seats in favor of seat belts. PMID:19059860

  17. Usefulness of the Baseline Syntax Score to Predict 3-Year Outcome After Complete Revascularization by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeehoon; Park, Kyung Woo; Han, Jung-Kyu; Yang, Han-Mo; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Kim, Hyo-Soo

    2016-09-01

    Although we strive to achieve complete revascularization (CR) in those receiving percutaneous coronary intervention, it is uncertain which of these patients are at increased risk of clinical events. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the baseline SYNTAX score (bSS) can predict adverse clinical events in patients receiving CR. From the Efficacy of Xience/Promus Versus Cypher in Reducing Late Loss After Stenting registry, the 3-year patient-oriented composite end point (POCE; all cause death, any myocardial infarction, and any revascularization) was compared according to bSS tertiles (1 ≤ low bSS < 6, 6 ≤ mid-bSS < 10, high bSS ≥ 10). Of the 5,088 patients, CR was achieved in 2,173 by percutaneous coronary intervention. The 3-year POCE increased significantly along with bSS tertile (7.3% vs 8.4% vs 14.8%, p <0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that, despite having the same residual SS of 0, the bSS was an independent predictor of 3-year POCE (hazard ratio 1.038, 95% confidence interval 1.018 to 1.058, p <0.001 per bSS point). In subgroup analysis, bSS was a predictor for 3-year POCE in multivessel diseases (hazard ratio 1.029, 95% confidence interval 1.004 to 1.054, p = 0.025 per bSS point), whereas in single-vessel diseases, the discriminative value of bSS was less significant. Also the clinical SYNTAX score, which added age, creatinine level, and ejection fraction to the bSS, was superior to the bSS in predicting 3-year POCE (area under the curve 0.595 vs 0.649, p = 0.008). In conclusion, the bSS was an independent predictor of long-term clinical outcomes in patients receiving CR, especially in those with multivessel coronary artery disease. Adding clinical factors to the bSS could increase the predictive power of clinical outcomes. PMID:27394412

  18. A Case for Regular Aflatoxin Monitoring in Peanut Butter in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from a 3-Year Survey in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Njoroge, Samuel M C; Matumba, Limbikani; Kanenga, Kennedy; Siambi, Moses; Waliyar, Farid; Maruwo, Joseph; Monyo, Emmanuel S

    2016-05-01

    A 3-year comprehensive analysis of aflatoxin contamination in peanut butter was conducted in Zambia, sub-Saharan Africa. The study analyzed 954 containers of 24 local and imported peanut butter brands collected from shops in Chipata, Mambwe, Petauke, Katete, and Nyimba districts and also in Lusaka from 2012 to 2014. For analysis, a sample included six containers of a single brand, from the same processing batch number and the same shop. Each container was quantitatively analyzed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in six replicates by using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; thus, aflatoxin contamination level of a given sample was derived from an average of 36 test values. Results showed that 73% of the brands tested in 2012 were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 130 μg/kg. In 2013, 80% of the brands were contaminated with AFB1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 10,740 μg/kg. Compared with brand data from 2012 and 2013, fewer brands in 2014, i.e., 53%, had aflatoxin B1 levels >20 μg/kg and ranged up to 1,000 μg/kg. Of the eight brands tested repeatedly across the 3-year period, none consistently averaged ≤20 μg/kg. Our survey clearly demonstrates the regular occurrence of high levels of AF B1 in peanut butter in Zambia. Considering that some of the brands tested originated from neighboring countries such as Malawi, Zimbabwe, and South Africa, the current findings provide a sub-Saharan regional perspective regarding the safety of peanut butter. PMID:27296427

  19. Deviant fMRI patterns of brain activity to speech in 2–3 year-old children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Courchesne, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Background A failure to develop normal language is one of the most common first signs that a toddler might be at risk for autism. Currently the neural bases underlying this failure to develop language are unknown. Methods In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was utilized to identify the brain regions involved in speech perception in 12 2–3 year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during natural sleep. We also recorded fMRI data from two typically developing control groups: a mental age-matched (MA) (n=11) and a chronological age-matched (CA) (n=12) group. During fMRI data acquisition, forward and backward speech stimuli were presented with intervening periods of no sound presentation. Results Direct statistical comparison between groups revealed significant differences in regions recruited to process speech. In comparison to their MA-matched controls, the ASD group showed reduced activity in an extended network of brain regions, which are recruited in typical early language acquisition. In comparison to their CA-matched controls, ASD participants showed greater activation primarily within right and medial frontal regions. Laterality analyses revealed a trend towards greater recruitment of right hemisphere regions in the ASD group and left hemisphere regions in the CA group during the forward speech condition. Furthermore, correlation analyses revealed a significant positive relationship between right hemisphere frontal and temporal activity to forward speech and receptive language skill. Conclusions These findings suggest that at 2–3 years, children with ASD may be on a deviant developmental trajectory characterized by a greater recruitment of right hemisphere regions during speech perception. PMID:18672231

  20. 46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY karyotype in a 3-year-old boy ascertained because of radioulnar synostosis

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.; Robson, L.; Jackson, J.

    1995-05-08

    Chromosome analysis was performed on a 3-year-old boy because of bilateral radioulnar synostosis and demonstrated a mosaic karyotype 46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY. He had minor facial anomalies and mild intellectual delay. He appears to be the youngest patient reported with this rare chromosome complement. His father, mother, and brother had normal chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on the propositus and his father with the Y chromosome heterochromatic probe (pHY3.4) to add to the evaluation of mosaicism. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. [Bevacizumab as first-line therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma : Progression-free survival for 3 years].

    PubMed

    Pichler, R; Horninger, W; Aigner, F; Heidegger, I

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 72-year-old woman who was diagnosed in 2006 with renal cell cancer (RCC) and had undergone consecutive tumor nephrectomy (clear-cell RCC, Fuhrmann grade II, stage pT3a, R0). Over the years, the patient underwent several surgical and radiological interventions due to various metastatic lesions. This case report describes the 3-year progression-free survival in a patient who underwent first-line therapy with the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. Except for hypertension, the patient does not suffer currently from any other side effects of bevacizumab therapy. PMID:26471795

  2. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  3. Hospital Organization and Importance of an Interventional Radiology Inpatient Admitting Service: Italian Single-Center 3-Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Simonetti, Giovanni; Bollero, Enrico; Ciarrapico, Anna Micaela; Gandini, Roberto; Konda, Daniel Bartolucci, Alberto; Di Primio, Massimiliano; Mammucari, Matteo; Chiocchi, Marcello; D'Alba, Fabrizio; Masala, Salvatore

    2009-03-15

    In June 2005 a Complex Operating Unit of Interventional Radiology (COUIR), consisting of an outpatient visit service, an inpatient admitting service with four beds, and a day-hospital service with four beds was installed at our department. Between June 2005 and May 2008, 1772 and 861 well-screened elective patients were admitted to the inpatient ward of the COUIR and to the Internal Medicine Unit (IMU) or Surgery Unit (SU) of our hospital, respectively, and treated with IR procedures. For elective patients admitted to the COUIR's inpatient ward, hospital stays were significantly shorter and differences between reimbursements and costs were significantly higher for almost all IR procedures compared to those for patients admitted to the IMU and SU (Student's t-test for unpaired data, p < 0.05). The results of the 3-year activity show that the activation of a COUIR with an inpatient admitting service, and the better organization of the patient pathway that came with it, evidenced more efficient use of resources, with the possibility for the hospital to save money and obtain positive margins (differences between reimbursements and costs). During 3 years of activity, the inpatient admitting service of our COUIR yielded a positive difference between reimbursements and effective costs of Euro 1,009,095.35. The creation of an inpatient IR service and the admission of well-screened elective patients allowed short hospitalization times, reduction of waiting lists, and a positive economic outcome.

  4. Predictors of Obesity in a Cohort of Children Enrolled in WIC as Infants and Retained to 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, M A; Scheinmann, R; Hartel, D; McLeod, N; Sekhobo, J; Edmunds, L S; Findley, S

    2016-02-01

    This longitudinal study of children enrolled as infants in the New York State (NYS) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) examined predictors of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile) at 3 years of age. NYS WIC administrative data which included information from parent interviews and measured heights and weights for children were used. All 50,589 children enrolled as infants in WIC between July to December 2008 and July to December 2009 and retained in WIC through age three were included. At 3 years of age, 15.1% of children were obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that children of mothers who received the Full Breastfeeding Food Package when their infant was enrolled in WIC (adjusted OR = 0.52) and children with ≤2 h screen time daily at age 3 (adjusted OR = 0.88) were significantly less likely to be obese (p < 0.001) controlling for race/ethnicity, birth weight, and birthplace. In this cohort of NYS WIC participants, maternal receipt of the Full Breastfeeding Food Package (a surrogate measure of exclusive breastfeeding) is associated with lower levels of obesity in their children at age 3. The relationships between participation in WIC, exclusive breastfeeding, and obesity prevention merit further study. PMID:26280211

  5. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed. PMID:22201248

  6. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    PubMed Central

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T.; Jensen, Signe M.; Christensen, Line B.; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height2/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2–4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity. PMID:24463487

  7. [Potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old: review of literature].

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Inga; Sikorska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The literature review regarding potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old, is presented. In this article, cognitive aspects of development include acquisition of language, attention, learning and later school performance. The constant increase of children's access to television is noted, indicating that 60% of infants and toddlers watch TV regularly for 1-2 hours per day. The review included 40 articles and book chapters of significant such as Anderson, Barr, Christakis, Zimmerman, Meltzoff, Courage, Setliff, Troseth. The data was selected from electronic databases of scientific publications: Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and Humanities Full Text (H.W. Wilson) available in Poland. Cited articles provide evidence of the negative impact of exposure to television, media and video on the cognitive functioning of children under 3 years old. The potential impact of watching TV for difficulties in ability to focus attention appears as a core danger. Furthermore, studies suggest a possible connection between early exposure to television and ADHD as well as difficulties with language acquisition, learning and poorer school results. PMID:27416629

  8. Family function of the families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Joh, Ju-Youn; Shin, Il-Seon

    2015-03-01

    Marriages between Korean men and immigrant women from elsewhere in Asia have increased rapidly during recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship within families consisting of immigrant women and to identify the relevant factors. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a baseline study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and family APGAR (adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve) scores were measured. Family APGAR has been widely used to study the relationship of family function and health problems in the busy clinician's office. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the baseline study results. Family APGAR scores were higher at the 3-year follow-up than those at baseline. Changes in family APGAR scores were found to be influenced by the birthplace, reported subjective ability to read Korean, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale score. PMID:22652245

  9. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  10. Effect of 3 years of treatment with a dorzolamide/timolol (1%/0.5%) combination on intraocular pressure

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Sakurako; Mimura, Tatsuya; Matsubara, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the effect on the intraocular pressure (IOP) of a dorzolamide/timolol (1%/0.5%) fixed combination (DTFC) ophthalmic agent for 3 years. Participants A total of 19 consecutive patients who had previously been treated with mono-therapy or any combination of a beta-blocker, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, or prostaglandin analog, for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) (n=5) or normal tension glaucoma (N=14) were enrolled. Methods Patients were switched to DTFC from their prior glaucoma therapy. The IOP was measured at intervals of 4–6 weeks for 3 years. Treatment failure was defined as an increase of IOP by ≥10% from baseline after switching to DTFC. Results The average IOP decreased significantly from 14.1±2.9 mmHg at baseline to 12.2±2.2, 11.8±2.4, 12.1±2.5, 11.6±1.8, and 12.1±2.7 mmHg at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after switching therapy (all P<0.05). The mean percent decrease of IOP was 12.0%±13.0%, 14.5%±14.2%, 12.2%±18.7%, 16.0%±12.8%, and 12.8%±15.2% at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after switching. Univariate or multivariate analysis revealed the percent decrease of IOP was associated with the type of glaucoma (POAG) at 3 and 12 months, and with the baseline IOP at 3, 12, 24, and 36 months. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that the percentage of patients who remained on treatment with DTFC was 94.7%, 94.7%, 84.2%, 78.9%, and 78.9% at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that the type of glaucoma (POAG) was associated with an increased risk of failure to control the IOP. Conclusion The IOP-lowering effect of DTFC was demonstrated for 3 years in this study. The baseline IOP had an important influence on the reduction of IOP achieved by DTFC. PMID:25228795

  11. Monitoring and Source Tracking of Tetracycline Resistance Genes in Lagoons and Groundwater Adjacent to Swine Production Facilities over a 3-Year Period▿

    PubMed Central

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I. G.; Oliver, H. D.; Yannarell, A. C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R. I.; Mackie, R. I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. PMID:17545324

  12. Full-mouth rehabilitation with monolithic CAD/CAM-fabricated hybrid and all-ceramic materials: A case report and 3-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Selz, Christian F; Vuck, Alexander; Guess, Petra C

    2016-02-01

    Esthetic full-mouth rehabilitation represents a great challenge for clinicians and dental technicians. Computer-aided design/ computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology and novel ceramic materials in combination with adhesive cementation provide a reliable, predictable, and economic workflow. Polychromatic feldspathic CAD/CAM ceramics that are specifically designed for anterior indications result in superior esthetics, whereas novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramics provide sufficient fracture resistance and adsorption of the occlusal load in posterior areas. Screw-retained monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate crowns (ie, hybrid abutment crowns) represent a reliable and time- and cost-efficient prosthetic implant solution. This case report details a CAD/CAM approach to the full-arch rehabilitation of a 65-year-old patient with toothand implant-supported restorations and provides an overview of the applied CAD/CAM materials and the utilized chairside intraoral scanner. The esthetics, functional occlusion, and gingival and peri-implant tissues remained stable over a follow-up period of 3 years. No signs of fractures within the restorations were observed. PMID:26417616

  13. Relationship of Pretreatment Rorschach Factors to Symptoms, Quality of Life, and Real-Life Functioning in a 3-Year Follow-Up of Traumatized Refugee Patients.

    PubMed

    Opaas, Marianne; Hartmann, Ellen; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Varvin, Sverre

    2016-01-01

    Response to mental health treatment varies highly among refugee patients. Research has not established which factors relate to differences in outcome. This study is a follow-up of Opaas and Hartmann's (2013) Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Exner, 2003) pretreatment study of traumatized refugees, where 2 RIM principal components, Trauma Response and Reality Testing, were found descriptive of participants' trauma-related personality functioning. This study's aims were to examine relationships of the RIM components with measures of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, quality of life (QOL), employment, and exile language skills throughout 3 years. We found that impaired Reality Testing was related to more mental health symptoms and poorer QOL; furthermore, individuals with adequate Reality Testing improved in posttraumatic stress symptoms the first year and retained their improvement. Individuals with impaired Reality Testing deteriorated the first year and improved only slightly the next 2 years. The results of this study imply that traumatized refugee patients with impaired Reality Testing might need specific treatment approaches. Research follow-up periods should be long enough to detect changes. The reality testing impairment revealed by the RIM, mainly perceptual in quality, might not be easily detected by diagnostic interviews and self-report. PMID:26528822

  14. Performance of a full-scale biofilter with peat and ash as a medium for treating industrial landfill leachate: a 3-year study of pollutant removal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kängsepp, Pille; Mathiasson, Lennart

    2009-03-01

    Shredder residues of end-of-life vehicles and white goods are a complex waste stream, which nowadays most often is disposed of at industrial landfills. This paper describes the most important findings concerning the complex composition of the landfill leachate and its on-site, year-round treatment under cold-climate conditions. A 3-year investigation has confirmed that concentrations of different types of pollutants, most of them at low initial concentrations, can be simultaneously reduced in vertical-flow biofilters consisting of a mixture of peat and carbon-containing ash. For metals such as Mn, Cu, Sn, Cd, Pb, Fe and Ni the average removal was 73, 72, 66, 60, 55, 55 and 37%, respectively. An average reduction of NH(4)-N (45%), N(tot) (25%), total organic carbon (30%), dissolved organic carbon (28%) and suspended solids (38%) was also obtained. A good reduction was achieved for phenols (between 75 and 95%), polychlorinated biphenyls (between 22 and 99%), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry amenable pollutants, considered at initial concentration above 50 microg L( -1) (between 80 and 100%). The performance of the biofilter system was good in spite of large variations of inlet concentration during the considered period. PMID:19244414

  15. Post-traumatic left ventricular aneurysm with massive hemopericardium in a child presenting 3 years after a fall.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wei-Ting; Lin, Shan-Miao; Wu, Shyr-Jao; Hwang, Haw-Kwei; Peng, Chun-Chih; Chen, Ming-Ren

