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Sample records for 3-year survival rates

  1. Delayed Complications in Patients Surviving at Least 3 Years After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Kawabe, Takuya; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Sato, Yasunori; Nariai, Tadashi; Barfod, Bierta E.; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Urakawa, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about delayed complications after stereotactic radiosurgery in long-surviving patients with brain metastases. We studied the actual incidence and predictors of delayed complications. Patients and Methods: This was an institutional review board-approved, retrospective cohort study that used our database. Among our consecutive series of 2000 patients with brain metastases who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) from 1991-2008, 167 patients (8.4%, 89 women, 78 men, mean age 62 years [range, 19-88 years]) who survived at least 3 years after GKRS were studied. Results: Among the 167 patients, 17 (10.2%, 18 lesions) experienced delayed complications (mass lesions with or without cyst in 8, cyst alone in 8, edema in 2) occurring 24.0-121.0 months (median, 57.5 months) after GKRS. The actuarial incidences of delayed complications estimated by competing risk analysis were 4.2% and 21.2% at the 60th month and 120th month, respectively, after GKRS. Among various pre-GKRS clinical factors, univariate analysis demonstrated tumor volume-related factors: largest tumor volume (hazard ratio [HR], 1.091; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.018-1.154; P=.0174) and tumor volume {<=}10 cc vs >10 cc (HR, 4.343; 95% CI, 1.444-12.14; P=.0108) to be the only significant predictors of delayed complications. Univariate analysis revealed no correlations between delayed complications and radiosurgical parameters (ie, radiosurgical doses, conformity and gradient indexes, and brain volumes receiving >5 Gy and >12 Gy). After GKRS, an area of prolonged enhancement at the irradiated lesion was shown to be a possible risk factor for the development of delayed complications (HR, 8.751; 95% CI, 1.785-157.9; P=.0037). Neurosurgical interventions were performed in 13 patients (14 lesions) and mass removal for 6 lesions and Ommaya reservoir placement for the other 8. The results were favorable. Conclusions: Long-term follow-up is crucial for patients with brain metastases

  2. Cryoplasty Versus Conventional Angioplasty in Femoropopliteal Arterial Recanalization: 3-Year Analysis of Reintervention-Free Survival by Treatment Received

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Maria Lourdes; Urtasun, Fermin Barberena, Javier; Aranzadi, Carlos; Guillen-Grima, Francisco; Bilbao, Jose Ignacio

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To compare long-term efficacy of cryoplasty therapy versus conventional angioplasty in the treatment of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic stenosis on the basis of our 3-year clinical experience. Materials and Methods: From January 2006 to December 2008, a total of 155 patients with 192 lesions of the femoropopliteal sector were randomized to receive either cryoplasty or conventional balloon angioplasty. The primary study end point was lesion target patency. Follow-up with clinical evaluation of patient's symptoms, ankle-brachial index, and Doppler ultrasound was scheduled at 1, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months. Results: For the cryoplasty group (n = 86), technical immediate success was achieved in 74.4% of lesions. Rate of significant dissection was 13.5% and rate of stent placement of 22%. In the long term, target lesion patency rate at 6 months was 59.4%, with rates of 55.9, 52.6, and 49.1% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. For the conventional angioplasty group (n = 69), the immediate technical success rate was 83.7%. Rate of significant dissection was 19%, and rate of stent placement was 72.9%. Patency rates at 6 months and at 1, 2, and 3 years were 71.5, 61.2, 60, and 56%, respectively. Conclusion: Compared with conventional angioplasty, cryoplasty showed good immediate success rates with lower stent placement rates. During the 3-year follow-up, patency rates tended to equalize between the two modalities.

  3. [Bevacizumab as first-line therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Progression-free survival for 3 years].

    PubMed

    Pichler, R; Horninger, W; Aigner, F; Heidegger, I

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 72-year-old woman who was diagnosed in 2006 with renal cell cancer (RCC) and had undergone consecutive tumor nephrectomy (clear-cell RCC, Fuhrmann grade II, stage pT3a, R0). Over the years, the patient underwent several surgical and radiological interventions due to various metastatic lesions. This case report describes the 3-year progression-free survival in a patient who underwent first-line therapy with the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. Except for hypertension, the patient does not suffer currently from any other side effects of bevacizumab therapy.

  4. Conditional Probability of Survival Nomogram for 1-, 2-, and 3-Year Survivors After an R0 Resection for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dikken, Johan L.; Baser, Raymond E.; Gonen, Mithat; Kattan, Michael W.; Shah, Manish A.; Verheij, Marcel; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Brennan, Murray F.; Coit, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Survival estimates after curative surgery for gastric cancer are based on AJCC staging, or on more accurate multivariable nomograms. However, the risk of dying of gastric cancer is not constant over time, with most deaths occurring in the first 2 years after resection. Therefore, the prognosis for a patient who survives this critical period improves. This improvement over time is termed conditional probability of survival (CPS). Objectives of this study were to develop a CPS nomogram predicting 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) from the day of surgery for patients surviving a specified period of time after a curative gastrectomy and to explore whether variables available with follow-up improve the nomogram in the follow-up setting. Methods A CPS nomogram was developed from a combined US-Dutch dataset, containing 1,642 patients who underwent an R0 resection with or without chemotherapy/ radiotherapy for gastric cancer. Weight loss, performance status, hemoglobin, and albumin 1 year after resection were added to the baseline variables of this nomogram. Results The CPS nomogram was highly discriminating (concordance index: 0.772). Surviving 1, 2, or 3 years gives a median improvement of 5-year DSS from surgery of 7.2, 19.1, and 31.6 %, compared with the baseline prediction directly after surgery. Introduction of variables available at 1-year follow-up did not improve the nomogram. Conclusions A robust gastric cancer nomogram was developed to predict survival for patients alive at time points after surgery. Introduction of additional variables available after 1 year of follow-up did not further improve this nomogram. PMID:23143591

  5. Rates of mutation and host transmission for an Escherichia coli clone over 3 years.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Peter R; Liu, Bin; Zhou, Zhemin; Li, Dan; Guo, Dan; Ren, Yan; Clabots, Connie; Lan, Ruiting; Johnson, James R; Wang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Although over 50 complete Escherichia coli/Shigella genome sequences are available, it is only for closely related strains, for example the O55:H7 and O157:H7 clones of E. coli, that we can assign differences to individual evolutionary events along specific lineages. Here we sequence the genomes of 14 isolates of a uropathogenic E. coli clone that persisted for 3 years within a household, including a dog, causing a urinary tract infection (UTI) in the dog after 2 years. The 20 mutations observed fit a single tree that allows us to estimate the mutation rate to be about 1.1 per genome per year, with minimal evidence for adaptive change, including in relation to the UTI episode. The host data also imply at least 6 host transfer events over the 3 years, with 2 lineages present over much of that period. To our knowledge, these are the first direct measurements for a clone in a well-defined host community that includes rates of mutation and host transmission. There is a concentration of non-synonymous mutations associated with 2 transfers to the dog, suggesting some selection pressure from the change of host. However, there are no changes to which we can attribute the UTI event in the dog, which suggests that this occurrence after 2 years of the clone being in the household may have been due to chance, or some unknown change in the host or environment. The ability of a UTI strain to persist for 2 years and also to transfer readily within a household has implications for epidemiology, diagnosis, and clinical intervention.

  6. Fifty-four-month survival in a 3-year-old child presenting with an aggressive metastatic dedifferentiated clival chordoma.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Ciléin; Kearns, Cónail

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated chordoma is a rare, aggressive, chemoresistant and radioresistant malignancy arising from notochord remnants that can occur anywhere along the spine. Incidence in patients under 20 years of age is 1 per 250 million. We report a case of dedifferentiated clival chordoma presenting in a 3-year-old boy with pulmonary metastasis, which responded unusually well to chemotherapy, achieving complete metastatic clearance and debulking of the primary tumour. Proton beam therapy achieved further tumour control, with excellent quality of life for multiple years. On disease relapse, an atypical lateral transcondylar surgical approach achieved complete macroscopic clearance but there was cutaneous seeding. This, and continued primary site activity, failed to be controlled with targeted therapy, traditional chemotherapy and photon radiation, resulting in gradual neurological decline and death. Intensive management resulted in above-average survival despite diagnosis late in the disease course, which may be of value directing investigation into optimal management.

  7. Sources of variation in waterfowl survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Barker, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the need to manage hunted populations of waterfowl (Anatidae), biologists have studied many demographic traits of waterfowl by analyzing band recoveries. These analyses have produced the most extensive and best estimates of survival available for any group of birds. Using these data, we examined several factors that might explain variation among annual survival rates to explore large-scale patterns that might be useful in understanding waterfowl population dynamics. We found that geography, body mass, and tribe (i.e. phylogeny) were important in explaining variation in average waterfowl survival rates.

  8. Soil ingestion rates for children under 3 years old in Taiwan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil and dust ingestion rates by children are among the most critical exposure factors in determining risks to children from exposures to environmental contaminants in soil and dust. This is the first published soil ingestion study for children in Taiwan using tracer element meth...

  9. Survival rates of female greater sage-grouse in autumn and winter in Southeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Willis, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of 135 female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) on 3 study areas in southeastern Oregon, USA during autumn and winter for 3 years. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to test for differences among study areas and years, investigate the potential influence of weather, and compute estimates of overwinter survival. We found no evidence for differences in survival rates among study areas, which was contrary to our original hypothesis. There also were no declines in survival rates during fallwinter, but survival rates varied among years and time within years. Average survival rate from October through February was 0.456 (SE 0.062). The coefficient of variation for this estimate was 13.6% indicating good precision in our estimates of survival. We found strong evidence for an effect of weather (i.e., mean daily min. temp, extreme min. temp, snow depth) on bi-weekly survival rates of sage-grouse for 2 of the study areas in one year. Extremely low (1,500 m) elevations. In contrast, we found no evidence for an influence of weather on the low-elevation study area or during the winters of 19891990 and 19911992. Extreme weather during winter can cause lower survival of adult female sage-grouse, so managers should be aware of these potential effects and reduce harvest rates accordingly.

  10. Survival rates of cervical cancer patients in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir; Adon, Mohd Yusoff; Noh, Mohamed Asyraf; Bakhtiar, Mohammed Faizal; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mahmud, Siti Haniza; Aris, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common malignant cancer of the female reproductive organs worldwide. Currently, cervical cancer can be prevented by vaccination and detected at an early stage via various screening methods. Malaysia, as a developing country faces a heavy disease burden of cervical cancer as it is the second most common cancer among Malaysian women. This population based study was carried out to fulfil the primary aim of determining the survival rates of Malaysian women with cervical cancer and associated factors. Data were obtained from two different sources namely, the Malaysian National Cancer Registry (MNCR) and National Health Informatics Centre (NHIC) from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2005. Kaplan Meier analyses were conducted to identify the overall survival rates and median survival time. Differences in survival among different ethnic and age group were compared using the log-rank test. A total of 5,859 patients were included. The median survival time for cervical cancer in this study was 65.8 months and the 5-year survival rate was 71.1%. The overall observed survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 94.1%, 79.3% and 71.1% respectively. The log-rank test finding also showed that there were significant differences in the 5-year survival rate among different ethnic groups. Malays had the lowest survival rate of 59.2% followed by Indians (69.5%) and Chinese (73.8%). The overall 5-year survival rate among patients with cervical cancer in Malaysia is relatively good. Age and ethnic groups remain as significant determining factors for cervical cancer survival rate.

  11. Comment on 'Are survival rates for northern spotted owls biased?'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, A.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Anthony, R.G.; Burnham, K.P.; White, Gary C.; Forsman, E.D.; Anderson, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Loehle et al. recently estimated survival rates from radio-telemetered northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina (Merriam, 1898)) and suggested that survival rates estimated for this species from capture-recapture studies were negatively biased, which subsequently resulted in the negatively biased estimates of rates of population change (lambda) reported by Anthony et al. (Wildl. Monogr. No. 163, pp. 1-47 (2006)). We argue that their survival estimates were inappropriate for comparison with capture-recapture estimates because (i) the manner in which they censored radio-telemetered individuals had the potential to positively bias their survival estimates, (ii) their estimates of survival were not valid for evaluating bias, and (iii) the size and distribution of their radiotelemetry study areas were sufficiently different from capture-recapture study areas to preclude comparisons. In addition, their inferences of negative bias in rates of population change estimated by Anthony et al. were incorrect and reflected a misunderstanding about those estimators.

  12. Survival rates of children with severe neurologic disabilities: a review.

    PubMed

    Plioplys, Audrius V

    2003-06-01

    Knowledge of accurate survival rates of children with neurologic disabilities is important for third-party insurance payers planning future medical expenses. This is of particular importance to pediatric skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) that depend on financial support from governmental sources. Eyman published survival rate results from California that were extremely pessimistic and not in keeping with our clinical impressions. This led us to conduct a thorough review of our survival rates, which were much better than those reported by Eyman. Since the publication of our study, a large number of reports have appeared from many different countries, as well as further information from California using an expanded database. The survival rate data that we obtained remain consistently better than that in most recent reports. In the California results, 10-year survival rates for the most-disabled group (group 1) were reported to be 32% in 1993 and 45% in 1998, compared with 73% in our study. Eight-year survival rates for group 1 from California were reported to be 38% in 1993 and 63% in 2000, compared with our finding of 73%. The reasons for our better survival rates include the fact that all of our patients were in SNFs, where prompt medical care for acute illnesses was always provided, whereas only 3.5% of the study group was in SNFs in California. Also, the California data contained many methodologic and statistical errors, which are reviewed here. PMID:14572148

  13. Estimating survival rates from banding of adult and juvenile birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The restrictive assumptions required by most available methods for estimating survival probabilities render them unsuitable for analyzing real banding data. A model is proposed which allows survival rates and recovery rates to vary with the calendar year, and also allows juveniles to have rates different from adults. In addition to survival rates and recovery rates, the differential vulnerability factors of juveniles relative to adults are estimated. Minimum values of the variances of the estimators are also given. The new procedure is applied to sets of duck and goose data in which reasonably large numbers of adult and juvenile birds were banded. The results are shown to be generally comparable to those procured by other methods, but, in addition, insight into the extent of annual variation is gained. Combining data from adults and juveniles also increases the effective sample size, since the juveniles are assumed to enter the adult age class after surviving their initial year.

  14. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  15. Generalized procedures for testing hypotheses about survival or recovery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Williams, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons of survival or recovery rates from different time periods or geographic regions may be difficult to accomplish using the Z-tests suggested by Brownie et al. (1985). We propose a general Chi-square statistic that addresses an unambiguous null hypothesis of homogeneity among several survival or recovery rates. With this statistic, specific hypotheses of differences in rates can be simultaneously tested using contrasts. If necessary, a posteriori multiple comparisons can also be conducted that incorporate an adjustment for Type I error.

  16. Prognostic factors on survival rate of fingers replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Queiroz; Carli, Alberto De; Nakamoto, Hugo Alberto; Bersani, Gustavo; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors that influence the survival rate of replantation and revascularization of the thumb and/or fingers. Methods: We included fifty cases treated in our department from May 2012 to October 2013 with total or partial finger amputations, which had blood perfusion deficit and underwent vascular anastomosis. The parameters evaluated were: age, gender, comorbidities, trauma, time and type of ischemia, mechanism, the injured area, number of anastomosed vessels and use of vein grafts. The results were statistically analyzed and type I error value was set at p <0.05 . Results: Fifty four percent of the 50 performed replantation survived. Of 15 revascularizations performed, the survival rate was 93.3%. The only factor that affected the survival of the amputated limb was the necessity of venous anastomosis. Conclusion: We could not establish contraindications or absolute indications for the replantation and revascularization of finger amputations in this study. Level of Evidence III, Retropective Study. PMID:26327788

  17. Survival rates of some terrestrial microorganisms under simulated space conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.; Koike, K. A.; Taguchi, H.; Tanaka, R.; Nishimura, K.; Miyaji, M.

    1992-10-01

    In connection with planetary quarantine, we have been studying the survival rates of nine species of terrestrial microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions. If common terrestrial microorganisms cannot survive in space even for short periods, we can greatly reduce expenditure for sterilizing space probes. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 k, 4 × 10-6 torr), and protons irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, Tobacco mosaic virus. Bacillus subtilis spores, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82%, 45%, 28%, and 25%, respectively. Furthermore, pathogenic Candida albicans showed 7% survival after irradiation corresponding to about 60 years in space.

  18. Effect of lead poisoning on spectacled elder survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grand, J.B.; Flint, P.L.; Petersen, M.R.; Moran, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) populations on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, declined rapidly through the 1980s, and low adult female survival was suggested as the likely cause of the decline. We used mark-resighting techniques to study annual survival rates of adult female spectacled eiders at 2 sites on the Y-K Delta during 1993-96. Our data suggest survival rates may differ among sites. However, a model fit to a subset of data on females for which we knew lead levels in blood suggests lead exposure influences survival. Adult females exposed to lead prior to hatching their eggs survived at a much lower rate (0.44 ?? 0.10) each year than females not exposed to lead before hatch (0.78 ?? 0.05). We suggest most mortality from lead exposure occurs over winter, and the related reduction in adult survival may be impeding recovery of local populations. We encourage managers to curtail input of lead shot into the environment.

  19. Annual survival rates of breeding adult roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of the capture-recapture data on 0 individual roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) trapped from 1978-1987 as breeding adults on nests on Falkner Island, Connecticut, estimate the average annual minimum adult survival rate to be 0.74-0.75. There was weak evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates during the study period. The Jolly-Seber models used to estimate survival rates also generated estimates of population size and capture probabilities. To determine the relative importance of adult mortality and permanent emigration in contribuuting to the estimated annual loss of one-fourth of the breeding population will require further study of intercolony movemnet between all the major colony cities.

  20. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Management of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) has been hindered by access to reliable data on population trajectories and vital rates. We conducted a Bayesian analysis of historical (1951–2011) band-recovery data throughout North America to estimate annual survival and recovery rates for juvenile and adult male and female lesser scaup to determine if increasing harvest or declining survival rates have contributed to population changes and to determine if harvest has been primarily additive or compensatory. Annual recovery rates were low, ranging from 1% to 4% for adults and 2% to 10% for juveniles during most years, with trend models indicating that recovery rates have declined through time for all age–sex classes. Annual survival (mid-Aug to mid-Aug) averaged 0.402 (σ ̂ 0.043) for juvenile males, 0.416 (σ ̂ 0.067) for juvenile females, 0.689 (σ ̂ 0.109) for adult males, and 0.602 (σ ̂ 0.115) for adult females, where σ ̂ represents an estimate of annual process variation in each survival rate. Annual survival rates exhibited no evidence of long-term declines or negative correlations with annual recovery rates (i.e., an index of harvest intensity) for any age–sex class, suggesting that declining fecundity was the most likely explanation for population declines during 1975–2005. We conclude that hunting mortality played a minor role in affecting population dynamics of lesser scaup and waterfowl managers could take a less cautious approach in managing harvest, especially if recruiting or maintaining waterfowl hunters are viewed as important management objectives.

  1. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  2. Changes in cortisol release and heart rate and heart rate variability during the initial training of 3-year-old sport horses.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alice; Aurich, Jörg; Möstl, Erich; Müller, Jürgen; Aurich, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Based on cortisol release, a variety of situations to which domestic horses are exposed have been classified as stressors but studies on the stress during equestrian training are limited. In the present study, Warmblood stallions (n=9) and mares (n=7) were followed through a 9 respective 12-week initial training program in order to determine potentially stressful training steps. Salivary cortisol concentrations, beat-to-beat (RR) interval and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined. The HRV variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR), RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR differences) and the geometric means standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2) were calculated. Nearly each training unit was associated with an increase in salivary cortisol concentrations (p<0.01). Cortisol release varied between training units and occasionally was more pronounced in mares than in stallions (p<0.05). The RR interval decreased slightly in response to lunging before mounting of the rider. A pronounced decrease occurred when the rider was mounting, but before the horse showed physical activity (p<0.001). The HRV variables SDRR, RMSSD and SD1 decreased in response to training and lowest values were reached during mounting of a rider (p<0.001). Thereafter RR interval and HRV variables increased again. In contrast, SD2 increased with the beginning of lunging (p<0.05) and no changes in response to mounting were detectable. In conclusion, initial training is a stressor for horses. The most pronounced reaction occurred in response to mounting by a rider, a situation resembling a potentially lethal threat under natural conditions.

