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Sample records for 3-year period results

  1. Coincident 1.3-year Periodicities in the ap Geomagnetic Index and the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paularena, K. I.; Szabo, A.; Richardson, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent observations show an approximately 1.3-year period in the speed of the solar wind detected by the IMP 8 and Voyager 2 spacecraft. A similar period is also seen in the north-south (GSE) component of the magnetic field observed by IMP 8. Since both parameters are commonly used as input to models of geomagnetic activity, the 'ap' index (a measure of geomagnetic disturbance) is examined to look for this periodicity. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram method is used on the ap, plasma, and magnetic field data during the 1973-1994 time range. A dynamic FFT periodogram method is also used to analyze the ap data during this time, as well as to look for periods present between 1932 and 1972. A clear 1.3-year periodicity is present in the post-1986 data when the same period is observed in the plasma and field data. The V(2)B(zsm) and V(2)B(s) proxies for geomagnetic activity also show this periodicity. However, the southward (GSM) component of the magnetic field does not have a 1.3-year period, and neither do solar wind or ap data from 1973-1985. This demonstrates that the ap geomagnetic index can act as a proxy for solar wind periodicities at this time scale. Historic ap data are examined, and show that a similar periodicity in ap exists around 1942. Since auroral data show a 1.4-year periodicity, all these similar periods may result from a common underlying solar mechanism.

  2. Pipeline for uncoilable or failed aneurysms: 3-year follow-up results.

    PubMed

    Becske, Tibor; Potts, Matthew B; Shapiro, Maksim; Kallmes, David F; Brinjikji, Waleed; Saatci, Isil; McDougall, Cameron G; Szikora, István; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Moran, Christopher J; Woo, Henry H; Lopes, Demetrius K; Berez, Aaron L; Cher, Daniel J; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Fiorella, David J; Berentei, Zsolt; Marosföi, Miklós; Cekirge, Saruhan H; Nelson, Peter K

    2016-10-14

    late-onset hemorrhagic or ischemic cerebrovascular events or neurological deaths were observed in the 6-month through 3-year posttreatment period. Among 103 surviving patients, 85 underwent functional outcome assessment in which modified Rankin Scale scores of 0-1 were demonstrated in 80 subjects. CONCLUSIONS Pipeline embolization is safe and effective in the treatment of complex large and giant aneurysms of the intracranial internal carotid artery. Unlike more traditional endovascular treatments, flow diversion results in progressive vascular remodeling that leads to complete aneurysm obliteration over longer-term follow-up without delayed aneurysm recanalization and/or growth. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00777088 ( clinicaltrials.gov ).

  3. Primary prevention in health care employees: a prospective intervention study with a 3-year training period.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Harald; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas; Effendy, Isaak

    2006-04-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is a mayor problem in health care employees. Because educational programs have shown convincing success in certain occupations (e.g. in hairdressers), this study investigates the effect of a special training program in health care trainees. 521 trainees from 14 nursing schools in Central Germany were randomly divided in 2 groups, (i) an intervention group with a regular teaching protocol regarding all aspects of primary prevention and (ii) a control group without any further teaching. Morphological changes of the hands, use of hand care creams and knowledge regarding skin care were evaluated regularly during their 3 years lasting training period (1999-2002). In the intervention group, we found at the end of the 3-year training period a significant better skin condition of the hands than in the control group: a 3-year prevalence of morphological skin changes of 66.7% versus 89.3%. The unteached trainees (control group) had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.8 [95% confidential interval (CI): 2.9-7.8] for developing any skin changes on the hands after 3 years. Besides the effect of the teaching, the history of hand dermatitis before the study start was an independent risk factor for development of further hand dermatitis [OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.6). Age and sex showed no influence on the skin condition. Atopic constitution had an influence on the development of skin changes only at the evaluation after 18 month. The observed effect in the intervention group may best be explained by different behaviour of the trainees, e.g. the amount of hand washing was reduced, while procedure of hand disinfection remained unchanged compared with the control group. However, the amount of used skin care cream did not differ between the both groups. This study shows that primary prevention of skin disease by regularly teaching during the training period of medical employees can effectively reduce the risk of development of irritant skin changes of the hands. Therefore

  4. Living with diabetes—Development of learning patterns over a 3-year period

    PubMed Central

    Kneck, Åsa; Fagerberg, Ingegerd; Eriksson, Lars E.; Lundman, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning involves acquiring new knowledge and skills, and changing our ways of thinking, acting, and feeling. Learning in relation to living with diabetes is a lifelong process where there is limited knowledge of how it is experienced and established over time. It was considered important to explore how learning was developed over time for persons living with diabetes. Aim The aim of the study was to identify patterns in learning when living with diabetes, from recently being diagnosed, and over a 3-year period. Materials and methods A longitudinal qualitative descriptive design was used. Thirteen participants, with both type I and type II diabetes, were interviewed at three different occasions during a 3-year period. Qualitative content analysis was used in different steps in order to distinguish patterns. Findings Five main patterns of learning were identified. Two of the patterns (I and II) were characterized by gradually becoming comfortable living with diabetes, whereas for one pattern (IV) living with diabetes became gradually more difficult. For pattern V living with diabetes was making only a limited impact on life, whereas for Pattern III there was a constant management of obstacles related to illness. The different patterns in the present study showed common and different ways of learning and using different learning strategies at different timespans. Conclusion The present study showed that duration of illness is not of importance for how far a person has come in his own learning process. A person-centered care is needed to meet the different and changing needs of persons living with diabetes in relation to learning to live with a lifelong illness. PMID:25030359

  5. Class V lesions restored with four different tooth-colored materials--3-year results.

    PubMed

    Folwaczny, M; Loher, C; Mehl, A; Kunzelmann, K H; Hickel, R

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the treatment results using four different types of tooth colored materials for restoring class V lesions. A total of 197 class V restorations (n = 197) were placed by one dentist in 37 patients on incisors, canines and premolars. The fillings were placed due to different indications: erosion/non-carious cervical defects (n = 69), primary carious lesions (n = 57), and for replacing defective existing fillings (n = 71). The teeth were assigned on a random basis to four groups for restoration with either a composite (group 1: n = 36; Tetric, Vivadent), or a polyacid-modified resin composite (group 2: n = 79; Dyract, Dentsply), or one of two different resin-modified glass ionomer cements (group 3: n = 51, Fuji II LC,GC; group 4: n = 31, Photac-Fil, Espe). The restorations were evaluated by a single-blind design, according to a modified USPHS system 36 months following placement. Statistical analysis was completed with the Pearson Chi-square test for comparing the results of the four groups (P < 0.05). Additionally, the survival rates were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the Log-rank test (P < 0.05). The Alpha ratings were as follows (Tetric/Dyract/Fuji II LC/Photac Fil): shade match (86%/77%/58%/40%), surface texture (81%/83%/16%/9%), marginal integrity (enamel) (73%/67%/61%/61%), marginal integrity (dentin) (86%/70%/55%/61%), marginal discoloration (enamel) (59%/44%/58%/52%), marginal discoloration (dentin) (82%/84%/71%/48%), anatomic contours (91%/83%/39%/35%). One Tetric restoration, five Dyract restorations, two Fuji II LC restorations and three Photac restorations were dislodged within the study period. The retention of the restorations showed no significant difference among the four materials. However, the clinical performance of the restorations retained over the 3-year period showed distinct differences for the four materials. The best clinical performance was observed for the resin composite, whereas the

  6. Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field variations with periods in the range of 10 days to 3 years

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, A.; Lepping, R.P.; King, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field data collected primarily by the IMP-8 spacecraft near Earth has been analyzed by a dynamic periodogram method in search of significant periodicities in the range of 10 days to 3 years. The method has the advantage of detecting variations with time in the periodicities besides determining the power and phase of the dominant variations. It has been found that the well known periodicities near 1 year and 27 days are strongly modulated by the solar cycle. Both of these periodicities are only detected during solar minimum. During solar maximum. a number of unusual variations are observed. Special emphasis will be placed on the recently reported 1.3 year variation in solar wind parameters besides periods in the interplanetary magnetic field near 51, 73 and 154 days. Correlations with solar wind plasma and solar index variations will also be presented.

  7. Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field variations with periods in the range of 10 days to 3 years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, A.; Lepping, R. P.; King, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field data collected primarily by the IMP-8 spacecraft near Earth has been analyzed by a dynamic periodogram method in search of significant periodicities in the range of 10 days to 3 years. The method has the advantage of detecting variations with time in the periodicities besides determining the power and phase of the dominant variations. It has been found that the well known periodicities near 1 year and 27 days are strongly modulated by the solar cycle. Both of these periodicities are only detected during solar minimum. During solar maximum. a number of unusual variations are observed. Special emphasis will be placed on the recently reported 1.3 year variation in solar wind parameters besides periods in the interplanetary magnetic field near 51, 73 and 154 days. Correlations with solar wind plasma and solar index variations will also be presented.

  8. Rare Perilunate Injury as a Result of Chronic Trauma in 3-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl was reported to have perilunate dislocation. The child had suffered, approximately 18 months before, a repetitive wrist injury by means of frequent pulling and bending of the hand by the father who may have physically abused the child for approximately 2 months. At the age of 3 years and 4 months, we performed the reduction of the perilunate dislocation and the plasty of the dorsal scapholunate ligament using the capsular flap prepared from the extensor retinaculum. The wrist was immobilized for 6 weeks. Two months after surgery, patient started the physiotherapy for 3 months. The patient could flex up the wrist to 40 degrees and extend up to 45 degrees (mobility of the healthy wrist was 60, 50 degrees) during the examination 24 months' post-op. Only the surgical treatment of the perilunate dislocation can lead to obtain the good surgical result. PMID:26788457

  9. [3-year results of clinical and immunological monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis treated by copaxone].

    PubMed

    Orlova, Iu Iu; Alifirova, V M; Cherdyntseva, N V; Zagrebina, I A; Bychkova, I V

    2005-01-01

    Tipe 1 T-helper cells are of importance in development of multiple sclerosis (MS). Copaxone (TEVA, Israel) is one of the preventive drugs, which modifies T-helpers activity. Thirty-three patients with MS were treated by copaxone for 2 years and 13 patients--for 3 years. Clinical and immunological parameters were examined: amount of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, CD22+, CD95+, CD25+ lymphocytes, HLA-D+ cells, IgG, IgA, IgM and phagocytosis. During the treatment course, mean rate of relapses decreased from the pretreatment value from 1.26 +/- 0.11 to 0.59 +/- 0.11 in the first year and 0.28 +/- 0.07 in the second one. After 3 years no relapses were observed in 13 patients. Relapse rate was the highest in the first 3-6 months. But after 3 months there was an increase of CD22+ cells that persisted for all the period of the study. After a year of the treatment, a level of IgM, IgG, IgA and CD95+ cells has raised significantly, with decreasing of a number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. The authors suggest that immunological shift is related to mechanism of copaxone action determining its positive effect i.e. reducing of frequency of MS relapses.

  10. Modular stem fixed-bearing total ankle replacement: prospective results of 23 consecutive cases with 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Brigido, Stephen A; Galli, Melissa M; Bleazey, Scott T; Protzman, Nicole M

    2014-01-01

    In the present report, the 3-year outcomes of 23 consecutive patients treated with a modular stem fixed-bearing total ankle replacement are described. Pain, functional impairment, and disability were assessed annually using a visual analog scale. Complications and additional procedures also were recorded. Compared with preoperative pain (8.4 ± 1.4), functional impairment (8.7 ± 2.3), and disability (3.0 ± 2.5), there were statistically significant postoperative improvements at 1 year (pain, 2.6 ± 1.6; functional impairment, 3.1 ± 2.1; disability, 0.9 ± 1.2), 2 years (pain, 1.5 ± 1.3; functional impairment, 1.9 ± 1.4; disability, 0.6 ± 1.4), and 3 years (pain, 1.3 ± 1.3; functional impairment, 1.9 ± 1.9; disability, 0.4 ± 0.9; p ≤ .001). Pain, function, and disability significantly improved postoperatively from 1 to 2 years (p ≤ .008) and from 1 to 3 years (p ≤ .008). The reductions in pain, functional impairment, and disability were maintained from 2 to 3 years (p ≥ .08). Nine complications (39.1%) were encountered: 1 deep infection, 2 pulmonary embolisms, 3 wounds, 1 ectopic bone formation, 1 stiff joint, and 1 talar subsidence. In the 3-year follow-up period, 3 patients (13.0%) required additional procedures after the immediate postoperative phase. Our results have demonstrated that modular stem fixed-bearing prostheses can be implanted in a predictable and consistent fashion with resultant improvements in pain, function, and disability. Future studies evaluating the clinical outcomes after modular stem fixed-bearing total ankle replacement are warranted.

  11. Longitudinal association of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period and child obesity at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Sonneville, Kendrin R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Oken, Emily; Peterson, Karen E; Gortmaker, Steven L; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2011-10-01

    The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother-infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss strategy used. Using covariate-adjusted linear and logistic regression models, we estimated associations before and after adjusting for maternal weight-related variables including prepregnancy BMI. At 6 months postpartum, 53% mothers were trying to lose weight. At age 3 years, mean (s.d.) child BMI z-score was 0.44 (1.01) and 8.9% of children were obese. Children whose mothers were trying to lose weight at 6 months postpartum had higher BMI z-scores (0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18, 0.42)) and were more likely to be obese (3.0 (95% CI 1.6, 5.8)) at 3 years of age. Addition of maternal prepregnancy BMI to the models attenuated but did not eliminate the associations seen for BMI z-score (0.24 (95% CI 0.12, 0.36) and obesity (2.4 (95% CI 1.2, 4.7)). Attempting to lose weight by exercising alone was the only weight loss strategy that consistently predicted higher child BMI z-score (0.36 (95% CI 0.14, 0.58)) and odds of obesity (6.0 (95% CI 2.2, 16.5)) at age 3 years. In conclusion, we observed an association between maternal attempt to lose weight at 6 months postpartum, particularly through exercise alone, measured using a single item and child adiposity at age 3 years. This association should be thoroughly examined in future studies.

  12. Patterns of nonfatal heroin overdose over a 3-year period: findings from the Australian treatment outcome study.

    PubMed

    Darke, Shane; Williamson, Anna; Ross, Joanne; Mills, Katherine L; Havard, Alys; Teesson, Maree

    2007-03-01

    To determine annual patterns and correlates of nonfatal heroin overdose across 3 years, data were analyzed on 387 heroin users recruited for the Australian Treatment Outcome Study (ATOS), interviewed at 12, 24, and 36 months. A heroin overdose across follow-up was reported by 18.6%, and naloxone had been administered to 11.9%. Annual rates of overdose declined between baseline and 12 months and then remained stable. Previous overdose experience was strongly related to subsequent overdose. Those with a history of overdose before ATOS were significantly more likely to overdose during the study period. In particular, there was a strong association between overdose experience in any 1 year and increased overdose risk in the subsequent year. This is the first study to examine long-term annual trends in nonfatal heroin overdose. While overdose rates declined after extensive treatment, substantial proportions continued to overdose in each year, and this was strongly associated with overdose history.

  13. The Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment. VI - Results for carbon tetrachloride based on 3 years data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, P. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cardelino, C. A.; Cunnold, D. M.; Crawford, A. J.; Rasmussen, R. A.; Lane, B. C.; Lovelock, J. E.; Prinn, R. G.

    1983-10-01

    The automated electron capture gas chromatographic determination of the atmospheric concentrations of CCl4 are reported for the period July 1978 to June 1981 at five coastal monitoring stations, Adrigole (Ireland), Cape Meares (Oregon), Ragged Point (Barbados, West Indies), Point Matatula (American Samoa), and Cape Grim (Tasmania). Daily measurements at approximately 6-hourly intervals are always complemented by an equivalent number of on-site calibration measurements. Estimates of CCl4 emissions to the atmosphere from known industrial sources are compared with the measured trends and the absolute values of the observed concentrations. A globally averaged atmospheric lifetime for CCl4 is calculated by using an optimal estimation technique incorporating a nine-box model of the atmosphere. The average global concentration of CCl4 from July 1978 to June 1981 in the lower troposphere was 118 pptv, and it was increasing 2.1 pptv/year over this period. Both the absolute concentration observed and its trend are consistent with the calculated releases of CCl4 and its expected destruction by stratospheric photolysis.

  14. Degree Angular Scale Interferometer 3 Year Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitch, E. M.; Kovac, J. M.; Halverson, N. W.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Pryke, C.; Smith, M. W. E.

    2005-05-01

    We present the analysis of the complete 3 yr data set obtained with the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI) polarization experiment, operating from the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station. New data obtained at the end of the 2002 austral winter and throughout the 2003 season were added to the data from which the first detection of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation was reported. The analysis of the combined data supports, with increased statistical power, all of the conclusions drawn from the initial data set. In particular, the detection of E-mode polarization is increased to the 6.3 σ confidence level, TE cross-polarization is detected at 2.9 σ, and B-mode polarization is consistent with zero, with an upper limit well below the level of the detected E-mode polarization. The results are in excellent agreement with the predictions of the cosmological model that has emerged from CMB temperature measurements. The analysis also demonstrates that contamination of the data by known sources of foreground emission is insignificant.

  15. Sulphur dioxide in meat products: 3-year control results of an accredited Italian laboratory.

    PubMed

    Iammarino, Marco; Ientile, Anna Rita; Di Taranto, Aurelia

    2017-06-01

    Sulphiting agents are well-known food preservatives. The European legislation does not allow their addition in fresh meat preparations. Therefore this type of food products has often been verified. To high sulphite levels in food is a health safety risk, due to toxic effects that these compounds may exercise on humans. In this study the control activity as performed by an Italian accredited laboratory from 2013 to 2015, relating to determination of sulphites in meat products, is described. Six hundred and sixty-nine meat product samples were analysed. Both applied techniques, a screening method (malachite green test) and a confirmatory method (ion chromatography), were accredited. Forty-three samples resulted positive at screening test and nineteen of these samples showed high-sulphite concentrations, in the range 67.6-1437 mg kg(-1). The non-negligible percentage of positives (6.4%) and the high concentrations verified confirmed that the control of sulphuring treatment of fresh meat preparations is an important task for organisations in charge of food inspections and control.

  16. Results from the Astronomy Diagnostic Test: 3 Years at MiraCosta College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirbaugh French, Rica

    2007-12-01

    The Astronomy Diagnostic Test 2.0 (ADT) was administered to 26 sections of ASTR 101 at MiraCosta College (MCC) from fall 2004 through summer 2007. MiraCosta is a two-year community college located in Oceanside, CA, USA (roughly 40 miles north of San Diego) with an enrollment of approximately 11,000 students. ASTR 101 is MiraCosta's introductory astronomy survey course for non-science majors and has no math prerequisite. Class sizes ranged from 10 to 38 students. Comparison with the ADT National Project results indicates similar pre- and post-course averages: 31.8% (MCC) vs. 32.4% (National) for pre-course tests and 49.3% (MCC) vs. 47.3% (National) for post-course tests. The sample sizes are 709 and 530 students for the pre- and post-tests, respectively. The normalized gain for the entire data set is 0.256 and the effect size (ES) is 1.04, meaning that approximately 85% of the post-test scores are above the average of the pre-test scores. Previous studies have shown the ADT to be a reliable indicator of pre-course misconceptions while post-course scores are useful for comparing modes of instruction and assessing student learning on a limited number of concepts. Additional analyses of the MCC data probe for trends with variables such as gender, class size, and implementation of materials designed for a more "learner-centered” approach (such as Lecture Tutorials, Ranking Tasks, and Think-Pair-Share questions), as well as gains for a particular subset of concepts.

  17. Tissue integration of one-stage ITI implants: 3-year results of a longitudinal study with Hollow-Cylinder and Hollow-Screw implants.

    PubMed

    Buser, D; Weber, H P; Bragger, U; Balsiger, C

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the tissue integration of one-stage, nonsubmerged ITI implants over a period of 3 years. Fifty-four implants were placed in 38 partially edentulous patients. Following healing (at least 3 months), all 54 implants were free of peri-implant infections and revealed no detectable mobility. Radiographs showed no signs of peri-implant radiolucencies, and the implants were in favorable positions for prosthetic restoration. Following incorporation of fixed partial dentures, patients were enrolled in a hygiene recall program with 3-month intervals and were examined once a year. Based on predefined criteria, each implant was classified as successful or failing. After the 3-year observation period, 51 of 53 implants (96.2%) were considered successfully integrated. (One patient with one implant dropped out of the study.) Two implants exhibited recurrent peri-implant infections and were classified as late failures. These results indicate that one-stage ITI implants can achieve successful tissue integration on a predictable basis and that it can be maintained over a period of at least 3 years.

  18. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices.

    PubMed

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-04-13

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries' National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013-2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories.

  19. The Harris-Galante cementless acetabular component: results in 190 cases with at least 3 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Claus, B; Van Innis, B; De Witte, E; Van Overschelde, J; Magotteaux, B; Fatemi, F; Vandepaer, F

    1993-01-01

    The results of 190 primary total hip arthroplasties with a Harris-Galante cementless acetabular cup were reviewed. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 3 years (range, 3 to 5.5 years, mean 46 months). Clinical and radiographical analysis was performed. Inguinal pain was recorded in five cases. We noted a fracture of a screw in four cases without further implications. There was no evidence of acetabular loosening. There was no migration of the acetabular cup. No acetabular component showed measurable wear of the polyethylene liner. Non-progressive radiolucent lines were recorded in 14% of the patients: among these patients, radiolucent lines were noted in zone 1 in 46%, in zone 2 in 4% and in zone 3 in 86%. Two socket revisions became necessary. One patient suffered a deep-seated infection. Another revision was necessary because of recurrent dislocation.

  20. Do autistic symptoms persist across time? Evidence of substantial change in symptomatology over a 3-year period in cognitively able children with autism.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the extent and nature of changes in symptomatology in cognitively able children with autism over a 3-year period. Thirty-seven children diagnosed with an autism spectrum condition involved in an earlier study (M age  =  5 years, 7 months) were followed and reassessed 3 years later (M age  =  8 years, 4 months). Scores on the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; M. Rutter, A. Bailey, & C. Lord, 2003 ) decreased significantly over time in all symptom domains but especially in the social domain, and correlational findings suggested the presence of 2 distinct developmental trajectories-social communication and repetitive behaviors-that interact across time. Furthermore, 7 children (19% of sample) made substantial changes to the extent that they failed to meet criteria on diagnostic instruments (the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic [ADOS-G; C. Lord, M. Rutter, P. C. DiLavore, & S. Risi, 1999 ] and the SCQ) 3 years later. Children showing diagnostic discontinuity were distinguishable from those who fulfilled ADOS-G criteria only in terms of the age at which they began receiving intervention. The presence of a significant proportion of children showing considerable progress over the 3-year period challenges assumptions of diagnostic continuity and highlights the potential long-term benefits of early intervention.

  1. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae ST37 clinical isolates producing plasmid-mediated AmpC recovered over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Illiaquer, Marina; Caroff, Nathalie; Bémer, Pascale; Aubin, Guillaume G; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Lepelletier, Didier; Reynaud, Alain; Corvec, Stéphane

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the clinical and microbiological epidemiology of AmpC plasmidic cephalosporinases (pAmpC) in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains resistant to ceftazidime, during a 3-year period (2007-2009). Among 1505 K. pneumoniae, 7 were pAmpC producers. Molecular characterization revealed the spread of a ST37 strain producing DHA-1 within intensive care units and the diffusion of the same plasmid among unrelated strains.

  2. Toxicological findings in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Scott-Ham, Michael; Burton, Fiona C

    2005-08-01

    This paper outlines the toxicology results from 1014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) analysed at the Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs. The results were interpreted with respect to the number of drugs detected and an attempt was made to distinguish between voluntary and involuntary ingestion from information supplied. Alcohol (either alone or with an illicit and/or medicinal drug) was detected in 470 of all cases (46%). Illicit drugs were detected in 344 cases (34%), with cannabis being the most commonly detected (26% of cases), followed by cocaine (11%). In 21 cases (2%), a sedative or disinhibiting drug was detected which had not been admitted and could therefore be an instance of deliberate spiking. This included three cases in which complainants were allegedly given Ecstasy (MDMA) without their knowledge. Other drugs detected included gammahydroxybutyrate (GHB) and the benzodiazepine drugs diazepam and temazepam. Another nine cases (1%) involved the complainant being either given or forced to ingest pharmaceutical tablets or an illicit drug.

  3. An infant oral health programme in Goiânia-GO, Brazil: results after 3 years of establishment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Batista Borges; do Carmo Matias Freire, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the outcomes of an infant oral health programme 3 years after implementation, a programme focused on health education for parents and caries prevention methods for children in a baby clinic. A retrospective cohort study was carried out. The setting was the Infant Oral Health Programme developed at the baby clinic of the State Department of Health, Goiânia-GO, Brazil. The sample comprised 100 children who entered the programme from birth to 12 months and were followed for 2 to 3 years. Variables investigated were caries experience, caries risk, and children's behaviour in the dental clinic. The number of children with caries experience was 1 at the initial visit and 8 after the follow-up. There was a dramatic decrease in the number of children in the high risk group, from 51% at the initial visit to only 1% after 2 to 3 years. Children's behaviour in the dental clinic was according to their psychological development. It was concluded that the Infant Oral Health Programme in Goiânia showed positive outcomes after 3 years of establishment. Further investigations should evaluate the cost-benefit, as well as the effectiveness of the procedures used in the programme.

  4. Results of a 3-Year, Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention for Children in Rural, Low-Socioeconomic Status Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kristi McClary; Ling, Jiying

    2015-01-01

    Improving children's nutrition and physical activity have become priorities in the United States. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a 3-year, school-based, health promotion intervention (i.e. nutrition and physical education, classroom physical activity, professional development and health promotion for teachers…

  5. Physical activity and academic achievement across the curriculum: Results from a 3-year cluster-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Joseph E; Hillman, Charles H; Greene, Jerry L; Hansen, David M; Gibson, Cheryl A; Sullivan, Debra K; Poggio, John; Mayo, Matthew S; Lambourne, Kate; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Herrmann, Stephen D; Honas, Jeffery J; Scudder, Mark R; Betts, Jessica L; Henley, Katherine; Hunt, Suzanne L; Washburn, Richard A

    2017-02-11

    We compared changes in academic achievement across 3years between children in elementary schools receiving the Academic Achievement and Physical Activity Across the Curriculum intervention (A+PAAC), in which classroom teachers were trained to deliver academic lessons using moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to a non-intervention control. Elementary schools in eastern Kansas (n=17) were cluster randomized to A+PAAC (N=9, target ≥100min/week) or control (N=8). Academic achievement (math, reading, spelling) was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition (WIAT-III) in a sample of children (A+PAAC=316, Control=268) in grades 2 and 3 at baseline (Fall 2011) and repeated each spring across 3years. On average 55min/week of A+PACC lessons were delivered each week across the intervention. Baseline WIAT-III scores (math, reading, spelling) were significantly higher in students in A+PAAC compared with control schools and improved in both groups across 3years. However, linear mixed modeling, accounting for baseline between group differences in WIAT-III scores, ethnicity, family income, and cardiovascular fitness, found no significant impact of A+PAAC on any of the academic achievement outcomes as determined by non-significant group by time interactions. A+PAAC neither diminished or improved academic achievement across 3-years in elementary school children compared with controls. Our target of 100min/week of active lessons was not achieved; however, students attending A+PAAC schools received an additional 55min/week of MVPA which may be associated with both physical and mental health benefits, without a reduction in time devoted to academic instruction.

  6. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  7. Conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus at 4.5 months posttransplant: 3-year results from the randomized ZEUS study.

    PubMed

    Budde, K; Lehner, F; Sommerer, C; Arns, W; Reinke, P; Eisenberger, U; Wüthrich, R P; Scheidl, S; May, C; Paulus, E-M; Mühlfeld, A; Wolters, H H; Pressmar, K; Stahl, R; Witzke, O

    2012-06-01

    The long-term effect of conversion from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy to an mTOR inhibitor requires clarification. Following completion of the 12-month, open-label, multicenter ZEUS study, in which 300 kidney transplant recipients were randomized to continue cyclosporine (CsA) or convert to everolimus at 4.5 months posttransplant, outcomes were assessed at month 36 (n = 284; 94.7%). CNI therapy was reintroduced in 28.4% of everolimus patients by month 36. The primary efficacy endpoint, estimated glomerular filtration rate (Nankivell, ANCOVA) was significantly higher with everolimus versus the CsA group at month 24 (7.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , 95%CI 4.3, 11.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ; p < 0.001) and month 36 (7.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , 95%CI 3.6, 11.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ; p < 0.001). The incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection from randomization to month 36 was 13.0% in the everolimus arm and 4.8% in the CsA arm (p = 0.015). Patient and graft survival, as well as incidences of malignancy, severe infections and hospitalization, were similar between groups. Kidney transplant patients who are converted from CsA to everolimus at month 4.5 and who remain on everolimus thereafter may achieve a significant improvement in renal function that is maintained to 3 years. There was a significantly higher rate of rejection in the everolimus arm but this did not exert a deleterious effect by 3 years posttransplant.

  8. Risk for Sleep Disorder Measured during Students' First College Semester May Predict Institutional Retention and Grade Point Average over a 3-Year Period, with Indirect Effects through Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2016-01-01

    The present study used a validated survey to assess freshmen college students' sleep patterns and risk for sleep disorders and then examined associations with retention and grade point average (GPA) over a 3-year period. Students at risk for a sleep disorder were more likely to leave the institution over the 3-year period, although this…

  9. Seasonal and interannual variations of carbon and oxygen isotopes of respired CO2 in a tallgrass prairie: Measurements and modeling results from 3 years with contrasting water availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Riley, William; Owensby, Clenton; Ham, Jay; Schauer, Andrew; Ehleringer, James R.

    2006-04-01

    We made weekly measurements of carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes of atmospheric CO2 in a C3/C4 tallgrass prairie during the growing season for 3 years with contrasting soil moisture conditions. Air samples above and within canopies were collected using 100-ml flasks at night to characterize isotopic composition of ecosystem respiration. We used a two-source mixing line (Keeling plot) approach to estimate isotope ratios of ecosystem respired CO2 for both carbon (δ13CR) and oxygen (δ18OR). Measured net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) showed the largest net carbon uptake in 2004, followed by 2003 and 2002. This interannual difference in NEE strongly depends on the amount and distribution of precipitation received by this tallgrass prairie. Precipitation also affects the timing of the seasonal transition from C3 dominance in spring to C4 dominance in summer. Variations of δ13CR showed that C4 plants dominated ecosystem respiration in 2003 and 2004, except in early spring when C3 plants were more active. In contrast, contributions of C3 plants were relatively higher for an extended period in the summer of 2002, when a severe drought occurred. Typically, C3 forbs extract water and nutrients from soil layers below that of the C4 grasses and remain photosynthetically active in periods when C4 grasses have water stress that limits photosynthesis. Drought-reduced C4 grass photosynthesis was lower than temperature-limited C3 forb growth during this period. We used an integrated isotope land surface model (ISOLSM) to simulate (and compare to measurements) net CO2 fluxes, δ18O values of leaf and soil water, and δ18O values of aboveground and soil respiration. The Keeling plot analysis becomes less reliable for estimating δ18OR values when the surface soil is dry. We suspect this is due to low CO2 production in the soil when water is limiting, in which case the invasion (abiotic) effect is more significant. ISOLSM reasonably captured seasonal variations of measured

  10. Scheduling periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1987-01-01

    One approach to avoid timing faults in hard, real-time systems is to make available intermediate, imprecise results produced by real-time processes. When a result of the desired quality cannot be produced in time, an imprecise result of acceptable quality produced before the deadline can be used. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. Since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result, the amount of processor time assigned to any task in a valid schedule can be less than the amount of time required to complete the task. A meaningful formulation of the scheduling problem must take into account the overall quality of the results. Depending on the different types of undesirable effects caused by errors, jobs are classified as type N or type C. For type N jobs, the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative. A reasonable performance measure is the average error over all jobs. Three heuristic algorithms that lead to feasible schedules with small average errors are described. For type C jobs, the undesirable effects of errors produced in different periods are cumulative. Schedulability criteria of type C jobs are discussed.

  11. Scheduling periodic jobs that allow imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Jen-Yao; Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1990-01-01

    The problem of scheduling periodic jobs in hard real-time systems that support imprecise computations is discussed. Two workload models of imprecise computations are presented. These models differ from traditional models in that a task may be terminated any time after it has produced an acceptable result. Each task is logically decomposed into a mandatory part followed by an optional part. In a feasible schedule, the mandatory part of every task is completed before the deadline of the task. The optional part refines the result produced by the mandatory part to reduce the error in the result. Applications are classified as type N and type C, according to undesirable effects of errors. The two workload models characterize the two types of applications. The optional parts of the tasks in an N job need not ever be completed. The resulting quality of each type-N job is measured in terms of the average error in the results over several consecutive periods. A class of preemptive, priority-driven algorithms that leads to feasible schedules with small average error is described and evaluated.

  12. Incidence of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Italy: Results from a 3-years population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Iannazzo, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes Zoster (HZ) and its main complication, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), represent important public health issues because of their relevant burden among older adults. However, data on the epidemiology of HZ and PHN in Italy are very limited. A population-based study was performed by seeking for cases of HZ and PHN, occurred in the period 2013-2015, in the clinical charts of 56 General Practitioners working in 4 Italian Regions (Liguria, Puglia, Toscana and Veneto). The main objective of the study was to estimate the incidence of HZ and the proportion of PHN (at 1 and 3 mo from the onset of HZ; PHN1 and PHN3) among people aged ≥ 50 y. Overall, 598 cases of HZ were identified over 93,146 person-years of observation, thus corresponding to an overall incidence of 6.42 (IC95%: 5.93 – 6.95) HZ cases per 1,000 person-years. The incidence of HZ increased with age and was higher in female than in male. In total, 22.7%, 12.7%, and 2.4% of HZ cases suffered PHN at 1 and 3 mo and 1 y from the onset of acute episode. The proportions of these complications significantly increased with age, with the peak occurring in people aged ≥ 85 y. Four per cent of patients suffered ophthalmic zoster. The study provided an update of the epidemiological burden of HZ and PHN in Italy, confirming the relevant burden of the disease in the elderly population. The study was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013. PMID:27925843

  13. 3-year results of transvaginal cystocele repair with transobturator four-arm mesh: A prospective study of 105 patients

    PubMed Central

    Kdous, Moez; Zhioua, Fethi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of transobturator four-arm mesh for treating cystoceles. Patients and methods In this prospective study, 105 patients had a cystocele corrected between January 2004 and December 2008. All patients had a symptomatic cystocele of stage ⩾2 according to the Baden–Walker halfway stratification. We used only the transobturator four-arm mesh kit (Surgimesh®, Aspide Medical, France). All surgical procedures were carried out by the same experienced surgeon. The patients’ characteristics and surgical variables were recorded prospectively. The anatomical outcome, as measured by a physical examination and postoperative stratification of prolapse, and functional outcome, as assessed by a questionnaire derived from the French equivalents of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse–Urinary Incontinence-Sexual Questionnaire, were considered as the primary outcome measures. Peri- and postoperative complications constituted the secondary outcome measures. Results At 36 months after surgery the anatomical success rate (stage 0 or 1) was 93%. On a functional level, all the scores of quality of life and sexuality were improved. The overall satisfaction score (visual analogue scale) was 71.4%. There were no perioperative adverse events. Mesh erosion was reported in 7.6% and mesh retraction in 5.7% of the patients. Conclusions If the guidelines and precautions are followed, vaginal prosthetic surgery for genitourinary prolapse has shown long-term benefits. It provides excellent results both anatomically and functionally. However, complications are not negligible and some are specific to prosthetic surgery. PMID:26019962

  14. Results from a 3-year deficit irrigation experiment with drip-irrigated maize to improve water productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, Sebastian; Schütze, Niels; Grundmann, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Water for irrigation farming is severely limited in arid and semi-arid regions, hence reliable and robust strategies are needed that allow to use the available resources efficiently. Controlled deficit irrigation (DI) is one strategy that can help to use water in an effective way while still ensuring considerable yields from harvest. It needs precise irrigation control however where sensors are used to determine when to irrigate. Therefore, thresholds that trigger irrigation need to be chosen carefully. An irrigation experiment with drip-irrigated maize was conducted in three consecutive years (2010-2012) where different controlled DI strategies were tested. The experiments took place in a greenhouse at TU München in Freising, Germany, and comprised treatments with constant and varying irrigation thresholds throughout the growing season, which were compared to fully irrigated reference treatments. Thresholds were determined in soil tension as it is closely related to the working principle behind plant transpiration and treatments evaluated with regard to their water productivity (WP - yield over applied irrigation water). The irrigation thresholds were determined prior to the experiment by a stochastic simulation-based framework that consisted of a weather generator, the crop growth model Daisy, and an optimization algorithm for finding optimal thresholds under limiting water supply. Achieved results show similar or better WP compared to the reference and generally high WP compared to values from literature which suggests this methodology is a promising approach to improve WP.

  15. Nitinol stent implantation for femoropopliteal disease in patients on hemodialysis: results of the 3-year retrospective multicenter APOLLON study.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Masahiko; Higashimori, Akihiro; Kato, Yoshihiro; Taniguchi, Hiromasa; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Amano, Tomonori; Sumiyoshi, Akinori; Nishiya, Daisuke; Yokoi, Yoshiaki

    2016-09-01

    The clinical outcomes of nitinol stents for femoropopliteal arterial (FP) disease in patients on hemodialysis were assessed. Endovascular therapy (EVT) is accepted for symptomatic FP disease. However, the clinical outcomes of patients on dialysis are not well known. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted with data between November 2010 and August 2013. A total of 484 consecutive patients who successfully underwent EVT for FP disease with nitinol stents were recruited and analyzed. Patients were categorized into the hemodialysis group (N = 161) and non-hemodialysis group (N = 323). The primary measure was primary patency verified by duplex ultrasound at a rest peak systolic velocity (PSVR) of >2.5, and secondary measures were freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR) and major amputation-free survival (AFS). Average follow-up duration was 19.5 ± 13.5 months. The primary patency rate at 3 years was significantly lower in the hemodialysis group than the non-hemodialysis group (33.8 vs. 43.7 %; p = 0.036). Freedom from TLR at 3 years was 55.0 % in the hemodialysis group and 66.1 % in the non-hemodialysis group (p = 0.032). The hemodialysis group showed a significantly lower AFS rate at 3 years than the non-hemodialysis group (86.4 vs. 58.2 %; p < 0.001). In hemodialysis patients, nitinol stent use resulted in a lower patency rate, higher TLR rate, and lower AFS rate compared to non-hemodialysis patients. These data suggest that nitinol stent implantation for FP arteries in hemodialysis patient needs to be reconsidered.

  16. Lymphoma in patients treated with anti-TNF: results of the 3-year prospective French RATIO registry

    PubMed Central

    Mariette, Xavier; Tubach, Florence; Bagheri, Haleh; Bardet, Michel; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Gaudin, Philippe; Heresbach, Denis; Martin, Antoine; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Salmon, Dominique; Lemann, Marc; Hermine, Olivier; Raphael, Martine; Ravaud, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe cases of lymphoma associated with anti-TNF therapy, identify risk factors, estimate the incidence and compare risks for different anti-TNF agents. Methods We designed a national prospective registry (RATIO) from 2004 to 2006, for collecting all cases of lymphoma in French patients receiving anti-TNF therapy, whatever the indication. We conducted a case-control analysis including two controls treated with anti-TNF per case and an incidence study of lymphoma with the French population used as reference.. Results We collected 38 cases of lymphoma, 31 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) (26 B-cell and 5 T-cell), 5 Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and 2 Hodgkin’s-like lymphoma. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected in 2 of 2 Hodgkin’s-like lymphoma, 3 of 5 HL and one NHL. Patients receiving adalimumab or infliximab had a higher risk than those treated with etanercept: SIR = 4.1 (2.3–7.1) and 3.6 (2.3–5.6) versus 0.9 (0.4– 1.8). The exposure to adalimumab or infliximab versus etanercept was an independent risk factor for lymphoma in the case-control study: odds ratio=4.7 (1.3– 17.7) and 4.1 (1.4–12.5), respectively. The sex and age- adjusted incidence rate of lymphoma was 42.1 per 100,000 patient-years. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–3.2). Conclusion Some lymphomas associated with immunosuppression may occur in patients receiving anti TNF therapy, and the risk of lymphoma is higher with monoclonal-antibody therapy than with soluble-receptor therapy. PMID:19828563

  17. Helping Italian science teachers to make earth and climate active lessons. Results of 3 years support with the ICLEEN project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattadori, M.

    2013-12-01

    collaboration with the University of Trento dealing with the effectiveness of the service as well as the usability of the graphic user interface (GUI). The present work aims to illustrate the essential features of the service I-cleen and the results achieved during the last three years of operation. It will be display and interpret for the first time data with web traffic, and other data from downloading and publishing documents of the teaching resources and the main outcomes of the above mentioned tests. The purpose of this contribution is to highlight strengths and weaknesses of this experience and potentially able to provide valuable information on the role of today's web based services and online communities to help support teachers in earth and climate sciences subjects.

  18. Monitoring and source tracking of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater adjacent to swine production facilities over a 3-year period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I.G.; Oliver, H.D.; Yannarell, A.C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Mackie, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Case Study: Variation in fatty acid profiles in milk from adjacent organic and conventional dairy farms over a 3-year period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measuring the seasonal variability of fatty acids (FAs) in milk improves our understanding of the nutritional and health values of milk. In collaboration with the Rodale Institute, Kutztown, PA, a 3-year study evaluated the seasonal variation of FA profiles of milk obtained from two farms adjacent t...

  20. Water Quality Conditions Monitored at the Corps’ Garrison Project in North Dakota during the 3-Year Period 2003 through 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    period 2003 through 2005. Collected algae included taxa from the following seven taxonomic Divisions: Bacillariophyta (Diatioms), Chlorophyta (Green... Chlorophyta /Cryptophyta > Cyanobacteria > Pyrrophyta > Chrysophyta >> Euglenophyta. The diatoms were generally the most prevalent algae throughout the...collected at sites L1, L3, L5, and L7 during the period 2003 through 2005. Site Date Biovolume (um3) Bacillariophyta Chlorophyta Chrysophyta

  1. Monosyllabic Mandarin Tone Productions by 3-Year-Olds Growing up in Taiwan and in the United States: Interjudge Reliability and Perceptual Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Puisan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The author compared monosyllabic Mandarin lexical tones produced by 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and in the United States. Method: Following the procedures in Wong, Schwartz, and Jenkins (2005), the author collected monosyllabic tone productions from 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children in Taiwan and…

  2. Small-scale home composting of biodegradable household waste: overview of key results from a 3-year research programme in West London.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen R; Jasim, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    Home composting (HC) is recognized by both local and national Governments for its contribution to reducing household waste disposal in landfill. However, the quantitative impact of HC on the diversion of household waste from landfill is uncertain. An overview of key results is presented from a 3-year research programme on HC in the West London area of Runnymede Borough Council (RBC), Surrey, UK. The amount of biodegradable household waste diverted from landfill disposal by HC was measured in a 2-year monitoring study involving 64 homeowners. The total average annual waste input to a standard 290 L HC bin was approximately 370 kg per household. The average relative mass inputs of kitchen, paper and garden waste were 29, 2 and 69%, respectively. A survey of the study area indicated that approximately 20% of households were engaged in HC and, based on inputs to HC bins, this corresponded to an overall recycling/diversion rate equivalent to 20% of household biodegradable waste. Temperature and gas composition measurements indicated organic matter decomposition by HC was aerobic and only traces of CH(4) were occasionally detected. A field trial examined the end-use of composted products for the growth of Petunia grandiflora. Flower production increased with home-produced composts in comparison with peat-amended or untreated control soil. Compost chemical composition, bioaerosol emissions and vector attraction were also investigated.

  3. Water Quality Conditions Monitored at the Corps’ Big Bend Project in South Dakota during the 3-Year Period 2008 through 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    formulation of plant and animal protein. Nitrogen, similar to carbon, also has a gaseous form. Many species of cyanobacteria can use or fix elemental...algae, cyanobacteria , or cryptomonad algae. Chlorophyll a represents a common variable used to estimate phytoplankton biomass. Seasonal succession...the diatoms. Decreases in nitrogen or a decreased competitive advantage for carbon at higher pH may result in cyanobacteria succeeding the green algae

  4. Reading Intervention Outcomes for Adults with Disabilities in a Vocational Rehabilitation Setting: Results of a 3-Year Research and Demonstration Grant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderberg, Laura E.; Pierce, Margaret E.; Disney, Laurel J.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on an examination of the effectiveness of a reading intervention for adults with disabilities in a vocational rehabilitation setting. Participants were 57 adults with disabilities and low reading skills enrolled at the Reading Clinic at the Michigan Career and Technical Institute. As part of a 3-year research and demonstration…

  5. The long-term course of patients undergoing alternative and integrative therapy for lumbar disc herniation: 3-year results of a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-riong; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of an integrative complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approach in the management of lumbar herniated disc (LHD) with sciatic pain and investigate pain relapse, use of medical care and surgery rates in patients who actively chose non-surgical CAM treatment for LHD. Study design/Setting This prospective observational study was undertaken at a Korean medicine hospital outpatient setting in Korea. Participants A total of 128 consecutive patients with LHD with a numeric rating scale for leg pain of ≥5 completed 6 months of CAM treatment after recruitment from November 2006, and 73/128 participants (57%) attended follow-up 3 years later. Interventions 6 months of CAM treatment (herbal medicine, acupuncture, bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manipulation). Primary outcome measures Visual analogue scale (VAS) for low back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey. Secondary outcome measures Neurological impairment (muscular weakness, sensory loss, Straight Leg Raise test), MRIs, recurrence of low back pain and/or radiating pain, and use of medical care. Results 92 patients could be assessed for surgical state, of whom 4 replied that they had received surgery. 73 patients attended the 3-year follow-up. The baseline VAS of back pain (4.37±2.70) decreased after treatment (0.90±1.01; p<0.001) and was maintained at 3 years (1.12±1.64; p=0.19). The baseline VAS of leg pain (7.57±1.40) also decreased on treatment (0.82±1.18; p<0.001) and was sustained at 3 years (0.99±1.58; p=0.34). ODI scores declined from 40.74±16.15 to 9.84±9.67 (p<0.001), then decreased further to 6.30±7.19 (p<0.01). SF-36 scores increased from 34.96±13.30 to 69.20±14.96 (p<0.001), reaching 76.19±14.45 (p<0.001) at 3 years. 37 patients reported recurrence of pain and most chose CAM treatment for management of relapse symptoms. Conclusions Although the absence of a

  6. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  7. Developmental milestones record - 3 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Well child - 3 years ... activities related to your child's interests. Encourage your child to use words to express feelings (rather than acting out).

  8. Crushing injuries of the foot and ankle, with complex open fractures: result of a prospective study with a 3 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    DA, Edelstein; I, Florescu

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the compared results of both the reconstruction surgery and the amputation in severe crushing of the foot, which led to open fractures. The type of study. Prospective. Background. Two major trauma hospitals (Floreasca Clinical Emergency Hospital and "Bagdasar Arseni" Clinical Emergency Hospital) from the university center in Bucharest. Patients. 21 patients, who sustained crushing of the foot with resulting Gustilo type III open fractures, were involved. The exclusion criteria were represented by open fractures that had very gross destructions of the neurovascular bundle, for which the amputation was the only solution, with no modality to reconstruct whatsoever. Treatment. An immediate amputation (at 24, 48 hours after a thorough debridement, proper patient resuscitation, and detailed imaging investigation - the technique of delayed emergency) and reconstruction surgery were performed. Methods of evaluation. Three variables were used: the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) score, the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for the residual pain and the number of rehospitalizations for secondary surgical procedures. Results. When comparing the two lots of patients, first in which the amputation patients were included and second in which the reconstruction patients were included, it was noticed that there was a less favorable prognostic in the second lot for a three-year follow up period. Conclusions. The patients with a mangled foot, in which reconstruction surgery of the bone and soft tissue envelope was performed, had a worse prognostic than those who had an amputation as a first intention. Abbreviations: SIP = Sickness Impact Profile, VAS = Visual Analogue Scale, MVA = Motor Vehicle Accident, STSG = Split Thickness Skin Graft.

  9. Periodic nonlinearity resulting from ghost reflections in heterodyne interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chien-ming

    2003-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. It results from many causes such as frequency mixing, polarization mixing, polarization-frequency mixing, and ghost reflections. The purpose of this paper is to study the periodic nonlinearity resulting from ghost reflections, which has not been investigated before. A generalized scheme of interferometer, which is free of frequency and polarization mixings, is used in the study. This ensures that the residual periodic nonlinearity is from the ghost reflections only. In this paper, a general form of periodic nonlinearity and a model including two kinds of ghost reflections, one with the same frequency and the other with two frequencies, are presented. The model is verified by experimental results.

  10. Scheduling real-time, periodic jobs using imprecise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan

    1987-01-01

    A process is called a monotone process if the accuracy of its intermediate results is non-decreasing as more time is spent to obtain the result. The result produced by a monotone process upon its normal termination is the desired result; the error in this result is zero. External events such as timeouts or crashes may cause the process to terminate prematurely. If the intermediate result produced by the process upon its premature termination is saved and made available, the application may still find the result unusable and, hence, acceptable; such a result is said to be an imprecise one. The error in an imprecise result is nonzero. The problem of scheduling periodic jobs to meet deadlines on a system that provides the necessary programming language primitives and run-time support for processes to return imprecise results is discussed. This problem differs from the traditional scheduling problems since the scheduler may choose to terminate a task before it is completed, causing it to produce an acceptable but imprecise result. Consequently, the amounts of processor time assigned to tasks in a valid schedule can be less than the amounts of time required to complete the tasks. A meaningful formulation of this problem taking into account the quality of the overall result is discussed. Three algorithms for scheduling jobs for which the effects of errors in results produced in different periods are not cumulative are described, and their relative merits are evaluated.

  11. The bacteriological quality of retail-level peanut, almond, cashew, hazelnut, brazil, and mixed nut kernels produced in two Australian nut-processing facilities over a period of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni

    2010-07-01

    An investigation of the bacteriological quality of ready-to-eat peanuts, almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, and brazil nuts processed in two Australian nut-processing facilities was performed over a period of 3 years. A total of 564 ready-to-eat retail packs were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), Salmonella, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli. Of these samples, 343 were peanuts, 45 cashews, 42 almonds, 40 brazil nuts, 51 hazelnuts, and 43 were mixed packs containing all five types. There was no Salmonella, E. coli, or coagulase-positive staphylococci detected in any sample. L. monocytogenes was detected in two of the mixed packs after enrichment, but was not detected from samples by an alternate enumeration method (detection limit = 10/g). The APC percentages of positive samples with counts above the detection level of the plating method used (100 CFU/g) for peanuts, almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, brazil nuts, and mixed nuts were 48%, 36%, 62%, 36%, 56%, and 44%, respectively. Of the samples containing more than this detection limit, the means were 2.7, 2.4, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8, and 2.7 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum APC was 3.9 log CFU/g. The bacteriological quality of roasted peanut, almond, cashew, hazelnut, brazil, and mixed nut kernels processed in Australian facilities does not appear to suggest a public health concern.

  12. A survey of the bacteriological quality of preroasted peanut, almond, cashew, hazelnut, and brazil nut kernels received into three Australian nut-processing facilities over a period of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Huang, Bixing; Stuttard, Ed

    2008-02-01

    There is little information about bacteriological quality of preroasted kernels available in the public domain. An investigation of the bacteriological quality of preroasted peanut, almond, cashew, hazelnut, and Brazil nut kernels received into three Australian nut-processing facilities was performed over a period of 3 years. A total of 836 samples were analyzed for aerobic plate count, and 921 samples for Salmonella and Escherichia coli. The 921 samples included 653 peanut, 100 cashew, 60 almond, 60 Brazil nut, and 48 hazelnut kernels. There was no E. coli detected in any sample. Salmonella subsp. II (Fremantle) was detected in one raw almond sample. The aerobic plate count percentages of positive samples with counts above the detection level of the plating method used (100 CFU/g) for peanuts, almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, and Brazil nuts were 84, 78, 74, 50, and 45%, respectively. Of the samples containing more than this detection limit, the means were 4.5, 4.4, 3.1, 2.5, and 3.8 log CFU/g respectively. Although roasted kernel quality was not within the scope of this survey, raw microbial bioload would be expected to reduce on roasting. The bacteriological quality of preroasted peanut, almond, cashew, hazelnut, and Brazil nut kernels received into nut-processing facilities in Australia does not appear to suggest a public health concern.

  13. The Effect of Age, Gender, and Insertion Site on Marginal Bone Loss around Endosseous Implants: Results from a 3-Year Trial with Premium Implant System

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Massimiliano; Macaluso, Guido M.; Manfredi, Edoardo; Bonanini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The goal of this study was to evaluate bone changes around endosseous implants in partially edentulous patients. Materials and Methods. A total of 632 two-stage implants were placed in 252 patients. The implants had straight emergence profile, ZirTi surface, 3.3 to 5 mm diameter, and 8.5 to 13 mm length. Bone levels were assessed on orthopantomography immediately after surgery and after 36 months and marginal bone loss (MBL) was calculated from their difference. Results. Cumulative survival rate was 98.73%. Overall MBL was 0.8 mm ± 0.03 (mean ± SEM). Higher MBL was observed around implants in the maxilla than in the mandible (P < 0.007). A relation between implant diameter and MBL (P < 0.0001) was observed in male and, more limitedly, female patients. Older patients had higher MBL in the maxilla, but not in the mandible (P < 0.0001). MBL progressively increased with age in male patients, but reached a peak already in the 50–60 years age group in the female subset (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The overall MBL is consistent with the available literature. Site difference and patient age and gender appear to significantly affect MBL, representing important factors to be considered during implant placement. PMID:25187903

  14. Age-related changes in physical fall risk factors: results from a 3 year follow-up of community dwelling older adults in Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bird, Marie-Louise; Pittaway, Jane K; Cuisick, Isobel; Rattray, Megan; Ahuja, Kiran D K

    2013-11-11

    As the population ages, fall rates are expected to increase, leading to a rise in accidental injury and injury-related deaths, and placing an escalating burden on health care systems. Sixty-nine independent community-dwelling adults (60-85 years, 18 males) had their leg strength, physical activity levels and their annual fall rate assessed at two timepoints over three years, (summer 2010 and summer 2013) monitoring balance. Force platform measures of medio-lateral sway range increased significantly under conditions of eyes open (mean difference MD 2.5 cm; 95% CI 2.2 to 2.8 cm) and eyes closed (MD 3.2 cm; 95% CI 2.8 to 3.6 cm), respectively (all p < 0.001) indicating worsening static balance control. Dynamic balance showed similar changes (p < 0.036). Leg strength was not significantly different between visits (p > 0.26). Physical activity reduced significantly (MD -909 Cal/week; 95% CI -347 to -1,470 Cal/week; p = 0.002) during the course of the study. Participants maintained aerobic activities, however resistance and balance exercise levels decreased non-significantly. The likelihood of falling was higher at the end of the study compared to the first timepoint (odds ratio 1.93, 95% CI 0.94 to 3.94; p = 0.07). Results of this study indicate that despite maintenance of leg strength there was an increase in medio-lateral sway over a relatively short time frame, with higher than expected increases in fall rates.

  15. Effects of elevated CO2 on grain yield and quality of wheat: results from a 3-year free-air CO2 enrichment experiment.

    PubMed

    Högy, P; Wieser, H; Köhler, P; Schwadorf, K; Breuer, J; Franzaring, J; Muntifering, R; Fangmeier, A

    2009-11-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. TRISO) was grown for three consecutive seasons in a free-air carbon dioxide (CO(2)) enrichment (FACE) field experiment in order to examine the effects on crop yield and grain quality. CO(2) enrichment promoted aboveground biomass (+11.8%) and grain yield (+10.4%). However, adverse effects were predominantly observed on wholegrain quality characteristics. Although the thousand-grain weight remained unchanged, size distribution was significantly shifted towards smaller grains, which may directly relate to lower market value. Total grain protein concentration decreased significantly by 7.4% under elevated CO(2), and protein and amino acid composition were altered. Corresponding to the decline in grain protein concentration, CO(2) enrichment resulted in an overall decrease in amino acid concentrations, with greater reductions in non-essential than essential amino acids. Minerals such as potassium, molybdenum and lead increased, while manganese, iron, cadmium and silicon decreased, suggesting that adjustments of agricultural practices may be required to retain current grain quality standards. The concentration of fructose and fructan, as well as amounts per area of total and individual non-structural carbohydrates, except for starch, significantly increased in the grain. The same holds true for the amount of lipids. With regard to mixing and rheological properties of the flour, a significant increase in gluten resistance under elevated CO(2) was observed. CO(2) enrichment obviously affected grain quality characteristics that are important for consumer nutrition and health, and for industrial processing and marketing, which have to date received little attention.

  16. Two-level contiguous cervical disc disease treated with peek cages packed with demineralized bone matrix: results of 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Topuz, Kıvanç; Çolak, Ahmet; Şimşek, Hakan; Kutlay, Murat; Demircan, Mehmet Nusret; Velioğlu, Murat

    2009-01-01

    Interbody cages are widely used instruments for cervical fusion operations. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to clarify if these devices are dependable. In this prospective study, 79 patients (42 women and 37 men) with a mean age of 51 years operated between January 2000 and December 2005 for treatment of degenerative cervical disc disease and spondylosis associated with radiculopathy or myelopathy were evaluated. Patients underwent two-level contiguous anterior cervical discectomy and fusion operations with standard anterior Smith–Robinson approach. To achieve fusion PEEK cages packed with demineralized bone matrix mixed with autologous blood were used. Clinical outcome was evaluated with Odom’s criteria and results were evaluated as ‘excellent’, ‘good’, ‘fair’ and ‘poor’. Spinal curves, mobility and fusion status were assessed with anterior–posterior and lateral (neutral, flexion and extension) radiographs obtained before surgery and at 3, 12, 24 and 36 months postoperatively. The Ishihara curvature index (ICI) was used for spinal curve evaluation. Lateral dynamic (flexion and extension) radiographs at postoperative 12th month revealed the fusion status classified as 1A, 1B, 2A and 2B. The radiological outcomes were classified as ‘non-fusion’ when 2B healing was observed, and as ‘fusion’ when 1A, 1B or 2A healing was observed at the levels subjected to surgery. According to Odom’s criteria, clinical outcomes were classified as ‘excellent’ or ‘good’ in 69 patients (success rate: 87.3%). Eight patients were graded as ‘fair’ and two as ‘poor’. Preoperative mean ICI was 10.4 ± 3.72 and postoperative mean ICI was 10.1 ± 3.14. The difference was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05); therefore, preoperative lordosis was said to be preserved at final follow-up. Final fusion rate (Types 1A, 1B, and 2A) was 91.7% (145/158 levels). Radiological imaging showed no cage failure or dislodgement and reoperation

  17. How Grammatical Are 3-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu; Germezia, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the level of grammatical accuracy in typically developing 3-year-olds and the types of errors they produce. Method: Twenty-two 3-year-olds participated in a picture description task. The percentage of grammatical utterances was computed and error types were analyzed. Results: The mean level of grammatical accuracy…

  18. Your Child's Development: 3 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3 Years KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3 Years A A A Kids this age ... but certain signs could indicate a delay in development. Talk to your doctor if your child: doesn't speak, or can't speak in ...