    2013-12-01

    A 7-year-old boy developed a left ventricular aneurysm with massive hemopericardium 3 years ago due to a fall from a fourth-floor window. He had mild neurological sequelae including cranial nerve III palsy and abnormal electroencephalography findings at that time. He had no chest pain until recently when he presented with chest tightness and abdominal pain for 2 days prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed marked cardiomegaly. Echocardiography revealed massive pericardial effusion and a large left ventricular aneurysm. The massive hemopericardium was surgically drained, and the aneurysm was resected under cardiopulmonary bypass. He was discharged uneventfully 1 week after operation. Because symptoms and signs can vary in patients with ventricular aneurysm, we strongly suggest a close clinical follow-up, preferably with chest X-ray or echocardiography, for patients experiencing a blunt chest trauma. PMID:23597547

  16. Dental Provider Attitudes Are a Barrier to Expanded Oral Health Care for Children ≤3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Sophia; Fontana, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the perspectives of general dentists regarding oral health care for children ≤3 years. Methods. Mailed survey of 444 general dentists in Michigan. Results. Although most dentists were aware of recommendations for early dental visits, only 36% recommended their own patients begin dental visits by 1 year of age. Only 37% dentists felt that screening for oral health problems can be done by medical providers, whereas 34% agreed administration of fluoride varnish by medical providers would be effective in preventing dental problems in young children. Conclusions. Dentists’ failure to recommend 1-year dental visits is due neither to lack of awareness nor to capacity problems. The limited enthusiasm for involving children’s medical providers in oral health promotion signals attitudinal barriers that must be overcome to improve children’s oral health. Primary care providers should identify and refer to dentists in their community who are willing to see young children. PMID:27335915

  17. Fifty-four-month survival in a 3-year-old child presenting with an aggressive metastatic dedifferentiated clival chordoma.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Ciléin; Kearns, Cónail

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated chordoma is a rare, aggressive, chemoresistant and radioresistant malignancy arising from notochord remnants that can occur anywhere along the spine. Incidence in patients under 20 years of age is 1 per 250 million. We report a case of dedifferentiated clival chordoma presenting in a 3-year-old boy with pulmonary metastasis, which responded unusually well to chemotherapy, achieving complete metastatic clearance and debulking of the primary tumour. Proton beam therapy achieved further tumour control, with excellent quality of life for multiple years. On disease relapse, an atypical lateral transcondylar surgical approach achieved complete macroscopic clearance but there was cutaneous seeding. This, and continued primary site activity, failed to be controlled with targeted therapy, traditional chemotherapy and photon radiation, resulting in gradual neurological decline and death. Intensive management resulted in above-average survival despite diagnosis late in the disease course, which may be of value directing investigation into optimal management. PMID:27284102

  18. Nonsurgical approach to Class I open-bite malocclusion with extrusion mechanics: a 3-year retention case report.

    PubMed

    Atsawasuwan, Phimon; Hohlt, William; Evans, Carla A

    2015-04-01

    Anterior open bite is one of the most challenging malocclusions for orthodontic treatment. The high incidence of relapse is a major concern. Therefore, accurate initial examination, diagnosis, treatment plan, and consideration of habitual risk factors are crucial for a successful outcome without unwanted sequelae. Excellent patient compliance for retainer wear is also a critical factor. This case report shows the 3-year stability of a nonsurgical and nonextraction orthodontic treatment of a 5-mm anterior open-bite malocclusion in a 12-year-old girl with extrusion mechanics and habit modification. After 2 years of orthodontic treatment, excellent outcomes were achieved. With an appropriate retention protocol, the long-term stability of the treatment was favorable. PMID:25836010

  19. Substrate reduction therapy with miglustat in chronic GM2 gangliosidosis type Sandhoff: results of a 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Masciullo, Marcella; Santoro, Massimo; Modoni, Anna; Ricci, Enzo; Guitton, Jerome; Tonali, Pietro; Silvestri, Gabriella

    2010-12-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis type Sandhoff is caused by a defect of beta-hexosaminidase, an enzyme involved in the catabolism of gangliosides. It has been proposed that substrate reduction therapy using N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (miglustat) may delay neurological progression, at least in late-onset forms of GM2 gangliosidosis. We report the results of a 3-year treatment with miglustat (100 mg t.i.d) in a patient with chronic Sandhoff disease manifesting with an atypical, spinal muscular atrophy phenotype. The follow-up included serial neurological examinations, blood tests, abdominal ultrasound, and neurophysiologic, cognitive, brain, and muscle MRI studies. We document some minor effects on neurological progression in chronic Sandhoff disease by miglustat treatment, confirming the necessity of phase II therapeutic trials including early-stage patients in order to assess its putative efficacy in chronic Sandhoff disease. PMID:20821051

  20. The magic shrinking machine revisited: The presence of props at recall facilitates memory in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Jonna J; Kingo, Osman S; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2015-12-01

    In a seminal study Simcock and Hayne (2002) showed that 3-year-olds were unable to use newly acquired words to describe a "magic" event experienced 6 or 12 months earlier. In the reference study the children's verbal recall was tested without props being present. Inspired by recent evidence, the original design was replicated, testing 33-and 39-month-olds (n = 180), but with props present at recall while controlling for potential online reasoning. The results revealed that the children did use newly acquired words to describe their preverbal memory. Thus, the present study shows that nonverbal memories can be verbalized if the recall setting provides a high level of contextual support, a finding relevant to researchers investigating the offset of childhood amnesia. PMID:26436869

  1. Secondary implantation of implantable collamer lens (ICL) for correction of anisometropic hyperopia in a 3-year-old pseudophakic child.

    PubMed

    Emara, Khalid E; Al Abdulsalam, Omar; Al Habash, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of secondary implantation of implantable collamer lens (ICL) for correction of anisometropic hyperopia in a 3-year-old pseudophakic child. The ICL implantation was considered in our patient due to parental noncompliance for contact lens and spectacles use for one year. In terms of efficacy, the preoperative refractive error of +7.00-1.75 diopter (D) reduced to +1.00-1.75 D. The uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) significantly improved from 20/400 (preoperatively) to 20/50 (postoperatively). In terms of safety, after an uneventful implantation surgery, the ICL was well tolerated, and remained well centered, with no serious postoperative complications encountered over a 22-month follow-up. PMID:26949366

  2. Secondary implantation of implantable collamer lens (ICL) for correction of anisometropic hyperopia in a 3-year-old pseudophakic child

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Khalid E.; Al Abdulsalam, Omar; Al Habash, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    We report the first case of secondary implantation of implantable collamer lens (ICL) for correction of anisometropic hyperopia in a 3-year-old pseudophakic child. The ICL implantation was considered in our patient due to parental noncompliance for contact lens and spectacles use for one year. In terms of efficacy, the preoperative refractive error of +7.00–1.75 diopter (D) reduced to +1.00–1.75 D. The uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) significantly improved from 20/400 (preoperatively) to 20/50 (postoperatively). In terms of safety, after an uneventful implantation surgery, the ICL was well tolerated, and remained well centered, with no serious postoperative complications encountered over a 22-month follow-up. PMID:26949366

  3. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads. PMID:18184491

  4. Outcome from a Prospective, Longitudinal Study of Prenatal Cocaine Use: Preschool Development at 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Marylou; Eyler, Fonda Davis; Warner, Tamara Duckworth; Garvan, Cynthia Wilson; Hou, Wei; Wobie, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on child development. Methods This prospective, longitudinal study recruited 154 pregnant cocaine users who were matched on race, parity, socioeconomic status, and perinatal risk to 154 noncocaine users. Drug use status was determined by maternal history and urine screening. At 3 years of age, the child subjects were assessed by an evaluator blinded to maternal drug use history. During a home visit at age 3, caregiver, family, and home assessments were administered. Results Structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of the amount of prenatal cocaine exposure on the adjusted birth head circumference which in turn directly affected preschool development. Conclusions We could not demonstrate a direct effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on preschool development, a result that is consistent with that of earlier work and now extending findings to age 3. However, cocaine continued to exert an indirect effect on development through its direct effect on the head circumference at birth. PMID:15827349

  5. Operative management of traumatic cervical spine distraction and complete cord transection in a 3-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Davern, Monica Salazar; Garg, Sumeet; Hankinson, Todd C

    2015-02-01

    This report describes the presentation and operative treatment of a 3-year-old boy who survived a motor vehicle accident that resulted in a C6-7 distraction injury, complete avulsion of the spinal cord, and gross spinal instability. Only 5%-10% of all spinal cord and vertebral column injuries occur in children. Survival after such an injury is exceptionally rare in very young patients and is associated with severe neurological deficits. The authors discuss the substantial ethical challenges involved in the care of a patient with this injury. To their knowledge, only two other cases of survival have been reported in pediatric patients following motor vehicle trauma resulting in complete injury to the lower cervical spinal cord. PMID:25415253

  6. Periurethral and vulval condylomata acuminata: an unusual juvenile venereal disease in a 3-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Desai, Divyesh; Cherian, Abraham; Martyn-Simmons, Claire

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of giant condyloma acuminatum (CA) in a 3-year-old girl with rapidly growing vulval and periurethral lesions, which was investigated thoroughly and successfully treated with excision biopsy. Genital warts in the form of giant alarming vestibular, vulval and periurethral lesions of CA are very rare in children. There is need for a multidisciplinary approach with potential sociomedicolegal implications. Surgical excision is safe, effective and provides an opportunity to assess the extent of the lesion and tissue for accurate diagnosis. Genital warts in the form of giant alarming vestibular, vulval and periurethral lesions of CA are very rare in children. Indications for surgical treatment include large, recurrent or refractory lesions, as well as the need for histological identification and acquiring tissue for immunotherapy when necessary. The strategy of an extended follow-up is recommended so as to ensure identification of any risk situations. PMID:25199183

  7. The acquisition of allophones among bilingual Spanish-English and French-English 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Fabiano-Smith, Leah

    2015-03-01

    Children are exposed to highly variable input from multiple sources within their speech community. This study examines the acquisition of allophones in Spanish and French by monolingual and bilingual children. We hypothesised that two factors would influence allophone acquisition: (1) the amount of exposure to phonological input, and (2) the degree of variability of the allophonic pattern. Thirty-four typically developing 3-year-old participated in the study. The analyses revealed that regardless of the language, the monolingual children produced similar error rates in the production of the target allophones. In contrast, the bilingual children produced different patterns of acquisition of the allophones: the Spanish-English bilinguals produced higher error rates than the monolinguals, whereas the French-English bilinguals produced lower error rates than the monolinguals. Possibilities for these differences are discussed within the context of structural complexity as well as in light of the effects of between-language interaction on bilingual phonological development. PMID:25421431

  8. Brief report: Lack of processing bias for the objects other people attend to in 3-year-olds with autism.

    PubMed

    Falck-Ytter, Terje; Thorup, Emilia; Bölte, Sven

    2015-06-01

    Whether gaze following--a key component of joint attention--is impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently debated. Functional gaze following involves saccading towards the attended rather than unattended targets (accuracy) as well as a subsequent processing bias for attended objects. Using non-invasive eye tracking technology, we show that gaze following accuracy is intact in intellectually low-functioning 3-year-olds with ASD. However, analyses of the duration of first fixations at the objects in the scene revealed markedly weaker initial processing bias for attended objects in children with ASD compared to children with typical development and non-autistic children with developmental delays. Limited processing bias for the objects other people attend to may negatively affect learning opportunities in ASD. PMID:25331324

  9. Ecthyma gangrenosum following toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome in a 3-year-old boy-a survivable series of events.

    PubMed

    Gresik, Christine M; Brewster, Luke P; Abood, Gerard; Supple, Kathy G; Silver, Geoffrey M; Gamelli, Richard L; Nickoloff, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome (TENS) is a severe but rare skin reaction leading to epidermal desquamation of greater than 30% of the TBSA. It is most commonly precipitated by the administration of medication. Frequent complications of this syndrome include local wound infections, respiratory, mucocutaneous, and ocular complications. Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a rare disease characterized by a milliary seeding of the cutaneous tissue with Gram-negative bacteria; it is most commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. Here we report a 3-year-old boy who developed EG subsequent to TENS. Although he had a complicated and prolonged hospital course, he survived these series of events. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of TENS/EG in the pediatric population, and the first report of survivability following these illnesses. PMID:18388562

  10. Pattern of sensitization to common environmental allergens amongst atopic Singapore children in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Khoo, J; Shek, L P; Shek, L; Khor, E S; Wang, D Y; Lee, B W

    2001-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the sensitization pattern to a range of common allergens in young Singaporean children. A cross-sectional study involving 75 children aged below 3 years was carried out. They presented between December 1995 and April 2000 with symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, eczema, or food allergy. Their levels of allergen-specific serum IgE to a panel of foods (egg white, milk, soy protein, shrimp, wheat and peanut), pet dander, dust mites and cockroaches were measured with Pharmacia CAP System radioallergosorbent test kits. Serum IgE levels greater than 0.35 kU/l represented a positive result. Four children could not be tested with the complete panel because of insufficient serum. The prevalence of sensitization was highest for cow's milk (45.9%) followed by egg white (38.7%), dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (31.4%) and Blomia tropicalis (25.5%). Sensitization to ingested allergens was significantly more prevalent in children aged 1 year or younger than in the older children (70.4% of those below 1 year, and 50% of those aged 1-3 years; p < 0.02). Sensitization to inhaled allergens, such as dust mites, was more likely to manifest as respiratory symptoms (allergic rhinitis and asthma), while ingested allergens were associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and eczema (p < 0.001). It was concluded that infants and young children are at high risk of sensitization to common environmental substances. Allergen avoidance is therefore important even in the very young. The prevalence of sensitization to food allergens is higher compared to inhalant allergens in young children. PMID:12009071

  11. Etiologic and clinical analysis of chronic complex anal and rectal inflammation in children less than 3 years old

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanlei; Zheng, Shan; Xiao, Xianmin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the etiology and clinical diagnostic method for chronic complex anal and rectal inflammation in children less than 3 years old. Method: Seven children (5 males and 2 females; 1 year 8 months to 3 years of age at the time of physician evaluation) with chronic complex anal and rectal inflammation were enrolled between May 2008 and May 2013 at our hospital. Clinical history, results of auxiliary examinations, and empirical treatment of the children were analyzed retrospectively combined with the etiologic diagnosis. Results: Four patients were confirmed to have Crohn’s disease and one patient was confirmed to have intestinal tuberculosis; two patients were suspected to have Crohn’s disease. Anemia and low pre-albumin level were common (seven patients); serologic testing revealed four patients with elevated IgG levels and seven patients with elevated IgA levels; there were no patients with positive tuberculosis antibody titers and two patients were weakly positive for C-ANCA (one patient with Crohn’s disease and one patient intestinal tuberculosis). Colonoscopies revealed that the entire colon was affected in one patient, the left hemicolon was affected in four patients, and the sigmoid colon and rectum were affected in two patients. Two patients with Crohn’s disease and one patient with intestinal tuberculosis were diagnosed by colonoscopies in combination with histopathologic examinations. Two patients with Crohn’s disease were confirmed after empirical drug treatment, and two other patients were not definitely diagnosed. Conclusion: The possibility of Crohn’s disease or intestinal tuberculosis should be considered in the clinical diagnosis of complex chronic anal and rectal inflammation in younger children. Local surgery is sometimes unnecessary. Empirical drug treatment should be used if necessary. PMID:25550910

  12. NutricheQ Questionnaire assesses the risk of dietary imbalances in toddlers from 1 through 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Giuseppe S.; Cinelli, Giulia; Pietro, Ilaria Di; Papa, Vittoria; Spreghini, Nicola; Manco, Melania

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a nutrient-poor diet may affect children's growth, especially early in life, few tools to assess dietary imbalances in 1- to 3-year-old children have been developed. Objectives To investigate the accuracy and test–retest reliability of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in the identification of toddlers with the risk of inadequate intake of micro- and macronutrients in a sample of Italian toddlers. Design A 3-day weighed food record was performed, and results were compared with outcomes of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in 201 toddlers (training set: 1–3 years old). The accuracy of NutricheQ in the identification of categories of nutritional risk was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Test–retest of the tool was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Cronbach's alpha statistic, in a validation set of 50 toddlers. Results The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a valid tool for the identification of toddlers at risk for dietary imbalances. Significant differences in nutrient intake (p<0.005) were found among the three groups of risk identified by the questionnaire: toddlers included in the high-risk group had a lower intake of key nutrients such as iron, vitamin D and other vitamins, and fibre compared to those included in the low-risk group. NutricheQ is also reliable between administrations, as demonstrated by its test–retest reliability. ICC and Cronbach's alpha were 0.73 and 0.83, respectively, for Section 1 of NutricheQ, and 0.55 and 0.70 for Section 2. Conclusions The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a reliable and consistent tool for the assessment of possible dietary risk factors in Italian toddlers. It consistently identifies toddlers with a high probability of having poor iron and vitamin D intake, and other dietary imbalances. PMID:26689315

  13. The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Nonword Repetition and Fast Mapping in 3-Year-Olds with a History of Expressive Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Dalton, Kevin Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability on sublexical (phonological) and lexical representations in 3-year-olds who had a history of being late talkers in comparison with their peers with typical language development. Method: Ten 3-year-olds who were late talkers and 10 age-matched typically…

  14. Monosyllabic Mandarin Tone Productions by 3-Year-Olds Growing up in Taiwan and in the United States: Interjudge Reliability and Perceptual Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Puisan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The author compared monosyllabic Mandarin lexical tones produced by 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and in the United States. Method: Following the procedures in Wong, Schwartz, and Jenkins (2005), the author collected monosyllabic tone productions from 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children in Taiwan and…

  15. 18 CFR 125.3 - Schedule of records and periods of retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... UTILITIES AND LICENSEES § 125.3 Schedule of records and periods of retention. Table of Contents Corporate... disposition of amortization reserves. (a) Statements of periodic deposits with fund administrators or trustees Retain records for the most recent 3 years. (b) Statements of periodic withdrawals from fund...