  3. CAFFEINE IMPROVES HEART RATE WITHOUT IMPROVING SEPSIS SURVIVAL

    PubMed Central

    Bauzá, Gustavo; Remick, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Caffeine is consumed on a daily basis for its nervous system stimulant properties and is a global adenosine receptor antagonist. Since adenosine receptors have been found to play a major role in regulating the immune response to a septic insult, we investigated if caffeine consumption prior to a septic insult would alter immunological and physiological responses, as well as survival. Methods Two separate experimental designs were employed, both using outbred female ICR mice. In the first experiment mice were administered 20mg/kg of caffeine (equal to 2–3 cups of coffee for a human) or normal saline intraperitoneally at the time of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Immunological parameters including cytokines and local cell recruitment measured. In the second experiment caffeine (10mg/kg/hr) was delivered continuously for 24 hours via a subcutaneous infusion pump placed the day prior to CLP and hemodynamic parameters were examined. In both experiments survival was followed for five days. Results A single dose of caffeine at the initiation of sepsis did not alter survival. This single dose of caffeine did significantly increase in plasma levels of the chemokine KC six hours after the onset of sepsis compared to septic mice given normal saline. There were no changes in IL-6 or IL-10 levels in the caffeine groups. Peritoneal lavages performed 24 hours post-CLP showed no difference in the levels of IL-6, TNF, KC, MIP-1, IL-10 or the IL-1 receptor antagonist between caffeine and normal saline treated mice. Additionally, the lavages yielded similar numbers of cells (4.1×106 vehicle vs. 6.9×106 caffeine) and bacterial colony forming units (CFU, 4.1 million CFU vehicle vs. 2.8 million CFU caffeine). In the infusion group, caffeine also did not alter survival. However, caffeine infusion did increase heart rate prior to CLP, and prevented the decline in heart rate after CLP. Conclusion Caffeine increased heart rate in mice but does not impact cytokine

  4. Estimating cancer mortality rates from SEER incidence and survival data.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K C; Horm, J W; Smart, C R

    1990-01-01

    A method to estimate site-specific cancer mortality rates using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program incidence and survival data is proposed, calculated, and validated. This measure, the life table-derived mortality rate (LTM), is the sum of the product of the probability of being alive at the beginning of an interval times the probability of dying of the cancer of interest during the interval times the annual age-adjusted incidence rate for each year that data have been collected. When the LTM is compared to death certificate mortality rates (DCM) for organ sites with no known misclassification problems, the LTM was within 10 percent of the death certificate rates for 13 of 14 organ sites. In the sites that have problems with the death certificate rates, there were major disagreements between the LTM and DCM. The LTM was systematically lower than the DCM for sites if there was overreporting on the death certificates, and the LTM was higher than the DCM for sites if there was underreporting. The limitations and applications of the LTM are detailed. PMID:2106703

  5. Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Altukhov, Alexey V; Andrews, Russel D; Calkins, Donald G; Gelatt, Thomas S; Gurarie, Eliezer D; Loughlin, Thomas R; Mamaev, Evgeny G; Nikulin, Victor S; Permyakov, Peter A; Ryazanov, Sergey D; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Burkanov, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas.

  6. Age Specific Survival Rates of Steller Sea Lions at Rookeries with Divergent Population Trends in the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Altukhov, Alexey V.; Andrews, Russel D.; Calkins, Donald G.; Gelatt, Thomas S.; Gurarie, Eliezer D.; Loughlin, Thomas R.; Mamaev, Evgeny G.; Nikulin, Victor S.; Permyakov, Peter A.; Ryazanov, Sergey D.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas. PMID:26016772

  7. Epidemiological Data and Survival Rate of Removable Partial Dentures

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Santos, Emerson Gomes Dos; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of removable partial denture (RPD) is considered as low-cost and common treatment option to rehabilitate edentulous areas. Aim This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological data of patients rehabilitated with removable partial denture (RPD) in order to assess treatment survival rate and failures. Materials and Methods Epidemiological data and medical records of patients treated with RPD between 2007 and 2012 at the RPD discipline of a Brazilian University (Aracatuba Dental School- UNESP) were evaluated as well as dental records of patients who underwent RPD treatments (fabrication or repairs) between 2000 and 2010. Factors such as gender, age, presence of systemic disease, main complaint, edentulous arch, period and cause of denture replacement and the prosthesis characteristics were recorded. The chi-square test was used to assess the differences between the variables and the Kaplan Meyer to assess the survival of the RPDs evaluated. Results A total of 324 maxillary RPD and 432 mandibular RPD were fabricated. Most of the patients were women aging 41 to 60-year-old. The number of mandibular RPD Kennedy class I (26%) was statistically higher for the maxillary arch (p<.05). There was no association between main complaint to gender or the presence of systemic disease. The lingual plate was the most common major connector used in the mandible (32%). The main reason for altering the design of replaced RPDs were changes during treatment plan. Conclusion The number of patients who require RPD is large; most of RPDs are Kennedy Class I. A good treatment plan is very important for achieving a positive treatment outcome, and it is strictly related to the survival rate. PMID:27437367

  8. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C; Liu, T; Yuh, K; Wang, R; Grecula, J; Lo, S; Mayr, N; Yuh, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  9. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General determination of rate. When VA grants a surviving spouse entitlement to DIC, VA will determine the rate of...

  10. Analysis of recurrence and survival rates in grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieyu; Jia, Nan; Li, Qing; Wang, Chao; Tao, Xiang; Hua, Keqin; Feng, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine risk factors associated with recurrence and survival in patients with grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (G3EEC). A retrospective analysis of 117 patients with G3EEC, who were admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University between January 2000 and December 2011, was performed. The χ2 test or Fisher's exact test were used for the comparison of categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the prognostic significance of various patient characteristics. In 117 patients, 16 patients (13.7%) had tumor recurrence, of which 6 (37.5%) developed local-regional recurrence and 10 (62.5%) developed distant recurrence. Out of the 16 patients with tumor recurrence, 14 (87.5%) had a recurrence within 3 years of surgery. Statistically significant characteristics affecting RFS, DSS and OS rates were outer half myometrial invasion (MI ≥50%), advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, positive lymph node metastasis (PLNM), lymph vascular space invasion, adnexal involvement and characterization as a high-risk group, according to the Gynecologic Oncology Group 99 stratification algorithm. RFS was associated with the depth of cervical mucosa (stromal) involvement. Furthermore, in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, significant independent adverse factors for RFS and DSS included MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement. For OS, there were no statistically significant prognostic factors. In conclusion, MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement are independent prognostic factors for RFS and DSS in G3EEC patients.

  11. Analysis of recurrence and survival rates in grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieyu; Jia, Nan; Li, Qing; Wang, Chao; Tao, Xiang; Hua, Keqin; Feng, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine risk factors associated with recurrence and survival in patients with grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (G3EEC). A retrospective analysis of 117 patients with G3EEC, who were admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University between January 2000 and December 2011, was performed. The χ2 test or Fisher's exact test were used for the comparison of categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the prognostic significance of various patient characteristics. In 117 patients, 16 patients (13.7%) had tumor recurrence, of which 6 (37.5%) developed local-regional recurrence and 10 (62.5%) developed distant recurrence. Out of the 16 patients with tumor recurrence, 14 (87.5%) had a recurrence within 3 years of surgery. Statistically significant characteristics affecting RFS, DSS and OS rates were outer half myometrial invasion (MI ≥50%), advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, positive lymph node metastasis (PLNM), lymph vascular space invasion, adnexal involvement and characterization as a high-risk group, according to the Gynecologic Oncology Group 99 stratification algorithm. RFS was associated with the depth of cervical mucosa (stromal) involvement. Furthermore, in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, significant independent adverse factors for RFS and DSS included MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement. For OS, there were no statistically significant prognostic factors. In conclusion, MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement are independent prognostic factors for RFS and DSS in G3EEC patients. PMID:27698871

  12. Inferences regarding survival and recovery rates of winter-banded canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Haramis, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Banding and recovery data from 3 populations of winter-banded canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) were analyzed and survival and recovery rates were estimated. Sex-specific differences in these rates were detected in some populations, and lower survival rates were exhibited by females. Some geographic variation in survival rates was evident, suggesting that canvasbacks should not be managed strictly on a continent-wide basis. Evidence of temporal variation in both survival and recovery rates was found. Lower recovery rates were noted during periods of restrictive hunting regulations, but the relationship between survival rates and hunting regulations was not clear-cut.

  13. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric grey ducks and mallards in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caithness, T.; Williams, M.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) and mallards. (A. platyrhynchos) banded sympatrically during 1957-74 to estimate annual survival and recovery rates. Young birds tended to have higher recovery rates and lower survival rates than adults for both species. Both species showed strong evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates. Survival rates of male mallards were higher than those in females, as is typical for this species in North America, but there was no evidence of sex-specific survival differences in grey ducks. Recovery rate estimates for grey ducks were high and were significantly higher than those for mallards. However, survival rates did not differ significantly between the 2 species within any age-sex class. The similar survival rates, when mallard populations were increasing and grey ducks were decreasing, suggest that mallard reproductive rates have been greater than those of grey ducks.

  14. Band reporting rates of waterfowl: does individual heterogeneity bias estimated survival rates?

    PubMed Central

    White, Gary C; Cordes, Line S; Arnold, Todd W

    2013-01-01

    In capture–recapture studies, the estimation accuracy of demographic parameters is essential to the efficacy of management of hunted animal populations. Dead recovery models based upon the reporting of rings or bands are often used for estimating survival of waterfowl and other harvested species. However, distance from the ringing site or condition of the bird may introduce substantial individual heterogeneity in the conditional band reporting rates (r), which could cause bias in estimated survival rates (S) or suggest nonexistent individual heterogeneity in S. To explore these hypotheses, we ran two sets of simulations (n = 1000) in MARK using Seber's dead recovery model, allowing time variation on both S and r. This included a series of heterogeneity models, allowing substantial variation on logit(r), and control models with no heterogeneity. We conducted simulations using two different values of S: S = 0.60, which would be typical of dabbling ducks such as mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and S = 0.80, which would be more typical of sea ducks or geese. We chose a mean reporting rate on the logit scale of −1.9459 with SD = 1.5 for the heterogeneity models (producing a back-transformed mean of 0.196 with SD = 0.196, median = 0.125) and a constant reporting rate for the control models of 0.196. Within these sets of simulations, estimation models where σS = 0 and σS > 0 (σS is SD of individual survival rates on the logit scale) were incorporated to investigate whether real heterogeneity in r would induce apparent individual heterogeneity in S. Models where σS = 0 were selected approximately 91% of the time over models where σS > 0. Simulation results showed < 0.05% relative bias in estimating survival rates except for models estimating σS > 0 when true S = 0.8, where relative bias was a modest 0.5%. These results indicate that considerable variation in reporting rates does not cause major bias in estimated survival rates of waterfowl, further highlighting

  15. A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-07-01

    Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages. PMID:22919897

  16. Developmental milestones record - 3 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years ... milestones are typical for children in their third year of life. Always keep in mind that some ...

  17. The relationship between harvest and survival rates of mallards: A straightforward approach with partitioned data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    We randomly partitioned mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bandings and recoveries from each of a number of selected reference areas into 2 groups and estimated survival and harvest rates for each area and group. This procedure produced independent vectors of survival- and harvest-rate estimates, which were used to test the general hypothesis that mallard survival and harvest rates were inversely related. We used Spearman rank correlation analysis and z-test contrasts between survival rates from years of high vs. low harvest rates. We also conducted computer simulation experiments to gain insight into the ability of these analyses to detect the relationship of interest. The data analyses suggested that survival and harvest rates of young females were inversely related, at least for the 5 areas included in the analysis. However, for young males and adults of both sexes, the analyses provided no evidence of an inverse relationship between survival and harvest rates, except possibly in a few specific areas.

  18. TRMM 3-Year Anniversary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ever wonder about the rain? Beyond the practicality of needing an umbrella, climate researchers have wondered about the science of rainfall for a long time. But it's only in the past few years that they've begun to roll back some of its secrets. One of their tools for doing so is a powerful satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM. Now, after three years of continual operation, project scientists have released dramatic new maps of rainfall patterns gathered across a wide band of the Earth. And with measurements from one of the satellite's advanced sensors, meteorologists are now able to calibrate ground-based rain monitoring systems with greater precision than ever before. A complete accounting of the world's total rainfall has long been a major goal of climate researchers. Rain acts as the atmosphere's fundamental engine for heat exchange; every time a raindrop falls, the atmosphere gets churned up and latent heat flows back into the total climate system. Considering that rainfall is the primary driving force of heat in the atmosphere, and that two thirds of all rain falls in the tropics, these measurements are significant for our understanding of overall climate. The above image shows a one month average of rainfall measurements taken by the TRMM's unique precipitation radar during January of 1998. Areas of low rainfall are colored light blue, while regions with heavy rainfal are colored orange and red. TRMM began collecting data in December of 1997, and continues today. For more information about TRMM's 3-year anniversary, read Maps of Falling Water To learn more about the TRMM mission or order TRMM data, see the TRMM Home Page. Image courtesy TRMM Science team and the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  19. The effects of hunting on survival rates of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Percival, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    Using data from 10 preseason and 10 winter major reference areas from 1950-83, the authors tested hypotheses regarding the effects of hunting on the survival and recovery rates of the American black duck (Anas rubripes ). Although estimates of the proportion of total annual mortality due to hunting are low (35% for ad and 45% for young) compared to Blandin's (1982) estimates, mean mortality and kill rates have increased since 1982. When hunting regulations were liberalized, recovery rates increased and survival rates decreased in males whereas only recovery rates increased in females. Changes in hunting regulations appeared to affect survival rates of adult males and young American black ducks.

  20. Additional comments on the assumption of homogenous survival rates in modern bird banding estimation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Stokes, S.L.; Hines, J.E.; Conroy, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the problem of heterogeneous survival and recovery rates in bird banding estimation models. We suggest that positively correlated subgroup survival and recovery probabilities may result from winter banding operations and that this situation will produce positively biased survival rate estimates. The magnitude of the survival estimate bias depends on the proportion of the population in each subgroup. Power of the suggested goodness-of-fit test to reject the inappropriate model for heterogeneous data sets was low for all situations examined and was poorest for positively related subgroup survival and recovery rates. Despite the magnitude of some of the biases reported and the relative inability to detect heterogeneity, we suggest that levels of heterogeneity normally encountered in real data sets will produce relatively small biases of average survival rates.

  1. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a)...

  2. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a)...

  3. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a)...

  4. Estimation of survival rates from band recoveries of mule deer in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.; Bartmann, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the survival rate of mule deer in the White River drainage basin in northwestern Colorado. During five winters, 1972-76, 1923 mule deer were trapped and marked. Survival rates were determined at yearly intervals. A FORTRAN program was used to perform the analysis.

  5. Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating Rates through Retrieval Algorithm Differences: Analysis using 3-years of ARM data at Darwin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Protat, Alain; McFarlane, Sally A.; Delanoe, Julien; Deng, Min

    2013-05-22

    Ground-based radar and lidar observations obtained at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Tropical Western Pacific site located in Darwin, Australia are used to retrieve ice cloud properties in anvil and cirrus clouds. Cloud microphysical properties derived from four different retrieval algorithms (two radar-lidar and two radar only algorithms) are compared by examining mean profiles and probability density functions of effective radius (Re), ice water content (IWC), extinction, ice number concentration, ice crystal fall speed, and vertical air velocity. Retrieval algorithm uncertainty is quantified using radiative flux closure exercises. The effect of uncertainty in retrieved quantities on the cloud radiative effect and radiative heating rates are presented. Our analysis shows that IWC compares well among algorithms, but Re shows significant discrepancies, which is attributed primarily to assumptions of particle shape. Uncertainty in Re and IWC translates into sometimes-large differences in cloud radiative effect (CRE) though the majority of cases have a CRE difference of roughly 10 W m-2 on average. These differences, which we believe are primarily driven by the uncertainty in Re, can cause up to 2 K/day difference in the radiative heating rates between algorithms.

  6. Assessment of uncertainty in cloud radiative effects and heating rates through retrieval algorithm differences: Analysis using 3 years of ARM data at Darwin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Protat, Alain; McFarlane, Sally A.; Delanoë, Julien; Deng, Min

    2013-05-01

    Ground-based radar and lidar observations obtained at the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Tropical Western Pacific site located in Darwin, Australia, are used to retrieve ice cloud properties in anvil and cirrus clouds. Cloud microphysical properties derived from four different retrieval algorithms (two radar-lidar and two radar-only algorithms) are compared by examining mean profiles and probability density functions of effective radius (Re), ice water content (IWC), visible extinction coefficient, ice number concentration, ice crystal fall speed, and vertical air velocity. Retrieval algorithm uncertainty is quantified using radiative flux closure exercises. The effect of uncertainty in retrieved quantities on the cloud radiative effect and radiative heating rates is presented. Our analysis shows that IWC compares well among algorithms, but Re shows significant discrepancies, which are attributed primarily to assumptions of particle shape. Uncertainty in Re and IWC translates into sometimes large differences in cloud shortwave radiative effect (CRE) though the majority of cases have a CRE difference of roughly 10 W m-2 on average. These differences, which we believe are primarily driven by the uncertainty in Re, can cause up to 2 K/d difference in the radiative heating rates between algorithms.

  7. Variability in nest survival rates and implications to nesting studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, A.T.; Johnson, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    We used four reasonably large samples (83-213) of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) nests on an interstate highway right-of-way in southcentral North Dakota to evaluate potential biases in hatch-rate estimates. Twelve consecutive, weekly searches for nests were conducted with a cable-chain drag in 1976 and 1977. Nests were revisited at weekly intervals. Four methods were used to estimate hatch rates for the four data sets: the Traditional Method, the Mayfield Method, and two modifications of the Mayfield Method that are sometimes appropriate when daily mortality rates of nests are not constant. Hatch rates and the average age of nests at discovery declined as the interval between searches decreased, suggesting that mortality rates were not constant in our samples. An analysis of variance indicated that daily mortality rates varied with the age of nests in all four samples. Mortality was generally highest during the early laying period, moderately high during the late laying period, and lowest during incubation. We speculate that this relationship of mortality to nest age might be due to the presence of hens at nests or to differences in the vulnerability of nest sites to predation. A modification of the Mayfield Method that accounts for age-related variation in nest mortality was most appropriate for our samples. We suggest methods for conducting nesting studies and estimating nest success for species possessing similar nesting habits.

  8. Survival rates of adult lake trout in northwestern Lake Michigan, 1983-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Holey, Mark E.; McKee, Patrick C.; Toneys, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The restoration of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan has been an elusive goal of resource management agencies in the Great Lakes region. In this study, we estimated annual survival rates of adult lake trout from an area in northwestern Lake Michigan known as the Clay Banks refuge. We tagged and recaptured fish with gill nets during the fall spawning season (N = 12,175; 1983–1989 and 1991–1993) and with pound nets in the spring (N = 52,035; 1984–1990 and 1992–1993). We fit Cormack–Jolly–Seber models to the two sets of data. We had insufficient data to analyze annual differences in survival rates of fall-tagged fish, but we were able to estimate an overall annual survival rate of 0.67. Annual survival rates of spring-tagged fish varied between 0.53 and 0.88 and increased after 1987–1988. In addition to the mark–recapture studies, we analyzed catch rates of lake trout from gill-net and pound-net surveys to estimate survival rates using catch curve analyses; these annual rates were generally lower than those estimated from mark–recapture analyses of tagged fish. However, survival rates of lake trout from the Clay Banks refuge appeared to meet the minimum rate believed necessary for restoration of this species in Lake Michigan. Furthermore, adult survival rates have been increasing in recent years, and lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is not hampered by low survival of adult fish. We hypothesize that the recent decrease in abundance of adult lake trout is primarily due to decreases in survival rates of lake trout younger than 6 years.

  9. Survival rate of breast cancer patients in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Nor Aini; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Muhammad, Nor Asiah; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad; Ibrahim, Lailanor; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.