  19. Your Child's Development: 3 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child’s Development: 3 Years KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child’s Development: 3 Years Print A A A en español ... but certain signs could indicate a delay in development. Talk to your doctor if your child: doesn't speak, or can't speak in ...

  20. Clinical evaluation of 860 anterior and posterior lithium disilicate restorations: retrospective study with a mean follow-up of 3 years and a maximum observational period of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Giacomo; Zarone, Fernando; Dellificorelli, Gianluca; Cannistraro, Giorgio; De Lorenzi, Marco; Mosca, Alberto; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the clinical performance of lithium disilicate restorations supported by natural teeth or implants. Eight hundred sixty lithium disilicate adhesive restorations, including crowns on natural teeth and implant abutments, veneers, and onlays, were made in 312 patients. Parafunctional patients were included, but subjects with uncontrolled periodontitis and gingival inflammation were excluded. Veneers up to 0.5 mm thick were luted with flowable composite resin or light curing cements, while dual-curing composite systems were used with veneers up to 0.8 mm thick. Onlays up to 2 mm in thickness were luted with flowable composite resins or dual-curing composite cements. Crowns up to 1 mm in thickness were cemented with self-adhesive or dual-curing resin cements. The observational period ranged from 12 to 72 months, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. The mechanical and esthetic outcomes of the restorations were evaluated according to the modified California Dental Association (CDA) criteria. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Twenty-six mechanical complications were observed: 17 porcelain chippings, 5 fractures, and 4 losses of retention. Structural drawbacks occurred mainly in posterior segments, and monolithic restorations showed the lowest number of mechanical complications. The clinical ratings of the successful restorations, both monolithic and layered, were satisfactory according to the modified CDA criteria for color match, porcelain surface, and marginal integrity. The cumulative survival rates of lithium disilicate restorations ranged from 95.46% to 100%, while cumulative success rates ranged from 95.39% to 100%. All restorations recorded very high survival and success rates. The use of lithium disilicate restorations in fixed prosthodontics proved to be effective and reliable in the short- and medium-term.

  1. Periodization

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

  2. Rigorous KAM results around arbitrary periodic orbits for Hamiltonian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapela, Tomasz; Simó, Carles

    2017-03-01

    We set up a methodology for computer assisted proofs of the existence and the KAM stability of an arbitrary periodic orbit for Hamiltonian systems. We give two examples of application for systems with two and three degrees of freedom. The first example verifies the existence of tiny elliptic islands inside large chaotic domains for a quartic potential. In the 3-body problem we prove the KAM stability of the well-known figure eight orbit and two selected orbits of the so called family of rotating eights. Some additional theoretical and numerical information is also given for the dynamics of both examples.

  3. Leadership Coaching in an Induction Program for Novice Principals: A 3-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochmiller, Chad R.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results from a study of leadership coaches who worked with novice principals in a university-based induction program for a 3-year period. The qualitative case study describes how the support the coaches provided to the novice principals changed over time. The study reveals that coaches adapted their leadership coaching…

  4. Ultra-Short-Period Planets in K2: New Results From SuPerPiG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth; Jackson, Brian; Endl, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Ultra-short-period planets, with orbital periods of less than 1 day, are a challenge to theories of planet formation. The SuPerPiG collaboration (Short-Period Planet Group) reports on 19 candidates identified in Campaigns 0-5 of the K2 mission. Planet candidates range in size from 0.7-16 Earth radii and in orbital period from 4.2 to 23.5 hours. One candidate (EPIC 203533312, Kp=12.5) is among the shortest-period planet candidates discovered to date (P=4.2 hours), and, if confirmed as a planet, must have a density of at least rho=8.9 g/cm^3 in order to not be tidally disrupted. Five candidates have nominal radius values in the sub-Jovian desert (R_P=3-11 R_E and P<=1.5 days) where theoretical models do not favor their long-term stability; the only confirmed planet in this range is thought to be disintegrating (EPIC 201637175). Based on an assessment of our survey's completeness, we estimate an occurrence rate for ultra-short-period planets among K2 target stars that is about half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to whether K2 systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of their different galactic location.

  5. Results of Laboratory and Industrial Tests of Periodic-Type Gas Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, I. N.; P‧yanykh, K. E.; Antoshchuk, T. A.; Lysenko, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    Results of laboratory and industrial tests of periodic-type gas generators burning various solid biofuels have been presented. The tests were carried out with the aim of obtaining producer gas which could totally or partly replace natural gas in power equipment burning gaseous fuel. The energy and environmental characteristics of a boiler unit burning a mixture of producer gas and natural gas have been assessed.

  6. AID awards 3-year Guatemala contract.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has awarded a 3-year US$593,036 grant to the Los Angeles firm of Juarez and Associates, Inc. to help implement a contraceptive social marketing project in Guatemala. The firm will provide marketing assistance to the for-profit organization. Importadora de Productos Farmaceuticos (PROFA), an offshoot of the nonprofit International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliate, Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia de Guatemala (APROFAM), created specifically to conduct the social marketing project. Juarez and Associates has previous market research experience in family planning in Guatemala. Contraceptive social marketing sales are projected to begin in early 1985.

  7. Periodic inspection on crop sprayers: results according to age of sprayers.

    PubMed

    Antuniassi, Ulisses R; Gandolfo, Marco A

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the IPP Project--Periodic Inspection on Crop Sprayers--are to develop methods for sprayer certification, analyze quality on spray operation, propose an inspection system for crop sprayers in Brazil, improve environmental quality on spray operation, and reduce costs on chemical control for plant protection systems. Periodic inspections on crop sprayers are performed in several countries and are compulsory in most of them, and it is becoming an important tool for improvement and optimization of use of chemicals. The IPP Project in Brazil is funded by FAPESP--Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo. The results so far showed that all the sprayers presented failures. However, most of them could be approved with minor services. As an example, 56.6% of the sprayers with more than 2 years of use presented leaks, 47% of them had damaged hoses and 80.5% presented bad tips (nozzles). These results indicate the need for better procedures of use and maintenance of sprayers, justifying the periodic inspection system.

  8. Health Blogging and Social Support: A 3-Year Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Keating, David M; Rains, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The reported study explored the implications of informal computer-mediated social support for the well-being of individuals coping with illness over the course of 3 years. A panel study was conducted in which respondents--bloggers writing about their experiences living with a health condition--reported on their perceptions of social support and well-being during 2010 and again during 2013. Among respondents who completed both questionnaires (n = 49), increases in support availability from family and friends were related to improvements in bloggers' health self-efficacy as well as improvements in bloggers' loneliness, particularly among those who also experienced increased support availability from blog readers. Increased blog reader support availability was associated with improvements in bloggers' health-related uncertainty. Among respondents who completed the initial questionnaire (N = 121), a survival analysis showed that neither support available from family and friends nor support from blog readers predicted continued health blogging over the 3-year period.

  9. Algerian Eddies lifetime can near 3 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puillat, I.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Millot, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Algerian Current (AC) is unstable and generates mesoscale meanders and eddies. Only anticyclonic eddies can develop and reach diameters over 200 km with vertical extents down to the bottom (˜3000 m). Algerian Eddies (AEs) first propagate eastward along the Algerian slope at few kilometers per day. In the vicinity of the Channel of Sardinia, a few AEs detach from the Algerian slope and propagate along the Sardinian one. It was hypothesized that AEs then followed a counter-clockwise circuit in the eastern part of the basin. Maximum recorded lifetimes were known to exceed 9 months. Within the framework of the 1-year Eddies and Leddies Interdisciplinary Study off Algeria (ELISA) experiment (1997-1998), we exhaustively tracked two AEs, using mainly an ˜3-year time series of NOAA/AVHRR satellite images. We show that AEs lifetimes can near 3 years, exceeding 33 months at least. We also confirm the long-lived AEs preferential circuit in the eastern part of the Algerian Basin, and specify that it may include several loops (at least three).

  10. Temporal Trends of Suicide Mortality in Mainland China: Results from the Age-Period-Cohort Framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Wang, Jinyao; Bao, Junzhe; Gao, Xudong; Yu, Chuanhua; Xiang, Huiyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the long-term trends of suicide mortality in China. We implemented the age-period-cohort (APC) framework, using data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Our results showed that the net drift of suicide mortality was −4.727% (95% CI: −4.821% to −4.634%) per year for men and −6.633% (95% CI: −6.751% to −6.515%) per year for women, and the local drift values were below 0 in all age groups (p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes during the period of 1994–2013. Longitudinal age curves indicated that, in the same birth cohort, suicide death risk increased rapidly to peak at the life stage of 20–24 years old and 15–24 years old for men and women, respectively, and then showed a decelerated decline, followed by a rise thereafter after 54 years old for men and a slight one after 69 years old for women. The estimated period and cohort RRs were found to show similar monotonic downward patterns (significantly with p < 0.01 for all) for both sexes, with more quickly decreasing for women than for men during the whole period. The decreasing trend of suicide was likely to be related to the economic rapid growth, improvements in health care, enhancement on the level of education, and increasing awareness of suicide among the public in China. In addition, fast urbanization and the effective control of pesticides and rodenticides might be the special reasons behind these trends we observed in this study. PMID:27527195

  11. Assesment of perinatal mortality in two different periods: results of a single center

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Serdar Sadık; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Sarı, Ferhat; Aldemir, Esin Yıldız; Kavçık, Nazlı; Demir, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the perinatal mortality rate with 37 864 deliveries which occured in two different periods in a single center, to compare the components of perinatal mortality and affecting factors with the results of the study related with perinatal mortality which we conducted in 1999 and to emphasize the precautions directed to reduce mortality rates. Material and Methods: All live births and stillbirths which occurred in Bakırköy Obstetrics and Pediatrics Training and Research Hospital between January 2007 and December 2007 were evaluated. The results were compared with the results of the study conducted in 1999. Newborns with a weight above five hundred grams and a gestational age above 22 weeks were enrolled in the study. The stillbirth rate, early neonatal mortality rate, late neonatal mortality rate, perinatal mortality rate and corrected perinatal mortality rate were calculated. Modified Wigglesworth Classification was used for evaluating the perinatal mortality and the subjects were examined in 7 groups. The characteristics belonging to the years of 2007 and 1999 were examined, the differences were recorded and the results were discussed. When the two periods were compared, it was observed that the perinatal mortality rate increased from 23.5‰ to 26‰. Result: When the causes were investigated, it was observed that the stillbirth rate was increased in 2007 (84%) and especially congenital anomalies had an important role in this increment. The early neonatal mortality rate declined from 0.8% in 1999 to 0.4% in 2007. It was found that especially the premature mortality rate (Group 3) and the mortality rate related with perinatal asphyxia (Group 4) were significantly decreased. Conclusion: The decrease in early neonatal mortality rate could be best explained by productive operation of the new neonatal intensive care unit which had been established after 2002. PMID:27738396

  12. 42 CFR 412.76 - Recovery of excess transition period payment amounts resulting from unlawful claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovery of excess transition period payment... INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Determination of Transition Period Payment Rates for the Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.76 Recovery of excess transition period payment...

  13. Evaporation over land surfaces - First results from HAPEX-MOBILHY Special Observing Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andre, Jean-Claude; Goutorbe, Jean-Paul; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Perrier, Alain; Becker, Francois

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from the May 7-July 15, 1986 Special Observing Period (SOP) of the HAPEX-MOBILHY program, which examines the hydrological budget and evaporation flux at the scale of a 10,000 sq km GCM grid square to determine soil moisture, surface-energy budgets, and surface hydrology. The SOP used two highly instrumented remote sensing aircraft to obtain detailed measurements of atmospheric fluxes and surface properties. It is noted that the measurements are reliable at spatially local and short time scales, as well as on the monthly time scale. The data base obtained may be used in parametrization schemes against which land-surface water budgets can be tested.

  14. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  15. Periodic Lateralized Epileptiform Discharges can Survive Anesthesia and Result in Asymmetric Drug-induced Burst Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Mader, Edward C.; Cannizzaro, Louis A.; Williams, Frank J.; Lalan, Saurabh; Olejniczak, Piotr W.

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced burst suppression (DIBS) is bihemispheric and bisymmetric in adults and older children. However, asymmetric DIBS may occur if a pathological process is affecting one hemisphere only or both hemispheres disproportionately. The usual suspect is a destructive lesion; an irritative or epileptogenic lesion is usually not invoked to explain DIBS asymmetry. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman with new-onset seizures who was found to have a hemorrhagic cavernoma and periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs) in the right temporal region. After levetiracetam and before anesthetic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were administered, the electroencephalogram (EEG) showed continuous PLEDs over the right hemisphere with maximum voltage in the posterior temporal region. Focal electrographic seizures also occurred occasionally in the same location. Propofol resulted in bihemispheric, but not in bisymmetric, DIBS. Remnants or fragments of PLEDs that survived anesthesia increased the amplitude and complexity of the bursts in the right hemisphere leading to asymmetric DIBS. Phenytoin, lacosamide, ketamine, midazolam, and topiramate were administered at various times in the course of EEG monitoring, resulting in suppression of seizures but not of PLEDs. Ketamine and midazolam reduced the rate, amplitude, and complexity of PLEDs but only after producing substantial attenuation of all burst components. When all anesthetics were discontinued, the EEG reverted to the original preanesthesia pattern with continuous non-fragmented PLEDs. The fact that PLEDs can survive anesthesia and affect DIBS symmetry is a testament to the robustness of the neurodynamic processes underlying PLEDs. PMID:28286626

  16. Latitudinal variation of perturbation electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods - 1986 Sundial observations and model results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, B. G.; Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.; Foster, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    F-region incoherent scatter radar drift observations from Millstone Hill and Jicamarca, h-prime F observations from Huancayo, and high latitude ground-magnetometer measurements taken during the Sundial 1986 campaign are used to study the relationship between plasmaspheric electric field perturbations and high latitude currents during disturbed periods. The observations are in good agreement with numerical results from a Rice Covection Model run that involved a sharp increase in the polar cap potential drop followed by a subsequent decrease. The zonal disturbance electric field pattern is latitude independent, and the corresponding amplitudes change approximately as L exp n (where n is about 1.5). The meridional electric field patterns and amplitudes have larger latitudinal variations. The mid-, low, and equatorial electric fields from the Rice Convection Model are in good agreement with previous results from the semianalytic, Senior-Blanc (1987) model. Also discussed are three physical mechanisms (over-shielding, fossil winds, and magnetic reconfiguration) that contribute to the long lasting (1-2 h) equatorial zonal electric field perturbations associated with a sudden northward turning of the IMF. It is predicted that the penetration of high latitude electric fields to low latitudes should, in general, be closely related to the rate of motion of the shielding layer and the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora.

  17. Development of temporomandibular disorder symptoms: a 3-year cohort study of university students.

    PubMed

    Akhter, R; Morita, M; Esaki, M; Nakamura, K; Kanehira, T

    2011-06-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the incidence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) over a 3-year period and to evaluate the risk of self-reported TMDs among university students in Japan. The study population comprised 2374 university students examined at the start of their undergraduate course and 492 students re-examined after 3 years using questionnaires on symptoms of TMD and experiences of jaw injury, stress, orthodontic treatment and parafunctional habits. Cumulative incidence (%) and relative risks were calculated overall. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to determine the degree of risks of these variables for symptoms of TMDs using logistic regression. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that male subjects with experience of jaw injury had a 3·54 (CI=1·45-8·68, P<0·01)-fold higher risk of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain than that for those who did not. Female subjects who reported experiencing stress and bruxism had 10·56 (CI=1·28-87·54, P<0·05)- and 5·00 (CI=1·21-20·71, P<0·05)-fold higher risks of TMJ sound, respectively, than the risk for female subjects who had not experienced stress or bruxism. The results indicated that experiences of jaw injury, stress and bruxism were significantly associated with increased risks of development of TMJ disorders in a 3-year cohort.

  18. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Nicholson, J. Y.; Ritter, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities, was flown for the first time aboard the Space Shuttle on STS-40. This is also the first time an accelerometer package with nano-g sensitivity and a calibration facility has flown aboard the Space Shuttle. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Space Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarified flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument defects aerodynamic behavior of the Space Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-hour orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. During the flight, a 'trimmed-mean' filter was used to produce high quality, low frequency data which was successfully stored aboard the Space Shuttle in the OARE data storage system. Initial review of the data indicated that, although the expected precision was achieved, some equipment problems occurred resulting in uncertain accuracy. An acceleration model which includes aerodynamic, gravity-gradient, and rotational effects was constructed and compared with flight data. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight linear corrections for drift. The other axis does not exhibit these difficulties and gives good agreement with the acceleration model.

  19. Radiological evaluation of the Cresco system in combination with Osseospeed implants: a preliminary 3-year report

    PubMed Central

    BALDINI, N.; DE SANCTIS, M.; CAGIDIACO, M.C.; BALLERI, P.; VIGNOLETTI, F.; GORACCI, C.; FERRARI, M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim. In this preliminary study, the 3-year radiological outcomes of Osseospeed implant-supported fixed complete or partial prostheses made with two different laboratory protocols were compared. Methods. A convenience sample of 34 patients, who were either partially or completely edentulous in either jaw, were randomly assigned to two groups, of 17 patients each, using either a traditional laboratory protocol (control group) or the Cresco one (test group). The study’s objective was an assessment of marginal bone loss around implants, measured on intraoral radiographs at 3-year follow-up. Results. None of the implants inserted was lost during the study and radiological measurements of marginal bone level changes revealed that the mean marginal bone loss was respectively 0,73±0,33mm for test group and 0,88±1,13mm for control group. The differences between test and control groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion. This preliminary study did not demonstrate statistically significant differences in marginal bone loss around implant-prostheses prepared with the two different laboratory protocols, over the 3-year observational period. PMID:25694796

  20. Recent improvement in lung cancer screening: a comparison of the results carried out in two different time periods.

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Takuji; Nishii, Kenji; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Takuo; Gemba, Kenichi; Kodani, Tsuyoshi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tabata, Masahiro; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Sobue, Tomotaka

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate recent improvements in lung cancer screening, we compared the results of recently conducted lung cancer screening with those of a previous screening. This study compared the survival of lung cancer patients detected by lung cancer screening conducted between 1976 and 1984 (early period) with that conducted between 1989 and 1997 (late period). Two hundred seventy-six patients with lung cancer were detected in the early period and 541 patients with lung cancer were detected in the late period. The median survival time (late : 49.8 vs. early : 27.8 months) and the 5-year survival rate (late : 47.8 vs. early : 34.8%) of the patients with lung cancer detected in the late period were significantly better than those in the early period (p = 0.0054). Among patients undergoing resection, the proportion of pathological stage I patients in the late period was significantly higher than that in the early period (late : 60.8 vs. early : 54.9%, p = 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that the screening time period was a significant prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 0.685, 95% confidence interval : 0.563-0.832, p = 0.0002). These results were consistent with the findings of case-control studies of lung cancer screening programs in the late period recently conducted in Japan, which also showed a greater efficacy for screening than for previous case-control studies in the early period.

  1. Vascular Calcification in Patients with Nondialysis CKD over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Pablo; Cerverón, M. Jesús; Vila, Rocío; Bover, Jordi; Nieto, Javier; Barril, Guillermina; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Fernández, Elvira; Escudero, Verónica; Piñera, Celestino; Adragao, Teresa; Navarro-Gonzalez, Juan F.; Molinero, Luis M.; Castro-Alonso, Cristina; Pallardó, Luis M.; Jamal, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Vascular calcification (VC) is common in CKD, but little is known about its prognostic effect on patients with nondialysis CKD. The prevalence of VC and its ability to predict death, time to hospitalization, and renal progression were assessed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Study of Mineral and Bone Disorders in CKD in Spain is a prospective, observational, 3-year follow-up study of 742 patients with nondialysis CKD stages 3–5 from 39 centers in Spain from April to May 2009. VC was assessed using Adragao (AS; x-ray pelvis and hands) and Kauppila (KS; x-ray lateral lumbar spine) scores from 572 and 568 patients, respectively. The primary end point was death. Secondary outcomes were hospital admissions and appearance of a combined renal end point (beginning of dialysis or drop >30% in eGFR). Factors related to VC were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Survival analysis was assessed by Cox proportional models. Results VC was present in 79% of patients and prominent in 47% (AS≥3 or KS>6). Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02 to 1.07; P<0.001), phosphorous (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.20; P<0.001), and diabetes (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.32 to 3.35; P=0.002) were independently related to AS≥3. After a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range=17–36), there were 70 deaths (10%). After multivariate adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, comorbidity, renal function, and level of phosphorous, AS≥3 but not KS>6 was independently associated with all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.07 to 4.01; P=0.03) and cardiovascular (HR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.27 to 9.45; P=0.02) mortality as well as a shorter hospitalization event–free period (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22; P<0.001). VC did not predict renal progression. Conclusions VC is highly prevalent in patients with CKD. VC assessment using AS independently predicts death and time to hospitalization. Therefore, it could be a useful

  2. Quasi-periodic Pulsations in Solar and Stellar Flares: An Overview of Recent Results (Invited Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Doorsselaere, Tom; Kupriyanova, Elena G.; Yuan, Ding

    2016-11-01

    Quasi-periodic pulsations (or QPPs) are periodic intensity variations in the flare emission that occur across all wavelength bands. In this article, we review the observational and modelling achievements since the previous review on this topic by Nakariakov and Melnikov ( Space Sci. Rev. 149, 119, 2009). In recent years, it has become clear that QPPs are an inherent feature of solar flares because almost all flares exhibit QPPs. Moreover, it is now firmly established that QPPs often show multiple periods. We also review possible mechanisms for generating QPPs. Up to now, it has not been possible to conclusively identify the triggering mechanism or cause of QPPs. The lack of this identification currently hampers possible seismological inferences of flare plasma parameters. QPPs in stellar flares have been detected for a long time, and the high-quality data of the Kepler mission allows studying the QPP more systematically. However, it has not been conclusively shown whether the timescales of stellar QPPs are different or the same as those in solar flares.

  3. Experimental results of antigliadin antibodies detection using long period fiber grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corres, J. M.; Matias, I. R.; Goicoechea, J.; Arregui, F. J.; Viegas, D.; Araújo, F. M.; Santos, J. L.

    2008-04-01

    In this work a new nano-biofilm is proposed for the detection of celiac disease (CD). A long-period fiber grating (LPFG) is used as a transducer and the surface of the fiber is coated with a precursor layer of SiO2-nanospheres using the electrostatic self-assembly technique (ESA). This layer has been designed in order to create a substrate of high porosity where the gliadins could be deposited. Under the presence of specific antibodies antigliadin antibodies (AGA) the refractive index of the overlay changes giving a detectable shift in the resonance wavelength of the LPFG. Concentrations as low as 5 ppm were detected.

  4. Change in messa di voce characteristics during 3 years of classical singing training at the tertiary level.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Sam; Kenny, Dianna T; Mitchell, Helen F; Ryan, Maree; Cabrera, Densil

    2013-07-01

    A 3-year longitudinal study was conducted to investigate changes in vocal quality as a result of singing training at a tertiary level conservatorium in Australia. Singers performed a messa di voce (MDV) at intervals of 6 months over the 3-year period of training. The study investigated the evolving acoustic features of the singers' voices exhibited during the MDV, including sound pressure level (SPL), short-term energy ratio (STER), duration, and vibrato parameters of the fundamental frequency (F0), SPL, and STER. The maximum SPL exhibited a marginal systematic increase over the training period, but the maximum STER did not systematically change. F0 vibrato extent increased significantly, whereas the extent of SPL and STER vibrato did not change significantly.

  5. STS-40 orbital acceleration research experiment flight results during a typical sleep period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Robert C.; Nicholson, John Y.; Ritter, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), an electrostatic accelerometer package with complete on-orbit calibration capabilities was flown aboard Shuttle on STS-40. The instrument is designed to measure and record the Shuttle aerodynamic acceleration environment from the free molecule flow regime through the rarefied flow transition into the hypersonic continuum regime. Because of its sensitivity, the OARE instrument detects aerodynamic behavior of the Shuttle while in low-earth orbit. A 2-h orbital time period on day seven of the mission, when the crew was asleep and other spacecraft activities were at a minimum, was examined. Examination of the model with the flight data shows the instrument to be sensitive to all major expected low-frequency acceleration phenomena; however, some erratic instrument bias behavior persists in two axes. In these axes, the OARE data can be made to match a comprehensive atmospheric-aerodynamic model by making bias adjustments and slight liner corrections for drift.

  6. Results of magnetic measurements of ELF fields in Tomsk for the period 2013-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakov, A. A.; Kolesnik, S. A.; Nedosekov, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes a method of magnetic measurements of natural electromagnetic fields ELF range. The results of the analysis of the frequency characteristics of fashion Schumann resonances in a suburban area in the seasonally-daily cycle of observations.

  7. [Influenza surveillance in five consecutive seasons during post pandemic period: results from National Influenza Center, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Altaş, Ayşe Başak; Bayrakdar, Fatma; Korukluoğlu, Gülay

    2016-07-01

    Influenza surveillance provides data about the characteristics of influenza activity, types, sub-types and antigenic properties of the influenza viruses in circulation in a region. Surveillance also provides for the preparation against potential influenza pandemics with the identification of the genetic properties of viruses and the mutant strains that could pose a threat. In this study, data in the scope of national influenza surveillance carried out by National Influenza Center, Turkey for five consecutive influenza seasons between 2010-2015, following the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus pandemic, have been presented and evaluated. A total of 15.149 respiratory samples, including 8.894 sentinel and 6.255 non-sentinel specimens, during 2010-2015 influenza seasons, within the periods between September and May, were evaluated in our center. All samples were tested using real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) for the presence of influenza virus types and subtypes. Within the sentinel influenza surveillance, the samples that were detected negative for influenza viruses, have also been tested for the other respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, rhinoviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses) using the same technique. Further analysis, including virus isolation by cell culture inoculation and antigenic characterization by hemagglutination inhibiton test were performed for the samples found positive for influenza A and B viruses. Selected representative virus isolates have been sent to WHO reference laboratory for the sequence analysis. In the study, influenza virus positivity rates detected for all of the samples (sentinel+non-sentinel) were as follows; 34% (779/2316) in 2010-11 season; 25% (388/1554) in 2011-12; 20% (696/3541) in 2012-13; 23% (615/2678) in 2013-14; and 26% (1332/5060) in 2014-15. When all the samples were considered for influenza A and B viruses, the positivity rates for the seasons of 2010-11; 2011-12; 2012-13; 2013-14; 2014-15 were determined as

  8. Amphetamines and cannabinoids testing in hair: Evaluation of results from a two-year period.

    PubMed

    Burgueño, María José; Alonso, Amaya; Sánchez, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of a set of amphetamines and cannabinoids tests performed on head hair samples from the Medico-Legal sector at the Madrid Department of the Spanish National Institute of Toxicology and Forensic Sciences during the years 2013 and 2014. The hair samples were tested for five stimulant phenylalkylamine derivatives -amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy-amphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA)- and/or two cannabinoids-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabinol (CBN)- by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectrometry detection in selected-ion monitoring mode, applying a method accredited to ISO/IEC 17025 standards. The test results were interpreted according to the confirmation cut-offs proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) to identify chronic drug use. The ratios of positive results were studied in relation to gender, age, hair colour, dyeing and length of the tested samples to assess the independence from these variables or the association with them. Low, medium and high ranges of concentration were also estimated for each drug. 21.94% of the 2954 hair samples tested for phenylalkylamine derivatives were positive for one or more substances. 16.38% of the samples were positive for AP, 12.09% for MDMA and only 0.44% for MA. 6.60% of the tested samples were positive for AP/MDMA combination. A total of 3178 samples were tested for cannabinoids, resulting in 53.40% positive for THC and CBN. Simultaneous tests for phenylalkylamine derivatives and cannabinoids were performed in 2931 of the samples; 14.94% of them were positive for THC, CBN, and one or more amphetamines. According to the results from the statistical analysis, the use of THC and MDMA vary with age and gender among the Medico-Legal sector in an extended area of Spain, while the use of AP appears to be independent of these variables. On the other hand, the results of THC in

  9. Acute epididymitis in Greek children: a 3-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sakellaris, George S; Charissis, Giorgos C

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to compare historical features, physical examination findings, and testicular color Doppler ultrasound in pediatric patients with epididymitis compared to testicular torsion and torsion of the appendix testes. A retrospective review of the medical records of 66 boys presenting with clinical aspects of acute scrotum over a 3-year period was performed. Sixty-six patients were included in the study (29 with epididymitis, 8 with testicular torsion and 12 with torsion of the appendix testis, 4 with scrotal abscesses, 5 with scrotal swelling, and 1 with inflamed epididymal cyst). The duration of symptoms ranged from 6 h to 4 days with a peak on the second day. Urine cultures and viral testes were negative in all patients. Color Doppler ultrasound was diagnostic for epididymitis in 28 patients (96.6%). Systemic intravenous antibiotics were given in all 29 patients with epididymitis. No patient showed signs of testicular atrophy in the follow-up. The increasing incidence of epididymitis should question the policy of routine exploration of the acute scrotum in children. The history and physical examination cannot reliably identify those boys who can be managed conservatively. Color Doppler ultrasound is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of the acute scrotum when physical findings are equivocal but it can also be misleading.

  10. Design and Experimental Results for the S825 Airfoil; Period of Performance: 1998-1999

    SciTech Connect

    Somers, D. M.

    2005-01-01

    A 17%-thick, natural-laminar-flow airfoil, the S825, for the 75% blade radial station of 20- to 40-meter, variable-speed and variable-pitch (toward feather), horizontal-axis wind turbines has been designed and analyzed theoretically and verified experimentally in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The two primary objectives of high maximum lift, relatively insensitive to roughness and low-profile drag have been achieved. The airfoil exhibits a rapid, trailing-edge stall, which does not meet the design goal of a docile stall. The constraints on the pitching moment and the airfoil thickness have been satisfied. Comparisons of the theoretical and experimental results generally show good agreement.

  11. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children.

  12. Groundwater-quality data in 12 GAMA study units: Results from the 2006–10 initial sampling period and the 2008–13 trend sampling period, California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.

    2017-03-09

    The Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. From 2004 through 2012, the GAMA-PBP collected samples and assessed the quality of groundwater resources that supply public drinking water in 35 study units across the State. Selected sites in each study unit were sampled again approximately 3 years after initial sampling as part of an assessment of temporal trends in water quality by the GAMA-PBP. Twelve of the study units, initially sampled during 2006–11 (initial sampling period) and sampled a second time during 2008–13 (trend sampling period) to assess temporal trends, are the subject of this report.The initial sampling was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater used for public water supplies in the 12 study units. In these study units, 550 sampling sites were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized, grid-based method to provide spatially unbiased representation of the areas assessed (grid sites, also called “status sites”). After the initial sampling period, 76 of the previously sampled status sites (approximately 10 percent in each study unit) were randomly selected for trend sampling (“trend sites”). The 12 study units sampled both during the initial sampling and during the trend sampling period were distributed among 6 hydrogeologic provinces: Coastal (Northern and Southern), Transverse Ranges and Selected Peninsular Ranges, Klamath, Modoc Plateau and Cascades, and Sierra Nevada Hydrogeologic Provinces. For the purposes of this trend report, the six hydrogeologic provinces were grouped into two hydrogeologic regions based on location: Coastal and Mountain.The groundwater samples were analyzed for a number of synthetic organic

  13. Long-term quasi-periodicity of 4U 1636-536 resulting from accretion disc instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewicz, Mateusz; Zdziarski, Andrzej; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Rosinska, Dorota; Slowikowska, Agnieszka

    2016-07-01

    We present the results of a study of the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1636-536. We have performed temporal analysis of all available RXTE/ASM, RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT and MAXI data. We have confirmed the previously discovered quasi-periodicity of ˜45 d present during ˜2004, however we found it continued to 2006. At other epochs, the quasi-periodicity is only transient, and the quasi-period, if present, drifts. We have then applied a time-dependent accretion disc model to the interval with the significant X-ray quasi-periodicity. For our best model, the period and the amplitude of the theoretical light curve agree well with that observed. The modelled quasi-periodicity is due to the hydrogen thermal-ionization instability occurring in outer regions of the accretion disc. The model parameters are the average mass accretion rate (estimated from the light curves), and the accretion disc viscosity parameters, α_{cold} and α_{hot}, for the hot and cold phases, respectively. Our best model gives relatively low values of α_{cold} and α_{hot}.

  14. Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old Print A A A ... 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms) and grow about 2 to 3 inches (5 to 8 centimeters). They' ...

  15. Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old A A A Kids ... skills are appropriate for this age. By age 2, toddlers should be able to walk and run ...

  16. Simulation results of few-mode signal propagation over graded multimode optical fibers with periodical slowly varying core diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdine, Anton V.

    2008-12-01

    Simulation results of few-mode signal propagation over silica graded multimode optical fibers with periodical slowly varying core diameter, excited by laser source, are represented. Weakly-guiding irregular multimode fibers with axialsymmetric graded index profile under central defect, local fluctuations and single outer cladding are considered. It is supposed, the core diameter varies slowly along fiber length according to sine function. The period of sine function is more then 106 times greater then fiber core diameter. Solution is based on proposed time domain model of piece-wise regular multimode fiber link under few-mode signal propagation under laser source exciting. Model takes into account differential mode delay, higher-order mode chromatic dispersion, mode mixing and power diffusion. Some results of pulse dynamics calculation during propagation over described fiber with periodical slowly varying core diameter are represented.

  17. The OmegaWhite Survey for short period variable stars - II. An overview of results from the first four years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toma, R.; Ramsay, G.; Macfarlane, S.; Groot, P. J.; Woudt, P. A.; Dhillon, V.; Jeffery, C. S.; Marsh, T.; Nelemans, G.; Steeghs, D.

    2016-11-01

    OmegaWhite is a wide-field, high cadence, synoptic survey targeting fields in the southern Galactic plane, with the aim of discovering short period variable stars. Our strategy is to take a series of 39 s exposures in the g band of a 1 deg2 of sky lasting 2 h using the OmegaCAM wide field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). We give an overview of the initial 4 yr of data which covers 134 deg2 and includes 12.3 million light curves. As the fields overlap with the VLT Survey Telescope Hα Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+), we currently have ugriHα photometry for ˜1/3 of our fields. We find that a significant fraction of the light curves have been affected by the diffraction spikes of bright stars sweeping across stars within a few dozen of pixels over the two hour observing time interval due to the alt-az nature of the VST. We select candidate variable stars using a variety of variability statistics, followed by a manual verification stage. We present samples of several classes of short period variables, including: an ultra compact binary, a DQ white dwarf, a compact object with evidence of a 100 min rotation period, three CVs, one eclipsing binary with an 85 min period, a symbiotic binary which shows evidence of a 31 min photometric period, and a large sample of candidate δ Sct type stars including one with a 9.3 min period. Our overall goal is to cover 400 deg2, and this study indicates we will find many more interesting short period variable stars as a result.

  18. Predictors of Reading Development in Deaf Children: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Harris, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted…

  19. Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective in significantly increasing their final adult height. Constitutional growth delay (delayed puberty). Although they are usually ... about age 2 or 3 years, kids with constitutional growth delay will grow at a normal childhood ...

  20. Ultra-short-period Planets in K2 SuPerPiG Results for Campaigns 0-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Elisabeth R.; Jackson, Brian; Endl, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed data from Campaigns 0-5 of the K2 mission and report 19 ultra-short-period candidate planets with orbital periods of less than one day (nine of which have not been previously reported). Planet candidates range in size from 0.7 to 16 Earth radii and in orbital period from 4.2 to 23.5 hr. One candidate (EPIC 203533312, Kp = 12.5) is among the shortest-period planet candidates discovered to date (P=4.2 hr), and, if confirmed as a planet, must have a density of at least ρ =8.9 {{g}} {{cm}}-3 to not be tidally disrupted. Five candidates have nominal radius values in the sub-Jovian desert ({R}P=3{--}11 {R}\\oplus and P≤slant 1.5 days) where theoretical models do not favor their long-term stability; the only confirmed planet in this range is thought to be disintegrating (EPIC 201637175). In addition to the planet candidates, we report on four objects that may not be planetary, including one with intermittent transits (EPIC 211152484) and three initially promising candidates that are likely false positives based on characteristics of their light curves and on radial velocity follow-up. A list of 91 suspected eclipsing binaries identified at various stages in our vetting process is also provided. Based on an assessment of our survey's completeness, we estimate an occurrence rate for ultra-short-period planets among K2 target stars that is about half that estimated from the Kepler sample, raising questions as to whether K2 systems are intrinsically different from Kepler systems, possibly as a result of their different galactic location.

  1. The Explorer XVI Micrometeoroid Satellite Description and Preliminary Results for the Period December 16, 1962 Through January 13, 1963

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.

    1963-01-01

    Explorer XVI (1962 Beta Chi l) data that have been analyzed for the period between December 16, 1962 (launch date), and January 13, 1963, indicate that the orbit achieved was close to the predicted orbit. Ten punctures of annealed 0.001-inch-thick beryllium-copper have been used to determine a puncture rate of 0.035 per square foot per day in this material. One puncture of a 0.002-inch-thick sample has also occurred in this period. A tentative evaluation of the puncture rate for the 0.001-inch beryllium-copper in terms of the rate for an equivalent thickness of aluminum has been attempted, and the result has been compared with two different puncture rate estimates. The three micrometeoroid impact detecting systems are operating. Counting rates for the high- and low-sensitivity systems were close to anticipated values near the end of one week. Two of the 0.001-inch-steel-covered grid detectors have been punctured, but none of the 0.003- or 0.006-inch-steel-covered grid detectors have indicated punctures. One of the cadmium sulfide cells indicates three punctures of the 0.00025-inch Mylar cover. None of the 0.002- or 0.003-inch-copper-wire cards have indicated a break in the period covered. Telemetry temperatures were initially higher than expected although they remained well within operating limits. Sensor temperatures have remained within the expected bounds.

  2. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Tunchel, Samy; Blay, Alberto; Kolerman, Roni; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26-67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results.

  3. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26–67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  4. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  5. Developing Dialogic Argumentation Skills: A 3-Year Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Amanda; Kuhn, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is increasingly recognized as a fundamental intellectual skill, but evidence suggests that few adolescents or adults are skilled arguers. This article reports on an extended (3-year, twice weekly) intervention designed to afford dense practice in dialogic argumentation to middle-school students from traditionally academically…

  6. Results of dose sensors measurements in the middle-Earth orbit for the period of 2009-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopov, Grigory; Shatov, Pavel; Tasenko, Sergey; Lyakhov, Igor; Makarova, Nina; Balashov, Sergey; Sitnikova, Ninel

    2016-07-01

    The measurements results of space radiation exposure on electronic components carried out by dose sensors are presented in the paper. Dose sensors operate on metal-nitride-oxide-semiconductor dosimetry pricniple. The flight data have been receiving for more than 6 years. The measurements results are compared with others flight data on different orbits. The analysis of the received data from 2009 to 2015 allows us to find out the periods with sharp increase of dose rate and to define values of such increases. We had analyzed space radiation characteristics data from other monitoring systems (such as GOES, Electro-L) in dates of dose rate sharp increase. Results of the analysis of dose rate increase, which had been fixed by TID sensors in 2015, will be presented in full paper. We had calculated average dose rates for different space models in the middle-Earth orbit (AE8, AE9 and others) and determined the most relevant models to the experimental data (with account for relaxation effect of dose sensor outputs). The comparison results for different models will be presented in the full paper. We had used different approaches for simulating of dose sensors shielding geometry, such as semi-sphere, semi-infinite plate, sector analysis, with taking account of different shielding elements. The analysis results of shielding configuration influence on calculated values of dose rate will be presented in the full paper.

  7. The structure of executive function in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Sandra A; Sheffield, Tiffany; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Clark, Caron A C; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-03-01

    Although the structure of executive function (EF) during adulthood is characterized by both unity and diversity, recent evidence suggests that preschool EF may be best described by a single factor. The latent structure of EF was examined in 228 3-year-olds using confirmatory factor analysis. Children completed a battery of executive tasks that differed in format and response requirements and in putative working memory and inhibitory control demands. Tasks appeared to be age appropriate, with adequate sensitivity across the range of performance and without floor or ceiling effects. Tests of the relative fit of several alternative models supported a single latent EF construct. Measurement invariance testing revealed less proficient EF in children at higher sociodemographic risk relative to those at lower risk and no differences between boys and girls. At 3years of age, when EF skills are emerging, EF appears to be a unitary, more domain-general process.

  8. A 3-year follow-up study of various types of orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers.

    PubMed

    Artun, J; Spadafora, A T; Shapiro, P A

    1997-10-01

    The present study was performed to test the tendency for plaque and calculus build-up along the wire of different types of bonded orthodontic canine-to-canine retainers, whether the presence of such retainers causes any damage to the teeth involved, the failure rate of the retainers, and any changes in incisor alignment during a 3-year period of retention. The four test groups received either retainers made of thick plain wire bonded only to the canines (n = 11); thick spiral wire bonded only to the canines (n = 13); thin, flexible spiral wire bonded to each tooth (n = 11); or removable retainers (n = 14). Accumulation of plaque and calculus along the gingival margin, gingival inflammation and probing attachment level were scored in lingual areas from canine to canine at the time of fixed appliance removal and again 3 years after retainer insertion. Incisor irregularity was measured on plaster models made at the same time periods. Accumulation of plaque and calculus and development of caries along the wire were scored at follow-up. Retainer failures were recorded whenever they occurred. The results revealed no intergroup differences in changes between baseline and follow-up examinations or status along the retainer wire for any of the variables. Gingival inflammation and plaque accumulation were scored less frequently after 3 years in retention than at the time of debonding. No signs of caries were seen adjacent to the wire. Failures were observed of one, four and three of the fixed retainer types, respectively. These patients showed a greater increase in incisor irregularity than the other patients.

  9. [Dermatobia hominis infection in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Meissner, M; Kippenberger, S; Valesky, E M; Kaufmann, R

    2012-04-01

    In the context of increasing travel to the tropics, outpatient services are more frequently confronted with non-domestic diseases in Europe. A 3-year old child presented with a painful tumor of the scalp. After incision of the furuncle-like lesion, we extracted a larva of the botfly Dermatobia hominis. Botflies are mainly encountered in Central and South America; they should be considered if patients demonstrate a furuncle-like lesion and have returned from a holiday in these endemic regions.

  10. UV/Visible Aerosol Extinction Measurements performed by GOMOS onboard ENVISAT: results for the period August 2002 to March 2005.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhellemont, F.; Fussen, D.; Dodion, J.; Bingen, C.; Mateshvili, N.; Gomos Team

    Launched in March 2002 the GOMOS Global Ozone Monitoring by Occultation of Stars instrument onboard the European Envisat satellite has already provided a wealth of information on the geographical and temporal distribution of several atmospheric species Vertical profiles for these species are numerically retrieved from measurements of starlight that is transmitted through the atmosphere at different tangent altitudes The actual spectrum at each tangent altitude is measured within the UV Visible wavelength range Typically within the useful range from 248 nm to 690 nm gas concentration profiles for O 3 NO 2 H 2 O neutral air and aerosol extinction profiles can be retrieved Although stars are relatively weak light sources the advantage of the star occultation lies in the fact that useful stars are available at all times during orbit As a consequence GOMOS has measured more than 300 000 occultations in the considered period from August 2002 to March 2005 In this work we present results for the aerosol extinction retrievals Using selection criteria for different occultation properties such as the star magnitude and the illumination conditions a subset of reliable occultations were picked Subsequently a spatial and temporal binning was performed and data were averaged The resulting climatology provides a good view on the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of aerosols in the stratosphere Special attention is given to the presence of PSCs in the Antarctic polar vortex and equatorial cirrus clouds First results on particle sizes

  11. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    SADEGHZADEH, Mansour; KHOSHNEVIS ASL, Parisa; MAHBOUBI, Esrafil

    2012-01-01

    Objective Febrile seizure is one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. Several theories, such as iron deficiency anemia have been proposed as the pathogenesis of this condition. The aim of this study was to find the association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizures in children aged 6 months to 3 years admitted in Valie Asr hospital in Zanjan. Materials &Methods Hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and SI/TIBC ratio were assessed in one hundred children with febrile seizures and compared to the values of one hundred healthy children presenting in a heath care center in the same period as the control group. Results A total of 6% of cases had iron deficiency anemia which was similar to the control group. In the case group SI/TIBC ratio below 12% was seen in 58% of children which was significantly higher than that of the control group (29%). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that although anemia was not common among febrile seizure patients, iron deficiency was more frequent in these patients. PMID:24665277

  12. Searches for periodic gravitational waves from unknown isolated sources and Scorpius X-1: Results from the second LIGO science run

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Belczynski, K.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, B.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkey, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Chin, D.; Chin, E.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, . P.; Cokelaer, T.; Colacino, C. N.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coward, D.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Csatorday, P.; Cumming, A.; Cutler, C.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Daw, E.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Delker, T.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Ding, H.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Ganezer, K. S.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Howell, E.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jackrel, D.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W. R.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissell, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lee, B.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Libson, A.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logan, J.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McNabb, J. W. C.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nocera, F.; Numata, K.; Nutzman, P.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Parameswariah, C.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Rawlins, K.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robison, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Sazonov, A.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strand, N. E.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Takahashi, H.; Takamori, A.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarallo, M.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tinto, M.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Ungarelli, C.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; van Putten, M.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitbeck, D.. M.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiley, S.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zaleski, K. D.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.

    2007-10-01

    We carry out two searches for periodic gravitational waves using the most sensitive few hours of data from the second LIGO science run. Both searches exploit fully coherent matched filtering and cover wide areas of parameter space, an innovation over previous analyses which requires considerable algorithm development and computational power. The first search is targeted at isolated, previously unknown neutron stars, covers the entire sky in the frequency band 160 728.8 Hz, and assumes a frequency derivative of less than 4×10-10Hz/s. The second search targets the accreting neutron star in the low-mass x-ray binary Scorpius X-1 and covers the frequency bands 464 484 Hz and 604 624 Hz as well as the two relevant binary orbit parameters. Because of the high computational cost of these searches we limit the analyses to the most sensitive 10 hours and 6 hours of data, respectively. Given the limited sensitivity and duration of the analyzed data set, we do not attempt deep follow-up studies. Rather we concentrate on demonstrating the data analysis method on a real data set and present our results as upper limits over large volumes of the parameter space. In order to achieve this, we look for coincidences in parameter space between the Livingston and Hanford 4-km interferometers. For isolated neutron stars our 95% confidence level upper limits on the gravitational wave strain amplitude range from 6.6×10-23 to 1×10-21 across the frequency band; for Scorpius X-1 they range from 1.7×10-22 to 1.3×10-21 across the two 20-Hz frequency bands. The upper limits presented in this paper are the first broadband wide parameter space upper limits on periodic gravitational waves from coherent search techniques. The methods developed here lay the foundations for upcoming hierarchical searches of more sensitive data which may detect astrophysical signals.

  13. New constraints on the variation of the geomagnetic field during the late Neolithic period: Archaeointensity results from Sichuan, southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Wei; Tauxe, Lisa; Deng, Chenglong; Qin, Huafeng; Pan, Yongxin; Yi, Liang; Zhu, Rixiang

    2015-04-01

    We have carried out an archaeomagnetic study on a late Neolithic locality (Liujiazhai) in Sichuan, southwestern China. We pull together various dating techniques, including radiocarbon analysis, optically stimulated luminescence dating, stratigraphic information as well as archaeological and archaeomagnetic estimations, to constrain the age of the studied samples. Rock magnetic results indicate thermally stable fine-grained magnetite or titanomagnetite as the dominant magnetic carriers. More than half of the specimens (141/246) in the paleointensity experiment pass the selection criteria and are considered to record robust intensity values. The virtual axial dipole moments range from approximately (2.8 to 7.8) × 1022 Am2 with an average of 5.9 × 1022 Am2, indicating that the geomagnetic intensity around 3000 before the Common Era (B.C.E.) is overall lower than the present field intensity (9.8 × 1022 Am2) of this area. The new results from Liujiazhai are generally consistent with the published data of similar age but deviate from the only available model of CALS10k.1b at certain time periods, making them important for future improvements of the model. Those data are significant for constraining the variation of geomagnetic field intensity between ~3100 and 2600 B.C.E. and improving the regional model of eastern Asia.

  14. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both.

  15. NASA IKONOS Multispectral Radiometric Calibration and 3-Year Temporal Stability Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen; Aaran, David

    2003-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other system. In addition, the user community has little or no insight into the design and operation of commercial sensors or into the methods involved in generating commercial products. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) Directorate established a commercial satellite imaging radiometric calibration team consisting of three independent groups: NASA, SSC,ESA, the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group, and South Dacota State University. Each group determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Space Imaging IKONOS 4-band, 4 m multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a three year period beginning in 2000, each team employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, requiring ground-based measurements coincident with IKONOS image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. Several study sites throughout the United States were employed that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the IKONOS sensor. IKONOS at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent group to determine the IKONOS sensor's radiometric accuracy and stability. Over 10 individual vicariously determined at-sensor radiance estimates were used each year. When combined, these estimates provided a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. No significant calibration offset was observed. The results of this evaluation provide the scientific community with an independent assessment of the IKONOS sensor's absolute calibration and temporal stability over the 3

  16. [Tenth anniversary of smallpox eradication: Results of epidemiological and virological surveillance and studies in the post-eradication period].

    PubMed

    Marennikova, S S

    1989-06-01

    In accordance with recommendations of the Global Commission on the certification of smallpox eradication for the 10-year period after the eradication of this infection, all suspected cases of smallpox have been thoroughly checked up, and in none of them the diagnosis of smallpox has been confirmed. The study of monkeypox in humans has revealed that this zoonosis is spread over a wider area than supposed earlier and covers 7 countries of Equatorial Africa, occurring most frequently in Zaire. In about 70% of cases of monkeypox in human the disease is contracted from animals serving as natural virus carriers and in about one-third of such cases, from humans having monkeypox. The infectivity of humans with monkeypox for persons having close contacts with them is somewhat lower (12.3%) than in smallpox when this characteristic varies from 37% to 88%. Monkeypox in humans may take an asymptomatic course. Some species of tropical squirrels serve as natural virus carriers. These investigations have also resulted in essential corrections being made in understanding the ecology of cowpox virus, another orthopoxvirus pathogenic for man. At least 5 species of rodents have proved to be of interest as natural carriers of cowpox virus.

  17. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided.

  18. Blowout Fracture in a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pluijmers, Britt I.; Koudstaal, Maarten J.; Paridaens, Dion; van der Wal, Karel G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial department with a fracture of the orbital floor. Due to the lack of clinical symptoms, a conservative approach was chosen. After 3 weeks, an enophthalmos developed. The orbital floor reconstruction was successfully performed through a transconjunctival approach. This case highlights the rarity of pure blowout fractures in young children. The specific presentation and diagnostics of orbital floor fractures in children and the related surgical planning and intervention are discussed. PMID:24436749

  19. Pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Holdaway, M. D.; Kennedy, J.; Ashcroft, T.; Kay-Butler, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Until 1960, 179 cases of infection with Nocardia asteroides had been described in the world literature. Seventeen cases in children were reported by 1963. The organism is a common saprophyte in nature with probably a world-wide distribution. Infection can be primary but is more common in patients with underlying malignancy, auto-immune disease or preceding tuberculosis. Sulphonamides, particularly sulphadiazine, are the drugs of choice in treatment; the value of antibiotics is less clearly established. The indications for surgical treatment have not yet been defined. We record a further case of primary pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child. Images PMID:6035802

  20. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) Qio Review Functions § 476.96 Review period and reopening...

  1. Paternal Psychosocial Characteristics and Corporal Punishment of Their 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Guterman, Neil B.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the…

  2. The Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court: 3-Year Self-Report Outcome Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfredson, Denise C.; Kearley, Brook W.; Najaka, Stacy S.; Rocha, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports results from interviews with 157 research participants who were interviewed 3 years after randomization into treatment and control conditions in the evaluation of the Baltimore City Drug Treatment Court. The interviews asked about crime, substance use, welfare, employment, education, mental and physical health, and family and…

  3. Impacts of 3 years of elevated atmospheric CO2 on rhizosphere carbon flow and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Drigo, Barbara; Kowalchuk, George A; Knapp, Brigitte A; Pijl, Agata S; Boschker, Henricus T S; van Veen, Johannes A

    2013-02-01

    Carbon (C) uptake by terrestrial ecosystems represents an important option for partially mitigating anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Short-term atmospheric elevated CO2 exposure has been shown to create major shifts in C flow routes and diversity of the active soil-borne microbial community. Long-term increases in CO2 have been hypothesized to have subtle effects due to the potential adaptation of soil microorganism to the increased flow of organic C. Here, we studied the effects of prolonged elevated atmospheric CO2 exposure on microbial C flow and microbial communities in the rhizosphere. Carex arenaria (a nonmycorrhizal plant species) and Festuca rubra (a mycorrhizal plant species) were grown at defined atmospheric conditions differing in CO2 concentration (350 and 700 ppm) for 3 years. During this period, C flow was assessed repeatedly (after 6 months, 1, 2, and 3 years) by (13) C pulse-chase experiments, and label was tracked through the rhizosphere bacterial, general fungal, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities. Fatty acid biomarker analyses and RNA-stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP), in combination with real-time PCR and PCR-DGGE, were used to examine microbial community dynamics and abundance. Throughout the experiment the influence of elevated CO2 was highly plant dependent, with the mycorrhizal plant exerting a greater influence on both bacterial and fungal communities. Biomarker data confirmed that rhizodeposited C was first processed by AMF and subsequently transferred to bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil. Over the course of 3 years, elevated CO2 caused a continuous increase in the (13) C enrichment retained in AMF and an increasing delay in the transfer of C to the bacterial community. These results show that, not only do elevated atmospheric CO2 conditions induce changes in rhizosphere C flow and dynamics but also continue to develop over multiple seasons, thereby affecting terrestrial ecosystems C utilization processes.

  4. Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Suicidal Thoughts Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults 3 Years After the Niigata-Chuetsu Earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuriko; Tsutsumi, Atsuro; Fukasawa, Maiko; Honma, Hiroko; Someya, Toshiyuki; Kim, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Background Japan is located in an area prone to natural disasters, and major earthquakes have occurred recently in rural areas where the proportion of elderly adults is high. Although elderly persons are vulnerable members of communities at a time of disaster, the prevalence of mental disorders among this population has yet to be reported in Japan. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of mental disorders and suicidal thoughts among community-dwelling elderly persons 3 years after an earthquake and to identify risk factors associated with their quality of life (QOL). Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 496 community-dwelling persons aged 65 years or older in areas of Japan where 2 major earthquakes had occurred during a 3-year period. The main outcome was diagnosis of a mental disorder or suicidality. Results During the 3-year period after the earthquake, 1.6% of men and 5.5% of women had received a diagnosis of major depression. There were no cases of posttraumatic stress disorder. Women were more likely than men to report suicidality (7.8% vs 3.8%, P = 0.075). Conclusions The prevalence of mental disorders was lower than that reported in previous studies. Despite the low prevalence of mental disorders, the percentage of community-dwelling elderly persons with subclinical mental health symptoms was high. The results indicate that appropriate public health and medical interventions are warranted after a natural disaster. PMID:21325733

  5. GRB 030329: 3 years of radio afterglow monitoring.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, A J; Kamble, A; Wijers, R A M J; Resmi, L; Bhattacharya, D; Rol, E; Strom, R; Kouveliotou, C; Oosterloo, T; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2007-05-15

    Radio observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are essential for our understanding of the physics of relativistic blast waves, as they enable us to follow the evolution of GRB explosions much longer than the afterglows in any other wave band. We have performed a 3-year monitoring campaign of GRB 030329 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescopes and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Our observations, combined with observations at other wavelengths, have allowed us to determine the GRB blast wave physical parameters, such as the total burst energy and the ambient medium density, as well as to investigate the jet nature of the relativistic outflow. Further, by modelling the late-time radio light curve of GRB 030329, we predict that the Low-Frequency Array (30-240 MHz) will be able to observe afterglows of similar GRBs, and constrain the physics of the blast wave during its non-relativistic phase.

  6. ISS ECLSS: 3 Years of Logistics for Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkedi, Brienne; Thompson, Dean

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is designed to be maintainable. During the 3 years since the ISS US Lab became operational, there have been numerous ECLSS Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) launched and returned to Maintain the ECLSS operation in the US segments. The maintenance logistics have provided tools for maintenance, replaced limited life ORUs and failed ORUs, upgraded ECLSS hardware to improve reliability and placed critical spares onboard prior to need. In most cases, the removed ORUs have been returned for either failure analysis and repair or refurbishment. This paper describes the ECLSS manifesting history and maintenance events and quantifies the numbers of ECLSS items, weights, and volumes.