  16. EERC Center for Biomass Utilization 2008-2010. Phases I-III

    SciTech Connect

    Zygarlicke, Christopher J.; Hurley, John P.; Auich, Ted R.; Folkedahl, Bruce C.; Strege, Josua R.; Patel, Nikhil M.; Swanson, Michael L.; Martin, Christopher L; Olson, Edwin S.; Oster, Benjamin G.; Stanislowski, Joshua J.; Nyberg, Carolyn M.; Wocken, Chad A.; Pansegrau, Paul D.

    2015-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) projects nonhydro renewable electric energy increases of 140% and liquid transportation biofuels growing by 32,200 barrels a day between 2012 and 2040 (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2014). This is the EIA base case scenario, and this outlook could be a low estimate depending on the many assumptions involved in making such projections, not the least of which are climate change and the resultant legislation. The climate change postulate is based on increasing levels of CO2 being introduced into the atmosphere through anthropogenic activity such as fossil fuel combustion for energy use. Renewable energy, and biomass conversion to energy in particular, is a net-zero CO2 emission generator. When biomass is converted to energy, it emits CO2; however, this CO2 is balanced in a cycle where the production of biomass removes CO2 from the atmosphere for growth and then releases it back into the atmosphere to be taken up by new growth of biomass feedstocks for energy. In comparison, fossil fuels are examples of CO2 that has been removed from the atmosphere and sequestered and which, when converted to energy, is a new addition to the atmospheric levels of CO2, which has been linked to climate change. While recent advances in technology used for extracting oil and gas from tight formations have increased the availability of fossil fuels for energy, the end game needs to focus on providing sustainable energy sources for the United States as well as the world. If, in the future, legislation is enacted that places a fee on atmospheric CO2 emissions, this may make the use of biomass for energy more economically attractive, increasing its use. Research that focuses on the future sustainability of energy production is part of the answer to bringing about game-changing technologies that can provide energy in a timely, reliable, sustainable fashion.

  17. Suicides and suicide attempts in the U.S. Military, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Bush, Nigel E; Reger, Mark A; Luxton, David D; Skopp, Nancy A; Kinn, Julie; Smolenski, Derek; Gahm, Gregory A

    2013-06-01

    The Department of Defense Suicide Event Report Program collects extensive information on suicides and suicide attempts from the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. Data are compiled on demographics, suicide event details, behavioral health treatment history, military history, and information about other potential risk factors such as psychosocial stressors that were present at the time of the event. The ultimate goal of this standardized suicide surveillance program is to assist suicide prevention in the U.S. military. Descriptive data are presented on 816 suicides and 1,514 suicide attempts reported through the program between 2008 and 2010. PMID:23330611

  18. List of New Names of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria (2008-2010)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010 the International Society of Plant Pathology Committee on the Taxonomy of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria published the Comprehensive List of Names of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, 1980-2007 to provide an authoritative register of names of plant pathogens. In this manuscript we up-date the list of na...

  19. Evaluating an Electronic Measure of Colorectal Cancer Screening at Indian Health Service Facilities, 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Redwood, Diana; Suryaprasad, Anil; Haverkamp, Donald; Wong, Charlene; Provost, Ellen; Espey, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) people, and incidence rates vary considerably among AIAN populations throughout the United States. Screening has the potential to prevent CRC deaths by detection and treatment of early disease or removal of precancerous polyps. Surveillance of CRC screening is critical to efforts to improve delivery of this preventive service, but existing CRC screening surveillance methods for AIAN are limited. The Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) CRC screening clinical care measure provides data on CRC screening among AIAN populations. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the GPRA measure for CRC screening (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value), determine reasons for CRC screening misclassification (procedures noted as screening when they were actually diagnostic exams), and to suggest opportunities for improving surveillance for CRC screening nationwide for AIAN populations. Methods Medical record reviews (paper and electronic) were compared to the GPRA-reported CRC screening status for 1,071 patients receiving care at tribal health facilities. A total of 8 tribal health facilities (2 small, 3 medium, and 3 large) participated in the study from the Pacific Coast, the Southwest, the Southern Plains, and Alaska IHS regions. Screening-eligible patients were identified using queries of the local electronic health record from January 2007 to December 2008, and medical chart reviews were completed at participating facilities from September 2008 to June 2010. Results Among 545 patients classified as screened by the GPRA measure, 305 (56%, CI: 52%-60%) had a false positive for screening as compared with medical record review. The overall sensitivity of the GPRA measure for CRC screening was 93% (CI=89%-95%) while specificity was 62% (CI: 59%-66%). The most common reasons for misclassification were for diagnostic or surveillance tests to be recorded as screening (67%), as well as medical record miscoding (18%) due to miscoding, charting errors, screenings performed outside the IHS, testing for a non-screening purpose, and categorization of patients as screened when a test had been ordered but not actually completed. Conclusions This study found that the GPRA CRC screening clinical measure overestimates the true screening rate due to the inclusion of diagnostic and surveillance exams, especially colonoscopy, as well as misclassification errors. The results of this study suggest a need to more accurately use the ICD-9 diagnostic code V76.51, which was associated with frequent coding errors. In combination with other programmatic efforts that focus on screening average- risk, asymptomatic American Indian and Alaska Native persons, improving the coding used for CRC screening may help to more accurately detect decreases in AIAN CRC incidence and mortality. PMID:26273184

  20. The dynamics of health care opinion, 2008-2010: partisanship, self-interest, and racial resentment.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Michael; Hillygus, D Sunshine

    2011-12-01

    Recent debate over the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act highlights the extent of party polarization in Washington. While the partisan divide on this issue is stark among political elites, it is less clear how the mass electorate has responded to this divisive conflict. In this article we examine individual-level dynamics in health care attitudes between 2008 and 2010. We find partisan attachments and self-interests strongly predict change in health care attitudes, with Republicans growing more opposed to universal health insurance between 2008 and 2010, and those personally worried about medical expenses less likely to abandon support. We find, however, that the effect of partisanship is moderated by self-interest, with strong Republicans significantly less likely to switch to opposition if they were personally worried about medical expenses. Finally, we find that health care policy preferences, already tinged with racial attitudes in 2008, became increasingly so by 2010. PMID:22232419

  1. Suicides and Suicide Attempts in the U.S. Military, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Nigel E.; Reger, Mark A.; Luxton, David D.; Skopp, Nancy A.; Kinn, Julie; Smolenski, Derek; Gahm, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Defense Suicide Event Report Program collects extensive information on suicides and suicide attempts from the U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine Corps, and Navy. Data are compiled on demographics, suicide event details, behavioral health treatment history, military history, and information about other potential risk factors such as…

  2. Liver lead concentrations in raptors in New Jersey, USA, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Stansley, William; Murphy, Lisa A

    2011-08-01

    Lead exposure in New Jersey raptors was assessed by analyzing liver samples from carcasses obtained from wildlife rehabilitators. Samples were collected from 221 individuals representing 13 species. Concentrations were within the range of normal background exposure in 12 species. One red-tailed hawk had a liver lead concentration consistent with clinical poisoning (7.4 μg/g wet weight), which represents an incidence of 1% (1/104) in that species and 0.5% (1/221) in the overall sample. A second red-tailed hawk had a liver lead concentration consistent with subclinical exposure (2.1 μg/g wet weight). The combined incidence of elevated exposure (subclinical exposure + clinical poisoning) was 2% (2/104) in red-tailed hawks and 1% (2/221) in the overall sample. PMID:21647842

  3. Colorado Disciplinary Practices, 2008-2010: Disciplinary Actions, Student Behaviors, Race, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfleger, Ryan; Wiley, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    The Colorado legislature has recently taken school discipline policies under review, pursuant to SB 11-133. To inform the discussion in Colorado as well as a national discussion about discipline, this report presents an analysis of the most complete set of Colorado discipline data. It adds to and reinforces existing studies, documenting some…

  4. Review of Doctoral Research on Second Language Teaching and Learning in Spain (2008-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Raquel; Miralpeix, Imma

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of doctoral theses on language learning and teaching completed in Spain between 2008 and 2010. A total of 16 theses have been identified as representative--in terms of the topics under investigation and the methodology employed--of the doctoral research undertaken in Spain. Current topics include the development of…

  5. Causes of pneumonia epizootics among bighorn sheep, western United States, 2008-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, a...

  6. Epistemology in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Published Articles, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four…

  7. Examining Foundations of Qualitative Research: A Review of Social Work Dissertations, 2008-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the treatment of epistemology and methodological rigor in qualitative social work dissertations. Template-based review was conducted on a random sample of 75 dissertations completed between 2008 and 2010. For each dissertation, we noted the presence or absence of four markers of epistemology: theory, paradigm, reflexivity, and…

  8. Trends in micro- and nanoComputed Tomography 2008-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, S. R.

    2010-09-01

    Trends in micro- and nanoComputed Tomography (CT) from January 2008 through July 2010 are the subject of this brief report which takes up where a previous report in Developments in X-ray Tomography VI (2008) concluded. First, the number of systems operating world-wide is estimated. The main focus is on what searches of three citation indices (Web of Science, Compendex and PubMed) reveal about the field of micro- and nanoCT. Given research-fielddependent and disparate terminology used by investigators, searches were on "microtomography", "microCT" and "synchrotron tomography".

  9. Scaling up early infant diagnosis of HIV in Rwanda, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Irakoze, Ange Anitha; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Agbonyitor, Mawuena; Nutt, Cameron T; Wagner, Claire M; Rukundo, Alphonse; Ahayo, Anita; Drobac, Peter; Karema, Corine; Hinda, Ruton; Leung, Lucinda; Bandara, Sachini; Chopyak, Elena; Fawzi, Mary C Smith

    2013-01-01

    More than 390,000 children are newly infected with HIV each year, only 28 per cent of whom benefit from early infant diagnosis (EID). Rwanda's Ministry of Health identified several major challenges hindering EID scale-up in care of HIV-positive infants. It found poor counseling and follow-up by caregivers of HIV-exposed infants, lack of coordination with maternal and child health-care programs, and long delays between the collection of samples and return of results to the health facility and caregiver. By increasing geographic access, integrating EID with vaccination programs, and investing in a robust mobile phone reporting system, Rwanda increased population coverage of EID from approximately 28 to 72.4 per cent (and to 90.3 per cent within the prevention of mother to child transmission program) between 2008 and 2011. Turnaround time from sample collection to receipt of results at the originating health facility was reduced from 144 to 20 days. Rwanda rapidly scaled up and improved its EID program, but challenges persist for linking infected infants to care. PMID:23191941

  10. Geographic distribution of soybean aphid biotypes in USA and Canada during 2008 - 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a native pest of soybean in eastern Asia and was detected on soybeans in North America in 2000. In 2004, the soybean variety ‘“Dowling”’ was described to be resistant to soybean aphids with the Rag1 gene for resistance. In 2006, a virulent biotype of s...

  11. National Library of Medicine Disaster Information Management Research Center: Establishment and growth, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Love, Cynthia B; Arnesen, Stacey J; Phillips, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) established the Disaster Information Management Research Center (DIMRC). Prior to 2008, NLM had a long history of involvement in providing health information for disaster management. Aware of this legacy and moved by the catastrophic aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the NLM long range plan (Charting a Course for the 21st Century: NLM's Long Range Plan 2006-2016) called for creation of a center to show "a strong commitment to disaster remediation and to provide a platform for demonstrating how libraries and librarians can be part of the solution to this national problem". NLM was urged to "ensure continuous access to health information and effective use of libraries and librarians when disasters occur". In response to this charge, NLM has undertaken substantial efforts to ensure that medical libraries have plans for the continuity of their operations, librarians are trained to understand their roles in preparedness and response, online disaster health information resources are available for many audiences and in multiple formats, and research is conducted on tools to enhance the exchange of critical information during and following disasters. This paper documents the history, goals, initiatives, accomplishments and future plans of the Center. PMID:25324584

  12. Progression of cardiovascular risk factors in black Africans: 3 year follow up of the SABPA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; von Känel, Roland; Reimann, Manja; Malan, Nico T.; Schutte, Alta E.; Huisman, Hugo W.; Malan, Leone

    2015-01-01

    Recent work identified a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among urban black South Africans. The aim was to track the progression of CVD risk factors in a multi-ethnic sample of South Africans. Participants were 173 black (aged 47.5 ± 7.8 yrs) and 186 white teachers (aged 49.6 ± 9.9 yrs) that were examined at baseline and 3 years follow-up. Blacks demonstrated a substantially higher prevalence of composite CVD burden (defined as history of physician diagnosed heart disease, use of anti-hypertensives, anti-diabetic, or statin medications at either time point) compared to whites (49.1 vs. 32.0%, p = 0.012) respectively. After controlling for baseline, the black participants demonstrated greater increases in 24 h systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and waist circumference in comparison with whites. In summary, an adverse progression of CVD risk factors was observed in the whole sample, although to a larger degree in black participants. Aggressive treatment strategies for controlling risk factors in black Africans are needed to reduce the increasing burden of CVD in South Africa. PMID:25437890

  13. The First Year Inventory: a longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-old to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Baranek, Grace T; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R; Crais, Elizabeth R

    2013-09-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the First Year Inventory when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool version and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at risk for autism spectrum disorder based on liberal cut points on the First Year Inventory, Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool, and/or Developmental Concerns Questionnaire were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder from the sample of 699. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cutoffs had autism spectrum disorder and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age 3. These results suggest that the First Year Inventory is a promising tool for identifying 12-month-old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. PMID:22781058

  14. Testing the predictive power of cognitive atypicalities in autistic children: evidence from a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2013-08-01

    This follow-up study investigated the predictive power of early cognitive atypicalities. Specifically, it examined whether early individual differences in specific cognitive skills, including theory of mind, executive function, and central coherence, could uniquely account for variation in autistic children's behaviors-social communication, repetitive behaviors, and interests and insistence on sameness-at follow-up. Thirty-seven cognitively able children with an autism spectrum condition were assessed on tests tapping verbal and nonverbal ability, theory of mind (false-belief prediction), executive function (planning ability, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control), and central coherence (local processing) at intake and their behavioral functioning (social communication, repetitive behaviors and interests, insistence on sameness) 3 years later. Individual differences in early executive but not theory of mind skills predicted variation in children's social communication. Individual differences in children's early executive function also predicted the degree of repetitive behaviors and interests at follow-up. There were no predictive relationships between early central coherence and children's insistence on sameness. These findings challenge the notion that distinct cognitive atypicalities map on to specific behavioral features of autism. Instead, early variation in executive function plays a key role in helping to shape autistic children's emerging behaviors, including their social communication and repetitive behaviors and interests. PMID:23495146

  15. Ocular biometric parameters among 3-year-old Chinese children: testability, distribution and association with anthropometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dan; Chen, Xuejuan; Gong, Qi; Yuan, Chaoqun; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Zhu, Hui; Fu, Zhujun; Yu, Rongbin; Liu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This survey was conducted to determine the testability, distribution and associations of ocular biometric parameters in Chinese preschool children. Ocular biometric examinations, including the axial length (AL) and corneal radius of curvature (CR), were conducted on 1,688 3-year-old subjects by using an IOLMaster in August 2015. Anthropometric parameters, including height and weight, were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The testability was 93.7% for the AL and 78.6% for the CR overall, and both measures improved with age. Girls performed slightly better in AL measurements (P = 0.08), and the difference in CR was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The AL distribution was normal in girls (P = 0.12), whereas it was not in boys (P < 0.05). For CR1, all subgroups presented normal distributions (P = 0.16 for boys; P = 0.20 for girls), but the distribution varied when the subgroups were combined (P < 0.05). CR2 presented a normal distribution (P = 0.11), whereas the AL/CR ratio was abnormal (P < 0.001). Boys exhibited a significantly longer AL, a greater CR and a greater AL/CR ratio than girls (all P < 0.001). PMID:27384307

  16. Airway accidents in critical care unit: A 3-year retrospective study in a Public Teaching Hospital of Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Sugata; Singh, Shipti Shradha; Chaudhuri, Arunima; Bhattacharya, Dipasri; Choudhury, Sourav Das