  10. Trends in 5-year survival rates among breast cancer patients by hormone receptor status and stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Linden, Hannah M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improvement in breast cancer survival has been observed in recent decades in the U.S., but it is unclear if similar survival gains are consistent across breast cancer subtypes, especially with regards to more advanced stages of the disease. Methods Data were from 13 population-based cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, consisting of women between 20–79 years of age diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2008. 2-year (1992–2008) and 5-year (1992–2006) breast cancer cause-specific survival rates were calculated and stratified by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status, stage and race. Annual percent changes in survival rates were assessed. Results From 1992 through 1998–1999, 5-year and 2-year cause specific survival rates significantly improved across ER+/PR+, ER−/PR− and ER+/PR− subtypes, with an annual increase ranging from 0.5%–1.0%. From 1998–1999 to 2006, different patterns were observed by ER/PR subtypes with survival rates slightly improving for ER+/PR+, continuing to improve at a rate of 0.5% per year for ER−/PR−, and dropping 0.3% annually for ER+/PR− No significant survival gains were experienced by patients with ER−/PR+ cancer during the study period. In terms of advanced diseases, greatest annual increases in survival rates were seen for patients with stage III–IV ER+/PR+ and ER−/PR− tumors but less progress was observed for advanced ER+/PR− breast cancers. Conclusion Steady improvements in survival rates for breast cancer have been achieved over the past several decades. However, 5-year survival rates for stage IV disease remained dismally below 20% for most ER/PR subtypes. PMID:25164974

  11. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    PubMed

    Rønning, Bernt; Moe, Børge; Berntsen, Henrik H; Noreen, Elin; Bech, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR), as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age) and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (P<0.1). Thus, the effect of BMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  12. Critical limb ischaemia in a diabetic population from an Asian Centre: angiographic pattern of disease and 3-year limb salvage rate with percutaneous angioplasty as first line of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tan, M; Pua, U; Wong, DES; Punamiya, SJ; Chua, GC; Teo, N

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Lower extremity amputation prevention (LEAP) is an ongoing program in our institution aimed at salvaging limbs in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Patients in the LEAP program with reconstructible anatomy on initial Doppler imaging received either bypass surgery or percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA). We present the 3 year limb salvage rate and angiographic disease patterns in 42 consecutive diabetic patients with CLI who received PTA in 2005. Methods and Material: 26 women and 16 men with diabetes between the ages of 45 and 91 years old (mean age, 70.8 years) received PTA in 2005. Presenting symptoms were rest pain (n = 22), pre-existing gangrene (n = 17), non-healing ulcer (n = 16) and cellulitis (n = 2). The aim of the PTA was to achieve straight-line flow from the abdominal aorta down to the patent dorsalis pedis or plantar arch, with limb salvage as the ultimate outcome. Failure of treatment was defined as any amputation above the level of a Syme’s amputation or the need for further surgical bypass. Technical success was achieved in 90% (38 out of 42 patients). Results: Limb salvage rates were 93% at 1 month, 87% at 3 months, 82% at 6 months, 78% at 1 year, 69% at 2 years and 66% at 3 years. Mortality was 17% (n = 7) at 3 years. Of the 13 patients with failed therapy, 3 underwent bypass, 9 had amputations and 1 had bypass followed by amputation. Four of the cases required further intervention due to worsening gangrene and infection, while the remaining was due to persistent rest pain. The rest of the 32 patients had no lower limb related issues at the end of 3 years, with improvement of the presenting symptoms. Patterns of treated segments were aortoiliac occlusions (n = 3), pure infrapopliteal disease (n = 3), femoropopliteal with at least 1 good infrapopliteal run-off vessel (n = 14) and combined femoropopliteal and infrapopliteal disease (n = 25). Conclusion: Involvement of infrapopliteal vessels that needs to be

  13. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  14. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  15. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 1 and C. NAVPERS 10360-D. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman rating for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve is provided in this training manual. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary and the responsibilities of Aircrew Survival Equipmentmen involved in blueprint reading and the development of…

  16. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 3 & 2; Naval Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is one of a series prepared for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve who are training for performance proficiency and studying for advancement in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman (PR) rating. The illustrated and indexed manual focuses on the personnel parachute and other related survival equipment.…

  17. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  18. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  19. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  20. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  1. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  2. Functioning survival rate of fixtures and superstructures of osseointegrated implants: ten years of progress in Tokyo Dental College Hospital (second report).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Takamatsu, Y; Adachi, Y; Kishi, M; Sekine, H; Shigematsu, T

    1996-05-01

    Osseointegrated implant bridges (OIB) have shown excellent results in the majority of cases. Since 1983, 1,022 fixtures has been applied to 241 superstructures in Tokyo Dental College Hospital. The aim of present study was to examine their functioning survival rate during recent ten years. The functioning survival rate of the superstructure of OIB has been almost 100% in both maxilla and mandible. Although 13.0% of these fixtures had to be removed in maxillary complete cases, only 3.3% of fixtures were removed in other cases. In maxillary complete cases, the functioning survival rate of OIB fixtures gradually decreases from 91% to 74% (91%, less than 3 years; 84%, between 3 and 7 years; 74%, more than 7 years), but it remained at about 97% for all periods in other cases. Apparently, the functioning survival rate of OIB fixture is generally determined within the period of one year, so almost the same rate is maintained thereafter. It is suggested that if more fixture numbers in the superstructure were applied to maxillary complete cases, the functional survival rate might improve.

  3. Clinical evaluation of osseointegrated implants in Tokyo Dental College Hospital (third report): long-term observation of functioning survival rate of fixtures.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Yuko; Arataki, Tomohiko; Nomura, Takao; Suzuki, Hiroki; Atsuta, Syunichi; Hotta, Hiromi; Shimamura, Ichiro; Adachi, Yasushi; Kishi, Masataka

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this report was to review 365 cases of Brånemark Implant Bridge including 1,444 fixtures in patients of Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital. The term of implantation was divided into several phases; less than 1 year, from 1 year to 3 years, from 3 years to 5 years, from 5 years to 7 years, from 7 years to 10 years, more than 10 years, and the survival rate was calculated for each phase. The removal rate of fixture after connecting the superstructure was 13% in maxillary cases and 2% in mandibular cases. The functioning survival rate in maxillary cases slightly decreased from 91% in less than 1 year to 87% after more than 10 years; however, the functioning survival rate in mandibular cases was about 99% in all periods. The removal rate of fixtures per patient was 23% in maxillary cases and 6% in mandibular ones. The average removal number of fixtures was 1.8 in maxillary cases and 1.2 in mandibular ones. The removal of the fixture occurred most frequently at less than 1 year in maxillary cases, but there was no tendency for a pattern of removal of fixture in mandibular cases.

  4. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  5. Estimating survival rates with time series of standing age-structure data.

    PubMed

    Udevitz, Mark S; Gogan, Peter J P

    2012-04-01

    It has long been recognized that age-structure data contain useful information for assessing the status and dynamics of wildlife populations. For example, age-specific survival rates can be estimated with just a single sample from the age distribution of a stable, stationary population. For a population that is not stable, age-specific survival rates can be estimated using techniques such as inverse methods that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data. However, estimation of survival rates using these methods typically requires numerical optimization, a relatively long time series of data, and smoothing or other constraints to provide useful estimates. We developed general models for possibly unstable populations that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data to provide explicit maximum likelihood estimators of age-specific survival rates with as few as two years of data. As an example, we applied these methods to estimate survival rates for female bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. This approach provides a simple tool for monitoring survival rates based on age-structure data.

  6. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Demiralp, Kemal Özgür; Akbulut, Nihat; Kursun, Sebnem; Argun, Didem; Bagis, Nilsun; Orhan, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm) according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P < 0.05). Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25961004

  7. Estimating survival rates with time series of standing age-structure data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, Mark S.; Gogan, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that age-structure data contain useful information for assessing the status and dynamics of wildlife populations. For example, age-specific survival rates can be estimated with just a single sample from the age distribution of a stable, stationary population. For a population that is not stable, age-specific survival rates can be estimated using techniques such as inverse methods that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data. However, estimation of survival rates using these methods typically requires numerical optimization, a relatively long time series of data, and smoothing or other constraints to provide useful estimates. We developed general models for possibly unstable populations that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data to provide explicit maximum likelihood estimators of age-specific survival rates with as few as two years of data. As an example, we applied these methods to estimate survival rates for female bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. This approach provides a simple tool for monitoring survival rates based on age-structure data.

  8. TFF3 and survivin expressions associate with a lower survival rate in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jia-Rong; Tang, Hui-Zhong; Zhou, Kai-Zong; Shen, Wu-Hong; Guo, He-Yi

    2013-11-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and survivin with functions of inhibiting apoptosis are involved in the gastric cancer by overexpression. The purpose of this study is to examine the expression of TFF3 and survivin in patients' tissue samples with gastric cancer and analyze the relationship between the protein expression and the different clinical records. By studying the expressions of TFF3 and survivin in gastric cancer through immunohistochemical staining and examining the survival rate via Kaplan-Meier analysis for gastric cancer patients, we found that the TFF3 and survivin positive expressions have a significant relationship with the lower survival rate comparing to that of negative expressions in the analyzed patients (P < 0.05). And moreover, patients with double positive TFF3 and survivin expressions have the lowest survival rate. TFF3 or survivin positive expression correlates with the lymph node metastasis, metastasis, and TNM stages of gastric cancer. Survival analysis indicates that survival rate has a close relationship with the age, tumor histology, tumor differentiation, degree of infiltration, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages (P < 0.01). Our data suggest that TFF3 and survivin expressions play a vital role in gastric cancer development, and these two proteins are important markers for prognosis in gastric cancer. Patients with gastric cancer can increase the survival rate through an earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  9. Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vreeland, J.K.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns are important to population management. We quantified cause-specific mortality, survival rates, and habitat characteristics related to fawn survival in a forested landscape and an agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania. We captured and radiocollared neonatal (0.05). Predation accounted for 46.2% (95% Cl = 37.6-56.7%) of 106 mortalities through 34 weeks. We attributed 32.7% (95% Cl = 21.9-48.6%) and 36.7% (95% Cl = 25.5-52.9%) of 49 predation events to black bears (Ursus americanus) and coyotes (Canis latrans], respectively. Natural causes, excluding predation, accounted for 27.4% (95% Cl = 20.1-37.3) of mortalities. Fawn survival in Pennsylvania was comparable to reported survival in forested and agricultural regions in northern portions of the white-tailed deer range. We have no evidence to suggest that the fawn survival rates we observed were preventing population growth. Because white-tailed deer are habitat generalists, home-range-scale habitat characteristics may be unrelated to fawn survival; therefore, future studies should consider landscape-related characteristics on fawn survival.

  10. Effects of habitat disturbance on survival rates of softshell turtles (Apalone spinifera) in an urban stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, M.V.; Krementz, D.G.; Powell, L.A.; Mills, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    We monitored Spiny Softshell Turtles (Apalone spinifera) using mark-recapture during 1994-2005 in Gin Creek, Searcy, Arkansas. In 1997-2000 the creek bed and riparian zone were bulldozed in an effort to remove debris and improve water flow. This disturbance appeared to reduce the quantity and quality of turtle habitat. We tested for the potential effect of this habitat disturbance on the survival rates of marked turtles. We estimated annual survival rates for the population using models that allowed for variation in survival by state of maturation, year, and effects of the disturbance; we evaluated two different models of the disturbance impact. The first disturbance model incorporated a single change in survival rates, following the disturbance, whereas the second disturbance model incorporated three survival rates: pre- and postdisturbance, as well as a short-term decline during the disturbance. We used a state-transition model for our mark-recapture analysis, as softshells transition from juveniles to adults in a variable period of time. Our analysis indicated that survival varied by maturation state and was independent of a time trend or the disturbance. Annual survival rates were lower for juveniles (S?? = 0.717, SE = 0.039) than for adults (S?? = 0.836, SE = 0.025). Despite the dramatic habitat disturbance, we found no negative effects on survival rates. Our results demonstrate that, like a few other freshwater turtle species known to thrive in urban environments, populations of A. spinifera are resilient and can persist in urban environments despite periodic habitat disturbances. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  11. Banding reference areas and survival rates of green-winged teal, 1950-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, D.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis) is an important harvest species, yet we know relatively little about its population ecology. We investigated aspects of green-winged teal population ecology of potential importance to waterfowl managers. We used recoveries of green-winged teal banded during winter (1950-89) to establish banding reference areas and estimate survival and band recovery rates. We used cluster analysis based on similarities in recovery patterns to group banding degree blocks into 8 minor and 5 major reference areas describing the principal wintering range of green-winged teal in North America. We then estimated survival and recovery rates of green-winged teal banded in these areas. Mean annual survival rate estimates across years and reference areas were similar (P gt 0.05) for males (0.55, cxa SE = 0.022) and females (0.51, cxa SE = 0.057). Mean annual recovery rate estimates were larger for males (0.033, cxa SE = 0.0017) than for females (0.024, cxa SE = 0.0024) (P lt 0.01). There was little evidence of temporal variation in survival or recovery rates for most datasets. There was evidence of geographic variation in survival rates among major reference areas for males (P = 0.04) but not for females (P = 0.30). We recommend that analyses be conducted on greenwinged teal banded during preseason to further investigate possible sex specificity of survival rates and to address questions about the relationship between harvest rates and survival.

  12. Modeling the effect of toe clipping on treefrog survival: Beyond the return rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, J.H.; Rice, K.G.; Mazzotti, F.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Some studies have described a negative effect of toe clipping on return rates of marked anurans, but the return rate is limited in that it does not account for heterogeneity of capture probabilities. We used open population mark-recapture models to estimate both apparent survival (ϕ) and the recapture probability (p) of two treefrog species individually marked by clipping 2–4 toes. We used information-theoretic model selection to examine the effect of toe clipping on survival while accounting for variation in capture probability. The model selection results indicate strong support for an effect of toe clipping on survival of Green Treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and only limited support for an effect of toe clipping on capture probability. We estimate there was a mean absolute decrease in survival of 5.02% and 11.16% for Green Treefrogs with three and four toes removed, respectively, compared to individuals with just two toes removed. Results for Squirrel Treefrogs (Hyla squirella) indicate little support for an effect of toe clipping on survival but may indicate some support for a negative effect on capture probability. We believe that the return rate alone should not be used to examine survival of marked animals because constant capture probability must be assumed, and our examples demonstrate how capture probability may vary over time and among groups. Mark-recapture models provide a method for estimating the effect of toe clipping on anuran survival in situations where unique marks are applied.

  13. Program CONTRAST--A general program for the analysis of several survival or recovery rate estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This manual describes the use of program CONTRAST, which implements a generalized procedure for the comparison of several rate estimates. This method can be used to test both simple and composite hypotheses about rate estimates, and we discuss its application to multiple comparisons of survival rate estimates. Several examples of the use of program CONTRAST are presented. Program CONTRAST will run on IBM-cimpatible computers, and requires estimates of the rates to be tested, along with associated variance and covariance estimates.

  14. Monitoring survival rates of landbirds at varying spatial scales: An application of the MAPS Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; Hines, J.E.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Survivorship is a primary demographic parameter affecting population dynamics, and thus trends in species abundance. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program is a cooperative effort designed to monitor landbird demographic parameters. A principle goal of MAPS is to estimate annual survivorship and identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in these rates. We evaluated hypotheses of spatial patterns in survival rates among a collection of neighboring sampling sites, such as within national forests, among biogeographic provinces, and between breeding populations that winter in either Central or South America, and compared these geographic-specific models to a model of a common survival rate among all sampling sites. We used data collected during 1992-1995 from Swainson's Thrush (Cathorus ustulatus) populations in the western region of the United States. We evaluated the ability to detect spatial and temporal patterns of survivorship with simulated data. We found weak evidence of spatial differences in survival rates at the local scale of 'location,' which typically contained 3 mist-netting stations. There was little evidence of differences in survival rates among biogeographic provinces or between populations that winter in either Central or South America. When data were pooled for a regional estimate of survivorship, the percent relative bias due to pooling 'locations' was 12 years of monitoring. Detection of spatial patterns and temporal trends in survival rates from local to regional scales will provide important information for management and future research directed toward conservation of landbirds.

  15. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates of neotropical birds have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses of a multispecies assemblage from Panama by Karr et al. (1990) provided a counterexample to that view. One criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses indicate that these models are indeed useful in modelling the data from Panama. Nonetheless, there is considerable interspecific variation and overall estimates of annual survival rates for understorey birds in Panama remain lower than those from other studies in the Neotropics and well below the rates long assumed for tropical birds (i.e. > 0.80). Therefore, tropical birds may not have systematically higher survival rates than temperate-zone species. Variation in survival rates among tropical species suggests that theory based on a simple tradeoff between clutch size and longevity is inadequate. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to some combination of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding these processes is the challenge for future work.

  16. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data.

    PubMed

    Binbing Yu; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients' main concerns, is sometimes called the 'personal cure' rate. Two approaches of modelling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connection and differences between crude cause-specific survival in the presence of other causes and net survival in the absence of other causes. The mixture survival model is extended to population-based grouped survival data to estimate the personal cure rate. Using the colorectal cancer survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Programme, we estimate the probabilities of dying from colorectal cancer, heart disease, and other causes by age at diagnosis, race and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage.

  17. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates for a multispecies sample of neotropical birds from Panama have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses by Kart et al. (1990. Am. Nat. 136:277-91) contradicted that view, suggesting tropical birds may not have systematically high survival rates. A persistent criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses using these models indicate that, despite some variation among species, overall estimates of survival rates for understory birds in Panama are not strongly affected by adjustments for transients. We also compare estimates of survival rates based on mark-recapture models with observations of colour-marked birds. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to combinations of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding sources of this variation is the challenge for future work.

  18. Differential rates of ischemic cholangiopathy and graft survival associated with induction therapy in DCD liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Halldorson, J B; Bakthavatsalam, R; Montenovo, M; Dick, A; Rayhill, S; Perkins, J; Reyes, J

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation utilizing donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors is associated with ischemic cholangiopathy (IC) and graft loss. The University of Washington (UW) DCD experience totals 89 DCD liver transplants performed between 2003 and 2011. Overall outcome after DCD liver transplantation at UW demonstrates Kaplan-Meier estimated 5-year patient and graft survival rates of 81.6% and 75.6%, respectively, with the great majority of patient and graft losses occurring in the first-year posttransplant from IC. Our program has almost exclusively utilized either anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or basiliximab induction (86/89) for DCD liver transplantations. Analysis of the differential effect of induction agent on graft survival demonstrated graft survival of 96.9% at 1 year for ATG versus 75.9% for basiliximab (p = 0.013). The improved survival did not appear to be from a lower rate of rejection (21.9% vs. 22.2%) but rather a differential rate of IC, 35.2% for basiliximab versus 12.5% for ATG (p = 0.011). Multivariable analysis demonstrated induction agent to be independently associated with graft survival and IC free graft survival when analyzed against variables including donor age, fWIT, donor cold ischemia time and transplant era. PMID:25534449

  19. Problems in estimating age-specific survival rates from recovery data of birds ringed as young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    (1) The life table model is frequently employed in the analysis of ringer samples of young in bird populations. The basic model is biologically unrealistic and of little use in making inferences concerning age-specific survival probabilities. (2) This model rests on a number of restrictive assumptions, the failure of which causes serious biases. Several important assumptions are not met with real data and the estimators of age-specific survival are not robust enough to these failures. (3) Five major problems in the use of the life table method are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate several of the problems involved in using this method in making inferences about survival rates and its age-specific nature. (4) We conclude that this is an invalid procedure and it should not be used. Furthermore, ringing studies involving only young birds are pointless as regards survival estimation because no valid method exists for estimating age-specific or time-specific survival rates from such data. (5) In our view, inferences about age-specific survival rates are possible only if both young and adult (or young, subadult and adult) age classes are ringed each year for k years (k ≥ 2).

  20. The Dominance of Warming Rate Over Cooling Rate in the Survival of Mouse Oocytes Subjected to a Vitrification Procedure✰

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The formation of more than trace amounts of ice in cells is lethal. The two contrasting routes to avoiding it are slow equilibrium freezing and vitrification. The cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes by either method continues to be difficult, but there seems a slowly emerging consensus that vitrification procedures are somewhat better for mouse and human oocytes. The approach in these latter procedures is to load cells with high concentrations of glass-inducing solutes and cool them at rates high enough to induce the glassy state. Several devices have been developed to achieve very high cooling rates. Our study has been concerned with the relative influences of warming rate and cooling rate on the survival of mouse oocytes subjected to a vitrification procedure. Oocytes suspended in an ethylene glycol-acetamide-Ficoll-sucrose solution were cooled to −196°C at rates ranging from 37°C/min to 1827°C/min between 20°C and −120°C, and for each cooling rate, warmed at rates ranging from 139°C/min to 2950°C/min between −70°C and −35°C. The results are unambiguous. If the samples were warmed at the highest rate, survivals were >80% over cooling rates of 187°C/min to 1827°C/min. If the samples were warmed at the lowest rate, survivals were near 0% regardless of the cooling rate. We interpret the lethality of slow warming to be a consequence of it allowing time for the growth of small intracellular ice crystals by recrystallization. PMID:19427303

  1. Temperature, Larval Diet, and Density Effects on Development Rate and Survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Couret, Jannelle; Dotson, Ellen; Benedict, Mark Q.

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1) diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2) that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature. PMID:24498328

  2. Temperature, larval diet, and density effects on development rate and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Couret, Jannelle; Dotson, Ellen; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1) diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2) that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature.

  3. Survival rates and risk factors for mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus patients in a Chinese center.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ge; Jia, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Dan; Zhao, Zhanzheng

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to study the survival and risk factors affecting the long-term prognosis of Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We collected clinical data of 1,072 SLE patients at the time of diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival rate, and the Cox proportional hazard regression model for the risk factors affecting prognosis. Of the original 1,072 recruited SLE patients, 665 (570 females and 95 males) were successfully followed up. Mean follow-up was 5.47 ± 4.62 years. Mean age of onset was 29.4 ± 13.4 years. Eighty-one patients did not survive during follow-up; infection, followed by cardiovascular disease, renal failure and SLE disease activity were the leading causes of death. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 91.2 and 79.6 %, respectively. Moreover, the 5-year survival rates of female and male patients were 92.6 and 81.6 % respectively, and the 10-year survival rates were 80.8 and 62.3 %, respectively. Univariate analyses indicated that male gender, older age of onset, hypertension, increased blood creatinine levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at the time of diagnosis of SLE were risk factors for all-cause mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate analysis, male gender, older age of onset, and high SLEDAI scores at the time of diagnosis were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in SLE patients. The long-term survival of Chinese SLE patients is comparable to that of other countries. Older age of onset, high disease activity, and decline in renal function are independent risk factors for mortality in patients with SLE.