  7. Multicenter study on the long-term (3-year) efficacy of lanthanum carbonate in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ando, Ryoichi; Yama, Satomi; Ohnishi, Tsuyoshi; Iwamoto, Shunsuke; Kimura, Hitoshi; Chida, Yoshiko; Ishida, Yuji; Yamada, Kouei; Inagaki, Yuichiro; Takayama, Masanobu; Tachibana, Ken; Kikuchi, Kan; Inoue, Atsushi; Ohtsuka, Masakazu

    2014-06-01

    We previously conducted a multicenter study enrolling 101 dialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia in which lanthanum carbonate (LC) was administered for 2 years. In this study, the administration has been continued for an additional year, and we have evaluated the long-term (a total of 3 years) effects of LC. The average serum phosphorus (P) level was 6.05 mg/dL at the start and decreased to 5.84 mg/dL after 3 years, but no significant differences were observed at both points. The average serum corrected calcium (Ca) level significantly reduced after 3 years (P < 0.001). As results of evaluating the achievement rates with the management target values of serum P, Ca and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) stated in the Japanese guideline, the achievement rates increased after 3 years. From these results, LC is considered to be a useful P binder that can be used for long-term treatment of hyperphosphatemia, without causing a Ca load.

  8. Prevalence of malocclusion traits and sucking habits among 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor; Bondemark, Lars; Söderfeldt, Björn; Lennartsson, Bertil

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion traits and sucking habits among 3-year-old children. A sample of 457 3-year-old children (234 girls and 223 boys) was obtained from three Public Dental Health clinics in Orebro County Council, Sweden. Data from clinical examination and a questionnaire were used to determine malocclusion traits, sucking habits, snoring and breathing pattern including nocturnal breathing disturbances. The results showed that 70% had one or more malocclusion traits at 3 years of age. The most common malocclusion traits were anterior open bite (50%), Class II occlusion (26%), increased overjet (23%) and posterior crossbite (19%). The prevalence of sucking habit was 66% and dummy sucking was dominating and in connection with more malocclusion traits than finger/thumb sucking. A significant association was found between the sucking habits and the most prevalent malocclusions, anterior open bite, Class II occlusion, increased overjet and posterior crossbite. In conclusion, the prevalence of malocclusion traits in 3-year-old children was high. Sucking habits was highly prevalent and dummy sucking resulted in more malocclusion traits than finger/thumb sucking did.

  9. SMOS Instrument Performance and Calibration after 3 Years in Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Neira, Manuel; Corbella, Ignasi; Torres, Francesc; Kainulainen, Juha; Oliva, Roger; Closa, Josep; Cabot, François; Castro, Rita; Barbosa, Jose; Gutierrez, Antonio; Anterrieu, Eric; Tenerelli, Joe; Martin-Porqueras, Fernando; Buenadicha, Guillermo; Delwart, Steven; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; Suess, Martin

    2013-04-01

    ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has been in orbit for already over 3 years which has allowed the calibration and data processing team consolidating both the calibration strategy and the Level-1 processor which transforms the raw visibility samples into polarimetric brightness temperature images. The payload on board SMOS, MIRAS, is quite unique in that it is the first microwave radiometer in space ever capable to generate wide field of view images at every snapshot measurement. This means that most of the calibration as well as image processing techniques are being developed for the first time with little heritage from any previous space mission. Issues intrinsically attached to its wide field of view such as spatial ripples across the snapshot images are particular to MIRAS and to no other earlier radiometer. Even the fundamental theory behind the instrument was put at test, first on ground inside an electromagnetic compatibility chamber, and now in orbit when imaging the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation of the cold sky. A groundbreaking effort is being carried out by the SMOS project team to understand and master all calibration and image reconstruction issues of this novel microwave interferometer payload. MIRAS in-orbit performance is driven by the amplitude of spatial ripples across the image and orbital and seasonal radiometer stability. Spatial ripples are unique to interferometric radiometers and are produced by (a) a limited knowledge of the antenna patterns and, in general, of the model of the instrument, (b) some fundamental limitations related to the inverse problem of image reconstruction in undetermined conditions and (c) subtle data processing inconsistencies which are discovered and corrected. To reduce the spatial ripples sea surface salinity retrievals are performed by first removing the brightness temperature spatial errors using a uniform region of the Pacific Ocean. However soil moisture retrievals cannot benefit of

  10. Prescription pain reliever misuse and levels of pain impairment: 3-year course in a nationally representative outpatient sample of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Scott P; Glasheen, Cristie; Roland, Carl L

    2016-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this work was to present the prevalence data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a representative 3-year longitudinal survey (ages 18+ years) that captured information on patterns of self-reported pain interference and prescription pain reliever misuse. A second aim was to assess the degree to which the risk of various types of opioid misuse (onset, desistance, and incidence of dependence) was related to the longitudinal course of self-reported pain interference over the 3-year period. Methods We used a two-wave, nationally representative sample of adults (aged 18+ years) in which the baseline data were collected during 2001–2002 and a single follow-up was obtained ~3 years later (2004–2005 with 34,332 respondents with complete data on study variables for both waves). Results Our findings indicated that ~10% reported high pain interference in the past month at each wave. There was tremendous stability in levels of pain, with ~5% reporting consistent levels of high impairment over the 3-year study, a proxy for chronic pain. Levels of pain were more strongly associated with prescription pain reliever misuse concurrently rather than prospectively, and the association was largely linear, with the likelihood of misuse increasing with levels of pain. Finally, health service factors were also prominent predictors of onset, but not the outcomes, of desistance or transitions to problem use. Conclusion This study is the first to use a nationally representative sample with measures of pain and drug use history collected over an extended period. These results may help provide clinicians with an understanding that the risk of misuse is greatest when pain is active and may help guide the selection of appropriate intervention materials and monitor strategies for those at greatest risk. PMID:27418863

  11. Spontaneous analog number representations in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Safford, Kelley E; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2010-03-01

    When enumerating small sets of elements nonverbally, human infants often show a set-size limitation whereby they are unable to represent sets larger than three elements. This finding has been interpreted as evidence that infants spontaneously represent small numbers with an object-file system instead of an analog magnitude system (Feigenson, Dehaene & Spelke, 2004). In contrast, non-human animals and adult humans have been shown to rely on analog magnitudes for representing both small and large numbers (Brannon & Terrace, 1998; Cantlon & Brannon, 2007; Cordes, Gelman, Gallistel & Whalen, 2001). Here we demonstrate that, like adults and non-human animals, children as young as 3 years of age spontaneously employ analog magnitude representations to enumerate both small and large sets. Moreover, we show that children spontaneously attend to numerical value in lieu of cumulative surface area. These findings provide evidence of young children's greater sensitivity to number relative to other quantities and demonstrate continuity in the process they spontaneously recruit to judge small and large values.

  12. A 3-year follow-up of hypertension in Delhi.

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, N.; Chadha, S. L.; Shekhawat, S.; Tandon, R.

    1994-01-01

    A follow-up study of hypertension was carried out among adults in Delhi 3 years after an initial community-based epidemiological survey of the same population. The treatment and the severity status of 1115 out of 1749 individuals with hypertension detected in the initial survey were compared with those observed in the follow-up. The proportion of treated cases with controlled blood pressure rose from 10.8% to 60.8%. Among the cohort of 3611 subjects aged 25-64 years who were normotensive in the initial survey, 132 new cases of hypertension, were detected. The annual incidence of hypertension was the same in men and women (12.2 per 1000). Diabetes and regular alcohol consumption were significant risk factors for hypertension, being present in 13 and 7 cases, respectively. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded for 871 of the 1115 cases of hypertension. Abnormal ECGs were exhibited by 307 cases (35.2%), of which 24 (2.7%) had had myocardial infarction, 133 (15.3%) had ischaemic ST-T changes, 54 (6.2%) had left ventricular hypertrophy, and 96 (11.0%) had conduction defects and arrhythmias. PMID:7955019

  13. Qualitative Feasibility of Using Three Accelerometers With 2-3-Year-Old Children and Both Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Silvia; Barber, Sally E.; Griffiths, Paula L.; Cameron, Noël; Clemes, Stacy A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed mothers' opinions about the feasibility and acceptability of using the ActiGraph GT3X+, Actiheart, and activPAL3 with their 2- to 3-year-old children, as well as with themselves and their husbands/partners, for an 8-day period. Method: Six focus groups were run with Pakistani and White British mothers ("n" =…

  14. Intergenerational Transmission of Warm-Sensitive-Stimulating Parenting: A Prospective Study of Mothers and Fathers of 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Jaffee, Sara R.; Sligo, Judith; Woodward, Lianne; Silva, Phil A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 200 New Zealand men and women studied repeatedly since age 3 were videotaped interacting with their own 3-year-old children to determine (a) whether childrearing and family climate experienced in 3 distinct developmental periods while growing up (i.e., early childhood, middle childhood, early adolescence) predicted parenting and (b)…

  15. Success Rate of MTA Pulpotomy on Vital Pulp of Primary Molars: A 3-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vital pulp therapy is a major contributor in the preservation of primary dentition after caries affliction. Introduction of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has revolutionized such treatment. Aim The aim of our study was to evaluate and correlate the effects of MTA clinically and radiographically on pulpotomized primary molars till their exfoliation or extraction followed by histological evaluation. Study design This is an observational study. Materials and methods A total of 25 teeth were selected from 5- to 8-year-old children requiring pulp therapy on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criterion. The teeth were treated by conventional pulpotomy technique under aseptic conditions using MTA and were immediately restored with stainless steel crown. The teeth were assessed postoperatively till 36 months. The exfoliated or extracted teeth were examined histologically. Results The pulpotomized teeth were vital with no adverse clinical findings during the observation period. After 3 months, one tooth showed internal resorption, but the same was not observed after 12 months. Pulp canal obliteration was seen in three cases. At the end of the study, five teeth were exfoliated and one tooth was extracted for maintaining arch symmetry. The histological examination of extracted tooth revealed the presence of healthy pulp and the area of true calcification. Remaining exfoliated teeth presented dentin bridge formation. Statistics Frequencies and percentages were used for descriptive statistics. Fisher’s exact tests were used to see the difference between clinical and radiological findings. The probability value was fixed at 5% level of significance. Conclusion The response of pulp in primary teeth to MTA was favorable in all cases from clinical and radiographic perspective, and histological evaluation confirmed the observation. How to cite this article Godhi B, Tyagi R. Success Rate of MTA Pulpotomy on Vital Pulp of Primary Molars: A 3-Year Observational Study

  16. Molecular Diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompromised Patients: a 3-Year Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV+; the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome. PMID:25762774

  17. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients: a 3-year multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV(+); the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome.

  18. Final Report for 3-year grant no. DE-FG05-85ER40226. Investigations in Elementary Particle Theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, Thomas W.; Scherrer, Robert J.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2014-11-23

    The research interests of our three Co-PI’s complement each other very well. Kephart works mainly on models of particle unification in four or higher dimensions, on aspects of gravity such as inflation, black-holes, and the very early Universe, and on applications of knot theory and topology to various physical systems (including gluon dynamics). Scherrer works mainly on aspects of the intermediate-aged Universe, including dark matter and dark energy, and particle physics in the early Universe. Weiler works mainly on neutrino physics, dark matter signatures, and extreme particle-astrophysics in the late Universe, including origins of the highest-energy cosmic-rays and gamma-rays, and the future potential of neutrino astrophysics. Kephart and Weiler have lately devoted some research attention to the LHC and its reach for probing physics beyond the Standard Model. During the 3-year funding period, our grant supported one postdoc (Chiu Man Ho) and partially supported two students, Peter Denton and Lingjun Fu. Chiu Man collaborated with all three of the Co-PI’s during the 3-year funding period and published 16 refereed papers. Chiu Man has gone on to a postdoc with Steve Hsu at Michigan State University. Denton and Fu will both receive their PhDs during the 2014-15 academic year. The total number of our papers published in refereed journals by the three co-PIs during the period of this grant (2011-present) is 54. The total number of talks given by the group members during this time period, including seminars, colloquia, and conference presentations, is 47. Some details of the accomplishments of our DOE funded researchers during the grant period include Weiler being named a Simons Fellow in 2013. He presented an invited TEDx talk in 2012. His paper on closed timelike curves (2013) garnered a great deal of national publicity. Scherrer’s paper on the “little rip” (2011) fostered a new area of cosmological research, and the name “little rip” has now entered

  19. Postoperative Mortality after Hip Fracture Surgery: A 3 Years Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Un, Canan; Sacan, Ozlem; Gamli, Mehmet; Baskan, Semih; Baydar, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims To determine mortality rates and predisposing factors in patients operated for a hip fracture in a 3-year follow-up period. Methods The study included patients who underwent primary surgery for a hip fracture.The inclusion criteria were traumatic, non-traumatic, osteoporotic and pathological hip fractures requiring surgery in all age groups and both genders. Patients with periprosthetic fractures or previous contralateral hip fracture surgery and patients who could not be contacted by telephone were excluded. At 36 months after surgery, evaluation was made using a structured telephone interview and a detailed examination of the hospital medical records, especially the documents written during anesthesia by the anesthesiologists and the documents written at the time of follow-up visits by the orthopaedic surgeons. A total of 124 cases were analyzed and 4 patients were excluded due to exclusion criteria. The collected data included demographics, type of fracture, co-morbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, anesthesia techniques, operation type (intramedullary nailing or arthroplasty; cemented-noncemented), peroperative complications, refracture during the follow-up period, survival period and mortality causes. Results The total 120 patients evaluated comprised 74 females(61.7%) and 46 males(38.3%) with a mean age of 76.9±12.8 years (range 23–95 years). The ASA scores were ASA I (0.8%), ASA II (21.7%), ASA III (53.3%) and ASA IV (24.2%). Mortality was seen in 44 patients (36.7%) and 76 patients (63.3%) survived during the 36-month follow-up period. Of the surviving patients, 59.1% were female and 40.9% were male.The survival period ranged between 1–1190 days. The cumulative mortality rate in the first, second and third years were 29.17%, 33.33% and 36.67% respectively. The factors associated with mortality were determined as increasing age, high ASA score, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, Alzheimer

  20. Efficacy of the "Responsive Classroom" Approach: Results from a 3-Year, Longitudinal Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Larsen, Ross A. A.; Baroody, Alison E.; Curby, Timothy W.; Ko, Michelle; Thomas, Julia B.; Merritt, Eileen G.; Abry, Tashia; DeCoster, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    This randomized controlled field trial examined the efficacy of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach on student achievement. Schools (n = 24) were randomized into intervention and control conditions; 2,904 children were studied from end of second to fifth grade. Students at schools assigned to the RC condition did not outperform students at…

  1. Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: A reappraisal after WMAP 3-year and first MINOS results

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Melchiorri, A.; Serra, P.; Palazzo, A.; Silk, J.; Slosar, A.

    2007-03-01

    In the light of recent neutrino oscillation and nonoscillation data, we revisit the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in single beta decay (m{sub {beta}}); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay (m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology ({sigma}). In particular, we include the constraints coming from the first Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) data and from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three-year (3y) data, as well as other relevant cosmological data and priors. We find that the largest neutrino squared mass difference is determined with a 15% accuracy (at 2{sigma}) after adding MINOS to world data. We also find upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses {sigma} ranging from {approx}2 eV (WMAP-3y data only) to {approx}0.2 eV (all cosmological data) at 2{sigma}, in agreement with previous studies. In addition, we discuss the connection of such bounds with those placed on the matter power spectrum normalization parameter {sigma}{sub 8}. We show how the partial degeneracy between {sigma} and {sigma}{sub 8} in WMAP-3y data is broken by adding further cosmological data, and how the overall preference of such data for relatively high values of {sigma}{sub 8} pushes the upper bound of {sigma} in the sub-eV range. Finally, for various combination of data sets, we revisit the (in)compatibility between current {sigma} and m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} constraints (and claims), and derive quantitative predictions for future single and double beta decay experiments.

  2. 42 CFR 476.96 - Review period and reopening of initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.96 Section 476.96 Public Health CENTERS FOR... initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. (a) General timeframe. A QIO or... initial denial determination or a change as a result of a DRG validation. (b) Extended timeframes. (1)...

  3. A bioactive dental luting cement--its retentive properties and 3-year clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Steven R; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Appleby, David C; Boston, Daniel; Lööf, Jesper

    2013-02-01

    -year recall. After periodic recalls up to 3 years, Ceramir C&B thus far has performed quite favorably as a luting agent for permanent cementation of permanent restorations. In-vitro crown-coping retention studies were also conducted using this cement and various control cementation materials. Mean laboratory retentive forces measured for Ceramir C&B were comparable to other currently available luting agents for both metal and all-ceramic indirect restorative materials.

  4. A new result on the existence of periodic solutions for Liénard equations with a singularity of repulsive type.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shiping

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of the existence of a periodic solution is studied for the second order differential equation with a singularity of repulsive type [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is singular at [Formula: see text], φ and h are T-periodic functions. By using the continuation theorem of Manásevich and Mawhin, a new result on the existence of positive periodic solution is obtained. It is interesting that the sign of the function [Formula: see text] is allowed to change for [Formula: see text].

  5. The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: Precipitation Measurements, Retrieval Techniques and Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Patrick; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt; Marzano, Frank Silvio; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Emmanoil N..; Ferretti, Rossella

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, http://www.hymex.orgl) experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological sire in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within Cl region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area

  6. Deep Space 1 Ion Engine Completed a 3-Year Journey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Hamley, John A.

    2001-01-01

    A xenon ion engine and power processor system, which was developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in partnership with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, completed nearly 3 years of operation aboard the Deep Space 1 spacecraft. The 2.3-kW ion engine, which provided primary propulsion and two-axis attitude control, thrusted for more than 16,000 hr and consumed more than 70 kg of xenon propellant. The Deep Space 1 spacecraft was launched on October 24, 1998, to validate 12 futuristic technologies, including the ion-propulsion system. After the technology validation process was successfully completed, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft flew by the small asteroid Braille on July 29, 1999. The final objective of this mission was to encounter the active comet Borrelly, which is about 6 miles long. The ion engine was on a thrusting schedule to navigate the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to within 1400 miles of the comet. Since the hydrazine used for spacecraft attitude control was in short supply, the ion engine also provided two-axis attitude control to conserve the hydrazine supply for the Borrelly encounter. The comet encounter took place on September 22, 2001. Dr. Marc Rayman, project manager of Deep Space 1 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory said, "Deep Space 1 plunged into the heart of the comet Borrelly and has lived to tell every detail of its spinetingling adventure! The images are even better than the impressive images of comet Halley taken by Europe's Giotto spacecraft in 1986." The Deep Space 1 mission, which successfully tested the 12 high-risk, advanced technologies and captured the best images ever taken of a comet, was voluntarily terminated on December 18, 2001. The successful demonstration of the 2-kW-class ion propulsion system technology is now providing mission planners with off-the-shelf flight hardware. Higher power, next generation ion propulsion systems are being developed for large flagship missions, such as outer planet

  7. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  8. Periodic ordering of clusters and stripes in a two-dimensional lattice model. II. Results of Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almarza, N. G.; PÈ©kalski, J.; Ciach, A.

    2014-04-01

    The triangular lattice model with nearest-neighbor attraction and third-neighbor repulsion, introduced by Pȩkalski, Ciach, and Almarza [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 114701 (2014)] is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Introduction of appropriate order parameters allowed us to construct a phase diagram, where different phases with patterns made of clusters, bubbles or stripes are thermodynamically stable. We observe, in particular, two distinct lamellar phases—the less ordered one with global orientational order and the more ordered one with both orientational and translational order. Our results concern spontaneous pattern formation on solid surfaces, fluid interfaces or membranes that is driven by competing interactions between adsorbing particles or molecules.

  9. Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Eduardo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily

    2012-07-01

    Methyl-donor nutrients are substrates for methylation reactions involved in neurodevelopment processes. The role of maternal intake of these nutrients on cognitive performance of the offspring is poorly understood. We examined the associations of maternal intake of folate, vitamin B12, choline, betaine and methionine during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, with tests of cognitive performance in the offspring at 3 years of age using data from 1210 participants in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study in Massachusetts. We assessed nutrient intake with the use of food frequency questionnaires. Children's cognition at age 3 years was evaluated with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III) and visual-motor skills with the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities test. In multivariable models adjusting for potential sociobehavioural and nutritional confounders, for each 600 µg/day increment in total folate intake during the first trimester, PPVT-III score at age 3 years was 1.6 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 3.1; P = 0.04] higher. There was a weak inverse association between vitamin B12 intake during the second trimester and PPVT-III scores [-0.4 points per 2.6 µg/day; 95% CI -0.8, -0.1; P = 0.01]. We did not find associations between choline, betaine or methionine and cognitive outcomes at this age. Results of this study suggest that higher intake of folate in early pregnancy is associated with higher scores on the PPVT-III, a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, at age 3 years.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Differentials in Overweight and Obesity Among 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated racial/ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in a national sample of 3-year-olds from urban, low-income families and assessed possible determinants of differences. Methods. Survey, in-home observation, and interview data were collected at birth, 1 year, and 3 years. We used logistic regression analyses and adjusted for a range of covariates in examining overweight and obesity differentials according to race/ethnicity. Results. Thirty-five percent of the study children were overweight or obese. Hispanic children were twice as likely as either Black or White children to be overweight or obese. Although we controlled for a wide variety of characteristics, we were unable to explain either White–Hispanic or Black–Hispanic differences in overweight and obesity. However, birthweight, taking a bottle to bed, and mother’s weight status were important predictors of children’s overweight or obesity at age 3 years. Conclusions. Children’s problems with overweight and obesity begin as early as age 3, and Hispanic children and those with obese mothers are especially at risk. PMID:17194857

  11. Implementation of basic quality control tests for malaria medicines in Amazon Basin countries: results for the 2005–2010 period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ensuring the quality of malaria medicines is crucial in working toward malaria control and eventual elimination. Unlike other validated tests that can assess all critical quality attributes, which is the standard for determining the quality of medicines, basic tests are significantly less expensive, faster, and require less skilled labour; yet, these tests provide reproducible data and information on several critical quality attributes, such as identity, purity, content, and disintegration. Visual and physical inspection also provides valuable information about the manufacturing and the labelling of medicines, and in many cases this inspection is sufficient to detect counterfeit medicines. The Promoting the Quality of Medicines (PQM) programme has provided technical assistance to Amazon Malaria Initiative (AMI) countries to implement the use of basic tests as a key screening mechanism to assess the quality of malaria medicines available to patients in decentralized regions. Methods Trained personnel from the National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs), often in collaboration with country’s Official Medicine Control Laboratory (OMCL), developed country- specific protocols that encompassed sampling methods, sample analysis, and data reporting. Sampling sites were selected based on malaria burden, accessibility, and geographical location. Convenience sampling was performed and countries were recommended to store the sampled medicines under conditions that did not compromise their quality. Basic analytical tests, such as disintegration and thin layer chromatography (TLC), were performed utilizing a portable mini-laboratory. Results Results were originally presented at regional meetings in a non-standardized format that lacked relevant medicines information. However, since 2008 information has been submitted utilizing a template specifically developed by PQM for that purpose. From 2005 to 2010, the quality of 1,663 malaria medicines from seven AMI countries

  12. [Sodium cromoglycate in the treatment of food hypersensitivity in children under 3 years of age].

    PubMed

    Zur, E; Kaczmarski, M

    2001-09-01

    Dietary elimination is a treatment of first choice in food hypersensitivity. Such therapy is not always enough to stop the disease and introduction of pharmacological treatment is necessary. In prevention and long term treatment antiallergic drugs are recommended. The aim of the study was to assess efficacy and safety of oral sodium cromoglycate in treatment of food hypersensitivity in the youngest children. In our study we examined: the group of 25 children aged 6 months-3 years treated with oral cromolyn sodium during the period 4-20 weeks and 29 children aged 6 months-3 years treated with ketotifen. Symptoms from skin, digestive and respiratory tract, behaviour status were evaluated for drugs efficacy. Cromolyn and ketotifen effected a significant decrease in total symptoms score. The treatment was well tolerated. No serious side effects were noted. The incidents of skin rash, disquiet during the night, diarrhoea and urticaria were only 8 percent. Sodium cromoglycate is safe and effective drug in treatment of food allergy in children; specially in symptoms from gastrointestinal tract and multi-organs allergy.

  13. Incidence of Mastitis in the Neonatal Period in a Traditional Breastfeeding Society: Results of a Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jane A.; Lee, Andy H.; Binns, Colin W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Mastitis is a painful problem experienced by breastfeeding women, especially in the first few weeks postpartum. There have been limited studies of the incidence of mastitis from traditionally breastfeeding societies in South Asia. This study investigated the incidence, determinants, and management of mastitis in the first month postpartum, as well as its association with breastfeeding outcomes at 4 and 6 months postpartum, in western Nepal. Subjects and Methods: Subjects were a subsample of 338 mothers participating in a larger prospective cohort study conducted in 2014 in western Nepal. Mothers were interviewed during the first month postpartum and again at 4 and 6 months to obtain information on breastfeeding practices. The association of mastitis and determinant variables was investigated using multivariable logistic regression, and the association with breastfeeding duration was examined using Kaplan–Meier estimation. Results: The incidence of mastitis was 8.0% (95% confidence interval, 5.1%, 10.8%) in the first month postpartum. Prelacteal feeding (adjusted odds ratio = 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.03, 7.40) and cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio = 3.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.09, 11.42) were associated with a higher likelihood of mastitis. Kaplan–Meier estimation showed no significant difference in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among the mothers who experienced an episode of mastitis and those who did not. Conclusions: Roughly one in 10 (8.0%) women experienced mastitis in the first month postpartum, and there appeared to be little effect of mastitis on breastfeeding outcomes. Traditional breastfeeding practices should be encouraged, and the management of mastitis should be included as a part of lactation promotion. PMID:26488802

  14. Screening for inborn errors of metabolism in high-risk children: a 3-year pilot study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has been available in China for 8 years. This technique makes it possible to screen for a wide range of previously unscreened inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) using a single test. This 3-year pilot study investigated the screening, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of IEM in symptomatic infants and children. Methods All children encountered in the Newborn Screening Center of Zhejiang Province during a 3-year period with symptoms suspicious for IEM were screened for metabolic diseases. Dried blood spots were collected and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. The diagnoses were further confirmed by clinical symptoms and biochemical analysis. Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency and primary carnitine deficiency were confirmed by DNA analysis. Results A total of 11,060 symptomatic patients (6,720 boys, 4,340 girls) with a median age of 28.8 months (range: 0.04-168.2 months) were screened. Among these, 62 were diagnosed with IEM, with a detection rate of 0.56%. Thirty-five were males and 27 females and the median age was 3.55 months (range 0.07-143.9 months). Of the 62 patients, 27 (43.5%) had aminoacidemias, 26 (41.9%) had organic acidemias and nine (14.5%) had fatty acid oxidation disorders. Conclusions Because most symptomatic patients are diagnosed at an older age, mental retardation and motor delay are difficult to reverse. Additionally, poor medication compliance reduces the efficacy of treatment. More extensive newborn screening is thus imperative for ensuring early diagnosis and enhancing the treatment efficacy of IEM. PMID:22364411

  15. Women's Heart Advantage Program: the impact 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Kramer, R Kyle; Freed, Lisa; Foody, JoAnne; Parkosewich, Janet; Wilson, Tammi; Wack, Jeffery T; D'Onofrio, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Yale-New Haven Hospital, in partnership with Voluntary Hospital Association (VHA Inc), launched the Women's Heart Advantage program in March 2001. Major program components implemented include (1) a comprehensive initial and ongoing internal communication program; (2) a health promotion initiative including a 24-hour, 7-days-a-week women's heart line staffed by nurses and an Internet health question-and-answer forum; (3) significant ongoing communication with nurses and physicians; (4) a community outreach effort to educate poor and minority women; and (5) an aggressive effort to secure financial partners to underwrite the cost of the program. Before launching the program, a telephone survey of 300 randomly selected New Haven County women ages 40 to 70 years was initiated in January 2001 and repeated in January 2002, 2003, and 2004. Findings include (1) the percentage of women who recognize heart disease as the number-one killer of women their age increased from 26% in 2001 to 59% in 2004, (2) the percentage of women who would call 9-1-1 or go directly to a hospital emergency department increased from 63% in 2002 to 83% in 2004, and (3) the percentage of women aware of recent Women's Heart Advantage program promotion grew from 33% in 2002 to 50% in 2004. Perhaps most importantly, the number of women with heart problems admitted through the hospital's emergency department increased from 1528 per year in 2001 to 1870 per year in 2004 (7.5% annual increase), whereas the number of men with heart problems admitted through the emergency department during the same time period has been relatively low (0.8% annual increase). By linking clinical, public health, and marketing expertise along with finding ways to partner with other organizations, the Women's Heart Advantage program has contributed to remarkable changes in women's awareness, knowledge, and behaviors, suggesting a model for approaching similar health-related problems.

  16. Development and implementation of the Clinical Tooth Shade Differentiation Course – an evaluation over 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Olms, Constanze; Haak, Rainer; Jakstat, Holger A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tooth shade differentiation concerns the identification and classification of tooth shades. The objective of this project was to implement the Clinical Tooth Shade Differentiation Course in the preclinical stage of studies and to evaluate the students' perspective over a period of 3 years. Methodology: The course is planned for a duration of 10 weeks with two 45-minute sessions per semester week. The entire attendance time was 10:15 h. 2 lectures of 90 minutes each, 2 seminars of 60 min each and 2 teaching units with the phantom head and role playing took place. In addition to the various parameters of tooth shade, changes in tooth shade and the basics of dental esthetics, clinical procedures for manual and digital tooth shade determination were explained and practiced. 96% (69 of 72) of the students participated in the first evaluation in 2012/2013 (T1), and 68% of these were women. In the following year, 2013/2014 (T2), 92% (45 of 48 students) took part; 62% of these were women and 38% men. The 2014/2015 evaluation (T3) comprised 94% (45 of 48 students). Of these, 67% were women. Results: In the evaluation, the students gave the course a positive grade. The questions in "General/Organization" were given a mean (M) of 1.5 (SD=0.7) in T1 and T2 , and 1.2 (SD=0.3) in T3. The "Overall Assessment" yielded MT1=1.6 (SD=0.6), MT2=1.5 (SD=0.5) and MT3=1.1 (SD=0.3). In T1 and T2, the item "The instructor actively involved the students in the course" was given a mean of 2.1 (SD=0.9), and in T3 a mean of 1.2 (SD=0.5). Conclusions: The course presented here conceptually shows how practical dental skills can be taught in a theoretical and clinical context. Educational objectives from the role of a dental expert were taken from the national competence-based catalog of educational objectives for dentistry and can also be supplemented. The objectives can be transferred to other dental faculties. PMID:26958650

  17. Maternal HIV infection, drug use, and growth of uninfected children in their first 3 years.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, A; Raab, G M; Mok, J; Gilkison, S; Hamilton, B; Johnstone, F D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the separate effects of maternal HIV infection and drug use during pregnancy on growth of uninfected children in their first 3 years. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of measurements from health visitor records made during routine child health surveillance at 6 weeks, 10 months, and 3 years of age. Multilevel analysis allowed for between-infant variation in fitted growth lines, and adjustment for other factors. Growth was described in terms of an intercept (z score at term) and growth slopes (change in z score per year) up to, and from, 4 months. SUBJECTS--290 case babies delivered in Edinburgh hospitals to women who reported injection drug use by either themselves or their HIV infected partner, and 186 community controls. A total of 131 (45%) of the case babies were born to women who used drugs, predominantly opiates, during pregnancy and 93 (32%) to HIV infected women. The eight infected children were excluded from analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Age and sex standardised z scores for height, weight, and body mass index. RESULTS--459 (96%) of the 476 records for cases and controls were traced, yielding 1432 weight and 939 height measurements. Maternal HIV infection was not found to affect growth; at 3 years the estimated effect on weight z score was 0.16 with 95% confidence interval (-0.25 to 0.57) and for height 0.18 (-0.19 to 0.55). Drug use during pregnancy was associated with lighter babies at 40 weeks followed by depressed growth in the first four months, these infants remaining just slightly smaller at 3 years with an estimated effect on z scores of -0.5 for weight with 95% confidence interval (-0.89 to -0.11) and -0.37 (-0.72 to -0.02) for height. CONCLUSIONS--Maternal HIV infection does not adversely affect growth in uninfected infants, and the effect of drug use during pregnancy is limited to small decrease in size at 3 years. PMID:8546501

  18. Baldrige-based quality awards: Veterans Health Administration's 3-year experience.

    PubMed

    Shirks, Allan; Weeks, William B; Stein, Annie

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the Veterans Health Administration's (VHA's) 3-year experience with an internal, Baldrige-based quality award. The authors examined scores for Veterans Integrated Service Networks (VISNs), which received site visits, variation in year-to-year survey outcomes for repeat applicants, and variation in survey team reports for a VISN with multiple surveys. Individual VISNs that applied in multiple years had mixed results. Variation in feedback reports was not significant. Although some VISNs increased their scores over time, there was not measurable, systemwide improvement. Three years may be too short a time to significantly affect Baldrige scores in an organization as large as VHA.

  19. Maxillary overdentures supported by four splinted direct metal laser sintering implants: a 3-year prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Francesco; Luongo, Fabrizia; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Anil, Sukumaran; Mangano, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Nowadays, the advancements in direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technology allow the fabrication of titanium dental implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate implant survival, complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss of DMLS implants used to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures. Materials and Methods. Over a 2-year period, 120 implants were placed in the maxilla of 30 patients (18 males, 12 females) to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures (ODs). Each OD was supported by 4 implants splinted by a rigid cobalt-chrome bar. At each annual follow-up session, clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed. The outcome measures were implant failure, biological and prosthetic complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss (distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-to-implant contact, DIB). Results. The 3-year implant survival rate was 97.4% (implant-based) and 92.9% (patient-based). Three implants failed. The incidence of biological complication was 3.5% (implant-based) and 7.1% (patient-based). The incidence of prosthetic complication was 17.8% (patient-based). No detrimental effects on marginal bone level were evidenced. Conclusions. The use of 4 DMLS titanium implants to support bar-retained maxillary ODs seems to represent a safe and successful procedure. Long-term clinical studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results.

  20. Maxillary Overdentures Supported by Four Splinted Direct Metal Laser Sintering Implants: A 3-Year Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Francesco; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Nowadays, the advancements in direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technology allow the fabrication of titanium dental implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate implant survival, complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss of DMLS implants used to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures. Materials and Methods. Over a 2-year period, 120 implants were placed in the maxilla of 30 patients (18 males, 12 females) to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures (ODs). Each OD was supported by 4 implants splinted by a rigid cobalt-chrome bar. At each annual follow-up session, clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed. The outcome measures were implant failure, biological and prosthetic complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss (distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-to-implant contact, DIB). Results. The 3-year implant survival rate was 97.4% (implant-based) and 92.9% (patient-based). Three implants failed. The incidence of biological complication was 3.5% (implant-based) and 7.1% (patient-based). The incidence of prosthetic complication was 17.8% (patient-based). No detrimental effects on marginal bone level were evidenced. Conclusions. The use of 4 DMLS titanium implants to support bar-retained maxillary ODs seems to represent a safe and successful procedure. Long-term clinical studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25580124

  1. In vivo degradation of resin-dentin bonds in humans over 1 to 3 years.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, M; Ohno, H; Kaga, M; Endo, K; Sano, H; Oguchi, H

    2000-06-01

    The longevity of resin restorations is currently an area of great interest in adhesive dentistry. However, no work has been conducted to investigate the durability of resin-dentin bond structures using human substrate in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degradation of the resin-dentin bond structures aged in an oral environment for 1, 2, or 3 years. Cavities were prepared in primary molars, and an adhesive resin system (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose) was applied to the cavity. After 1 to 3 years, following the eruption of the succedaneous permanent teeth, the resin-restored teeth were extracted. Immediately after extraction, those teeth were sectioned perpendicular to the adhesive interface and trimmed to produce an hourglass-shaped specimen. Then, a micro-tensile test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The mean bond strengths were statistically compared with one-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (p < 0.05). Further, all fractured surfaces were observed by SEM, and the area fraction of failure mode was calculated by means of a digital analyzer on SEM photomicrographs. There were significant differences in tensile-bond strength among all 3 groups (p < 0.05), with mean values ranging from 28.3 +/- 11.3 MPa (control), to 15.2 +/- 4.4 MPa (1 to 2 years), to 9.1 +/- 5.1 MPa (2 to 3 years). Moreover, under fractographic analysis, the proportion of demineralized dentin at the fractured surface in specimens aged in an oral environment was greater than that in control specimens. Furthermore, degradation of resin composite and the depletion of collagen fibrils was observed among the specimens aged in an oral environment. Analysis of the results of this study indicated that the degradation of resin-dentin bond structures occurs after aging in the oral cavity.

  2. Rates of mutation and host transmission for an Escherichia coli clone over 3 years.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Peter R; Liu, Bin; Zhou, Zhemin; Li, Dan; Guo, Dan; Ren, Yan; Clabots, Connie; Lan, Ruiting; Johnson, James R; Wang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Although over 50 complete Escherichia coli/Shigella genome sequences are available, it is only for closely related strains, for example the O55:H7 and O157:H7 clones of E. coli, that we can assign differences to individual evolutionary events along specific lineages. Here we sequence the genomes of 14 isolates of a uropathogenic E. coli clone that persisted for 3 years within a household, including a dog, causing a urinary tract infection (UTI) in the dog after 2 years. The 20 mutations observed fit a single tree that allows us to estimate the mutation rate to be about 1.1 per genome per year, with minimal evidence for adaptive change, including in relation to the UTI episode. The host data also imply at least 6 host transfer events over the 3 years, with 2 lineages present over much of that period. To our knowledge, these are the first direct measurements for a clone in a well-defined host community that includes rates of mutation and host transmission. There is a concentration of non-synonymous mutations associated with 2 transfers to the dog, suggesting some selection pressure from the change of host. However, there are no changes to which we can attribute the UTI event in the dog, which suggests that this occurrence after 2 years of the clone being in the household may have been due to chance, or some unknown change in the host or environment. The ability of a UTI strain to persist for 2 years and also to transfer readily within a household has implications for epidemiology, diagnosis, and clinical intervention.

  3. Sticking out and fitting in: culture-specific predictors of 3-year-olds' autobiographical memories during joint reminiscing.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Lisa; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi; Chaudhary, Nandita

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between mother-child interaction styles with 19 months and children's autobiographical memory with 3 years of age in two cultural contexts: New Delhi, India (n = 25) and Berlin, Germany (n = 33). Results demonstrate similarities as well as culture specificities. In both contexts, maternal elaborations during reminiscing were related to children's memory contributions. Over time, maternal support for toddlers' self-expression during free play at 19 months predicted their children's memory elaborations at 3 years in the Berlin context. In the Delhi context, toddlers' willingness to carry out their mothers' requests at 19 months predicted their memory elaborations at 3 years. These results suggest different motivational bases underlying children's autobiographical memory contributions during mother-child reminiscing related to different cultural orientations.

  4. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Myopia in 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Valencia Hui Xian; Verkicharla, Pavan Kumar; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Chua, Sharon Yu Lin; Cai, Shirong; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter; Wong, Tien-Yin; Ngo, Cheryl; Saw, Seang-Mei; on behalf of the GUSTO study group

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the association of axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CRC) ratio with spherical equivalent (SE) in a 3-year old Asian cohort. Methods Three-hundred forty-nine 3-year old Asian children from The Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study underwent AL and CRC measurements with a noncontact ocular biometer and cycloplegic refraction using an autorefractor. The ratio of AL to CRC (AL/CRC) was calculated for all the participants, and subsequently AL, CRC, and AL/CRC were analyzed in relationship to SE. Results The SE showed better correlation with AL/CRC (Spearman's correlation coefficient, ρ = −0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.66; −0.49; P < 0.001) compared to either AL or CRC alone ([ρ = −0.36; 95% CI: −0.51 to 0.51; P = 0.01] and [ρ = 0.05; 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.17; P = 0.34], respectively). Mean AL/CRC was 2.91 ± 0.06 among myopes and decreased to 2.79 ± 0.06 among hyperopes. Axial length to corneal radius of curvature was strongly correlated with SE in myopes (ρ = −0.78; 95% CI: −3.76; −0.79; P = < 0.001), but not in emmetropes and hyperopes ([ρ = −0.39; 95% CI: −10.73; −0.57; P = 0.01] and [ρ = −0.18; 95% CI: −17.28; 12.42; P = 0.38], respectively). Linear regression adjusted for gender and ethnicity showed a 0.74-diopter shift in SE towards myopia with every 0.1 increase in AL/CRC ratio (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.33). Conclusion The correlation between SE and AL/CRC is stronger than that between AL or CRC alone. This suggests that in a research setting, when cycloplegic refraction is difficult to perform on 3-year-old children, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error. Translational Relevance In the research setting, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error over AL alone when cycloplegic refraction is unavailable in 3-year old children. PMID:26929885

  5. Geophysical monitoring of simulated clandestine graves using electrical and ground-penetrating radar methods: 0-3 years after burial.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Jamie K; Jervis, John R; Hansen, James D; Jones, Glenda M; Cassidy, Nigel J; Cassella, John P

    2012-11-01

    This study provides forensic search teams with systematic geophysical monitoring data over simulated clandestine graves for comparison to active cases. Simulated "wrapped" and "naked" burials were created. Multigeophysical surveys were collected over a 3-year monitoring period. Bulk ground resistivity, electrical resistivity imaging, multifrequency ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and grave and background "soil-water" conductivity data were collected. Resistivity surveys revealed the naked burial had consistently low-resistivity anomalies, whereas the wrapped burial had small, varying high-resistivity anomalies. GPR 110- to 900-MHz frequency surveys showed the wrapped burial could be detected throughout, with the "naked" burial mostly resolved. Two hundred and twenty-five megahertz frequency GPR data were optimal. "Soil-water" analyses showed rapidly increasing (year 1), slowly increasing (year 2), and decreasing (year 3) conductivity values. Results suggest resistivity and GPR surveys should be collected if target "wrapping" is unknown, with winter to spring surveys optimal. Resistivity surveys should be collected in clay-rich soils.

  6. Experience and outcome of 3 years of a European EQA scheme for genetic testing of the spinocerebellar ataxias.

    PubMed

    Seneca, Sara; Morris, Michael A; Patton, Simon; Elles, Rob; Sequeiros, Jorge

    2008-08-01

    The European Molecular Genetics Quality Network (EMQN) has been organizing an external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for molecular genetic testing of trinucleotide repeat mutations in the spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) since 2004. DNA samples were validated by at least two independent labs and two different methods. Together with mock clinical case descriptions and requests for specific SCA gene analyses, these were sent to registered participants each year. Laboratories were asked to use their routine procedures and protocols. A panel of assessors reviewed the final returns, including genotype results and reports, to assess the quality of (1) genotyping and (2) interpretation and reporting. A description of methods and raw data were also requested and were very useful for the final analysis. Altogether, during 3 years, 239 reports were received from the laboratories. Overall genotype error rate ranged 1.1-5.2%, a significant cause of concern. Scores for interpretation and reporting also showed that there is still much room for progress, although performance has improved over this period of assessment. The consequences of suboptimal laboratory practices, genotyping errors and misdiagnosis and of incorrect or incomplete interpretation and reporting have wide implications for patient lives, as well as for health management and counselling of relatives. EQA schemes are an important part of quality assurance in molecular genetic laboratories, and their use should become a routine part of laboratory diagnostic practice. Current evidence shows also that it is important that laboratories participate on a yearly basis and that this becomes mandatory for reference laboratories.

  7. Patterns of paediatric facial fractures in a hospital of São Paulo, Brazil: a retrospective study of 3 years.

    PubMed

    Nardis, Amanda da Costa; Costa, Sabrina Araújo Pinho; da Silva, Rogério Almeida; Kaba, Shajadi Carlos Pardo

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze patterns of facial fractures in children treated at the Service of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Vila Penteado General Hospital (HGVP), in São Paulo, Brazil, in a period of 3 years. Between May 2008 and April 2011 the authors reviewed 110 records of patients under 12 years old with facial fractures. The following parameters were evaluated: age and sex distribution, aetiology of trauma, incidence and type of fractures, monthly distribution and treatment modality. Male-to-female ratio was 1.8:1, and the mean age was 8.13. The majority of the involved patients were aged between 6 and 12 years. The most prevalent cause was fall (58%) and nasal fractures were the most common type of fracture (69%). Monthly distribution was similar in all seasons. Of 110 patients, 69 (62%) were treated conservatively. The incidence of facial fractures in the area of study is high. The high incidence of nasal fractures should be a warning to maxillofacial surgeons, so that they are not overlooked. Safety programs should be installed in Brazil to increase public awareness and to decrease morbidity resulting from paediatric trauma.

  8. Preventing Pregnancy in High School Students: Observations From a 3-Year Longitudinal, Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Dierschke, Nicole; Lowe, Diana; Plastino, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess whether a sexual health education intervention reduces pregnancy rates in high school students. Methods. We performed a secondary analysis of a 3-year quasi-experimental study performed in South Texas from 2011 to 2015 in which 1437 students without a history of pregnancy at baseline were surveyed each fall and spring. Potentially confounding risk factors considered included sexual behaviors, intentions, and demographics. The outcome measure was self-reported pregnancy status for male and female students. We performed analyses for male and female students using separate discrete time-to-event models. Results. We found no difference in pregnancy rates between intervention and comparison students within the first 3 years of high school. Female and male students in the intervention groups had pregnancy hazard ratios of, respectively, 1.62 (95% CI = 0.9, 2.61; P = .1) and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.44, 1.48; P = .4) relative to the comparison groups. Conclusions. The educational intervention had no impact on the pregnancy rate. Social media tools in pregnancy prevention programs should be adaptive to new technologies and rapidly changing adolescent preferences for these services. PMID:27689503

  9. 3-Year-olds' comprehension, production, and generalization of Sesotho passives.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Katherine; Moloi, Francina; Machobane, Malillo

    2010-05-01

    Researchers have long been puzzled by the challenge English passive constructions present for language learners, with adult-like comprehension and production emerging only around the age of 5. It has therefore been of significant interest that researchers of other languages, including the Bantu language Sesotho, have reported acquisition of the passive by the age of 3 (Demuth, 1989). Such reports have typically been based on spontaneous production data, calling for further investigation. This study carried out a series of experiments with Sesotho-speaking 3-year-olds, testing their ability to comprehend the passive, produce the passive, and generalize novel verbs to passive frames. The results showed that passive comprehension was good, with no effect of actional/non-actional verb type. Elicited production of the passive was also good, with no difference between adversive and non-adversive verbs. Finally, all participants made both active and passive generalizations to novel verbs. These findings provide strong evidence that Sesotho-speaking 3-year-olds have robust, abstract knowledge of passive syntax. The paper concludes with a discussion of the factors that contribute to the early learning of the Sesotho passive, why acquisition of the passive may be delayed in English, and the implications for understanding grammatical development more generally.

  10. The relation between student motivation and student grades in physical education: A 3-year investigation.

    PubMed

    Barkoukis, V; Taylor, I; Chanal, J; Ntoumanis, N

    2014-10-01

    Enhancing students' academic engagement is the key element of the educational process; hence, research in this area has focused on understanding the mechanisms that can lead to increased academic engagement. The present study investigated the relation between motivation and grades in physical education (PE) employing a 3-year longitudinal design. Three hundred fifty-four Greek high school students participated in the study. Students completed measures of motivation to participate in PE on six occasions; namely, at the start and the end of the school year in the first, second, and third year of junior high school. Students' PE grades were also recorded at these time points. The results of the multilevel growth models indicated that students' PE grades increased over the 3 years and students had better PE grades at the end of each year than at the beginning of the subsequent year. In general, students and classes with higher levels of controlling motivation achieved lower PE grades, whereas higher levels of autonomous motivation were associated with higher PE grades. These findings provide new insight on the associations between class- and individual-level motivation with objectively assessed achievement in PE.

  11. Mental Health Diagnoses 3 Years After Receiving or Being Denied an Abortion in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, John M.; Foster, Diana G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We set out to assess the occurrence of new depression and anxiety diagnoses in women 3 years after they sought an abortion. Methods. We conducted semiannual telephone interviews of 956 women who sought abortions from 30 US facilities. Adjusted multivariable discrete-time logistic survival models examined whether the study group (women who obtained abortions just under a facility’s gestational age limit, who were denied abortions and carried to term, who were denied abortions and did not carry to term, and who received first-trimester abortions) predicted depression or anxiety onset during seven 6-month time intervals. Results. The 3-year cumulative probability of professionally diagnosed depression was 9% to 14%; for anxiety it was 10% to 15%, with no study group differences. Women in the first-trimester group and women denied abortions who did not give birth had greater odds of new self-diagnosed anxiety than did women who obtained abortions just under facility gestational limits. Conclusions. Among women seeking abortions near facility gestational limits, those who obtained abortions were at no greater mental health risk than were women who carried an unwanted pregnancy to term. PMID:26469674

  12. Predictions of mortality from pleural mesothelioma in Italy: a model based on asbestos consumption figures supports results from age-period-cohort models.

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Montanaro, Fabio; Mastrantonio, Marina; Uccelli, Raffaella; Altavista, Pierluigi; Nesti, Massimo; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2005-05-20

    Italy was the second main asbestos producer in Europe, after the Soviet Union, until the end of the 1980s, and raw asbestos was imported on a large scale until 1992. The Italian pattern of asbestos consumption lags on average about 10 years behind the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom and the Nordic countries. Measures to reduce exposure were introduced in the mid-1970s in some workplaces. In 1986, limitations were imposed on the use of crocidolite and in 1992 asbestos was definitively banned. We have used primary pleural cancer mortality figures (1970-1999) to predict mortality from mesothelioma among Italian men in the next 30 years by age-cohort-period models and by a model based on asbestos consumption figures. The pleural cancer/mesothelioma ratio and mesothelioma misdiagnosis in the past were taken into account in the analysis. Estimated risks of birth cohorts born after 1945 decrease less quickly in Italy than in other Western countries. The findings predict a peak with about 800 mesothelioma annual deaths in the period 2012-2024. Results estimated using age-period-cohort models were similar to those obtained from the asbestos consumption model.

  13. A 3-Year Climatology of Cloud and Radiative Properties Derived from GOES-8 Data Over the Southern Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaiyer, M. M.; Rapp, A. D.; Doelling, D. R.; Nordeen, M. L.; Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Nguyen, L.

    2001-01-01

    While the various instruments maintained at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF) provide detailed cloud and radiation measurements for a small area, satellite cloud property retrievals provide a means of examining the large-scale properties of the surrounding region over an extended period of time. Seasonal and inter-annual climatological trends can be analyzed with such a dataset. For this purpose, monthly datasets of cloud and radiative properties from December 1996 through November 1999 over the SGP region have been derived using the layered bispectral threshold method (LBTM). The properties derived include cloud optical depths (ODs), temperatures and albedos, and are produced on two grids of lower (0.5 deg) and higher resolution (0.3 deg) centered on the ARM SGP CF. The extensive time period and high-resolution of the inner grid of this dataset allows for comparison with the suite of instruments located at the ARM CF. In particular, Whole-Sky Imager (WSI) and the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) cloud products can be compared to the cloud amounts and heights of the LBTM 0.3 deg grid box encompassing the CF site. The WSI provides cloud fraction and the ARSCL computes cloud fraction, base, and top heights using the algorithms by Clothiaux et al. (2001) with a combination of Belfort Laser Ceilometer (BLC), Millimeter Wave Cloud Radar (MMCR), and Micropulse Lidar (MPL) data. This paper summarizes the results of the LBTM analysis for 3 years of GOES-8 data over the SGP and examines the differences between surface and satellite-based estimates of cloud fraction.

  14. Workplace safety in Bangladesh ready-made garment sector: 3 years after the Rana Plaza collapse.

    PubMed

    Barua, Uttama; Ansary, Mehedi Ahmed

    2016-11-18

    Workplace safety is one of the most important issues in industries worldwide, and is endangered by industrial accidents. Different industrial disasters have resulted in several initiatives worldwide to protect human life and reduce material damage, both nationally and internationally. In Bangladesh, the ready-made garment (RMG) industry is one of the most important export-oriented business sectors, which is facing challenges to ensure workplace safety. The Rana Plaza collapse in Bangladesh is the consequence of such non-compliance. The accident resulted in different local and global initiatives to address the challenges. This article reviews progress and achievement of the initiatives to reduce vulnerability in the Bangladesh RMG industry within 3 years after the deadly accident. In the long run, the challenge is to maintain momentum already created for achieving sustainability in the RMG sector in Bangladesh and maintaining compliance even after the end of support from external partners.

  15. Use of Feldspathic Porcelain Veneers to Improve Smile Harmony: A 3-Year Follow-up Report.

    PubMed

    Federizzi, Leonardo; Gomes, Érica Alves; Báratro, Samantha Schaffer Pugilato; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Bacchi, Ataís; Spazzin, Aloísio Oro

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes an esthetic treatment to improve the shape and alignment of the anterior teeth, reestablishing smile harmony, using feldspathic porcelain veneers. Results of clinical follow up after 36 months are also presented. The advantages, disadvantages and limitations of the technique are detailed with reference to the relevant literature. This suggests that the success of treatment depends on adequate conditions of bonding between the veneers and the tooth complex, which involves parameters such as the strength and durability of the bond interface. Therefore, the clinical success of feldspathic porcelain veneers depends on the accurate selection of cases and correct execution of clinical and laboratory procedures. The rehabilitation involved from first right premolar to the left with feldspathic porcelain veneers made on refractory dies. After the 3-year follow up, excellent clinical results and patient satisfaction were achieved.

  16. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  17. Professional Learning Communities in Partnership: A 3-Year Journey of Action and Advocacy to Bridge the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Patricia; Dahlman, Anne; Zierdt, Ginger

    2009-01-01

    This article details a strategic planning model and concurrent 3-year research study focusing on the benefits of preK-16 professional development school learning communities for the participating preK-16 educational leaders in a midwestern school-university partnership network. Results of the study, along with the strategic plan's success at…

  18. Combined Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Parent Training for Childhood Depression: 2- to 3-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver-Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2- to 3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at…

  19. "No Shoes; They Walked Away?": Effects of Enhancements on Learning and Using Blissymbols by Normal 3-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavendra, Parimala; Fristoe, Macalyne

    1995-01-01

    Forty 3-year-olds learned either 12 standard Blissymbols (SBS) or their enhanced forms (EBS). Results demonstrated that the subjects learned EBS faster than SBS, remembered more EBS than SBS, did not differ in the communicative use of SBS and EBS, and were affected more negatively when presented with the untrained SBS than EBS. (Author/JDD)

  20. Paternal psychosocial characteristics and corporal punishment of their 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Perron, Brian E; Taylor, Catherine A; Guterman, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the past month, 23% reported using CP once or twice, and 16% reported using CP a few times in the past month or more. In multivariate models controlling for important sociodemographic factors as well as characteristics of the child, fathers' parenting stress, major depression, heavy alcohol use, and drug use were significantly associated with greater use of CP, whereas involvement with the child and generalized anxiety disorder were not. Girls were less likely to be the recipient of CP than were boys, and child externalizing behavior problems but not internalizing behavior problems were associated with more CP.

  1. The Development of Reading and Spelling Abilities in the First 3 Years of Learning Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed, Wessam; Elbert, Thomas; Landerl, Karin

    2011-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the development of fluent reading and spelling in the first 3 years of learning Arabic. The goals of our study were to: (1) validate suitable measures for fluent reading and spelling in the first 3 years of learning Arabic; (2) trace the developmental course of the relationship between fluent reading and…

  2. Changes in Strength Abilities of Adolescent Girls: The Effect of a 3-Year Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate changes in strength abilities of adolescent girls that underwent a 3-year physical education curriculum. Material and methods: The research participants comprised 141 girls aged 13.3 plus or minus 0.35 years who participated in a 3-year physical education curriculum (PEC). Evaluation was based on the following EUROFIT…

  3. Home parenteral nutrition--a 3-year analysis of clinical and laboratory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Burnes, J U; O'Keefe, S J; Fleming, C R; Devine, R M; Berkner, S; Herrick, L

    1992-01-01

    We report a 3-year analysis (1986 to 1989) of the management of 63 home parenteral nutrition patients, 40 with short-bowel syndrome and 23 with chronic intestinal obstruction with or without intestinal resection. Intravenous fluid requirements varied from 0.9 to 6 L/day, and the content of glucose varied between 46 and 531 g/day, protein varied from .0 to 85 g/day, fat from .0 to 100 g/day, sodium from 37 to 695 mEq/day, potassium from 30 to 220 mEq/day, chloride from 60 to 760 mEq/day, and acetate from 0 to 200 mEq/day. Body weight was normalized and well maintained in the majority of patients, but using the strict definition of deficiency as the presence of one abnormal value during 3 years, more than half had abnormal plasma chloride, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, total protein, albumin, selenium, and iron concentrations, and more than a third had low calcium, magnesium, vitamin D, and vitamin C levels. Normochromic anemia was seen in 73% and high blood creatinine associated with low urine volumes in 42%. Most (78%) returned to relatively normal lifestyles, but employability was occasionally impaired by loss of third-party insurance coverage resulting from a therapy that may cost $100,000 per year. Overall mortality was low (5% per year), but 73% needed readmission to hospital, mainly for suspected catheter sepsis. The results indicate that home parenteral nutrition has allowed many patients to survive gut failure and return to work but problems with chronic fluid, electrolyte and micronutrient deficiencies, catheter sepsis, and insurance coverage often restrict optimal rehabilitation.