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although tracheal tubes are essential devices to control and protect airway in a critical care unit (CCU), they are not free from complications. Aims: To document the incidence and nature of airway accidents in the CCU of a government teaching hospital in Eastern India. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all airway accidents in a 5-bedded (medical and surgical) CCU. The number, types, timing, and severity of airway accidents were analyzed. Results: The total accident rate was 19 in 233 intubated and/or tracheostomized patients over 1657 tube days (TDs) during 3 years. Fourteen occurred in 232 endotracheally intubated patients over 1075 endotracheal tube (ETT) days, and five occurred in 44 tracheostomized patients over 580 tracheostomy TDs. Fifteen accidents were due to blocked tubes. Rest four were unplanned extubations (UEs), all being accidental extubations. All blockages occurred during night shifts and all UEs during day shifts. Five accidents were mild, the rest moderate. No major accident led to cardiorespiratory arrest or death. All blockages occurred after 7th day of intubation. The outcome of accidents were more favorable in tracheostomy group compared to ETT group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of airway accidents was 8.2 accidents per 100 patients. Blockages were the most common accidents followed by UEs. Ten out of the 15 blockages and all 4 UEs were in endotracheally intubated patients. Tracheostomized patients had 5 blockages and no UEs. PMID:27076709

  17. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis.We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72  hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day.Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment. PMID:25906092

  18. Ocular biometric parameters among 3-year-old Chinese children: testability, distribution and association with anthropometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan; Chen, Xuejuan; Gong, Qi; Yuan, Chaoqun; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Zhu, Hui; Fu, Zhujun; Yu, Rongbin; Liu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This survey was conducted to determine the testability, distribution and associations of ocular biometric parameters in Chinese preschool children. Ocular biometric examinations, including the axial length (AL) and corneal radius of curvature (CR), were conducted on 1,688 3-year-old subjects by using an IOLMaster in August 2015. Anthropometric parameters, including height and weight, were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The testability was 93.7% for the AL and 78.6% for the CR overall, and both measures improved with age. Girls performed slightly better in AL measurements (P = 0.08), and the difference in CR was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The AL distribution was normal in girls (P = 0.12), whereas it was not in boys (P < 0.05). For CR1, all subgroups presented normal distributions (P = 0.16 for boys; P = 0.20 for girls), but the distribution varied when the subgroups were combined (P < 0.05). CR2 presented a normal distribution (P = 0.11), whereas the AL/CR ratio was abnormal (P < 0.001). Boys exhibited a significantly longer AL, a greater CR and a greater AL/CR ratio than girls (all P < 0.001). PMID:27384307

  19. Revascularization of an Immature Tooth with Apical Periodontitis Using Calcium Hydroxide: A 3-year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mauro Henrique Chagas; Campos, Celso Neiva; Coelho, Marcelo Santos

    2015-01-01

    Root canal treatment of teeth presenting immature development is a great challenge for both the patient and the professional. The thinness of the root canal walls of immature teeth may lead to root fracture and thus the outcomes of such treatments are uncertain. Revascularization is based on root canal decontamination followed by the induction of blood migration from the periapical tissues and the development of new vascular tissue in the canal space. The principle of disinfection in regenerative endodontics is that it should be achieved with minimum root canal instrumentation; an intracanal medication is used to inhibit bacterial growth and appropriate sealing of the coronal portion is performed. The American Association of Endodontists (AAE) considerations for regenerative endodontics include calcium hydroxide as an alternative intracanal dressing. This material has also been claimed to diminish the possibility of dental staining during revascularization procedures. The relatively new treatment protocol has been widely reported in the last few years; however it should be performed only when other alternatives are not reasonable. This case report presents a 3-year follow-up of a case of revascularization of a maxillary central incisor using calcium hydroxide as a root canal disinfection dressing. PMID:26962377

  20. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively. PMID:25289014

  1. The 3-year evolution of a preschool physical activity intervention through a collaborative partnership between research interventionists and preschool teachers

    PubMed Central

    Howie, E. K.; Brewer, A.; Brown, W. H.; Pfeiffer, K. A.; Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that preschoolers spend the majority of their time in sedentary activities, few physical activity interventions have focused on preschool-age children. Health promotion interventions that can be integrated into the daily routines of a school or other setting are more likely to be implemented. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments employed a flexible approach to increasing physical activity opportunities in preschools’ daily schedules through recess, indoor physical activity and physical activity integrated into academic lessons. Eight preschools were randomly assigned to receive the study’s physical activity intervention. Teachers in these schools partnered with university-based interventionists across 3 years to design and implement a flexible and adaptive intervention. The intervention approach included trainings and workshops, site visits and feedback from intervention personnel, newsletters, and physical activity equipment and materials. Teachers reported a high acceptability of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschools, including (i) a description of the intervention components, (ii) an explanation of the intervention process and approach, and (iii) a report of teachers’ perceptions of barriers to implementation. PMID:24659421

  2. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-09-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and KYC 3584 were selected. The listed four myxobacteria were cultured in CSG/1 liquid media, and harvested filtrates were sprayed on the infected fruits. KYC 3262 was selected from the studies of attached fruit in a greenhouse study. KYC 3262 filtrate was applied for 3 years (from 2011 to 2013) in a field study in Asan, Republic of Korea. Control values of the KYC 3262 in the field were 31%, 89%, and 82% in 2011, 2012, and 2013, whereas values of the fungicide spray treatment were 19%, 97%, and 91%, respectively. Yields (kg/20 plants) of the KYC 3262 were 2.66 kg and 18.6 kg in 2011 and 2013, respectively, and those of the fungicide treatment were 2.0 kg and 20.2 kg, in 2011 and 2013, respectively. PMID:25289014

  3. The First Year Inventory: A longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-olds to 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Brown, L. M.; Baranek, G. T.; Reznick, J. S.; Watson, L. R.; Crais, E. R.

    2012-01-01

    The First Year Inventory (FYI) is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FYI taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the FYI when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale – Preschool version (SRS-P) and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire (DCQ) to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at-risk for ASD based on liberal cut points on the FYI, SRS-P, and/or DCQ were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of ASD from the sample of 699. ROC analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cut-offs had ASD and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age three. These results suggest that the FYI is a promising tool for identifying 12-month old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of ASD. PMID:22781058

  4. Natural experience modulates the processing of older adult faces in young adults and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Just like other face dimensions, age influences the way faces are processed by adults as well as by children. However, it remains unclear under what conditions exactly such influence occurs at both ages, in that there is some mixed evidence concerning the presence of a systematic processing advantage for peer faces (own-age bias) across the lifespan. Inconsistency in the results may stem from the fact that the individual's face representation adapts to represent the most predominant age traits of the faces present in the environment, which is reflective of the individual's specific living conditions and social experience. In the current study we investigated the processing of younger and older adult faces in two groups of adults (Experiment 1) and two groups of 3-year-old children (Experiment 2) who accumulated different amounts of experience with elderly people. Contact with elderly adults influenced the extent to which both adult and child participants showed greater discrimination abilities and stronger sensitivity to configural/featural cues in younger versus older adult faces, as measured by the size of the inversion effect. In children, the size of the inversion effect for older adult faces was also significantly correlated with the amount of contact with elderly people. These results show that, in both adults and children, visual experience with older adult faces can tune perceptual processing strategies to the point of abolishing the discrimination disadvantage that participants typically manifest for those faces in comparison to younger adult faces. PMID:23460867

  5. Predictive Factors for Subjective Improvement in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Patients with Nonsurgical Treatment: A 3-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsudaira, Ko; Hara, Nobuhiro; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kunogi, Junichi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Atsushi, Seichi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the predictive factors for subjective improvement with nonsurgical treatment in consecutive patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Materials and Methods Patients with LSS were enrolled from 17 medical centres in Japan. We followed up 274 patients (151 men; mean age, 71 ± 7.4 years) for 3 years. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the predictive factors for subjective symptom improvement with nonsurgical treatment. Results In 30% of patients, conservative treatment led to a subjective improvement in the symptoms; in 70% of patients, the symptoms remained unchanged, worsened, or required surgical treatment. The multivariable analysis of predictive factors for subjective improvement with nonsurgical treatment showed that the absence of cauda equina symptoms (only radicular symptoms) had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50–7.31); absence of degenerative spondylolisthesis/scoliosis had an OR of 2.53 (95% CI: 1.13–5.65); <1-year duration of illness had an OR of 3.81 (95% CI: 1.46–9.98); and hypertension had an OR of 2.09 (95% CI: 0.92–4.78). Conclusions The predictive factors for subjective symptom improvement with nonsurgical treatment in LSS patients were the presence of only radicular symptoms, absence of degenerative spondylolisthesis/scoliosis, and an illness duration of <1 year. PMID:26863214

  6. The 3-year evolution of a preschool physical activity intervention through a collaborative partnership between research interventionists and preschool teachers.

    PubMed

    Howie, E K; Brewer, A; Brown, W H; Pfeiffer, K A; Saunders, R P; Pate, R R

    2014-06-01

    Despite evidence that preschoolers spend the majority of their time in sedentary activities, few physical activity interventions have focused on preschool-age children. Health promotion interventions that can be integrated into the daily routines of a school or other setting are more likely to be implemented. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments employed a flexible approach to increasing physical activity opportunities in preschools' daily schedules through recess, indoor physical activity and physical activity integrated into academic lessons. Eight preschools were randomly assigned to receive the study's physical activity intervention. Teachers in these schools partnered with university-based interventionists across 3 years to design and implement a flexible and adaptive intervention. The intervention approach included trainings and workshops, site visits and feedback from intervention personnel, newsletters, and physical activity equipment and materials. Teachers reported a high acceptability of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschools, including (i) a description of the intervention components, (ii) an explanation of the intervention process and approach, and (iii) a report of teachers' perceptions of barriers to implementation. PMID:24659421

  7. Rate of deaths due to child abuse and neglect in children 0-3 years of age in Germany.

    PubMed

    Banaschak, Sibylle; Janßen, Katharina; Schulte, Babette; Rothschild, Markus A

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the issue of (fatal) child abuse and neglect, largely due to the media attention garnered by some headline-grabbing cases. If media statements are to be believed, such cases may be an increasing phenomenon. With these published accounts in mind, publicly available statistics should be analysed with respect to the question of whether reliable statements can be formulated based on these figures. It is hypothesised that certain data, e.g., the Innocenti report published by UNICEF in 2003, may be based on unreliable data sources. For this reason, the generation of such data, and the reliability of the data itself, should also be discussed. Our focus was on publicly available German mortality and police crime statistics (Polizeiliche Kriminalstatistik). These data were classified with respect to child age, data origin, and cause of death (murder, culpable homicide, etc.). In our opinion, the available data could not be considered in formulating reliable scientific statements about fatal child abuse and neglect, given the lack of detail and the flawed nature of the basic data. Increasing the number of autopsies of children 0-3 years of age should be considered as a means to ensure the capture of valid, practical, and reliable data. This could bring about some enlightenment and assist in the development of preemptive strategies to decrease the incidence of (fatal) child abuse and neglect. PMID:25631691

  8. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  9. A 3-year study on occurrence of emerging contaminants in an urban stream of São Paulo State of Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campanha, Mariele B; Awan, Almas Taj; de Sousa, Diana N R; Grosseli, Guilherme M; Mozeto, Antonio A; Fadini, Pedro S

    2015-05-01

    This manuscript reports a 3-year study on occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and triclosan in surface waters of a central urban region of São Paulo State of Southeast Brazil (the Monjolinho River in São Carlos). Water samples collected once at every 2 months were pre-concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The most frequently detected compounds in higher concentrations were caffeine, paracetamol, and atenolol (maximum concentrations 129,585, 30,421, and 8199 ng L(-1), respectively), while hormones estrone and 17-β-estradiol were the least detected, in levels up to 14.8 ng L(-1). There was an increasing trend in concentrations of most of the compounds along the river course, especially downstream of the river where there is discharge of both wastewater treatment plant effluent and raw sewage from a particular region of São Carlos city. Concentrations of contaminants were higher during dry periods as a result of decline in the water levels. Decrease in concentrations near the river mouth occurred to different extents for each compound. It was high for caffeine and atenolol, but was very low for carbamazepine and diclofenac. The present study reports the first data about the occurrence of some major emerging contaminants in the Monjolinho River. Besides its regional significance, this work may assist in composing a dataset for water contamination diagnosis focusing on emerging contaminants, both in the Brazilian as well as in the Global studies related to aquatic ecosystems. Such datasets can be helpful for making future public policies on water quality, since these compounds are not yet legally regulated. PMID:25516246

  10. Sex differences in the quality of life of patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention after a 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Polańska, Beata; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Dudek, Krzysztof; Łoboz-Grudzień, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to analyze the dynamics of quality of life (QoL) changes after 36 months from the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) depending on sex and identify baseline predictors of the follow-up QoL of patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and subjected to PCI. Methods and results The study included 137 patients, females (n=67) and males (n=70), with ACS who underwent PCI. The QoL was assessed using the MacNew Heart Disease Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire. The group of females scored lower in all the domains of the MacNew Heart Disease Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire in the initial measurement (B1), in the measurement after 6 months (B2), and in the long-term follow-up measurement (36 months – B3). Despite the fact that both groups achieved improved QoL, its values were higher in the males. The average growth rate of the QoL score in the period from the sixth month to 36th month was higher in females than in males. In the univariate and multivariate analyses, significant independent predictors with a negative influence on the long-term QoL score included female sex (ρ=−0.190, β=−0.21), age >60 years (ρ=−0.255, β=−0.186), and diabetes (ρ=−0.216, β=−0.216). Conclusion In a 36-month follow-up of ACS patients treated with PCI, there were no statistically significant differences in QoL between sexes. In the entire cohort, there was improvement in QoL, which was higher in the case of the females studied. For the entire group, significant independent determinants of lower QoL 3 years after ACS included female sex, age >60 years, and diabetes. PMID:27499616

  11. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  12. Younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia in remission for ≥3 years have a high likelihood of cure: the ECOG experience in over 1200 patients

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Justin M.; Wang, Xin Victoria; Litzow, Mark R.; Luger, Selina M.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Cassileth, Peter A.; Fernandez, Hugo F.; Douer, Dan; Zickl, Lynette; Paietta, Elisabeth; Rowe, Jacob M.; Tallman, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    We examined 1229 younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia who achieved CR1 on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trials. We defined late relapse as occurring after ≥3 years of CR1. With median follow-up of 11.3 years, there were 14 late relapses (1.1% of CR1 patients; 3.3% of 3-year CR1 patients). Eight achieved second CR and median overall survival after late relapse was 3.2 years. Most patients tested (9/11) had a normal karyotype at diagnosis; none had new cytogenetic abnormalities at relapse. Late relapse is rare and nearly all 3-year CR1 patients are cured. If late relapse occurs, outcomes are relatively favorable. PMID:24986381

  13. Stress Hyperglycaemia in Hospitalised Patients and Their 3-Year Risk of Diabetes: A Scottish Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, David A.; Hughes, Katherine A.; Lone, Nazir; Mills, Nicholas L.; Sattar, Naveed; McKnight, John; Wild, Sarah H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hyperglycaemia during hospital admission is common in patients who are not known to have diabetes and is associated with adverse outcomes. The risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes, however, is not known. We linked a national database of hospital admissions with a national register of diabetes to describe the association between admission glucose and the risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes. Methods and Findings In a retrospective cohort study, patients aged 30 years or older with an emergency admission to hospital between 2004 and 2008 were included. Prevalent and incident diabetes were identified through the Scottish Care Information (SCI)-Diabetes Collaboration national registry. Patients diagnosed prior to or up to 30 days after hospitalisation were defined as prevalent diabetes and were excluded. The predicted risk of developing incident type 2 diabetes during the 3 years following hospital discharge by admission glucose, age, and sex was obtained from logistic regression models. We performed separate analyses for patients aged 40 and older, and patients aged 30 to 39 years. Glucose was measured in 86,634 (71.0%) patients aged 40 and older on admission to hospital. The 3-year risk of developing type 2 diabetes was 2.3% (1,952/86,512) overall, was <1% for a glucose ≤5 mmol/l, and increased to approximately 15% at 15 mmol/l. The risks at 7 mmol/l and 11.1 mmol/l were 2.6% (95% CI 2.5–2.7) and 9.9% (95% CI 9.2–10.6), respectively, with one in four (21,828/86,512) and one in 40 (1,798/86,512) patients having glucose levels above each of these cut-points. For patients aged 30–39, the risks at 7 mmol/l and 11.1 mmol/l were 1.0% (95% CI 0.8–1.3) and 7.8% (95% CI 5.7–10.7), respectively, with one in eight (1,588/11,875) and one in 100 (120/11,875) having glucose levels above each of these cut-points. The risk of diabetes was also associated with age, sex, and socio-economic deprivation, but not with specialty (medical versus

  14. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  15. Florida Initiative for Quality Cancer Care: Improvements on Colorectal Cancer Quality of Care Indicators during a 3-Year Interval

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Erin M; Jacobsen, Paul B; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Malafa, Mokenge; Fulp, William; Fletcher, Michelle; Smith, Jesusa Corazon R; Brown, Richard; Levine, Richard; Cartwright, Thomas; Abesada-Terk, Guillermo; Kim, George; Alemany, Carlos; Faig, Douglas; Sharp, Philip; Markham, Merry-Jennifer; Shibata, David

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The quality of cancer care has become a national priority; however, there are few ongoing efforts to assist medical oncology practices in identifying areas for improvement. The Florida Initiative for Quality Cancer Care is a consortium of 11 medical oncology practices that evaluates the quality of cancer care across Florida. Within this practice-based system of self-assessment, we determined adherence to colorectal cancer quality of care indicators (QCIs) in 2006, disseminated results to each practice and reassessed adherence in 2009. The current report focuses on evaluating the direction and magnitude of change in adherence to QCIs for colorectal cancer patients between the 2 assessments. STUDY DESIGN Medical records were reviewed for all colorectal cancer patients seen by a medical oncologist in 2006 (n = 489) and 2009 (n = 511) at 10 participating practices. Thirty-five indicators were evaluated individually and changes in QCI adherence over time and by site were examined. RESULTS Significant improvements were noted from 2006 to 2009, with large gains in surgical/pathological QCIs (eg, documenting rectal radial margin status, lymphovascular invasion, and the review of ≥12 lymph nodes) and medical oncology QCIs (documenting planned treatment regimen and providing recommended neoadjuvant regimens). Documentation of perineural invasion and radial margins significantly improved; however, adherence remained low (47% and 71%, respectively). There was significant variability in adherence for some QCIs across institutions at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The Florida Initiative for Quality Cancer Care practices conducted self-directed quality-improvement efforts during a 3-year interval and overall adherence to QCIs improved. However, adherence remained low for several indicators, suggesting that organized improvement efforts might be needed for QCIs that remained consistently low over time. Findings demonstrate how efforts such as the Florida Initiative for

  16. Aggregate exposure approaches for parabens in personal care products: a case assessment for children between 0 and 3 years old.