  4. Spring-summer survival rates of yearling versus adult mallard females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.E.; Blohm, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the timing, magnitude, and cause of mortality in wildlife populations is imperative for developing management strategies that protect or improve the status of these populations. Age- and sex-specific population parameter estimates provide the most useful information for this purpose. Numerous studies have provided information about survival rates in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but little is known about age-related differences in female survival during the breeding period. We examined band-recovery data for female mallards banded in southern portions of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba during spring and summer 1981-85. We used band-recovery models to test the hypothesis that yearling females would exhibit higher survival compared with that of older females during spring-summer. There was evidence (P = 0.08) that spring-summer survival rates of yearling females (0.728) were higher than that of older females (0.574). These findings support the hypothesis that age-specific differences in nesting behavior (e.g., later nest initiation and fewer nesting attempts by yearlings) influence losses to predators and are responsible for the difference in spring-summer survival. Management treatments that increase nest success, and consequently reduce the need for prolonged nesting, will increase mallard survival during spring-summer.

  5. Age-specificity of black-capped chickadee survival rates: Analysis of capture-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loery, G.; Pollock, K.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The ornithological literature indicates a widespread belief in two generalizations about the age-specificity of avian survival rates: (1) survival rates of young birds for some period following fledging are lower than those of adults, and (2) after reaching adulthood survival rates are constant for birds of all ages. There is a growing body of evidence in support of the first generalization, although little is known about how long the survival difference between young and adults lasts. This latter question can be addressed with capture-recapture or band recovery studies based on birds marked in the winter, but the inability to determine age in many species during winter has prevented the use of standard methods. There is very little evidence supporting the second generalization, and we are in need of methods and actual analyses that address this question. In the present paper we restate the two generalizations as hypotheses and test them using data from a wintering Black-capped Chickadee (Parus atricapillus) population in Connecticut, which has been studied by Loery for 26 yr. We use a cohort-based Jolly-Seber approach, which should be useful in other investigations of this nature. We found strong evidence of lower survival rates in 1st-yr birds than in adults, but could not determine whether this was the result of higher mortality rates, higher emigration rates, or a combination of the two. We also found evidence that survival rates of adult birds were not constant with age but decreased at a rate of ? 3.5%/yr. As adult birds are very faithful to their wintering areas, we believe that almost all this decrease can be attributed to an increase in mortality with age. Simulation results suggest that heterogeneity of capture probabilities could not explain the magnitude of the decrease in survival with age. Age-dependent tag loss is also discussed as an alternative explanation, but is dismissed as very unlikely in this situation. This analysis thus provides some of the

  6. [Effects of different transplanting conditions on survival rate and growing status of Anoictochilus roxburghii plantlets].

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing-Song; Zhou, Ai-Cun; Huang, Yu-Qiu; Dong, Ying-Lei; Hu, Bing-Kang; Li, Ming-Yan

    2014-03-01

    The growing status of Anoectochilus roxburghii seedling was observed and the survival rate of seedlings, height, stem diameter and plant fresh weight under the conditions of different transplanting substrate compositions, planting density, shading rate were measured. The results showed that the effects of different transplanting substrates, planting densities, shading rates and nutrient solutions on the growing status of A. roxburghii plantlets varied greatly. A. roxburghii plantlets demonstrated a high survival rate and better growing status under the Following conditions: the ratio of peat and river sand as 2: 1, the planting density as 3 cm x 3 cm, the shading rate as 70%, and the nutrient solution as 1/4MS. The findings of the study provide a solid technical solution for the artificial cultivation of A. roxburghii plantlets.

  7. Possible effects of the 2004 and 2005 hurricanes on manatee survival rates and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, C.A.; Krohn, M.D.; Reid, J.P.; Stith, B.M.; Beck, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Prior research on manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) survival in northwest Florida, based on mark-resighting photo-identification data from 1982-1998, showed that annual adult apparent survival rate was significantly lower during years with extreme storms. Mechanisms that we proposed could have led to lower estimates included stranding, injury from debris, being fatally swept out to sea, or displacement into poorly monitored areas due to storm-generated longshore currents or storm-related loss of habitat. In 2004 and 2005, seven major hurricanes impacted areas of Florida encompassing three regional manatee subpopulations, enabling us to further examine some of these mechanisms. Data from a group of manatees tracked in southwest Florida with satellite transmitters during Hurricanes Charley, Katrina, and Wilma showed that these animals made no significant movement before and during storm passage. Mark-resighting data are being collected to determine if survival rates were lower with the 2004 and 2005 storms. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  8. Long-term survival rate of teeth receiving multidisciplinary endodontic, periodontal and prosthodontic treatments.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, A S; Radafshar, G; Taramsari, M; Darabi, F

    2014-03-01

    Deciding whether to replace or preserve a compromised tooth, even with emerging trends in implant dentistry, is still a common dilemma for practitioners. This study sought to determine the 3- to more than 10-year survival rate of teeth that had undergone endodontic, periodontal and prosthodontic treatments. A total of 245 teeth in 87 patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated. All the teeth had received crown lengthening surgery by a single periodontist. Root canal therapy and prosthodontic procedures were rendered either by specialists or by experienced general dentists. Numbers of lost teeth were recorded and the criteria for hopeless teeth were defined. Survival rate was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Clinical indices including pocket depth (PD), bleeding index (BI), C/R ratio, position of the restoration margin relative to the gingival margin (RM-GM) and the presence of intra-canal post were compared between different survival groups (<3, 3-5, 5-10 and >10 years) using one-way analysis of variance (anova). Potential predictors of failure were determined using the Cox regression model. The mean ± s.d. of 3-, 5-, 10- and 13-year survival rates was 98 ± 1%, 96 ± 1·6%, 83·1 ± 4·5% and 51·9 ± 14·5%, respectively. The mean PD (P < 0·013), as well as C/R ratio in the mesial (P = 0·003) and distal (P = 0·007) surfaces, was significantly higher in the >10-year-survived teeth. Bleeding index and RM-GM showed no significant differences between the groups. C/R ratio and RM-GM position appeared to be the major determinants of tooth loss. The long-term survival rate of multidisciplinary-treated teeth was 83-98% in this specific sample.

  9. Marathon Running Fails to Influence RBC Survival Rates in Iron-Replete Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Irene; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study used radiolabeling to measure red blood cell (RBC) survival rates in six iron-replete female marathon runners, and urinary tests were conducted to search for secondary evidence of RBC damage. The hypothesized RBC fragmentation was not disclosed. (Author/MT)

  10. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.24 Improved...

  11. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  12. Relationship of electro-mechanical remodeling to survival rates after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Jawad; Agarwal, Sunil Kumar; Kamireddy, Swapna; Adelstein, Evan; Saba, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy, when added to optimal medical therapy, increases longevity in symptomatic congestive heart failure patients with left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF)≤0.35 and QRS durations>120 ms. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is also associated with electrical and mechanical reverse remodeling. We examined whether reverse remodeling predicts increased survival rates in non-trial settings. Recipients of cardiac resynchronization therapy and defibrillators (n=112; 78 men; mean age, 69±11 yr) underwent repeat echocardiography and electrocardiography at least 90 days after device implantation. Forty patients had mechanical responses of at least 0.05 improvement in absolute LVEF; 56 had electrical responses (any narrowing of biventricular-paced QRS duration compared with the electrocardiogram immediately after therapy). During a mean follow-up period of 3.1±1.7 years, 55 patients died. The average death rate per 100 person-years was lower among mechanical responders than nonresponders (9.2% vs 23.9%; P=0.009); the unadjusted hazard ratio was 0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.79). In a multivariate model adjusted for age, sex, baseline LVEF, and QRS duration, mechanical responders had 60% better survival than nonresponders (hazard ratio=0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.79; P=0.008). No difference in survival was observed in electrical response. In our association of absolute change in LVEF over the observed range with death (using restricted cubic splines), we observed a linear relationship with survival. In patients given cardiac resynchronization therapy, mechanical but not electrical remodeling was associated with better survival rates, suggesting that mechanical remodeling underlies this therapy's mechanism of conferring a survival benefit.

  13. Effect of loading time on the survival rate of anodic oxidized implants: prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Gyu; Yun, Pil-Young; Park, Hyun-Sik; Shim, June-Sung; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of early loading on survival rate or clinical parameter of anodic oxidized implants during the 12-month postloading period. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total 69 implants were placed in 42 patients. Anodic oxidized implants (GS II, Osstem Cor., Busan, Korea) placed on the posterior mandibles were divided into two groups, according to their prosthetic loading times: test group (2 to 6 weeks), and control group (3 to 4 months). The implant survival rates were determined during one-year postloading period and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. The radiographic peri-implant bone loss and periodontal parameters were also evaluated and statistically analyzed by unpaired t-test. RESULTS Total 69 implants were placed in 42 patients. The cumulative postloading implant survival rates were 88.89% in test group, compared to 100% in control group (P<.05). Periimplant marginal bone loss (T: 0.27±0.54 mm, C: 0.40±0.55 mm) and periodontal parameters showed no significant difference between the groups (P>.05). CONCLUSION Within the limitation of the present study, implant survival was affected by early loading on the anodic oxidized implants placed on posterior mandibles during one-year follow-up. Early implant loading did not influence peri-implant marginal bone loss, and periodontal parameters. PMID:22439096

  14. Effect of thaw rates on survival of buffalo spermatozoa frozen straws.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, K

    1984-07-01

    Eighteen ejaculates from three buffalo bulls of Nili-Ravi breed were tested in a 3 X 6 X 3 factorial experiment. Semen was extended in lactose-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol extender containing penicillin (1000 IU/ml) and streptomycin (1000 micrograms/ml). Semen was frozen in .5-ml polyvinyl chloride straws in liquid nitrogen vapor and stored in liquid nitrogen for 24 h. Straws were thawed at water bath temperatures of 0, 37, or 75 degrees C for 2 min, 15 s, and 9 s, respectively. At thawing bath temperature of 0, 37, or 75 degrees C, percentage of motile spermatozoa averaged 30, 40, and 50%. Differences were significant between thaw rates for initial postthaw motility, postthaw sperm survival at 37 degrees C, and absolute index of survival of spermatozoa. Bulls were also different for initial postthaw motility, postthaw sperm survival at 37 degrees C, and absolute index of survival of spermatozoa. Thaw rate of 75 degrees C for 9 s was superior to other rates.

  15. Analysis of feedbacks between nucleation rate, survival probability and cloud condensation nuclei formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Pierce, J. R.; Adams, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Aerosol nucleation is an important source of particle number in the atmosphere. However, in order to become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), freshly nucleated particles must undergo significant condensational growth while avoiding coagulational scavenging. In an effort to quantify the contribution of nucleation to CCN, this work uses the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol model to calculate changes in CCN concentrations against a broad range of nucleation rates and mechanisms. We then quantify the factors that control CCN formation from nucleation, including daily nucleation rates, growth rates, coagulation sinks, condensation sinks, survival probabilities, and CCN formation rates, in order to examine feedbacks that may limit growth of nucleated particles to CCN. Nucleation rate parameterizations tested in GEOS-Chem-TOMAS include ternary nucleation (with multiple tuning factors), activation nucleation (with two pre-factors), binary nucleation, and ion-mediated nucleation. We find that nucleation makes a significant contribution to boundary layer CCN(0.2%), but this contribution is only modestly sensitive to the choice of nucleation scheme, ranging from 49 to 78% increase in concentrations over a control simulation with no nucleation. Moreover, a two order-of-magnitude increase in the globally averaged nucleation rate (via changes to tuning factors) results in small changes (less than 10%) to global CCN(0.2%) concentrations. To explain this, we present a simple theory showing that survival probability has an exponentially decreasing dependence on the square of the condensation sink. This functional form stems from a negative correlation between condensation sink and growth rate and a positive correlation between condensation sink and coagulational scavenging. Conceptually, with a fixed condensable vapor budget (sulfuric acid and organics), any increase in CCN concentrations due to higher nucleation rates necessarily entails an increased aerosol surface area in the

  16. Survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of an important mesopredator: the northern raccoon.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Elizabeth M; Cameron Devitt, Susan E; Sunquist, Melvin E; Goswami, Varun R; Oli, Madan K

    2014-01-01

    Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores) are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), using Pradel's temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936-0.960) than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893-0.920), while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078-0.106) than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042-0.067). Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996-1.004), indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models.

  17. Survival and recovery rates of mottled ducks banded in Texas and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Western Gulf Coast population of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is dependent on the Gulf coastal marsh to complete its entire life cycle. Band recovery data can be used to monitor mottled duck populations by estimating annual survival, indexing harvest rate, and assessing movements. Band returns from hunting seasons 1997–2013 were used to evaluate factors influencing annual survival, recovery rates, and movements of mottled ducks in Texas and Louisiana. For banding years of 1997–2013, 58,349 normal, wild mottled ducks were banded and released in Texas and Louisiana. Since 2002, 86% of mottled duck bandings have occurred on the Chenier Plain of Texas and Louisiana. Hunters shot, recovered, and reported 7,061birds with bands during this period. Direct recovery rates were greater for juveniles than adults but changed little since the 1970s. Estimates of annual survival did not differ between Texas and Louisiana, but did among years and between sex and age classes. Adult male and juvenile female mottled ducks had the greatest and lowest annual survival rates, respectively. Recovery of birds banded on the Chenier Plain was four times greater for birds banded in Texas and harvested in Louisiana than banded in Louisiana and harvested in Texas. Much of the current inference of results from banding mottled ducks is limited to the Chenier Plain. To monitor the entire Western Gulf Coast population of mottled ducks, managers can consider expanding operational banding operations with annual quotas, which would improve survival and recovery estimates and allow for inference beyond the Chenier Plain region.

  18. Environmental effects on survival rates: robust regression, recovery planning and endangered Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Bowlby, Heather D; Gibson, A Jamie F

    2015-08-01

    Describing how population-level survival rates are influenced by environmental change becomes necessary during recovery planning to identify threats that should be the focus for future remediation efforts. However, the ways in which data are analyzed have the potential to change our ecological understanding and thus subsequent recommendations for remedial actions to address threats. In regression, distributional assumptions underlying short time series of survival estimates cannot be investigated a priori and data likely contain points that do not follow the general trend (outliers) as well as contain additional variation relative to an assumed distribution (overdispersion). Using juvenile survival data from three endangered Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. populations in response to hydrological variation, four distributions for the response were compared using lognormal and generalized linear models (GLM). The influence of outliers as well as overdispersion was investigated by comparing conclusions from robust regressions with these lognormal models and GLMs. The analyses strongly supported the use of a lognormal distribution for survival estimates (i.e., modeling the instantaneous rate of mortality as the response) and would have led to ambiguity in the identification of significant hydrological predictors as well as low overall confidence in the predicted relationships if only GLMs had been considered. However, using robust regression to evaluate the effect of additional variation and outliers in the data relative to regression assumptions resulted in a better understanding of relationships between hydrological variables and survival that could be used for population-specific recovery planning. This manuscript highlights how a systematic analysis that explicitly considers what monitoring data represent and where variation is likely to come from is required in order to draw meaningful conclusions when analyzing changes in survival relative to environmental

  19. Investigating Rates of Hunting and Survival in Declining European Lapwing Populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding effects of harvest on population dynamics is of major interest, especially for declining species. European lapwing Vanellus vanellus populations increased from the 1960s until the 1980s and declined strongly thereafter. About 400,000 lapwings are harvested annually and it is thus of high conservation relevance to assess whether hunting was a main cause for the observed changes in lapwing population trends. We developed a multi-event cause-specific mortality model which we applied to a long-term ring-recovery data set (1960–2010) of > 360,000 records to estimate survival and cause-specific mortalities. We found no temporal change in survival over the last 50 years for first-year (FY) and older birds (after first-year; AFY) originating from different ringing areas. Mean survival was high, around 0.60 and 0.80 for FY and AFY individuals, respectively. The proportion of total mortality due to hunting was <0.10 over the study period and the estimated proportion of harvested individuals (kill rate) was <0.05 in each year. Our result of constant survival indicates that demographic processes other than survival were responsible for the pronounced change in lapwing population trends in the 1980s. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that hunting was not a significant contributor to the large-scale decline of lapwing populations. To halt the ongoing decline of European lapwing populations management should focus on life history stages other than survival (e.g. productivity). Further analyses are required to investigate the contribution of other demographic rates to the decline of lapwings and to identify the most efficient conservation actions. PMID:27685660

  20. Population trend of the Yellowstone grizzly bear as estimated from reproductive and survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhardt, L. L.; Blanchard, B. M.; Knight, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    The trend of the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population was estimated using reproductive rates calculated from 22 individual females and survival rates from 400 female bear-years. The point estimate of the rate of increase was 4.6%, with 95% confidence limits of 0 and 9%. Caution in interpreting this result is advised because of possible biases in the population parameter estimates. The main prospects for improving present knowledge of the population trend appear to be further study of possible biases in the parameter estimates, and the continued use of radiotelemetry to increase the number of samples on which the estimates are based.

  1. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  2. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x̅ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (̅x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. PMID:25460423

  3. Simultaneous use of mark-recapture and radiotelemetry to estimate survival, movement, and capture rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] <2 %) and confidence interval coverage close to nominal, except for survival estimates of banded birds for the 'off study area' stratum, which were negatively biased (RBIAS -7 to -15%) when sample sizes were small (5-10 banded or radioed animals 'released' per time interval). To provide

  4. Temporal and spatial variation in age-specific survival rates of a long-lived mammal, the Hawaiian monk seal.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jason D; Thompson, Paul M

    2007-02-01

    Estimates of variability in pinniped survival rates are generally based on observations at single sites, so it is not certain whether observed rates represent the whole population. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of spatio-temporal variation in age-specific survival rates for endangered Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) based on capture-recapture analyses of more than 85% of the pups weaned in this population over the last two decades. Uniquely, these data have been collected from six subpopulations, encompassing all major breeding sites across its 1800 km long core range. Analyses of individual subpopulations revealed similar patterns in age-specific survival, characterized by the relatively low survival rates from weaning to 2 years of age, intermediate rates to 4 years of age, and then by relatively high 'mature' survival rates until 17 years of age, after which a senescent decline was observed. Juvenile, subadult and adult survival rates all varied significantly over time. Trends in survival among subpopulations were coherent with their relative geographical positions, suggesting regional structuring and connectedness within the archipelago. Survival rates for different age classes tended to be positively correlated, suggesting that similar factors may influence the survival for seals of all ages. PMID:17164205

  5. Crossing beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss: pregnancy rate, calf survival, weaning age and rate.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W L; Bellows, R A; Urick, J J; Knapp, B W

    1986-07-01

    October pregnancy rate, calf survival to weaning, weaning age, weaning rate and actual kg of calf weaned/cow exposed were determined in a 4-yr study involving 880 matings of Angus (A), Hereford (H) and Charolais (C) sires to A, H, C and Brown Swiss (BS) dams. Cows were mated in single-sire herds for 45 or 60 d under pasture conditions; heifers were bred to produce their first calf at 3 yr of age. Pregnancy rate of lactating dams was 9.4% higher (P less than .01) than for non-lactating dams. Pregnancy rates for straightbred matings were 87.5%, 80.6% and 75.4%, respectively, for A, H and C groups (P less than .05). No differences (P greater than .10) due to sire breed were found for any of the traits studied except for calf age at weaning. Calves from C sires were younger (P less than .01) at weaning than calves from H and A sires. Breed-of-dam differences (P less than .05 to P less than .01) were found for all traits studied except calf survival rate. All BS dams produced crossbred calves and had lower pregnancy and weaning rates (both P less than .01), calves were younger at weaning (P less than .05), had lower kg of calf weaned/cow exposed (P less than .05) than for beef-breed dams producing crossbred calves. Crossbred calves from BS dams were 4.9, 11.0 and 3.4 d younger (P less than .05 to P less than .01) at weaning, respectively, than crossbred calves from H, A and C dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Effects of copper and decreased salinity on survival rate and development of Tridacna gigas larvae.

    PubMed

    Blidberg, E

    2004-01-01

    Giant clams (Family: Tridacnidae) are endangered species distributed in the Indo-Pacific region. In this study, survival rate and development of Tridacna gigas larvae were studied for three days in ambient water (32 psu), copper (2.5 microg Cu(2+) L(-1)), reduced salinities (25 and 20 psu) and the combination of copper and 25 psu salinity. No significant differences were found in larval development between treatments. The survival rates decreased considerably with reduced salinities although the combination of copper and reduced salinity gave synergistic effects. As a consequence, this could limit population growth of giant clams in coastal areas and could also explain the absence of larval settlement on reefs close to harbours or river mouths. More research is needed to understand the basic requirements and stress tolerance in giant clam larvae for reef restoration and other management actions to be successful.