  4. Impact of a 3-year pet management program on pet population and owner's perception.

    PubMed

    Dias Costa, Esther; Martins, Camila Marinelli; Cunha, Graziela Ribeiro; Catapan, Dariane Cristina; Ferreira, Fernando; Oliveira, Simone Tostes; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2017-04-01

    Although pet population management programs have been established worldwide, few reports on program evaluation have been carried out to date. Accordingly, a 3-year longitudinal study has been carried out in a 4000 household neighborhood located within the metropolitan area of Curitiba, the eighth most populated city of Brazil. Visits were conducted and questionnaires completed to estimate and characterize the local pet population (animal sex, reproductive and vaccination status, street access). Care provided by owners, community perception on stray dog management and the possible changes were compared in these variables over time (2010 and 2013) were evaluated, after the establishment of a city pet population management program. In addition, associations between having children, owning dogs and cats, responsible pet ownership education and owner's perception on stray dogs were statistically tested. A total of 354/4000 (8.9%) household families were interviewed in 2010 and 70/354 (19.8%) of the same families again in 2013. No significant changes were found in overall number of dogs and cats and average pet age, animal care and owner's perception on stray dogs following the 3-year population management program. In 2010, an average of 1.6 dogs and 0.3 cats were found per family, with slightly more females (51.3% dogs and 51.1% cats), adults (4.0±3.5years for dogs and 2.1±2.4 for cats), intact (not neutered; 94.2% dogs and 84.0% cats) and lacking regular visit to veterinarian (71.6%). Although more families (53.1%) had children under 12 years old, no association was found between having children and having dogs and cats. Questionnaires revealed that owners perceived neutering/spaying to be the best pet population control method (42.4%), with "society" (50%) and "government" (49.4%) as responsible for pet population management. A significant positive association has been found between education level and the best way to control stray dogs (p=0.03), between having dogs

  5. Clinical outcomes of guided tissue regeneration with Atrisorb membrane in the treatment of intrabony defects: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sakallioglu, Umur; Yavuz, Umit; Lütfioglu, Müge; Keskiner, Ilker; Açikgöz, Gökhan

    2007-02-01

    In this controlled clinical trial, initial and long-term treatment outcomes of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) were investigated for a synthetic absorbable membrane (Atrisorb) in intrabony defects. Eighteen defects in 16 patients received GTR with Atrisorb (test), with the membrane applied by an indirect method, and 15 defects in 15 patients were treated with open flap debridement (control). Probing pocket depth (PPD), gingival recession (GR), clinical attachment level (CAL), and linear alveolar bone level (ABL) were recorded at baseline and at 1 and 3 years following the treatment procedures and were assessed as the therapeutic outcome parameters. Both groups demonstrated significant PPD reduction and CAL and ABL gain after 1 year. Among these parameters, alterations in PPD and CAL were statistically significantly greater in the test group than the control group 1 year postsurgery. No significant changes were noted in the parameters of the first year between and within the study groups after 3 years. The results suggest that GTR performed with Atrisorb membrane via an indirect application method may provide favorable clinical outcomes for intrabony defects, and these outcomes may be maintained at least as well as open flap debridement over an extended period.

  6. Effects of treatment with bimatoprost 0.03% for 3 years in patients with normal-tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kenji; Shiokawa, Minako; Fujimoto, Takayuki; Tomita, Goji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of bimatoprost 0.03% single treatment for 3 years on intraocular pressure (IOP) and visual field performance. Methods We monitored the IOP of 62 patients with normal-tension glaucoma every 1–3 months. The Humphrey visual field test was performed every 6 months after treatment and the results obtained were compared to those before treatment. In addition, visual field performance was evaluated using trend and event analysis. Results The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of IOP after treatment with bimatoprost for 3 years (13.6±3.1 mmHg) was significantly lower than that before treatment (16.8±2.4 mmHg, P<0.0001). No change was observed in the mean deviation and pattern SD values of the Humphrey visual field before and 3 years after treatment. Worsening of visual field performance was observed in one patient (3.0%) by using trend analysis and in four patients (12.1%) by using event analysis. Treatment was discontinued in 17 patients (27.4%) because of adverse reactions. Conclusion Bimatoprost 0.03% single treatment was effective in reducing the IOP at least during the 3 years of treatment, but visual field performance worsened by 3.0%–12.1% in patients with normal-tension glaucoma. PMID:24970996

  7. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations and Frequencies in AN Accretion Disk and Comparison with the Numerical Results from Non-Rotating Black Hole Computed by the Grh Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donmez, Orhan

    The shocked wave created on the accretion disk after different physical phenomena (accretion flows with pressure gradients, star-disk interaction etc.) may be responsible observed Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in X-ray binaries. We present the set of characteristics frequencies associated with accretion disk around the rotating and non-rotating black holes for one particle case. These persistent frequencies are results of the rotating pattern in an accretion disk. We compare the frequency's from two different numerical results for fluid flow around the non-rotating black hole with one particle case. The numerical results are taken from Refs. 1 and 2 using fully general relativistic hydrodynamical code with non-selfgravitating disk. While the first numerical result has a relativistic tori around the black hole, the second one includes one-armed spiral shock wave produced from star-disk interaction. Some physical modes presented in the QPOs can be excited in numerical simulation of relativistic tori and spiral waves on the accretion disk. The results of these different dynamical structures on the accretion disk responsible for QPOs are discussed in detail.

  8. Impact of Cigarette Smoking: a 3-Year Clinical Outcome of Vasospastic Angina Patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byoung Geol; Park, Taeshik; Choi, Se Yeon; Byun, Jae Kyeong; Shim, Min Suk; Xu, Shaopeng; Li, Hu; Park, Sang-Ho; Park, Ji Young; Choi, Woong Gil; Cho, Yun-Hyeong; Lee, Sunki; Na, Jin Oh; Choi, Cheol Ung; Lim, Hong Euy; Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Eung Ju; Park, Chang Gyu; Seo, Hong Seog; Oh, Dong Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Cigarette smoking is a risk significant factor in coronary artery disease (CAD) and vasospastic angina (VSA). However, it is largely unknown whether smoking adds to any long-term clinical risk in VSA patients. Subjects and Methods A total of 2797 patients without significant CAD underwent acetylcholine (Ach) provocation test between November 2004 and October 2010. Patients were divided into three groups, based on the presence of coronary artery spasm (CAS) and smoking habits (non-CAS group: n=1188, non-smoking CAS group: n=1214, smoking CAS group: n=395). All CAS patients were prescribed with anti-anginal medications for at least 6 months. The incidence of major clinical outcomes and recurrent angina of these groups were compared up to 3 years. Results There were considerable differences in the baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics among the three groups, but there was no difference in the endpoints among the three groups (including individual and composite hard endpoints) such as death, myocardial infarction, de novo percutaneous coronary intervention, cerebrovascular accident, and major adverse cardiac events. However, there was a higher incidence of recurrent angina in both the non-smoking CAS group and smoking CAS group, as compared to the non-CAS group. In multivariable adjusted Cox-proportional hazards regression analysis, smoking CAS group exhibited a higher incidence of recurrent angina compared with the non-CAS group (hazard ratio [HR]; 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.46-4.14, p=0.001) and non-smoking CAS group (HR; 1.76, 95% CI; 1.08-2.87, p=0.021). Conclusion Cigarette smoking CAS group exhibited higher incidence of recurrent angina during the 3-year clinical follow-up compared with both the non-CAS group and non-smoking CAS group. Quitting of smoking, paired with intensive medical therapy and close clinical follow-up, can help to prevent recurrent angina. PMID:27721853

  9. Environmental controls on fungal community composition and abundance over 3 years in native and degraded shrublands.

    PubMed

    Glinka, Clare; Hawkes, Christine V

    2014-11-01

    Soil fungal communities have high local diversity and turnover, but the relative contribution of environmental and regional drivers to those patterns remains poorly understood. Local factors that contribute to fungal diversity include soil properties and the plant community, but there is also evidence for regional dispersal limitation in some fungal communities. We used different plant communities with different soil conditions and experimental manipulations of both vegetation and dispersal to distinguish among these factors. Specifically, we compared native shrublands with former native shrublands that had been disturbed or converted to pasture, resulting in soils progressively more enriched in carbon and nutrients. We tested the role of vegetation via active removal, and we manipulated dispersal by adding living soil inoculum from undisturbed native sites. Soil fungi were tracked for 3 years, with samples taken at ten time points from June 2006 to June 2009. We found that soil fungal abundance, richness, and community composition responded primarily to soil properties, which in this case were a legacy of plant community degradation. In contrast, dispersal had no effect on soil fungi. Temporal variation in soil fungi was partly related to drought status, yet it was much broader in native sites compared to pastures, suggesting some buffering due to the increased soil resources in the pasture sites. The persistence of soil fungal communities over 3 years in this study suggests that soil properties can act as a strong local environmental filter. Largely persistent soil fungal communities also indicate the potential for strong biotic resistance and soil legacies, which presents a challenge for both the prediction of how fungi respond to environmental change and our ability to manipulate fungi in efforts such as ecosystem restoration.

  10. Language and cognitive outcome for high-risk neonates at the age of 2-3 years - experience from an Arab Country

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Abdel-Hady, Hesham; Baz, Hemmat; ElShabrawi, Doaa

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of different neonatal risk factors on different language parameters as well as cognitive abilities among Arabic speaking Egyptian children at the age of two to three years of life and to find out which risk factor(s) had the greatest impact on language and cognitive abilities. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was conducted on 103 children with age range of 2-3 years (median age 31 mo). They were 62 males and 41 females who were exposed to different high-risk factors in the perinatal period, with exclusion of metabolic disorders, sepsis/meningitis, congenital anomalies and chromosomal aberrations. The studied children were subjected to a protocol of language assessment that included history taking, clinical and neurological examination, audiological evaluation, assessment of language using modified preschool language scale-4, IQ and mental age assessment and assessment of social age. RESULTS The studied children had a median gestational age of 37 wk, median birth weight of 2.5 kg. The distribution of the high-risk factors in the affected children were prematurity in 25 children, respiratory distress syndrome in 25 children, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in 15 children, hyperbilirubinemia in 10 children, hypoglycemia in 13 children, mixed risk factors in 15 children. The results revealed that high-risk neonatal complications were associated with impairment of different language parameters and cognitive abilities (P < 0.05). The presence of prematurity, in relation to other risk factors, increases the risk of language and cognitive delay significantly by 3.9 fold. CONCLUSION Arabic-speaking children aged 2-3 years who were exposed to high-risk conditions in the perinatal period are likely to exhibit delays in the development of language and impairments in cognitive abilities. The most significant risk factor associated with language and cognitive impairments was prematurity. PMID:28224092

  11. Cryoplasty Versus Conventional Angioplasty in Femoropopliteal Arterial Recanalization: 3-Year Analysis of Reintervention-Free Survival by Treatment Received

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Maria Lourdes; Urtasun, Fermin Barberena, Javier; Aranzadi, Carlos; Guillen-Grima, Francisco; Bilbao, Jose Ignacio

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To compare long-term efficacy of cryoplasty therapy versus conventional angioplasty in the treatment of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic stenosis on the basis of our 3-year clinical experience. Materials and Methods: From January 2006 to December 2008, a total of 155 patients with 192 lesions of the femoropopliteal sector were randomized to receive either cryoplasty or conventional balloon angioplasty. The primary study end point was lesion target patency. Follow-up with clinical evaluation of patient's symptoms, ankle-brachial index, and Doppler ultrasound was scheduled at 1, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months. Results: For the cryoplasty group (n = 86), technical immediate success was achieved in 74.4% of lesions. Rate of significant dissection was 13.5% and rate of stent placement of 22%. In the long term, target lesion patency rate at 6 months was 59.4%, with rates of 55.9, 52.6, and 49.1% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. For the conventional angioplasty group (n = 69), the immediate technical success rate was 83.7%. Rate of significant dissection was 19%, and rate of stent placement was 72.9%. Patency rates at 6 months and at 1, 2, and 3 years were 71.5, 61.2, 60, and 56%, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with conventional angioplasty, cryoplasty showed good immediate success rates with lower stent placement rates. During the 3-year follow-up, patency rates tended to equalize between the two modalities.

  12. Association between pneumonia in acute stroke stage and 3-year mortality in patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi-Jing; Weng, Wei-Chieh; Su, Feng-Chieh; Peng, Tsung-I; Chien, Yu-Yi; Wu, Chia-Lun; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Wei, Yi-Chia; Lin, Shun-Wen; Zhu, Jun-Xiao; Huang, Wen-Yi

    2016-11-01

    The influence of pneumonia in acute stroke stage on the clinical presentation and long-term outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke is still controversial. We investigate the influence of pneumonia in acute stroke stage on the 3-year outcomes of patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke. Nine-hundred and thirty-four patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke were enrolled and had been followed for 3years. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether pneumonia occurred during acute stroke stage or not. Clinical presentations, risk factors for stroke, laboratory data, co-morbidities, and outcomes were recorded. The result showed that a total of 100 patients (10.7%) had pneumonia in acute stroke stage. The prevalence of older age, atrial fibrillation was significantly higher in patients with pneumonia in acute stroke stage. Total anterior circulation syndrome and posterior circulation syndrome occurred more frequently among patients with pneumonia in acute stroke stage (P<0.001 and P=0.009, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression revealed that pneumonia in acute stroke stage is a significant predictor of 3-year mortality (hazard ratio=6.39, 95% confidence interval=4.03-10.11, P<0.001). In conclusion, pneumonia during the acute stroke stage is associated with increased risk of 3-year mortality. Interventions to prevent pneumonia in acute stroke stage might improve ischemic stroke outcome.

  13. Periodicities in the north-south asymmetry of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizoso, G.; Ballester, J. L.

    1989-09-01

    A Blackman-Tukey power spectrum is performed on the values of the north-south asymmetry in the sudden disappearance of solar prominences, and the results are reported. The findings confirm the proposed existence of a periodicity of around 11 years and fails to confirm another short periodicity of around 2.3 years. The results of the power spectrum performed using values of the flare number and flare index north-south asymmetry provide a significant peak of 3.1-3.2 years. This short periodicity could be related to those found by Ramanuja Rao (1973) in several indices of solar activity.

  14. Bidirectional Relations between Parenting Practices and Child Externalizing Behavior: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis in the Context of a Psychosocial Treatment and 3-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or…

  15. A 3-Year Review of Cranial Nerve Palsies from the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Eye Clinic, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Fiebai, Bassey; Awoyesuku, Elizabeth Akon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To provide the types, frequency and clinical information on common cranial nerve palsies seen at the Eye Clinic at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A chart review was performed of patients who presented with cranial nerve palsy at the Eye Clinic over a 3-year period (January 2009-December 2011). Data were collected on age, sex, type of cranial nerve palsy, a history of systemic disease such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension and cerebrovascular disease. Exclusion criteria included medical charts with incomplete data. Data was analyzed using Epi-info Version 6.04D. Statistical significance was indicated by P < 0.05. Results: Twenty-four patients had cranial nerve palsies. There were 11 males and 13 females with a mean age of 34.50 ± 18.41 years. Four patients (26.6%) had exotropia while three patients (20%) had esotropia. Complete ophthalmoplegia was noted in two patients (13.3%). The 3rd and 6th cranial nerves were affected in seven patients each (29.2%) and five patients (20.8%) had 7th cranial nerve palsy. Approximately 38% of patients with cranial nerve palsies had systemic disorders (16.7% systemic hypertension; 12.5% DM). The relationship between cranial nerve palsy and systemic disorder was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Conclusion: This is the first study in the literature on ocular cranial nerve palsies in Southern Nigeria. Third and sixth cranial nerve palsies were the most common cases to present to the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Eye Clinic. There was a statistically significant association to systemic disorders such as hypertension and DM and majority of cases with 6th cranial nerve palsy. PMID:24791110

  16. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Incident Metabolic Syndrome: A 4.3-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Ha; Jin, Sang-Man; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jee, Jae Hwan; Yu, Tae Yang; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Background An association between serum calcium level and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been suggested in cross-sectional studies. This study aimed to evaluate the association between baseline serum calcium level and risk of incident MetS in a longitudinal study. Methods We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of 12,706 participants without MetS who participated in a health screening program, had normal range serum calcium level at baseline (mean age, 51 years), and were followed up for 4.3 years (18,925 person-years). The risk of developing MetS was analyzed according to the baseline serum calcium levels. Results A total of 3,448 incident cases (27.1%) of MetS developed during the follow-up period. The hazard ratio (HR) for incident MetS did not increase with increasing tertile of serum calcium level in an age- and sex-matched model (P for trend=0.915). The HRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) for incident MetS comparing the second and the third tertiles to the first tertile of baseline serum calcium level were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.92) in a fully adjusted model, respectively (P for trend=0.001). A decreased risk of incident MetS in higher tertiles of serum calcium level was observed in subjects with central obesity and/or a metabolically unhealthy state at baseline. Conclusion There was no positive correlation between baseline serum calcium levels and incident risk of MetS in this longitudinal study. There was an association between higher serum calcium levels and decreased incident MetS in individuals with central obesity or two components of MetS at baseline. PMID:28029017

  17. Food insufficiency and women's mental health: findings from a 3-year panel of welfare recipients.

    PubMed

    Heflin, Colleen M; Siefert, Kristine; Williams, David R

    2005-11-01

    Household food insufficiency is a significant problem in the United States, and has been associated with poor outcomes on mental health indicators among low-income women. However, it is difficult to disentangle the mental health consequences of household food insufficiency from poverty and other shared risk factors. Drawing on theories of the social production of health and disease, research evidence linking food insufficiency with poor mental health, and high rates of food insufficiency among welfare recipients, we examined whether a change in household food insufficiency is associated with a change in women's self-reported mental health in a sample of current and recent welfare recipients over a 3-year period of time, controlling for common risk factors. Data were obtained from a prospective survey of women who were welfare recipients in an urban Michigan county in February 1997 (n=753). We estimated fixed effect models for changes in mental health status that make use of information on household food insufficiency gathered in the fall of 1997, 1998, and 1999. The relationship between household food insufficiency and respondents' meeting the diagnostic screening criteria for major depression remained highly significant even when controlling for factors known to confer increased risk of depression and time invariant unobserved heterogeneity. These findings add to growing evidence that household food insufficiency has potentially serious consequences for low-income women's mental health. If confirmed by further research, they suggest that the public health burden of depression in welfare recipients and other low-income women could be reduced by policy-level interventions to reduce their exposure to household food insufficiency.

  18. An experimental investigation of gapwise periodicity and unsteady aerodynamic response in an oscillating cascade. 1: Experimental and theoretical results. [turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carta, F. O.

    1982-01-01

    Tests were conducted on a linear cascade of airfoils oscillating in pitch to measure the unsteady pressure response on selected blades along the leading edge plane of the cascade, over the chord of the center blade, and on the sidewall in the plane of the leading edge. The pressure data were reduced to Fourier coefficient form for direct comparison, and were also processed to yield integrated loads and, particularly, the aerodynamic damping coefficient. Results from the unsteady Verdon/Caspar theory for cascaded blades with nonzero thickness and camber were compared with the experimental measurements. The three primary results are: (1) from the leading edge plane blade data, the cascade was judged to be periodic in unsteady flow over the range of parameters tested; (2) the interblade phase angle was found to be the single most important parameter affecting the stability of the oscillating cascade blades; and (3) the real blade theory and the experiment were in excellent agreement for the several cases chosen for comparison.

  19. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or "social threats" across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, "social threat", or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, "social threat", or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not "social threats") significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and "social threat" groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the "social threat" group. Collectively, our findings indicate that repeated

  20. Repeated, Intermittent Social Defeat across the Entire Juvenile Period Resulted in Behavioral, Physiological, Hormonal, Immunological, and Neurochemical Alterations in Young Adult Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-Chun; Liu, Ching-Yi; Lai, Wen-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is vulnerable to social defeat during the juvenile period. As complements of human studies, animal models of social defeat provide a straightforward approach to investigating the functional and neurobiological consequences of social defeats. Taking advantage of agonist behavior and social defeat in male golden hamster, a set of 6 experiments was conducted to investigate the consequences at multiple levels in young adulthood resulting from repeated, intermittent social defeats or “social threats” across the entire juvenile period. Male hamsters at postnatal day 28 (P28) were randomly assigned to either the social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control group, and they correspondingly received a series of nine social interaction trials (i.e., either social defeat, “social threat”, or arena control conditions) from P33 to P66. At the behavioral level (Experiment 1), we found that repeated social defeats (but not “social threats”) significantly impacted locomotor activity in the familiar context and social interaction in the familiar/unfamiliar social contexts. At the physiological and hormonal levels (Experiments 2 and 3), repeated social defeat significantly enhanced the cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations in blood. Enlargement of the spleen was also found in the social defeat and “social threat” groups. At the immunological level (Experiment 4), the social defeat group showed lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but higher concentration of IL-6 in the striatum compared to the other two groups. At the neurochemical level (Experiment 5), the socially defeated hamsters mainly displayed reductions of dopamine, dopamine metabolites, and 5-HT levels in the striatum and decreased level of 5-HT in the hippocampus. In Experiment 6, an increase in the spine density of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was specifically observed in the “social threat” group. Collectively, our

  1. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III. Results for the 2002-2007 data-taking period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurashitov, J. N.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Gurkina, P. P.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Khairnasov, N. G.; Knodel, T. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Yants, V. E.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Bowles, T. J.; Elliott, S. R.; Teasdale, W. A.; Nico, J. S.; Cleveland, B. T.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2009-07-01

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4-3.0+3.1 (stat) -2.8+2.6 (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1±3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced Ar37 neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior Cr51 neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87±0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in Ge71 has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63 SNU to 66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be ϕpp⊙=(6.0±0.8)×1010/(cm2s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  2. Measurement of the solar neutrino capture rate with gallium metal. III. Results for the 2002-2007 data-taking period

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J. N.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Gurkina, P. P.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Khairnasov, N. G.; Knodel, T. V.; Mirmov, I. N.; Shikhin, A. A.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Yants, V. E.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Bowles, T. J.; Elliott, S. R.; Teasdale, W. A.; Nico, J. S.; Cleveland, B. T.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2009-07-15

    The Russian-American experiment SAGE began to measure the solar neutrino capture rate with a target of gallium metal in December 1989. Measurements have continued with only a few brief interruptions since that time. In this article we present the experimental improvements in SAGE since its last published data summary in December 2001. Assuming the solar neutrino production rate was constant during the period of data collection, combined analysis of 168 extractions through December 2007 gives a capture rate of solar neutrinos with energy more than 233 keV of 65.4{sub -3.0}{sup +3.1} (stat) {sub -2.8}{sup +2.6} (syst) SNU. The weighted average of the results of all three Ga solar neutrino experiments, SAGE, Gallex, and GNO, is now 66.1{+-}3.1 SNU, where statistical and systematic uncertainties have been combined in quadrature. During the recent period of data collection a new test of SAGE was made with a reactor-produced {sup 37}Ar neutrino source. The ratio of observed to calculated rates in this experiment, combined with the measured rates in the three prior {sup 51}Cr neutrino-source experiments with Ga, is 0.87{+-}0.05. A probable explanation for this low result is that the cross section for neutrino capture by the two lowest-lying excited states in {sup 71}Ge has been overestimated. If we assume these cross sections are zero, then the standard solar model including neutrino oscillations predicts a total capture rate in Ga in the range of 63 SNU to 66 SNU with an uncertainty of about 4%, in good agreement with experiment. We derive the current value of the neutrino flux produced in the Sun by the proton-proton fusion reaction to be {phi}{sub pp}{sup {center_dot}}=(6.0{+-}0.8)x10{sup 10}/(cm{sup 2} s), which agrees well with the pp flux predicted by the standard solar model. Finally, we make several tests and show that the data are consistent with the assumption that the solar neutrino production rate is constant in time.

  3. Parental Styles and Religious Values among Teenagers: A 3-Year Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of Grade 7 parental styles on Grade 10 religious values. The authors surveyed 784 participants (382 boys, 394 girls; 8 unreported) in Grade 7. The mean age of the group at Time 1 was 12.3 years (SD = 0.5 years). Time 2 occurred 3 years later when students were in Grade 10 (372 boys, 375 girls). In addition to…

  4. A 3-year evolution of linguistic disorders in aphasia after stroke.

    PubMed

    El Hachioui, Hanane; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W M E; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; Visch-Brink, Evy G

    2011-09-01

    Aphasia recovery after stroke has been the subject of several studies, but in none the deficits on the various linguistic levels were examined, even though in the diagnosis and treatment of aphasia the emphasis lays more and more on these linguistic level disorders. In this observational prospective follow-up study, we explored whether it is meaningful to investigate the recovery of semantics, phonology, and syntax separately. Fifteen patients with aphasia poststroke were assessed at 3 and 10 days, 7 weeks, 4 and 7 months, and 3 years postonset with the ScreeLing, a linguistic level test, the Aphasia Severity Rating Scale (spontaneous speech) and the Token Test. Group results showed improvement for the overall ScreeLing (P<0.01) and its subparts semantics (P<0.01) and syntax (P<0.01) up to 7 weeks, just as the Token Test (P<0.01). Phonology improved up to 4 months (P<0.05) and spontaneous speech up to 7 months (P<0.05). The recovery pattern of the three linguistic levels did not follow a parallel course, with a great deal of variability in linguistic recovery curves between and within patients. These results suggest that it is meaningful to assess the recovery of the linguistic levels separately, starting from the acute stage poststroke.

  5. Implementation of an Aerosol-Cloud Microphysics-Radiation Coupling into the NASA Unified WRF: Simulation Results for the 6-7 August 2006 AMMA Special Observing Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, J. J.; Matsui, T.; Tao, W.-K.; Tan, Q.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Chin, M.; Pickering, K.; Guy, N.; Lang, S.; Kemp, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols affect the Earth's radiation balance directly and cloud microphysical processes indirectly via the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. These two effects have often been considered separately and independently, hence the need to assess their combined impact given the differing nature of their effects on convective clouds. To study both effects, an aerosol-microphysics-radiation coupling, including Goddard microphysics and radiation schemes, was implemented into the NASA Unified Weather Research and Forecasting model (NU-WRF). Fully coupled NU-WRF simulations were conducted for a mesoscale convective system (MCS) that passed through the Niamey, Niger area on 6-7 August 2006 during an African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) special observing period. The results suggest that rainfall is reduced when aerosol indirect effects are included, regardless of the aerosol direct effect. Daily mean radiation heating profiles in the area traversed by the MCS showed the aerosol (mainly mineral dust) direct effect had the largest impact near cloud tops just above 200 hectopascals where short-wave heating increased by about 0.8 Kelvin per day; the weakest long-wave cooling was at around 250 hectopascals. It was also found that more condensation and ice nuclei as a result of higher aerosol/dust concentrations led to increased amounts of all cloud hydrometeors because of the microphysical indirect effect, and the radiation direct effect acts to reduce precipitating cloud particles (rain, snow and graupel) in the middle and lower cloud layers while increasing the non-precipitating particles (ice) in the cirrus anvil. However, when the aerosol direct effect was activated, regardless of the indirect effect, the onset of MCS precipitation was delayed about 2 hours, in conjunction with the delay in the activation of cloud condensation and ice nuclei. Overall, for this particular environment, model set-up and physics configuration, the effect of aerosol

  6. CONSTRAINTS ON LONG-PERIOD PLANETS FROM AN L'- AND M-BAND SURVEY OF NEARBY SUN-LIKE STARS: MODELING RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Heinze, A. N.; Hinz, Philip M.; Kenworthy, Matthew; Sivanandam, Suresh; Miller, Douglas; Meyer, Michael E-mail: phinz@as.arizona.ed E-mail: suresh@as.arizona.ed E-mail: mmeyer@phys.ethz.c

    2010-05-10

    We have carried out an L'- and M-band adaptive optics (AO) extrasolar planet imaging survey of 54 nearby, Sun-like stars using the Clio camera at the MMT. Our survey concentrates more strongly than all others to date on very nearby F, G, and K stars, in that we have prioritized proximity higher than youth. Our survey is also the first to include extensive observations in the M band, which supplemented the primary L' observations. These longer-wavelength bands are most useful for very nearby systems in which low-temperature planets with red IR colors (i.e., H - L', H - M) could be detected. The survey detected no planets, but set interesting limits on planets and brown dwarfs in the star systems we investigated. We have interpreted our null result by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations and constrained the distributions of extrasolar planets in mass M and semimajor axis a. If planets are distributed according to a power law with dN {proportional_to} M {sup {alpha}} a {sup {beta}} dMda, normalized to be consistent with radial velocity (RV) statistics, we find that a distribution with {alpha} = -1.1 and {beta} = -0.46, truncated at 110 AU, is ruled out at the 90% confidence level. These particular values of {alpha} and {beta} are significant because they represent the most planet-rich case consistent with current statistics from RV observations. With 90% confidence no more than 8.1% of stars like those in our survey have systems with three widely spaced, massive planets like the A star HR 8799. Our observations show that giant planets in long-period orbits around Sun-like stars are rare, confirming the results of shorter-wavelength surveys and increasing the robustness of the conclusion.

  7. Effects of Otitis Media with Effusion on Hearing in the First 3 Years of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravel, Judith S.; Wallace, Ina F.

    2000-01-01

    Hearing sensitivity was examined prospectively in 114 young children as a function of otitis media with effusion (OEM)status in years 1, 2, and 3. Results indicated that children classified as bilaterally OME positive in years 1, 2, and 3 had significantly poorer hearing than children classified as bilaterally OME free at these periods. (Contains…

  8. Serum pentosidine levels after 3 years of bisphosphonate treatment in post-menopausal osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Mikio; Ikegami, Shota; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Nakamura, Yukio; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The present study measured changes in plasma pentosidine and bone turnover markers in elderly patients with osteoporosis treated using bisphosphonate. The relationship between pentosidine and bone turnover markers and bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated. This study consisted of post-menopausal osteoporotic women who could be treated using bisphosphonate for 3 years were included in the present analysis. The study population consisted of 58 cases, all women, ranging in age from 53 to 86 years (mean, 67.1 years). Bisphosphonate treatment significantly increased BMD of the lumbar spine to 0.914 ± 0.141 g/cm(2) and BMD of the femoral neck to 0.708 ± 0.086 g/cm(2) after 3 years (p < 0.001 versus baseline). The mean BAP level was 27.3 ± 8.3 U/L in patients at baseline. After bisphosphonate treatment, BAP significantly decreased to 18.1 ± 7.2 U/L at 3 years (p < 0.001). Urinary NTX also decreased after bisphosphonate treatment. After 3 years of treatment, urinary NTX significantly decreased from 50.0 ± 19.0 nmol BCE/mmol Cr to 24.6 ± 10.2 nmol BCE/mmol Cr at 3 years (p < 0.001). Serum pentosidine levels were 0.0413 ± 0.0094 μg/mL at baseline and 0.0413 ± 0.0122 μg/mL after 3 years. They were not significantly changed by bisphosphonate treatment. Serum pentosidine levels were not changed by treatment with bisphosphonates. Thus, serum pentosidine may not be suitable as a marker of bone quality after 3 years of bisphosphonate treatment.

  9. Gender Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use Among Transgender Women: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Results. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Conclusions. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population. PMID:25211716

  10. Negative cognitive styles synergistically predict suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Kleiman, Evan M; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K; Seligman, Nicole D; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-30

    Rates of suicidal ideation and behavior are extremely high in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). However, relatively little work has evaluated potentially synergistic relationships between cognitive and emotion-regulatory processes proposed by theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs. The present study evaluated whether negative cognitive style and subtypes of rumination would exacerbate the impact of self-criticism on suicidal ideation in a prospective study of individuals with BSDs. Seventy-two young adults with BSDs (bipolar II, bipolar NOS, or cyclothymia) completed diagnostic interviews and trait measures of self-criticism, negative cognitive style, and brooding and reflective rumination at a baseline assessment. The occurrence of suicidal ideation was assessed as part of diagnostic interviews completed every 4 months for an average of 3 years of follow-up. Negative cognitive style and reflective rumination strengthened the association between self-criticism and the prospective occurrence of suicidal ideation across follow-up. Individuals with high levels of self-criticism in conjunction with negative cognitive style or reflective rumination were most likely to experience the onset of suicidal ideation. Self-criticism may work synergistically with negative cognitive style and rumination to confer risk for suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders. These results support theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs and indicate that evaluating and understanding negative cognitive styles may help to identify individuals who are at risk of suicide.

  11. The Megha-Tropiques Mission: Review and Status after 3 Years in Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Megha-Tropiques satellite is the indo-french contribution to the Global Precipitation Mission constellation.The operation of the MT mission has recently been formally extended for 2015 and 2016 after reaching in october this year its original 3 years duration. While the MADRAS instrument stopped data acquisition in January 2013, the SAPHIR multichannel 183 GHz sounder is up and running nominally. Real time distribution of SAPHIR is performed by EUMETSAT via the EUMETcast system since mid-2014.In this presentation, I will review the performances of the microwave radiometers on-board MT and illustrate thescientific outcome of the mission as well as the results of the extensive validation exercices which have been finalized. I will put the emphasis on the impact of the low inclinaison orbit on assimilation, convective systems monitoring and estimation of precipitation. In particular, I will show how the SAPHIR radiometer data are used in our GPM multiple platforms merged 1°-1day accumulated rainfall product to mitigate the loss of MADRAS.

  12. Acquired unilateral pulmonary vein atresia in a 3-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Firdouse, Mohammed; Agarwal, Arnav; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Mondal, Tapas K

    2015-03-01

    While unilateral pulmonary venous atresia (UPVA) most commonly presents as an extremely rare late embryological defect resulting in complete occlusion or absence of the PV pathway, it may also be an acquired pathology. We present a 3-year-old boy who presented with mild respiratory distress. Neonatal echocardiographic investigations revealed normal mediastinal anatomy and pulmonary vasculature with a bicuspid aortic valve. However, follow-up Doppler investigation revealed a pulmonary artery size difference with minimal forward flow and reverse flow during diastole. Absence of the left pulmonary veins and the presence of collaterals draining to the innominate vein confirmed the diagnosis of acquired UPVA. Our case represents the first case of acquired UPVA in conjunction with a normally functioning bicuspid aortic valve. The Doppler flow patterns discussed might be of significant interest to pediatricians, cardiologists and imaging specialists. These findings suggest that acquired UPVA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such patients when radiographic and echocardiographic findings may rule out other more common diagnoses. While the management of such a condition remains unclear and conservative management was agreed upon for our patient, the vulnerability of such cases warrants timely diagnosis and routine monitoring.

  13. Changes in Maternal Plasma Adiponectin from Late Pregnancy to the Postpartum Period According to the Mode of Delivery: Results from a Prospective Cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Struchiner, Claudio Jose; Kac, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Maternal plasma adiponectin is inversely related to insulin resistance, atherosclerosis and child health. However, little is known about its concentrations in the perinatal period, especially according to mode of delivery. Our aim is to evaluate the association between mode of delivery and changes in maternal plasma adiponectin from 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 30–45 days postpartum. Methods A cohort was recruited in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with four waves of follow-up: 5-13th, 22-26th, 30-36th gestational weeks and 30–45 days postpartum. Eligible subjects should be between 20–40 years of age, be free of chronic and infectious diseases and presenting with a singleton pregnancy. The mode of delivery was classified as vaginal (VD) or cesarean (CS). Plasma adiponectin concentration (μg/mL) was measured using commercial ELISA kits. Statistical analyses included the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and the multiple linear mixed effects model. Results A total of 159 participated in the study. Median adiponectin concentrations were higher for the VD group (n = 99; 8.25, IQR: 5.85–11.90) than for the CS group (n = 60; 7.34, IQR: 4.36–9.76; p = 0.040) in the postpartum samples but were not different between the two groups in the 3rd trimester. Women who underwent CS had a lower rate of increase in adiponectin concentration from the 3rd trimester to 30–45 days postpartum compared to those who underwent VD (β = -.15, 95% CI: -.28-.02, p = 0.030). Conclusion The CS procedure was associated with lower maternal circulating concentrations of adiponectin at 30–45 days postpartum, compared to the VD. PMID:27391647

  14. Parental Involvement in Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children with Anxiety Disorders: 3-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Monika; Esbjørn, Barbara H; Breinholst, Sonja; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise

    2016-07-12

    Parental factors have been linked to childhood anxiety, hence, parental involvement in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxious children has been examined. However, findings do not consistently show added effects of parent-enhanced CBT, longitudinal investigations are scarce and long-term effects unclear. In the present study, 40 out of 54 families who, 3 years previously, completed one of two types of CBT treatment: with limited or active parental involvement, were assessed using semi-structured diagnostic interviews. Diagnostic status at 3-years follow-up was compared between groups. Changes in diagnostic status across assessment points: posttreatment, 6-month and 3-year follow-up were analyzed within groups. Diagnostic change from 6-month to 3-year follow-up was compared between groups. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed no significant difference in diagnostic status between groups at 3-year follow-up. Nonetheless, children whose parents actively participated in treatment showed significantly more remission from 6-month to 3-year follow-up than children with limited parental participation.

  15. Dietary energy density and body weight changes after 3 years in the PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Razquin, Cristina; Sanchez-Tainta, Ana; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Corella, Dolores; Fito, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Luis; Pinto, Xavier; Schröder, Helmut; Tur, Josep; Sorlí, José V; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Bulló, Mónica; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2017-03-06

    The association of dietary energy density (ED) and overweight is not clear in the literature. Our aim was to study in 4259 of the PREDIMED trial whether an increase in dietary ED based on a higher adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with 3-year weight gain. A validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire was administered. Multivariable-adjusted models were used to analyze the association between 3-year ED change and the subsequent 3-year body weight change. The most important weight reduction after 3-year follow-up was observed in the two lowest quintiles and the highest quintile of ED change. The highest ED increase was characterized by an increased intake of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and nuts and a decreased intake of other oils, vegetable and fruit consumption (p < .001). In conclusion, increased 3-year ED in the PREDIMED study, associated with a higher EVOO and nuts consumption, was not associated with weight gain.

  16. Impact of Prenatal Chlorpyrifos Exposure on Neurodevelopment in the First 3 Years of Life Among Inner-City Children

    PubMed Central

    Rauh, Virginia A.; Garfinkel, Robin; Perera, Frederica P.; Andrews, Howard F.; Hoepner, Lori; Barr, Dana B.; Whitehead, Ralph; Tang, Deliang; Whyatt, Robin W.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on 3-year neurodevelopment and behavior in a sample of inner-city minority children. METHODS As part of an ongoing prospective cohort study in an inner-city minority population, neurotoxicant effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos were evaluated in 254 children through the first 3 years of life. This report examined cognitive and motor development at 12, 24, and 36 months (measured with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II) and child behavior at 36 months (measured with the Child Behavior Checklist) as a function of chlorpyrifos levels in umbilical cord plasma. RESULTS Highly exposed children (chlorpyrifos levels of >6.17 pg/g plasma) scored, on average, 6.5 points lower on the Bayley Psychomotor Development Index and 3.3 points lower on the Bayley Mental Development Index at 3 years of age compared with those with lower levels of exposure. Children exposed to higher, compared with lower, chlorpyrifos levels were also significantly more likely to experience Psychomotor Development Index and Mental Development Index delays, attention problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder problems, and pervasive developmental disorder problems at 3 years of age. CONCLUSIONS The adjusted mean 36-month Psychomotor Development Index and Mental Development Index scores of the highly and lower exposed groups differed by only 7.1 and 3.0 points, respectively, but the proportion of delayed children in the high-exposure group, compared with the low-exposure group, was 5 times greater for the Psychomotor Development Index and 2.4 times greater for the Mental Development Index, increasing the number of children possibly needing early intervention services. PMID:17116700

  17. How Many Patients Become Functionally Dependent after a Stroke? A 3-Year Population-Based Study in Joinville, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pontes-Neto, Octávio Marques; Mazin, Suleimy Cristina; dos Reis, Felipe Ibiapina

    2017-01-01

    The decrease in stroke mortality will increase the burden of survivors with functional dependence (FD). The aim of this study was to evaluate how many patients become functionally dependent over 3 years after an incident event in Joinville, Brazil. The proportion of FD (defined as a modified Rankin score 3 to 5) among stroke survivors from the Joinville Stroke Registry was assessed using a validated telephone interview. Incidence of FD after stroke in Joinville in one year was 23.24 per 100,000 population. The overall proportion of FD among stroke survivors at discharge was 32.7%. Of 303 patients with first-ever ischaemic stroke (IS), one-third were FD at discharge, and 12%, 9% and 8%, respectively at 1, 2 and 3 years. Among 37 patients with haemorrhagic stroke (HS), 38% were dependent at discharge, 16% after 1 and 2 years and 14% after 3. Among 27 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), 19% were dependent at discharge and 4% from 1 to 3 years. Among IS subtypes, cardioembolic ones had the worst risk of FD. (RR 19.8; 95% CI: 2.2 to 175.9). Our results showed that one-third of stroke survivors have FD during the first year after stroke in Brazil. Therefore, a city with half a million people might expect 120 new stroke patients with FD each year. PMID:28107401

  18. Evapotranspiration over a Japanese cypress forest. I. Eddy covariance fluxes and surface conductance characteristics for 3 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Yoshiko; Takanashi, Satoru; Tanaka, Hiroki; Ohkubo, Shinjiro; Tani, Makoto; Yano, Masato; Katayama, Tatsuya

    2007-04-01

    SummaryEvapotranspiration above a Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. et Zucc.) forest with complex topography in central Japan were observed for 3 years using the eddy covariance method. The observations describe the magnitude and seasonal and inter-annual variations in sensible and latent heat fluxes, evapotranspiration and the parameters describing bulk canopy characteristics. Average annual evapotranspiration over the period was approximately 735 mm. Despite large fluctuations in precipitation (1179-1971 mm) during the 3 years, inter-annual fluctuations in evapotranspiration were small. Midday average dry canopy surface conductance was 6.7 mm s -1 during midseason and decreased in winter. The midday average dry canopy decoupling factor ( Ω) was 0.21 during midseason and decreased in winter. This forest is characterized by relatively small values of surface conductance and decoupling factor compared to other forests. However, several other coniferous forests show smaller values. Surface conductance, and thus stomatal regulation, is important in controlling dry-canopy transpiration in this forest. Inter-annual fluctuations of bulk parameters were small; surface conductance characteristics affected by soil moisture did not vary between dry and wet years.

  19. New results to discuss possibility of irrigation in Bat (Wadi Sharsah, northwestern Oman) before Hafit period (ca. 3100-2700 BCE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouache, Eric; Desruelles, Stéphane; Eddargach, Wassel; Cammas, Cecilia; Wattez, Julia; Martin, Chloé; Tengberg, Margareta; Beuzen-Waller, Tara; Cable, Charlotte; Thornton, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Registered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1989, the extensive archaeological site of Bat is situated within the Wadi Sharsah and around the modern village and palm grove of Bat, 24 km from the modern city of Ibri in northwestern Oman. The archaeological remains from the Bronze Age excavated by the Bat Archaeological Project are located in two mains areas. The northern area consists of a chain of low limestone hills cut by wadi tributaries leading to the main Wadi Sharsah. It is characterised by an exceptionnally high density of graves from two successive Bronze Age periods : Hafit (ca. 3100-2700 BCE) and Umm an-Nar (ca. 2700-2000 BCE). South of the Bat cemetery, in the flat part of the valley, there are several large circular structures (known historically as « towers ») and remains from both Hafit and Umm an-Nar periods, as well as later periods. Geomorphological mapping of the floodplain, associated with archaeological survey, have identified walls suggesting that during the Umm an-Nar period there was a system of irrigation which controlled flood water. Sedimentological, malacological, C14 dating and micromorphological studies of a 10 m long and 2.5 m high section located 143 m northeast of the Tower 1146 on the left bank of a small tributary of the Wadi Sharsah provide strong argument for the presence of an irrigation system that began before the Hafit period. New C14 datings confirm this hypothesis. Botanical macro-remains collected during the excavation of early Bronze Age structures at Bat further indicate the presence of date palm gardens since the 3rd millenium BCE allowing the cultivation of several crop species, in particular cereals. Most generally the global palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from our data supports a model of a general trend of aridification from Bronze Age to iron Age. Key words : Bronze Age, Holocene, Geomoephology, Micromorphology, Irrigation, Oman.

  20. A 3 year update on the influence of noise on performance and behavior.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    The effect of noise exposure on human performance and behavior continues to be a focus for research activities. This paper reviews developments in the field over the past 3 years, highlighting current areas of research, recent findings, and ongoing research in two main research areas: Field studies of noise effects on children's cognition and experimental studies of auditory distraction. Overall, the evidence for the effects of external environmental noise on children's cognition has strengthened in recent years, with the use of larger community samples and better noise characterization. Studies have begun to establish exposure-effect thresholds for noise effects on cognition. However, the evidence remains predominantly cross-sectional and future research needs to examine whether sound insulation might lessen the effects of external noise on children's learning. Research has also begun to explore the link between internal classroom acoustics and children's learning, aiming to further inform the design of the internal acoustic environment. Experimental studies of the effects of noise on cognitive performance are also reviewed, including functional differences in varieties of auditory distraction, semantic auditory distraction, individual differences in susceptibility to auditory distraction, and the role of cognitive control on the effects of noise on understanding and memory of target speech materials. In general, the results indicate that there are at least two functionally different types of auditory distraction: One due to the interruption of processes (as a result of attention being captured by the sound), another due to interference between processes. The magnitude of the former type is related to individual differences in cognitive control capacities (e.g., working memory capacity); the magnitude of the latter is not. Few studies address noise effects on behavioral outcomes, emphasizing the need for researchers to explore noise effects on behavior in more

  1. Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions among children with refractory seizures: A 3-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Issac, Thomas Gregor; Deepak, Sai; Teja, Ravi; Kuruthukulangara, Seby

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Epilepsy accounts for 1% of the global disease burden and about 8–10 million epilepsy patients live in India. About 30–40% of these patients become drug-resistant and land up with palliative or disease-modifying surgeries. This is a situation causing great concern in view of the psychosocial and economic burden on the patient and the family apart from severe cognitive and motor consequences, especially in children. Therefore, it is mandatory to have an insight into the wide spectrum of causes with reference to refractoriness to antiepileptic medications in children with epilepsy. Patients and Methods: Children admitted under our team with refractory epilepsy as per the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria in the last 3 years were included in the study. Results: Refractory epilepsy constituted 13.3% of inpatients in the pediatric group. Males dominated with 68.9% of these patients. Nearly 34.4% of these patients were found to suffer from various neurometabolic diseases. Almost 3.5% were due to pyridoxine-dependent convulsions. This group of patients showed an excellent response to dietary manipulation, disease-modifying treatment for the metabolic disorder, and supportive small-dose anticonvulsants. During follow-up, they showed very good response with reference to global development and seizure control. Conclusion: Pyridoxine-dependent convulsions are relatively rare forming about 3.5% of refractory epilepsies in this series. With initiation of appropriate therapy, results with reference to seizure control as well as neurodevelopment became evident within 2 weeks, and at 1-year follow-up, complete independence for majority of the needed activities is achieved with minimum cost, almost zero side effects, and absolute elimination of the need for palliative surgery. PMID:27857784

  2. [Cessation of fluoridation of drinking water; results of caries research in Tiel and Culemborg in the period of 1968-1988].

    PubMed

    Kalsbeek, H; Kwant, G W; Groeneveld, A; Backer Dirks, O; van Eck, A A; Theuns, H M

    1992-01-01

    In December 1973 water fluoridation was discontinued in Tiel, the Netherlands. Six years later an epidemiological study was started, with the aim to investigate the consequences. In the period from 1979 to 1988 a yearly caries investigation was carried out in 15 year old children born and living in Tiel and children living in the control town of Culemborg, where the drinking water had never been fluoridated. The 15 year old children in 1979-1980 in Tiel had a 18% higher caries experience than the same age group in 1968-1969, to whom fluoridated water had been available from birth onward. In the same period a 28% decrease of the caries was found in Culemborg. In 1979-1980 the DMFS-index in Tiel was still 36% lower than in Culemborg. Between 1979-1980 and 1987-1988 the caries experience decreased in both towns.

  3. Effect of a field program based on systematic plaque control on caries and gingivitis in schoolchildren after 3 years.

    PubMed

    Hamp, S E; Lindhe, J; Fornell, J; Johansson, L A; Karlsson, R

    1978-01-01

    The effect of a field program, based on systematic plaque control, on caries and gingivitis was tested during a 3-year period on 1,100 schoolchildren. Once every 3rd week the children were given oral hygiene instructions, professional toothcleaning and fluorides topically delivered by specially trained dental nurses. The children of a control group of approximately the same number of pupils, participated in a preventive program consisting of mouthrinsings once every 2nd week with a 0.2% sodium fluoride solution. The children of the third and fourth grades were, at the start of the experiment, selected as reference groups and then continuously examined once every year. At the end of the trial the mean reduction of surfaces haboring plaque and units with gingival inflammation was 59% and 73%, respectively. The reduction in caries increment was 51%.

  4. Acute Corneal Hydrops 3 Years after Intra-corneal Ring Segments and Corneal Collagen Cross-linking

    PubMed Central

    Antonios, Rafic; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Chelala, Elias; Hamadeh, Adib; Jarade, Elias

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a 15-year-old male with allergic conjunctivitis and keratoconus, who underwent uneventful intra-corneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation and corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) in the right eye. During the follow-up periods, the patient was noted to have several episodes of allergic conjunctivitis that were treated accordingly. At the 2 years postoperatively, he presented with another episode of allergic conjunctivitis and progression of keratoconus was suspected on topography. However, the patient was lost to follow-up, until he presented with acute hydrops at 3 years postoperatively. There are no reported cases of acute corneal hydrops in cross-linked corneas. We suspect the young age, allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing may be a risk factors associated with possible progression of keratoconus after CXL. Prolonged follow-up and aggressive control of the allergy might be necessary in similar cases. PMID:26957859

  5. Early Intervention for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder Under 3 Years of Age: Recommendations for Practice and Research.

    PubMed

    Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bauman, Margaret L; Choueiri, Roula; Kasari, Connie; Carter, Alice; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Mailloux, Zoe; Smith Roley, Susanne; Wagner, Sheldon; Fein, Deborah; Pierce, Karen; Buie, Timothy; Davis, Patricia A; Newschaffer, Craig; Robins, Diana; Wetherby, Amy; Stone, Wendy L; Yirmiya, Nurit; Estes, Annette; Hansen, Robin L; McPartland, James C; Natowicz, Marvin R

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews current evidence for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) interventions for children aged <3 years, based on peer-reviewed articles published up to December 2013. Several groups have adapted treatments initially designed for older, preschool-aged children with ASD, integrating best practice in behavioral teaching methods into a developmental framework based on current scientific understanding of how infants and toddlers learn. The central role of parents has been emphasized, and interventions are designed to incorporate learning opportunities into everyday activities, capitalize on "teachable moments," and facilitate the generalization of skills beyond the familiar home setting. Our review identified several comprehensive and targeted treatment models with evidence of clear benefits. Although some trials were limited to 8- to 12-week outcome data, enhanced outcomes associated with some interventions were evaluated over periods as long as 2 years. Based on this review, recommendations are proposed for clinical practice and future research.

  6. Periodic parallel array of nanopillars and nanoholes resulting from colloidal stripes patterned by geometrically confined evaporative self-assembly for unique anisotropic wetting.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmeng; Wang, Chunhui; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Tian, Hongmiao; Li, Xiangming; Wang, Li

    2014-11-26

    In this paper we present an economical process to create anisotropic microtextures based on periodic parallel stripes of monolayer silica nanoparticles (NPs) patterned by geometrically confined evaporative self-assembly (GCESA). In the GCESA process, a straight meniscus of a colloidal dispersion is initially formed in an opened enclosure, which is composed of two parallel plates bounded by a U-shaped spacer sidewall on three sides with an evaporating outlet on the fourth side. Lateral evaporation of the colloidal dispersion leads to periodic "stick-slip" receding of the meniscus (evaporative front), as triggered by the "coffee-ring" effect, promoting the assembly of silica NPs into periodic parallel stripes. The morphology of stripes can be well controlled by tailoring process variables such as substrate wettability, NP concentration, temperature, and gap height, etc. Furthermore, arrayed patterns of nanopillars or nanoholes are generated on a silicon wafer using the as-prepared colloidal stripes as an etching mask or template. Such arrayed patterns can reveal unique anisotropic wetting properties, which have a large contact angle hysteresis viewing from both the parallel and perpendicular directions in addition to a large wetting anisotropy.

  7. Enhancing the Executive Functions of 3-Year-Olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J.; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that…

  8. Abstract Sentence Representations in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence from Language Production and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencini, Giulia M. L.; Valiana, Virginia V.

    2008-01-01

    We use syntactic priming to test the abstractness of the sentence representations of young 3-year-olds (35-42 months). In describing pictures with inanimate participants, 18 children primed with passives produced more passives (11 with a strict scoring scheme, 16 with lax scoring) than did 18 children primed with actives (2 on either scheme) or 12…

  9. Directly Observed Physical Activity among 3-Year-Olds in Finnish Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Villberg, Jari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Gubbels, Jessica; Mehtälä, Anette; Kettunen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine 3-year-olds' physical activity levels and how these vary across season, gender, time of day, location, and the physical and social environment in childcare settings in Finland. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used to…

  10. Learning To Learn: Children's Progress through the First 3 Years of School. Junior School Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Smith, Lesley

    This study organized in 2 sections examined the progress of 32 New Zealand children during their first 3 years at school. Their achievement levels in reading, mathematics, and writing were examined based on interviews with the children, their teachers, and their parents; school records; notes; and video recordings. Section 1 deals with perceptions…

  11. Earth Science. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (3-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on earth sciences for 3-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…

  12. Turning Believers into Skeptics: 3-Year-Olds' Sensitivity to Cues to Speaker Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Malone, Lauren S.

    2007-01-01

    Under most circumstances, children (and adults) can safely assume that the testimony they hear is true. In two studies, we investigated whether 3-year-olds (N = 100) would continue to hold this assumption even if the person who provided the testimony behaved in an uncertain, ignorant, and/or distracted manner. In Study 1, children were less likely…

  13. Examining Communicative Behaviors in a 3-Year-Old Boy Who Is Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfect, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    The communication patterns of a 3-year-old boy who is blind were observed during 35 videotaped classroom sessions to determine if his echolalic responses varied according to school activity and message category. Analysis revealed that, although the child was expressive with adults, he had difficulty communicating with his peers and in producing…

  14. Words, Shape, Visual Search and Visual Working Memory in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated…

  15. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in 3-Year-Old Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Penelo, Eva; Domenech, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To test the factor structure of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and to study the relationships between the proposed dimensions and external variables in a community sample of preschool children. Method: A sample of 1,341 3-year-old preschoolers was randomly selected and screened for a double-phase design. In total, 622…

  16. The Development of Core Cognitive Skills in Autism: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the veracity of one candidate multiple-deficits account of autism by assessing 37 children with autism (M age = 67.9 months) and 31 typical children (M age = 65.2 months) on tasks tapping components of theory of mind (ToM), executive function (EF), and central coherence (CC) at intake and again 3 years later. As a…

  17. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 3 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Our very youngest children--infants and toddlers under age 3 years--appear to be particularly…

  18. A Field Training Model for Creative Arts Therapies: Report from a 3-Year Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkibi, Hod

    2012-01-01

    Clinical field training is an essential component of educating future therapists. This article discusses a creative arts therapies field training model in Israel as designed and modified from 3 years of program evaluation in a changing regulatory context. A clinical seminar structure puts beginning students in the role of participant-observer in…

  19. Emotional and Personality-Related Career Decision-Making Difficulties: A 3-Year Follow-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Asulin-Peretz, Lisa; Fisher, Ahinoam

    2012-01-01

    This study tests the temporal stability and the concurrent and predictive validity of the Emotional and Personality-related Career decision-making Difficulties (EPCD) model and questionnaire. Five hundred forty-three participants filled out the EPCD twice, 3 years apart. The Anxiety cluster was the most stable of the three, followed by the…

  20. Behavioral and Emotional Problems among Turkish Children at Ages 2 to 3 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Within the framework of the Mental Health Surveys of Turkey, the authors investigated the distribution and prevalence of parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems in a nationally representative sample of 2- to 3-year-old children. Method: A cross-sectional population-based survey from October 1996 through March 1997 using a…

  1. Does Attention Constrain Developmental Trajectories in Fragile X Syndrome? A 3-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Kim; Cole, Victoria; Longhi, Elena; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Scerif, Gaia

    2012-01-01

    Basic attentional processes and their impact on developmental trajectories in fragile X syndrome were assessed in a 3-year prospective study. Although fragile X syndrome is a monogenic X-linked disorder, there is striking variability in outcomes even in young boys with the condition. Attention is a key factor constraining interactions with the…

  2. Enhancing Students' Engagement: Report of a 3-Year Intervention with Middle School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Julianne C.; Christensen, Andrea; Kackar-Cam, Hayal Z.; Trucano, Meg; Fulmer, Sara M.

    2014-01-01

    All teachers (N = 32) at one middle school participated in a university-led intervention to improve student engagement. Teachers discussed four principles of motivation and related instructional strategies. Teachers enacted instructional strategies in their classrooms. We observed six randomly selected teachers and their students over 3 years.…

  3. The Semiotic Landscape and 3-Year-Olds' Emerging Understanding of Multimodal Communication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of the increasing use of the visual mode in texts found in urban landscapes on two 3-year-olds' understanding of communication practices. The data discussed are taken from a study into a group of 3- to 6-year-olds' interaction with and emerging comprehension of the visual mode and its connection to writing in…

  4. Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

  5. How Selective Are 3-Year-Olds in Imitating Novel Linguistic Material?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannard, Colin; Klinger, Jörn; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In 3 studies we explored when 3-year-olds would imitate novel words in utterances produced by adult speakers. Child and experimenter took turns in requesting objects from a game master. The experimenter always went first and always preceded the object's familiar name with a novel adjective (e.g., "the dilsige duck"). In the first 2…

  6. The Development of Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood: A Twin Study from 2-3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Parent- and lab-based observer ratings were employed to examine genetic and environmental influences on continuity and change in inhibitory control (IC) in over 300 twin-pairs assessed longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age. Genetic influences accounted for approximately 60% of the variance in parent-rated IC at both ages. Although many of the…

  7. 3-Year-Old Children Make Relevance Inferences in Indirect Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Cornelia; Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated 3-year-old children's ability to determine a speaker's communicative intent when the speaker's overt utterance related to that intent only indirectly. Studies 1 and 2 examined children's comprehension of indirectly stated requests (e.g., "I find Xs good" can imply, in context, a request for…

  8. Risk of Mother-Reported Child Abuse in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windham, Amy M.; Rosenberg, Leon; Fuddy, Loretta; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Sia, Calvin; Duggan, Anne K

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to investigate, within an at-risk population, parent and child characteristics associated with a mother's self-reports of severe physical assault and assault on the self-esteem of the child in the first 3 years of life. Design: The study population consisted of a community-based sample of mothers of…

  9. Two-and 3-Year-Olds Know What Others Have and Have Not Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have established that even infants can determine what others know based on previous visual experience. In the current study, we investigated whether 2-and 3-year-olds know what others know based on previous auditory experience. A child and an adult heard the sound of one object together, but only the child heard the sound of another…

  10. Long-term effectiveness of four pulpotomy techniques: 3-year randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Huth, Karin Christine; Hajek-Al-Khatar, Niran; Wolf, Petra; Ilie, Nicoleta; Hickel, Reinhard; Paschos, Ekaterini

    2012-08-01

    A pulpotomy is the therapy for management of pulp exposures due to caries in symptom-free primary molars. The aim was to longitudinally compare the relative effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser, calcium hydroxide and ferric sulphate techniques with dilute formocresol in retaining symptom-free molars. Two hundred primary molars in 107 healthy children were included and randomly allocated to one technique. The treated teeth were blindly reevaluated after 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. Descriptive data analysis and logistic regression analysis accounting for multiple observations per patient by generalised estimating equation were used. Additionally, various influences including tooth type, upper and lower jaws, type of anaesthesia, operator and the final restoration on treatment success were evaluated (Wald chi-square test). After 36 months, the following total (considering clinical and clinically symptom-free radiographic failures) and clinical success rates were determined (in percent): Formocresol 72 (92), laser 73 (89), calcium hydroxide 46 (75), ferric sulphate 76 (97). No significant differences were detected between formocresol and any other technique after 36 months. However, the odds ratio of failure appeared to be three times higher for calcium hydroxide than for formocresol. No significant differences in total success rates were seen regarding the aforementioned influencing clinical parameters. The correct diagnosis of the pulpal status, bleeding control and the specific technique are highly important for long-term success of pulpotomies in primary molars. According to the presented long-term data, pulpotomies using ferric sulphate revealed the best treatment outcome among the used techniques, while calcium hydroxide resulted in the lowest success rates after 3 years. Therefore, we can recommend ferric sulphate for easy and successful treatment of primary molars with caries-exposed pulps.