    PubMed

    Gosens, Ilse; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; Ter Burg, Wouter; de Heer, Cees; Schuur, A Gerlienke

    2014-01-01

    In the risk assessment of chemical substances, aggregation of exposure to a substance from different sources via different pathways is not common practice. Focusing the exposure assessment on a substance from a single source can lead to a significant underestimation of the risk. To gain more insight on how to perform an aggregate exposure assessment, we applied a deterministic (tier 1) and a person-oriented probabilistic approach (tier 2) for exposure to the four most common parabens through personal care products in children between 0 and 3 years old. Following a deterministic approach, a worst-case exposure estimate is calculated for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. As an illustration for risk assessment, Margins of Exposure (MoE) are calculated. These are 991 and 4966 for methyl- and ethylparaben, and 8 and 10 for propyl- and butylparaben, respectively. In tier 2, more detailed information on product use has been obtained from a small survey on product use of consumers. A probabilistic exposure assessment is performed to estimate the variability and uncertainty of exposure in a population. Results show that the internal exposure for each paraben is below the level determined in tier 1. However, for propyl- and butylparaben, the percentile of the population with an exposure probability above the assumed "safe" MoE of 100, is 13% and 7%, respectively. In conclusion, a tier 1 approach can be performed using simple equations and default point estimates, and serves as a starting point for exposure and risk assessment. If refinement is warranted, the more data demanding person-oriented probabilistic approach should be used. This probabilistic approach results in a more realistic exposure estimate, including the uncertainty, and allows determining the main drivers of exposure. Furthermore, it allows to estimate the percentage of the population for which the exposure is likely to be above a specific value. PMID:23801276

  17. Effects of remifentanil on the sphincter of Oddi in a 3-year-old child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sato, Makoto; Kikuchi, Chika; Sasakawa, Tomoki; Kunisawa, Takayuki

    2016-08-01

    Opioids cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Remifentanil is metabolized enzymatically throughout the body. Its context-sensitive half-time is 3 to 4minutes. The effect of remifentanil on the sphincter of Oddi is unknown, especially in children. We recently encountered a patient in whom the administration of remifentanil caused spasm of the sphincter of Oddi, which resolved rapidly after discontinuation of remifentanil. A 3-year-old girl weighing 11.3kg was scheduled to undergo common bile duct excision with ductoplasty. Her diagnosis was congenital biliary dilatation. In the operating room, after achieving the initial induction through sevoflurane (5%) and intravenous rocuronium (10mg), she was intubated and administered a continuous paravertebral block by levobupivacaine (25mg/10mL +2.5mg/h). General anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane (2%), remifentanil (0.5 μg kg(-1) min(-1)), and oxygen (fractional inspired oxygen tension, 0.33). The first intraoperative cholangiogram obtained via the cystic duct tube showed obstruction at the terminal end of the common bile duct. We injected scopolamine butylbromide (5mg, intravenous) to relax the sphincter of Oddi. However, the next cholangiogram obtained 3minutes later still showed an obstruction. We speculated that the obstruction may have been caused by remifentanil-induced spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Therefore, we stopped administering remifentanil; 2minutes later, we achieved satisfactory passage of the contrast material to the duodenum. The predicted plasma concentrations of remifentanil at the time of stopping its administration and at the time of disobliteration were 6.38and 2.55ng/mL, respectively. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. In patients who have spasms of the sphincter of Oddi during the administration of remifentanil, the resultant obstruction can be treated effectively by reducing the infusion rate of remifentanil. PMID:27290986

  18. Retrospective Analysis on the Effects of House Dust Mite Specific Immunotherapy for More Than 3 Years in Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungsoo; Lee, Hemin; Noh, Seongmin; Bae, Byung Gi; Shin, Jung U; Park, Chang Ook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In extrinsic atopic dermatitis (AD), house dust mites (HDM) play a role in eliciting or aggravating allergic lesions. The nature of skin inflammation in AD has raised a growing interest in allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT). Thus, we assessed clinical improvement and laboratory parameters for evaluation of the benefit of long-term SIT. Materials and Methods A total of 217 AD patients who were treated with SIT for at least 3 years were retrospectively assessed, by using their investigator global assessment, pruritus scores, loss of sleep (LOS), total serum IgE, and eosinophil counts collected. Patients were additionally classified into subgroups according to age, initial AD severity and mono- or multi-sensitization to include different individual factors in the evaluation of SIT efficacy. Lastly, we compared laboratory data of good responders to SIT with that of poor responders to SIT. Results Improvement after SIT therapy was observed in 192 out of 217 patients (88.4%). Among these patients, 138 (63.5%) achieved excellent, near-complete or complete clinical remission. Significant reduction of pruritus, LOS, and the mean value of total serum IgE were observed (p<0.01). Better outcome was found in patients younger than 12 years of age (p=0.024). Patients with moderate to severe AD showed better treatment outcomes (p=0.036). Patients sensitized only to HDM had the better response to treatment, but SIT was also effective in multi-sensitized groups (p=1.051). No significant differences in baseline laboratory results were observed between good and poor responders (p>0.05). Conclusion We emphasize the usefulness of long-term HDM SIT as a disease-modifying therapy for AD. PMID:26847292

  19. Objective Assessment of Changes in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Pre-through 3-Years Post- Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Bond, Dale S; Belle, Steven H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Patterson, Emma J; Mitchell, James E; Inabnet, William B; Dakin, George F; Flum, David R; Cook, Brian; Wolfe, Bruce M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate change in sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) over three years following bariatric surgery. Methods A subset of participants in an observational study (n=473 of 2458; 79% female, median body mass index 45kg/m2) wore an activity monitor pre-surgery and at 1–3 annual post-surgery assessments. Results Over the first year, on average, sedentary time decreased from 573 (95%CI 563–582) to 545 (95%CI 534–555) min/d and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) increased from 77 (95%CI: 71–84) to 106 (95%CI: 98–116) min/wk, or 7 (95%CI: 5–10) to 24 (95%CI: 18–29) min/wk in MVPA bouts ≥10 minutes. There were no changes in these parameters from years 1 to 3 (P for all>.05). The percentage of participants achieving ≥150 min/wk of bout-related MVPA was not different at year 3 [6.5% (95%CI: 3.1–12.7)] vs. pre-surgery [3.4% (95%CI: 1.8–5.0); p=.45]. Most participants followed SB and PA trajectories that paralleled mean change and were consistent with their pre-surgery position in relation to the group. Conclusions On average, bariatric surgical patients make small reductions in SB and increases in PA during the first post-surgery year, which are maintained through 3 years. Still, post-surgery PA levels fall short of PA guidelines for general health or weight control. PMID:26010326

  20. Regional Mapping and Resource Assessment of Shallow Gas Hydrates of Japan Sea - METI Launched 3 Years Project in 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, R.

    2014-12-01

    Agency of Natural Resources and Energy of METI launched a 3 years shallow gas hydrate exploration project in 2013 to make a precise resource assessment of shallow gas hydrates in the eastern margin of Japan Sea and around Hokkaido. Shallow gas hydrates of Japan Sea occur in fine-grained muddy sediments of shallow subsurface of mounds and gas chimneys in the form of massive nodular to platy accumulation. Gas hydrate bearing mounds are often associated with active methane seeps, bacterial mats and carbonate concretions and pavements. Gases of gas hydrates are derived either from deep thermogenic, shallow microbial or from the mixed gases, contrasting with totally microbial deep-seated stratigraphically controlled hydrates. Shallow gas hydrates in Japan Sea have not been considered as energy resource due to its limited distribution in narrow Joetsu basin. However recently academic research surveys have demonstrated regional distribution of gas chimney and hydrate mound in a number of sedimentary basins along the eastern margin of Japan Sea. Regional mapping of gas chimney and hydrate mound by means of MBES and SBP surveys have confirmed that more than 200 gas chimneys exist in 100 km x 100 km area. ROV dives have identified dense accumulation of hydrates on the wall of half collapsed hydrate mound down to 30 mbsf. Sequential LWD and shallow coring campaign in the Summer of 2014, R/V Hakurei, which is equipped with Fugro Seacore R140 drilling rig, drilled through hydrate mounds and gas chimneys down to the BGHS (base of gas hydrate stability) level and successfully recovered massive gas hydrates bearing sediments from several horizons.

  1. Observational prospective study of viral infections in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a 3-year GETMON experience.

    PubMed

    Verdeguer, A; de Heredia, C D; González, M; Martínez, A M; Fernández-Navarro, J M; Pérez-Hurtado, J M; Badell, I; Gómez, P; González, M E; Muñoz, A; Díaz, M A

    2011-01-01

    We studied surveillance, incidence and outcome of viral infections in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the main pediatric transplant units in Spain. We prospectively collected data from first year post-HCT in every consecutive allogeneic HCT performed during 3 years (N = 215): first HCT = 188 and second HCT = 27; median age = 6.6 years (0.1-20.7). Most patients had acute leukemia (N = 137) and 135 recipients (63%) were CMV seropositive. A total of 46 patients underwent cord blood transplant, 133 patients underwent HCT from alternative donors (62%) and 101 patients received anti-thymocyte globulin. Observational time was completed in 137 patients, whereas the remaining 78 died after a median survival time of 99 days (3-352). CMV was monitored in all patients; adenovirus (ADV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) were monitored in 101 and 33 patients, respectively. We found 145 viral infections in 103 patients: CMV (n = 42), ADV (n = 32), HHV-6 (n = 7), polyomavirus (n = 20), EBV (n = 6), VZV (n=17) and others (n = 8). CMV infection was significantly higher in seropositive patients (25 vs 7%) (P = 0.02). Extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was significantly associated with an increased rate of viral infections (12 of 16 patients with cGVHD had infections vs 91 of 199 without GVHD) (P = 0.035). In total, 10 patients (4.6%) died of viral infections (CMV = 5, ADV = 3, respiratory = 2). We found a high incidence of viral infection, but mortality was low. PMID:20228849

  2. Contribution of dysregulated serum magnesium to mortality in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a 3-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Noriaki; Akizawa, Tadao; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    Background The extent of contribution of disturbed magnesium balance to mortality remains unclear among hemodialysis patients. Methods This was a cohort study involving 3276 patients on maintenance hemodialysis at 86 facilities in Japan from 2008 to 2010 who had secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Baseline serum magnesium (sMg) values were categorized into quintiles (≤2.3, >2.3–2.5, >2.5–2.7, >2.7–3.0 and >3.0 mg/dL), and the middle quintile was set as the reference. Outcome was all-cause death. Independent contribution to all-cause death was assessed via Cox regression to generate population-attributable fractions (PAFs). Results A total of 2165 patients from 68 facilities were analyzed. The lowest quintile of sMg was positively associated with lower serum potassium and albumin levels, higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and prevalence of atrial fibrillation and cerebrovascular disease than the other quintiles. The highest sMg quintile was positively associated with higher potassium levels, and negatively associated with lower serum albumin levels and higher intact parathyroid hormone and CRP levels and prevalence of cerebrovascular disease than the other quintiles. During a median follow-up of 3 years, the lowest and the second lowest quintiles of sMg were associated with all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.737, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.200–2.512 and HR 1.675, 95% CI 1.254–2.238, respectively). Point estimates of adjusted HRs of the highest and the second highest sMg quintiles were higher than those of the middle quintile for all-cause death. Adjusted PAFs of lower sMg and of higher and lower sMg for all-cause death were 24.0% (95% CI 13.0–35.0%) and 30.7% (95% CI 14.5–46.8%), respectively. Conclusion In hemodialysis patients with SHPT, dysregulated sMg is an important contributor to all-cause death. Further studies are warranted to examine whether or not correction of sMg improves survival. PMID:26613035

  3. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h−1 (0.375 to 0.453 h−1), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens. PMID:27067333

  4. Population Pharmacokinetics Analysis To Inform Efavirenz Dosing Recommendations in Pediatric HIV Patients Aged 3 Months to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Man; Chapel, Sunny; Sevinsky, Heather; Savant, Ishani; Cirincione, Brenda; Bertz, Richard; Roy, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor approved worldwide for the treatment of HIV in adults and children over 3 years of age or weighing over 10 kg. Only recently EFV was approved in children over 3 months and weighing at least 3.5 kg in the United States and the European Union. The objective of this analysis was to support the selection of an appropriate dose for this younger pediatric population and to explore the impact of CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms on EFV systemic exposures. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model was developed using data from three studies in HIV-1-infected pediatric subjects (n = 168) and one study in healthy adults (n = 24). The EFV concentration-time profile was best described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. Body weight was identified as a significant predictor of efavirenz apparent clearance (CL), oral central volume of distribution (VC), and absorption rate constant (Ka). The typical values of efavirenz apparent CL, VC, oral peripheral volume of distribution (VP), and Ka for a reference pediatric patient were 4.8 liters/h (4.5 to 5.1 liters/h), 84.9 liters (76.8 to 93.0 liters), 287 liters (252.6 to 321.4 liters), and 0.414 h(-1) (0.375 to 0.453 h(-1)), respectively. The final model was used to simulate steady-state efavirenz concentrations in pediatric patients weighing <10 kg to identify EFV doses that produce comparable exposure to adult and pediatric patients weighing ≥10 kg. Results suggest that administration of EFV doses of 100 mg once daily (QD) to children weighing ≥3.5 to <5 kg, 150 mg QD to children weighing ≥5 to <7.5 kg, and 200 mg QD to children weighing ≥7.5 to <10 kg produce exposures within the target range. Further evaluation of the impact of CYP2B6 polymorphisms on EFV PK showed that the identification of CYP2B6 genetic status is not predictive of EFV exposure and thus not informative to guide pediatric dosing regimens. PMID:27067333

  5. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  6. Automated Periodical Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellefsen, David

    1985-01-01

    Describes public library reference service which allows patrons to type out search instructions on a computer terminal, review and select references, and receive, by high-speed printer, facsimile copy of selected periodical articles. Development of periodicals center at main county library and use of self-coaching SEARCH HELPER system are…

  7. The Living Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  8. The nitrogen efficiency of MSW composts as measured by triticale uptake in a 3-year field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Jerzy; Licznar, Michal; Bekier, Jakub; Drozd, Jerzy; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Kocowicz, Andrzej; Parylak, Danuta; Kordas, Leszek; Licznar, Stanislawa