  7. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Listeria monocytogenes in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a commercially produced yogurt, (ii) determine the survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes during cold storage of yogurt and (iii) to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behavior of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples of yogurt were inoculated with the mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains and stored at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15°C for 16 days. The number of listeriae was determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14 and 16 days of storage. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto ALOA agar (agar for Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti). It was found that applied temperature and storage time significantly influenced the survival rate of listeriae (p<0.01). The number of L. monocytogenes in all the samples decreased linearly with storage time. The slowest decrease in the number of the bacteria was found in the samples stored at 6°C (D-10 value = 243.9 h), whereas the highest reduction in the number of the bacteria was observed in the samples stored at 15°C (D-10 value = 87.0 h). The number of L. monocytogenes was correlated with the pH value of the samples (p<0.01). The natural logarithm of the mean survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes calculated from the primary model was fitted to two secondary models, namely linear and polynomial. Mathematical equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for the prediction of the survival/inactivation rate of L. monocytogenes in yogurt stored under temperature range from 3 to 15°C, however, the polynomial model gave a better fit to the experimental data. PMID:27487505

  8. Survival rates of radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Polar bears are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting, polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and hydrocarbon extraction and related human activities such as shipping, road building, and seismic testing. As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, reliable estimates of survivorship of polar bears are needed to predict and manage the impacts of those activities. We used the Kaplan-Meier model to estimate annual survival (with 95% confidence intervals) for radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young that were followed during a 12-year study in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Survival of adult female polar bears was higher than had been previously thought: S = 0.969 (range 0.952-0.983). If human-caused mortalities were deleted, the computed survival rate was 0.996 (0.990-1.002). Survival of young from den exit to weaning was 0.676 (0.634-0.701). Survival during the second year of life, 0.860 (0.751-0.903), was substantially higher than during the first year, 0.651 (0.610-0.675). Shooting by local hunters accounted for 85% of the documented deaths of adult female polar bears. Conversely, 90% of documented losses of young were independent of litter size (P = 0.36), indicating that parental investment in single cubs was not different from investment in litters of two or more. Precise estimates of the survival of independent juveniles and adult males still need to be developed.

  9. Exercise training improves early survival rate in diabetic rats submitted to acute coronary artery ligation.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, A; Rousseau-Migneron, S; Tancrède, G

    1988-09-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the decreased early survival rate of diabetic rats submitted to acute experimental myocardial infarction could be improved by a previous training program. Male Wistar rats (+/- 200 g) were rendered diabetic with the i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) but only those presenting one week later a tail-blood glucose value between 250-400 mg/dl were retained in the protocol. Diabetic and control rats were either kept sedentary or submitted to a progressive 10-week program of treadmill running. The left coronary artery was then ligated under ether anesthesia. Adequate occlusion was confirmed by an elevation of plasma CK-MB levels four hours later or by a toluidine blue injection technique in rats which died earlier. Since the first 20 minutes after such a procedure represents a most critical period for sudden death, the early survival rate was calculated for each group of rats and significance in differences was established with the Fisher's test. While the 27% early survival rate observed in sedentary diabetics was significantly lower (p = 0.02) than the 49% found in sedentary controls, this was completely alleviated by previous training in diabetic animals (50%; p = 0.018 vs sedentary diabetics and 0.623 vs sedentary controls). This beneficial effect of training was not found in nondiabetic animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Price, P. Buford; Sowers, Todd

    2004-01-01

    Our work was motivated by discoveries of prokaryotic communities that survive with little nutrient in ice and permafrost, with implications for past or present microbial life in Martian permafrost and Europan ice. We compared the temperature dependence of metabolic rates of microbial communities in permafrost, ice, snow, clouds, oceans, lakes, marine and freshwater sediments, and subsurface aquifer sediments. Metabolic rates per cell fall into three groupings: (i) a rate, μg(T), for growth, measured in the laboratory at in situ temperatures with minimal disturbance of the medium; (ii) a rate, μm(T), sufficient for maintenance of functions but for a nutrient level too low for growth; and (iii) a rate, μs(T), for survival of communities imprisoned in deep glacial ice, subsurface sediment, or ocean sediment, in which they can repair macromolecular damage but are probably largely dormant. The three groups have metabolic rates consistent with a single activation energy of ≈110 kJ and that scale as μg(T):μm(T):μs(T) ≈ 106:103:1. There is no evidence of a minimum temperature for metabolism. The rate at -40°C in ice corresponds to ≈10 turnovers of cellular carbon per billion years. Microbes in ice and permafrost have metabolic rates similar to those in water, soil, and sediment at the same temperature. This finding supports the view that, far below the freezing point, liquid water inside ice and permafrost is available for metabolism. The rate μs(T) for repairing molecular damage by means of DNA-repair enzymes and protein-repair enzymes such as methyltransferase is found to be comparable to the rate of spontaneous molecular damage. PMID:15070769

  11. Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival.

    PubMed

    Price, P Buford; Sowers, Todd

    2004-03-30

    Our work was motivated by discoveries of prokaryotic communities that survive with little nutrient in ice and permafrost, with implications for past or present microbial life in Martian permafrost and Europan ice. We compared the temperature dependence of metabolic rates of microbial communities in permafrost, ice, snow, clouds, oceans, lakes, marine and freshwater sediments, and subsurface aquifer sediments. Metabolic rates per cell fall into three groupings: (i) a rate, microg(T), for growth, measured in the laboratory at in situ temperatures with minimal disturbance of the medium; (ii) a rate, microm(T), sufficient for maintenance of functions but for a nutrient level too low for growth; and (iii) a rate, micros(T), for survival of communities imprisoned in deep glacial ice, subsurface sediment, or ocean sediment, in which they can repair macromolecular damage but are probably largely dormant. The three groups have metabolic rates consistent with a single activation energy of approximately 110 kJ and that scale as microg(T):microm(T):micros(T) approximately 10(6):10(3):1. There is no evidence of a minimum temperature for metabolism. The rate at -40 degrees C in ice corresponds to approximately 10 turnovers of cellular carbon per billion years. Microbes in ice and permafrost have metabolic rates similar to those in water, soil, and sediment at the same temperature. This finding supports the view that, far below the freezing point, liquid water inside ice and permafrost is available for metabolism. The rate micros(T) for repairing molecular damage by means of DNA-repair enzymes and protein-repair enzymes such as methyltransferase is found to be comparable to the rate of spontaneous molecular damage.

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Therapy-induced Cancer Drug Resistance: Connecting Cancer Mechanisms to Population Survival Rates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Bao, Jiguang; Shao, Yongzhao

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance significantly limits the long-term effectiveness of targeted therapeutics for cancer patients. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that cancer cell heterogeneity and microenvironment adaptations to targeted therapy play important roles in promoting the rapid acquisition of drug resistance and in increasing cancer metastasis. The systematic development of effective therapeutics to overcome drug resistance mechanisms poses a major challenge. In this study, we used a modeling approach to connect cellular mechanisms underlying cancer drug resistance to population-level patient survival. To predict progression-free survival in cancer patients with metastatic melanoma, we developed a set of stochastic differential equations to describe the dynamics of heterogeneous cell populations while taking into account micro-environment adaptations. Clinical data on survival and circulating tumor cell DNA (ctDNA) concentrations were used to confirm the effectiveness of our model. Moreover, our model predicted distinct patterns of dose-dependent synergy when evaluating a combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors versus a combination of BRAF and PI3K inhibitors. These predictions were consistent with the findings in previously reported studies. The impact of the drug metabolism rate on patient survival was also discussed. The proposed model might facilitate the quantitative evaluation and optimization of combination therapeutics and cancer clinical trial design. PMID:26928089

  13. Estimating annual survival and movement rates of adults within a metapopulation of roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hays, H.; Cormons, G.D.; Burger, J.; Safina, C.; Hines, J.E.; Gochfeld, M.

    1995-01-01

    Several multistratum capture-recapture models were used to test various hypotheses about possible geographic and temporal variation in survival, movement, and recapture/resighting probabilities of 2399 adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) color-banded from 1988 to 1992 at the sites of the four largest breeding colonies of this species in the northeastern USA. Linear-logistic ultrastructural models also were developed to investigate possible correlates of geographic variation in movement probabilities. Based on goodness-of-fit tests and comparisons of Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) values, the fully parameterized model (Model A) with time- and location-specific survival, movement, and capture probabilities, was selected as the most appropriate model for this metapopulation structure. With almost all movement accounted for, on average gt 90% of the surviving adults from each colony site returned to the same site the following year. Variations in movement probabilities were more closely associated with the identity of the destination colony site than with either the identity of the colony site of origin or the distance between colony sites. The average annual survival estimates (0.740.84) of terns from all four sites indicate a high rate of annual mortality relative to that of other species of marine birds.

  14. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Will, Olga Maria; Purcz, Nicolai; Chalaris, Athena; Heneweer, Carola; Boretius, Susann; Purcz, Larissa; Nikkola, Lila; Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Kalthoff, Holger; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Wiltfang, Jörg; Açil, Yahya; Tiwari, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1) no treatment, 2) implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3) implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4) diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal determination of tumor recurrence. At the end of 7 weeks following tumor resection, 33% of mice with diclofenac-loaded scaffolds had a recurrent tumor, in comparison to 90%–100% of the mice in the other three groups. At this time point, mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds showed 89% survival rate, while the other groups showed survival rates of 10%–25%. Immunohistochemical staining of recurrent tumors revealed a near 10-fold decrease in the proliferation marker Ki-67 in the tumors derived from mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds. In summary, the local application of diclofenac in an orthotopic mouse tumor resection model of oral cancer reduced tumor recurrence with significant improvement in survival over a 7-week study period following tumor resection. Local drug release of anti-inflammatory agents should be investigated as a therapeutic option in the prevention of tumor recurrence in oral squamous

  15. The influence of disturbance events on survival and dispersal rates of Florida box turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K.; Ozgul, A.; Oli, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Disturbances have the potential to cause long-term effects to ecosystem structure and function, and they may affect individual species in different ways. Long-lived vertebrates such as turtles may be at risk from such events, inasmuch as their life histories preclude rapid recovery should extensive mortality occur. We applied capture–mark–recapture models to assess disturbance effects on a population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Near the midpoint of the study, a series of physical disturbances affected the island, from salt water overwash associated with several tropical storms to extensive removal of nonindigenous vegetation. These disturbances allowed us to examine demographic responses of the turtle population and to determine if they affected dispersal throughout the island. Adult survival rates did not vary significantly either between sexes or among years of the study. Survival rates did not vary significantly between juvenile and adult turtles, or among years of the study. Furthermore, neither adult nor juvenile survival rates differed significantly between pre- and post-disturbance. However, dispersal rates varied significantly among the four major study sites, and dispersal rates were higher during the pre-disturbance sampling periods compared to post-disturbance. Our results suggest few long-term effects on the demography of the turtle population. Florida box turtles responded to tropical storms and vegetation control by moving to favorable habitats minimally affected by the disturbances and remaining there. As long as turtles and perhaps other long-lived vertebrates can disperse to non-disturbed habitat, and high levels of mortality do not occur in a population, a long life span may allow them to wait out the impact of disturbance with potentially little effect on long-term population processes.

  16. Survival, Recruitment, and Population Growth Rate of an Important Mesopredator: The Northern Raccoon

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Elizabeth M.; Cameron Devitt, Susan E.; Sunquist, Melvin E.; Goswami, Varun R.; Oli, Madan K.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores) are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), using Pradel’s temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936–0.960) than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893–0.920), while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078–0.106) than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042–0.067). Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996–1.004), indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models. PMID:24901349

  17. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.; Teo, Steven L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable—including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  18. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  19. The evolution of HPV-related anogenital cancers reported in Quebec - incidence rates and survival probabilities.

    PubMed

    Louchini, R; Goggin, P; Steben, M

    2008-01-01

    Non-cervical anogenital cancers (i.e. anal, vulvar, vaginal and penile cancers) associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV), for which HPV is known to be the necessary cause of carcinogenesis, are poorly documented due to their relatively low incidence rate. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence rates of these cancers between 1984 and 2001, and their relative survival probabilities, in Quebec (Canada) between 1984 and 1998. The incidence of these cancers is on the rise, particularly anal cancer in women and, more recently (since 1993-95), vulvar cancer. Between 1984-86 and 1993-95, the 5-year relative survival probability for men with anal cancer decreased from 57% to 46%, while that for penile cancer dropped from 75% to 59%. However, during the same period, the 5-year relative survival probability for women with anal cancer rose from 56% to 65%, and remained stable for cervical and vulvar cancers, at 74% and 82%, respectively. PMID:18341764

  20. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on survival rate and growth performance of Convict Cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, F; Mousavi, S. M.; Ahmadmoradi, E.; Zakeri, M.; Jahedi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Using probiotics can control pathogens by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics can promote growth performance and have, therefore, become increasingly important in the aquaculture industry. Convict Cichlid belongs to the family of Cichlidae and is known for its rapid development in laboratory conditions and is suitable for behavioral examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Convict Cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). One hundred sixty eight Convict Cichlids (mean weight: 2.1 ± 0.12 g and mean length: 2.2 ± 0.05 cm) were fed by commercial diets with different concentrations of S. cerevisiae (0, 0.5%, 1%, 2%). At the end of the experiment, survival rate and growth indices were measured. Based on the results, growth performance significantly increased with probiotic, S. cerevisiae, specially, at the 2% probiotic level of concentration. In the present study, the best FCR (feed conversion rate), SGR (specific growth rate), CF (condition factor) and BWG (body weight gain) values were observed in a 2% concentration of S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that this yeast could improve feed utilization in this fish species. PMID:27175152

  1. [Recurrence and survival rate of advanced gastric cancer after preoperative intraarterial EAP I injection therapy].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Taniguchi, H; Miyata, K; Koyama, H; Tanaka, H; Ueshima, Y; Okano, S; Oguro, A; Itoh, A; Sawai, K

    1993-08-01

    In our department, curative operations were performed for 32 patients with advanced gastric cancer from April 1989 to August 1990. Preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy with etoposide (100 mg), pirarubicin (20 mg) and cisplatin (20 mg) was given 18 patients. Recurrence and survival rate were investigated. The survival rate of patients with preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy 45 months after operation was 59.2%, while that of patients without preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy was 75.8%. There were no significant differences between these two groups. Three lymph node recurrences were seen in patients with preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy (recurrence rate, 16.7%). Four recurrences were observed in patients without preoperative injection therapy (peritoneal dissemination 2, liver 1, local 1; recurrence rate, 28.6%). We earlier reported that preoperative intra-arterial cisplatin (40 or 60 mg) injection therapy may reduce the incidence of lymph node recurrence and liver metastasis but may not be effective to prevent postoperative peritoneal recurrence, while no peritoneal dissemination was observed in patients with preoperative intra-arterial EAP I injection therapy. Thus, it was concluded that further study of combination and dose of anti-cancer drug may improve effectiveness of preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy for gastric cancer.

  2. Metadoxine improves the three- and six-month survival rates in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Higuera-de la Tijera, Fátima; Servín-Caamaño, Alfredo I; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E; Cruz-Herrera, Javier; Pérez-Torres, Eduardo; Abdo-Francis, Juan M; Salas-Gordillo, Francisco; Pérez-Hernández, José L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of metadoxine (MTD) on the 3- and 6-mo survival of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH). METHODS: This study was an open-label clinical trial, performed at the “Hospital General de México, Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”. We randomized 135 patients who met the criteria for severe AH into the following groups: 35 patients received prednisone (PDN) 40 mg/d, 35 patients received PDN+MTD 500 mg three times daily, 33 patients received pentoxifylline (PTX) 400 mg three times daily, and 32 patients received PTX+MTD 500 mg three times daily. The duration of the treatment for all of the groups was 30 d. RESULTS: In the groups treated with the MTD, the survival rate was higher at 3 mo (PTX+MTD 59.4% vs PTX 33.3%, P = 0.04; PDN+MTD 68.6% vs PDN 20%, P = 0.0001) and at 6 mo (PTX+MTD 50% vs PTX 18.2%, P = 0.01; PDN+MTD 48.6% vs PDN 20%, P = 0.003) than in the groups not treated with MTD. A relapse in alcohol intake was the primary independent factor predicting mortality at 6 mo. The patients receiving MTD maintained greater abstinence than those who did not receive it (74.5% vs 59.4%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: MTD improves the 3- and 6-mo survival rates in patients with severe AH. Alcohol abstinence is a key factor for survival in these patients. The patients who received the combination therapy with MTD were more likely to maintain abstinence than those who received monotherapy with either PDN or PTX. PMID:25945012

  3. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  4. Factors influencing coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) seasonal survival rates: A spatially continuous approach within stream networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, A.M.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Mark-recapture methods were used to examine watershed-scale survival of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) from two headwater stream networks. A total of 1725 individuals (???100 mm, fork length) were individually marked and monitored seasonally over a 3-year period. Differences in survival were compared among spatial (stream segment, subwatershed, and watershed) and temporal (season and year) analytical scales, and the effects of abiotic (discharge, temperature, and cover) and biotic (length, growth, condition, density, movement, and relative fish abundance) factors were evaluated. Seasonal survival was consistently lowest and least variable (years combined) during autumn (16 September - 15 December), and evidence suggested that survival was negatively associated with periods of low stream discharge. In addition, relatively low (-) and high (+) water temperatures, fish length (-), and boulder cover (+) were weakly associated with survival. Seasonal abiotic conditions affected the adult cutthroat trout population in these watersheds, and low-discharge periods (e.g., autumn) were annual survival bottlenecks. Results emphasize the importance of watershed-scale processes to the understanding of population-level survival.

  5. Computed Tomography-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Safety, Efficacy, and Effect on Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mohnike, Konrad; Wieners, Gero; Schwartz, Franziska; Seidensticker, Max; Pech, Maciej; Ruehl, Ricarda; Wust, Peter; Lopez-Haenninen, Enrique; Gademann, Guenther; Peters, Nils; Berg, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Ricke, Jens

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the saftety and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients were recruited, presenting with 140 HCC- lesions. Treatment was performed by CT-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with an iridium-192 source. The primary endpoint was time to progression; secondary endpoints included local tumor control and overall survival (OS). A matched-pair analysis with patients not receiving brachytherapy was performed. Match criteria included the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score, alpha-fetoprotein, presence, and extent of multifocal disease. For statistical analysis, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were performed. Results: Mean and median cumulative TTP for all patients (n = 75) were 17.7 and 10.4 months. Five local recurrences were observed. The OS after inclusion reached median times of 19.4 months (all patients), 46.3 months (CLIP score, 0), 20.6 months (CLIP score, 1) 12.7 months, (CLIP score, 2), and 8.3 months (CLIP score, {>=}3). The 1- and 3-year OS were 94% and 65% (CLIP score, 0), 69% and 12% (CLIP score, 1), and 48% and 19% (CLIP score, 2), respectively. Nine complications requiring intervention were encountered in 124 interventions. Matched-pair analysis revealed a significantly longer OS for patients undergoing CT-guided brachytherapy. Conclusion: Based on our results the study treatment could be safely performed. The study treatment had a beneficial effect on OS in patients with advanced HCC, with respect to (and depending on) the CLIP score and compared with OS in a historical control group. A high rate of local control was also observed, regardless of applied dose in a range of 15 to 25 Gy.