  11. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 μg/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  12. Perfectionism, neuroticism, and daily stress reactivity and coping effectiveness 6 months and 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Mandel, Tobey; Ma, Denise

    2014-10-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing longitudinal explanatory conceptualizations of stress and coping processes that trigger daily affect in the short- and long-term for individuals with higher levels of personality vulnerability. Community adults completed measures of 2 higher order dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards [PS], self-criticism [SC]), neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Then, 6 months later and again 3 years later, participants completed daily questionnaires of stress, coping, and affect for 14 consecutive days. PS was associated with aggregated daily problem-focused coping and positive reinterpretation, whereas SC was uniquely associated with daily negative social interactions, avoidant coping, negative affect, and sadness at Month 6 and Year 3. Multilevel modeling results demonstrated that both individuals with higher PS and those with higher SC were emotionally reactive to event stress, negative social interactions, and avoidant coping at Month 6 and Year 3 and to less perceived control at Year 3. Positive reinterpretation was especially effective for individuals with higher SC at Month 6 and Year 3. The effects of PS on daily stress reactivity and coping (in)effectiveness were clearly distinguished from the effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness, whereas the SC effects were due to shared overlap with PS and neuroticism. The present findings demonstrate the promise of using repeated daily diary methodologies to help therapists and clients reliably predict future client reactions to daily stressors, which, in turn, could help guide interventions to break apart dysfunctional patterns connected to distress and build resilience for vulnerable individuals.

  13. Use of Corporal Punishment for 3-year Old Children and Associated Intimate Partner Aggression or Violence

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Rice, Janet C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between maternal and paternal use of corporal punishment (CP) for 3-year old children and intimate partner aggression or violence (IPAV) in a population-based sample. Methods The study sample (n = 1997) was derived from wave 3 of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study. Mother and father reports regarding their use of CP and their IPAV victimization were analyzed. IPAV included coercion, non-physical and physical aggression. Results About 65% of the children were spanked at least once in the prior month by one or both parents. Of those couples that reported any family aggression (87%), 54% reported that both CP and IPAV occurred. The most prevalent patterns of co-occurrence involved both parents as aggressors either toward each other (i.e., bilateral IPAV) or toward the child. The presence of bilateral IPAV essentially doubled the odds that one or both parents would use CP, even after controlling for potential confounders such as parenting stress, depression, and alcohol or other drug use. Of the five patterns of co-occurring family aggression assessed, the “single aggressor” model, in which only one parent aggressed in the family, received the least amount of empirical support. Conclusions Despite American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendations against the use of CP, CP use remains common in the U.S. CP prevention and intervention efforts should carefully consider assumptions made about patterns of co-occurring aggression in families, given that adult victims of IPAV, including even minor, non-physical aggression between parents, have increased odds of using CP with their children. PMID:20732943

  14. Early childhood severe scalds in a developing country: A 3-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Agbenorku, Pius

    2013-01-01

    The burns intensive care unit (BICU) staff observed an increasing number of pediatric scald burn admissions as a result of increase injuries associated with the scald burns. A retrospective study was conducted to identify scalds demographics, etiologies, and mortality risk factors. This descriptive study comprised a total of 166 patients aged 0-5 years, who were admitted to the BICU of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit (RPSBU) through the Accident and Emergency (A and E) Centre of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH)from May 1(st) 2009 to April 30(th) 2012. Source of information was the BICU Computerized Database System. Data extracted included demographics as well as treatment methods and outcomes. The study population was 166; 92 (55.4%) males and 74 (44.6%) females. Scalds admissions were 141 (84.9%); 13 (9.2%) of them died, 83 (58.9%) discharged, and 45 (31.9%) transferred-out to another burn ward and pediatric surgery ward in the hospital. Scald patients' demographics included 78 males (55.3%) and 63 females (44.7%); mean age was 2.18 years. Mortality risk factors identified were age <3 years (P = 0.044); scalds from hot water (P = 0.033), total burns surface area >30% (P = 0.017), and multiple body parts affected (P = 0.049). The current study showed age, hot water, and Total Burns Surface Area (TBSA) as risk factors of early childhood scalds. Education on scalds prevention targeting mothers/caregivers is needed to create awareness of the frequency, severity, and danger associated with pediatric scalds.

  15. Breastfeeding and dietary variety among preterm children aged 1-3 years.

    PubMed

    Husk, Jesse S; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-04-01

    Among infants born at term, breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety in childhood. Preterm birth can limit early feeding options while simultaneously increasing risk for negative health outcomes that could benefit from dietary-based preventative measures. We assessed whether breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety at 1-3 years amongst children born preterm. We analyzed baseline data from two clinical trials investigating cognitive development after fatty-acid supplementation for 10-39 month-old children born before 35 weeks gestation (n = 189). At baseline, mothers reported breastfeeding history and completed a 161-item food-frequency questionnaire for their child. Dietary variety was assessed via 3 measures: (1) proportion items consumed at least once per month, (2) servings of a given item consumed relative to total monthly food servings, (3) daily probability of consuming a given item. Overall, 88% of children were ever breastfed (median duration = 89 days, range = 0-539), and 48% of children were ever exclusively breastfed (median duration = 59 days, range = 3-240). Exclusive breastfeeding duration was associated with dietary variety increases of 0.9% (95% CI = 0.1-1.7) for vegetables, 1.6% (95% CI = 0.2-3.0) for meat/fish, and 1.3% (95% CI = 0.2-2.4) for grain/starch, for each additional month of exclusive breastfeeding after adjustment for key confounders. Correspondingly, the variety of sweets consumed decreased by 1.2% (CI: -2.1, -0.3) per month of any breastfeeding after adjustment. These results are consistent with those in children born at term, and if causal, could provide additional support for exclusive breastfeeding to improve diet and health in children born preterm.

  16. Clinical outcome following DIAM implantation for symptomatic lumbar internal disk disruption: a 3-year retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kang; Liliang, Po-Chou; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Chen, Te-Yuan; Huang, Ruyi; Chen, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background/objective Internal disk disruption (IDD), an early event of lumbar disk degeneration, is the most common cause of low back pain. Since increased intradiskal pressure (IDP) is associated with symptoms and progression of disk degeneration, unloading a painful disk with an interspinous process device (IPD) is a rational treatment option. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of dynamic stabilization with an IPD in the treatment of symptomatic IDD of the lumbar spine. Patients and methods Patients with symptomatic IDD were treated with implantation of an IPD, the device for intervertebral assisted motion (DIAM). Diagnosis of IDD was based on typical MRI finding of posterior annular high-intensity zone and positive provocative test on discography. IDP was analyzed intraoperatively. Axial back and leg pain was evaluated with visual analog scale, functional status with Oswestry Disability Index, and final clinical outcomes with Odom criteria. Data from 34 patients followed up for at least 3 years were collected. Results DIAM implantation significantly reduced IDP (n=11, P<0.0001). All 34 patients reported symptom relief. Thirty-one patients (91%) remained symptom free until the last followups. Three patients (9%) experienced recurrence of pain, of which the causes were unrelated to the IDD or surgery. Disk status at the DIAM-implanted segments remained stable. Segmental flexion/extension mobility was preserved in 27 of 30 patients with preoperative mobility. No proximal or distal adjacent segment degeneration was observed. The final clinical outcomes were excellent/good in 31 and fair/poor in three patients. Conclusion For patients with symptomatic IDD, dynamic stabilization with DIAM provides pain relief and functional improvement. The implantation maintains disk status and prevents progression of disk degeneration, without compromising segmental flexion/extension mobility or causing adjacent segment degeneration. PMID:27826214

  17. Pragmatic inference, not semantic competence, guides 3-year-olds' interpretation of unknown number words.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Neon; Audet, Jennifer; Barner, David

    2013-06-01

    Before children learn the specific meanings of numerals like six, do they know that they represent precise quantities? Previous studies have reported conflicting evidence and have found that children expect numerals to label precise quantities in some tasks but not in others (Condry & Spelke, 2008; Sarnecka & Gelman, 2004). In this article, we present evidence that some of children's apparent successes are best explained not by domain-specific semantic understanding of number but instead by language-general pragmatic abilities. In Experiment 1, we replicated the findings of the previous studies in a within-subject design. When 3-year-olds saw a set labeled with a number (e.g., five) and an item was added, they preferred a new label (six) over the old one, as though they believed that number words have precise meanings. However, when 1 of 2 sets was labeled (e.g., as five) and children were asked to find the same quantity (five) or a new quantity (six), they performed identically whether the original set was changed in quantity or merely rearranged. Thus, when 2 numerals were offered as alternative labels for 1 set, children behaved as though they had precise meanings, whereas when they were asked to determine which of 2 sets a single numeral referred to, they did not. In Experiment 2, children were tested using similar methods but with novel nouns and objects that were transformed, instead of sets. Children showed the identical pattern of results despite lacking meanings for these words, suggesting that their judgments for numerals may not have relied on semantic knowledge that numerals have precise meanings. We propose that children's behavior can be explained by the use of domain-general pragmatic inference and does not require positing domain-specific numerical knowledge.

  18. Capitate-hamate fusion for Kienböck's disease. Good results in 8 cases followed for 3 years.

    PubMed

    Inoue, G

    1992-10-01

    8 patients with Kienböck's disease and without negative ulnar variance were treated with a modification of Chuinard's capitate-hamate fusion. All patients returned to their normal activities free of pain. The postoperative wrist motion was unchanged, but the grip strength was increased.

  19. Lanreotide treatment of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma resulting in partial regression and more than 3 years of progression-free survival.

    PubMed

    Borbath, Ivan; Lhommel, Renaud; Guiot, Yves; Coche, Emmanuel; Sempoux, Christine

    2012-06-01

    We describe the case of a 54 years old woman, with hepatitis B, in whom the diagnosis of a 6 cm hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the left liver was made in 2001. Alpha-foeto-protein (AFP) was 63 ng/mL (NI < 10 ng/mL). After work-up including liver and tumor biopsy confirming HCC and only fibrosis in the nontumoral liver, left hepatectomy was performed. Final pathology showed a well differentiated HCC with tumoral portal vein thrombosis. Unfortunately, lung and mediastinal adenopathies were detected by CT scan 17 months later. Mediastinal nodes were punctured by endosonographic ultrasound, confirming HCC. The patient started treatment with Lanreotide 30 mg twice a month (Somatuline PR, Ipsen). Three months later, CT showed decrease in size of the mediastinal nodes and complete disappearance of the lung nodes. This objective response lasted for 42 months. The treatment was without any significant side effect. Retrospectively, immunohistochemistry was performed to detect somatostatine receptors (sstr) 2. Both the primary tumor and the node showed intense membranous and cytoplasmic staining for sstr2. In 2006, AFP rose and CT showed the appearance of a new mediastinal node. At that time, octreoscan was performed and showed uptake in the new node, although insufficient for metabolic radiotherapy. This case suggests that, although a number of randomized controlled trials did not show a benefit of somatostatin analogues in the treatment of advanced HCC, a subset of patients could benefit from treatment provided their tumor expresses sstr2, on which the existing drugs are efficient.

  20. Mycobacteria in aquarium fish: results of a 3-year survey indicate caution required in handling pet-shop fish.

    PubMed

    Kušar, D; Zajc, U; Jenčič, V; Ocepek, M; Higgins, J; Žolnir-Dovč, M; Pate, M

    2016-10-17

    Fish are commonly infected with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), which should be regarded as potential pathogens when handling aquarium fish and equipment. This study examined 107 aquarium fish from pet shops. Cultivation of the fish samples using different selective media was conducted for identification of NTM. Isolates were identified using the GenoType Mycobacterium common mycobacteria and additional species assays, sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes, and real-time PCR assay for identification of Mycobacterium (M.) marinum. Among the investigated fish, 79.4% (85/107) were positive for mycobacteria, with 8.2% (7 of 85) having two mycobacterial species present. Among the positive fish, the common pathogens M. marinum, Mycobacterium fortuitum (M. fortuitum group) and Mycobacterium chelonae were identified in approx. 90% of fish and other NTM species in 10%, including Mycobacterium peregrinum/septicum, Mycobacterium gordonae, Mycobacterium arupense, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium setense. The well-known human pathogen M. marinum was present in 10.6% of the positive fish (9 of 85). The species of mycobacteria identified in the study are not only recognized as aquarium fish pathogens, but can also cause pathology in humans. Microbiological and clinical communities should therefore be sensitized to the role of NTM in infections associated with exposure to aquarium fish.

  1. A 3-years full-scale mechanical ice deformation test from the artificial drainages of the Tête Rousse cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardini, Olivier; Krug, Jean; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Durand, Gaël; Gilbert, Adrien; Thibert, Emmanuel; Vincent, Christian; Weiss, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    History of the city of Saint Gervais Mont Blanc, in the french Alps, is deeply marked by the 1892 disaster which killed 175 persons, after the unexpected release of 100000 m3 of water contained in a hidden cavity inside the Tête-Rousse glacier. During summer 2010, a pressurised water-filled cavity of at least 50000 m3 was again discovered within the glacier. To avoid a repetition of the 1892 disaster, an unprecedented initiative has been risen up to drain the water cavity under this high altitude glacier. This procedure was further repeated in Autumns 2011 and 2012 since the cavity was permanently refiled in-between two drainages. However, as the cavity was decreasing in size due to the creep of ice when the water level was low, the total water volume drained out of the cavity was decreased each Autumn. At the same time, a dense network of stakes was deployed to survey the glacier surface displacements above the cavity during the pumping. Record of the water level evolution within the cavity together with the surface displacement measurements along an almost 3-years period constitute a very well documented full-scale experiment to characterise ice deformation. When the water level is low, the cavity is shrinking, whereas when the cavity is full of pressurised water, the cavity is growing. Because of the density ratio between ice and water, closing is approximately 9 time faster than opening. This dataset is completed by recently acquired surface and bedrock DEMs, as well as an image of the cavity geometry from sonar and radar measurements. This unique dataset was then used to constraint the finite-element ice flow model Elmer/Ice and perform transient simulations over the 3-years period. Both the evolution of the surface displacements and of the cavity volume are compared to measurements. We show the importance of accounting for ice damage to reproduce the observed surface displacements.

  2. Bone Mineral Density as a Marker of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure in Psychotic Disorder: A 3 Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Leeuw, Christine; Peeters, Sanne; Domen, Patrick; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus; van Os, Jim; Marcelis, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    Altered estrogen-induced neuroprotection has been implicated in the etiology of psychotic disorders. Using bone mineral density as a marker of lifetime estrogen exposure, a longitudinal family study was conducted to discriminate between etiological mechanisms and secondary effects of disease and treatment. Dual X-ray absorptiometry scans were acquired twice, with an interval of 3 years, in 30 patients with psychotic disorder (male (M)/female (F): 24/6, mean age of 32 years at second measurement), 44 non-psychotic siblings of patients with a psychotic disorder (M/F: 26/18, mean age 32) and 27 controls (M/F: 7/20, mean age 35). Total bone mineral density, Z-scores and T-scores were measured in the lumbar spine and proximal femur. Associations between group and bone mineral density changes were investigated with multilevel random regression analyses. The effect of prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication was evaluated. (Increased risk of) psychotic disorder was not associated with disproportionate bone mineral density loss over a three year period. Instead, femoral bone mineral density measures appeared to decrease less in the patient versus control comparison (total BMD: B = 0.026, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.050, p = 0.037; Z-score: B = 0.224, 95% CI 0.035 to 0.412, p = 0.020; and T-score: B = 0.193, 95% CI 0.003 to 0.382, p = 0.046). Current or past use of a prolactin-raising antipsychotic medication was not associated with bone mineral density changes. In this small longitudinal study, there was no evidence of ongoing estrogen deficiency in psychotic disorder as there was no excessive loss of bone mineral density over a 3-year period in patients using antipsychotic medication. PMID:26309037

  3. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  4. Changes in magnetic resonance imaging disease measures over 3 years in mildly disabled patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis receiving interferon β-1a in the COGnitive Impairment in MUltiple Sclerosis (COGIMUS) study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has improved the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS). In clinical trials, MRI has been found to detect treatment effects with greater sensitivity than clinical measures; however, clinical and MRI outcomes tend to correlate poorly. Methods In this observational study, patients (n = 550; 18-50 years; relapsing-remitting MS [Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤4.0]) receiving interferon (IFN) β-1a therapy (44 or 22 µg subcutaneously [sc] three times weekly [tiw]) underwent standardized MRI, neuropsychological and quality-of-life (QoL) assessments over 3 years. In this post hoc analysis, MRI outcomes and correlations between MRI parameters and clinical and functional outcomes were analysed. Results MRI data over 3 years were available for 164 patients. T2 lesion and T1 gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesion volumes, but not black hole (BH) volumes, decreased significantly from baseline to Year 3 (P < 0.0001). Percentage decreases (baseline to Year 3) were greater with the 44 μg dose than with the 22 μg dose for T2 lesion volume (-10.2% vs -4.5%, P = 0.025) and T1 BH volumes (-7.8% vs +10.3%, P = 0.002). A decrease in T2 lesion volume over 3 years predicted stable QoL over the same time period. Treatment with IFN β-1a, 44 μg sc tiw, predicted an absence of cognitive impairment at Year 3. Conclusion Subcutaneous IFN β-1a significantly decreased MRI measures of disease, with a significant benefit shown for the 44 µg over the 22 µg dose; higher-dose treatment also predicted better cognitive outcomes over 3 years. PMID:21999142

  5. Organic micro-pollutants in a karst system during low and high flow periods, results of a two-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, Roland; Licha, Tobias; Geyer, Tobias; Nödler, Karsten; Sauter, Martin

    2013-04-01

    and desethylatrazine, indicates limited aquifer connections and demonstrates a residence time of several years for vertical transport into the deep aquifer. Phenazone originates also from a disused waste disposal and is showing a persistency for more than three decades under the observed redox conditions. References Nödler K, Licha T, Bester K, Sauter M. Development of a multi-residue analytical method, based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of 46 micro-contaminants in aqueous samples. Journal of Chromatography A 2010;1217(42), 6511-6521. Reh R, Licha T, Geyer T, Nödler, K.,Sauter M. Occurrence and spatial distribution of organic micro-pollutants in a complex hydrogeological karst system during low flow and high flow periods, results of a two-year study. Science of The Total Environment 2013, 443,438-445, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.005.

  6. A prospective 3-year follow-up trial of implantation of two trabecular microbypass stents in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Donnenfeld, Eric D; Solomon, Kerry D; Voskanyan, Lilit; Chang, David F; Samuelson, Thomas W; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Katz, L Jay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate 3-year safety and intraocular pressure (IOP) following two trabecular microbypass stents in phakic and pseudophakic subjects with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) not controlled on preoperative medication. Patients and methods In this prospective pilot study, phakic or pseudophakic subjects with OAG and IOP between 18 mmHg and 30 mmHg on one preoperative topical ocular hypotensive medication underwent medication washout. Thirty-nine qualified subjects with preoperative unmedicated IOP ≥22 mmHg and ≤38 mmHg received two stents. Postoperative examinations were scheduled at Day 1, Week 1, Months 1, 3, 6, and 12, and semiannually through Month 60. Ocular hypotensive medication was considered if postoperative IOP exceeded 21 mmHg. IOP, medication use, and safety were assessed at each visit. Subject follow-up through Month 36 was completed. Results Thirty-six eyes (92.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.1%, 98.4%) achieved the primary efficacy end point of Month 12 reduction in IOP ≥20% from baseline (unmedicated IOP) without ocular hypotensive medication. Four subjects required medication during the Month 36 follow-up period. Mean IOP at 36 months for subjects not taking medication was 15.2 mmHg. At 36 months, subjects sustained mean IOP decrease of 9.1±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 8.0 mmHg, 10.14 mmHg), or 37% IOP reduction, from unmedicated baseline IOP. Compared to preoperative medicated IOP, subjects had mean reduction at Month 36 of 5.5±2.7 mmHg (95% CI 4.5 mmHg, 6.6 mmHg), or 26% reduction. Both measures of IOP reduction were highly significant (P<0.001). Other than one case of early postoperative hyphema that resolved at 1 week, no postoperative adverse events were attributed to stent implantation. Conclusion In a pilot study, two trabecular microbypass stents to treat OAG subjects on one preoperative medication provided statistically significant, sustained, and safe reduction of IOP to ≤15 mmHg without medication through 36 months. PMID:26604675

  7. The role of body image integrity and posttraumatic growth in kidney transplantation: A 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Látos, Melinda; Devecsery, Ágnes; Lázár, György; Horváth, Zoltán; Szederkényi, Edit; Szenohradszky, Pál; Csabai, Márta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of body image, posttraumatic growth, and emotional state in recovery after transplantation. A total of 53 kidney transplant patients were assessed using our Self-Test and Organ Drawing Test, the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory in a 3-year follow-up. Logistic regression analysis showed that lower levels of integrity of the body image and posttraumatic growth, and higher pre-discharge serum creatinine levels were significant predictors of graft rejection. Our results suggest that the integrity of the body image and posttraumatic growth might contribute to better health outcomes in organ transplantation.

  8. Delayed Complications in Patients Surviving at Least 3 Years After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Kawabe, Takuya; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Sato, Yasunori; Nariai, Tadashi; Barfod, Bierta E.; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Urakawa, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about delayed complications after stereotactic radiosurgery in long-surviving patients with brain metastases. We studied the actual incidence and predictors of delayed complications. Patients and Methods: This was an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study that used our database. Among our consecutive series of 2000 patients with brain metastases who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) from 1991-2008, 167 patients (8.4%, 89 women, 78 men, mean age 62 years [range, 19-88 years]) who survived at least 3 years after GKRS were studied. Results: Among the 167 patients, 17 (10.2%, 18 lesions) experienced delayed complications (mass lesions with or without cyst in 8, cyst alone in 8, edema in 2) occurring 24.0-121.0 months (median, 57.5 months) after GKRS. The actuarial incidences of delayed complications estimated by competing risk analysis were 4.2% and 21.2% at the 60th month and 120th month, respectively, after GKRS. Among various pre-GKRS clinical factors, univariate analysis demonstrated tumor volume-related factors: largest tumor volume (hazard ratio [HR], 1.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.018-1.154; P=.0174) and tumor volume {<=}10 cc vs >10 cc (HR, 4.343; 95% CI, 1.444-12.14; P=.0108) to be the only significant predictors of delayed complications. Univariate analysis revealed no correlations between delayed complications and radiosurgical parameters (ie, radiosurgical doses, conformity and gradient indexes, and brain volumes receiving >5 Gy and >12 Gy). After GKRS, an area of prolonged enhancement at the irradiated lesion was shown to be a possible risk factor for the development of delayed complications (HR, 8.751; 95% CI, 1.785-157.9; P=.0037). Neurosurgical interventions were performed in 13 patients (14 lesions) and mass removal for 6 lesions and Ommaya reservoir placement for the other 8. The results were favorable. Conclusions: Long-term follow-up is crucial for patients with brain metastases

  9. A 3 Year-Old Male Child Ingested Approximately 750 Grams of Elemental Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Uysalol, Metin; Parlakgül, Güneş; Yılmaz, Yasin; Çıtak, Agop; Uzel, Nedret

    2016-01-01

    Background: The oral ingestion of elemental mercury is unlikely to cause systemic toxicity, as it is poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal system. However, abnormal gastrointestinal function or anatomy may allow elemental mercury into the bloodstream and the peritoneal space. Systemic effects of massive oral intake of mercury have rarely been reported. Case Report: In this paper, we are presenting the highest single oral intake of elemental mercury by a child aged 3 years. A Libyan boy aged 3 years ingested approximately 750 grams of elemental mercury and was still asymptomatic. Conclusion: The patient had no existing disease or abnormal gastrointestinal function or anatomy. The physical examination was normal. His serum mercury level was 91 µg/L (normal: <5 µg/L), and he showed no clinical manifestations. Exposure to mercury in children through different circumstances remains a likely occurrence. PMID:27606146

  10. Rational action selection in 1½- to 3-year-olds following an extended training experience.

    PubMed

    Klossek, Ulrike M H; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1½ and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen to obtain video clips as outcomes. Subsequently, a visual habituation procedure was employed to devalue one of the training outcomes. As in previous studies, 2- and 3-year-olds chose actions associated with an expected valued outcome significantly more often during a subsequent choice test. Moreover, analysis of children's first responses in the post-devaluation test revealed evidence of rational action selection even in the youngest age group (18-23 months). Consistent with dual-process accounts of action control, the findings support the view that the ability to make rational action choices develops gradually.

  11. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies.

  12. Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Parent Reports of Child Language at Ages 2 and 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Thomas F.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Rockette, Howard E.; Dale, Philip S.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Paradise, Jack L.

    2005-01-01

    The MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI; Dale, 1996; Fenson et al., 1994), parent reports about language skills, are being used increasingly in studies of theoretical and public health importance. This study (N = 113) correlated scores on the CDI at ages 2 and 3 years with scores at age 3 years on tests of cognition and receptive language and measures from parent–child conversation. Associations indicated reasonable concurrent and predictive validity. The findings suggest that satisfactory vocabulary scores at age 2 are likely to predict normal language skills at age 3, although some children with limited skills at age 3 will have had satisfactory scores at age 2. Many children with poor vocabulary scores at 2 will have normal skills at 3. PMID:16026501

  13. Pharyngoesophageal perforation 3 years after anterior cervical spine surgery: a rare case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dan-Hui; Yang, Xin-Ming; Huang, Qi; Yang, Mi; Tang, Qin-Lai; Wang, Shu-Hui; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Jia-Jia; Yang, Tao; Li, Shi-Sheng

    2015-08-01

    Pharyngoesophageal perforation after anterior cervical spine surgery is rare and the delayed cases were more rarely reported but potentially life-threatening. We report a case of pharyngoesophageal perforation 3 years after anterior cervical spine surgery. The patient presented with dysphagia, fever, left cervical mass and developing dyspnea 3 years after cervical spine surgery for trauma. After careful examinations, he underwent an emergency tracheostomy, neck exploration, hardware removal, abscess drainage and infected tissue debridement. 14 days after surgery, CT of the neck with oral contrast demonstrated no contrast extravasation from the esophagus. Upon review of literature, only 14 cases of pharyngoesophageal perforation more than 1 year after anterior cervical spine surgery were found. We discussed possible etiology, diagnosis and management and concluded that in cases of dysphagia, dyspnea, cervical pain, swelling and edema of the cervical area even long time after anterior cervical spine surgery, potential pharyngoesophageal damage should be considered.

  14. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog.

    PubMed

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-02-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination.

  15. Maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child weight status in the first 3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B; Rifas-Shiman, S L; James-Todd, T; Ertel, K; Krieger, N; Kleinman, K P; Rich-Edwards, J W; Gillman, M W; Taveras, E M

    2012-12-01

    Among US racial/ethnic minority women, we examined associations between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child growth in the first 3 years of life. We analyzed data from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. We restricted analyses to 539 mother-infant pairs; 294 were Black, 127 Hispanic, 110 Asian and 8 from additional racial/ethnic groups. During pregnancy, mothers completed the Experiences of Discrimination survey that measured lifetime experiences of racial discrimination in diverse domains. We categorized responses as 0, 1-2 or ≥3 domains. Main outcomes were birth weight for gestational age z-score; weight for age (WFA) z-score at 6 months of age; and at 3 years of age, body mass index (BMI) z-score. In multivariable analyses, we adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, nativity, education, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, household income and child sex and age. Among this cohort of mostly (58.2%) US-born and economically non-impoverished mothers, 33% reported 0 domains of discrimination, 33% reported discrimination in 1-2 domains and 35% reported discrimination in ≥3 domains. Compared with children whose mothers reported no discrimination, those whose mothers reported ≥3 domains had lower birth weight for gestational age z-score (β -0.25; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.04), lower 6 month WFA z-score (β -0.34; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.03) and lower 3-year BMI z-score (β -0.33; 95% CI: -0.66, 0.00). In conclusion, we found that among this cohort of US racial/ethnic minority women, mothers' report of experiencing lifetime discrimination in ⩾ 3 domains was associated with lower fetal growth, weight at 6 months and 3-year BMI among their offspring.

  16. Acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation in a 3-year-old Standardbred gelding

    PubMed Central

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Setlakwe, Emile; Sallaway, John; Wood, Darren; Fromstein, Jordan; Arroyo, Luis G.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old Standardbred gelding with a history of pyrexia, persistent hemorrhage from the oral cavity, and a large, soft swelling at the junction of the caudal aspect of the mandibular rami and proximal neck was evaluated. The horse had neutropenia and anemia, with atypical granulated cells in a blood smear. Additional tests confirmed acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation, which has been reported in humans, cats, dogs, and cattle but not horses. PMID:27708445

  17. Housing and mothering: their effects upon the developmental levels of 3-year-old children.

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, M

    1979-01-01

    The development of 200 3-year-old children was measured, using Gesell parameters of development. The levels of development were matched against the adequacy, or inadequacy, of maternal care and housing, the scales for which were derived from a questionnaire completed by the children's mothers. Housing was not found to affect the children's developmental levels, while the adequacy of maternal care was highly significantly related to satisfactory child development. PMID:420522

  18. The Rapid Development of Explicit Gaze Judgment Ability at 3 years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Martin J.; Anderson, James R.; Howieson, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    Two studies examined development of the ability to judge what another person is looking at. In Study 1, 54 2- to 4-year-olds judged where someone was looking in real-life, photograph, and drawing formats. A minority of 2-year-olds, but a majority of older children, passed all tasks, suggesting that the ability arises at around 3 years of age.…

  19. The Neural Correlates of Processing Newborn and Adult Faces in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Westerlund, Alissa; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Kuefner, Dana; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the processing of upright and inverted faces in 3-year-old children (n = 35). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive looking paradigm including adult and newborn face stimuli. We observed three face-sensitive components, the P1, the N170 and the P400. Inverted faces elicited shorter P1 latency and…

  20. Acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation in a 3-year-old Standardbred gelding.

    PubMed

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Setlakwe, Emile; Sallaway, John; Wood, Darren; Fromstein, Jordan; Arroyo, Luis G

    2016-10-01

    A 3-year-old Standardbred gelding with a history of pyrexia, persistent hemorrhage from the oral cavity, and a large, soft swelling at the junction of the caudal aspect of the mandibular rami and proximal neck was evaluated. The horse had neutropenia and anemia, with atypical granulated cells in a blood smear. Additional tests confirmed acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation, which has been reported in humans, cats, dogs, and cattle but not horses.

  1. Masses of long-period comets derived from non-gravitational effects - analysis of the computed results and the consistency and reliability of the non-gravitational parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa, Andrea; Fernández, Julio A.

    2011-09-01

    We estimate masses for a selected sample of long-period comets (LPCs) (with orbital periods P > 1000 yr and perihelion distances q < 2 au), with good photometric visual light curves and known non-gravitational parameters. We follow a procedure similar to that developed by Szutowicz et al. to estimate the masses of comets C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake). The method also requires the knowledge of the water production rates Q, for which we find a new correlation between Q and the visual total heliocentric magnitude mh of LPCs, which can be expressed as log10Q= 30.53 - 0.234mh. The computed masses are in the range [0.5, 10]× 1012 kg. From these masses, and by assuming a cometary bulk density ρ of 0.4 g cm-3, we estimate the effective nuclear radii RN for the studied LPCs to be in the range [0.7, 1.8] km. From the computed values of RN, we find that the active surface areas are (in most cases) greater than the geometric ones (fractions f ranging from 0.8 to 2.4). We argue that this could be understood as a state of hyperactivity, which can be explained if a significant fraction of the sublimated water molecules come from the sublimation of icy grains in the coma. Hyperactivity would make LPC nuclei smaller (i.e. less massive) than expected from their coma brightness. Other effects, like extremely low densities or overestimated non-gravitational parameters, might also contribute to the rather high computed value of f. For comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), we find a seeming inconsistency between some size estimates and some computed non-gravitational parameters. We analyse some alternatives to this apparent paradox. We also compute absolute total magnitudes and photometric indices for the studied sample of LPCs and find a new correlation between masses and absolute total visual magnitudes H. By assuming ρ= 0.4 g cm-3, we can convert masses to diameters D, leading to a relation log10D(km) = 1.5 - 0.13H.

  2. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) for treatment of uterine leiomyomas: 750 myomas were treated by LITT and the results over a five-year period are analyzed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Roxana

    1997-05-01

    Approximately 750 leiomyomas of 250 symptomatic patients were treated by LITT over a five-year period. Only 12% were lost to follow-up. Most were treated by a combination of the KTP/YAG laser, rarely by one or the other alone, and a few with the diode laser. The fiber optic was inserted 2 cm apart and, depending on the size of the tumor, 480 - 20,000 Joules were required. Most were treated laparoscopically but very large myomas were treated percutaneously under ultrasound control. Symptoms were nearly always relieved and the six failures were found to be due to unrecognized adenomyosis and other associated pathology. Half the patients complaining of infertility became pregnant and, in those whose only pathology had been leiomyomas it approached 90%. Vaginal delivery was not found to be contraindicated. Finally, oestrogen receptors and epidermal growth factor were found to be destroyed. It is concluded that LITT enables leiomyomas of all sizes and locations to be treated by a minimally invasive method with preservation of the uterus.

  3. Dairy and plant based food intakes are associated with altered faecal microbiota in 2 to 3 year old Australian children

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Brown, P.; Morrison, M.; Krause, L.; Davies, P. S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The first 1000 days (conception to 24 months) is when gut microbiota composition and eating patterns are established, and a critical period influencing lifelong health. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between food intakes and microbiota composition at the end of this period. Diet was quantified for 37 well-nourished Australian children aged between 2 to 3 years by using a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hr recalls. Both dairy and plant-based (fruit, vegetables, soy, pulses and nuts) food intakes were associated with distinct microbiota profiles. Dairy intake was positively associated with the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, and in particular Erysipelatoclostridium spp., but negatively associated with species richness and diversity. Vegetable intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of the Lachnospira genus, while soy, pulse and nut intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides xylanisolvens. Fruit intake, especially apples and pears, were negatively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Ruminococcus gnavus. In this cohort of young children dairy and plant based food intakes were found to be associated with altered microbiota composition. Further exploration is needed to elucidate the effect of these dietary and microbial differences on host phenotype. PMID:27694811

  4. Metabolic control and complications over 3 years in patients with insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM): the Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS).

    PubMed

    Reichard, P; Britz, A; Carlsson, P; Cars, I; Lindblad, L; Nilsson, B Y; Rosenqvist, U

    1990-11-01

    In a planned 5-year study, 97 patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), non-proliferative retinopathy and unsatisfactory blood glucose control were monitored for 3 years. The patients were randomized to an intensified conventional treatment (ICT, n = 44) or a regular treatment (RT, n = 53) group. HbA1c (normal range 3.9-5.7%) was reduced from 9.5 +/- 0.2 (mean value +/- SEM) to 7.4 +/- 0.1% in the ICT group (P = 0.0001), and from 9.5 +/- 0.2 to 9.0 +/- 0.2% in the RT group (P = 0.004). Nerve conduction velocities in the sural and peroneal nerves (P = 0.01-0.0001) were impaired in the RT group, but not in the ICT group. Retinopathy increased in both groups. The condition of 22 ICT patients (50%, 95% confidence interval 34-66%) and 37 RT patients (73%, 61-84%) deteriorated with regard to at least one microvascular complication (retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy) (P = 0.024). Lower HbA1c levels during the study significantly reduced the risk of deterioration (P = 0.01). In total, 57% of the ICT patients had at least one episode of serious hypoglycaemia, compared with 23% in the RT group (P = 0.001). The patients in the ICT group also gained weight (P = 0.0001). Improved blood glucose control slowed down the progression of microangiopathy during a 3-year period in patients with non-proliferative retinopathy, but at the price of an increased frequency of serious hypoglycaemic episodes, and some gain in body weight.

  5. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  6. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  7. Family function of the families consisting of Asian immigrant women living in South Korea: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Joh, Ju-Youn; Shin, Il-Seon

    2015-03-01

    Marriages between Korean men and immigrant women from elsewhere in Asia have increased rapidly during recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship within families consisting of immigrant women and to identify the relevant factors. The study subjects were 62 Asian immigrant women married to South Korean men living in South Korea. In a baseline study in August 2008, the socioeconomic factors and family APGAR (adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, and resolve) scores were measured. Family APGAR has been widely used to study the relationship of family function and health problems in the busy clinician's office. A 3-year follow-up study was then conducted in August 2011, and the results were compared with the baseline study results. Family APGAR scores were higher at the 3-year follow-up than those at baseline. Changes in family APGAR scores were found to be influenced by the birthplace, reported subjective ability to read Korean, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale score.

  8. Factors influencing fungal and aflatoxin levels in Turkish hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) during growth, harvest, drying and storage: a 3-year study.

    PubMed

    Ozay, Guner; Seyhan, Ferda; Pembeci, Ceyda; Saklar, Sena; Yilmaz, Aysun

    2008-02-01

    The levels aflatoxins in Turkish hazelnuts have been monitored over a 3-years period (2002-2004). Periodical sampling was made in 72 different orchards at different locations representative of the hazelnut-growing areas and post-harvest applications. Various parameters (aflatoxins, water activity, moulds) were analysed and environmental conditions (temperature and relative humidity) recorded during growing and at different stages of harvest and post-harvest processing, involving three different harvesting methods (collection in nets, from the ground, etc.) and four drying techniques (traditional sun-drying, mechanical drying, etc.). Fungal and aflatoxin analyses (HPLC) showed no significant difference except between samples which had been in contact with the ground and those which had not (at 95% confidence level). Aflatoxins levels from the orchard recorded a maximum of 0.77+/-0.08 ng g(-1) from a total of 1624 samples. Regarding harvesting and post-harvest processes, the only application where aflatoxins were detected was in samples which had been in direct contact with the ground (max. 3.18+/-0.03 ng g(-1)). Aflatoxin formation was low during storage (max. 0.34+/-0.003 ng g(-1)). As a result of mycological studies, a total of 5546 Aspergillus flavus (89%) and A. parasiticus (11%) species were isolated and identified from samples. The results indicated that harvesting hazelnuts into a canvas by shaking the trees, manual harvesting of mature hazelnuts where possible, use of jute instead of nylon sacks and mechanical drying technique would minimize aflatoxin levels in hazelnuts. These recommendations have been implemented and about 4000 people in the hazelnut industry have been trained in these practices.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-Year-Old Dummies in Biofidelity and Static Out-of-Position Airbag Tests.

    PubMed

    Berliner, J; Athey, J; Baayoun, E; Byrnes, K; Elhagediab, A; Hultman, R; Jensen, J; Kim, A; Kostyniuk, G; Mertz, H; Prest, J; Rouhana, S; Scherer, R; Xu, L

    2000-11-01

    A comparison of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old crash test dummies is presented in this paper. The performance of the dummies were compared in sixty biofidelity tests, seventy-seven static out-of-position airbag tests and sixty-three calibration tests. Various time histories and other data pertaining to accelerations, deflections, forces and moments are compared. In addition, the ease of positioning, handling, and the durability of the dummies in various out-of-position test configurations was assessed. Both the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old dummies were calibrated to their respective specifications. The Hybrid III 3-year-old met its calibration requirements, while the Q3 did not always meet its own calibration requirements. The calibration specifications of the Q3 dummy need to be re-examined and possibly refined. The biofidelity of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old dummies were evaluated in both frontal and lateral test modes. Each dummy was evaluated against its own and the other's specified requirements, when possible. In the frontal test mode, the Hybrid III 3-year-old acceptably met all of its requirements. The Q3 dummy did not meet all of its own frontal biofidelity requirements. Based on these results, the Hybrid III 3-year-old is more biofidelic for primarily frontal loading conditions. With respect to the lateral biofidelity specifications, neither the Hybrid III 3-year-old nor the Q3 dummy met the requirements for the thorax and pelvis tests performed. Both dummies met the head drop requirements. Neither dummy is recommended for lateral loading conditions. For lateral testing where only the head is impacted, the Hybrid III 3-year-old could be used. In general, the responses of both dummies were repeatable in both the frontal and lateral biofidelity tests performed. The Hybrid III 3-year-old and the Q3 dummies were evaluated in static out-of-position airbag tests with three different side airbag systems (two seat-mounted and one door-mounted system), and

  10. Full-mouth rehabilitation with monolithic CAD/CAM-fabricated hybrid and all-ceramic materials: A case report and 3-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Selz, Christian F; Vuck, Alexander; Guess, Petra C

    2016-02-01

    Esthetic full-mouth rehabilitation represents a great challenge for clinicians and dental technicians. Computer-aided design/ computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology and novel ceramic materials in combination with adhesive cementation provide a reliable, predictable, and economic workflow. Polychromatic feldspathic CAD/CAM ceramics that are specifically designed for anterior indications result in superior esthetics, whereas novel CAD/CAM hybrid ceramics provide sufficient fracture resistance and adsorption of the occlusal load in posterior areas. Screw-retained monolithic CAD/CAM lithium disilicate crowns (ie, hybrid abutment crowns) represent a reliable and time- and cost-efficient prosthetic implant solution. This case report details a CAD/CAM approach to the full-arch rehabilitation of a 65-year-old patient with toothand implant-supported restorations and provides an overview of the applied CAD/CAM materials and the utilized chairside intraoral scanner. The esthetics, functional occlusion, and gingival and peri-implant tissues remained stable over a follow-up period of 3 years. No signs of fractures within the restorations were observed.

  11. Bidirectional relations between parenting practices and child externalizing behavior: a cross-lagged panel analysis in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or CD. Parenting practices and child behavior problems were assessed at six time-points using multiple measures and multiple reporters. The data were analyzed using cross-lagged panel analyses. Results indicated robust temporal stabilities of parenting practices and child behavior problems, in the context of treatment-related improvements, but bidirectional effects between parenting practices and child behavior were less frequently detected. Our findings suggest that bidirectional effects are relatively smaller than the temporal stability of each construct for school-age children with ODD/CD and their parents, following a multi-modal clinical intervention that is directed at both parents and children. Implications for treatment and intervention are discussed.

  12. Changes in Childhood Diarrhea Incidence in Nicaragua Following 3 Years of Universal Infant Rotavirus Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Paniagua, Margarita; Dominik, Rosalie; Cao, Hongyuan; Shah, Naman K.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Moreno, Gilberto; Espinoza, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Background While the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine was highly efficacious against rotavirus diarrhea in clinical trials, the vaccine’s effectiveness under field conditions in the developing world is unclear. In October, 2006, Nicaragua became the first developing nation to implement universal infant immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. To assess the impact of the immunization program, we examined the incidence of diarrhea episodes between 2003 and 2009 among children in the state of León, Nicaragua. Methods We extracted data on diarrhea episodes from health ministry records. We used scaled Poisson regression models to estimate diarrhea incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the period following the program’s implementation to the period before implementation. Results Following implementation of the immunization program, diarrhea episodes among infants were reduced (IRR 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–1.02) during the rotavirus season, but appear to have increased during other months. Conclusions While the immunization program appears effective in reducing diarrhea episodes during the rotavirus season, a large burden of diarrhea persists during the remainder of the year. PMID:20881511

  13. Recurrence rate of stress urinary incontinence in females with initial cure after transobturator tape procedure at 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Taeyong; Yoon, Hyun Sik; Kim, Hyung Suk; Lee, Jeong Woo; Bae, Jungbum

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To assess recurrence rates of urinary incontinence in women with initial cure after transobturator tape (TOT) procedure at 3-year follow-up. Materials and Methods Between June 2006 and May 2013, a total of 402 consecutive patients underwent the TOT procedure for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) at Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital. Of the 402 patients, 223 had sufficient medical records for analysis. Therefore, they were followed-up for 3 years postoperatively. Patient characteristics, urinary symptoms, physical examination, and urodynamic parameters were evaluated. The primary end point of “cure” was defined as the absence of any complaint of urinary leakage without needing pads for usual activities. Results Of the 223 patients, 196 patients (87.9%) were initially cured within 6 months postoperatively. Of the 196 patients, 70 (35.7%) had recurrent urinary incontinence at 3 years postoperatively, 51 (26.0%) had SUI, 16 (8.2%) had urgency urinary incontinence, and 3 (1.5%) had mixed urinary incontinence. In univariate analysis, preoperative urinary obstructive symptom was found to significant contributor to the recurrence of urinary incontinence at 3-year postoperatively (p=0.004). Conclusions In our study, 35.7% of the women with initial cure after TOT experienced the recurrence of urinary leakage during the 3-year follow-up. The cure rate of TOT was decreased as time went by, although the initial cure rate was high. PMID:28097269

  14. Utilization of Research Results in the Building Industry. A State of the Art Survey. Final Report for Period October 1972-June 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Duncan M.

    A problem in the building industry is the lack of coordination of research efforts and the time lag between the completion of research and the incorporation of the results in practice. A partial solution is attempted in this survey of current and past research dealing with innovation and other problems in the building industry and related…

  15. Period Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may also have other symptoms, such as lower back pain, nausea, diarrhea, and headaches. Period pain is not ... Taking a hot bath Doing relaxation techniques, including yoga and meditation You might also try taking over- ...

  16. Hospital Organization and Importance of an Interventional Radiology Inpatient Admitting Service: Italian Single-Center 3-Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Simonetti, Giovanni; Bollero, Enrico; Ciarrapico, Anna Micaela; Gandini, Roberto; Konda, Daniel Bartolucci, Alberto; Di Primio, Massimiliano; Mammucari, Matteo; Chiocchi, Marcello; D'Alba, Fabrizio; Masala, Salvatore

    2009-03-15

    In June 2005 a Complex Operating Unit of Interventional Radiology (COUIR), consisting of an outpatient visit service, an inpatient admitting service with four beds, and a day-hospital service with four beds was installed at our department. Between June 2005 and May 2008, 1772 and 861 well-screened elective patients were admitted to the inpatient ward of the COUIR and to the Internal Medicine Unit (IMU) or Surgery Unit (SU) of our hospital, respectively, and treated with IR procedures. For elective patients admitted to the COUIR's inpatient ward, hospital stays were significantly shorter and differences between reimbursements and costs were significantly higher for almost all IR procedures compared to those for patients admitted to the IMU and SU (Student's t-test for unpaired data, p < 0.05). The results of the 3-year activity show that the activation of a COUIR with an inpatient admitting service, and the better organization of the patient pathway that came with it, evidenced more efficient use of resources, with the possibility for the hospital to save money and obtain positive margins (differences between reimbursements and costs). During 3 years of activity, the inpatient admitting service of our COUIR yielded a positive difference between reimbursements and effective costs of Euro 1,009,095.35. The creation of an inpatient IR service and the admission of well-screened elective patients allowed short hospitalization times, reduction of waiting lists, and a positive economic outcome.

  17. [Potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old: review of literature].

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Inga; Sikorska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The literature review regarding potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old, is presented. In this article, cognitive aspects of development include acquisition of language, attention, learning and later school performance. The constant increase of children's access to television is noted, indicating that 60% of infants and toddlers watch TV regularly for 1-2 hours per day. The review included 40 articles and book chapters of significant such as Anderson, Barr, Christakis, Zimmerman, Meltzoff, Courage, Setliff, Troseth. The data was selected from electronic databases of scientific publications: Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and Humanities Full Text (H.W. Wilson) available in Poland. Cited articles provide evidence of the negative impact of exposure to television, media and video on the cognitive functioning of children under 3 years old. The potential impact of watching TV for difficulties in ability to focus attention appears as a core danger. Furthermore, studies suggest a possible connection between early exposure to television and ADHD as well as difficulties with language acquisition, learning and poorer school results.

  18. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA.

    PubMed

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Jensen, Signe M; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-27

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2-4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity.

  19. Conjunctival Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Diclehan; Kiratli, Hayyam; Kocabeyoğlu, Sibel

    2006-01-01

    A case of benign granulomas of the conjunctiva in a 3-year-old girl is reported. Histologic features of the excised conjunctival lesions were consistent with Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. This phenomenon is thought to be a granulomatous reaction to an antigen-antibody precipitate related to parasites or fungi. No causative agent is identified in our patient. Immunohistochemical analysis showed no immunoreactivity for immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, or the C3 component of the complement. We propose that the presence of small amelanotic nodular conjunctival tumors should arouse suspicion related to the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon even in early childhood.

  20. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog

    PubMed Central

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination. PMID:24489399

  1. [Atypical presentation of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Boiron, E; Soto, B; Zimmermann, B; Jullien, M

    2012-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is caused by a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, Bartonella henselae. This disease is transmitted by cat scratches or bites. The typical form is a large and rough adenopathy, with no general signs. In a few cases, the symptoms are aspecific and various, which makes the diagnosis difficult. A 3-year-old child presented a prolonged fever with an aspecific skin eruption and hepatosplenic lesions seen 1 month after the beginning of the disease, which led to the diagnosis of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease. An adapted antibiotic therapy completely cured the disease.

  2. Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania in a 3-year, 10-month-old female.

    PubMed

    Talvik, Inga; Koch, Kadri; Kolk, Anneli; Talvik, Tiina

    2006-03-01

    This is the report of a 3-year, 10-month-old female with classical symptoms of chronic paroxysmal hemicrania and favorable response to indomethacin therapy. The patient was admitted because of frequent episodes of severe unilateral headaches during the day and nighttime as well as agitation. During the episodes, she complained of severe pains on the left orbital and supraorbital region. Subsequent lacrimation from the left eye was also documented. Initially, focal epileptic attack was diagnosed and during the following 10 months several antiepileptic drugs were used without effect. After 10 months, chronic paroxysmal hemicrania was diagnosed because of the typical symptoms along with a favorable response to indomethacin therapy.

  3. Acute dapsone poisoning in a 3-year-old child: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS-diamino diphenyl sulphone) is a sulfone antibiotic being used for a variety of clinical conditions. Poisoning in children by DDS is rarely reported. Poisoning in acute cases will be frequently unrecognized due to relative lack of severe signs and symptoms. Methemoglobinemia is the major life-threatening situation associated with poisoning of DDS. Hence, any delay for medical attention can lead to increased rate of mortality. In this case, we describe acute DDS poisoning in a 3-year-old child and the successful management using intravenous methylene blue. PMID:26488029

  4. Bilateral cochlear nerve absence in a 3 year old child with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Rudić, Milan; Wong, Winson; Viner, Stuart; Strachan, David; Raine, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of a 3 year old boy with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss diagnosed from New Born Hearing Screening, with severe form of VACTERL association. He was referred to our Cochlear Implant Unit for assessment with regard to the possibility of cochlear implantation. MRI findings have showed bilateral vestibulocochlear cystic abnormalities. Only single nerve noted within the IAM on the right and likely single nerve within the IAM on the left. Hence, decision was made not to offer cochlear implantation. This is the first report of severe bilateral cochleovestibular nerve abnormalities to be associated with VACTERL.

  5. Mycoplasma pneumoniae associated stroke in a 3-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gun-Ha; Seo, Won Hee; Je, Bo-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases precede a significant proportion of acute ischemic strokes in children. Here, we report a case of acute ischemic stroke in a 3-year-old girl with a Mycoplasma pneumonia-associated respiratory tract infection. She developed an acquired prothrombotic state of protein S deficiency and had increased fibrinogen and fibrinogen degradation product levels and increased titer of antinuclear antibodies. However, these conditions were completely alleviated at the 1-month follow-up examination. Infection with M. pneumoniae may cause a transient prothrombotic state that can potentially cause a thrombus. PMID:24223604

  6. Fever and rash in a 3-year-old girl: Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Julie M; Zaenglein, Andrea L; Kaul, Aditya; Chang, Mary Wu

    2002-09-01

    Initial symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a tick-borne illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, are nonspecific and include headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, malaise, and myalgias, followed by fever and rash. The classic triad of fever, rash, and history of tick exposure is uncommon at presentation. Clinical manifestations of RMSF range from virtually asymptomatic to severe. Because of the potentially fatal outcome of RMSF, presumptive clinical diagnosis and empiric antimicrobial therapy can be critical. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl from New York State who presented with fever and rash.

  7. A special case of lower back pain in a 3-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Tassinari, Davide; Forti, Sara; Torella, Michele; Tani, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of a 3-year-old girl with a 15-day clinical history of lower back pain. We diagnosed a spondylodiscitis of vertebral bodies L5–S1 caused by Salmonella species group B that totally recovered with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Spondylodiscitis in children is a rare condition and Salmonella infection is one of the rarest aetiology. A high index of suspicion is needed for prompt diagnosis to ensure better long-term outcome. Microbiological diagnosis is essential for the appropriate choice of antibiotic treatment. PMID:23475989

  8. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  9. Quantity and Quality of Caregivers’ Linguistic Input to 18-month and 3-year-old Children who are Hard of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Sophie E.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Unflat-Berry, Lauren M.; Oleson, Jacob J.; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of caregiver talk directed to children who are hard of hearing (CHH) as compared to children with normal hearing (CNH). For the CHH only, the study explored how caregiver input changed as a function of child age (18 months versus 3 years), which child and family factors contributed to variance in caregiver linguistic input at 18 months and 3 years, and how caregiver talk at 18 months related to child language outcomes at 3 years. Design Participants were 59 CNH and 156 children with bilateral, mild-to-severe hearing loss. When children were approximately 18-months and/or 3-years of age, caregivers and children participated in a 5-minute semi-structured, conversational interaction. Interactions were transcribed and coded for two features of caregiver input representing quantity (number of total utterances and number of total words) and four features representing quality (number of different words, mean length of utterance in morphemes, proportion of utterances that were high-level, and proportion of utterances that were directing). Additionally, at the 18-month visit, parents completed a standardized questionnaire regarding their child’s communication development. At the 3-year visit, a clinician administered a standardized language measure. Results At the 18-month visit, the CHH were exposed to a greater proportion of directing utterances than the CNH. At the 3-year visit, there were significant differences between the CNH and CHH for number of total words and all four of the quality variables, with the CHH being exposed to fewer words and lower quality input. Caregivers generally provided higher quality input to CHH at the 3-year visit, as compared to the 18-month visit. At the 18-month visit, quantity variables, but not quality variables, were related to several child and family factors. At the 3-year visit, the variable most strongly related to caregiver input was child

  10. COMPLETE STEROID AVOIDANCE IS EFFECTIVE AND SAFE IN CHILDREN WITH RENAL TRANSPLANTS: A MULTICENTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL WITH 3 YEAR FOLLOW UP

    PubMed Central

    Sarwal, Minnie M.; Ettenger, Robert; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Benfield, Mark; Mathias, Robert; Portale, Anthony; McDonald, Ruth; Harmon, William; Kershaw, David; Vehaskari, V. Matti; Kamil, Elaine; Baluarte, H. Jorge; Warady, Bradley; Tang, Lily; Liu, Jun; Li, Li; Naesens, Maarten; Sigdel, Tara; Waskerwitz, Janie; Salvatierra, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether steroid avoidance in pediatric kidney transplantation is safe and efficacious, a randomized, multicenter trial was performed in 12 pediatric kidney transplant centers. One hundred thirty children receiving primary kidney transplants were randomized to steroid-free (SF) or steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression, with concomitant tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and standard dose daclizumab (SB group) or extended dose daclizumab (SF group). Follow-up was 3 years post-transplant. Standardized height Z score change after 3 years follow-up was −0.99±2.20 in SF vs. −0.93±1.11 in SB; p=0.825. In subgroup analysis, recipients under 5 years of age showed improved linear growth with SF compared to SB treatment (change in standardized height Z score at 3 years −0.43±1.15 vs. −1.07±1.14; p=0.019). There were no differences in the rates of biopsy-proven acute rejection at 3 years after transplantation (16.7% in SF vs. 17.1% in SB; p=0.94). Patient survival was 100% in both arms; graft survival was 95% in the SF and 90% in the SB arms (p=0.30) at 3 years follow-up. Over the three year follow-up period, the SF group showed lower systolic BP (p=0.017) and lower cholesterol levels (p=0.034). In conclusion, complete steroid avoidance is safe and effective in unsensitized children receiving primary kidney transplants. PMID:22694755

  11. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention.

  12. Growth, behavior, development and intelligence in rural children between 1-3 years of life.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, D K; Awasthy, A; Upadhyay, S K; Singh, P; Kumar, J; Agarwal, K N

    1992-04-01

    In a rural cohort of 625 children registered from 1981 to 1983 in 10 villages of K.V. Block, Varanasi, 196 children were assessed for physical growth, development, intelligence and concept development between 1 and 3 years of age. Home environment was also assessed using Caldwell Home inventory. These rural children remained below 3rd centile of NCHS standard for weight, height, skull and mid-arm circumferences throughout the study. Malnourished children scored poorly in all the areas of development, i.e., motor, adaptive, language and personal social, 9% in Grade I and 16.6% children in Grade II + III had IQ less than 79 (inferior). Concept for color shape and size was poorly developed in malnourished children. Maternal involvement and stimulation was strongly associated with better behavior development and intelligence. Multiple regression analysis showed that the effect of home environment on development and intelligence was of a higher magnitude as compared to status and family variables and nutritional status during 1-3 years of age.