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents results of three year field experiment, where two different composts produced from municipal solid wastes were applied to sandy soil. The experiment was established on soil developed from loam sand, according to U.S.D.A. textural classes (81% of sand, 12% of silt, and 7% of clay), of a slightly acidic reaction (pH KCl 6.05 - 6.44). The plough layer (0 - 25 cm) contained about 5.0 g/kg of organic carbon. Both composts were alkaline in reaction and contained high amounts of plant available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Composts were used non-recurrently in rates of 18, 36, and 72 t/ha, calculated on dry matter basis. Control objects (0 and NPK) were plots without fertilization, as well as plots fertilized each year with mineral forms of NPK. Field experiment was conducted in 15 m2 plots, using five replications in a randomized block design. Spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) cultivated in a 3-year monoculture was used as the experiment plant. Soil samples were collected each year after harvesting. Changes in triticale yield were considered in relation to soil properties and nitrogen content in triticale straw and grain. Application of composts caused beneficial changes in soil fertility, connected mainly with an increase of soil organic matter and content of available forms of P, K, and Mg. These effects were observed throughout three years of the experiment. However, significantly higher values of organic carbon - as compared to control (0 and NPK) - were observed only in plots with medium and highest compost doses. This effect was very clear in the first year, while significant differences in soil carbon content were still observed in next two years. The yield of triticale straw and grain depended significantly on fertilization with composts, but beneficial effect of compost was observed only in the first year. Yield similar to NPK control was found only on plots where the highest dose of compost was applied. Next two

  9. Overview of 3 years of ChemCam' chemical compositions along the Curiosity's traverse at Gale Crater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Agnès; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Curiosity rover has been in Gale crater for more than3 years now. It drove ~12 km from its landing point up to the Bagnold Dunes. The ChemCam instrument is widely used to assess the chemistry of rocks and soils at the submillimeter scale. As of sol 1200, ChemCam sampled >1000 targets, corresponding to >300000 laser shots, >6000 images, and many passive spectra. The Bradbury landing site, a plain located at a distal portion of the alluvial fan from Peace Vallis, exposed several float rocks presenting igneous compositions ranging from mafic up to a trachytic end-member. These observations provided an important clue concerning the diversity of early Mars magmatism that was not previously recognized. More igneous float rocks have been observed all along the traverse, being more felsic closer to the landing site, and more mafic near the cratered unit, after the Kimberley formation. The Sheepbed area is essentially composed of mudstones that show a very homogeneous composition, close to the average Martian crust, providing evidence of aqueous episodes with little alteration in this area. ChemCam showed that the bedrock host experienced other diagenetic events with Mg- and Fe-rich clays in erosion-resistant raised ridges on one hand, and calcium sulfate veins on the other hand. The nearby Shaler fluvial sandstone outcrop, the first outcrop of potential deltaic foreset beds, shows K enrichment. This enrichment is also observed at the Kimberley formation (another drill site flanked by foreset beds), located 7 km SW of Shaler, with up to 5.3 wt % at the Mount Remarkable member. Conglomerates have been analyzed in detail all along the traverse as they represent a link between the source rocks and the finer-grained sediments such as the sandstones and mudstones. They have shown an average composition that is enriched in alkalis, Al, and Si compared to the average Martian crust, with a clear enrichment in K2O in the vicinity of the Kimberley formation. Enrichment in K2O at

  10. Wavelet periodicity detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, John J.; Pfander, Goetz E.

    1998-10-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of time series with respect to certain known periodicities. In particular, we shall present a fast method aimed at detecting periodic behavior inherent in noise data. The method is composed of three steps: (1) Non-noisy data are analyzed through spectral and wavelet methods to extract specific periodic patterns of interest. (2) Using these patterns, we construct an optimal piecewise constant wavelet designed to detect the underlying periodicities. (3) We introduce a fast discretized version of the continuous wavelet transform, as well as waveletgram averaging techniques, to detect occurrence and period of these periodicities. The algorithm is formulated to provide real time implementation. Our procedure is generally applicable to detect locally periodic components in signals s which can be modeled as s(t) equals A(t)F(h(t)) + N(t) for t in I, where F is a periodic signal, A is a non-negative slowly varying function, and h is strictly increasing with h' slowly varying, N denotes background activity. For example, the method can be applied in the context of epileptic seizure detection. In this case, we try to detect seizure periodics in EEG and ECoG data. In the case of ECoG data, N is essentially 1/f noise. In the case of EEG data and for t in I,N includes noise due to cranial geometry and densities. In both cases N also includes standard low frequency rhythms. Periodicity detection has other applications including ocean wave prediction, cockpit motion sickness prediction, and minefield detection.

  11. Increased Immunoendocrine Cells in Intestinal Mucosa of Postinfectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients 3 Years after Acute Shigella Infection - An Observation in a Small Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Sun; Lim, Jung Hyun; Lee, Sang In

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Postinfectiously irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) develops in 3-30% of individuals with bacterial gastroenteritis. Recent studies demonstrated increases in inflammatory components in gut mucosa of PI-IBS patients even after complete resolution of infection. We aimed to investigate histological changes in colon and rectum of PI-IBS subjects after long term period of infection. Materials and Methods We recruited PI-IBS subjects who had been diagnosed IBS after complete resolution of enteritis caused by shigellosis outbreak 3 years earlier. We compared unmatched four groups, PI-IBS (n = 4), non PI-IBS (n = 7), D-IBS (n = 7, diarrhea predominant type) and healthy controls (n = 10). All of them underwent colonoscopic biopsy at three areas, including descending colon (DC), sigmoid colon (SC) and rectum, which were assessed for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)/peptide YY (PYY)-containing enterochromaffin (EC) cell, intraepithelial (IEL) and lamina propria T lymphocyte (CD3), CD8 lymphocytes, mast cells and CD68/calprotectin+ macrophages. Results All subjects had no structural or gross abnormalities at colonoscopy. In PI-IBS, 5-HT containing EC cells, PYY containing EC cells, IELs, CD3 lymphocytes, CD8 lymphocytes, mast cells, and CD68 + macrophages were increased compared to control (p < 0.05). In D-IBS, PYY containing EC cells, IELs, and CD3 lymphocytes were increased compared to control (p < 0.05). In PI-IBS, 5-HT containing EC cells tended to increase and PYY containing EC cells, CD8 lymphocytes, mast cells, and CD68+ macrophages were increased compared to non PI-IBS (p < 0.05). Calprotectin + marcrophages were decreased in PI-IBS, non PI-IBS and IBS compared to control. Conclusion The immunoendocrine cells were sporadically increased in PI-IBS, non PI-IBS and D-IBS compared with control. Our findings in a very small number of patients suggest that mucosal inflammation may play a role in long-term PI-IBS, and that other sub-groups of IBS and larger scale studies are

  12. Changes of Overweight and Obesity Prevalence Among School Children in North West of Iran After 3 Years Follow-up (2009–2011): A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Nouri Saeidlou, Sakineh; Rezaiegoyjeloo, Fatemeh; Ayremlou, Parvin; Babaie, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and overweight among children is a major public health problem in developed and developing countries and has important health and economic implications. This longitudinal study aimed to assessing the prevalence trend of overweight and obesity in West Azerbaijan in North West of Iran. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up study and was conducted in school children at 2009–2011 year. The subjects were all school children (12 years of age) that were recruited from rural and urban schools in West Azerbaijan. Overall, 22,820 girls and 28,763 boys were enrolled in 2009 and were followed for 3 years. A body mass index (BMI) 85th–95th percentile was classified as overweight and a BMI >95th percentile was classified as obese. All statistical analyses were performed using the Excel Software. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample in different time periods. The prevalence was calculated as the ratio of number of present cases to a given population number in a given subgroup at a given time. Results: In urban schools, the prevalence of overweight among girls and boys was 118.26 and 103.9 per 1000 persons in 2009 year, respectively, and this trend was increased in both girls (152.90 per 1000 persons) and boys (125.72 per 1000 persons) in 2011. The obesity trend was increased among both girls and boys (22.26 and 26.52 among girls and boys in 2009 to 24.66 and 28.65 per 1000 persons in 2011), respectively. In rural schools, the prevalence of overweight among girls was increased from 84.5 in 2009 to 108.89 per 1000 persons in 2011, but this trend was decreased among boys (from 95.49 in 2009 to 43.9 per 1000 persons in 2011), and the prevalence of obesity among boys was increased at the end of follow-up, but this trend was decreased among girls. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity in children has increased. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the relationship between obesity and overweight and risk factors such as

  13. A clinico-histopathological study of lupus vulgaris: A 3 year experience at a tertiary care centre

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Varadraj Vasant; Naveen, Kikkeri Narayanshetty; Athanikar, S. B.; Dinesh, U. S.; Divyashree, A.; Gupta, Gaurang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis in adults. Lupus vulgaris is caused by hematogenous, lymphatic, or contiguous spread from elsewhere in the body. histologically it is charecterised by typical tubercles with or without caseation, surrounded by epitheloid histiocytes and multinucleate giant cells in the superficial epidermis with prominent peripheral lymphocytes. Materials and Method: All cases of clinically and histopathologicaly diagnosed lupus vulgaris over the previous five years were included in the study. Results: Fourteen cases of lupus vulgaris cases reported during the study period with eaqual incidence among males and females. Discussion: Plaque type of lupus vulgaris was the most common type. Histopathologically tubercular granulomas were seen in all cases as compared to other studies. Conclusion: Different patterns of lupus vulgaris are reported PMID:25396129

  14. Periodized Daubechies wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.; Schlossnagle, G.

    1996-03-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrated by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and their use ius illustrated in the approximation of two commonly used differential operators. The periodization of the connection coefficients in Galerkin schemes is presented in detail.

  15. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  16. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may be due to this condition include: Kidney stones (a side effect of acetazolamide) Irregular heartbeat during ... 2016:chap 99. Read More Breathing difficulty Carbohydrates Kidney stones Potassium test Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis Weakness Update Date ...

  17. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of thyroid hormone in their blood ( hyperthyroidism , thyrotoxicosis). Causes This is a rare condition that ... include a family history of periodic paralysis and hyperthyroidism. Symptoms Symptoms involve attacks of muscle weakness or ...

  18. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  19. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be caused by abnormal conditions such as endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease. Unless one of these potentially serious conditions is present, the treatment for painful periods is pain relief. If a ...

  20. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  1. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  2. The Periodic Table CD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  3. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  4. Utilization of matrix population models to assess a 3-year single treatment nonsurgical contraception program versus surgical sterilization in feral cat populations.

    PubMed

    Budke, Christine M; Slater, Margaret R

    2009-01-01

    This study constructed matrix population models to explore feral cat population growth for a hypothetical population (a) in the absence of intervention; (b) with a traditional surgical sterilization-based trap, neuter, and return program; and (c) with a single treatment 3-year nonsurgical contraception program. Model outcomes indicated that cessation of population growth would require surgical sterilization for greater than 51% of adult and 51% of juvenile (<1 year) intact female cats annually, assuming an approximate 3-year mean life span. After the population stabilizes, this would equate to sterilizing approximately 14% of the total female population per year or having approximately 71% of the total female and 81% of the adult female population sterilized at all times. In the absence of juvenile sterilization, 91% of adult intact females would need to be sterilized annually to halt population growth. In comparison, with a 3-year nonsurgical contraception program, an annual contraception rate of 60% of female juvenile and adult intact cats would be required to halt population growth, assuming that treated cats were retrapped at the same rate after 3 years. PMID:20183481

  5. Life Stress and the Long-Term Treatment Course of Recurrent Depression: III. Nonsevere Life Events Predict Recurrence for Medicated Patients over 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Torres, Leandro D.; Guillaumot, Julien; Harkness, Kate L.; Roberts, John E.; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David

    2006-01-01

    Research has consistently documented the significance of severe life events for onset of major depression. Theory, however, suggests other forms of stress are relevant for depression's recurrence. Nonsevere life events were tested in relation to depression for 126 patients with recurrent depression in a 3-year randomized maintenance protocol. Life…

  6. Reading Intervention Outcomes for Adults with Disabilities in a Vocational Rehabilitation Setting: Results of a 3-Year Research and Demonstration Grant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderberg, Laura E.; Pierce, Margaret E.; Disney, Laurel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on an examination of the effectiveness of a reading intervention for adults with disabilities in a vocational rehabilitation setting. Participants were 57 adults with disabilities and low reading skills enrolled at the Reading Clinic at the Michigan Career and Technical Institute. As part of a 3-year research and demonstration…

  7. Acting and Planning on the Basis of a False Belief: Its Effects on 3-Year-Old Children's Reasoning About Their Own False Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atance, Cristina M.; O'Neill, Daniela K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 3-year-olds' explanations for actions of theirs that were premised on a false belief. In Experiment 1, children stated what they thought was inside a crayon box. After stating "crayons," they went to retrieve some paper to draw on. Children were then shown that the box contained candles and were asked to (a) state their initial…

  8. Lifestyle, Dwelling Conditions and Daily Routine as Qualitative Indicators of Infant Development: A Study of 0-3 Years Old Children from Rural Brazilian Northeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    The developing child and his/her eco-social-cultural context is the focus of study of 28 children ages 0-3 years in the rural area of Cocal, Piaui in Northeast Brazil. Ethnographic methods, naturalistic observations and semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain the physical context (the house and its surroundings), as well as maternal…

  9. The Impact of Body-Part-Naming Training on the Accuracy of Imitative Performances in 2- to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camoes-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training…

  10. No Own-Age Bias in 3-Year-Old Children: More Evidence for the Role of Early Experience in Building Face-Processing Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Pisacane, Antonella; Gava, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of an own-age bias in young children who accumulated different amounts of early experience with child faces. Discrimination abilities for upright and inverted adult and child faces were tested using a delayed two-alternative, forced-choice matching-to-sample task in two groups of 3-year-old children,…

  11. The Predictive Value of Cognitive Impairments Measured at the Start of Clinical Rehabilitation for Health Status 1 Year and 3 Years Poststroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Clara L.; Schepers, Vera P.; Post, Marcel W.; van Heugten, Caroline M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the value of screening for cognitive functions at the start of an inpatient rehabilitation programme to predict the health status 1 and 3 years poststroke. In this longitudinal cohort study of stroke patients in inpatient rehabilitation data of 134 participants were analysed. Cognitive and clinical…

  12. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  13. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  14. Can Severely Language Delayed 3-Year-Olds Be Identified at 18 Months? Evaluation of a Screening Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Monica; Berglund, Eva; Eriksson, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's…

  15. Is the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd Edition a Reliable Instrument to Measure Motor Performance in 3 Year Old Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Formal testing of 3 year old children is a new feature in the revised version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC-2). Our study evaluated the reliability and explored the clinical applicability of the Movement ABC-2 Test in this young age group. A total of 50 typically children were given two trials of the test within a…

  16. Attachment-Based Intervention for Enhancing Sensitive Discipline in Mothers of 1- to 3-Year-Old Children at Risk for Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zeijl, Jantien; Mesman, Judi; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; Stolk, Mirjam N.; Koot, Hans M.; Alink, Lenneke R. A.

    2006-01-01

    The home-based intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) was tested in a randomized controlled trial with 237 families screened for their 1- to 3-year-old children's relatively high scores on externalizing behavior. VIPP-SD, based on attachment theory and coercion theory,…

  17. A 3-year hygiene and safety monitoring of a meat processing plant which uses raw materials of global origin.

    PubMed

    Manios, Stavros G; Grivokostopoulos, Nikolaos C; Bikouli, Vasiliki C; Doultsos, Dimitrios A; Zilelidou, Evangelia A; Gialitaki, Maria A; Skandamis, Panagiotis N

    2015-09-16

    A systematic approach in monitoring the hygiene of a meat processing plant using classical microbiological analyses combined with molecular characterization tools may assist in the safety of the final products. This study aimed: (i) to evaluate the total hygiene level and, (ii) to monitor and characterize the occurrence and spread of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and the final products of a meat industry that processes meat of global origin. In total, 2541 samples from the processing environment, the raw materials, and the final products were collected from a Greek meat industry in the period 2011-2013. All samples were subjected to enumeration of total viable counts (TVC), Escherichia coli (EC) and total coliforms (TCC) and the detection of Salmonella spp., while 709 of these samples were also analyzed for the presence L. monocytogenes. Pathogen isolates were serotyped and further characterized for their antibiotic resistance and subtyped by PFGE. Raw materials were identified as the primary source of contamination, while improper handling might have also favored the proliferation of the initial microbial load. The occurrence of Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes reached 5.5% and 26.9%, respectively. Various (apparent) cross-contamination or persistence trends were deduced based on PFGE analysis results. Salmonella isolates showed wide variation in their innate antibiotic resistance, contrary to L. monocytogenes ones, which were found susceptible to all antibiotics except for cefotaxime. The results emphasize the biodiversity of foodborne pathogens in a meat industry and may be used by meat processors to understand the spread of pathogens in the processing environment, as well as to assist the Food Business Operator (FBO) in establishing effective criteria for selection of raw materials and in improving meat safety and quality. This approach can limit the increase of microbial contamination during the processing steps observed in

  18. Success of 6-mm Implants with Single-Tooth Restorations: A 3-year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sahrmann, P; Naenni, N; Jung, R E; Held, U; Truninger, T; Hämmerle, C H F; Attin, T; Schmidlin, P R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether implants of 6 mm in length perform equally well as 10-mm implants in terms of survival and marginal bone-level changes when supporting single crowns. Patients with a posterior single-tooth gap were randomly allocated to either the placement of a 6-mm (test) or 10-mm implant (control). The treatment protocol allowed for internal sinus lift but not for lateral bone augmentation. After a healing period of 10 wk, implants were loaded with screw-retained single crowns. Survival rates, number of pockets ≥5 mm, and bleeding-on-probing were assessed clinically. The change of marginal bone level and crown-to-implant ratios were analyzed by 2 examiners. Longitudinal intragroup analyses for marginal bone levels were performed applying the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Intergroup differences at baseline and at 3 y were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The effect of implant length and crown-to-implant ratio on changes of marginal bone level also was determined. Of 94 implants placed (47 test and 47 control), 78 implants (40 test and 38 control) were available for follow-up examination at 3 y of loading. One test implant was lost during the second year. Hence, implant survival was not significantly different between the 2 groups after 3 y (98% test; 100% control). We found no significant change in the crestal bone level from baseline to 3 y for test and control implants with -0.19 ± 0.62 mm and -0.33 ± 0.71 mm, respectively. The intergroup difference was not significant. Crown-to-implant ratios were not associated with a statistically significant difference in marginal bone loss. However, the number of sites with pockets ≥5 mm was significantly higher in the test group. Based on the 3-y assessment, the use of 6-mm implants can be considered a viable option when reconstructing posterior single tooth gaps (German Clinical Trials Registry: DRKS00006290). PMID:26917439

  19. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Rojith Karanode; Chandran, Suresh Rama; Thirumalnesan, Geetha; Doraisamy, Nedumaran

    2011-07-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly. PMID:21966655

  20. [Periodic abstinence: its possibilities].