  6. Incorporating dose-rate effects in Markov radiation cell survival models.

    PubMed

    Sachs, R K; Hlatky, L; Hahnfeldt, P; Chen, P L

    1990-11-01

    Markov models for the survival of cells subjected to ionizing radiation take stochastic fluctuations into account more systematically than do non-Markov counterparts. Albright's Markov RMR (repair-misrepair) model (Radiat. Res. 118, 1-20, 1989) and Curtis's Markov LPL (lethal-potentially lethal) model [in Quantitative Mathematical Models in Radiation Biology (J. Kiefer, Ed.), pp. 127-146. Springer, New York, 1989], which assume acute irradiation, are here generalized to finite dose rates. Instead of treating irradiation as an instantaneous event we introduce an irradiation period T and analyze processes during the interval T as well as afterward. Albright's RMR transition matrix is used throughout for computing the time development of repair and misrepair. During irradiation an additional matrix is added to describe the evolving radiation damage. Albright's and Curtis's Markov models are recovered as limiting cases by taking T----0 with total dose fixed; the opposite limit, of low dose rates, is also analyzed. Deviations from Poisson behavior in the statistical distributions of lesions are calculated. Other continuous-time Markov chain models ("compartmental models") are discussed briefly, for example, models which incorporate cell proliferation and saturable repair models. It is found that for low dose rates the Markov RMR and LPL models give lower survivals compared to the original non-Markov versions. For acute irradiation and high doses, the Markov models predict higher survivals. In general, theoretical extrapolations which neglect some random fluctuations have a systematic bias toward overoptimism when damage to irradiated tumors is compared with damage to surrounding tissues. PMID:2247602

  7. Local annual survival and seasonal residency rates of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) in Puerto rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, S.M.; Collazo, J.A.; Alldredge, M.W.; Harrington, B.A.; Lewis, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    We report seasonal residency and local annual survival rates of migratory Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) at the Cabo Rojo salt flats, Puerto Rico. Residency rate (daily probability of remaining on the flats) was 0.991 ?? 0.001 (x?? ?? SE), yielding a mean length of stay of 110 days. This finding supports the inclusion of the Caribbean as part of the species' winter range. Average estimated percentage of fat was low but increased throughout the season, which suggests that birds replenish some spent fat reserves and strive for energetic maintenance. Local annual survival rate was 0.62 ?? 0.04, within the range of values reported for breeding populations at Manitoba and Alaska (0.53-0.76). The similarity was not unexpected because estimates were obtained annually but at opposite sites of their annual migratory movements. Birds captured at the salt flats appeared to be a mix of birds from various parts of the breeding range, judging from morphology (culmen's coefficient of variation = 9.1, n = 106). This suggested that origin (breeding area) of birds and their proportion in the data should be ascertained and accounted for in analyses to glean the full conservation implications of winter-based annual survival estimates. Those data are needed to unravel the possibility that individuals of distinct populations are affected by differential mortality factors across different migratory routes. Mean length of stay strongly suggested that habitat quality at the salt flats was high. Rainfall and tidal flow combine to increase food availability during fall. The salt flats dry up gradually toward late January, at the onset of the dry season. Semipalmated Sandpipers may move west to other Greater Antilles or south to sites such as coastal Surinam until the onset of spring migration. They are not an oversummering species at the salt flats. Conservation efforts in the Caribbean region require understanding the dynamics of this species throughout winter to protect

  8. Evaluating the Survival Rate and the Secondary Malignancies after Treating Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients with Chemotherapy Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Jalili, Mohamad H; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Efazat, Mehdi; Seghatoleslami, Mohammad; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Mahdipour, Mozhdeh; Valizadeh, Armita

    2014-01-01

    In this study we surveyed the average survival time of the treated Hodgkin's lymphoma patients and also the side effects and malignancies occurring secondary to the treatment. This is a retrospective study of patients referring to Ahwaz's Shafa hospital in a period of 10 years diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma without any age restriction. After gathering all their data, we calculated their survival rate and the chance for a relapse and the secondary malignancies. 389 patients were included in the study with an average age of 27.5 years old and they had received only chemotherapy regimens. 87.9% of them had been treated by ABVD and 12.1 % by Stanford V regimen. 23.1% of them experienced a relapse and 13.1% of all patients, passed away during the study. Secondary malignancies were observed in 11 cases. An overall mean survival time of 295.31 months was resulted. The secondary malignancies after treating Hodgkin's lymphoma patients are different between chemotherapy regimens and chemotherapy – radiotherapy. PMID:24800035

  9. AgeStandardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Daoprasert, Karnchana; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Katruang, Narisara; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15year period studied. PMID:27509991

  10. High Survival Rates and Associated Factors Among Ebola Virus Disease Patients Hospitalized at Donka National Hospital, Conakry, Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Chughtai, Morad; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Barry, Moumié; Béavogui, Kézély; Loua, Tokpagnan Oscar; Malik, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anecdotal reports suggesting that survival rates among hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in Guinea are higher than the 29.2% rate observed in the current epidemic in West Africa. Methods Survival after symptom onset was determined using Kaplan Meier survival methods among patients with confirmed Ebola virus disease treated in Conakry, Guinea from March 25, 2014, to August 5, 2014. We analyzed the relationship between survival and patient factors, including demographics and clinical features. Results Of the 70 patients analyzed [mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 34 ± 14.1; 44 were men], 42 were discharged alive with a survival rate among hospitalized patients of 60% (95% confidence interval, 41.5–78.5%). The survival rate was 28 (71.8%) among 39 patients under 34 years of age, and 14 (46.7%) among 30 patients aged 35 years or greater (p = 0.034). The rates of myalgia (3 of 42 versus 7 of 28, p = 0.036) and hiccups (1 of 42 versus 5 of 28, p = 0.023) were significantly lower among patients who survived. Conclusions Our results provide insights into a cohort of hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in whom survival is prominently higher than seen in other cohorts of hospitalized patients. PMID:25992182

  11. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.

    2009-12-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

  12. Xuebijing Injection Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages and Improves Survival Rate in Septic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Cun; Yao, Feng-Hua; Chai, Yan-Fen; Dong, Ning; Sheng, Zhi-Yong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a concoction of several Chinese herbs, has been widely used as an immunomodulator for the treatment of severe sepsis in China. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for its efficacy have not been fully elucidated. In our study, we determined the flow cytometry markers (F4/80, CD11c, and CD206), the levels of secreted cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10), and the expression of specific proteins of M2 (Ym1, Fizz1, and Arg1) to assess macrophage polarization. Treatment with XBJ lowered M1 associated cytokine levels and increased the level of M2 associated cytokine level. The percentage of M2 phenotype cells of XBJ group was much higher than that of the control group. Expressions of phosphorylated Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) were markedly enhanced after the administration of XBJ; on the other hand, the M2 associated cytokines and proteins were decreased following treatment with JAK1 or STAT6 inhibitor. In addition, the treatment of XBJ significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice. These studies demonstrate that XBJ can markedly promote M2 polarization and improve the survival rate of septic mice, thereby contributing to therapeutic effect in the treatment of septic complications. PMID:26064161

  13. Effect of Fascioloides magna (Digenea) on fecundity, shell height, and survival rate of Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae).

    PubMed

    Pankrác, Jan; Novobilský, Adam; Rondelaud, Daniel; Leontovyč, Roman; Syrovátka, Vít; Rajský, Dušan; Horák, Petr; Kašný, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Infection with Fascioloides magna (Digenea) causes serious damage to liver tissue in definitive hosts represented by ruminants, especially cervids. The distribution of F. magna includes the indigenous areas in North America, and the areas to which F. magna was introduced-Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and Italy. The North American intermediate host of F. magna, the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae), is an invasive species recorded in South America, the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and west and Southeast Europe. In Europe, Galba truncatula is the snail serving for transmission, but P. columella has potential to become here a new intermediate host of F. magna. Little is known about interactions between F. magna and P. columella. In this study, the susceptibility of P. columella (Oregon, USA) to the infection by a single miracidium of the Czech strain of F. magna and the influence of F. magna on snail fecundity, shell height, and survival were evaluated. The data show that the Oregon strain of P. columella is a highly suitable host for the Czech strain of F. magna, with the infection rate of 74 %. In addition, a negative effect on survival rate of infected snails was recorded only in the late phase of infection. The infection was accompanied by a major reduction in egg mass production and by a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass. The shell height of infected snails did not significantly differ from that in unexposed controls. PMID:27098161

  14. Survival-rate analysis of surface treated dental zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Cedomir; Verdenik, Ivan; Swain, Michael V; Kosmac, Tomaz

    2014-10-01

    The role of surface preparation, hydrothermal ageing exposure and subsequent cyclic fatigue testing on the biaxial strength of a dental Y-TZP material are investigated. The initial strength and survival rate of a dental Y-TZP ceramic material to fatigue testing was found to be highly dependent upon surface preparation more so than exposure to various hydrothermal exposure conditions. The results suggest that the monoclinic phase generated by either surface damage (especially sandblasting) and to a lesser extent hydrothermal exposure does appear to mitigate strength and fatigue degradation. The results are discussed in terms of the size of defects generated following various surface treatments and the role of cyclic fatigue induced crack growth. A critical ratio is established between the monotonic strength and fatigue stress survival. From the specimens that failed and exhibited reduced strength after cycling a plot of averaged crack growth rate versus max cyclic stress intensity factor was established which closely matched existing results for Y-TZP ceramics.

  15. Effect of hydrogen gas on the survival rate of mice following global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, Kimihiro; Wada, Kojiro; Takeuchi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Uozumi, Yoichi; Otani, Naoki; Fujita, Masanori; Tachibana, Shoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) often result in high mortality. Free radicals have been reported to play an important role in global cerebral I/R, and therefore, reduction of these might improve the outcome. Here, we investigated the effect of hydrogen gas (H2) (a strong free radical scavenger) on the survival rate of mice following global cerebral I/R. We further examined the histopathological outcome and also the brain water content (as a possible determinant of mortality). Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to global cerebral I/R by means of 45-min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). A total of 160 mice were divided into three groups: sham surgery (sham group), BCCAO without H2 (BCCAO group), and BCCAO treated with 1.3% H2 (BCCAO + H2 group). We observed that H2 treatment significantly (P = 0.0232) improved the 7-day survival rate of mice, from 8.3% (BCCAO group, n = 12) to 50% (BCCAO + H2 group, n = 10). Histopathological analysis revealed that H2 treatment significantly attenuated neuronal injury and autophagy in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 sector and also brain edema, after 24 h of reperfusion. The beneficial effects of H2 treatment on brain injury were associated with significantly lower levels of oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde) in the brain tissue. Thus, we believe that H2 may be an effective treatment for global cerebral I/R.

  16. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H. L.; Xue, J. M.; Lai, J. N.; Wang, J. Y.; Zhang, W. M.; Miao, Q.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W. J.; He, F.; Gu, H. Y.; Wang, Y. G.

    2006-04-01

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 × 109-1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper.

  17. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Salmonella Enteritidis in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the inactivation rates of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercially produced yogurt and to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behaviour of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples were inoculated with the mixture of three S. Enteritidis strains and stored at 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C for 24 h. The number of salmonellae was determined every two hours. It was found that the number of bacteria decreased linearly with storage time in all samples. Storage temperature and pH of yogurt significantly influenced survival rate of S. Enteritidis (p < 0.05). In samples kept at 5 degrees C the number of salmonellae decreased at the lowest rate, whereas at 25 degrees C the reduction in number of bacteria was the most dynamic. The natural logarithm of mean inactivation rates of Salmonella calculated from primary model was fitted to two secondary models: linear and polynomial. Equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for prediction of inactivation rate of Salmonella in yogurt stored under temperature range from 5 to 25 degrees C; however, polynomial model gave the better fit to the experimental data.

  18. Tidal and seasonal effects on survival rates of the endangered California clapper rail: does invasive Spartina facilitate greater survival in a dynamic environment?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Strong, Donald R.; Holyoak, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species frequently degrade habitats, disturb ecosystem processes, and can increase the likelihood of extinction of imperiled populations. However, novel or enhanced functions provided by invading species may reduce the impact of processes that limit populations. It is important to recognize how invasive species benefit endangered species to determine overall effects on sensitive ecosystems. For example, since the 1990s, hybrid Spartina (Spartina foliosa × alterniflora) has expanded throughout South San Francisco Bay, USA, supplanting native vegetation and invading mudflats. The endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) uses the tall, dense hybrid Spartina for cover and nesting, but the effects of hybrid Spartina on clapper rail survival was unknown. We estimated survival rates of 108 radio-marked California clapper rails in South San Francisco Bay from January 2007 to March 2010, a period of extensive hybrid Spartina eradication, with Kaplan–Meier product limit estimators. Clapper rail survival patterns were consistent with hybrid Spartina providing increased refuge cover from predators during tidal extremes which flood native vegetation, particularly during the winter when the vegetation senesces. Model averaged annual survival rates within hybrid Spartina dominated marshes before eradication (Ŝ = 0.466) were greater than the same marshes posttreatment (Ŝ = 0.275) and a marsh dominated by native vegetation (Ŝ = 0.272). However, models with and without marsh treatment as explanatory factor for survival rates had nearly equivalent support in the observed data, lending ambiguity as to whether hybrid Spartina facilitated greater survival rates than native marshland. Conservation actions to aid in recovery of this endangered species should recognize the importance of available of high tide refugia, particularly in light of invasive species eradication programs and projections of future sea-level rise.

  19. Size-sex variation in survival rates and abundance of pig frogs, Rana grylio, in northern Florida wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, K.V.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.; Hines, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1991-1993, we conducted capture-recapture studies on pig frogs, Rana grylio, in seven study locations in northcentral Florida. Resulting data were used to test hypotheses about variation in survival probability over different size-sex classes of pig frogs. We developed multistate capture-recapture models for the resulting data and used them to estimate survival rates and frog abundance. Tests provided strong evidence of survival differences among size-sex classes, with adult females showing the highest survival probabilities. Adult males and juvenile frogs had lower survival rates that were similar to each other. Adult females were more abundant than adult males in most locations at most sampling occasions. We recommended probabilistic capture-recapture models in general, and multistate models in particular, for robust estimation of demographic parameters in amphibian populations.

  20. Immunocompetence and high metabolic rates enhance overwinter survival in the root vole, Microtus oeconomus.

    PubMed

    Książek, Aneta; Zub, Karol; Szafrańska, Paulina A; Wieczorek, Monika; Konarzewski, Marek

    2014-12-01

    Despite its presumed significance, the association between immune defence, energy expenditures and overwinter survival is rarely studied. We analysed individual variation in immunocompetence quantified as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (N/L), total white blood cells (WBC) and natural antibody levels, along with resting (RMR) and peak metabolic rates (PMR) and mortality during three consecutive winter seasons in a natural population of the root vole, Microtus oeconomus. In early winter, WBC count was negatively correlated with RMR, whereas N/L ratio was negatively correlated with swim-elicited PMR. We suggest that while the first correlation reflected the trade-off between energy allocation in immunocompetence and other metabolically demanding processes, the latter correlation stemmed from stress-induced immunosuppression elicited by the necessity to cope with swimming in frequently flooded habitat. In addition, the analysis carried out during the first year of study characterized by a high population density and prevalence of infestation with a blood parasite--Babesia spp., showed that its intensity was inversely correlated with the N/L ratio. In summary, our results suggest that elevated N/L ratio increases the winter survival of free-ranging rodents by increasing their ability to cope with parasitic infections.

  1. Antiviral therapy improves the survival rate and decreases recurrences and fatalities in liver cancer patients following curative resection: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HAO; ZHOU, YUCHEN; YUAN, GUOSHENG; ZHOU, GUANGYAO; YANG, DINGHUA; ZHOU, YUANPING

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the impact of postoperative antiviral treatment on tumor recurrence, fatalities and survival of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-related primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A systematic meta-analysis was performed. All the studies comparing nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) versus placebo or no treatment were considered. The results were expressed as relative ratio (RR) for 1-, 3- and 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), recurrence HCC and fatalities with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using STATA 11.0. In total, 15 trials with 7,619 patients were included. There were significant improvements for 1-, 3- and 5-year RFS (RR, 1.09; P=0.003; RR, 1.202; P<0.001; and RR, 1.219; P=0.02; respectively) and in 3- and 5-year OS (RR, 1.087, P=0.006; and RR, 1.186; P<0.001) in the NAs group compared with the control group. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. In addition, the significantly high rate of recurrence HCC and fatalities existed in the control group (RR, 1.301; P=0.002; and RR, 1.816, P<0.001). One study was for an entecavir (ETV)-treated group compared with an adefovir (ADV)-treated group and lamivudine (LAM)-treated group. The 3-year disease-free survival rate for the ETV group was significantly better compared with the ADV and LAM groups [hazard ratio (HR), 0.810; P=0.049; and HR, 0.737; P=0.007]. The present study demonstrated the beneficial effects of NAs therapy following curative treatment of HBV-related HCC. ETV may be the superior choice compared to ADV or LAM for the antiviral treatment. PMID:26807227

  2. An objective index to estimate the survival rate of primary blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kihyuck; Yoon, Jungmin; Min, Kyeongran; Lee, Jungchang; Kang, Shinil; Hong, Sung Jun; Yoon, Sung Hoon; Lee, Jong-Shill; Nam, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seok Hyun; Park, Hoonki; Young, Kim In

    2014-01-01

    To supply proper treatments to the primary blast lung injury (PBLI) patients, it is important to estimate the severity of the primary blast lung injury in accordance with the blast conditions. In this study, a blast-induced mechanical parameter (first principal stress) of lung was calculated using a finite element thorax model and the correlation between the survival rate of the subjects with blast-induced lung damage and an objective index that was related to the first principal stress of the lung model. This study propose the objective index for the estimation of the degree of PBLI. The results have a potential clinical application to improve the efficacy of treatment for blast injury patients.

  3. Survival rate and fracture strength of maxillary incisors, restored with different kinds of full veneers.

    PubMed

    Stappert, C F J; Stathopoulou, N; Gerds, T; Strub, J R

    2005-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the survival rate and fracture strength of different kinds of ceramic full veneers, fabricated with a new experimental press ceramic (EPC VP2117/TC2, Ivoclar-Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein). Eighty, caries-free human maxillary central incisors were used as abutments and were randomly divided into one control group and four test-groups of 16 samples each. In group A, unprepared teeth served as control. In the test groups, four different types of full veneer preparations were performed. In test groups B/C, the preparation was maintained in enamel and the contact point was on the tooth/on the veneer, respectively. In test groups D/E, the preparation was extended into dentin and the contact point was on the tooth/on the veneer, respectively. All veneers were adhesively luted using Variolink II (Ivoclar-Vivadent AG). Then, the samples were exposed to the artificial mouth for 1.2 million chewing cycles (49 N). After exposure in the artificial mouth, a survival rate of the abutment teeth of 81-100% was reported among the different groups, but was not significantly different between the groups. However, no failures of the ceramic materials could be recognized. The median fracture strength of group A was 713.3 N, of group B 647.1 N, of group C 594.8 N, of group D 483.8 N and of group E 502.6 N. Among the different groups no significant difference was found. All mean values obtained were within the limits of clinical acceptance, indicating further clinical investigations on full veneers made out of the EPC.

  4. Survival rates of anterior composites in managing tooth wear: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, K E; Murbay, S

    2016-02-01

    The use of composite restorations for patients with tooth wear is considered as a more conservative treatment option. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature investigating the survival rates of anterior composite restorations when used in managing tooth wear in patients. PubMed and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were screened for studies from 1995 to 2015. Cross-referencing was used to further identify articles. Article selection and data extraction were performed in duplication. Languages were restricted to English. A quality appraisal of included studies was carried out using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy system. Six hundred and sixty-six articles were initially identified from which eight articles were full-text reviewed. Six articles involving five studies were selected for inclusion. Three studies were prospective and two retrospective. Included studies involved placement of 772 direct and indirect anterior composite restorations in 100 patients with follow-up periods between 5 months and 10 years. The survival rates of anterior composites were >90% and 50% at 2.5 and 5 years, respectively. Posterior occlusion was re-established in 91% of patients within 18 months. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. The systematic review's overall strength of recommendation was graded B. There is evidence to support the use of anterior composite restorations at an increased vertical dimension of occlusion in the short/medium-term management of tooth wear. Long-term reporting of outcomes remains limited. Further research is needed with standardised study design, detailed reporting of outcomes and long-term review.

  5. Survival rates of anterior composites in managing tooth wear: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, K E; Murbay, S

    2016-02-01

    The use of composite restorations for patients with tooth wear is considered as a more conservative treatment option. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature investigating the survival rates of anterior composite restorations when used in managing tooth wear in patients. PubMed and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were screened for studies from 1995 to 2015. Cross-referencing was used to further identify articles. Article selection and data extraction were performed in duplication. Languages were restricted to English. A quality appraisal of included studies was carried out using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy system. Six hundred and sixty-six articles were initially identified from which eight articles were full-text reviewed. Six articles involving five studies were selected for inclusion. Three studies were prospective and two retrospective. Included studies involved placement of 772 direct and indirect anterior composite restorations in 100 patients with follow-up periods between 5 months and 10 years. The survival rates of anterior composites were >90% and 50% at 2.5 and 5 years, respectively. Posterior occlusion was re-established in 91% of patients within 18 months. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. The systematic review's overall strength of recommendation was graded B. There is evidence to support the use of anterior composite restorations at an increased vertical dimension of occlusion in the short/medium-term management of tooth wear. Long-term reporting of outcomes remains limited. Further research is needed with standardised study design, detailed reporting of outcomes and long-term review. PMID:26440584

  6. High survival and homing rate of hand-reared wild-strain mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, F.B.; Kruse, A.D.

    1973-01-01

    In the summer of 1970, 648 (329 males and 319 females) hand-reared wild-strain mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were banded and released at the Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Edmunds, North Dakota. The females were also marked with numbered nasal saddles. Liberation was by the gentle release method, and no special effort was made to isolate or condition the ducklings prior to release. Ducklings were placed in an enclosed pond area at 25 to 45 days of age. Altogether, 627 (97 percent) ducklings reached flight age and dispersed gradually into the wild. All had left the release area by 25 November. First-year band recovery reports indicated that 68 (11 percent) of the birds were shot in 15 states. Their migration pattern was similar to that for immature wild mallards banded in North Dakota in 1970.Eighty-nine (33 percent) of a possible 270 marked females returned to Arrowwood Refuge during 1971. When consideration is given to assumed normal natural mortality and crippling loss, an estimated minimum of 43 percent of the surviving females returned to the release area. Returning birds not observed would raise this figure even higher. This potential homing rate is considerably higher than rates reported for other studies using various strains of mallards. Numerous observations of nests and broods indicated that breeding behavior and nesting success were similar to those of wild mallards in the area. The success of this release is attributed to the inherent capability of hand-reared, wild-strain mallards to revert to their wild behavior, and to the high survival to flight age and first fall migration afforded by the gentle release in a sanctuary area. Indications are that releases of this type under the described conditions can be used to increase the breeding population of mallards in a local area.