  13. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance.

  14. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  15. Psychotherapy with a 3-Year-Old Child: The Role of Play in the Unfolding Process

    PubMed Central

    Salcuni, Silvia; Di Riso, Daniela; Mabilia, Diana; Lis, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the outcomes and process of psychodynamic psychotherapies with children. Among the limited number of studies, some only paid attention to play and verbal production, as they are fundamental aspects in assessing the psychotherapy process. This paper focuses on an empirical investigation of a 3-year, once-a-week psychodynamic psychotherapy carried out with a 3-year-old girl. A process-outcome design was implemented to evaluate play and verbal discourse in in the initial, middle, and final parts of 30 psychotherapy sessions. Repeated measurements of standardized play categories (the Play Category System and the Affect in Play Scale—Preschool version) and verbal discourse (Verbal Production) were analyzed. To increase the clinical validity of the study, data from the assessment phase and vignettes from the sessions were reported to deepen the patient’s picture during the unfolding therapy process. Parent reports before and after the therapy were also included. Empirically measured changes in play and verbal production were fundamental in evaluating the young patient’s psychotherapy process. Verbal production and discourse ability progressively increased and took the place of play, which instead became more symbolic. Developmental issues as well as psychotherapy’s influence on the patient’s change, were discussed in relation to the role of play in enhancing the development of verbal dialog and the expression of the child’s emotions, needs, and desires. PMID:28101070

  16. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers.

    PubMed

    Lair, G J; Zehetner, F; Fiebig, M; Gerzabek, M H; van Gestel, C A M; Hein, T; Hohensinner, S; Hsu, P; Jones, K C; Jordan, G; Koelmans, A A; Poot, A; Slijkerman, D M E; Totsche, K U; Bondar-Kunze, E; Barth, J A C

    2009-12-01

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded "AquaTerra" project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management.

  17. Results of a search for daily and annual variations of the 214Po half-life at the two year observation period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeyev, E. N.; Gavrilyuk, Yu. M.; Gangapshev, A. M.; Kazalov, V. V.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Panasenko, S. I.; Ratkevich, S. S.

    2016-11-01

    The brief description of installation TAU-2 intended for long-term monitoring of the half-life value τ( T 1/2) of the 214Po is presented. The methods of measurement and processing of collected data are reported. The results of analysis of time series values of τ with different time step are presented. Total measurement time was equal to 590 days. Averaged value of the 214Po half-life was obtained τ = 163.46 ± 0.04 μs. The annual variation with an amplitude A = (8.9 ± 2.3) × 10-4, solar-daily variation with an amplitude A So = (7.5 ± 1.2) × 10-4, lunar-daily variation with an amplitude A L = (6.9 ± 2.0) × 10-4 sidereal-daily variation with an amplitude A S = (7.2 ± 1.2) × 10-4 were found in a series of τ values. The maximal values of amplitude are observed at the moments when the projections of the installation Earth location velocity vectors toward the source of possible variation achieve its maximal magnitudes.

  18. A 3-year randomized clinical trial evaluating two different bonded posterior restorations: Amalgam versus resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Kemaloglu, Hande; Pamir, Tijen; Tezel, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the performance and postoperative sensitivity of a posterior resin composite with that of bonded amalgam in 40 (n = 20) large sized cavities and to evaluate whether resin composite could be an alternative for bonded amalgam. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial. Twenty patients in need of at least two posterior restorations were recruited. Authors randomly assigned one half of the restorations to receive bonded amalgam and the other half to composite restorations. Forty bonded amalgams (n = 20) and composites (n = 20) were evaluated for their performance on modified-US Public Health Service criteria and postoperative sensitivity using visual analogue scale (VAS) for 36-months. Results: Success rate of this study was 100%. First clinical alterations were rated as Bravo after 1 year in marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, anatomical form, and surface roughness for both amalgam and composite. At the 3rd year, overall “Bravo” rated restorations were 12 for bonded amalgam and 13 for resin composites. There were no significant differences among the VAS scores of composites and bonded amalgams for all periods (P > 0.05) except for the comparisons at the 3rd year evaluation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, both resin composite and bonded amalgam were clinically acceptable. Postoperative sensitivity results tend to decrease more in composite restorations rather than amalgams. Therefore, it was concluded that posterior resin composite can be used even in large sized cavities. PMID:27011734

  19. Incidence and Etiology of Surgical Site Infections in Appendectomies: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Arias, Ariadna Villanueva; Sandoval, Cristobal A. Pancorbo; García, Elias Guilarte; Gamboa, Moraima E. Valle; Sado, Adam Bode; Serrano, Ramón N. Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Surgical site infections (SSIs) constitute a threat, especially in complicated appendicitis, and are commonly due to gram-negative organisms. We sought to describe the incidence of SSIs in appendectomies performed during a three-year period (January 2013 to December 2015) in a community hospital in Qatar, and compare this with external benchmarks. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study at The Cuban Hospital, Qatar. We used the standardized surveillance criteria to define SSI developed by the Centers for Disease Control. Information about age, sex, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus status, body mass index, and the result of bacteriologic studies were collected. Results Of a total 603 patients, 22 (3.6%) cases of SSI were reported, with an infection rate of 13.6%, 4.5%, and 1.0% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. SSIs were observed more frequently in patients with contaminated/dirty wounds (6.6%). About 65% of isolates from the surgical site were multidrug-resistant organisms (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp.). Conclusions This study describes the incidence of SSI in appendectomy, which could be used as a benchmark for the facility improvement program. The high frequency of multidrug-resistant organisms in SSIs requires additional studies focused on evaluating the effectiveness of the current preventive practices with a particular reference to antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:28042400

  20. The impact of remedial intervention on 3-year recidivism among first-time DUI offenders in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Angela A; Gardner, Sheena; Xu, Xiaohe; Costello, Humphrey

    2009-09-01

    This study examines the impact of the Mississippi Alcohol Safety Education Program (MASEP), a court-mandated intervention program, on 3-year recidivism rates among first-time DUI offenders (i.e. those convicted of a first offense for driving under the influence of alcohol or another drug). It also examines whether a new version of the curriculum that incorporates activities to enhance motivation for change further ameliorates recidivism. Cox proportional hazard regression models are used to compare recidivism rates among DUI offenders who completed MASEP with those who did not complete or who failed to enroll in the program. Recidivism rates were also compared for MASEP participants across time periods during which curriculum revisions were introduced. The hazard of recidivism was lower for individuals who completed the program than for individuals who did not complete or did not enroll in the program. Recidivism rates were further reduced following the introduction of curriculum revisions. Attendance of court-mandated remedial intervention programs lower subsequent DUI arrests and program content is associated with lower rates.

  1. Severe periodontal disease manifested in chronic disseminated type of langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 3-year old child.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Monika; Srivastava, Vinay Kumar; Bansal, Rajesh; Gupta, Vineeta; Bansal, Manish; Patne, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), previously known as histio-cytosis X, is a rare idiopathic disorder of reticulo-endothelial system with abnormal proliferation of bone marrow derived Langerhans cells along with a variable number of leukocytes, such as eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Three years old male child presented with multifocal osteolytic lesions and papulosquamous skin lesions. Clinical and radio-graphic features, such as severe alveolar bone loss, mobility of teeth, precocious eruption of teeth, foating appearance of teeth in orthopantomogram (OPG), osteolytic lesion in skull and cutaneous lesions were highly suggestive of LCH disease. Skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of LCH. Induction chemotherapy with oral prednisolone and intravenous vinblastine was started. Child responded well to chemotherapy. The clinical significance of the presented case is to diagnose the case of LCH on the basis of the manifestation of severe periodontal disease as this can be first or only manifestation of LCH. A dentist plays a major role in the multidisciplinary treatment of LCH through routine examination and periodic follow-up. How to cite this article: Bansal M, Srivastava VK, Bansal R, Gupta V, Bansal M, Patne S. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):217-219.

  2. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vinay Kumar; Bansal, Rajesh; Gupta, Vineeta; Bansal, Manish; Patne, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), previously known as histio-cytosis X, is a rare idiopathic disorder of reticulo-endothelial system with abnormal proliferation of bone marrow derived Langerhans cells along with a variable number of leukocytes, such as eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Three years old male child presented with multifocal osteolytic lesions and papulosquamous skin lesions. Clinical and radio-graphic features, such as severe alveolar bone loss, mobility of teeth, precocious eruption of teeth, foating appearance of teeth in orthopantomogram (OPG), osteolytic lesion in skull and cutaneous lesions were highly suggestive of LCH disease. Skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of LCH. Induction chemotherapy with oral prednisolone and intravenous vinblastine was started. Child responded well to chemotherapy. The clinical significance of the presented case is to diagnose the case of LCH on the basis of the manifestation of severe periodontal disease as this can be first or only manifestation of LCH. A dentist plays a major role in the multidisciplinary treatment of LCH through routine examination and periodic follow-up. How to cite this article: Bansal M, Srivastava VK, Bansal R, Gupta V, Bansal M, Patne S. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):217-219. PMID:25709306

  3. Epidermoid Cyst in the Floor of the Mouth of a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pascual Dabán, Rossana; García Díez, Eloy; González Navarro, Beatriz; López-López, José

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are a rare entity in the oral cavity and are even less frequent in the floor of the mouth, representing less than 0.01% of all the cases. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a growth in the floor of the mouth with 2 months of evolution and without changes since it was discovered by her parents. The lesion was asymptomatic; it did not cause dysphagia, dyspnea, or any other alteration. A CT scan with contrast was done which revealed the location and exact size of the lesion, allowing an intraoral approach for its excision. The histological examination confirmed the clinical speculation of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:25694831

  4. Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome. Magnetic resonance findings in a 3-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Salafia, Stefania; Praticò, Andrea D; Pizzo, Enza; Greco, Filippo; Di Bella, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The term 'hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome' (HHE) was first used by Gastaut et al. to describe the se-quential combination of unilateral or predominantly unilateral clonic seizures (hemiconvulsion), occurring during the first 2 years of life, immediately followed by an ipsilateral flaccid hemiplegia lasting 7 or more days. In the following phase partial epileptic seizures occur. We report a case of HHE syndrome in a 3-year-old boy with partial seizures (hemiconvulsion lasting 15-30 minutes) followed by left hemiplegia and hyporeflexia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse and high signal hyperintensity of the whole right cerebral hemisphere. Diffusion-weighted images showed a reduction of the apparent diffusion coefficient in the subcortical region. Magnetic resonance arterio-graphy showed a narrow flow signal in the distal territory of the right middle cerebral artery. The authors emphasize the importance of neuroradiological findings in early diagnosis and in the follow-up of HHE syndrome.

  5. The neural correlates of processing newborn and adult faces in 3-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Westerlund, Alissa; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Kuefner, Dana; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the processing of upright and inverted faces in 3-year-old children (n = 35). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive-looking paradigm including adult and newborn face stimuli. We observed three face-sensitive components, the P1, the N170 and the P400. Inverted faces elicited shorter P1 latency and larger P400 amplitude. P1 and N170 amplitudes were larger for adult faces. To examine the role of experience in the development of face processing, the processing of adult and newborn faces was compared for children with a younger sibling (n = 23) and children without a younger sibling (n = 12). Age of sibling at test correlated negatively with P1 amplitude for adult and newborn faces. This may indicate more efficient processing of different face ages in children with a younger sibling and potentially reflects a more flexible face representation. PMID:24118716

  6. Does attention constrain developmental trajectories in fragile x syndrome? A 3-year prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Kim; Cole, Victoria; Longhi, Elena; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Scerif, Gaia

    2012-03-01

    Basic attentional processes and their impact on developmental trajectories in fragile X syndrome were assessed in a 3-year prospective study. Although fragile X syndrome is a monogenic X-linked disorder, there is striking variability in outcomes even in young boys with the condition. Attention is a key factor constraining interactions with the environment, so it is a perfect candidate to predict trajectories in cognitive and behavioral outcomes. In this study, 48 boys with fragile X syndrome were assessed 3 times over 24 months. Although nonverbal IQ declined, there were significant improvements in nonverbal growth scores and in cognitive attention. In contrast, behavioral difficulties (i.e., autistic symptomatology, hyperactivity-inattention) remained stable over this time frame. Attentional markers in the visual and auditory modalities predicted intellectual abilities and classroom behavior, whereas auditory markers alone predicted autistic symptomatology.

  7. Oral Hemorrhage in a 3-year-old Boy Caused by Self-Mutilating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Uy, Jenny Lyn Y.; Lapeña, José Florencio F.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy referred for persistent tongue bleeding was diagnosed with a rare self-mutilating disease that had also affected his lip and fingers. He underwent multiple odontectomy and partial glossectomy and continues to undergo behavior therapy and on-demand splints and restraints. He has stopped self-biting and has gained appetite and weight. Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome can cause significant morbidity including self-inflicted oral hemorrhage and emergent measures are not easily decided. The long-term management of its neurobehavioral symptoms is problematic and multidisciplinary, and health providers remain challenged to find the best treatment, prolong lifespan and improve quality of life within their respective contexts. PMID:28083069

  8. Drug-induced systemic lupus erythematosus in a child after 3 years of treatment with carbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Molina-Ruiz, Ana María; Lasanta, Begoña; Barcia, Ana; Pérez-Vega, Elisa; Requena, Luis

    2017-02-01

    Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE) is a less severe variant of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that generally resolves within weeks or months after the withdrawal of the implicated drug. DILE is unusual during childhood, with the most frequent age of presentation being at 50-70 years of age. Among different drugs, most commonly procainamide and hydralazine have been implicated as a cause of DILE. However carbamazepine (CBZ) is considered a low-risk drug and very few cases have been reported in children. We describe the case of CBZ-induced SLE in a 9-year-old girl following 3 years of CBZ therapy. This case report shows that drug-induced SLE is an important side-effect to be considered, even after long-term treatment with CBZ, and also during childhood.

  9. The development of inhibitory control in early childhood: A twin study from 2-3 years

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Parent and lab-based observer ratings were employed to examine genetic and environmental influences on continuity and change in inhibitory control (IC) in over 300 twin-pairs assessed longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age. Genetic influences accounted for approximately 60% of the variance in parent-rated IC at both ages. Although many of the same genetic effects on parent-rated IC were stable across age, there were also novel genetic effects that emerged at age 3 (i.e., genetic factors contributed to both continuity and change in parent ratings of IC). Observed IC displayed a different developmental pattern. Genetic influences were moderate at age 2 (38%) and nonsignificant at age 3 (6%). Change in observed IC across early childhood was due to shared and nonshared environmental factors. Findings indicate that it is important to consider the measurement of IC when interpreting developmental and etiological findings. PMID:26784384

  10. The role of body image integrity and posttraumatic growth in kidney transplantation: A 3-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Devecsery, Ágnes; Lázár, György; Horváth, Zoltán; Szederkényi, Edit; Szenohradszky, Pál; Csabai, Márta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of body image, posttraumatic growth, and emotional state in recovery after transplantation. A total of 53 kidney transplant patients were assessed using our Self-Test and Organ Drawing Test, the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory in a 3-year follow-up. Logistic regression analysis showed that lower levels of integrity of the body image and posttraumatic growth, and higher pre-discharge serum creatinine levels were significant predictors of graft rejection. Our results suggest that the integrity of the body image and posttraumatic growth might contribute to better health outcomes in organ transplantation. PMID:28070354

  11. Management of symphysis fracture in a 3-year-old child with prefabricated acrylic splint and circum-mandibular wiring.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Ila; Kumar, M Naveen; Kumaran, P Satish; Bhandari, Arihant; Udhya, J

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric mandibular fractures are often the sequelae of facial skeletal injuries in patients with trauma and frequently require hospitalization. Due to the retrusive mid-face position relative to the calvarial prominence, facial fractures are rare in children younger than 5 years of age. Although rare, they most often occur as a result of motor vehicle accidents. The purpose of this report is to describe the management of a mandibular symphysis fracture in a 3-year-old boy with displacement between the primary mandibular left central and lateral incisors. The fracture was reduced and the fractured segment was stabilized under general anesthesia with a prefabricated acrylic splint with circum-mandibular wiring. Children have greater osteogenic potential and faster healing rates than adults; therefore, anatomic reduction in children is best accomplished earlier.

  12. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads.

  13. 3-year study of donepezil therapy in Alzheimer's disease: effects of early and continuous therapy.

    PubMed

    Winblad, B; Wimo, A; Engedal, K; Soininen, H; Verhey, F; Waldemar, G; Wetterholm, A-L; Haglund, A; Zhang, R; Schindler, R

    2006-01-01

    Delays in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, and, therefore, delays in treatment, may have a detrimental effect on a patient's long-term well-being. This study assessed the effects of postponing donepezil treatment for 1 year by comparing patients treated continuously for 3 years with those who received placebo for 1 year followed by open-label donepezil for 2 years. Patients (n = 286) with possible or probable Alzheimer's disease (according to DSM-IV, NINCDS-ADRDA, and Mini-Mental State Examination criteria; see text) were randomized to receive donepezil (5 mg/day for 4 weeks, 10 mg/day thereafter) or placebo (delayed-start group) for 1 year. Of the 192 completers, 157 began a 2-year, open-label phase of donepezil treatment. Outcome measures were the Gottfries-Bråne-Steen scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Global Deterioration Scale, the Progressive Deterioration Scale, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and safety (adverse events). Mixed regression analysis was used to compare changes between the groups over 3 years on the efficacy measures. There was a trend for patients receiving continuous therapy to have less global deterioration (Gottfries-Bråne-Steen scale) than those who had delayed treatment (p = 0.056). Small but statistically significant differences between the groups were observed for the secondary measures of cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination; p = 0.004) and cognitive and functional abilities (Global Deterioration Scale; p = 0.0231) in favor of continuous donepezil therapy. Over 90% of the patients in both cohorts experienced one treatment-emergent adverse event; most were considered mild or moderate. In conclusion, patients in whom the start of treatment is delayed may demonstrate slightly reduced benefits as compared with those seen in patients starting donepezil therapy early in the course of Alzheimer's disease. These data support the long-term efficacy and safety of donepezil.

  14. Periodontal status and subgingival microbiota of insulin-dependent juvenile diabetics: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sbordone, L; Ramaglia, L; Barone, A; Ciaglia, R N; Iacono, V J

    1998-02-01

    This study examined for 3 years the changes in periodontal status and the possible correlations with selected subgingival microbiota and diabetic conditions in a group of 16 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM, JD) patients as compared with their 16 healthy cohabiting siblings (HS). JD patients were monitored every 3 months for levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Clinical and microbiological parameters were measured 6 weeks before drawing blood to determine levels of HbA1C. Periodontal parameters were measured at baseline (TO), year 2 (T2), year 3 (T3) and included: probing depth (PD), attachment level (AL), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and plaque index (PI). Two sites in each patient were selected for microbial samples: a mesio-facial aspect of the maxillary right first molar (defined as constant site, CS) and a site with the greatest probing depth (defined as deepest site, DS). Microbial samples were analyzed by culture techniques. No significant differences in clinical parameters were found between diabetics and healthy siblings at any examination. The SBI in the non-diabetic group at T2 and at T3 was significantly lower than at baseline. PD and AL of constant sites in the diabetic group at T3 were significantly higher than baseline. There was a significant increase in Prevotella intermedia at T3 as compared with baseline for deepest sites in the diabetic group. Cluster analysis revealed, in a former study, two clusters (IV and V) at baseline which were significantly different from the overall mean regarding composition of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Capnocytophaga spp. They were not significantly different for periodontal parameters from TO to T3. These data would suggest no significant differences in clinical parameters between the diabetics and non-diabetic siblings throughout this 3-year longitudinal study.

  15. Financial Results during Periods of Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James W.; Anderson, Richard E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of inflation on the operations of 10 northeastern colleges and universities and the effect of using current cost accounting are considered. The focus is on adjustments to assets in the plant fund by restating the surplus and deficit calculations of four state and six private institutions. The 10 institutions had plant assets with an…

  16. NutricheQ Questionnaire assesses the risk of dietary imbalances in toddlers from 1 through 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Morino, Giuseppe S.; Cinelli, Giulia; Pietro, Ilaria Di; Papa, Vittoria; Spreghini, Nicola; Manco, Melania

    2015-01-01

    Background Although a nutrient-poor diet may affect children's growth, especially early in life, few tools to assess dietary imbalances in 1- to 3-year-old children have been developed. Objectives To investigate the accuracy and test–retest reliability of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in the identification of toddlers with the risk of inadequate intake of micro- and macronutrients in a sample of Italian toddlers. Design A 3-day weighed food record was performed, and results were compared with outcomes of the NutricheQ Questionnaire in 201 toddlers (training set: 1–3 years old). The accuracy of NutricheQ in the identification of categories of nutritional risk was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Test–retest of the tool was estimated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Cronbach's alpha statistic, in a validation set of 50 toddlers. Results The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a valid tool for the identification of toddlers at risk for dietary imbalances. Significant differences in nutrient intake (p<0.005) were found among the three groups of risk identified by the questionnaire: toddlers included in the high-risk group had a lower intake of key nutrients such as iron, vitamin D and other vitamins, and fibre compared to those included in the low-risk group. NutricheQ is also reliable between administrations, as demonstrated by its test–retest reliability. ICC and Cronbach's alpha were 0.73 and 0.83, respectively, for Section 1 of NutricheQ, and 0.55 and 0.70 for Section 2. Conclusions The NutricheQ Questionnaire is a reliable and consistent tool for the assessment of possible dietary risk factors in Italian toddlers. It consistently identifies toddlers with a high probability of having poor iron and vitamin D intake, and other dietary imbalances. PMID:26689315

  17. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  18. Observed and simulated hydrologic response for a first-order catchment during extreme rainfall 3 years after wildfire disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebel, Brian A.; Rengers, Francis; Tucker, Gregory E.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrologic response to extreme rainfall in disturbed landscapes is poorly understood because of the paucity of measurements. A unique opportunity presented itself when extreme rainfall in September 2013 fell on a headwater catchment (i.e., <1 ha) in Colorado, USA that had previously been burned by a wildfire in 2010. We compared measurements of soil-hydraulic properties, soil saturation from subsurface sensors, and estimated peak runoff during the extreme rainfall with numerical simulations of runoff generation and subsurface hydrologic response during this event. The simulations were used to explore differences in runoff generation between the wildfire-affected headwater catchment, a simulated unburned case, and for uniform versus spatially variable parameterizations of soil-hydraulic properties that affect infiltration and runoff generation in burned landscapes. Despite 3 years of elapsed time since the 2010 wildfire, observations and simulations pointed to substantial surface runoff generation in the wildfire-affected headwater catchment by the infiltration-excess mechanism while no surface runoff was generated in the unburned case. The surface runoff generation was the result of incomplete recovery of soil-hydraulic properties in the burned area, suggesting recovery takes longer than 3 years. Moreover, spatially variable soil-hydraulic property parameterizations produced longer duration but lower peak-flow infiltration-excess runoff, compared to uniform parameterization, which may have important hillslope sediment export and geomorphologic implications during long duration, extreme rainfall. The majority of the simulated surface runoff in the spatially variable cases came from connected near-channel contributing areas, which was a substantially smaller contributing area than the uniform simulations.

  19. Sleep apnea and the subsequent risk of Parkinson’s disease: a 3-year nationwide population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ping-Song; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Chou, Yii-Her; Chang, Wei-Pin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Sleep apnea (SA)-induced chronic intermittent hypoxia increases oxidative stress and inflammation, which may contribute to the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). This study evaluated the risk of PD following SA diagnosis. Patients and methods This was a 3-year nationwide population-based matched cohort study using claims data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD), Taiwan. We analyzed 1,944 patients diagnosed as having SA between 1997 and 2005 and a matched cohort of 9,720 non-SA patients from the NHIRD. Patients with a history of PD were excluded. Each patient was followed up for 3 years to evaluate subsequent PD development. Results Of the 11,664 patients, 17 (0.9%) and 38 (0.4%) from the SA and matched non-SA cohorts, respectively, were subsequently diagnosed as having PD during follow-up. After adjustments for potential confounders, the SA cohort had a 1.85-fold higher risk of PD than the non-SA cohort (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.02–3.35; P=0.042). After age and sex stratification, PD development was independently associated with SA only in men (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.26; 95% CI =1.11–4.63; P<0.05) and in patients aged ≥60 years (adjusted HR, 1.93; 95% CI =1.01–3.71; P<0.05). Conclusion Our study suggests that patients with SA are at an increased longitudinal risk of PD. Furthermore, age and male sex are independently associated with the risk of PD.

  20. Observed and simulated hydrologic response for a first-order catchment during extreme rainfall 3 years after wildfire disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebel, Brian A.; Rengers, Francis K.; Tucker, Gregory E.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrologic response to extreme rainfall in disturbed landscapes is poorly understood because of the paucity of measurements. A unique opportunity presented itself when extreme rainfall in September 2013 fell on a headwater catchment (i.e., <1 ha) in Colorado, USA that had previously been burned by a wildfire in 2010. We compared measurements of soil-hydraulic properties, soil saturation from subsurface sensors, and estimated peak runoff during the extreme rainfall with numerical simulations of runoff generation and subsurface hydrologic response during this event. The simulations were used to explore differences in runoff generation between the wildfire-affected headwater catchment, a simulated unburned case, and for uniform versus spatially variable parameterizations of soil-hydraulic properties that affect infiltration and runoff generation in burned landscapes. Despite 3 years of elapsed time since the 2010 wildfire, observations and simulations pointed to substantial surface runoff generation in the wildfire-affected headwater catchment by the infiltration-excess mechanism while no surface runoff was generated in the unburned case. The surface runoff generation was the result of incomplete recovery of soil-hydraulic properties in the burned area, suggesting recovery takes longer than 3 years. Moreover, spatially variable soil-hydraulic property parameterizations produced longer duration but lower peak-flow infiltration-excess runoff, compared to uniform parameterization, which may have important hillslope sediment export and geomorphologic implications during long duration, extreme rainfall. The majority of the simulated surface runoff in the spatially variable cases came from connected near-channel contributing areas, which was a substantially smaller contributing area than the uniform simulations.

  1. Relationship between the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level and remission of diabetic nephropathy with microalbuminuria: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Seki, N; Matsumoto, T; Fukazawa, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level and progression or remission of diabetic nephropathy with microalbuminuria for 3 years. The subjects were 100 Japanese type 2 diabetes mellitus outpatients with microalbuminuria. Associations between metabolic parameters at baseline [HbA1c, systolic blood pressure (SBP), urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and BNP] and the progression or remission of diabetic nephropathy were examined for 3 years. A total of 83 patients were examined at the end of the 3-year period, including 17 with remission to normoalbuminuria, 47 with continuing microalbuminuria, and 19 with progression to macroalbuminuria. HbA1c, ACR, and BNP differed significantly among the 3 groups (p=0.024, p<0.001, p=0.002, respectively). Among baseline factors, HbA1c and BNP were significant predictors of the percentage increase in ACR for 3 years in multiple linear regression analysis (β=0.259, p=0.02; β=0.299, p=0.007, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, HbA1c and ACR were independently associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy (p=0.008, p=0.023, respectively), and ACR and BNP were independently associated with remission of diabetic nephropathy (p=0.029, p=0.012, respectively). ROC curve analysis gave a cutoff value for BNP of 14.9 pg/ml for prediction of remission of diabetic nephropathy (p=0.016). The BNP level has a relationship with diabetic nephropathy and a low BNP level predicts remission of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, monitoring of BNP can play an important role in management of diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Immediate implants and immediate loading in periodontally compromised patients-a 3-year prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Alves, Celia Coutinho; Correia, Andre Ricardo; Neves, Manuel

    2010-10-01

    To avoid the necessity of a removable provisional prosthesis, and therefore preserve the patient's functional outcome, esthetics, and quality of life, a clinical protocol was developed to approach periodontally compromised patients presenting a full-arch irreversibly lost dentition: full-arch extraction and immediate replacement with a provisional acrylic resin implant-supported fixed partial denture (FPD). A total of 23 periodontally compromised patients (11 women, 12 men; 4 smokers, 4 controlled diabetics) were included in this study. Pretreatment casts were taken and vertical dimension of occlusion was determined. In most patients, 6 Straumann implants were distributed along the arch according to the surgical guide or bone availability, with the most distal ones in the maxilla slightly tilted so they could emerge more distally. A total of 168 implants (146 Straumann, 10 Nobel Biocare, 8 Biomet 3i, and 4 Lifecore) were placed (83 in the maxilla, 85 in the mandible). Of those in the maxilla, 74 were loaded immediately (implant stability quotient mentor [ISQm] > 70) and 9 placed with delayed loading (ISQm =/< 70). Of the 85 implants placed in the mandible, all were loaded immediately (ISQm > 70). If an FPD had not been fabricated already, impressions were taken during surgery to do so. The prosthesis was then adapted (cemented or screwed) to the 6 implants within the first 48 hours postsurgery. After 2 months, definitive impressions were taken, and a definitive porcelain-fused-to-metal implant-supported 12-element FPD was fabricated and cemented or screwed to all 6 implants. Of the 168 implants, 108 were immediate implants and 159 immediately loaded. Only 2 implants (1 in the mandible, 1 in the maxilla) did not osseointegrate. This yields a 3-year cumulative survival rate of 98.74% (98.65% in the maxilla, 98.82% in the mandible). From a total of 26 immediately loaded prostheses (12 in the maxilla, 14 in the mandible), 6 were cemented and 20 screw-retained. The 3

  3. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Versus Roux-Y-Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity—3-Year Outcomes of the Prospective Randomized Swiss Multicenter Bypass Or Sleeve Study (SM-BOSS)

    PubMed Central

    Peterli, Ralph; Wölnerhanssen, Bettina Karin; Vetter, Diana; Nett, Philipp; Gass, Markus; Borbély, Yves; Peters, Thomas; Schiesser, Marc; Schultes, Bernd; Beglinger, Christoph; Drewe, Juergen; Bueter, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is performed almost as often in Europe as laparoscopic Roux-Y-Gastric Bypass (LRYGB). We present the 3-year interim results of the 5-year prospective, randomized trial comparing the 2 procedures (Swiss Multicentre Bypass Or Sleeve Study; SM-BOSS). Methods: Initially, 217 patients (LSG, n = 107; LRYGB, n = 110) were randomized to receive either LSG or LRYGB at 4 bariatric centers in Switzerland. Mean body mass index of all patients was 44 ± 11 kg/m2, mean age was 43 ± 5.3 years, and 72% of patients were female. Minimal follow-up was 3 years with a rate of 97%. Both groups were compared for weight loss, comorbidities, quality of life, and complications. Results: Excessive body mass index loss was similar between LSG and LRYGB at each time point (1 year: 72.3 ± 21.9% vs. 76.6 ± 20.9%, P = 0.139; 2 years: 74.7 ± 29.8% vs. 77.7 ± 30%, P = 0.513; 3 years: 70.9 ± 23.8% vs. 73.8 ± 23.3%, P = 0.316). At this interim 3-year time point, comorbidities were significantly reduced and comparable after both procedures except for gastro-esophageal reflux disease and dyslipidemia, which were more successfully treated by LRYGB. Quality of life increased significantly in both groups after 1, 2, and 3 years postsurgery. There was no statistically significant difference in number of complications treated by reoperation (LSG, n = 9; LRYGB, n = 16, P = 0.15) or number of complications treated conservatively. Conclusions: In this trial, LSG and LRYGB are equally efficient regarding weight loss, quality of life, and complications up to 3 years postsurgery. Improvement of comorbidities is similar except for gastro-esophageal reflux disease and dyslipidemia that appear to be more successfully treated by LRYGB. PMID:28170356

  4. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene as a Biomarker of PAH Exposure in 3-Year-Old Ukrainian Children

    PubMed Central

    Mucha, Amy Pelka; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Serdyuk, Andrij; Nakonechny, Joseph; Zvinchuk, Alexander; Erdal, Serap; Caudill, Motria; Scheff, Peter; Lukyanova, Elena; Shkiryak-Nyzhnyk, Zoreslava; Chislovska, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. We measured urinary 1-OHP in 48 children 3 years of age in Mariupol, Ukraine, who lived near a steel mill and coking facility and compared these with 1-OHP concentrations measured in 42 children of the same age living in the capital city of Kiev, Ukraine. Children living in Mariupol had significantly higher urinary 1-OHP and creatinine-adjusted urinary 1-OHP than did children living in Kiev (adjusted: 0.69 vs. 0.34 μmol/mol creatinine, p < 0.001; unadjusted: 0.42 vs. 0.30 ng/mL, p = 0.002). Combined, children in both cities exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes had higher 1-OHP than did children not exposed (0.61 vs. 0.42 μmol/mol creatinine; p = 0.04; p = 0.07 after adjusting for city). In addition, no significant differences were seen with sex of the children. Our sample of children in Mariupol has the highest reported mean urinary 1-OHP concentrations in children studied to date, most likely due to their proximity to a large industrial point source of PAHs. PMID:16581553

  5. Periosteal desmoplastic fibroma of the tibia in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Sferopoulos, N K

    2015-12-01

    Desmoplastic fibroma is a rare benign fibrogenic, locally aggressive, primary bone tumor. It is the intraosseous counterpart of soft tissue aggressive fibromatosis. The lesion may very rarely appear as a superficial bone lesion arising from the periosteum; in such cases, a soft tissue mass with changes in the adjacent bone is evident. Periosteal lesions are very rare in the literature; diagnosis is usually based on the radiographic findings, and histological proof of the tumor origin is missing. A periosteal desmoplastic fibroma of the distal tibial metaphysis in a 3-year-old boy is presented. Radiographic investigation included plain radiographs and computed tomography imaging. Both demonstrated a soft tissue lesion involving the superficial bone tissues with non-aggressive looking borders and a pressure effect with a sclerotic rim in the bone. The lesion was excised, and the surgical as well as the histological findings indicated the diagnosis of a desmoplastic fibroma of bone arising from the periosteum. No recurrence was detected 5 years after surgery.

  6. The cultural and linguistic diversity of 3-year-old children with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y C

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children's communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence.

  7. Idiopathic midaortic syndrome with malignant hypertension in 3-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kyung Jin; Yoon, Ja Kyoung; Kwon, Bo Sang; Bae, Eun Jung; Noh, Chung Il

    2016-01-01

    Midaortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare vascular disease that commonly causes renovascular hypertension. The lumen of the abdominal aorta narrows and the ostia of the branches show stenosis. MAS is associated with diminished pulses in the lower extremities compared with the upper extremities, severe hypertension with higher blood pressure in the upper rather than lower extremities, and an abdominal bruit. The clinical symptoms are variable, and recognition in children with hypertension can aid early diagnosis and optimal treatment. Hypertension with MAS is malignant and often refractory to several antihypertensive drugs. Recently, radiologic modalities have been developed and have led to numerous interventional procedures. We describe the case of a 3-year-old boy presenting with left ventricular hypertrophy whose severely elevated blood pressure led to the diagnosis of idiopathic MAS. This case highlights the importance of measuring blood pressure and conducting a detailed physical examination to diagnose MAS. This is the first reported case of idiopathic MAS diagnosed in childhood in Korea. PMID:28018454

  8. The impact of early literacy guidance on language skills of 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Theriot, Judy A; Franco, Sofia M; Sisson, Barbara A; Metcalf, Sharon C; Kennedy, Mary A; Bada, Henrietta S

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to determine the impact of early literacy anticipatory guidance (AG) with provision of books on language development in 3-year-olds in an early literacy program at a University-affiliated inner-city pediatric clinic. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT-R) were administered to 33-39-month-old children exposed to an early literacy program, which included AG and provision of an age-appropriate book at each well-child visit starting at 2 months old. Children with developmental delays were excluded. Parental surveys on literacy and demographic data were obtained. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Sixty-four children were evaluated; 88% African American, 89% Medicaid recipients. Fifty-eight percent of families reported family-centered literacy orientation. The PPVT-III scores directly correlated with the number of AG visits with book given x number of books purchased (r2 = 0.025, p = 0.0006). Higher scores in EOWPVT-R were predicted by race and the number of visits with books given x number of books purchased (r2 = 0.182, p = 0.0009). All families reported reading together, half reporting positive family-centered literacy. Given the same number of books purchased for each child, the outcome scores were higher the greater the number of clinic visits wherein AG included early literacy and provision of books.

  9. Growth of children with Down's syndrome: birth to age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Cronk, C E

    1978-04-01

    A sample of 90 children with Down's syndrome were measured for recumbent length and weight from birth to age 36 months at the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Boston. At birth, means for both length and weight were reduced by about 0.5 SDs from the control group means. By 36 months, mean recumbent length was greater than 2 SDs below that for the control group, while the mean for weight was reduced by about 1.5 SDs from the control group mean. Growth velocity for both length and weight was most deficient within the first two years of life. About 30% of the sample demonstrated excess weight for length relations by 36 months. Children with moderate or severe heart disease were significantly smaller than those without or with mild cardiac problems at all times after birth. Measurements of a subsample of children at 4, 5, and 6 years of age suggested that growth velocity after 3 years of age may be within the range of normal. Assessment of growth of the child with Down's syndrome may be carried out with reference to charts plotting tenth to 90th percentiles based on these data.

  10. Urinary interleukin-6 as a predictor of radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: A 3-year evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yune-Jung; Yoo, Seung-Ah; Kim, Ga-Ram; Cho, Chul-Soo; Kim, Wan-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the urine proteome signature of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reflects inflammation-related cellular processes. Here, we measured interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) concentrations in the urine of RA patients and prospectively investigated their role in predicting RA activity and prognosis. One hundred seventy-three RA patients and 62 non-RA controls were recruited. Urinary IL-6, CCL2, and IL-8 levels were elevated in RA patients and correlated well with disease activity. Urinary IL-6 level at presentation was an independent risk factor of radiographic progression at 1 and 3 years. High urinary IL-6 level increased the risk ratio of radiographic progression by 2.9-fold, which was comparable to high serum CRP. Moreover, combination of urinary IL-6 and serum CRP measures synergistically increased the predictability of radiographic progression. In a subgroup with normal ESR, patients with the highest tertile of urinary IL-6 were at 6.4-fold greater risk of radiographic progression. Conclusively, high urinary IL-6 level at presentation is an independent risk factor for radiographic progression of RA, reflecting disease activity. Urinary IL-6 in combination with serum CRP may be a useful parameter for estimating RA prognosis. PMID:27731382

  11. Sustained Effectiveness of the Maternal Pertussis Immunization Program in England 3 Years Following Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Amirthalingam, Gayatri; Campbell, Helen; Ribeiro, Sonia; Fry, Norman K.; Ramsay, Mary; Miller, Elizabeth; Andrews, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of maternal immunization in preventing infant pertussis was first demonstrated in England, 1 year after the program using diphtheria–tetanus–5-component acellular pertussis–inactivated polio vaccine (dT5aP-IPV) was introduced in 2012. Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed pertussis has been sustained >90% in the 3 years following its introduction, despite changing to another acellular vaccine with different antigen composition. Consistent with this, disease incidence in infants <3 months of age has remained low despite high activity persisting in those aged 1 year and older. Vaccine effectiveness against infant deaths was estimated at 95% (95% confidence interval, 79%–100%). Additional protection from maternal immunization is retained in infants who received their first dose of the primary series. There is no longer evidence of additional protection from maternal vaccination after the third infant dose. Although numbers are small and ongoing assessment is required, there is no evidence of increased risk of disease after primary immunization in infants whose mothers received maternal vaccination. PMID:27838678

  12. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Do words cue children’s visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information. PMID:24720802

  13. A statistical skull geometry model for children 0-3 years old.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Park, Byoung-Keon; Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Jinhuan; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hoff, Carrie N; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Head injury is the leading cause of fatality and long-term disability for children. Pediatric heads change rapidly in both size and shape during growth, especially for children under 3 years old (YO). To accurately assess the head injury risks for children, it is necessary to understand the geometry of the pediatric head and how morphologic features influence injury causation within the 0-3 YO population. In this study, head CT scans from fifty-six 0-3 YO children were used to develop a statistical model of pediatric skull geometry. Geometric features important for injury prediction, including skull size and shape, skull thickness and suture width, along with their variations among the sample population, were quantified through a series of image and statistical analyses. The size and shape of the pediatric skull change significantly with age and head circumference. The skull thickness and suture width vary with age, head circumference and location, which will have important effects on skull stiffness and injury prediction. The statistical geometry model developed in this study can provide a geometrical basis for future development of child anthropomorphic test devices and pediatric head finite element models.

  14. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children’s communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  15. Successful Medical Treatment of Adult Nesidioblastosis With Pasireotide over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Schwetz, Verena; Horvath, Karl; Kump, Patrizia; Lackner, Carolin; Perren, Aurel; Forrer, Flavio; Pieber, Thomas R.; Treiber, Gerlies; Sourij, Harald; Mader, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nesidioblastosis is a rare cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults. Diagnosis is often challenging and therapeutic options are scarce. In 2009, a 46-year-old female patient presented with recurrent severe hypoglycemia and immediate recovery after glucose ingestion. Although 72-h-fasting test was positive, various imaging technologies (sonography, computed tomography, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, dopamine receptor positron emission tomography [DOPA-PET]) were negative. Endoscopic ultrasound revealed a lesion in the pancreatic corpus, whereas selective arterial calcium stimulation test, portal venous sampling and GLP-1-receptor scintigraphy were indicative of a lesion in the pancreatic tail, which was surgically removed. The histopathologic examination revealed beta cell hyperplasia and microadenomas expressing glucagon. After surgery, the patient was free of symptoms for 6 months, after which hypoglycemic episodes recurred. After unsuccessful treatment with corticosteroids and somatostatin analogs, treatment with pasireotide, a novel somatostatin analog with high affinity to somatostatin receptor 5 and a possible side effect of hyperglycemia, was initiated (0.6 mg BID). To date, our patient has been free of severe hypoglycemic episodes ever since. Yearly repeated imaging procedures have shown no abnormities over the last 3 years. We report for the first time that pasireotide was successfully used in the treatment of adult nesidioblastosis. PMID:27057885

  16. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72 hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day. Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment. PMID:25906092

  17. Restrictions on cosmogenic neutrinos and UHECR from Fermi 3 years data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Kalashev, Oleg; Semikoz, Dmitri V.

    2012-07-01

    Ultra-high energy cosmic ray protons accelerated in astrophysical objects produce secondary electromagnetic cascades during propagation in the cosmic microwave and infrared backgrounds. Those cascades contribute to the GeV-TeV diffuse photon flux, measured by Fermi LAT experiment. Recent studies of 3 years of Fermi LAT data have shown that diffuse gamma-ray background at E > 10GeV is about factor of 2 smaller then original one year data. This affects both models of UHECR and secondary cosmogenic neutrino fluxes. We show the allowed range of cosmogenic neutrino fluxes scanning over unknown UHECR parameters such as injected proton maximum energy and power law index, evolution of sources, systematic shift of UHECR energy scale. We consider three evolution models in which the UHECR sources are assumed to have the same evolution of either the star formation rate (SFR), or the gamma-ray burst (GRB) rate, or the active galactic nuclei (AGN) rate in the Universe and found that the last two are disfavored (and in the dip model rejected) by the new VHE gamma-ray background. We show that the largest fluxes predicted in the dip model would be detectable by IceCube in about 10 years of observation and are within the reach of a few years of observation with the ARA project. In the incomplete UHECR model in which protons are assumed to dominate only above 1019 eV, the cosmogenic neutrino fluxes could be a factor of 2 or 3 larger.

  18. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information.

  19. Diffuse Spinal Leptomeningeal Spread of a Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a 3-year-old Child.

    PubMed

    Alyeldien, Ameer; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Cheko, Azad; Höll, Tanja; Scholz, Martin; Petridis, Athanasios K

    2016-03-25

    Pilocytic astrocytomas correspond to low-grade gliomas and therefore metastasize exceedingly rare. However, pilocytic astrocytomas are able to and leptomeningeal dissemination may be seen. What are the treatment options of these cases? We present a case report of a 3-year-old child with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm with leptomeningeal dissemination of the spinal meninges. Partial resection of the cerebral tumor has been performed. Since the leptomeningeal dissemination was seen all over the spinal meninges, the child did not undergo further surgical treatment. A wait and watch strategy were followed. Chemotherapy was initiated, if a 25% tumor growth was seen. Leptomeningeal dissemination of a pilocytic astrocytoma is seen so infrequently that no standard therapy is established. Since these metastases may occur even up to 2 decades after primary tumor resection, long-term follow-up is indicated. In case of spinal metastases, surgical treatment should be performed if feasible. Otherwise observation should be possessed and/or chemotherapy should be initiated.

  20. Diffuse Spinal Leptomeningeal Spread of a Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a 3-year-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Alyeldien, Ameer; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Cheko, Azad; Höll, Tanja; Scholz, Martin; Petridis, Athanasios K.

    2016-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas correspond to low-grade gliomas and therefore metastasize exceedingly rare. However, pilocytic astrocytomas are able to and leptomeningeal dissemination may be seen. What are the treatment options of these cases? We present a case report of a 3-year-old child with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm with leptomeningeal dissemination of the spinal meninges. Partial resection of the cerebral tumor has been performed. Since the leptomeningeal dissemination was seen all over the spinal meninges, the child did not undergo further surgical treatment. A wait and watch strategy were followed. Chemotherapy was initiated, if a 25% tumor growth was seen. Leptomeningeal dissemination of a pilocytic astrocytoma is seen so infrequently that no standard therapy is established. Since these metastases may occur even up to 2 decades after primary tumor resection, long-term follow-up is indicated. In case of spinal metastases, surgical treatment should be performed if feasible. Otherwise observation should be possessed and/or chemotherapy should be initiated. PMID:27162602

  1. Trace Element Status (Iron, Zinc, Copper, Chromium, Cobalt, and Nickel) in Iron-Deficiency Anaemia of Children under 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Angelova, Maria Georgieva; Petkova-Marinova, Tsvetelina Valentinova; Pogorielov, Maksym Vladimirovich; Loboda, Andrii Nikolaevich; Nedkova-Kolarova, Vania Nedkova; Bozhinova, Atanaska Naumova

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine trace element status and aetiologic factors for development of trace elements deficiencies in children with iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) aged 0 to 3 years. Contingent and Methods. 30 patients of the University Hospital, Pleven, Bulgaria—I group; 48 patients of the Sumy Regional Child's Clinical Hospital, Sumy, Ukraine—II group; 25 healthy controls were investigated. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, chromium, cobalt, and nickel were determined spectrophotometrically and by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results. Because the obtained serum levels of zinc, copper, and chromium were near the lower reference limits, I group was divided into IA and IB. In IA group, serum concentrations were lower than the reference values for 47%, 57%, and 73% of patients, respectively. In IB group, these were within the reference values. In II group, results for zinc, cobalt, and nickel were significantly lower (P < 0.05), and results for copper were significantly higher in comparison to controls. Conclusion. Low serum concentrations of zinc, copper, cobalt, and nickel were mainly due to inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, and micronutrient interactions in both studied groups. Increased serum copper in II group was probably due to metabolic changes resulting from adaptations in IDA. Data can be used for developing a diagnostic algorithm for IDA. PMID:24839556

  2. A 3-year study on occurrence of emerging contaminants in an urban stream of São Paulo State of Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campanha, Mariele B; Awan, Almas Taj; de Sousa, Diana N R; Grosseli, Guilherme M; Mozeto, Antonio A; Fadini, Pedro S

    2015-05-01

    This manuscript reports a 3-year study on occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and triclosan in surface waters of a central urban region of São Paulo State of Southeast Brazil (the Monjolinho River in São Carlos). Water samples collected once at every 2 months were pre-concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The most frequently detected compounds in higher concentrations were caffeine, paracetamol, and atenolol (maximum concentrations 129,585, 30,421, and 8199 ng L(-1), respectively), while hormones estrone and 17-β-estradiol were the least detected, in levels up to 14.8 ng L(-1). There was an increasing trend in concentrations of most of the compounds along the river course, especially downstream of the river where there is discharge of both wastewater treatment plant effluent and raw sewage from a particular region of São Carlos city. Concentrations of contaminants were higher during dry periods as a result of decline in the water levels. Decrease in concentrations near the river mouth occurred to different extents for each compound. It was high for caffeine and atenolol, but was very low for carbamazepine and diclofenac. The present study reports the first data about the occurrence of some major emerging contaminants in the Monjolinho River. Besides its regional significance, this work may assist in composing a dataset for water contamination diagnosis focusing on emerging contaminants, both in the Brazilian as well as in the Global studies related to aquatic ecosystems. Such datasets can be helpful for making future public policies on water quality, since these compounds are not yet legally regulated.

  3. Sex differences in the quality of life of patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention after a 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Polańska, Beata; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Dudek, Krzysztof; Łoboz-Grudzień, Krystyna

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to analyze the dynamics of quality of life (QoL) changes after 36 months from the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) depending on sex and identify baseline predictors of the follow-up QoL of patients hospitalized for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and subjected to PCI. Methods and results The study included 137 patients, females (n=67) and males (n=70), with ACS who underwent PCI. The QoL was assessed using the MacNew Heart Disease Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire. The group of females scored lower in all the domains of the MacNew Heart Disease Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire in the initial measurement (B1), in the measurement after 6 months (B2), and in the long-term follow-up measurement (36 months – B3). Despite the fact that both groups achieved improved QoL, its values were higher in the males. The average growth rate of the QoL score in the period from the sixth month to 36th month was higher in females than in males. In the univariate and multivariate analyses, significant independent predictors with a negative influence on the long-term QoL score included female sex (ρ=−0.190, β=−0.21), age >60 years (ρ=−0.255, β=−0.186), and diabetes (ρ=−0.216, β=−0.216). Conclusion In a 36-month follow-up of ACS patients treated with PCI, there were no statistically significant differences in QoL between sexes. In the entire cohort, there was improvement in QoL, which was higher in the case of the females studied. For the entire group, significant independent determinants of lower QoL 3 years after ACS included female sex, age >60 years, and diabetes. PMID:27499616

  4. Effects of kindergarten period on school readiness and motor abilities.

    PubMed

    Bala, Gustav; Krneta, Zeljko; Katić, Ratko

    2010-03-01

    A battery of 4 school-readiness tests and 16 motor tests were administered in a sample of 660 preschool children (333 male and 327 female) just about to enroll in the first grade, in order to analyze the effects of kindergarten period on school readiness and motor abilities. The sample of children was divided into six groups according to sex and duration kindergarten attendance (kindergarten period of 5 years, 3 years and 8-9 months). Study results showed the entire education and motor activities in kindergarten to contribute significantly to school-readiness and motor abilities ofchildren. The highest school readiness was found in the children that attended kindergarten for the longest period, whereas lowest school readiness was recorded in children that attended kindergarten for only one academic year or less before enrolling in the first grade.

  5. Estimating Body Composition in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: Comparison of Different Methods in a 3 Years Longitudinal Design

    PubMed Central

    Aerenhouts, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A recommended field method to assess body composition in adolescent sprint athletes is currently lacking. Existing methods developed for non-athletic adolescents were not longitudinally validated and do not take maturation status into account. This longitudinal study compared two field methods, i.e., a Bio Impedance Analysis (BIA) and a skinfold based equation, with underwater densitometry to track body fat percentage relative to years from age at peak height velocity in adolescent sprint athletes. In this study, adolescent sprint athletes (34 girls, 35 boys) were measured every 6 months during 3 years (age at start = 14.8 ± 1.5yrs in girls and 14.7 ± 1.9yrs in boys). Body fat percentage was estimated in 3 different ways: 1) using BIA with the TANITA TBF 410; 2) using a skinfold based equation; 3) using underwater densitometry which was considered as the reference method. Height for age since birth was used to estimate age at peak height velocity. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations between measurement methods at each occasion. Data were analyzed longitudinally using a multilevel cross-classified model with the PROC Mixed procedure. In boys, compared to underwater densitometry, the skinfold based formula revealed comparable values for body fatness during the study period whereas BIA showed a different pattern leading to an overestimation of body fatness starting from 4 years after age at peak height velocity. In girls, both the skinfold based formula and BIA overestimated body fatness across the whole range of years from peak height velocity. The skinfold based method appears to give an acceptable estimation of body composition during growth as compared to underwater densitometry in male adolescent sprinters. In girls, caution is warranted when interpreting estimations of body fatness by both BIA and a skinfold based formula since both methods tend to give an overestimation. PMID:26317426

  6. Community action for preventing HIV in Cambodia: evaluation of a 3-year project.

    PubMed

    Sopheab, Heng; Fylkesnes, Knut; Lim, Yi; Godwin, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The 'Community Action for Preventing HIV/AIDS Project' was implemented in four provinces in Cambodia (2001-04) to support a comprehensive set of HIV prevention efforts. Implementation was strictly monitored in terms of inputs, outputs and outcomes. We examine changes in these variables during the project period to assess the extent to which they were related to the project. Inputs and outputs were monitored regularly by supervision and quarterly project reports. Baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted on 10 target groups to measure changes in outcome indicators related to sexual risk behaviours, uses of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other indicators. The analyses use data from surveys and from project monitoring. Spending on HIV-related work at provincial level increased markedly, including investments in VCT, STI facilities and staff training. Yearly expenditure increased about 7-fold compared with years immediately preceding the project. VCT centres increased from 3 to 12, numbers of counsellors from 10 to 27, and numbers of client visits more than doubled. STI laboratory facilities increased from 0 to 6 with coverage of STI check-ups among sex workers increasing from 70% to 93% and a decline in men attending STI clinics. The survey results indicate significant changes in a number of major outcome indicators such as consistent condom use related to sex work (>80%), HIV testing and counselling after HIV tests, especially among police (42 to 72%, P < 0.001) and brothel-based sex workers (48 to 89%, P < 0.001). Self-reported STIs declined in most groups. Finally, the programmatic systems for planning, managing and monitoring implementation of activities at both central and provincial level, as well as technical guidelines, developed under the project have become the standard for the national programme. In conclusion, the project appears to have been comprehensive and a number of favourable

  7. Acute undifferentiated febrile illness in rural Cambodia: a 3-year prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Tara C; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects.

  8. Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Rural Cambodia: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844

  9. Schistosoma mansoni in infants (aged < 3 years) along the Ugandan shoreline of Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Odogwu, S E; Ramamurthy, N K; Kabatereine, N B; Kazibwe, F; Tukahebwa, E; Webster, J P; Fenwick, A; Stothard, J R

    2006-06-01

    In two complementary epidemiological surveys of villages on the Ugandan shoreline of Lake Victoria, the putative occurrence of intestinal schistosomiasis in the local infants (children aged < 3 years) was investigated. When, during the first survey, 136 mother-and-infant pairs from a total of 12 villages were studied, only 7% of the infants but 45% of the mothers were found to be egg-patent for Schistosoma mansoni infection. The use of dipstick tests for urine-circulating cathodic antigen indicated, however, a much higher prevalence, of approximately 40%, among the infants. In the second survey, urine samples and multiple, not single, stool samples were collected from another 19 mother-and-infant pairs in two of the 12 study villages (Bugoto and Bwondha), and a standardized questionnaire was implemented. The prevalence of egg-patent infection was then found to be markedly higher in the study infants from Bugoto (86%) than in those from Bwondha (25%). A greater level of mother-and-infant water contact, a higher abundance of (infected) Biomphalaria choanomphala, and an unusual lakeshore topology may explain why S. mansoni infection was so much more common in the Bugoto subjects than in the Bwondha. All but one of the infants studied in the second survey were found to be anaemic (with <110 g haemoglobin/litre). Taken together, these children were less likely to be found infected with hookworm (16%), Hymenolepis nana (11%) or Trichuris trichiura (5%) than with S. mansoni (47%). Infection with the parasites causing intestinal schistosomiasis can be common among the infants living in these lakeshore villages. Although the immediate and later-life clinical impacts of such infection have yet to be elucidated, such infants would probably benefit from regular de-worming. Mothers should be strongly encouraged to visit the nearest health-services clinic, with their infants, for any necessary anthelmintic treatment.

  10. Predictors of child-to-parent aggression: A 3-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gamez-Guadix, Manuel; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-05-01

    Although we rarely hear about it, children sometimes aggress against their parents. This is a difficult topic to study because abused parents and abusive children are both reluctant to admit the occurrence of child-to-parent aggression. There are very few research studies on this topic, and even fewer theoretical explanations of why it occurs. We predicted that exposure to violence in the home (e.g., parents aggressing against each other) and ineffective parenting (i.e., parenting that is overly permissive or lacks warmth) influences cognitive schemas of how children perceive themselves and the world around them (i.e., whether aggression is normal, whether they develop grandiose self-views, and whether they feel disconnected and rejected), which, in turn, predicts child-to-parent aggression. In a 3-year longitudinal study of 591 adolescents and their parents, we found that exposure to violence in Year 1 predicted child-to-parent aggression in Year 3. In addition, parenting characterized by lack of warmth in Year 1 was related to narcissistic and entitled self-views and disconnection and rejection schemas in Year 2, which, in turn, predicted child-to-mother and child-to-father aggression in Year 3. Gender comparisons indicated that narcissism predicted child-to-parent aggression only in boys and that exposure to violence was a stronger predictor of child-to-father violence in boys. This longitudinal study increases our understanding of the understudied but important topic of child-to-parent aggression, and will hopefully stimulate future research.

  11. Modified Pfannenstiel approach for radical retropubic prostatectomy: a 3-year experience.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, M; Ayyathurai, R; Nieder, A M; Soloway, M S

    2008-01-01

    A modified Pfannenstiel approach for radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) has been described previously. We present our experience with this approach for performing a RRP over the past 3 years. Between January 2003 and July 2006, 544 consecutive RRPs by modified Pfannenstiel approach between January 2003 and July 2006 were performed. We analyzed blood loss, transfusions, use of drain, pain score, analgesia and hospital stay. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks, three monthly for a year and six monthly thereafter. All clinical and operative variables were entered into a database and analyzed. A total of 544 men underwent RRP with median follow-up of 11 (s.d.+/-10.5) months. The mean age was 60 (s.d.+/-7) years. About 83, 91 and 95% of patients had nerve sparing, bladder neck preservation and a lymph node dissection, respectively. Fifty-three patients had a concurrent inguinal hernia repair through the same incision. Mean estimated blood loss was 431 (s.d.+/-267) ml. The pathological staging distribution was T2, 82%; T3a, 9%; and T3b, 9%. The mean pain score at days 1 and 7 were 3.7 (s.d.+/-2.5) and 3.3 (s.d.+/-3), respectively. The median hospital stay was 36 h (s.d.+/-24). About 5.5% have had biochemical recurrence. At 12 months 97% were continent and 46% potent. RRP using a modified Pfannenstiel approach offers safety and efficacy. It facilitates repair of associated inguinal hernia through the same incision.