    PubMed

    1981-05-01

    Experience with family planning mehods requiring periodic sexual abstinence has been varied. During the last decade interest has centered on 2 methods, the cervical mucus and the sympto-thermal, which are based on identifying the onset of the fertile period. During the 1970s, the Australian physicians John and Evelyn Billings developed the cervical mucus method, in which changes in the quanitity and characteristics of cervical mucus are used to determine the moment of ovulation. The sympto-thermal method depends on identification of the slight rise in basal body temperature that occurs in the latter part of the menstrual cycle as well as cervical mucus changes and sometimes the calendar to determine the fertile period. The Catholic Church has been the main proponent of periodic abstinence methods, but since 1973 the World Health Organization has invested US$3.3 million on research in such methods. The Billings method requires differentiating between dry, wet, and very wet mucus in the vagina and between different consistencies of mucus. The method ususally requires 1-3 months for instruction and sexual abstinence is usually recommended for the 1st month. The average number of days of required abstinence was 9 in a study of 66 women and 15-18 in a study of 870 women. Many women with short menstrual cycles do not experience postmenstrual dry days, in which case abstinence may be required as many as 13 days out of 23. 18.8% of users of periodic abstinence methods in 1 North American study became pregnant in the 1st year, but most were using the calendar method. Women who desired to terminate childbearing had only about 1/2 as many failures with periodic abstinence methods as did women wishing to postpone a birth. PMID:12311397

  1. Contribution of long-range transported aerosols to aerosol optical and physical properties: 3-year measurements at Gosan, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, J.; Kim, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Ogren, J. A.; Yoon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, more attentions have been paid to air quality in East Asia due to the enhanced loading of atmospheric pollutants related to rapid industrialization. Gosan Climate Observatory (GCO), Korea is regarded as an ideal site to study the transport of atmospheric pollutants because it is frequently influenced by various airmasses from China, Korea, Japan and Pacific Ocean. In order to understand aerosol optical and physical properties according to airmass transport routes, three-year (2012-2014) continuous measurements of aerosol scattering/absorption coefficient and number size distribution were analyzed, together with 48-hour backward trajectory calculations. The averaged aerosol absorption (σa) and scattering coefficient (σs) for airmasses transported from North China (NC; 36% of all trajectories) were 6.65 Mm-1 and 94.72 Mm-1 at 550 nm wavelength, respectively, which were similar to those for stagnant airmasses (ST; 22% of all trajectories; σa: 6.26 Mm-1, σs: 93.99 Mm-1). The highest values of σa (7.03 Mm-1) and σs (108.34 Mm-1) were observed when airmasses were traveled from South China (SC; 11% of all trajectories). σa and σs for airmasses from Korean Peninsula (KP; 7% of all trajectories) and Pacific Ocean (PO; 14% of all trajectories; in parenthesis) were 5.63 (2.76) Mm-1 and 73.63 (50.93) Mm-1, respectively. Compared to other airmasses, the higher values of Scattering Angstrom Exponent (SAE) for ST (1.65) is thought to be the build-up of anthropogenic fine particulate pollutants. The Absorption Angstrom Exponent (AAE) was estimated to be 1.32 for NC airmass and 1.02 for SC airmass. Over the study period, 130 days of total 557 days were identified as new particle formation and growth event (NPF) from Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) measurements by Cyclostationary Empirical Orthogonal Function (CSEOF) approach. Especially, 55.4% (72 days) of total 130 NPF days were found when a cold and dry airmass comes from NC after passing the frontal

  2. Periodically kicked turbulence

    PubMed

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  3. Effects of Early Auditory Experience on the Spoken Language of Deaf Children at 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Johanna Grant; Geers, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    between 40 and 44 months of age). Examination of the independent influence of these predictors through multiple regression analysis revealed that pre-implant aided PTA threshold and duration of CI use (i.e., age at implant) accounted for 58% of the variance in Language Factor scores. A significant negative coefficient associated with pre-implant aided threshold indicated that children with poorer hearing before implantation exhibited poorer language skills at age 3.5 years. Likewise, a strong positive coefficient associated with duration of implant use indicated that children who had used their implant for a longer period of time (i.e., who were implanted at an earlier age) exhibited better language at age 3.5 years. Age at identification and amplification was unrelated to language outcome, as was aided threshold with the cochlear implant. A significant quadratic trend in the relation between duration of implant use and language score revealed a steady increase in language skill (at age 3.5) for each additional month of use of a cochlear implant after the first 12 months of implant use. The advantage to language of longer implant use became more pronounced over time. Conclusions: Longer use of a cochlear implant in infancy and very early childhood dramatically affects the amount of spoken language exhibited by three year old profoundly deaf children. In this sample, the amount of pre-implant intervention with a hearing aid was not related to language outcome at 3.5 years of age. Rather, it was cochlear implantation at a younger age that served to promote spoken language competence. The previously identified language-facilitating factors of early identification of hearing impairment and early educational intervention may not be sufficient for optimizing spoken language of profoundly deaf children unless it leads to early cochlear implantation. PMID:16672797

  4. Ayurveda during Abbasid's period.

    PubMed

    Husain, S A; Subhaktha, P K

    2000-01-01

    This is a historical paper which deals with a brief account of Abbasid's period. In this article the existence of Ayurveda in Arab countries, arrival of Ayurvedic physicians to Baghdad, their eminence, authenticity and literary additions in medical field has been studied and presented. PMID:12578013

  5. Getting Your Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... for a woman to have a baby. During sexual intercourse, the egg can get fertilized by a male’s sperm and then attach to the lining of the uterus ( endometrium ) and grow into a baby. ( Read more about reproduction. ) Does your period come each month? top Menstrual ...

  6. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  7. Periods and Feynman integrals

    SciTech Connect

    Bogner, Christian; Weinzierl, Stefan

    2009-04-15

    We consider multiloop integrals in dimensional regularization and the corresponding Laurent series. We study the integral in the Euclidean region and where all ratios of invariants and masses have rational values. We prove that in this case all coefficients of the Laurent series are periods.

  8. Periodic Table of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  9. A Modern Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  10. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  11. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement. PMID:18992793

  12. Feeling Refreshed by Sleep Can Predict Psychological Wellbeing Assessed Using the General Health Questionnaire in Male Workers: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Prediction of psychological wellbeing based on several important predictors was conducted for ensuring maintenance of good mental health. A 3-year follow-up study to determine psychological well-being was conducted in 969 Japanese male workers. Age, body mass index, present history of medication and four lifestyle factors were used for the analysis. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for obtaining a score of ≥4 in the General Health Questionnaire-12-item version, among the subjects who felt refreshed by sleep was 0.559 (0.415-0.753). None of the other factors showed any statistically significant association. Feeling refreshed by sleep was identified as a predictor of maintained psychological wellbeing in this 3-year follow-up study. PMID:23251209

  13. Feeling refreshed by sleep can predict psychological wellbeing assessed using the general health questionnaire in male workers: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2012-12-01

    Prediction of psychological wellbeing based on several important predictors was conducted for ensuring maintenance of good mental health. A 3-year follow-up study to determine psychological well-being was conducted in 969 Japanese male workers. Age, body mass index, present history of medication and four lifestyle factors were used for the analysis. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for obtaining a score of ≥4 in the General Health Questionnaire-12-item version, among the subjects who felt refreshed by sleep was 0.559 (0.415-0.753). None of the other factors showed any statistically significant association. Feeling refreshed by sleep was identified as a predictor of maintained psychological wellbeing in this 3-year follow-up study. PMID:23251209

  14. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself.

  15. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  16. Risk factors for death and the 3-year survival of patients with systemic sclerosis: the French ItinérAIR-Sclérodermie study

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Patrick; Gressin, Virginie; Diot, Elisabeth; Allanore, Yannick; Sibilia, Jean; Launay, David; Mouthon, Luc; Jego, Patrick; Cabane, Jean; de Groote, Pascal; Chabrol, Amélie; Lazareth, Isabelle; Guillevin, Loïc; Clerson, Pierre; Humbert, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. This longitudinal study investigated survival, risk factors and causes of death in the multicentre ItinérAIR-Sclérodermie cohort of patients with SSc without severe pulmonary fibrosis or severe left heart disease at baseline. Methods. At 3-year follow-up, vital status was obtained from investigators or French national death records. Causes of death were classified as SSc-related or otherwise. Data were censored at 37 months, time of death or loss to follow-up, whichever was earlier. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate survival analyses were conducted using the Cox model. Results. In total, 546 patients were followed for a median duration of 37 months, representing 1547 patient-years. At baseline, the majority of patients were female, with lcSSc, mean age 54.9 ± 13.0 years and mean duration of SSc of 8.8 ± 8.1 years. In total, 47 patients died, giving a 3-year survival of 91.1% and cumulative mortality of 3.04 deaths per 100 patient-years; 17 deaths (32.2%) resulted from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and eight (17.1%) from cancer. Of the 47 patients with PAH at baseline, 20 died during follow-up, giving a 3-year survival of 56.3%. In a multivariate analysis, PAH [hazard ratio (HR) 7.246], age at first symptom (HR 1.052), duration of SSc (HR 1.047 per year) and Rodnan skin score (per one point) (HR 1.045) were associated with increased mortality. Conclusion. This 3-year study observed survival and mortality estimates that were comparable with previous reports. PAH increased the HR for mortality in patients with SSc, justifying yearly echocardiographic screening. PMID:19174571

  17. Therapeutic Monitoring of Voriconazole in Children Less Than 3 Years of Age: A Case Report and Summary of Voriconazole Concentrations for 10 Children

    PubMed Central

    Doby, Elizabeth H.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Blaschke, Anne J.; Ward, Robert M.; Pavia, Andrew T.; Martin, Paul L.; Driscoll, Timothy A.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    Voriconazole is the treatment of choice for invasive aspergillosis and its use is increasing in pediatrics. Minimal pharmacokinetic data exist in young children. We report voriconazole concentrations for 10 children less than <3 years of age and pharmacokinetic parameters for one infant who had therapeutic drug monitoring performed. Trough concentrations were unpredictable based on dose, highlighting the need to follow values during therapy. PMID:22301479

  18. Periodic minimal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Alan L.

    1985-04-01

    A minimal surface is one for which, like a soap film with the same pressure on each side, the mean curvature is zero and, thus, is one where the two principal curvatures are equal and opposite at every point. For every closed circuit in the surface, the area is a minimum. Schwarz1 and Neovius2 showed that elements of such surfaces could be put together to give surfaces periodic in three dimensions. These periodic minimal surfaces are geometrical invariants, as are the regular polyhedra, but the former are curved. Minimal surfaces are appropriate for the description of various structures where internal surfaces are prominent and seek to adopt a minimum area or a zero mean curvature subject to their topology; thus they merit more complete numerical characterization. There seem to be at least 18 such surfaces3, with various symmetries and topologies, related to the crystallographic space groups. Recently, glyceryl mono-oleate (GMO) was shown by Longley and McIntosh4 to take the shape of the F-surface. The structure postulated is shown here to be in good agreement with an analysis of the fundamental geometry of periodic minimal surfaces.

  19. [Assessment of the course of ischemic heart disease after placement of stents with drug covering and uncovered metal stents: data of 3 years follow-up].

    PubMed

    Buza, V V; Karpov, Iu A; Samko, A N; Deev, A D; Lopukhova, V V; Levitskiĭ, I V; Sozykin, A V

    2009-01-01

    The placement of sirolimus-eluting stents decreases the frequency of repeat revascularization procedures in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in randomized clinical trials. However, there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of sirolimus-eluting stents, and increasing concern about their safety in routine clinical practice. From the prof. Samko PCI laboratory in Moscow, Russia, we identified 426 patients, who received either bare-metal stents alone or sirolimus-eluting stents alone during an index PCI procedure between March 1, 2002, and September 31, 2004.The primary outcomes of the study were the rates of target-lesion revascularization, myocardial infarction, death, late stent thrombosis. The 3-year rate of target-lesion revascularization was significantly lower among patients who received sirolimus-eluting stents than among those who received bare-metal stents (3.1% vs. 19 %, p=0.001). The 3-year mortality rate was not different between the bare-metal stent group and the sirolimus eluting stent group (5.9% vs. 7.2%, p=0.68), the 3-year rate of all ARC late stent thrombosis was similar in the two groups (5.9% and 7.2%, respectively; p=0.95). Sirolimus-eluting stents are effective in reducing the need for target-vessel revascularization without significantly increased rates of death, late stent thrombosis, myocardial infarction. PMID:19166395

  20. Sample Length Affects the Reliability of Language Sample Measures in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence From Parent-Elicited Conversational Samples

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which sample length affected the reliability of total number of words (TNW), number of different words (NDW), and mean length of C-units in morphemes (MLCUm) in parent-elicited conversational samples for 3-year-olds. Method Participants were sixty 3-year-olds. A 22-min language sample was collected from each child during free play with the parent in the laboratory. Samples of 1, 3, 7, and 10 min were extracted from the 22-min samples. TNW, NDW, and MLCUm were computed from each shorter sample and the 22-min sample. TNW and NDW were adjusted by number of minutes for comparisons. The differences and correlations between each shorter sample cut and the 22-min sample on MLCUm and adjusted TNW and NDW were computed. Results The shorter samples and the 22-min samples significantly differed in adjusted TNW and NDW, but not in MLCUm. TNW reached an acceptable reliability level (i.e., r = .90) in 7-min samples. NDW and MLCUm approached the acceptable reliability level (rs = .88) in 7-min samples and reached it in 10-min samples. Conclusion For conversational language samples with similar collection procedures, samples of 7 to 10 min are desirable for calculating TNW, NDW, and MLCUm in 3-year-olds. PMID:25615272

  1. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  2. Urinary Amino Acid Alterations in 3-Year-Old Children with Neurodevelopmental Effects due to Perinatal Dioxin Exposure in Vietnam: A Nested Case-Control Study for Neurobiomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  3. The influence of immediate complete anterior guidance development technique on subjective symptoms in Myofascial pain patients: Verified using digital analysis of occlusion (Tek-scan) for analysing occlusion: A 3 years clinical observation

    PubMed Central

    Thumati, Prafulla

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of occlusal equilibration using immediate complete anterior guidance development (ICAGD) technique by Kerstein and Farrell on the subjective symptoms of myofascial pain. This technique is the most advanced verifiable and measurable way of digitally analyzing the occlusion using T-scan technology. The primary objective is to reduce the anterior disclusion time to <0.4 s and the secondary objective is to reduce the signs and symptoms of myofascial pain. Materials and Methods: This study is to assess the reducing effects of subjective symptoms of 100 patients diagnosed as myofascial pain patients treated by ICAGD technique as described by Kerstein and Farrell. The common complaints of the patients were a pain in the masseter and temporal muscles, jaw tiredness in the mornings, night bruxing and difficulty in chewing. In this technique occlusal equilibration involves removal of posterior interferences and establish anterior guidance. The patients were treated over three visits 1-week apart and followed for 3 years with an interval of 3 months for the subsequent visits. A visual analog ordinal scale is used to rate the symptoms. The symptoms reduction occurred for all the patients after the first correction in about 5–10 days. In about a period of 3 years review, no recurrence was seen of the chronic myofascial symptoms. Results: In spite of the chronic nature of the patient's symptoms, symptom reduction occurred in a week's time. This was assessed by the results of the ordinal scale values. This agrees with the studies of Kerstein and Farrell. Conclusion: Equilibration of occlusion using digital analysis by T-scan in which force is quantified against time, should be done to establish free functional movements without any interference; otherwise the disturbances in the excursive movements may lead to muscle dysfunction at later years. PMID:26929516

  4. Attention Reorients Periodically.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Laura; Roberts, Mariel; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-06-20

    Reorienting of voluntary attention enables the processing of stimuli at previously unattended locations. Although studies have identified a ventral fronto-parietal network underlying attention [1, 2], little is known about whether and how early visual areas are involved in involuntary [3, 4] and even less in voluntary [5] reorienting, and their temporal dynamics are unknown. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the occipital cortex to interfere with attentional reorienting and study its role and temporal dynamics in this process. Human observers performed an orientation discrimination task, with either valid or invalid attention cueing, across a range of stimulus contrasts. Valid cueing induced a behavioral response gain increase, higher asymptotic performance for attended than unattended locations. During subsequent TMS sessions, observers performed the same task, with high stimulus contrast. Based on phosphene mapping, TMS double pulses were applied at one of various delays to a consistent brain location in retinotopic areas (V1/V2), corresponding to the evoked signal of the target or distractor, in a valid or invalid trial. Thus, the stimulation was identical for the four experimental conditions (valid/invalid cue condition × target/distractor-stimulated). TMS modulation of the target and distractor were both periodic (5 Hz, theta) and out of phase with respect to each other in invalid trials only, when attention had to be disengaged from the distractor and reoriented to the target location. Reorientation of voluntary attention periodically involves V1/V2 at the theta frequency. These results suggest that TMS probes theta phase-reset by attentional reorienting and help link periodic sampling in time and attention reorienting in space. PMID:27265395

  5. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanorice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Paritosh; Landskron, Kai

    2009-02-01

    A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) with nanorice morphology was successfully synthesized by a template assisted sol-gel method using a chain-type precursor. The PMO is composed of D and T sites in the ratio 1:2. The obtained mesoporous nanorice has a surface area of 753 m2 g-1, one-dimensional channels, and a narrow pore size distribution centered at 4.3 nm. The nanorice particles have a length of ca. 600 nm and width of ca. 200 nm.