  7. Chloroquine improves survival and hematopoietic recovery following lethal low dose- rate radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang, Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We have previously shown that the anti-malarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hr. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 μg per 17 g of body weight, 24 hrs and 4 hrs before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retro orbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methyl cellulose colony forming assay of whole bone marrow cells as well as FACS analysis of lineage depleted cells was used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results Mice pretreated with chloroquine prior to radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate compared to mice treated with radiation alone (80 vs.31 percent, p=0.0026). Chloroquine administration prior to radiation did not impact the survival of ATM null mice (p=0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after the transplantation (4.2 percent vs. 0.4 percent, p=0.015). Conclusion Chloroquine administration prior to radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect like the in vitro effect is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection against the

  8. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lim Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M.; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 {mu}g per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  9. Survival rate of salmonella on cooked pig ear pet treats at refrigerated and ambient temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pet treats, including pig ears, have been implicated as vehicles of human salmonellosis, and Salmonella has been isolated on commercially produced pig ears. Therefore, behavior of the pathogen on this very low water activity (aw) pet treat is of interest. The survival of Salmonella serotypes Newport and Typhimurium DT104 was measured on natural (aw 0.256) and smoked (aw 0.306) pig ear pet treat products inoculated at ca. 6.5 log CFU per sample and stored at 4.4 or 22°C for 365 days. Surviving populations of Salmonella were enumerated periodically, and a modified Weibull model was used to fit the inactivation curves for log populations. After 14 days, the decline of Salmonella was significantly (P < 0.05) greater at 22°C than at 4.4°C. By 365 days of storage at 4.4°C, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 declined by 2.19 log on smoked pig ears and 1.14 log on natural pig ears, while Salmonella Newport declined by 4.20 log on smoked pig ears and 2.08 log on natural pig ears. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on refrigerated natural pig ears rebounded between day 152 (3.21 log CFU per sample) and day 175 (4.79 log CFU per sample) and rose gradually for the duration of the study to 5.28 log CFU per sample. The model fits for survival rate of Salmonella on pig ears at 4.4°C show a rapid initial decline followed by a long tailing effect. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on natural pig ears at 4.4°C had the slowest rate of reduction. At 22°C Salmonella declined nonlinearly by >4.5 log for each combination of serotype and pig ear type at 22°C but remained detectable by enrichment. The model parameter for days to first decimal reduction of Salmonella on pig ears was two to three times higher at 4.4°C compared with 22°C, demonstrating that Salmonella slowly declines on very low aw refrigerated pet treats and more rapidly at room temperature. This information may be useful for pet treat safety assessments. PMID:24405998

  10. Cognitive function, stress hormones, heart rate and nutritional status during simulated captivity in military survival training.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Harris R; Farina, Emily K; Caldwell, John; Williams, Kelly W; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Grohmann, Kyle A; McClung, James P

    2016-10-15

    Stress influences numerous psychological and physiological processes, and its effects have practical implications in a variety of professions and real-world activities. However, few studies have concurrently assessed multiple behavioral, hormonal, nutritional and heart-rate responses of humans to acute, severe stress. This investigation simultaneously assessed cognitive, affective, hormonal, and heart-rate responses induced by an intensely stressful real-world environment designed to simulate wartime captivity. Sixty males were evaluated during and immediately following participation in U.S. Army Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school, three weeks of intense but standardized training for Soldiers at risk of capture. Simulated captivity and intense mock interrogations degraded grammatical reasoning (p<0.005), sustained-attention (p<0.001), working memory (p<0.05) and all aspects of mood assessed by the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire: Tension/Anxiety, Depression/Dejection, Anger/Hostility, Vigor/Activity, Fatigue/Inertia; Confusion/Bewilderment, and Total Mood Disturbance (p<0.001) It also elevated heart rate (p<0.001); increased serum and salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-s) (p<0.01); elevated serum epinephrine, norepinephrine, and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR) (p<0.01); increased salivary neuropeptide-Y (NPY) (p<0.001); and decreased serum prolactin and serum and salivary testosterone (p<0.001). Partial recovery was observed immediately after training, but stress-induced changes, particularly in body weight and several of the biomarkers, persisted. This study demonstrates that when individuals were exposed to realistic and controlled simulated captivity, cognition, mood, stress hormones, nutritional status and heart rate are simultaneously altered, and each of these subsequently recovers at different rates. PMID:27374427

  11. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased veteran not in the custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved...

  12. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  13. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  14. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  15. Sensitivity of the Giant LOop Binary LEsion (GLOBLE) cell survival model on parameters characterising dose rate effects.

    PubMed

    Herr, L; Friedrich, T; Durante, M; Scholz, M

    2015-09-01

    The sensitivity of the Giant LOop Binary LEsion model for cell survival probabilities after arbitrary photon irradiation schedules on its parameters is presented. Since these parameters are closely linked to observable features of cell repair, the modelled influence of the parameters on cell survival gives indications about the relation between cell line-specific repair characteristics and the radiation response. To visualise the general findings about the impact of parameter changes on cell survival probabilities, survival curves for an exemplary cell line are shown. Furthermore, the relative change in the effect of radiation after a change in parameter values is investigated over the range of doses and dose rates usually applied in cell survival experiments.

  16. The Rate of Osmotic Downshock Determines the Survival Probability of Bacterial Mechanosensitive Channel Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Bialecka-Fornal, Maja; Lee, Heun Jin

    2014-01-01

    Mechanosensitive (MS) channels allow cells to sense and respond to environmental changes. In bacteria, these channels are believed to protect against an osmotic shock. The physiological function of these channels has been characterized primarily by a standardized assay, where aliquots of batch-cultured cells are rapidly pipetted into a hypotonic medium. Under this method, it has been inferred many types of MS channels (MscS homologs in Escherichia coli) demonstrate limited effectiveness against shock, typically rescuing less than 10% of the cells when expressed at native levels. We introduce a single-cell-based assay which allows us to control how fast the osmolarity changes, over time scales ranging from a fraction of a second to several minutes. We find that the protection provided by MS channels depends strongly on the rate of osmotic change, revealing that, under a slow enough osmotic drop, MscS homologs can lead to survival rates comparable to those found in wild-type strains. Further, after the osmotic downshift, we observe multiple death phenotypes, which are inconsistent with the prevailing paradigm of how cells lyse. Both of these findings require a reevaluation of our basic understanding of the physiology of MS channels. PMID:25349158

  17. Estimating the effect of hunting on annual survival rates of adult mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Management programs for waterfowl populations include rationale for, and establishment of, hunting regulations. These programs rest partially on the results of scientific studies on the effect of harvest rates on annual survival rates. The evidence of this relationship has changed markedly since the mid-1970's, and it is not widely believed that a largely compensatory relationship exists between hunting mortality and other forms of mortality for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). This paper employs a general probabilistic model formulated to include a parameter (b) representing a continuum between complete compensation (b=0) and total additivity (b=1). Maximum likelihood estimates of this parameter were computer for 47 data sets of adult mallards banded throughout North American before hunting commenced. We found additional evidence of a highly compensatory mortality process for adult male mallards, while the evidence for adults female mallards remains inconclusive. Effective harvest, land acquisition, and land management programs depend upon additional information on the chronology and mechanisms underlying a compensatory mortality process.

  18. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms.

  19. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. PMID:25354647

  20. Abundance and Survival Rates of the Hawai’i Island Associated Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Stock

    PubMed Central

    Tyne, Julian A.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Johnston, David W.; Bejder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai’i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture–recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images) in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai’i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68). Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture–recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration) was 0.97 SE±0.05. Open and closed capture–recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221±4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631±60.1 SE, (95% CI 524–761) spinner dolphins in the Hawai’i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  1. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Cameron Aldridge,; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  2. Differences in vitamin D status may account for unexplained disparities in cancer survival rates between African and white Americans

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William B.; Peiris, Alan N.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable disparities in cancer survival rates exist between African Americans (AAs) and white Americans (WAs). Various factors such as differences in socioeconomic status (SES), cancer stage at time of diagnosis, and treatment—which this analysis considers primary explanatory factors—have accounted for many of these differences. An additional factor not usually considered is vitamin D. Previous studies have inversely correlated higher solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with incidence and/or mortality rates for about 20 types of cancer and improved survival rates for eight types of cancer. Because of darker skin pigmentation, AAs have 40% lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than WAs. This study reviews the literature on disparities in cancer survival between AAs and WAs. The journal literature indicates that there are disparities for 13 types of cancer after consideration of SES, stage at diagnosis and treatment: bladder, breast, colon, endometrial, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, rectal, testicular, and vaginal cancer; Hodgkin lymphoma and melanoma. Solar UVB doses and/or serum 25(OH)D concentrations have been reported inversely correlated with incidence and/or mortality rates for all of these cancers. This finding suggests that future studies should consider serum 25(OH)D concentrations in addressing cancer survival disparities through both measurements of serum 25(OH)D concentrations and increasing serum 25(OH)D concentrations of those diagnosed with cancer, leading to improved survival rates and reduced disparities. PMID:22928063

  3. Survival analysis approach to account for non-exponential decay rate effects in lifetime experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, K. J.; Dewey, M. S.; Huber, M. G.; Huffer, C. R.; Huffman, P. R.; Marley, D. E.; Mumm, H. P.; O`Shaughnessy, C. M.; Schelhammer, K. W.; Thompson, A. K.; Yue, A. T.

    2016-03-01

    In experiments that measure the lifetime of trapped particles, in addition to loss mechanisms with exponential survival probability functions, particles can be lost by mechanisms with non-exponential survival probability functions. Failure to account for such loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in these measurements. In this work, we develop a general competing risks survival analysis method to account for the joint effect of loss mechanisms with either exponential or non-exponential survival probability functions, and a method to quantify the size of systematic effects and associated uncertainties for lifetime estimates. As a case study, we apply our survival analysis formalism and method to the Ultra Cold Neutron lifetime experiment at NIST. In this experiment, neutrons can escape a magnetic trap before they decay due to a wall loss mechanism with an associated non-exponential survival probability function.

  4. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  5. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Tunchel, Samy; Blay, Alberto; Kolerman, Roni; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26-67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results.

  6. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26–67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  7. 3D Printing/Additive Manufacturing Single Titanium Dental Implants: A Prospective Multicenter Study with 3 Years of Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Tunchel, Samy; Blay, Alberto; Kolerman, Roni; Mijiritsky, Eitan; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-01-01

    This prospective 3-year follow-up clinical study evaluated the survival and success rates of 3DP/AM titanium dental implants to support single implant-supported restorations. After 3 years of loading, clinical, radiographic, and prosthetic parameters were assessed; the implant survival and the implant-crown success were evaluated. Eighty-two patients (44 males, 38 females; age range 26-67 years) were enrolled in the present study. A total of 110 3DP/AM titanium dental implants (65 maxilla, 45 mandible) were installed: 75 in healed alveolar ridges and 35 in postextraction sockets. The prosthetic restorations included 110 single crowns (SCs). After 3 years of loading, six implants failed, for an overall implant survival rate of 94.5%; among the 104 surviving implant-supported restorations, 6 showed complications and were therefore considered unsuccessful, for an implant-crown success of 94.3%. The mean distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-implant contact was 0.75 mm (±0.32) and 0.89 (±0.45) after 1 and 3 years of loading, respectively. 3DP/AM titanium dental implants seem to represent a successful clinical option for the rehabilitation of single-tooth gaps in both jaws, at least until 3-year period. Further, long-term clinical studies are needed to confirm the present results. PMID:27313616

  8. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag; Oh, Jae-Wook

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry.

  9. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry. PMID:26760943

  10. Long-term analysis of survival, fertility, and population growth rate of black bears in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated survival, fertility, and realized and asymptotic population growth rates from 1981 to 2002 for a protected population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We used Akaike's information criterion to assess the time interval for averaging observations that was best for estimating vital rates for our study, given our yearly sample sizes. The temporal symmetry approach allowed us to directly assess population growth and to address all losses and gains to the population by using only capture data, offering an alternative to the logistically intensive collection of reproductive data. Models that averaged survival and fertility across 5- and 7-year time intervals were best supported by our data. Studies of black bear populations with annual sample sizes similar to ours should be of at least 5 years in duration to estimate vital rates reliably, and at least 10 years in duration to evaluate changes in population growth rate (??). We also hypothesized that survival would not track changes in ?? because ?? is influenced by both survival and fertility. The 5-year model supported our hypothesis, but the 7-year model did not. Where long-term dynamics of large, relatively stable bear populations are of interest, monitoring survival is likely to be sufficient for evaluating trends in ??. For rapidly changing, small populations, however, failure to incorporate fertility into assessments of ?? could be misleading. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  11. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  12. How Grammatical Are 3-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu; Germezia, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the level of grammatical accuracy in typically developing 3-year-olds and the types of errors they produce. Method: Twenty-two 3-year-olds participated in a picture description task. The percentage of grammatical utterances was computed and error types were analyzed. Results: The mean level of grammatical accuracy…

  13. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS); Design and Analysis, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwes, Nick; Petrosky, Charlie; Schaller, Howard

    2002-04-01

    Fisheries agencies and tribes have developed a multi-year program, the Comparative Survival Study (CSS), to obtain information to be used in monitoring and evaluating the impacts of the mitigation measures and actions (e.g., flow augmentation, spill, and transportation) under NMFS' Biological Opinion to recover listed stocks. Through 2001, the CSS has utilized PIT tagged yearling hatchery chinook that were tagged specifically for the CSS and PIT tagged wild chinook from all available marking efforts in the Snake River basin above Lower Granite Dam. We selected hatchery programs that would allow the opportunity to mark sufficient numbers of smolts to give enough returning adult fish that statistically rigorous smolt-to-adult survival rates could be computed. Since the CSS inception, hatchery fish that have consistently been used include spring/summer chinook tagged at McCall, Rapid River, Dworshak, and Lookingglass (Imnaha stock) hatcheries. The CSS has also included a group of spring chinook from Carson Hatchery in the lower Columbia River for planned upstream/downstream comparison. The wild stocks included chinook PIT tagged as parr (summer/fall tagging season) and smolts (spring tagging season) in each major tributary above Lower Granite Dam. Future years will see the CSS add wild and hatchery steelhead in the Snake River basin, hatchery steelhead in the Mid-Columbia River basin, hatchery yearling chinook in the Mid-Columbia River basin, and wild chinook in John Day River in the lower Columbia River. Each PIT (passive integrated transponder) tag has a unique code. The tags are glass encapsulated, 11 mm in length, and implanted into the fish's underbelly by a syringe. All attempts are made to make the PIT tagged fish as representative of their untagged cohorts as possible. At trapping sites, sampling and tagging occur over the entire migration season. At hatcheries, fish to tag are obtained across as wide a set of ponds and raceways as possible to allow effective

  14. Planetary quarantine in the solar system. Survival rates of some terrestrial organisms under simulated space conditions by proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.

    We have been studying the survival rates of some species of terrestrial unicellular and multicellular organism (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions, in connection with planetary quarantine. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 K, 4 × 10 -8 torr), and proton irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, tobacco mosaic virus, Bacillus subtilis spores, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82, 45, 74, 13, 28, and 25%, respectively.

  15. Population ecology of the mallard VIII: Winter distribution patterns and survival rates of winter-banded mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present report we address questions about winter distribution patterns and survival rates of North American mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Inferences are based on analyses of banding and recovery data from both winter and preseason banding period. The primary wintering range of the mallard was dividded into 45 minor reference areas and 15 major reference areas which were used to summarize winter banding data. Descriptive tables and figures on the recovery distributions of winter-banded mallards are presented. Using winter recoveries of preseason-banded mallards, we found apparent differences between recovery distribution of young versus adult birds from the same breeding ground reference areas. However, we found no sex-specific differences in winter recovery distribution patterns. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded birds also provided evidence that mallards exhibited some degree of year-to-year variation in wintering ground location. The age- and sex-specificity of such variation was tested using winter recoveries of winter-banded birds, and results indicated that subadult (first year) birds were less likely to return to the same wintering grounds the following year than adults. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded mallards during 1950-58 differed from distributions in 1966-76. These differences could have resulted from either true distributional shifts or geographic changes in hunting pressure. Survival and recovery rates were estimated from winter banding data. We found no evidence of differences in survival or recovery rates between subadult and adult mallards. Thus, the substantial difference between survival rates of preseason-banded young and adult mallards must result almost entirely from higher mortality of young birds during the approximate period, August-January. Male mallards showed higher survival than females, corroborating inferences based on preseason data. Tests with winter banding and band recovery data indicated

  16. Relationship between prenatal survival rate at 70 days of gestation and morphometric parameters of vagina, uterus and placenta in gilts.

    PubMed

    Vianna, W L; Pinese, M E; de Campos Rosseto, A; Bombonato, P P; Rodrigues, P H M; de Sant'Anna Moretti, A

    2004-12-01

    Swine uterine capacity affects litter size, and it could be used as a selection parameter of reproductive performance. Although there are some controversial results, evidences show that the catheter penetration length is positively correlated with litter size, and it could be used as a tool for predicting selection methods. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any association between the prenatal survival rate and placental size at 70 days of gestation, the vaginal length [catheter penetration length during artificial insemination (AI)] and the uterine capacity in a homogeneous group of gilts. Sixty-six commercial-line gilts in pre-pubertal phase had their oestrus induced by hormonal treatment [600 UI of Equine Chorionic Gonadtrophin (eCG) i.m. and after a 72-h period 5 mg of luteinizing hormone (LH) i.m.], but only 40 gilts showed cyclicity after induction. The AI catheter penetration length was tested on these 40 gilts at the moment of AI using a calibrated AI catheter. Four gilts returned to oestrus and the other 36 were killed at around day 69 of pregnancy. The uterine length and weight showed a significant and positive correlation with the prenatal survival rate (p <0.05). The catheter penetration length was unable to predict the conceptus survival rate on 70 days of gestation; however, the uterine size influenced the survival rate positively. The mean placental area was positively correlated with the mean placental weight (p <0.0001), and both with the mean foetal weight (p <0.0001 and p <0.001, respectively). The analysis of the results obtained showed that neither did the catheter penetration length measurement during AI, nor the prenatal survival rate on day 70 of pregnancy predict the uterine capacity, but the uterine and placental size had a significant influence on the prenatal survival and foetus weight, respectively.

  17. Moderate progress for ovarian cancer in the last 20 years: prolongation of survival, but no improvement in the cure rate.

    PubMed

    Engel, J; Eckel, R; Schubert-Fritschle, G; Kerr, J; Kuhn, W; Diebold, J; Kimmig, R; Rehbock, J; Hölzel, D

    2002-12-01

    Although ovarian cancer treatment has advanced in the last 20 years, long-term survival remains stable. The purpose of this study was to determine whether survival has improved in line with treatment advances in a population-based prospective cohort of ovarian cancer patients (1978-1997, with a follow-up through to 2000). The 10-year overall survival rate for cancer patients was similar before and after 1988: 32.2% (n=1661) and 34.4% (n=2089). For patients after 1988, a 12-month prolongation of median survival was observed. In terms of stage according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), only FIGO I and FIGO II patients showed, in addition to a prolongation in survival, an absolute improvement of 12.9 and 12.6% after 5 years and of 13.2 and 8.6% after 10 years. This hardly affected the survival of the total sample. For the most frequent stage FIGO III patients and for FIGO IV patients, a prolongation in survival time, but no improvement in survival rate, was seen after five or 10 years. The progress in FIGO I and II patients may be due to more accurate staging. More effective chemotherapy may also explain some of the improvement. The prolongation in FIGO-stages III-IV may be due to more radical surgery. Patient selection criteria, not only the treatment modalities, may be responsible for the superior results reported in clinical trials. Cancer registries are important for evaluating the quality of healthcare delivery.