  12. Summary of Medipix Technology's 3-Years in Space and Plans for Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    NASA has evaluated 7 Timepix-based radiation imaging detectors from the CERN-based Medipix2 collaboration on the International Space Station (ISS), collecting more than 3-years of data, as well on the December, 2014 EFT-1 mission testing the new Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. These data along with data collected at ground-based accelerator facilities including the NASA Space Radiation Lab (NSRL) at Brookhaven in the US, as well as at the HIMAC facility at the National Institute for Radiological Sciences in Japan, have allowed the development of software analysis techniques sufficient to provide a stand-alone accurate assessment of the space radiation environment for dosimetric purposes. Recent comparisons of the performance of the Timepix with both n-on-p and p-on-n Si sensors will be presented. The further evolution of the Timepix technology by the Medipix3 collaboration in the form of the Timepix3 chip, which employs a continuous data-driven readout scheme, is being evaluated for possible use in future space research applications. Initial performance evaluations at accelerators will be reported. The Medipix2 Collaboration is also in the process of designing an updated version of the Timepix chip, called the Timepix2, which will continue the frame-based readout scheme of the current Timepix chip, but add simultaneous charge encoding using the Time-Over-Threshold (TOT) and first-hit Time-of-Arrival (TOA) encoding. Current plans are to replace the Timepix by the Timepix2 with minimal reconfiguration of the supporting electronics. Longer-term plans include participation in the currently forming Medipix4 collaboration. A summary of these prospects will also be included.

  13. Disability multilevel modelling in first episodes of psychosis at 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mellor-Marsá, Blanca; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cabello, María; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Setién-Suero, Esther; Vázquez-Bourgon, Javier; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa

    2017-01-03

    The description of longitudinal bio-psycho-social profiles in FEP samples may be useful for the prediction of disability trajectories. This study aimed to describe the differences between disability status of FEP patients at baseline and their change over time, analysing how variables associated to the psychological status, and the environment of the patient can affect his or her disability trajectory, once the influence of health condition and socio-demographic variables has been controlled for. Using data from a 3-year follow-up study on early psychosis (PAFIP), a multilevel structure in which the longitudinal measurements (within level) were nested within the individuals (between level), was modeled. The contribution of the different time-varying and time-invariant variables to the patients' disability outcomes was tested through eight nested models. Consecutive models, that successively added health related, socio-demographic, psychological and environmental variables to the unconditional model were estimated, by means of deviance and fit statistics. The present work revealed the importance of psychological and environmental factors in the explanation of disability changes in the context of FEP. We may conclude that longitudinal assessments of time-varying predictors - living situation (b=-0.10, p<0.05), economic support (b=0.11, p<0.01) and insight (b=-0.08, p<0.05) - explain a relevant amount of disability variation over time, independently from symptoms' severity, duration of untreated psychosis, age, gender and years of education. Additionally, the level of premorbid adjustment (b=0.05, p<0.001) was associated to differences in disability outcomes among FEP patients.

  14. Categorization and abstraction abilities in 3-year-old children: a comparison with monkey data.

    PubMed

    Bovet, Dalila; Vauclair, Jacques; Blaye, Agnès

    2005-01-01

    Three-year-old children were tested on three categorization tasks of increasing levels of abstraction (used with adult baboons in an earlier study): the first was a conceptual categorization task (food vs toys), the second a perceptual matching task (same vs different objects), and the third a relational matching task in which the children had to sort pairs according to whether or not the two items belonged to the same or different categories. The children were tested using two different procedures, the first a replication of the procedure used with the baboons (pulling one rope for a category or a relationship between two objects, and another rope for the other category or relationship), the second a task based upon children's prior experiences with sorting objects (putting in the same box objects belonging to the same category or a pair of objects exemplifying the same relation). The children were able to solve the first task (conceptual categorization) when tested with the sorting into boxes procedure, and the second task (perceptual matching) when tested with both procedures. The children were able to master the third task (relational matching) only when the rules were clearly explained to them, but not when they could only watch sorting examples. In fact, the relational matching task without explanation requires analogy abilities that do not seem to be fully developed at 3 years of age. The discrepancies in performances between children tested with the two procedures, with the task explained or not, and the discrepancies observed between children and baboons are discussed in relation to differences between species and/or problem-solving strategies.

  15. Natural experience modulates the processing of older adult faces in young adults and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Just like other face dimensions, age influences the way faces are processed by adults as well as by children. However, it remains unclear under what conditions exactly such influence occurs at both ages, in that there is some mixed evidence concerning the presence of a systematic processing advantage for peer faces (own-age bias) across the lifespan. Inconsistency in the results may stem from the fact that the individual's face representation adapts to represent the most predominant age traits of the faces present in the environment, which is reflective of the individual's specific living conditions and social experience. In the current study we investigated the processing of younger and older adult faces in two groups of adults (Experiment 1) and two groups of 3-year-old children (Experiment 2) who accumulated different amounts of experience with elderly people. Contact with elderly adults influenced the extent to which both adult and child participants showed greater discrimination abilities and stronger sensitivity to configural/featural cues in younger versus older adult faces, as measured by the size of the inversion effect. In children, the size of the inversion effect for older adult faces was also significantly correlated with the amount of contact with elderly people. These results show that, in both adults and children, visual experience with older adult faces can tune perceptual processing strategies to the point of abolishing the discrimination disadvantage that participants typically manifest for those faces in comparison to younger adult faces.

  16. Water Quality Conditions Monitored at the Corps’ Gavins Point Project in Nebraska/South Dakota during the 3-Year Period 2008 through 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    Recreation Beneficial Use using cyanobacteria toxins data. ................................................................... 26 Table 4-5. State of...Many species of cyanobacteria can use or fix elemental or gaseous N2 as a nitrogen source. The most common forms of nitrogen in aquatic systems are...Phytoplankton can be generally grouped as diatoms, green algae, cyanobacteria , or cryptomonad algae. Chlorophyll a represents a common variable used to

  17. A study of blood and urine alcohol concentrations in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Scott-Ham, Michael; Burton, Fiona C

    2006-04-01

    This paper details the alcohol concentrations found in a selection of 1,014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault analysed at The Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs. The samples were collected from a complainant within 12 h of an alleged incident in 391 of the 1014 cases analysed. Of these, the majority (81%) contained alcohol. The presence of alcohol itself was not surprising as most of the alleged incidents were associated with social situations such as at a public house, bar, night-club or party, where it is expected that alcohol would have been consumed. However, 233 (60%) of the 391 cases had a high back-calculated figure, where high is defined as greater than 150 milligrams per 100 millilitres (150 mg%). Some of these samples were also found to contain illicit drugs. This is the first paper to our knowledge which discusses in detail the significance of the alcohol concentrations found in cases of this type.

  18. Water Quality Conditions Monitored at the Corps’ Oahe Project in South Dakota during the 3-Year Period 2005 through 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    represented by taxa collected in the phytoplankton samples: Bacillariophyta (Diatoms), Chlorophyta (Green Algae), Chrysophyta (Golden Algae...prevalence of these taxonomic divisions in the reservoir, based on taxa occurrence, were Bacillariophyta > Chlorophyta > Cyanobacteria > Cryptophyta...occasion), Cyclotella sp. (1 occasion), Navicula sp. (1 occasion), Synedra sp. (1 occasion), and Tabellaria sp.; Chlorophyta Cosmarium sp. (3 occasions

  19. Water Quality Conditions Monitored at the Corps’ Fort Peck Project in Montana during the 3-Year Period 2004 through 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Chlorophyta (Green Algae), Chrysophyta (Golden Algae), Cryptophyta (Cryptomonad Algae), Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae), Euglenophyta (Euglenoid...were Bacillariophyta > Chlorophyta /Cryptophyta/Cyanobacteria > Pyrrophyta > Chrysophyta >> Euglenophyta. The diatoms were generally the most prevalent...through 2006. Site Date Biovolume (um3) Bacillariophyta Chlorophyta Chrysophyta Cryptophyta Cyanobacteria Euglenophyta Pyrrophyta L1 May 2004

  20. Mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit typing and mutational profile for multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis surveillance in Portugal: a 3-year period overview.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla; Perdigão, João; Jordão, Luísa; Portugal, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    Multidrug tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) cases constitute a serious health problem in Portugal, of which the majority of isolates belong to the Lisboa family and the Q1 cluster, highly related to the Lisboa family. Here we sought to investigate the molecular basis of resistant TB as well as to determine the prevalence of specific drug resistance mutations and their association with MDR-TB and/or XDR-TB. In total, 74 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected in Lisbon Health Region were genotyped by 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR), and the mutational profile associated with first- and second-line drug resistance was studied. Seven new mutations were found, whilst the remaining 28 mutations had been previously associated with drug resistance. None of the mutations was specifically associated with MDR-TB. The mutational patterns observed among isolates belonging to Lisboa3 and Q1 clusters were also observed in isolates with unique MIRU-VNTR patterns but closely related to these strains. Such data suggest that the genotyping technique employed discriminates isolates with the same mutational profile. To establish the most adequate genotyping technique, the discriminatory power of three different MIRU-VNTR sets was analysed. The 15-loci MIRU-VNTR set showed adequate discriminatory power, comparable with the 24-loci set, allowing clustering of 60% and 86% of the MDR-TB and XDR-TB isolates, respectively, the majority of which belonged to the Lisboa3 and Q1 clusters. From an epidemiological standpoint, this study suggests combined mutational and genotyping analysis as a valuable tool for drug resistance surveillance.

  1. Crystalline-amorphous interfaces and their relation to grain boundary films. A report for the 3-year period, 15 November 1988--14 November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, C.B.

    1992-02-03

    In presence of glass in grain boundaries greatly enhances sintering, in part, because transport of matter along and across the intergranular regions is faster. The glass does not simply act as a catalyst but also changes the character of the interfacial regions. In particular, it tends to encourage faceting of the grains; the scale of this faceting may vary from nanometers to microns. After processing, the glass may remain as a thin layer in the interface during preparation of the polycrystalline compact as was initially demonstrated for Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and proposed for other ceramics. The glass may also crystallize to form an intergranular crystalline layer or it may withdraw from the planar interfaces into three-grain and four-grain junctions (the dewetting process). The present program has begun to examine how glass affects and interacts with crystalline ceramics. The main aim of the program is to examine how glass moves into and out of grain boundaries and why this movement takes. By understanding this process we will be better able to control this important aspect of many ceramic materials. Since TEM is the main tool used in this investigation, we will continue to develop methods for analyzing interfaces as part of this program.

  2. Water Quality Conditions Monitored at the Corps’ Fort Randall Project in South Dakota during the 3-Year Period 2006 through 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    the onset of snowmelt. The annual melting of mountain and plains snowpacks along with spring and 1 2 summer rainfall produces the annual runoff...into the Mainstem System. In a typical year, mountain snowpack , plains snowpack , and rainfall events, respectively, contribute 50, 25, and 25

  3. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... may develop problems as a result of a hormone imbalance. For example, disorders of the thyroid gland can cause menstrual irregularities if the levels of thyroid hormone in the blood become too low or too ...

  4. Risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1–3 years in NSW Australia: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Unintentional poisoning in young children is an important public health issue. Age pattern studies have demonstrated that children aged 1–3 years have the highest levels of poisoning risk among children aged 0–4 years, yet little research has been conducted regarding risk factors specific to this three-year age group and the methodologies employed varied greatly. The purpose of the current study is to investigate a broad range of potential risk factors for unintentional poisoning in children aged 1–3 years using appropriate methodologies. Methods Four groups of children, one case group (children who had experienced a poisoning event) and three control groups (children who had been ‘injured’, ‘sick’ or who were ‘healthy’), and their mothers (mother-child dyads) were enrolled into a case–control study. All mother-child dyads participated in a 1.5-hour child developmental screening and observation, with mothers responding to a series of questionnaires at home. Data were analysed as three case–control pairs with multivariate analyses used to control for age and sex differences between child cases and controls. Results Five risk factors were included in the final multivariate models for one or more case–control pairs. All three models found that children whose mothers used more positive control in their interactions during a structured task had higher odds of poisoning. Two models showed that maternal psychiatric distress increased poisoning risk (poisoning-injury and poisoning-healthy). Individual models identified the following variables as risk factors: less proximal maternal supervision during risk taking activities (poisoning-injury), medicinal substances stored in more accessible locations in bathrooms (poisoning-sick) and lower total parenting stress (poisoning-healthy). Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that the nature of the caregiver-child relationship and caregiver attributes play an important role in

  5. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  6. Learning higher-order generalizations through free play: Evidence from 2- and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sim, Zi L; Xu, Fei

    2017-04-01

    Constructivist views of cognitive development often converge on 2 key points: (a) the child's goal is to build large conceptual structures for understanding the world, and (b) the child plays an active role in developing these structures. While previous research has demonstrated that young children show a precocious capacity for concept and theory building when they are provided with helpful data within training settings, and that they explore their environment in ways that may promote learning, it remains an open question whether young children are able to build larger conceptual structures using self-generated evidence, a form of active learning. In the current study, we examined whether children can learn high-order generalizations (which form the basis for larger conceptual structures) through free play, and whether they can do so as effectively as when provided with relevant data. Results with 2- and 3-year-old children over 4 experiments indicate robust learning through free play, and generalization performance was comparable between free play and didactic conditions. Therefore, young children's self-directed learning supports the development of higher-order generalizations, laying the foundation for building larger conceptual structures and intuitive theories. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Predictive Factors for Subjective Improvement in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Patients with Nonsurgical Treatment: A 3-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Matsudaira, Ko; Hara, Nobuhiro; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kunogi, Junichi; Yamazaki, Takashi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Atsushi, Seichi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the predictive factors for subjective improvement with nonsurgical treatment in consecutive patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Materials and Methods Patients with LSS were enrolled from 17 medical centres in Japan. We followed up 274 patients (151 men; mean age, 71 ± 7.4 years) for 3 years. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the predictive factors for subjective symptom improvement with nonsurgical treatment. Results In 30% of patients, conservative treatment led to a subjective improvement in the symptoms; in 70% of patients, the symptoms remained unchanged, worsened, or required surgical treatment. The multivariable analysis of predictive factors for subjective improvement with nonsurgical treatment showed that the absence of cauda equina symptoms (only radicular symptoms) had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50–7.31); absence of degenerative spondylolisthesis/scoliosis had an OR of 2.53 (95% CI: 1.13–5.65); <1-year duration of illness had an OR of 3.81 (95% CI: 1.46–9.98); and hypertension had an OR of 2.09 (95% CI: 0.92–4.78). Conclusions The predictive factors for subjective symptom improvement with nonsurgical treatment in LSS patients were the presence of only radicular symptoms, absence of degenerative spondylolisthesis/scoliosis, and an illness duration of <1 year. PMID:26863214

  8. Production of Mandarin tones by 3-year-old children acquiring L1 (Mandarin) in an L2 (English) environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2004-05-01

    Thirteen monolingual Mandarin-speaking children residing in the U.S. were recruited to examine their production of the four Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. A picture-naming task was used to elicit the children's productions of lexical tones in isolated words and in sentence final position. Four mothers were asked to say the same set of words to their children in a picture reading activity. The children's and the mothers' productions were recorded and low-pass filtered at 500 and 400 Hz, respectively, to eliminate phonemic and semantic information. Ten Mandarin-speaking judges were recruited to identify the children's and adults' tone productions from the filtered stimuli. Contrary to the findings of L1 research conducted in countries where Mandarin is the language of the environment, the present results revealed that the lexical tones produced by 3-year-old children acquiring Mandarin as their first language in the U.S. were not yet adultlike. Children's tone productions were more difficult to categorize than the mothers' productions. The judges had significantly more difficulty identifying children's dipping tones than the children's level tones, rising tones, or falling tones, suggesting that the dipping tone posed the most difficulties for the children.

  9. Longitudinal analysis of immune function in the first 3 years of life in thymectomized neonates during cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mancebo, E; Clemente, J; Sanchez, J; Ruiz-Contreras, J; De Pablos, P; Cortezon, S; Romo, E; Paz-Artal, E; Allende, L M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of neonatal thymectomy in the functional capacity of the immune system. We selected a group of 23 subjects, who had undergone thymectomy in their first 30 days of life, during an intervention for congenital heart disease. Several parameters of the immune system were evaluated during their first 3 years of life. Lymphocyte populations and subpopulations (including naive, memory and effector subpopulations), T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ repertoire, response of T cells following in vitro stimulation by mitogen, quantification of immunoglobulins, TCR excision circles (TRECS) and interleukin (IL)-7 were measured. We found that neonatal thymectomy produces long-term diminution in total lymphocyte counts, especially in naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Additionally, TRECS were decreased, and plasma IL-7 levels increased. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between absolute CD4+ T cells and IL-7 (r = −0·470, P = 0·02). The patients did not suffer more infectious events than healthy control children, but thymectomy in neonates resulted in a significant decrease in T lymphocyte levels and TRECS, consistent with cessation of thymopoiesis. This could produce a compromise in immune function later in life, especially if the patients suffer T cell depletion and need a reconstitution of immune function. PMID:18811694

  10. The Predictive Utility of Conduct Disorder Symptoms in Preschool Children: A 3-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Rolon-Arroyo, Benjamin; Arnold, David H.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms often emerge during the preschool years, but it is not clear whether they predict later symptoms. The present study examined whether age 3 CD symptoms predict age 6 CD symptoms beyond oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder—hyperactive/impulsive (ADHD HI) symptoms. Participants were 216 preschool children (MAge = 44.19 months), including an externalizing sample (n = 161) and a comparison group (n = 55). Parents were administered a diagnostic interview when children were 3 years old and again three years later. The externalizing sample exhibited more CD symptoms than the comparison sample. In the externalizing sample, initial CD symptoms predicted later CD symptoms above and beyond ODD and ADHD HI symptoms; this relation was stronger for boys than girls. Stealing, property destruction, and fighting independently predicted later CD symptoms. CD symptoms also predicted subsequent ADHD HI symptoms and predicted ODD symptoms at level that approached significance. Results support the predictive validity of CD symptoms in preschool. PMID:23979222

  11. Evaluation of bacteremias in a Turkish university hospital: 3-year outcomes.

    PubMed

    Demirdal, Tuna; Demirturk, Nese; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Tufan, Gulnihal

    2007-01-01

    In this retrospective study, the investigators examined blood cultures from patients that had been diagnosed with bacteremias over a 3-y period. The study was conduced at Kocatepe University Hospital (Middle Anatolia, Turkey). Blood samples that arrived at the university's microbiology laboratory between 2002 and 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. These samples were classified as contamination, false positivity, community-acquired bacteremia (CAB), or hospital-acquired bacteremia (HAB). Patient age and sex, foci of bacteremia, present comorbidities, predisposing factors, pathogens, and mortality rates were evaluated. A total of 1783 blood cultures that had been drawn from 1441 patients during this 3-y period were examined retrospectively. Of 354 positive isolates, 61 (17.2%) were CABs and 293 (82.8%) were HABs. In HABs, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (37.5%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (29.7%), and Escherichia coli (10.2%); in CABs, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were S aureus (29.5%), Brucella spp (26.2%), and E coli (24.6%). Crude mortality rates were determined to be 15.2% for HABs and 12.7% for CABs. This study yielded data on the most common foci of bacteremia, microbiologic factors, and the epidemiology associated with HABs and CABs. It is hoped that these data will enhance empirical antibiotic therapeutic approaches, thereby preventing delays in treatment and decreasing mortality rates associated with bacteremias.

  12. Risk factors for death and the 3-year survival of patients with systemic sclerosis: the French ItinérAIR-Sclérodermie study

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Patrick; Gressin, Virginie; Diot, Elisabeth; Allanore, Yannick; Sibilia, Jean; Launay, David; Mouthon, Luc; Jego, Patrick; Cabane, Jean; de Groote, Pascal; Chabrol, Amélie; Lazareth, Isabelle; Guillevin, Loïc; Clerson, Pierre; Humbert, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. This longitudinal study investigated survival, risk factors and causes of death in the multicentre ItinérAIR-Sclérodermie cohort of patients with SSc without severe pulmonary fibrosis or severe left heart disease at baseline. Methods. At 3-year follow-up, vital status was obtained from investigators or French national death records. Causes of death were classified as SSc-related or otherwise. Data were censored at 37 months, time of death or loss to follow-up, whichever was earlier. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate survival analyses were conducted using the Cox model. Results. In total, 546 patients were followed for a median duration of 37 months, representing 1547 patient-years. At baseline, the majority of patients were female, with lcSSc, mean age 54.9 ± 13.0 years and mean duration of SSc of 8.8 ± 8.1 years. In total, 47 patients died, giving a 3-year survival of 91.1% and cumulative mortality of 3.04 deaths per 100 patient-years; 17 deaths (32.2%) resulted from pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and eight (17.1%) from cancer. Of the 47 patients with PAH at baseline, 20 died during follow-up, giving a 3-year survival of 56.3%. In a multivariate analysis, PAH [hazard ratio (HR) 7.246], age at first symptom (HR 1.052), duration of SSc (HR 1.047 per year) and Rodnan skin score (per one point) (HR 1.045) were associated with increased mortality. Conclusion. This 3-year study observed survival and mortality estimates that were comparable with previous reports. PAH increased the HR for mortality in patients with SSc, justifying yearly echocardiographic screening. PMID:19174571

  13. The effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on childhood growth patterns from birth to 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Zabaneh, Rachel; Smith, Lynne M; LaGasse, Linda L; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Della Grotta, Sheri; Dansereau, Lynne M; Lin, Hai; Neal, Charles; Lester, Barry M

    2012-03-01

    We examined the effects of prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure on growth parameters from birth to age 3 years. The 412 subjects included (n = 204 exposed) were enrolled at birth in the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle study, a longitudinal study assessing the effects of prenatal MA exposure on childhood outcomes. Individual models were used to examine the effects of prenatal MA exposure on weight, head circumference, height, and weight-for-length growth trajectories. After adjusting for covariates, height trajectory was lower in the exposed versus the comparison children (p = 0.021) over the first 3 years of life. Both groups increased height on average by 2.27 cm per month by age 3 years. In term subjects, MA exposure was also associated with a lower height trajectory (p = 0.034), with both the exposed and comparison groups gaining 2.25 cm per month by age 3 years. There was no difference in weight, head circumference, or weight-for-length growth trajectories between the comparison and the exposed groups. Children exposed prenatally to MA have a modest decrease in height growth trajectory during the first 3 years of life with no observed difference in weight, head circumference, or weight-for-length trajectories.

  14. Posttraumatic stress disorder after motor vehicle accidents: 3-year follow-up of a prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Mayou, R A; Ehlers, A; Bryant, B

    2002-06-01

    The paper presents a 3-year follow-up of a prospective longitudinal study of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after motor vehicle accidents (J. Abnormal Psychol., 107 (1998) 508). Participants were 546 patients who had been assessed when attending an emergency clinic shortly after a motor vehicle accident, and at 3 months and 1 year afterwards. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD at 3 years was 11%. Maintaining psychological factors, i.e. negative interpretation of intrusions, rumination, thought suppression and anger cognitions, were important in predicting the persistence of PTSD at 3 years, as were persistent health and financial problems after the accident. Other predictors were female sex, hospital admission for injuries, perceived threat and dissociation during the accident, and litigation.

  15. Smoking prevalence amongst UK Armed Forces recruits: changes in behaviour after 3 years follow-up and factors affecting smoking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bray, Isabelle; Richardson, P; Harrison, K

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate smoking prevalence of Tri-Service recruits, and changes in smoking behaviour at 3-year follow-up, by trade group and gender. Associations with educational attainment and deprivation were also assessed. METHODS: Analysis of a survey into the health behaviours of 10 531 recruits in 1998/1999. A follow-up 3 years later measured changes in behaviour. Correlation and multiple regression was used to investigate the relationship between smoking prevalence in each trade group and both educational attainment and deprivation, using Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004 (IMD 2004) scores. RESULTS: Army recruits exhibited a significantly higher smoking prevalence (45%) than Royal Navy recruits (34%) and Royal Air Force (RAF) recruits (31%). There were marked differences between smoking levels amongst officer cadets (12%, 20% and 10% in the Navy, Army and RAF, respectively) and other rank trade groups (24-56%), with the exception of the Marines (13%). At follow up, smoking had generally increased, and in some parts of the infantry had risen to 66%. There was a clear correlation between smoking at enlistment and both educational attainment (correlation coefficient=0.7, p<0.005) and deprivation score (correlation coefficient=0.8, p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: There were clear differences between Services, rank and trade groups in smoking prevalence at recruitment. Smoking levels increased in the 3 years after recruitment to the Armed Forces. Deprivation was more important than educational attainment in determining the smoking status of recruits.

  16. Assessment of changes in risk behaviors during 3 years of posttrial follow-up of male circumcision trial participants uncircumcised at trial closure in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangrong; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nalugoda, Fred; Musoke, Richard; Kagaayi, Joseph; Latkin, Carl; Ssekubugu, Robert; Lutalo, Tom; Nantume, Betty; Boaz, Iga; Wawer, Maria; Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald

    2012-11-15

    Risk compensation associated with male circumcision has been a concern for male circumcision scale-up programs. Using posttrial data collected during 2007-2011 on 2,137 male circumcision trial participants who were uncircumcised at trial closure in Rakai, Uganda, the authors evaluated their sexual behavioral changes during approximately 3 years' follow-up after trial closure. Eighty-one percent of the men self-selected for male circumcision during the period, and their sociodemographic and risk profiles were comparable to those of men remaining uncircumcised. Linear models for marginal probabilities of repeated outcomes estimate that 3.3% (P < 0.0001) of the male circumcision acceptors reduced their engagement in nonmarital relations, whereas there was no significant change among men remaining uncircumcised. Significant decreases in condom use occurred in both male circumcision acceptors (-9.2% with all partners and -7.0% with nonmarital partners) and nonacceptors (-12.4% and -13.5%, respectively), and these were predominantly among younger men. However, the magnitudes of decrease in condom use were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Additionally, significant decreases in sex-related alcohol consumption were observed in both groups (-7.8% in male circumcision acceptors and -6.1% in nonacceptors), mainly among older men. In summary, there was no evidence of risk compensation associated with male circumcision among this cohort of men during 3 years of posttrial follow-up.

  17. Aggregate exposure approaches for parabens in personal care products: a case assessment for children between 0 and 3 years old.

    PubMed

    Gosens, Ilse; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; Ter Burg, Wouter; de Heer, Cees; Schuur, A Gerlienke

    2014-01-01

    In the risk assessment of chemical substances, aggregation of exposure to a substance from different sources via different pathways is not common practice. Focusing the exposure assessment on a substance from a single source can lead to a significant underestimation of the risk. To gain more insight on how to perform an aggregate exposure assessment, we applied a deterministic (tier 1) and a person-oriented probabilistic approach (tier 2) for exposure to the four most common parabens through personal care products in children between 0 and 3 years old. Following a deterministic approach, a worst-case exposure estimate is calculated for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. As an illustration for risk assessment, Margins of Exposure (MoE) are calculated. These are 991 and 4966 for methyl- and ethylparaben, and 8 and 10 for propyl- and butylparaben, respectively. In tier 2, more detailed information on product use has been obtained from a small survey on product use of consumers. A probabilistic exposure assessment is performed to estimate the variability and uncertainty of exposure in a population. Results show that the internal exposure for each paraben is below the level determined in tier 1. However, for propyl- and butylparaben, the percentile of the population with an exposure probability above the assumed "safe" MoE of 100, is 13% and 7%, respectively. In conclusion, a tier 1 approach can be performed using simple equations and default point estimates, and serves as a starting point for exposure and risk assessment. If refinement is warranted, the more data demanding person-oriented probabilistic approach should be used. This probabilistic approach results in a more realistic exposure estimate, including the uncertainty, and allows determining the main drivers of exposure. Furthermore, it allows to estimate the percentage of the population for which the exposure is likely to be above a specific value.

  18. Genealogy of periodic trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    de Adguiar, M.A.M.; Maldta, C.P.; de Passos, E.J.V.

    1986-05-20

    The periodic solutions of non-integrable classical Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom are numerically investigated. Curves of periodic families are given in plots of energy vs. period. Results are presented for this Hamiltonian: H = 1/2(p/sub x//sup 2/ + p/sub y//sup 2/) + 1/2 x/sup 2/ + 3/2 y/sup 2/ - x/sup 2/y + 1/12 x/sup 4/. Properties of the families of curves are pointed out. (LEW)

  19. Do Overgeneral Autobiographical Memories Predict Increased Psychopathological Symptoms in Community Youth? A 3-Year Longitudinal Investigation.

    PubMed

    Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Salmon, Karen; Jose, Paul E

    2017-03-03

    Research suggests that an overgeneral autobiographical memory style (i.e., retrieval of general memories when instructed to retrieve a specific episodic memory) represents a vulnerability marker for depression. Although adolescence is a period of high risk for the emergence of depression, little research has investigated the associations among overgeneral memory, psychopathology, and risk factors longitudinally in a community sample in this age group. We, therefore, investigated overgeneral memory, psychopathology (depression and anxiety), and rumination (an established risk factor for psychopathology) longitudinally in 269 typically-developing youth (125 females, 144 males) across 3 annual assessment points. We sought to determine whether 1) overgeneral memory would predict psychopathology across the entire sample, and 2) whether associations would vary as a function of longitudinal rumination growth. Across the entire sample, overgeneral memory did not predict psychopathology. For youth who reported elevated, and increasing, patterns of rumination over time, transient relationships between overgeneral memory and subsequent increases in anxiety were found. We conclude that overgeneral memory may represent a vulnerability marker for adverse psychological outcomes only for youth at risk for psychopathology.

  20. Planetary period oscillations in Saturn's magnetosphere: Coalescence and reversal of northern and southern periods in late northern spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provan, G.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Lamy, L.; Bunce, E. J.; Hunt, G. J.; Zarka, P.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate planetary period oscillations (PPOs) in Saturn's magnetosphere using Cassini magnetic field and Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) data over the interval from late 2012 to the end of 2015, beginning 3 years after vernal equinox and ending 1.5 years before northern solstice. Previous studies have shown that the northern and southern PPO periods converged across equinox from southern summer values 10.8 h for the southern system and 10.6 h for the northern system and near coalesced 1 year after equinox, before separating again with the southern period 10.69 h remaining longer than the northern 10.64 h. We show that these conditions ended in mid-2013 when the two periods coalesced at 10.66 h and remained so until mid-2014, increasing together to longer periods 10.70 h. During coalescence the two systems were locked near magnetic antiphase with SKR modulations in phase, a condition in which the effects of the generating rotating twin vortex flows in the two ionospheres reinforce each other via hemisphere-to-hemisphere coupling. The magnetic-SKR relative phasing indicates the dominance of postdawn SKR sources in both hemispheres, as was generally the case during the study interval. In mid-2014 the two periods separated again, the northern increasing to 10.78 h by the end of 2015, similar to the southern period during southern summer, while the southern period remained fixed near 10.70 h, well above the northern period during southern summer. Despite this difference, this behavior resulted in the first enduring reversal of the two periods, northern longer than southern, during the Cassini era.

  1. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  2. Urinary Amino Acid Alterations in 3-Year-Old Children with Neurodevelopmental Effects due to Perinatal Dioxin Exposure in Vietnam: A Nested Case-Control Study for Neurobiomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  3. The Internal Validity and Acceptability of the Danish SI-3: A Language-Screening Instrument for 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Jorgensen, Rune N.; Worm, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To document the development of a new parent- and day care-administered screening instrument (the Screening Instrument for 3-Year-Olds [SI-3]) to be used in a newly implemented, educationally motivated population language screening in Denmark. The authors investigated whether the basic principles of the SI-3 were working satisfactorily and…

  4. Emotion Situation Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory in Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…

  5. Eudaimonic Growth: Narrative Growth Goals Predict Increases in Ego Development and Subjective Well-Being 3 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Jack J.; McAdams, Dan P.

    2010-01-01

    We examine (a) the normative course of eudaimonic well-being in emerging adulthood and (b) whether people's narratives of major life goals might prospectively predict eudaimonic growth 3 years later. We define eudaimonic growth as longitudinal increases in eudaimonic well-being, which we define as the combination of psychosocial maturity and…

  6. 1 to 3-Year-Old Children in Day Care Centres in Finland: An Overview of Eight Doctoral Dissertations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannikainen, Maritta

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a general picture of the policy and main structural features of early childhood education services for the younger children in Finland. It also provides an overview of the research on 1 to 3-year-old children in day care centres carried out in Finland during the last 15 years, the focus being on a review of all the eight…

  7. Aligning Teaching to Learning: A 3-Year Study Examining the Embedding of Language and Argumentation into Elementary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Brian; Norton-Meier, Lori A.; Gunel, Murat; Akkus, Recai

    2016-01-01

    How can classrooms become communities of inquiry that connect intellectually challenging science content with language-based activities (opportunities to talk, listen, read, and write) especially in settings with diverse populations? This question guided a 3-year mixed-methods research study using the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach in…

  8. The First Year Inventory: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of 12-Month-Old to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Baranek, Grace T.; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory--regulatory and social--communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of…

  9. Determinants of Imitation of Hand-to-Body Gestures in 2- and 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty children, ten 2-year-olds and ten 3-year-olds, participated in an AB procedure. In the baseline phase, each child was trained the same four matching relations to criterion under intermittent reinforcement. During the subsequent imitation test, the experimenter modeled a total of 20 target gestures (six trials each) interspersed with…

  10. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the third eyelid in a 3-year-old Rhodesian Ridgeback

    PubMed Central

    vom Hagen, Franziska; Romkes, Gwendolyna; Kershaw, Olivia; Eule, J Corinna

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A 3-year-old Rhodesian Ridgeback was presented with conjunctivitis, enlargement of the third eyelid and a dorsotemporal deviation of the right eye. A mass within the third eyelid was detected and excised. The histopathologic examination showed a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, which most likely is a neurofibrosarcoma based on immunohistochemistry. PMID:25678975

  11. [Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma in 36-year-old women: 3-years follow-up after partial resection and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Drożdż, Jarosław; Warchoł, Ewa; Fijuth, Jacek; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Spych, Michał; Maciejewski, Marek; Piestrzeniewicz, Katarzyna; Ludomir, Stafańczyk; Janaszek-Sitkowska, Hanna; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Zembala, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Intimal sarcoma of the heart and pulmonary artery is a very rare, malignant, primary tumour. The prognosis in patients with primary sarcoma of the pulmonary artery, including intimal sarcoma, is poor. We present the case and 3-years follow-up of 36-year-old woman who was successfully treated with surgical, partial resection of the tumour followed by radiotherapy.

  12. The Magic Shrinking Machine Revisited: The Presence of Props at Recall Facilitates Memory in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Jonna J.; Kingo, Osman S.; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a seminal study Simcock and Hayne (2002) showed that 3-year-olds were unable to use newly acquired words to describe a "magic" event experienced 6 or 12 months earlier. In the reference study the children's verbal recall was tested without props being present. Inspired by recent evidence, the original design was replicated, testing…

  13. Effectiveness of Video Self-Modeling to Promote Social Initiations by 3-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video Self-Modeling (VSM) provides individuals the opportunity to view themselves performing a task beyond their present functioning level through the careful editing of videos. In this study, a single-case multiple-baseline design was used to determine whether VSM would facilitate social initiations across three young children (M = 3 years 10…

  14. "A Spinach with a V on It": What 3-Year-Olds See in Standard and Enhanced Blissymbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavendra, Parimala; Fristoe, Macalyne

    1990-01-01

    Standard or enhanced Blissymbols, designed to represent familiar actions, attributes, and objects, were shown to 20 3 year olds, who guessed their meaning. The number of their guesses that referred to the enhancements was twice as great as the number that referred to the standard Blissymbol base. (Author/JDD)

  15. Sustaining "Truth": Changes in Youth Tobacco Attitudes and Smoking Intentions after 3 Years of a National Antismoking Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Duke, Jennifer; Messeri, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the American Legacy Foundation's "truth[R]" campaign and Philip Morris's "Think. Don't Smoke" (TDS) campaign have influenced youth's tobacco-related attitudes, beliefs and intentions during the first 3 years of the truth campaign. We use data from eight nationally representative cross-sectional telephone surveys of 35,074…

  16. Rational Action Selection in 1 1/2- to 3-Year-Olds Following an Extended Training Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klossek, Ulrike M. H.; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1 1/2 and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen…

  17. Poorly differentiated cutaneous carcinoma of non-sebaceous origin in a 3-year-old Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Heather; Forzán, María J.; Desmarchelier, Marion; Woodland, Meghan; Sayi, Soraya; Gilroy, Cornelia V.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old female gerbil developed a non-healing skin wound due to a malignant neoplasm. Histology, immunohistochemistry (cytokeratin 19 positive; vimentin, estrogen, and progesterone receptor negative), and electron microscopy (no desmosomes or melanosomes) revealed an undifferentiated carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis. Unlike in previous reports, it did not arise from the abdominal pad’s sebaceous gland. PMID:26740704

  18. Eudaimonic growth: Narrative growth goals predict increases in ego development and subjective well-being 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2010-07-01

    We examine (a) the normative course of eudaimonic well-being in emerging adulthood and (b) whether people's narratives of major life goals might prospectively predict eudaimonic growth 3 years later. We define eudaimonic growth as longitudinal increases in eudaimonic well-being, which we define as the combination of psychosocial maturity and subjective well-being (SWB). College freshmen and seniors took measures of ego development (ED; to assess maturity; Loevinger, 1976) and SWB at Time 1 (T1) and again 3 years later (Time 2). ED levels increased longitudinally across that time for men and T1 freshmen, but SWB levels did not change. Participants also wrote narratives of 2 major life goals at T1 that were coded for an explicit emphasis on specific kinds of personal growth. Participants' intellectual-growth goals (especially agentic ones) predicted increases in ED 3 years later, whereas participants' socioemotional-growth goals (especially communal ones) predicted increases in SWB 3 years later. These findings were independent of the effects of Big Five personality traits-notably conscientiousness, which on its own predicted increases in SWB. We discuss (a) emerging adulthood as the last stop for normative eudaimonic growth in modern society and (b) empirical and theoretical issues surrounding the relations among narrative identity, life planning, dispositional traits, eudaimonia, and 2 paths of personal growth.

  19. Why 3-Year-Old Children Get Spanked: Parent and Child Determinants as Reported by College-Educated Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, George W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 39 college-educated mothers of 3-year-old children to examine the conditions surrounding the occurrence of physical punishment. Responses suggest that certain types of misbehavior, notably aggression, were more likely to elicit spanking than other misbehavior. In addition, parents' positive attitudes toward…

  20. Evaluation of a pre-existing, 3-year household water treatment and handwashing intervention in rural Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Benjamin; Arana, Byron; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Hubbard, Alan; Colford, John M

    2009-01-01

    Background The promotion of household water treatment and handwashing with soap has led to large reductions in child diarrhoea in randomized efficacy trials. Currently, we know little about the health effectiveness of behaviour-based water and hygiene interventions after the conclusion of intervention activities. Methods We present an extension of previously published design (propensity score matching) and analysis (targeted maximum likelihood estimation) methods to evaluate the behavioural and health impacts of a pre-existing but non-randomized intervention (a 3-year, combined household water treatment and handwashing campaign in rural Guatemala). Six months after the intervention, we conducted a cross-sectional cohort study in 30 villages (15 intervention and 15 control) that included 600 households, and 929 children <5 years of age. Results The study design created a sample of intervention and control villages that were comparable across more than 30 potentially confounding characteristics. The intervention led to modest gains in confirmed water treatment behaviour [risk difference = 0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.02–0.09]. We found, however, no difference between the intervention and control villages in self-reported handwashing behaviour, spot-check hygiene conditions, or the prevalence of child diarrhoea, clinical acute lower respiratory infections or child growth. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first post-intervention follow-up study of a combined household water treatment and handwashing behaviour change intervention, and the first post-intervention follow-up of either intervention type to include child health measurement. The lack of child health impacts is consistent with unsustained behaviour adoption. Our findings highlight the difficulty of implementing behaviour-based household water treatment and handwashing outside of intensive efficacy trials. PMID:19574492

  1. Research on 2041 Cases of High Inpatient Expenditure and Influence Factors during 3 Years in a Single Center

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Suo-Wei; Pan, Qi; Wei, Liang-Yu; Li, Chao; Wang, Qin; Song, Jing-Chen; Chen, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was to explore the causes of high inpatient expenditure through analyzing the distribution characteristics as well as the influence factors of high inpatient expenditure cases during 3 years within a Grade-A tertiary hospital through various aspects and multiple angles, thus identifying the major influence factors for high medical expenditure to develop further research. Methods: We retrospectively studied 2041 inpatient cases which cost more than RMB 100,000 Yuan per case in a Grade-A tertiary hospital from 2013 to 2015. We analyzed the compositions of the medical cost to evaluate the major factors that cause the high inpatient expenditure. All the data and materials were collected from medical record system, and the statistical methods included t-test, variance of analysis, and multivariate linear regression. Results: The average cost of the 2,041 cases was RMB 152,173 Yuan for medicines and materials of medical costs, which respectively accounted for 33.03% and 32.32% of the total cost; and the average length of hospital stay was 28.39 days/person. Diseases of skeletal and muscular system, circulatory system, and tumor were the top three disease categories of high inpatient expenditure, which accounted for 39.00%, 33.46%, and 18.03%, respectively. Complications, criticality of the disease, gender of the patients, the occurrence of death, and the excessive length of hospital stay all had great impacts on average medical expenditure, while age, hospital infection, and surgery showed no significant impact on average medical cost. Conclusions: The main factors for high inpatient expenditure included the inadequate use of high-value medicines and materials, lacking cost control measures within the hospital, the excessive length of hospital stay for inpatients, and the unnecessary treatment for the patients. PMID:27647192

  2. A 3-year field evaluation of pasture rotation and supplementary feeding to control parasite infection in first-season grazing cattle--effects on animal performance.

    PubMed

    Larsson, A; Dimander, S-O; Rydzik, A; Uggla, A; Waller, P J; Höglund, J

    2006-12-20

    To evaluate non-chemical strategies to control pasture-borne parasites in first-season grazing (FSG) cattle, a 3-year grazing trial was conducted during 2002-2004 on naturally infected pastures on a commercial beef cattle farm in Sweden. A uniform pasture was divided in 4 equal 2 ha paddocks onto each of which 10, 5-9 months old dairy breed steer calves were allocated at turn-out in May each year. Two strategies were evaluated: (1) turn-out onto pasture which had been grazed the previous year by second-season grazing (SSG) steers, followed by a move to aftermath in mid-July (RT) and (2) supplementation with concentrate and roughage for 4 weeks from turn-out (FD). Comparisons were made with an untreated (UT), and an anthelmintic treated control group (DO). Animal parasitology and performance were monitored monthly throughout the 20 weeks grazing period. Additional sampling occasions were performed on day 9 (for coccidia) and 10 weeks after turn-out (mid-July). Due to clinical parasitic gastro-enteritis (PGE), salvage treatments were performed on all animals in group FD approximately 7 weeks after turn-out in 2003 and of three animals in group UT 5 weeks after turn-out in 2004. In 2003, the geometric mean oocyst excretion 9 days after turn-out was approximately 150,000 opg of mainly Eimeria alabamensis in group FD, and in 2004 approximately 180,000 opg in group UT. Apart from the DO group, geometric mean faecal egg counts (FEC) were between 80 and 400 epg 4 weeks after turn-out. Mean serum pepsinogen concentrations (SPC) of approximately 3.6 U tyrosine were recorded in the FD and UT groups from late August 2002. In 2003 and 2004, mean concentrations in these groups were between 4.1 and 7.2 U tyrosine 8 weeks after turn-out. By the end of the three grazing seasons the average weight gain difference compared to the DO group was for FD -29, -38 and -5 kg and for RT -4, -21 and +14 kg, and compared to the UT group -18, +2 and +22 for FD and +7, +19 and +41 kg for group

  3. Changes of Overweight and Obesity Prevalence Among School Children in North West of Iran After 3 Years Follow-up (2009–2011): A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Nouri Saeidlou, Sakineh; Rezaiegoyjeloo, Fatemeh; Ayremlou, Parvin; Babaie, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity and overweight among children is a major public health problem in developed and developing countries and has important health and economic implications. This longitudinal study aimed to assessing the prevalence trend of overweight and obesity in West Azerbaijan in North West of Iran. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up study and was conducted in school children at 2009–2011 year. The subjects were all school children (12 years of age) that were recruited from rural and urban schools in West Azerbaijan. Overall, 22,820 girls and 28,763 boys were enrolled in 2009 and were followed for 3 years. A body mass index (BMI) 85th–95th percentile was classified as overweight and a BMI >95th percentile was classified as obese. All statistical analyses were performed using the Excel Software. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample in different time periods. The prevalence was calculated as the ratio of number of present cases to a given population number in a given subgroup at a given time. Results: In urban schools, the prevalence of overweight among girls and boys was 118.26 and 103.9 per 1000 persons in 2009 year, respectively, and this trend was increased in both girls (152.90 per 1000 persons) and boys (125.72 per 1000 persons) in 2011. The obesity trend was increased among both girls and boys (22.26 and 26.52 among girls and boys in 2009 to 24.66 and 28.65 per 1000 persons in 2011), respectively. In rural schools, the prevalence of overweight among girls was increased from 84.5 in 2009 to 108.89 per 1000 persons in 2011, but this trend was decreased among boys (from 95.49 in 2009 to 43.9 per 1000 persons in 2011), and the prevalence of obesity among boys was increased at the end of follow-up, but this trend was decreased among girls. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity in children has increased. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the relationship between obesity and overweight and risk factors such as

  4. Calculation of the first static hyperpolarizability tensor of three-dimensional periodic compounds with a local basis set: A comparison of LDA, PBE, PBE0, B3LYP, and HF results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Roberto; Lacivita, Valentina; Bast, Radovan; Ruud, Kenneth

    2010-06-01

    The computational scheme for the evaluation of the second-order electric susceptibility tensor in periodic systems, recently implemented in the CRYSTAL code within the coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock (HF) scheme, has been extended to local-density, gradient-corrected, and hybrid density functionals (coupled-perturbed Kohn-Sham) and applied to a set of cubic and hexagonal semiconductors. The method is based on the use of local basis sets and analytical calculation of derivatives. The high-frequency dielectric tensor (ɛ∞) and second-harmonic generation susceptibility (d) have been calculated with hybrid functionals (PBE0 and B3LYP) and the HF approximation. Results are compared with the values of ɛ∞ and d obtained from previous plane-wave local density approximation or generalized gradient approximation calculations and from experiment. The agreement is in general good, although comparison with experiment is affected by a certain degree of uncertainty implicit in the experimental techniques.

  5. Acute Respiratory Disease in US Army Trainees 3 Years after Reintroduction of Adenovirus Vaccine1

    PubMed Central

    McCormic, Zachary D.; Gaydos, Joel C.; Hawksworth, Anthony W.; Jordan, Nikki N.

    2017-01-01

    The 1999 cessation of vaccination against adenovirus types 4 and 7 among US Army trainees resulted in reemergence of acute respiratory disease (ARD) outbreaks. The 2011 implementation of a replacement vaccine led to dramatic and sustained decreases in ARD cases, supporting continuation of vaccination in this population at high risk for ARD. PMID:27748651

  6. Mycotic encephalitis, sinus osteomyelitis, and guttural pouch mycosis in a 3-year-old Arabian colt.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Barbara; Nation, Patrick N

    2011-12-01

    Mycotic encephalitis caused severe ataxia and other neurologic deficits in a horse. The finding of a single, large focus of cerebral malacia, with histopathologic evidence of fungal elements, suggested infection was a result of direct transfer from the frontal sinuses, rather than hematogenous spread from the guttural pouch.

  7. Regional background aerosols over the Balearic Islands over the last 3 years: ground-based concentrations, atmospheric deposition and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerro, Jose Carlos; Pey, Jorge; Bujosa, Carles; Caballero, Sandra; Alastuey, Andres; Sicard, Michael; Artiñano, Begoña; Querol, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    In the context of the ChArMEx (The Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, https://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr) initiative, a 3-year study over a regional background environment (Can Llompart, CLP) in Mallorca has been conducted. Ground-based PM mass concentrations, gaseous pollutants and meteorological parameters were continuously registered from 2010 to 2012. Since the beginning of the campaign, PM10 daily samples for chemical determinations were obtained every 4 days, and dry and wet deposition samples were collected every week. Moreover, additional instruments (condensation particle counter, multi-angle absorption photometer, airpointer, sequential high and low volume samplers) were deployed during intensive filed campaigns in 2011 and 2012, as well as the sampling frequency was intensified. In the laboratory, PM samples were analyzed for inorganic compounds, and organic and elemental carbon following different approaches. In addition, n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, antiso-alkanes, levoglucosan, alkanoic acids and cholesterol were determined by GC-MS chromatography in a selection of 30 samples. Mean PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations in the period 2010-2012 reached 17, 11, and 8 µg/m3 respectively. Mass concentrations displayed marked seasonal trends, with much higher background levels in summer due to stagnant conditions over the western Mediterranean and increased frequency of Saharan dust events. Likewise, diverse-intensity peaks of coarse PM due to African dust inputs were observed along the year. On average, African dust in PM10 accounted for 1.0-1.5 µg/m3. Sporadic pollution events, characterized by most of the particles in the fine mode, were related to the transport of anthropogenic polluted air masses from central and eastern Europe. Wet and dry atmospheric deposition samples are being analyzed to quantify the deposition fluxes for different soluble and insoluble compounds. On average, PM10 composition is made up of organic matter (23%), mineral components (17

  8. Search for annihilating dark matter in the Sun with 3 years of IceCube data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Bron, S.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glauch, T.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Kang, W.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stettner, J.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vogel, E.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.

    2017-03-01

    We present results from an analysis looking for dark matter annihilation in the Sun with the IceCube neutrino telescope. Gravitationally trapped dark matter in the Sun's core can annihilate into Standard Model particles making the Sun a source of GeV neutrinos. IceCube is able to detect neutrinos with energies >100 GeV while its low-energy infill array DeepCore extends this to >10 GeV. This analysis uses data gathered in the austral winters between May 2011 and May 2014, corresponding to 532 days of livetime when the Sun, being below the horizon, is a source of up-going neutrino events, easiest to discriminate against the dominant background of atmospheric muons. The sensitivity is a factor of two to four better than previous searches due to additional statistics and improved analysis methods involving better background rejection and reconstructions. The resultant upper limits on the spin-dependent dark matter-proton scattering cross section reach down to 1.46× 10^{-5} pb for a dark matter particle of mass 500 GeV annihilating exclusively into τ +τ -particles. These are currently the most stringent limits on the spin-dependent dark matter-proton scattering cross section for WIMP masses above 50 GeV.

  9. Relations between Temperament, Sensory Processing, and Motor Coordination in 3-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sukigara, Masune; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakai, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys) were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), the Sensory Profile (SP-J), and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ), this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control) through covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J.

  10. Relations between Temperament, Sensory Processing, and Motor Coordination in 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sukigara, Masune; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakai, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys) were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), the Sensory Profile (SP-J), and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ), this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control) through covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J. PMID:27199852

  11. Transplantation, multi-organ donation & presumed consent: a 3 year survey of university students.

    PubMed

    Healy, G; Sharma, K; Healy, D G

    2009-10-01

    We profile the practises and attitudes of university students in Ireland towards consent for organ donation. 1103 students were surveyed. Only 34.6% (382/1103) carried organ donor consent cards, although the majority were favourably disposed towards donation. Only 9% (96/1103) were against donation. In regard to presumed consent only 38% (177/470) were in favour of changing the current "opt-in" consent methodology to presumed consent. These findings show a favourable opinion towards donation among Irish university students. However this may result in few actual donations in the event of brain death, as the majority do not carry donor cards and do not want to change to a presumed consent regime. The most common answer for not carrying a card was that the individual had not formalised a decision. Mandated choice at a fixed point could significantly reduce this ambivalence.

  12. The macrofaunal communities in the shallow subtidal areas for the first 3 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jin-Young; Kim, Moonkoo; Lim, Hyun-Sig; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-05-15

    In order to detect the early impact of the Hebei Spirit oil spill on the shallow subtidal macrozoobenthic communities, macrobenthic fauna were collected seasonally for 3 years. The alkylated PAHs concentrations within sediments near Mallipo beach remained as high as 129 ng g(-)(1) DW one month after the oil spill, but the concentration decreased below the background level thereafter. The number of species and density decreased in 4 months compared to those before the oil spill. An opportunistic polychaete, Prionospio paradisea, occurred as a dominant species at subtidal area near Mallipo beach in 10 months after the oil spill. Any mass mortality of amphipods and any clear dominance of opportunistic species were not detected except for the stations near Mallipo and Hagampo beaches. The macrobenthic communities at the shallow subtidal stations seemed to have a relatively stable faunal composition, even not fully recovered, in 3 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

  13. User-Centered Design of Serious Games for Older Adults Following 3 Years of Experience With Exergames for Seniors: A Study Design

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Seniors need sufficient balance and strength to manage in daily life, and sufficient physical activity is required to achieve and maintain these abilities. This can be a challenge, but fun and motivational exergames can be of help. However, most commercial games are not suited for this age group for several reasons. Many usability studies and user-centered design (UCD) protocols have been developed and applied, but to the best of our knowledge none of them are focusing on seniors’ use of games for physical activity. In GameUp, a European cofunded project, some prototype Kinect exergames to enhance the mobility of seniors were developed in a user-centered approach. Objective In this paper we aim to record lessons learned in 3 years of experience with exergames for seniors, considering both the needs of older adults regarding user-centered development of exergames and participation in UCD. We also provide a UCD protocol for exergames tailored to senior needs. Methods An initial UCD protocol was formed based on literature of previous research outcomes. Senior users participated in UCD following the initial protocol. The users formed a steady group that met every second week for 3 years to play exergames and participate in the UCD during the 4 phases of the protocol. Several methods were applied in the 4 different phases of the UCD protocol; the most important methods were structured and semistructured interviews, observations, and group discussions. Results A total of 16 seniors with an average age above 80 years participated for 3 years in UCD in order to develop the GameUp exergames. As a result of the lessons learned by applying the different methodologies of the UCD protocol, we propose an adjusted UCD protocol providing explanations on how it should be applied for seniors as users. Questionnaires should be turned into semistructured and structured interviews while user consultation sessions should be repeated with the same theme to ensure that the

  14. Increasing Fruit, Vegetable and Water Consumption in Summer Day Camps-3-Year Findings of the Healthy Lunchbox Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Tilley, Falon; Weaver, Robert G.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Moore, Justin B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the 3-year outcomes (2011-2013) from the healthy lunchbox challenge (HLC) delivered in the US-based summer day camps (SDC) (8-10 hours day-1, 10-11 weeks summer-1, SDC) to increase children and staff bringing fruit, vegetables and water (FVW) each day. A single group pre- with multiple post-test design…

  15. Comprehension and production of body part labels in 2- to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-09-01

    This study examined which body part labels children could (i) produce when the experimenter touched different locations on her own body, asking each time 'What's this?' and (ii) comprehend by touching the correct locations on their own bodies in response to the experimenter asking 'Where's the [body-part label]?'. Seventeen children aged between 26 and 41 months, tested in a repeated measures procedure, were presented with 50 different body part stimuli in 200 test trials per child. Overall, the children produced fewer body part labels than they could comprehend. The accuracy of children's responses depended on (i) the location or extent of each body part (facial and broad body features were better known; joints and features in or attached to broad body parts the least well known); (ii) the amount of sensory (but not motor) representation each body part has in the human cortex; and (iii) whether a body part was commonly named by caregivers. These results present a precise mapping of the body parts that young children are able to name and locate on their own bodies in response to body part names; they suggest several possible determinants of lexical-semantic body knowledge and add to the understanding of how it develops in childhood.

  16. Neural correlates of foreign-language learning in childhood: a 3-year longitudinal ERP study.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Shiro; Nakamura, Naoko; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Hoshino, Takahiro; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    A foreign language (a language not spoken in one's community) is difficult to master completely. Early introduction of foreign-language (FL) education during childhood is becoming a standard in many countries. However, the neural process of child FL learning still remains largely unknown. We longitudinally followed 322 school-age children with diverse FL proficiency for three consecutive years, and acquired children's ERP responses to FL words that were semantically congruous or incongruous with the preceding picture context. As FL proficiency increased, various ERP components previously reported in mother-tongue (L1) acquisition (such as a broad negativity, an N400, and a late positive component) appeared sequentially, critically in an identical order to L1 acquisition. This finding was supported not only by cross-sectional analyses of children at different proficiency levels but also by longitudinal analyses of the same children over time. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that FL learning in childhood reproduces identical developmental stages in an identical order to L1 acquisition, suggesting that the nature of the child's brain itself may determine the normal course of FL learning. Future research should test the generalizability of the results in other aspects of language such as syntax.