  6. Controls on geyser periodicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Rojstaczer, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (???10-6) strains induced by seismic events, atmospheric loading, and Earth tides. The geyser system is approximated as a permeable conduit of intensely fractured rock surrounded by a less permeable rock matrix. Numerical simulation of this conceptual model yields a set of parameters that controls geyser existence and periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates.

  7. Controls on geyser periodicity.

    PubMed

    Ingebritsen, S E; Rojstaczer, S A

    1993-11-01

    Geyser eruption frequency is not constant over time and has been shown to vary with small (periodicity. Much of the responsiveness to remote seismicity and other small strains in the Earth can be explained in terms of variations in permeability and lateral recharge rates. PMID:17757358

  8. Periodate oxidation of dextrans

    SciTech Connect

    Mirgorodskaya, O.A.; Poletaeva, L.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors estimate the degree of oxidation of the thiol group in dextran with various mol. wt. and make an attempt at a kinetic description of the main parameters of the process. Polyglucin was used. The results are shown of experiments done on the estimation of the amount of products formed in the process of oxidation of polyglucin in which the reaction stopped as a result of complete exhaustion of one of the original reagents. To estimate the reactivity of the thiol group toward oxidation, the authors studied the interaction of potassium periodate with alpha-D-glucose, isolated by the monomer unit of dextran.

  9. Developmental milestones record - 3 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... play area and constant supervision. Provide the necessary space for physical activity. Help your child take part in -- and learn the rules of -- sports and games. Limit both the time and content of television and computer viewing. Visit ...

  10. Are Mantle Plumes Periodic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampino, Michael R.; Prokoph, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    In the past few years, researchers have uncovered evidence that several kinds of geological and biological events seem to show regular cycles of similar lengths. For example, Rohde and Muller [2005] looked at the record of diversity of marine organisms over the past 540 million years and found evidence for two cycles in the data—a roughly 62-million-year cycle and a longer cycle of about 140 million years. This was followed by reports of an approximately 56-million-year cycle in long-term stratigraphic sequences in sedimentary basins [Meyers and Peters, 2011] and a 59-million-year period in the marine strontium-isotope record [Melott et al., 2012]. A similar period may even exist in atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 542 million years of the Phanerozoic [Franks et al., 2012]. A cycle of about 140 million years was reported by Veizer et al. [2000] and Mayhew et al. [2008] in long-term fluctuations in global climate.

  11. Outcomes of Early- and Late-identified Children at 3 Years of Age: Findings from a Prospective Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Dillon, Harvey; Marnane, Vivienne; Hou, Sanna; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark; Crowe, Kathryn; Street, Laura; Thomson, Jessica; Van Buynder, Patricia; Zhang, Vicky; Wong, Angela; Burns, Lauren; Flynn, Christopher; Cupples, Linda; Cowan, Robert S.C.; Leigh, Greg; Sjahalam-King, Jessica; Yeh, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To address the question of whether, on a population level, early detection and amplification improve outcomes of children with hearing impairment. Design All families of children who were born between 2002 and 2007, and who presented for hearing services below 3 years of age at Australian Hearing pediatric centers in New South Wales, Victoria and Southern Queensland were invited to participate in a prospective study on outcomes. Children’s speech, language, functional and social outcomes were assessed at 3 years of age, using a battery of age-appropriate tests. Demographic information relating to the child, family, and educational intervention was solicited through the use of custom-designed questionnaires. Audiological data were collected from the national database of Australian Hearing and records held at educational intervention agencies for children. Regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of each of 15 predictor variables, including age of amplification, on outcomes. Results Four hundred and fifty-one children enrolled in the study, 56% of whom received their first hearing-aid fitting before 6 months of age. Based on clinical records, 44 children (10%) were diagnosed with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. There were 107 children (24%) reported to have additional disabilities. At 3 years of age, 317 children (70%) were hearing-aid users and 134 children (30%) used cochlear implants. Based on parent reports, about 71% used an aural/oral mode of communication, and about 79% used English as the spoken language at home. Children’s performance scores on standardized tests administered at 3 years of age were used in a factor analysis to derive a global development factor score. On average, the global score of hearing-impaired children was more than one standard deviation (SD) below the mean of normal-hearing children at the same age. Regression analysis revealed that five factors, including female gender, absence of additional

  12. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  13. Association of Perioperative Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Levels with 3-Year Mortality after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Moledina, Dennis G.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Garg, Amit X.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Koyner, Jay L.; Patel, Uptal D.; Devarajan, Prasad; Shlipak, Michael G.; Coca, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher levels of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (pNGAL) are an early marker of acute kidney injury and are associated with increased risk of short-term adverse outcomes. The independent association between pNGAL and long-term mortality is unknown. Methods In this prospective observational cohort study, we studied 1191 adults who underwent cardiac surgery between 2007 and 2009 at 6 centers in the TRIBE-AKI cohort. We measured the pNGAL on the pre-operative and first 3 post-operative days and assessed the relationship of peri-operative pNGAL concentrations with all-cause mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 3.0 years, 139 participants died (50/1000 person-years). Pre-operative levels of pNGAL were associated with 3-year mortality (unadjusted HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.34,2.85) and the association persisted after adjustment for pre-operative variables including estimated glomerular filtration rate (adjusted HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.04–2.12). After adjustment for pre- and intra-operative variables, including pre-operative NGAL levels, the highest tertiles of first post-operative and peak post-operative pNGAL were also independently associated with 3-year mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.0–1.7 and adjusted HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.2–2.7, respectively). However, after adjustment for peri-operative changes in serum creatinine, there was no longer an independent association between the first post-operative and peak post-operative pNGAL and long-term mortality (adjusted HR 0.98,95% CI 0.79–1.2 for first pNGAL and adjusted HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87–1.61 for peak pNGAL). Conclusions Pre-operative pNGAL levels were independently associated with 3-year mortality after cardiac surgery. While post-operative pNGAL levels were also associated with 3-year mortality, this relationship was not independent of changes in serum creatinine. These findings suggest that while pre-operative pNGAL adds prognostic value for mortality beyond routinely available

  14. Fluorouracil-based preoperative chemoradiotherapy with or without oxaliplatin for stage II/III rectal cancer: a 3-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Dexin; Zhang, Rui; Gong, Zhiqiang; Liu, Fang; Chen, Yue; Yu, Qinrui; Sun, Liping; Duan, Hongyan; Zhu, Shendong; Liu, Fei; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Fluorouracil-based preoperative chemoradiotherapy has become the standard treatment for stage II/III rectal cancer. In order to improve the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), we added oxaliplatin to the standard treatment, and compared the effectiveness of these two treatment patterns. Methods A total of 206 patients enrolled in the prospective study had histologically confirmed rectal cancer of clinical stage II/III during July 2007 to July 2010. They were randomized into the experimental group received oxaliplatin and capecitabine in combination with radiotherapy, and the control group received capecitabine in combination with radiotherapy. All patients received surgery in 6−10 weeks after chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6. The primary endpoints were DFS and OS, and the secondary endpoints included toxicity, compliance, and histopathological response. Results The 3-year OS in the experimental group and the control group was 90.29% vs. 86.41% (P>0.05), and the 3-year DFS was 80.58% vs. 69.90% (P>0.05). The pathological complete remission (pCR) rates were 23.30% and 19.42%, respectively (P=0.497). The 3-year local recurrence rates were 4.85% vs. 5.83% (P=0.694), and the 3-year distant metastasis rates were 16.50% and 28.16%, respectively (P=0.045). There were no significant differences in most grade 3−4 toxicities between two groups, however, grade 3−4 diarrhea occurred in 16.50% (17/103) of the experimental group, compared with 6.80% (7/103) of the control group (P=0.030). Also, the total grade 3−4 acute toxicity showed a significant difference (10.68% vs. 21.36%, P=0.037). Conclusions The experimental treatment did not lead significantly improved OS and DFS, and thus longer follow-up is warranted for our patient cohort. Adding oxaliplatin to capecitabine-based preoperative chemoradiotherapy can significantly reduce metastasis, but has only minimal impact on local recurrence. Although grade 3−4

  15. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    PubMed

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  16. Short-Term Periodicities in Solar Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the present communication is to identify the short-term (few tens of months) periodicities of several solar indices (sunspot number, Caii area and K index, Lyman α, 2800 MHz radio emission, coronal green-line index, solar magnetic field). The procedure used was: from the 3-month running means (3m) the 37-month running means (37m) were subtracted, and the factor (3m - 37m) was examined for several parameters. For solar indices, considerable fluctuations were seen during the ± 4 years around sunspot maxima of cycles 18-23, and virtually no fluctuations were seen in the ± 2 years around sunspot minima. The spacings between successive peaks were irregular but common for various solar indices. Assuming that there are stationary periodicities, a spectral analysis was carried out which indicated periodicities of months: 5.1 5.7, 6.2 7.0, 7.6 7.9, 8.9 9.6, 10.4 12.0, 12.8 13.4, 14.5 17.5, 22 25, 28 (QBO), 31 36 (QBO), 41 47 (QTO). The periodicities of 1.3 year (15.6 months) and 1.7 years (20.4 months) often mentioned in the literature were seen neither often nor prominently. Other periodicities occurred more often and more prominently. For the open magnetic flux estimated by Wang, Lean, and Sheeley (2000) and Wang and Sheeley (2002), it was noticed that the variations were radically different at different solar latitudes. The open flux for < 45∘ solar latitudes had variations very similar (parallel) to the sunspot cycle, while open flux for > 45∘ solar latitudes had variations anti-parallel to the sunspot cycle. The open fluxes, interplanetary magnetic field and cosmic rays, all showed periodicities similar to those of solar indices. Many peaks (but not all) matched, indicating that the open flux for < 45∘ solar latitudes was at least partially an adequate carrier of the solar characteristics to the interplanetary space and thence for galactic cosmic ray modulation.

  17. Periodically oscillating plasma sphere

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.; Nebel, R.A.; Stange, S.; Murali, S. Krupakar

    2005-05-15

    The periodically oscillating plasma sphere, or POPS, is a novel fusion concept first proposed by D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel [Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)]. POPS utilizes the self-similar collapse of an oscillating ion cloud in a spherical harmonic oscillator potential well formed by electron injection. Once the ions have been phase-locked, their coherent motion simultaneously produces very high densities and temperatures during the collapse phase of the oscillation. A requirement for POPS is that the electron injection produces a stable harmonic oscillator potential. This has been demonstrated in a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device and verified by particle simulation. Also, the POPS oscillation has been confirmed experimentally through observation that the ions in the potential well exhibit resonance behavior when driven at the POPS frequency. Excellent agreement between the observed POPS frequencies and the theoretical predictions has been observed for a wide range of potential well depths and three different ion species. Practical applications of POPS require large plasma compressions. These large compressions have been observed in particle simulations, although space charge neutralization remains a major issue.

  18. Long-term post-marketing surveillance of mizoribine for the treatment of lupus nephritis: Safety and efficacy during a 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kenya; Sudo, Yohei; Itoh, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Hisao; Kuroda, Tatsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of long-term use of mizoribine by undertaking a 3-year post-marketing surveillance study. Methods: Subjects were all lupus nephritis patients newly treated with mizoribine between 1 October 2003 and 30 September 2005 at contracted study sites. Results: Mizoribine was administered to 881 lupus nephritis patients in the safety analysis set consisting of 946 patients recruited from 281 contracted study sites after satisfying the eligibility criteria. There were 301 events of adverse drug reactions that were observed in 196 (20.7%) of the 946 subjects. There were 34 events of serious adverse drug reactions in 31 patients (3.2%). No deterioration in hematological and biochemical test values was observed, but immunological testing showed significant improvements in C3, CH50, and anti-DNA antibody titers. The negative rate of proteinuria also increased over time. The median steroid dosage was 15 mg/day at the commencement of treatment, but was reduced to 10 mg/day at 12 months and 8 mg/day at 36 months. Conclusion: The findings of the 3-year long-term drug use surveillance study indicated that mizoribine can be used over the long term with relatively few adverse drug reactions, suggesting its suitability for use in maintenance drug therapy. PMID:26770729

  19. Early response with dasatinib or imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia: 3-year follow-up from a randomized phase 3 trial (DASISION).

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Elias; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Saglio, Giuseppe; Steegmann, Juan Luis; Shah, Neil P; Boqué, Concepción; Chuah, Charles; Pavlovsky, Carolina; Mayer, Jirí; Cortes, Jorge; Baccarani, Michele; Kim, Dong-Wook; Bradley-Garelik, M Brigid; Mohamed, Hesham; Wildgust, Mark; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2014-01-23

    This analysis explores the impact of early cytogenetic and molecular responses on the outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) in the phase 3 DASatinib versus Imatinib Study In treatment-Naive CML patients trial with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP were randomized to receive 100 mg dasatinib (n = 259) or 400 mg imatinib (n = 260) once daily. The retrospective landmark analysis included patients evaluable at the relevant time point (3, 6, or 12 months). Median time to complete cytogenetic response was 3 vs 6 months with dasatinib vs imatinib. At 3 and 6 months, the proportion of patients with BCR-ABL transcript levels ≤10% was higher in the dasatinib arm. Deeper responses at 3, 6, and 12 months were observed in a higher proportion of patients on dasatinib therapy and were associated with better 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival in both arms. First-line dasatinib resulted in faster and deeper responses compared with imatinib. The achievement of an early molecular response was predictive of improved progression-free survival and overall survival, supporting new milestones for optimal response in patients with early CML-CP treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00481247. PMID:24311723

  20. Early response with dasatinib or imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia: 3-year follow-up from a randomized phase 3 trial (DASISION)

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias; Saglio, Giuseppe; Steegmann, Juan Luis; Shah, Neil P.; Boqué, Concepción; Chuah, Charles; Pavlovsky, Carolina; Mayer, Jiří; Cortes, Jorge; Baccarani, Michele; Kim, Dong-Wook; Bradley-Garelik, M. Brigid; Mohamed, Hesham; Wildgust, Mark; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This analysis explores the impact of early cytogenetic and molecular responses on the outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) in the phase 3 DASatinib versus Imatinib Study In treatment-Naive CML patients trial with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP were randomized to receive 100 mg dasatinib (n = 259) or 400 mg imatinib (n = 260) once daily. The retrospective landmark analysis included patients evaluable at the relevant time point (3, 6, or 12 months). Median time to complete cytogenetic response was 3 vs 6 months with dasatinib vs imatinib. At 3 and 6 months, the proportion of patients with BCR-ABL transcript levels ≤10% was higher in the dasatinib arm. Deeper responses at 3, 6, and 12 months were observed in a higher proportion of patients on dasatinib therapy and were associated with better 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival in both arms. First-line dasatinib resulted in faster and deeper responses compared with imatinib. The achievement of an early molecular response was predictive of improved progression-free survival and overall survival, supporting new milestones for optimal response in patients with early CML-CP treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00481247. PMID:24311723