  17. Cognitive and Psychiatric Predictors to Psychosis in Velocardiofacial Syndrome: A 3-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Shprintzen, Robert; Fremont, Wanda; Higgins, Anne Marie; Faraone, Stephen V.; Kates, Wendy R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To predict prodromal psychosis in adolescents with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Method 70 youth with VCFS, 27 siblings of youth with VCFS and 25 community controls were followed from childhood (Mean age = 11.8 years) into mid-adolescence (mean age 15.0 years). Psychological tests measuring intelligence, academic achievement, learning/memory, attention and executive functioning as well as measures of parent and clinician ratings of child psychiatric functioning were completed at both time points. Results Major depressive disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and generalized anxiety disorder diagnoses increased in the VCFS sample. With very low false positives, the best predictor of adolescent prodromal psychotic symptoms was parent ratings of childhood odd/eccentric symptoms and child performance on a measure of executive functioning, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusions Similar to the non-VCFS prodromal psychosis literature, a combination of cognitive and psychiatric variables appears to predict psychosis in adolescence. A child with VCFS who screens positive is noteworthy and demands clinical attention. PMID:20410726

  18. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission: Monitoring the Global Tropics for 3 Years and Beyond. 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Marshall; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was launched in November 1997 as a joint U.S.-Japanese mission to advance understanding of the global energy and water cycle by providing distributions of rainfall and latent heating over the global tropics. As a part of NASA's Earth System Enterprise, TRMM seeks to understand the mechanisms through which changes in tropical rainfall influence global circulation. Additionally, a goal is to improve the ability to model these processes in order to predict global circulations and rainfall variability at monthly and longer time scales. Such understanding has implications for assessing climate processes related to El Nino/La Nina and Global Warming. TRMM has also provided unexpected and exciting new knowledge and applications in areas related to hurricane monitoring, lightning, pollution, hydrology, and other areas. This CD-ROM includes a self-contained PowerPoint presentation that provides an overview of TRMM and significant science results; a set of data movies or animation; and listings of current TRMM-related publications in the literature.

  19. A 3-year follow-up of stroke patients: relationships between activities of daily living and personality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elmståhl, S; Sommer, M; Hagberg, B

    1996-01-01

    The importance of some personality characteristics for improvement of activities of daily life (ADL) was studied in sixty-six stroke patients, initially admitted to geriatric rehabilitation (n=37) or the department of medicine (n=29), 3 years after stroke. Outcome measurements were activities of daily life and motor and mental functions assessed using the Activity Index (AI) by Hamrin and Wohlin (1982). Neuroticism and extroversion were measured with the Eysenck Personality Inventory Scale. Preferred coping strategies were assessed from interviews on how the patients handle difficult events. Major improvements of ADL and motor functions were seen the first year after stroke. There was no major differences between patients admitted, either to geriatric rehabilitation or traditional medical wards regarding the outcome measurements except for better eating ability in the former group 3 years later. Subjects living alone showed deteriorated ADL functions after 3 years. Extrovert personality and active coping strategy predicted improved ADL functions. Multiple regression analyses with AI as the dependent variable proved active coping to predict functional outcome. In conclusion; increased knowledge about personality characteristics can improve possibilities for a more individual rehabilitation program.

  20. Two- and 3-year-olds integrate linguistic and pedagogical cues in guiding inductive generalization and exploration.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lucas P; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Young children can in principle make generic inferences (e.g., "doffels are magnetic") on the basis of their own individual experience. Recent evidence, however, shows that by 4 years of age children make strong generic inferences on the basis of a single pedagogical demonstration with an individual (e.g., an adult demonstrates for the child that a single "doffel" is magnetic). In the current experiments, we extended this to look at younger children, investigating how the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are integrated with other aspects of inductive inference during early development. We found that both 2- and 3-year-olds used pedagogical cues to guide such generic inferences, but only so long as the "doffel" was linguistically labeled. In a follow-up study, 3-year-olds, but not 2-year-olds, continued to make this generic inference even if the word "doffel" was uttered incidentally and non-referentially in a context preceding the pedagogical demonstration, thereby simply marking the opportunity to learn about a culturally important category. By 3 years of age, then, young children show a remarkable ability to flexibly combine different sources of culturally relevant information (e.g., linguistic labeling, pedagogy) to make the kinds of generic inferences so central in human cultural learning.

  1. Tissue Liquefaction Liposuction for Body Contouring and Autologous Fat Transfer: A Retrospective Review Over 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Borab, Zachary M; Godek, Christopher P

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tissue liquefaction lipoplasty is a novel, low-energy method cleared for use in aesthetic body contouring and autologous fat transfer. This is a retrospective review of the clinical effectiveness and safety of a liquefaction lipoplasty system for liposuction and autologous fat transfer. Methods: A retrospective review was done evaluating all liquefaction lipoplasty procedures with or without autologous fat transfer performed by a single surgeon (March 2013 to June 2016). Patient demographics, operative details, and any complications were tabulated from patient charts. A typical case reported is presented with pre-/postoperative photographs. Results: Two hundred fifty-five consecutive liquefaction lipoplasty procedures were performed over 39 months. The average lipoaspirate volume was 1208 ± 991 mL and the average fat graft volume was 322 ± 277 mL. The overall complication rate was 9 of 255 (3.52%). There were 2 episodes of seroma (0.78%) that were aspirated and 2 episodes of cellulitis (0.78%) that responded to oral antibiotics. In the autologous fat transfer cohort, there were 5 of 103 (4.85%) cases of mild to moderate fat necrosis, with 1 patient requiring return to the operating room for removal of an oil cyst. No revisions of donor sites were required. Conclusions: Liquefaction lipoplasty appears safe for liposuction and autologous fat transfer, with a complication profile that is comparable with other widely used forms of suction-assisted liposuction. The liquefaction lipoplasty technology also provides potential time savings in the operating room that can minimize surgeon fatigue when harvesting large volumes of high-quality fat. Liquefaction lipoplasty appears to have advantages for both the patient and the surgeon, and further studies are underway.

  2. Tissue Liquefaction Liposuction for Body Contouring and Autologous Fat Transfer: A Retrospective Review Over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Godek, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Tissue liquefaction lipoplasty is a novel, low-energy method cleared for use in aesthetic body contouring and autologous fat transfer. This is a retrospective review of the clinical effectiveness and safety of a liquefaction lipoplasty system for liposuction and autologous fat transfer. Methods: A retrospective review was done evaluating all liquefaction lipoplasty procedures with or without autologous fat transfer performed by a single surgeon (March 2013 to June 2016). Patient demographics, operative details, and any complications were tabulated from patient charts. A typical case reported is presented with pre-/postoperative photographs. Results: Two hundred fifty-five consecutive liquefaction lipoplasty procedures were performed over 39 months. The average lipoaspirate volume was 1208 ± 991 mL and the average fat graft volume was 322 ± 277 mL. The overall complication rate was 9 of 255 (3.52%). There were 2 episodes of seroma (0.78%) that were aspirated and 2 episodes of cellulitis (0.78%) that responded to oral antibiotics. In the autologous fat transfer cohort, there were 5 of 103 (4.85%) cases of mild to moderate fat necrosis, with 1 patient requiring return to the operating room for removal of an oil cyst. No revisions of donor sites were required. Conclusions: Liquefaction lipoplasty appears safe for liposuction and autologous fat transfer, with a complication profile that is comparable with other widely used forms of suction-assisted liposuction. The liquefaction lipoplasty technology also provides potential time savings in the operating room that can minimize surgeon fatigue when harvesting large volumes of high-quality fat. Liquefaction lipoplasty appears to have advantages for both the patient and the surgeon, and further studies are underway. PMID:28077985

  3. A 3-year plan for beam science in the heavy-ion fusion virtual national laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B. Grant

    2001-09-10

    In December 1998, LBNL Director Charles Shank and LLNL Director Bruce Tarter signed a Memorandum of Agreement to create the Heavy-Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) with the purpose of improving the efficiency and productivity of heavy ion research through coordination of the two laboratories' efforts under one technical director. In 1999, PPPL Director Robert Goldston signed the VNL MOA for PPPL's heavy-ion fusion group to join the VNL. LBNL and LLNL each contribute about 45% of the $10.6 M/yr trilab VNL effort, and PPPL contributes currently about 10% of the VNL effort. The three labs carry out collaborative experiments, theory and simulations of a variety of intense beam scientific issues described below. The tri-lab HIF VNL program is part of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) fusion program. A short description of the four major tasks areas of HIF-VNL research is given in the next section. The task areas are: High Current Experiment, Final Focus/Chamber Transport, Source/Injector/Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), and Theory/Simulation. As a result of the internal review, more detailed reviews of the designs, costs and schedules for some of the tasks have been completed, which will provide more precision in the scheduled completion dates of tasks. The process for the ongoing engineering reviews and governance for the future management of tasks is described in section 3. A description of the major milestones and scientific deliverables for flat guidance budgets are given in section 4. Section 5 describes needs for enabling technology development for future experiments that require incremental funding.

  4. Outcomes and satisfaction of two optional cadaveric dissection courses: A 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Pais, Diogo; Casal, Diogo; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Barata, Pedro; Moxham, Bernard J; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2017-03-01

    Teaching time dedicated to anatomy education has been reduced at many medical schools around the world, including Nova Medical School in Lisbon, Portugal. In order to minimize the effects of this reduction, the authors introduced two optional, semester-long cadaveric dissection courses for the first two years of the medical school curriculum. These courses were named Regional Anatomy I (RAI) and Regional Anatomy II (RAII). In RAI, students focus on dissecting the thorax, abdomen, pelvis, and perineum. In RAII, the focus shifts to the head, neck, back, and upper and lower limbs. This study prospectively analyzes students' academic achievement and perceptions within the context of these two, newly-introduced, cadaveric dissection courses. Students' satisfaction was assessed anonymously through a questionnaire that included items regarding students' perception of the usefulness of the courses for undergraduate teaching, as well as with regards to future professional activity. For each of the three academic years studied, the final score (1 to 20) in General Anatomy (GA), RAI, and RAII was on average 14.26 ± 1.89; 16.94 ± 1.02; 17.49 ± 1.01, respectively. The mean results were lower in GA than RAI or RAII (P < 0.001). Furthermore, students who undertook these courses ranked them highly with regards to consolidating their knowledge of anatomy, preparing for other undergraduate courses, and training for future clinical practice. These survey data, combined with data on participating students' academic achievement, lend strong support to the adoption of similar courses as complementary and compulsory disciplines in a modern medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ 10: 127-136. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Corneal wound healing after photorefractive keratectomy: a 3-year confocal microscopy study.

    PubMed Central

    Erie, Jay C

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: To perform a sequential quantitative analysis of corneal wound healing after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) by using confocal microscopy in vivo. METHODS: In a prospective, nonrandomized, comparative trial performed in an institutional setting, 24 eyes of 14 patients received PRK to correct refractive errors between -1.25 and -5.75 D. Central corneas were examined preoperatively and at 1 day, 5 days, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after PRK by using confocal microscopy. A masked observer randomly examined 3 to 6 confocal scans per eye per visit to determine epithelial and stromal thickness, keratocyte density in 5 anterior-posterior stromal layers, corneal nerve density in the subbasal region and the stroma, and corneal light backscattering (corneal haze). RESULTS: Epithelial thickness increased 21% (P < .001) by 12 months after PRK and thereafter remained unchanged to 36 months after PRK. There was no change in stromal thickness between 1 and 36 months after PRK (P = .35). The dense keratocyte population in the preoperative anterior 10% of the stroma (32,380 +/- 5,848 cells/mm3) that was partially or completely removed during photoablation was not reconstituted at 36 months in the anterior 10% of the post-PRK stroma (17,720 +/- 4,308 cells/mm3, P < .001). Subbasal nerve fiber bundle density was decreased 60% at 12 months after PRK (P < .001) before returning to densities at 24 and 36 months after PRK that were not significantly different from preoperative values (P = 1.0). Activated keratocytes and corneal haze peaked at 3 months after PRK. CONCLUSIONS: Wounding of the cornea by PRK alters the normal structure, cellularity, and innervation of the cornea for up to 36 months. PMID:14971584

  6. 3 years of GOSAT target mode observations of volcanic CO2 from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, F. M.; Carn, S. A.; Kataoka, F.; Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Goto, N.; Ajiro, M.; Suto, H.; Takeda, T.; Kanekon, S.

    2013-12-01

    (Philippines), Hawaii (USA), Popocatepetl (Mexico), and Ambrym (Vanuatu), using GOSAT FTS SWIR data. In this presentation we will summarize results from over three years of measurements. In emerging collaboration with the Deep Carbon Observatory, WOVOdat and country specific observatories and agencies we see a growing potential for ground based validation synergies. Complementing the ongoing GOSAT mission, NASA is planning to launch its OCO-2 satellite in July 2014, which will provide higher spatial but lower temporal resolution. Further orbiting and geostationary satellite sensors are in planning at JAXA and NASA.

  7. Prognostic Significance of Preoperative and Postoperative Plasma Levels of Ghrelin in Gastric Cancer: 3-Year Survival Study

    PubMed Central

    Soleyman-Jahi, Saeed; Abdirad, Afshin; Fallah, Amir Afraz; Ghasemi, Sevil; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Heidari, Reza; Mahmoodzadeh, Habibollah; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate prognostic effects of plasma levels of ghrelin before and after gastrectomy in gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: We followed 81 GC patients up to 3 years in this study. They were candidates for curative gastrectomy with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Plasma levels of total and active ghrelins before and after the operation were assessed. Association of plasma levels of ghrelin with survival were assessed and adjusted for other potential prognostic factors using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Both total and active ghrelins dropped after gastrectomy (P<0.001 for both). Multiple Cox models revealed worse survival for patients with postoperative total ghrelins below median (hazards ratio (HR)=2.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01–5.41) or 25th percentile (HR=4.29, 95% CI: 1.48–12.44) compared with patients with higher ghrelin levels. In case of preoperative total ghrelin, patients with either second or third quartiles of plasma ghrelin showed worse survival compared with patients with the lowest quartile (HR=2.67, 95% CI: 1.11–6.38 for second quartile, and HR=2.32, 95% CI: 1.01–5.35 for third quartile vs. the lowest quartile). However, there was no difference between patients with the highest and lowest quartiles (HR=0.78, 95% CI: 0.22–2.73). Similar pattern was observed for preoperative active ghrelin (HR=4.92, 95% CI: 1.80–13.54 for second quartile, and HR=2.87, 95% CI: 1.11–7.38 for third quartile vs. the lowest quartile). Advanced TNM stage (HR=4.88, 95% CI: 1.10–21.77), cachexia (HR=2.99, 95% CI: 1.35–6.63), and receiving no neoadjuvant chemotherapy (HR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.04–3.92) were other poor prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative and postoperative plasma levels of ghrelin could predict survival of GC patients with different patterns. This prognostic effect was independent of stage and cachexia. Measurement of plasma ghrelin in GC patients could complement conventional staging for more precise

  8. Vitamin D Status among Young Children Aged 1–3 Years: A Cross-Sectional Study in Wuxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Jianping; Liao, Xiangpeng; Cai, Liyi; Xu, Fei; Chen, Daozhen; Xiang, Jingying; Fang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasingly recognized importance of vitamin D has been discussed and vitamin D status among young children has attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, study on vitamin D status in young children aged 1–3 y is limited in China. Objective To evaluate the nutritional vitamin D status of young children aged 1–3 y in Wuxi, southeastern China. Methods A large cohort of 5,571 young children aged 1–3 y were recruited in this study who visited the child health clinics at the Wuxi Maternity and Child Health Hospital (latitude 31.57°N) during January 2014 to January 2015. Wuxi was located in southeastern China at a latitude of 31.57°N. Finger-stick blood sampling was conducted in all the subjects and serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured to evaluate their vitamin D status. Results In this study, serum 25(OH)D levels of young children at the age of 1–3 years ranged from 20.6–132.9 nmol/L (Median: 71.5 nmol/L). 16.1% of the population had vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L), while 38.8% of the subjects had a sufficient (50–74.9 nmol/L) vitamin D level. An optimal vitamin D status (≥75 nmol/L) was found in 45.1% of the young children. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was higher in autumn (19.5%) than in summer (12.1%). There was no significant difference in vitamin D status between genders. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed that child age was strongly associated with vitamin D deficiency (adjusted OR: 1.173; 95%CI: 1.053–1.308; P = 0.004). Conclusions The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 16.1% among young children aged 1–3 y in Wuxi. Season and child age were associated with their vitamin D status. It is implied that young children should receive adequate amounts of vitamin D supplementation and spend more time outdoors to prolong the sunlight exposure when they grow older. PMID:26505743

  9. Contribution of dysregulated serum magnesium to mortality in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism: a 3-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Noriaki; Akizawa, Tadao; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    Background The extent of contribution of disturbed magnesium balance to mortality remains unclear among hemodialysis patients. Methods This was a cohort study involving 3276 patients on maintenance hemodialysis at 86 facilities in Japan from 2008 to 2010 who had secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Baseline serum magnesium (sMg) values were categorized into quintiles (≤2.3, >2.3–2.5, >2.5–2.7, >2.7–3.0 and >3.0 mg/dL), and the middle quintile was set as the reference. Outcome was all-cause death. Independent contribution to all-cause death was assessed via Cox regression to generate population-attributable fractions (PAFs). Results A total of 2165 patients from 68 facilities were analyzed. The lowest quintile of sMg was positively associated with lower serum potassium and albumin levels, higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and prevalence of atrial fibrillation and cerebrovascular disease than the other quintiles. The highest sMg quintile was positively associated with higher potassium levels, and negatively associated with lower serum albumin levels and higher intact parathyroid hormone and CRP levels and prevalence of cerebrovascular disease than the other quintiles. During a median follow-up of 3 years, the lowest and the second lowest quintiles of sMg were associated with all-cause death [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.737, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.200–2.512 and HR 1.675, 95% CI 1.254–2.238, respectively). Point estimates of adjusted HRs of the highest and the second highest sMg quintiles were higher than those of the middle quintile for all-cause death. Adjusted PAFs of lower sMg and of higher and lower sMg for all-cause death were 24.0% (95% CI 13.0–35.0%) and 30.7% (95% CI 14.5–46.8%), respectively. Conclusion In hemodialysis patients with SHPT, dysregulated sMg is an important contributor to all-cause death. Further studies are warranted to examine whether or not correction of sMg improves survival. PMID:26613035

  10. Usefulness of multiplex PCR methods and respiratory viruses’ distribution in children below 15 years old according to age, seasons and clinical units in France: A 3 years retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Gilles; Ichou, Houria; Charpentier, Charlotte; Bendhafer, Samia; Dumitrescu, Madalina; Allal, Lahcene; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Desfrère, Luc; Descamps, Diane; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Houhou-Fidouh, Nadhira

    2017-01-01

    Background To date, only influenza and RSV testing are recommended for respiratory viruses’ detection in paediatric units. In this study, we described, according to seasons, ages and clinical units, the results obtained in children (<15 years old) by multiplex-PCR (mPCR) tests allowing a quick and wide range detection of all respiratory viruses. These results were also compared with RSV specific detection. Methods All nasopharyngeal mPCR and RSV tests requested by clinicians in our French teaching hospitals group between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively included. All repeated samples for the same children in the same month were discarded. Results Of the 381 mPCR tests (344 children) performed, 51.4% were positive. Positivity and viral co-infection rates were higher in the 6–36 months old strata (81% and 25%, p<0.0001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Viral distribution showed strong variations across ages. During specific influenza epidemic periods, only 1/39 (2.5%) mPCR tests were positive for influenza and 19/39 (48.7%) for other viruses. During specific RSV epidemic periods, only 8/46 (17.4%) mPCR tests were positive for RSV and 14/46 (30.4%) for other viruses. 477/1529 (31.2%) of RSV immunochromatography-tests were positive. Among the negatives immunochromatography-test also explored by mPCR, 28/62 (31%) were positive for other respiratory viruses. Conclusion This study provides a wide description of respiratory viruses’ distribution among children in hospital settings using mPCR over 3 years. It emphasizes the number of undiagnosed respiratory viruses according to the current diagnosis practice in France and gives a better picture of respiratory viruses identified in hospital settings by mPCR all over the year in France. PMID:28235002

  11. The Supernova Legacy Survey 3-year sample: Type Ia supernovae photometric distances and cosmological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, J.; Sullivan, M.; Conley, A.; Regnault, N.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Fouchez, D.; Hardin, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Pain, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Perrett, K. M.; Pritchet, C. J.; Rich, J.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Balam, D.; Baumont, S.; Ellis, R. S.; Fabbro, S.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Fourmanoit, N.; González-Gaitán, S.; Graham, M. L.; Hsiao, E.; Kronborg, T.; Lidman, C.; Mourao, A. M.; Perlmutter, S.; Ripoche, P.; Suzuki, N.; Walker, E. S.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We present photometric properties and distance measurements of 252 high redshift Type Ia supernovae (0.15 < z < 1.1) discovered during the first three years of the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). These events were detected and their multi-colour light curves measured using the MegaPrime/MegaCam instrument at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), by repeatedly imaging four one-square degree fields in four bands. Follow-up spectroscopy was performed at the VLT, Gemini and Keck telescopes to confirm the nature of the supernovae and to measure their redshifts. Methods: Systematic uncertainties arising from light curve modeling are studied, making use of two techniques to derive the peak magnitude, shape and colour of the supernovae, and taking advantage of a precise calibration of the SNLS fields. Results: A flat ΛCDM cosmological fit to 231 SNLS high redshift type Ia supernovae alone gives Ω_M = 0.211 ± 0.034(stat) ± 0.069(sys). The dominant systematic uncertainty comes from uncertainties in the photometric calibration. Systematic uncertainties from light curve fitters come next with a total contribution of ±0.026 on Ω_M. No clear evidence is found for a possible evolution of the slope (β) of the colour-luminosity relation with redshift. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on the Cerro Paranal (ESO Large Programme 171.A-0486 & 176.A-0589). Based on

  12. Application of Regent mechanical valve in patients with small aortic annulus: 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aortic valve replacement (AVR) with a small aortic annulus is always challenging for the cardiac surgeon. In this study, we sought to evaluate the midterm performance of implantation with a 17-mm or 19-mm St. Jude Medical Regent (SJM Regent) mechanical valve in retrospective consecutive cohort of patients with small aortic annulus (diameter ≤ 19 mm). Methods From January 2008 to April 2011, 40 patients (31 female, mean age = 47.2 ± 5.8 years) with small aortic annulus (≤19 mm in diameter) underwent aortic valve replacement with a 17-mm or 19-mm St. Jude Medical Regent (SJM Regent) mechanical valve. Preoperative mean body surface area, New York Heart Association class, and mean aortic annulus were 1.61 ± 0.26 m2, 3.2 ± 0.4, and 18 ± 1.4 mm respectively. Patients were divided into two groups, according to the implantation of 17 mm SJM Regent mechanical valve (group 1, n = 18) or 19 mm SJM Regent valve (group 2, n = 22). All patients underwent echocardiography examination preoperatively and at one year post-operation. Results There were no early deaths in either group. Follow-up time averaged 36 ± 17.6 months. The mean postoperative New York Heart Association class was 1.3 ± 0.6 (p < 0.001). By echocardiography, in group 1, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS), and the indexed effective orifice area (EOAI) increased from 43.7% ± 11.6%, 27.3% ± 7.6%, and 0.70 ± 0.06 cm2/m2 to 69.8 ± 9.3%, 41.4 ± 8.3%, and 0.92 ± 0.10 cm2/m2 respectively (P < 0.05), while the left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and the aortic transvalvular pressure gradient decreased from 116.4 ± 25.4 g/m2, 46.1 ± 8.5 mmHg to 86.7 ± 18.2 g/m2 , 13.7 ± 5.2 mmHg respectively. In group 2, the LVEF, LVFS and EOAI increased from 45.9% ± 9.7%, 30.7% ± 8.0%, and 0.81 ± 0.09 cm2/m2 to 77.4%

  13. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Glucose Level at 24-28 Gestational Weeks on Offspring's Overweight Status within 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqin; Wang, Leishen; Li, Nan; Li, Wei; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang; Hu, Gang; Leng, Junhong

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relative impact of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and glucose level at 24-28 gestational weeks on offspring's overweight status from birth to 3 years of age in China. Methods. Health care records of 21,354 mother-child pairs were collected. The single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy BMI and glucose level at 24-28 gestational weeks with 0-3-year-old offspring's overweight status were assessed. Results. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of offspring's macrosomia at birth and overweight/obesity at the 12th month, 24th month, and 36th month were 1.12 (1.11-1.13), 1.05 (1.04-1.06), 1.07 (1.06-1.08), and 1.11 (1.10-1.12) for each 1-unit increase (km/m(2)) in maternal prepregnancy BMI and 1.13 (1.10-1.17), 1.01 (0.99-1.03), 0.99 (0.96-1.01), and 1.00 (0.97-1.02) for each 1-unit increase (mmol/L) in maternal glucose level at 24-28 gestational weeks, respectively. The positive association of maternal glucose level with macrosomia at birth was similar between prepregnancy normal weight (BMI < 24 kg/m(2)) and overweight (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2)); however, the positive association of high maternal glucose level with childhood overweight was only seen among prepregnancy normal weight mothers but not among overweight mothers. Conclusions. The impact of maternal gestational hyperglycemia on offspring's overweight before 3 years of age can be modified by prepregnancy BMI.

  14. Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Glucose Level at 24–28 Gestational Weeks on Offspring's Overweight Status within 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiqin; Wang, Leishen; Li, Nan; Li, Wei; Liu, Huikun; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relative impact of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and glucose level at 24–28 gestational weeks on offspring's overweight status from birth to 3 years of age in China. Methods. Health care records of 21,354 mother-child pairs were collected. The single and joint associations of maternal prepregnancy BMI and glucose level at 24–28 gestational weeks with 0–3-year-old offspring's overweight status were assessed. Results. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of offspring's macrosomia at birth and overweight/obesity at the 12th month, 24th month, and 36th month were 1.12 (1.11–1.13), 1.05 (1.04–1.06), 1.07 (1.06–1.08), and 1.11 (1.10–1.12) for each 1-unit increase (km/m2) in maternal prepregnancy BMI and 1.13 (1.10–1.17), 1.01 (0.99–1.03), 0.99 (0.96–1.01), and 1.00 (0.97–1.02) for each 1-unit increase (mmol/L) in maternal glucose level at 24–28 gestational weeks, respectively. The positive association of maternal glucose level with macrosomia at birth was similar between prepregnancy normal weight (BMI < 24 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2); however, the positive association of high maternal glucose level with childhood overweight was only seen among prepregnancy normal weight mothers but not among overweight mothers. Conclusions. The impact of maternal gestational hyperglycemia on offspring's overweight before 3 years of age can be modified by prepregnancy BMI. PMID:28251156

  15. Retention and marginal adaptation of a compomer placed in non-stress-bearing areas used with the total-etch technique: a 3-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Prati, C; Chersoni, S; Cretti, L; Montanari, G

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to evaluate class V and class III cavities restored with a polyacid-modified resin composite (compomer) restorative material in association with two different dentin-enamel bonding systems: Dyract-PSA (Primer Sealer Adhesive-DentSply, Germany) and Prime & Bond 2.0 (DentSply, Germany). The control group was a hybrid composite used with ProBond bonding system (DentSply, Germany). A total of 116 restorations (79 class V, 37 class III) were made and reevaluated after 1, 2 and 3 years in 55 patients in two private practices and in a university department. Class V nonretentive cavities were located at the CEJ level and class III at interproximal level close to CEJ. Each cavity was prepared using a water-cooled, high-speed handpiece with a fine diamond burr. A small bevel was prepared along enamel margin. Cavity dimensions were no more than 3.5 x 3.5 mm (using burr as reference point). Each restoration was finished immediately with fine diamond burrs and Sof-Lex disks (3 M, USA). The criteria that were evaluated by the USPHS method included: retention, color match, marginal integrity, marginal discoloration, and secondary caries. Results indicated that all compomer restorations were fully retained at 3 years, and that no secondary caries detected. Seven composite restorations were lost during the 3-year study. No statistical differences were observed between class III and class V or among other conditions (e.g., upper-lower arc, sex, age). This study demonstrates that compomers are suitable restorative materials for class III-V restorations. They may represent a clinical alternative to composites in class V and III restorations.

  16. Skin-prick test findings in students from moisture- and mould-damaged schools: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Immonen, J; Meklin, T; Taskinen, T; Nevalainen, A; Korppi, M

    2001-04-01

    Dampness and moisture problems in a building may cause growth of moulds, leading to sensitization and symptoms in the inhabitants. The mechanism by which sensitization to moulds takes place has remained obscure; in particular, the role of atopy is not clear. In 1996, 622 pupils (7-13 years of age) attending a school with a moisture problem (index school; 414 pupils) and a control school (208 pupils) were screened using a questionnaire. Two-hundred and twelve children had doctor-diagnosed asthma, parental-reported wheezing or prolonged cough, and they participated in a clinical study, which included skin prick tests (SPT) to 12 moulds. An identical, follow-up study was performed 3 years later in 1999. In the follow-up study, 144 of the original 212 students participated. They were now attending four different schools: the index primary school had been renovated and the control school remained unchanged, but the two secondary schools had moisture and mould problems. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of mould allergy in children of school age and to compare sensitization to moulds in relation to age, exposure, asthma, and atopy. In 1999, SPT responses to moulds were demonstrated in 17 (12%) of the 144 children. Six children had SPT reactions > or = 3 mm and all but one were older than 14 years. During the 3-year follow-up period, mould allergy developed in five children and disappeared in two children. Five of the six children with reactions > or = 3 mm to moulds had positive responses to other allergens, five had clinical atopy but only two had asthma. Likewise, all six children had been exposed to moisture and dampness in the school buildings. In conclusion, mould allergy diagnosed by SPTs was rare in students. Most reactions to moulds were in students older than 14 years with multiple SPT reactions to common allergens, and there was no significant association with asthma.

  17. Long-lasting changes in morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and tolerance in Long-Evans mother rats as a result of periodic postpartum separation from the litter: a novel model of increased vulnerability to drug abuse?

    PubMed

    Kalinichev, Mikhail; Easterling, Keith W; Holtzman, Stephen G

    2003-02-01

    Daily postpartum separations from the litter produce enduring changes in anxiety and sensitivity to the antinociceptive effects of morphine in Long-Evans dams. We tested whether postpartum experience alters sensitivity to the effects of morphine on locomotor activity. Dams were tested 4-6 weeks after their pups were weaned, and had one of the following backgrounds: daily separation from the litter on postpartum days 2-14 for either 3 h (prolonged separation-LS) or 15 min (brief separation-BS), or no separation (nonhandled control-NH). After 2 consecutive days (B1-2) of baseline activity measurements, subjects were tested daily after s.c. injections of either morphine (10 mg/kg) or saline for 7 days and again on day 10. Beginning 5 days later, saline and 1.0-10 mg/kg of morphine were tested in all dams. On B1, LS and BS dams habituated slower than NH controls, yielding higher horizontal counts. LS dams failed to habituate across baseline days and were more active than other dams on B2. Sensitization, a progressive increase in horizontal activity, was more rapid and robust in LS and BS dams compared to NH animals. LS was the only group that developed tolerance to morphine-induced decreases in vertical activity. In LS dams with the history of morphine treatment, injection of saline resulted in higher horizontal activity and center time compared to saline-treated counterparts, indicative of conditioning. Among animals with a history of saline treatment, LS dams were more sensitive to morphine challenges than BS and NH dams. As a result of the robust and long-lasting increases in the ability of morphine to induce behavioral sensitization in litter-separated dams, periodic postpartum separation may represent a new animal model of increased vulnerability to substance abuse.

  18. Association of Perioperative Plasma Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Levels with 3-Year Mortality after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Moledina, Dennis G.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Garg, Amit X.; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Koyner, Jay L.; Patel, Uptal D.; Devarajan, Prasad; Shlipak, Michael G.; Coca, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Higher levels of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (pNGAL) are an early marker of acute kidney injury and are associated with increased risk of short-term adverse outcomes. The independent association between pNGAL and long-term mortality is unknown. Methods In this prospective observational cohort study, we studied 1191 adults who underwent cardiac surgery between 2007 and 2009 at 6 centers in the TRIBE-AKI cohort. We measured the pNGAL on the pre-operative and first 3 post-operative days and assessed the relationship of peri-operative pNGAL concentrations with all-cause mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 3.0 years, 139 participants died (50/1000 person-years). Pre-operative levels of pNGAL were associated with 3-year mortality (unadjusted HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.34,2.85) and the association persisted after adjustment for pre-operative variables including estimated glomerular filtration rate (adjusted HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.04–2.12). After adjustment for pre- and intra-operative variables, including pre-operative NGAL levels, the highest tertiles of first post-operative and peak post-operative pNGAL were also independently associated with 3-year mortality risk (adjusted HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.0–1.7 and adjusted HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.2–2.7, respectively). However, after adjustment for peri-operative changes in serum creatinine, there was no longer an independent association between the first post-operative and peak post-operative pNGAL and long-term mortality (adjusted HR 0.98,95% CI 0.79–1.2 for first pNGAL and adjusted HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87–1.61 for peak pNGAL). Conclusions Pre-operative pNGAL levels were independently associated with 3-year mortality after cardiac surgery. While post-operative pNGAL levels were also associated with 3-year mortality, this relationship was not independent of changes in serum creatinine. These findings suggest that while pre-operative pNGAL adds prognostic value for mortality beyond routinely available

  19. Trends in paediatric rheumatology referral times and disease activity indices over a ten-year period among children and young people with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: results from the childhood arthritis prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    McErlane, Flora; Foster, Helen E.; Carrasco, Roberto; Baildam, Eileen M.; Chieng, S. E. Alice; Davidson, Joyce E.; Ioannou, Yiannis; Wedderburn, Lucy R.; Thomson, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The medical management of JIA has advanced significantly over the past 10 years. It is not known whether these changes have impacted on outcomes. The aim of this analysis was to identify and describe trends in referral times, treatment times and 1-year outcomes over a 10-year period among children with JIA enrolled in the Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study. Methods. The Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study is a prospective inception cohort of children with new-onset inflammatory arthritis. Analysis included all children recruited in 2001–11 with at least 1 year of follow-up, divided into four groups by year of diagnosis. Median referral time, baseline disease pattern (oligoarticular, polyarticular or systemic onset) and time to first definitive treatment were compared between groups. Where possible, clinical juvenile arthritis disease activity score (cJADAS) cut-offs were applied at 1 year. Results. One thousand and sixty-six children were included in the analysis. The median time from symptom onset and referral to first paediatric rheumatology appointment (22.7–24.7 and 3.4–4.7 weeks, respectively) did not vary significantly (∼20% seen within 10 weeks of onset and ∼50% within 4 weeks of referral). For oligoarticular and polyarticular disease, 33.8–47 and 25.4–34.9%, respectively, achieved inactive disease by 1 year, with ∼30% in high disease activity at 1 year. A positive trend towards earlier definitive treatment reached significance in oligoarticular and polyarticular pattern disease. Conclusion. Children with new-onset JIA have a persistent delay in access to paediatric rheumatology care, with one-third in high disease activity at 1 year and no significant improvement over the past 10 years. Contributing factors may include service pressures and poor awareness. Further research is necessary to gain a better understanding and improve important clinical outcomes. PMID:27016664

  20. Early response with dasatinib or imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia: 3-year follow-up from a randomized phase 3 trial (DASISION)

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias; Saglio, Giuseppe; Steegmann, Juan Luis; Shah, Neil P.; Boqué, Concepción; Chuah, Charles; Pavlovsky, Carolina; Mayer, Jiří; Cortes, Jorge; Baccarani, Michele; Kim, Dong-Wook; Bradley-Garelik, M. Brigid; Mohamed, Hesham; Wildgust, Mark; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This analysis explores the impact of early cytogenetic and molecular responses on the outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) in the phase 3 DASatinib versus Imatinib Study In treatment-Naive CML patients trial with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP were randomized to receive 100 mg dasatinib (n = 259) or 400 mg imatinib (n = 260) once daily. The retrospective landmark analysis included patients evaluable at the relevant time point (3, 6, or 12 months). Median time to complete cytogenetic response was 3 vs 6 months with dasatinib vs imatinib. At 3 and 6 months, the proportion of patients with BCR-ABL transcript levels ≤10% was higher in the dasatinib arm. Deeper responses at 3, 6, and 12 months were observed in a higher proportion of patients on dasatinib therapy and were associated with better 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival in both arms. First-line dasatinib resulted in faster and deeper responses compared with imatinib. The achievement of an early molecular response was predictive of improved progression-free survival and overall survival, supporting new milestones for optimal response in patients with early CML-CP treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00481247. PMID:24311723

  1. Lasting Effects of Workplace Strength Training for Neck/Shoulder/Arm Pain among Laboratory Technicians: Natural Experiment with 3-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Anders I.; Zebis, Mette K.; Pedersen, Mogens T.; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated long-term effects and implementation processes of workplace strength training for musculoskeletal disorders. Methods. 333 and 140 laboratory technicians from private and public sector companies, respectively, replied to a 3-year follow-up questionnaire subsequent to a 1-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) with high-intensity strength training for prevention and treatment of neck, shoulder, and arm pain. Being a natural experiment, the two participating companies implemented and modified the initial training program in different ways during the subsequent 2 years after the RCT. Results. At 3-year follow-up the pain reduction in neck, shoulder, elbow, and wrist achieved during the first year was largely maintained at both companies. However, the private sector company was rated significantly better than the public sector company in (1) training adherence, (2) training culture, that is, relatively more employees trained at the workplace and with colleagues, (3) self-reported health changes, and (4) prevention of neck and wrist pain development among initially pain-free employees. Conclusions. This natural experiment shows that strength training can be implemented successfully at different companies during working hours on a long-term basis with lasting effects on pain in neck, shoulder, and arm. PMID:24734247

  2. Long-term post-marketing surveillance of mizoribine for the treatment of lupus nephritis: Safety and efficacy during a 3-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kenya; Sudo, Yohei; Itoh, Hiromichi; Yoshida, Hisao; Kuroda, Tatsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of long-term use of mizoribine by undertaking a 3-year post-marketing surveillance study. Methods: Subjects were all lupus nephritis patients newly treated with mizoribine between 1 October 2003 and 30 September 2005 at contracted study sites. Results: Mizoribine was administered to 881 lupus nephritis patients in the safety analysis set consisting of 946 patients recruited from 281 contracted study sites after satisfying the eligibility criteria. There were 301 events of adverse drug reactions that were observed in 196 (20.7%) of the 946 subjects. There were 34 events of serious adverse drug reactions in 31 patients (3.2%). No deterioration in hematological and biochemical test values was observed, but immunological testing showed significant improvements in C3, CH50, and anti-DNA antibody titers. The negative rate of proteinuria also increased over time. The median steroid dosage was 15 mg/day at the commencement of treatment, but was reduced to 10 mg/day at 12 months and 8 mg/day at 36 months. Conclusion: The findings of the 3-year long-term drug use surveillance study indicated that mizoribine can be used over the long term with relatively few adverse drug reactions, suggesting its suitability for use in maintenance drug therapy. PMID:26770729

  3. Succesful treatment of food allergy with Nambudripad's Allergy Elimination Techniques (NAET) in a 3-year old: A case report.

    PubMed

    Terwee, Caroline B

    2008-09-19

    Food allergy may constitute a major burden to children and their families. A 3-year-old girl was intolerant to milk, sugar, egg white, pork meat, and other foods, causing eczema and dyspnoe. She was treated with Nambudripad's Allergy Elimnation Technique (NAET), a combination of kinesiology and acupressure. After 7 treatment sessions (within 4 weeks) she was free of symptoms. After three years, she can still eat everything without symptoms. This case report highlights the possible benefit of NAET for children with food allergy. Randomized clinical trials should be encouraged to study the effectiveness of NAET in treating food allergy.

  4. Valproate-associated reversible encephalopathy in a 3-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gerstner, Thorsten; Bell, Nellie; Koenig, Stephan A

    2008-06-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is considered to be a drug of first choice for the therapy of generalized and focal epilepsies, including special epileptic syndromes. The drug is usually well tolerated, rare serious complications may occur in some patients, including hemorrhagic pancreatitis, coagulapathies, bone marrow suppression, VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and encephalopathy. We report a case of VPA-associated encephalopathy without hyperammonemia in a 3-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian-Syndrom, combined with a mild hepatopathy and thrombopathy. After withdrawal of VPA, the clinical symptoms and the electroencephalography-alterations vanished rapidly.

  5. Valproate-associated reversible encephalopathy in a 3-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Thorsten; Bell, Nellie; Koenig, Stephan A

    2008-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is considered to be a drug of first choice for the therapy of generalized and focal epilepsies, including special epileptic syndromes. The drug is usually well tolerated, rare serious complications may occur in some patients, including hemorrhagic pancreatitis, coagulapathies, bone marrow suppression, VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and encephalopathy. We report a case of VPA-associated encephalopathy without hyperammonemia in a 3-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian-Syndrom, combined with a mild hepatopathy and thrombopathy. After withdrawal of VPA, the clinical symptoms and the electroencephalography-alterations vanished rapidly. PMID:18827862

  6. [Bevacizumab as first-line therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Progression-free survival for 3 years].

    PubMed

    Pichler, R; Horninger, W; Aigner, F; Heidegger, I

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 72-year-old woman who was diagnosed in 2006 with renal cell cancer (RCC) and had undergone consecutive tumor nephrectomy (clear-cell RCC, Fuhrmann grade II, stage pT3a, R0). Over the years, the patient underwent several surgical and radiological interventions due to various metastatic lesions. This case report describes the 3-year progression-free survival in a patient who underwent first-line therapy with the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. Except for hypertension, the patient does not suffer currently from any other side effects of bevacizumab therapy.

  7. 46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY karyotype in a 3-year-old boy ascertained because of radioulnar synostosis

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.; Robson, L.; Jackson, J.

    1995-05-08

    Chromosome analysis was performed on a 3-year-old boy because of bilateral radioulnar synostosis and demonstrated a mosaic karyotype 46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY. He had minor facial anomalies and mild intellectual delay. He appears to be the youngest patient reported with this rare chromosome complement. His father, mother, and brother had normal chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on the propositus and his father with the Y chromosome heterochromatic probe (pHY3.4) to add to the evaluation of mosaicism. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. The nitrogen efficiency of MSW composts as measured by triticale uptake in a 3-year field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Jerzy; Licznar, Michal; Bekier, Jakub; Drozd, Jerzy; Jamroz, Elzbieta; Kocowicz, Andrzej; Parylak, Danuta; Kordas, Leszek; Licznar, Stanislawa

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents results of three year field experiment, where two different composts produced from municipal solid wastes were applied to sandy soil. The experiment was established on soil developed from loam sand, according to U.S.D.A. textural classes (81% of sand, 12% of silt, and 7% of clay), of a slightly acidic reaction (pH KCl 6.05 - 6.44). The plough layer (0 - 25 cm) contained about 5.0 g/kg of organic carbon. Both composts were alkaline in reaction and contained high amounts of plant available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Composts were used non-recurrently in rates of 18, 36, and 72 t/ha, calculated on dry matter basis. Control objects (0 and NPK) were plots without fertilization, as well as plots fertilized each year with mineral forms of NPK. Field experiment was conducted in 15 m2 plots, using five replications in a randomized block design. Spring triticale (x Triticosecale Wittm.) cultivated in a 3-year monoculture was used as the experiment plant. Soil samples were collected each year after harvesting. Changes in triticale yield were considered in relation to soil properties and nitrogen content in triticale straw and grain. Application of composts caused beneficial changes in soil fertility, connected mainly with an increase of soil organic matter and content of available forms of P, K, and Mg. These effects were observed throughout three years of the experiment. However, significantly higher values of organic carbon - as compared to control (0 and NPK) - were observed only in plots with medium and highest compost doses. This effect was very clear in the first year, while significant differences in soil carbon content were still observed in next two years. The yield of triticale straw and grain depended significantly on fertilization with composts, but beneficial effect of compost was observed only in the first year. Yield similar to NPK control was found only on plots where the highest dose of compost was applied. Next two

  9. Human growth hormone replacement in adult hypopituitary patients: long-term effects on body composition and lipid status--3-year results from the HypoCCS Database.

    PubMed

    Attanasio, Andrea F; Bates, Peter C; Ho, Ken K Y; Webb, Susan M; Ross, Richard J; Strasburger, Christian J; Bouillon, Roger; Crowe, Brenda; Selander, Keith; Valle, Domenico; Lamberts, Steven W J

    2002-04-01

    The Hypopituitary Control and Complications Study is an international surveillance study evaluating efficacy and safety of GH therapy of adult GH-deficient patients in clinical practice. The present report examined baseline data from 1,123 adult onset (AO) and 362 childhood onset (CO) patients, as well as efficacy in 242 patients who had completed 3 yr of GH treatment. At study entry, mean height, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and lean body mass were significantly (P < 0.001 for each) lower in CO compared with AO patients. After 3 yr on GH, lean body mass was significantly increased in AO males and females and CO males but not CO females, whereas fat mass was significantly decreased in AO males only. Serum total cholesterol was decreased in females (-0.32 +/- 1.00 mmol/liter; P = 0.045) and males (-0.36 +/- 0.96 mmol/liter; P = 0.004). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was increased for females (0.10 +/- 0.26 mmol/liter; P = 0.026) and males (0.10 +/- 0.34 mmol/liter; P = 0.022). The low-density lipoprotein/HDL ratio was decreased in AO males (-0.93 +/- 2.00; P = 0.003), AO females (-0.65 +/- 0.74; P < 0.001), and CO females (-0.69 +/- 0.76; P = 0.038), but the decrease in CO males was not significant (-0.84 +/- 2.85; P = 0.273). In AO patients, lean body mass increase from baseline was greatest in the those younger than 40 yr old, less but still significant in the middle group (40-60 yr) and unchanged in older (>60 yr) patients; conversely, decreases in the low-density lipoprotein/HDL ratio were small and not significant in the younger patients but greater and significant in the middle and older age groups. During the 3-yr treatment, 114 (7.7%) patients discontinued, including 9 (0.6%) for tumor recurrences, 9 (0.6%) for neoplasia, and 9 (0.6%) for side effects. Therefore, these observational data showed significant long-term efficacy of adult GH replacement therapy on body composition and lipid profiles and indicate that age is an important predictor of response.

  10. Periodically poled silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  11. Oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Tiago; Machado, Armando

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments examined behavior in extinction following periodic reinforcement. During the first phase of Experiment 1, four groups of pigeons were exposed to fixed interval (FI 16s or FI 48s) or variable interval (VI 16s or VI 48s) reinforcement schedules. Next, during the second phase, each session started with reinforcement trials and ended with an extinction segment. Experiment 2 was similar except that the extinction segment was considerably longer. Experiment 3 replaced the FI schedules with a peak procedure, with FI trials interspersed with non-food peak interval (PI) trials that were four times longer. One group of pigeons was exposed to FI 20s PI 80s trials, and another to FI 40s PI 160s trials. Results showed that, during the extinction segment, most pigeons trained with FI schedules, but not with VI schedules, displayed pause-peck oscillations with a period close to, but slightly greater than the FI parameter. These oscillations did not start immediately after the onset of extinction. Comparing the oscillations from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that the alternation of reconditioning and re-extinction increases the reliability and earlier onset of the oscillations. In Experiment 3 the pigeons exhibited well-defined pause-peck cycles since the onset of extinction. These cycles had periods close to twice the value of the FI and lasted for long intervals of time. We discuss some hypotheses concerning the processes underlying behavioral oscillations following periodic reinforcement.

  12. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed.

  13. Mixed hepatoblastoma and teratoma of the liver in a 3-year-old child: a unique combination and clinical challenge

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Primary liver tumors in children are rare with malignant hepatoblastoma being the most common neoplasm. In this report, we describe the diagnosis and clinical management of a large liver tumor in a 3-year-old child that displayed the features of both, conventional hepatoblastoma and malignant teratoma. Pathological assessment on a pre-operative bioptical specimen showed an immature teratoid tumor with no area of hepatoblastic differentiation present. Histological and immunhistological examination of the resected tumor specimen additionally showed tumor areas of very different differentiation pattern intermixed with each other, namely areas of hepatoblastoma-typical and neuroblastoma-like morphology as well as areas of rhadomyosarcomatous differentiation. After chemotherapy the tumor size increased and an extended right hemihepatectomy was performed. Post-operatively, the general condition of the child improved and adjuvant chemotherapy was started two weeks later. 36 months after initial diagnosis the patient is healthy, in good general condition, and without any sign of residual tumor disease. Overall, we describe the diagnosis and clinical management of a large liver tumor in a 3-year-old child that displayed the features of both, conventional hepatoblastoma and malignant teratoma and was designated as mixed hepatoblastoma and teratoma. Though mesenchymal tumor portions can occur within hepatoblastomas, most commonly osteoid or chondroid, our case is different as it presents a large spectrum of mesenchymal and epithelial differentiation pattern in most of the lesion. PMID:19909520

  14. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed.

  15. Predictors of Obesity in a Cohort of Children Enrolled in WIC as Infants and Retained to 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, M A; Scheinmann, R; Hartel, D; McLeod, N; Sekhobo, J; Edmunds, L S; Findley, S

    2016-02-01

    This longitudinal study of children enrolled as infants in the New York State (NYS) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) examined predictors of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile) at 3 years of age. NYS WIC administrative data which included information from parent interviews and measured heights and weights for children were used. All 50,589 children enrolled as infants in WIC between July to December 2008 and July to December 2009 and retained in WIC through age three were included. At 3 years of age, 15.1% of children were obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that children of mothers who received the Full Breastfeeding Food Package when their infant was enrolled in WIC (adjusted OR = 0.52) and children with ≤2 h screen time daily at age 3 (adjusted OR = 0.88) were significantly less likely to be obese (p < 0.001) controlling for race/ethnicity, birth weight, and birthplace. In this cohort of NYS WIC participants, maternal receipt of the Full Breastfeeding Food Package (a surrogate measure of exclusive breastfeeding) is associated with lower levels of obesity in their children at age 3. The relationships between participation in WIC, exclusive breastfeeding, and obesity prevention merit further study.

  16. The measurement of executive function at age 3 years: psychometric properties and criterion validity of a new battery of tasks.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Michael T; Blair, Clancy B; Wirth, R J; Greenberg, Mark

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the authors examined the psychometric properties and criterion validity of a newly developed battery of tasks that were designed to assess executive function (EF) abilities in early childhood. The battery was included in the 36-month assessment of the Family Life Project (FLP), a prospective longitudinal study of 1,292 children oversampled from low-income and African American families. Ninety-one percent of children were able to complete 1 or more of the tasks. Psychometric analyses were used to test the dimensionality of each task, evaluate the item and task properties, test the dimensionality of the task battery, and evaluate the criterion validity of the battery with multi-informant measures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and child performance on two subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. Results indicated that the tasks were successful in measuring interindividual differences in child EF ability, that task scores were most informative about ability level for children in the low to moderate range of ability, that children's performance across the entire battery was adequately summarized by a single factor, and that individual differences on the EF battery were related to ADHD symptomatology and intelligence in expected ways. Results are discussed with respect to the importance of developing psychometrically sound, scalable instruments that facilitate the measurement of interindividual differences in intraindividual change of EF across the early childhood period.

  17. Phase I clinical trial of cell therapy in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: follow-up of up to 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Stessuk, Talita; Ruiz, Milton Artur; Greco, Oswaldo Tadeu; Bilaqui, Aldemir; Ribeiro-Paes, Maria José de Oliveira; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a major inflammatory disease of the airways and an enormous therapeutic challenge. Within the spectrum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary emphysema is characterized by the destruction of the alveolar walls with an increase in the air spaces distal to the terminal bronchioles but without significant pulmonary fibrosis. Therapeutic options are limited and palliative since they are unable to promote morphological and functional regeneration of the alveolar tissue. In this context, new therapeutic approaches, such as cell therapy with adult stem cells, are being evaluated. Objective This article aims to describe the follow-up of up to 3 years after the beginning of a phase I clinical trial and discuss the spirometry parameters achieved by patients with advanced pulmonary emphysema treated with bone marrow mononuclear cells. Methods Four patients with advanced pulmonary emphysema were submitted to autologous infusion of bone marrow mononuclear cells. Follow-ups were performed by spirometry up to 3 years after the procedure. Results The results showed that autologous cell therapy in patients having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a safe procedure and free of adverse effects. There was an improvement in laboratory parameters (spirometry) and a slowing down in the process of pathological degeneration. Also, patients reported improvements in the clinical condition and quality of life. Conclusions Despite being in the initial stage and in spite of the small sample, the results of the clinical protocol of cell therapy in advanced pulmonary emphysema as proposed in this study, open new therapeutic perspectives in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is worth emphasizing that this study corresponds to the first study in the literature that reports a change in the natural history of pulmonary emphysema after the use of cell therapy with a pool of bone marrow mononuclear cells. PMID:24255620

  18. Molecular characterization of acinetobacter isolates collected in intensive care units of six hospitals in Florence, Italy, during a 3-year surveillance program: a population structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Francesca; Sergi, Simona; Indorato, Cristina; Mastromei, Giorgio; Monnanni, Roberto; Nicoletti, Pieluigi; Pecile, Patrizia; Cecconi, Daniela; Mannino, Roberta; Bencini, Sara; Fanci, Rosa; Bosi, Alberto; Casalone, Enrico

    2010-04-01

    The strain diversity and the population structure of nosocomial Acinetobacter isolated from patients admitted to different hospitals in Florence, Italy, during a 3-year surveillance program, were investigated by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). The majority of isolates (84.5%) were identified as A. baumannii, confirming this species as the most common hospital Acinetobacter. Three very distinct A. baumannii clonal groups (A1, A2, and A3) were defined. The A1 isolates appeared to be genetically related to the well-characterized European EU II clone. A2 was responsible for three outbreaks which occurred in two intensive care units. Space/time population dynamic analysis showed that A1 and A2 were successful nosocomial clones. Most of the A. baumannnii isolates were imipenem resistant. The genetic determinants of carbapenem resistance were investigated by multiplex PCR, showing that resistance, independently of hospital origin, period of isolation, or clonal group, was associated with the presence of a bla (OXA-58-like) gene and with ISAba2 and ISAba3 elements flanking this gene. bla (OXA-58) appeared to be horizontally transferred. This study showed that the high discriminatory power of AFLP is useful for identification and typing of nosocomial Acinetobacter isolates. Moreover the use of AFLP in a real-time surveillance program allowed us the recognition of clinically relevant and widespread clones and their monitoring in hospital settings. The correlation between clone diffusion, imipenem resistance, and the presence of the bla(OXA-58-like) gene is discussed.

  19. A 3 year follow-up study of health care students' sense of coherence and related smoking, drinking and physical exercise factors.

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, Merja; Utriainen, Pekka

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the sense of coherence (SOC) of three groups of Finnish polytechnic students (n=287) at the beginning of their studies and to follow it during a period of 3 year amongst the health care students (n=63) of this group. The associations between SOC and smoking, drinking and physical exercise were also studied. The data were collected with a questionnaire which included Antonovsky's (Adv. Nurs. Sci. 1(1983)37) SOC scale. Data analysis was with SPSS statistical software. The students showed a strong sense of coherence at the beginning of their studies. Physical activity was related to the strength of SOC, but no association was found with smoking and drinking. Health care students showed a stronger SOC at the beginning of their studies than the two other groups. During the follow-up focused on the health care students, SOC weakened in 6%, remained unchanged in 65% and strengthened in 32% of the participants. Smoking, drinking and physical exercise showed no association with these changes. Future research should be focused on identifying factors that are related to SOC during education.

  20. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hypokalemic; Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis; HOKPP; HypoKPP; HypoPP ... is not inherited. Unlike other forms of periodic paralysis, people with hypoPP have normal thyroid function. But ...

  1. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    Periodic paralysis - hyperkalemic; Familial hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; HyperKPP; HyperPP; Gamstorp disease ... factors include having other family members with periodic paralysis. It affects men more often than women.

  2. Cells anticipate periodic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  3. Solar wind plasma periodicities observed at 1 AU by IMP 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paularena, K. I.; Szabo, A.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    The IMP 8 spacecraft has been in Earth orbit since 1973, gathering plasma data over one complete 22-year solar cycle. These data are being examined to look for periodicities at time scales ranging from several hours to the entire span of the data set. A 1.3-year periodicity in the radial speed observed by IMP 8 and Voyager 2 has already been reported for the years from 1987 to 1993. The periodogram method, useful for unevenly sampled data such as the IMP 8 plasma data, has been used to search for other periods. It is interesting to note that the 13-year period is not present in the out-of-the-ecliptic component of the velocity (Vz), although a 1-year period is very obvious both visually and on the periodogram. Both components show a very strong peak associated with the 11-year solar cycle variation. This work will be extended to the thermal speed (a measure of the wind's temperature) and density, although the frequent correlations between these parameters and the velocity are expected to cause similar results. Additionally, the fine resolution data will be examined for shorter time periods than are visible using the hourly average data which are appropriate for longer periods. A comparison with periods observed at other spacecraft may also be made.

  4. Anxiety symptoms, cerebral amyloid burden and memory decline in healthy older adults without dementia: 3-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Scott, J Cobb; Neumeister, Alexander; Lim, Yen Ying; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Harrington, Karra; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Szoeke, Cassandra; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although beta-amyloid, anxiety and depression have linked cross-sectionally to reduced memory function in healthy older adults without dementia, prospective data evaluating these associations are lacking. Using data an observational cohort study of 178 healthy older adults without dementia followed for 3 years, we found that anxiety symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between beta-amyloid level and decline in verbal (Cohen's d = 0.65) and episodic (Cohen's d = 0.38) memory. Anxiety symptoms were additionally linked to greater decline in executive function, irrespective of beta-amyloid and other risk factors. These findings suggest that interventions to mitigate anxiety symptoms may help delay memory decline in otherwise healthy older adults with elevated beta-amyloid.

  5. Battery Energy Storage System battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations: Analysis of 3 years of real usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubarry, Matthieu; Devie, Arnaud; Stein, Karl; Tun, Moe; Matsuura, Marc; Rocheleau, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) show promise to help renewable energy sources integration onto the grid. These systems are expected to last for a decade or more, but the actual battery degradation under different real world conditions is still largely unknown. In this paper we analyze 3 years of usage of a lithium titanate BESS installed and in operation on an island power system in Hawai'i. The BESS was found to be operational 90% of the time and stored a cumulative 1.5 GWh of energy, which represents more than 5000 equivalent full cycles on the cells. This paper presents a statistical analysis of the BESS usage, develops a representative duty cycle, and provides an initial estimate of BESS degradation. The battery duty cycle was characterized based on 5 parameters: pulses duration, pulses intensity (current), SOC swing range, SOC event ramp rate, and temperature.

  6. Longer than 3-year survival following hepato-ligamento-pancreatoduodenectomy for hilar cholangiocarcinoma with vascular involvement: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kaneoka, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Isogai, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    A 70-year-old man presented with a mass-forming perihilar cholangiocarcinoma in his left liver, and both the portal trunk and proper hepatic artery were involved by the tumor. We performed a hepato-ligamento-pancreatoduodenectomy (HLPD),