  18. Apparent Survival Rates of Forest Birds in Eastern Ecuador Revisited: Improvement in Precision but No Change in Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Blake, John G.; Loiselle, Bette A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae) from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate) was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE) across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02) when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs = −0.72) and recaptures (rs = −0.93, P<0.001 in both cases). Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient. PMID:24312519

  19. Epinephrine, but not vasopressin, improves survival rates in an adult rabbit model of asphyxia cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Hua; Xie, Lu; Liu, Tang-Wei; Song, Feng-Qing; He, Tao; Zeng, Zhi-yu; Mo, Shu-Rong

    2007-06-01

    Although vasopressin has been reported to be more effective than epinephrine for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in ventricular fibrillation animal models, its efficacy in asphyxia model remains controversy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vasopressin vs epinephrine on restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in a rabbit model of asphyxia cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest was induced by clamping endotracheal tube. After 5 minutes of basic life-support cardiopulmonary resuscitation, animals who had no ROSC were randomly assigned to receive either epinephrine alone (epinephrine group; 200 microg/kg) or vasopressin alone (vasopressin group; 0.8 U/kg). The coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated as the difference between the minimal diastolic aortic and simultaneously recorded right atrial pressure. Restoration of spontaneous circulation was defined as an unassisted pulse with a systolic arterial pressure of 60 mm Hg or higher for 5 minutes or longer. We induced arrest in 62 rabbits, 15 of whom had ROSC before drug administration and were excluded from analysis. The remaining 47 rabbits were randomized to epinephrine group (n = 24) and vasopressin group (n = 23). Before and after drug administration, CPP in epinephrine group increased significantly (from -4 +/- 4 to 36 +/- 9 mm Hg at peak value, P = .000), whereas CPP in vasopressin group increased only slightly (from 9 +/- 5 to 18 +/- 6 mm Hg at peak value, P = .20). After drug administration, 13 of 24 epinephrine rabbit had ROSC, and only 2 of 23 vasopressin rabbit had ROSC (P < .01). Consequently, we conclude that epinephrine, but not vasopressin, increases survival rates in this adult rabbit asphyxia model.

  20. Survival and fertility rate of cooled dromedary camel spermatozoa supplemented with catalase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Medan, Mohamed Sabry; Absy, Gamal; Zeidan, Alaa Elsayed; Khalil, Medhat Hussein; Khalifa, Hesham Hussein; Abdel-Salaam, Atef Mahrous; Abdel-Khalek, Tarek Mohammad

    2008-02-01

    The present study was planned to study the effects of addition of different concentrations of catalase enzyme (0, 250, 500 and 1,000 IU/ml) to cooled dromedary camel semen extended with tris-yolk-fructose extender on semen quality during storage at 5 C for up to 5 days. Conception rates of she-camels artificially inseminated with whole fresh or extended cooled dromedary camel semen with or without 500 IU/ml catalase enzyme were also estimated. The results showed that addition of catalase enzyme at concentrations of 250 or 500 IU/ml to extended cooled dromedary camel semen significantly increased (P<0.01) the percentage of sperm motility and significantly decreased (P<0.01) the percentages of dead spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and acrosomal damage. The highest (P<0.01) percentage of sperm motility was recorded with extended cooled dromedary camel semen supplemented with catalase enzyme at a concentration of 500 IU/ml, and the lowest (P<0.01) value was recorded with catalase enzyme at a concentration of 1000 IU/ml. On the other hand, the lowest (P<0.01) percentages of dead spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and acrosomal damage of spermatozoa were recorded with extended cooled dromedary camel semen supplemented with 500 IU/ml, and the highest (P<0.01) values were recorded with catalase enzyme at a concentration of 1,000 IU/ml. Advancement of the storage time at 5 C significantly decreased (P<0.01) the percentage of sperm motility and significantly increased (P<0.01) the percentages of dead spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and acrosomal damage of spermatozoa. Moreover, the conception rates of she-camels artificially inseminated with whole fresh, extended cooled dromedary camel semen free-catalase enzyme and extended cooled dromedary camel semen supplemented with catalase enzyme at a concentration of 500 IU/ml were 46.15, 22.22 and 37.50%, respectively. In conclusion, the results show that addition of catalase enzyme at a concentration of 500 IU/ml to semen extender

  1. Hyperglycemia and survival rate in Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sin, Hye Yeon

    2014-06-01

    Current studies are debating on the association of higher admission blood glucose (BG) and increased mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study evaluated association of mortality between admission BG and BG control in 222 patients with ACS who received coronary intervention in the intensive care unit. This study observed medical records through electronic medical record retrospectively and evaluated all patients who were admitted for the first attack of ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI), non-STEMI, and unstable angina pectoris. Admission BG higher than 220 mg/dl was statistically significantly associated with lower survival in patients; the association was stronger than in patients with admission BG higher than 140 mg/dl to less than 220 mg/dl and patients with admission BG less than 140 mg/dl (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.002). Survival time after admission was also associated with the history of diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients with diabetes had significantly lower survival than those without diabetes (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.028). Survival after ACS was not consistent with each insulin intervention of on admission to 6, 24, and 48 h after admission. There is a statistically significant association between admission BG higher than 220 mg/dl and low survival but each intervention of post admission BG levels were not consistently associated with the mortality. Additionally, history of DM is associated with lower survival in patients with ACS on admission.

  2. Genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival from linear, threshold, and logistic models in a multibreed beef cattle population.

    PubMed

    Guerra, J L L; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2006-12-01

    Generalized mixed linear, threshold, and logistic sire models and Markov chain, Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to estimate genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival in a multibreed beef cattle population. Data were obtained from a 5-generation rotational crossbreeding study involving Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford (1969 to 1995). Gelbvieh and Simmental bulls sired terminal-cross calves from a sample of generation 5 cows. A total of 1,458 cows sired by 158 bulls had a mean calving rate of 78% based on 4,808 calving records. Ninety-one percent of 5,015 calves sired by 260 bulls survived to weaning. Mean heritability estimates and standard deviations for daughter calving rate from posterior distributions were 0.063 +/- 0.024, 0.150 +/- 0.049, and 0.130 +/- 0.047 for linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. For calf survival, mean heritability estimates and standard deviations from posterior distributions were 0.049 +/- 0.022, 0.160 +/- 0.058, and 0.190 +/- 0.078 from linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. When transformed to an underlying normal scale, linear sire, mixed model, heritability estimates were similar to threshold and logistic sire mixed model estimates. Posterior density distributions of estimated heritabilities from all models were normal. Spearman rank correlations between sire EPD across statistical models were greater than 0.97 for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. Sire EPD had similar ranges across statistical models for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. PMID:17093211

  3. A Population-Based Study of the Association of Prenatal Diagnosis With Survival Rate for Infants With Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Matthew E.; Kim, Christopher H.; Kusano, Aaron S.; Cragan, Janet D.; Dressler, Paul; Hales, Alice R.; Mahle, William T.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis has been shown to improve preoperative morbidity in newborns with congenital heart defects (CHDs), but there are conflicting data as to the association with mortality. We performed a population-based, retrospective, cohort study of infants with prenatally versus postnatally diagnosed CHDs from 1994 to 2005 as ascertained by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program. Among infants with isolated CHDs, we estimated 1-year Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities for prenatal versus postnatal diagnosis and estimated Cox proportional hazard ratios adjusted for critical CHD status, gestational age, and maternal race/ethnicity. Of 539,519 live births, 4,348 infants had CHDs (411 prenatally diagnosed). Compared with those with noncritical defects, those with critical defects were more likely to be prenatally diagnosed (58% vs 20%, respectively, p <0.001). Of the 3,146 infants with isolated CHDs, 1-year survival rate was 77% for those prenatally diagnosed (n = 207) versus 96% for those postnatally diagnosed (n = 2,939, p <0.001). Comparing 1-year survival rate among those with noncritical CHDs alone (n = 2,455) showed no difference between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses (96% vs 98%, respectively, p = 0.26), whereas among those with critical CHDs (n = 691), prenatally diagnosed infants had significantly lower survival rate (71% vs 86%, respectively, p <0.001). Among infants with critical CHDs, the adjusted hazard ratio for 1-year mortality rate for those prenatally versus postnatally (reference) diagnosed was 2.51 (95% confidence interval 1.72 to 3.66). In conclusion, prenatal diagnosis is associated with lower 1-year survival rate for infants with isolated critical CHDs but shows no change for those with isolated noncritical CHDs. More severe disease among the critical CHD subtypes diagnosed prenatally might explain these findings. PMID:24472597

  4. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  5. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  6. The distribution of Yin-Deficient symptoms and their relationship on survival rate in cancer patients with Yin-Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Ming-Feng; Li, Tsai-Chung; Hsieh, Yu-Ho; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan

    2008-01-01

    Yin-Deficiency (YD), representing a status of the human body under lack of nutrition and fluid in traditional Chinese medicine, is commonly seen in late stage of cancer patients. It is not known whether the severity of YD related symptoms/signs can predict the survival rate of cancer patients. This study evaluated the distribution of Yin-deficiency symptoms/signs (YDS) in cancer patients with YD, and investigated whether the severity of YDS can predict the survival rate of cancer patients with YD. From 5 January 2007 to 5 May 2007, we selected 43 cancer patients with diagnosis of YD from hospitalized patients and outpatients. The severity of YD was evaluated by a questionnaire. We further estimated the cumulative probabilities of the survival rates over 4 months since the start of study by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method, and compared the differences among groups with various severities in each symptom/sign with the use of the log-rank test. The results revealed that, the 3 most common YDS were sleeplessness with annoyance, less or non-coated tongue with or without redness and dry mouth. In the survival rate analysis, only 2 parameters, rapidly small pulse (p = 0.002) and less-or non-coated tongue with paleness (p = 0.017), were found to be related to the decrease of cancer patients with YD. This suggests that, both rapidly small pulse and less-or non-coated tongue without redness may be used as predictors for the estimation of survival rate in cancer patients with YD. PMID:18711763

  7. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment.

  8. Delayed implantation of nigral grafts improves survival of dopamine neurones and rate of functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, S R; Fawcett, J W; Dunnett, S B

    1999-04-26

    In order to test the hypothesis that poor survival of dopaminergic neurones in nigral transplants may be due, at least in part, to acute toxic changes in the host striatum within the first hour after injury, we experimentally evaluated the consequences of imposing a brief delay (20 min, 1 or 3 h) between positioning the injection cannula and extruding the graft tissue. A delay of as little as 1 h resulted in a three-fold increase in survival of dopamine neurones in the grafts and a more rapid abolition of amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry in the host animals. These results suggest that acute but rapidly resolving changes in the host striatal environment induced by the implantation procedure itself can have a significantly deleterious effect on the survival of embryonic nigral grafts. PMID:10363936

  9. High rates of long-term survival of deep-sea infauna in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, James R.

    1990-08-01

    Living bivalves ( Nucula, Thyasira), a gastropod ( Frigidoalvania brychia) and a calcareous foraminiferan ( Laticarinina pauperata), from 775 m depth in the northwest Atlantic, were maintained in the laboratory for 772 days to measure their survival. The organisms, <4 mm in size, were maintained at 1 atm and at 5°C in cups containing sediment and seawater. Over the 772 day period, 46% of all bivalves and one of two gastropods survived. Minimum estimates for survival of L. pauperata in six containers ranged from 0 to 67% for a 1-2 year period. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to maintain continental slope infauna in the laboratory for long periods of time. Such organisms could be used in experiments that examine their mobility, responses to different sediments and foods, and sizes and shapes of biogenic structures produced in sediments.

  10. Growth performance and survival rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1979) larvae using different doses of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Habib, Ahasan; Das, Nani Gopal; Hossain, M Belal

    2014-07-01

    The efficiency of probiotics (Ecomarine) in rearing of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae was evaluated in a commercial prawn hatchery for five weeks. Stage-1 (zero age) larvae (of length: 2 mm; weight: 0.12 mg) were stocked at the rate of 100 L(-1). The experiment determined the growth rate, survival rate of the larvae for the both treatment and control groups. Final average weight were found 8.39 ± 3.28E-04 and 8.18 ± 2.86E-04 mg and length were found 9.08 ± 0.649 and 9.02 ± 0.081 mm for treatment and control group respectively. Comparatively higher growth performance was observed in treatment than control. Post Larvae (PL) was first observed 20th days of culture in treatment tanks whereas PL in control tanks was found 24th days of culture. Survival rate was found 58 and 46% in treatment and control group respectively. There was significant (p < 0.05) survival rate between two experiment groups. This study revealed that probiotics could be better in quality seed production of M. rosenbergii while significant changes were not noticed in the physic-chemical parameters i.e., water temperature, salinity, DO, pH, nitrate-NO2, hardness and alkalinity observed in both the treatments.

  11. A comparison of injectable fluorescent marks in two genera of darters: Effects on survival and retention rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, J.H.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Visible implant elastomer (VIE) and injectable photonic dye (IPD), two types of injectable fluorescent marks, have shown promise in previous applications in a variety of fishes but have not been extensively tested on darters. We marked a species from each of two genera of darters, Percina and Etheostoma, in a laboratory experiment to determine the influence of VIE and IPD marks on survival and the influences of mark type, location, and color on mark retention. Short-term (???80-d) survival was similar between marked and control specimens for both marks in both species. Over the long term (200-240 d), however, the survival rate for IPD-marked Roanoke darters P. roanoka was significantly lower than that for controls (50% versus 80%), whereas VIE-marked Roanoke darters had a survival rate (88%) similar to that of controls. Long-term survival of riverweed darters E. podostemone did not differ among groups. In Roanoke darters, the mark retention rate for IPD was significantly lower than that for VIE by day 80 of the experiment (80% versus 94%), and ventral IPD marks were retained with greater frequency than were dorsal IPD marks. In riverweed darters, retention was similar for VIE and IPD (79% versus 83%) in all body locations through day 240. In both species, yellow IPD marks exhibited higher retention rates than did green IPD marks, whereas the reverse was true for yellow and green VIE marks. Overall, VIE was a superior mark in the Percina representative but performed similarly to IPD in Etheostoma. Because of interspecific and intraspecific variability in mark performance, we recommend a pilot study before initiating field use of injectable marks in untested species.

  12. Precise calculation of a bond percolation transition and survival rates of nodes in a complex network.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition.

  13. Precise Calculation of a Bond Percolation Transition and Survival Rates of Nodes in a Complex Network

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition. PMID:25885791

  14. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro survival and fecundity rates of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Arkle, S; George, D R; Guy, J H; Sparagano, O A E

    2010-04-01

    To assist in the testing of possible antigens in developing a vaccine against the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer), a rapid and reliable in vitro screening method is critical. This short paper describes how D. gallinae survival and fecundity rates in an in vivo feeding device compared to that of mites fed using an in vitro method. Results showed that survival of fed D. gallinae females and mites overall was greater in vitro, although there was no difference between male survival and fecundity between in vivo and in vitro designs. The in vitro feeding device described therefore has the potential to provide reliable results, comparable to those obtained by in vivo testing, to allow for the rapid screening of D. gallinae antigens.

  15. Smolt Monitoring Program Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian; Carmichael, Richard

    2003-05-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2001 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2002. We tagged 20,998 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,920 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 21 March 2002 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 17 April 2002. We tagged 20,973 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,796 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning 1 April 2001 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the ponds were forced out on 15 April 2001. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2002, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Imnaha River stock and Lostine River stock survival rates were similar and were higher than the survival rate of Catherine Creek stock. We PIT-tagged 20,950 BY 2001 Imnaha River stock and 20,820 BY 2001 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny in October 2002 as part of the CSS for MY 2003. At the time the fish were transferred from Lookingglass Hatchery to the acclimation site, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.14% and 0.06%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.57% and 0.31%, respectively. There was slightly elevated mortality, primarily from BKD, in one raceway of Catherine Creek stock at Lookingglass Hatchery for BY 2001.

  16. Health Blogging and Social Support: A 3-Year Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Keating, David M; Rains, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    The reported study explored the implications of informal computer-mediated social support for the well-being of individuals coping with illness over the course of 3 years. A panel study was conducted in which respondents--bloggers writing about their experiences living with a health condition--reported on their perceptions of social support and well-being during 2010 and again during 2013. Among respondents who completed both questionnaires (n = 49), increases in support availability from family and friends were related to improvements in bloggers' health self-efficacy as well as improvements in bloggers' loneliness, particularly among those who also experienced increased support availability from blog readers. Increased blog reader support availability was associated with improvements in bloggers' health-related uncertainty. Among respondents who completed the initial questionnaire (N = 121), a survival analysis showed that neither support available from family and friends nor support from blog readers predicted continued health blogging over the 3-year period.

  17. Contemporary phase III clinical trial endpoints in advanced ovarian cancer: assessing the pros and cons of objective response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival.

    PubMed

    Tate Thigpen, J

    2015-01-01

    Among gynecologic cancers, ovarian cancer provides the greatest challenge because 75% to 80% of patients present with stage III/IV disease. Over the last 40 years, a series of large trials conducted by the Gynecologic Oncology Group and other cooperative groups has produced striking improvements in patient outcome; but the majority still dies of their disease. Further research in both the laboratory and the clinic is essential to continued improvement in patient management. Clinical trials, however, have become a major challenge because of issues with trial endpoints. Historically, overall survival (OS) has been regarded as the "gold standard" of endpoints. Lack of effective treatment for patients who progressed on or recurred after front-line therapy allowed trials to avoid obfuscation of OS by post-progression therapy. More recently, studies have identified over 20 agents active against ovarian cancer. Reasonable evidence shows that effective post-progression therapy with multiple lines of active agents can render the survival endpoint uninterpretable. Two other endpoints avoid this problem. The objective response rate, assessed by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), is an accepted endpoint for accelerated approval in ovarian cancer. More importantly, progression-free survival (PFS), measured from study entry to progression of disease, avoids post-progression therapy completely. Without effective post-progression therapy (prior to 1990), data show that PFS is a surrogate for OS. Recent experience with 4 large trials of bevacizumab shows that PFS can be accurately assessed if progression is clearly defined and if timing of assessments is consistent in all study arms. Acceptance of PFS as the optimal endpoint for ovarian cancer trials by investigators and regulatory agencies is crucial to further advances in management because effective post-progression therapy has rendered differences in OS virtually impossible to assess reliably.

  18. [Recurrence and survival rate of advanced gastric cancer after preoperative EAP-II intra-arterial infusion therapy].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, M; Taniguchi, H; Takeuchi, K; Miyata, K; Koyama, H; Tanaka, H; Higashida, T; Koishi, Y; Mugitani, T; Yamaguchi, T

    1994-09-01

    Ninety-eight patients with advanced gastric cancers underwent gastrectomy from Jan. 1989 to Dec. 1991. For these patients, preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy using EAP-II (etoposide 100 mg, epirubicin 20 mg, carboplatin 100 mg) was given to 24 patients. In this report, the recurrence and survival rate of these patients were investigated. After curative resection, the survival rate of patients with EAP-II 36 months after operation was 76.9%, while that of patients without EAP-II was 78.6%. There were no significant differences between these two groups. Two peritoneal carcinomatoses and two liver metastases were seen in patients with EAP-II (recurrence rate, 30.7%). Eight recurrences were observed in patients without preoperative injection therapy (peritoneal dissemination, 4; local recurrence, 3; lymph node recurrence, 1). Previously, we reported that drugs were remarkably accumulated in gastric cancer tissue and regional lymph nodes after EAP-II intra-arterial injection therapy. This high accumulation might cause no local or lymph node recurrence was seen in patient with EAP-II. Thus, it was concluded that preoperative EAP-II intra-arterial injection may prevent local and lymph node recurrences, and that further study of the combination and dose of anti-cancer drug needed to improve the postoperative survival rate in advanced gastric cancer patients.

  19. Survival Rate of Resin and Ceramic Inlays, Onlays, and Overlays: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Rebello de Sampaio, F B W; Braga, M M; Sesma, N; Özcan, M

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the survival rate of ceramic and resin inlays, onlays, and overlays and to identify the complication types associated with the main clinical outcomes. Two reviewers searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published between 1983 through April 2015, conforming to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. Clinical studies meeting the following criteria were included: 1) studies related to resin and ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays; 2) prospective, retrospective, or randomized controlled trials conducted in humans; 3) studies with a dropout rate of less than 30%; and 4) studies with a follow-up longer than 5 y. Of 1,389 articles, 14 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-regression indicated that the type of ceramic material (feldspathic porcelain vs. glass-ceramic), study design (retrospective vs. prospective), follow-up time (5 vs. 10 y), and study setting (university vs. private clinic) did not affect the survival rate. Estimated survival rates for glass-ceramics and feldspathic porcelain were between 92% and 95% at 5 y (n = 5,811 restorations) and were 91% at 10 y (n = 2,154 restorations). Failures were related to fractures/chipping (4%), followed by endodontic complications (3%), secondary caries (1%), debonding (1%), and severe marginal staining (0%). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.19 (0.04 to 0.96) and 0.54 (0.17 to 1.69) for pulp vitality and type of tooth involved (premolars vs. molars), respectively. Ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays showed high survival rates at 5 y and 10 y, and fractures were the most frequent cause of failure.

  20. Survival Rate of Resin and Ceramic Inlays, Onlays, and Overlays: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Rebello de Sampaio, F B W; Braga, M M; Sesma, N; Özcan, M

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the survival rate of ceramic and resin inlays, onlays, and overlays and to identify the complication types associated with the main clinical outcomes. Two reviewers searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published between 1983 through April 2015, conforming to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. Clinical studies meeting the following criteria were included: 1) studies related to resin and ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays; 2) prospective, retrospective, or randomized controlled trials conducted in humans; 3) studies with a dropout rate of less than 30%; and 4) studies with a follow-up longer than 5 y. Of 1,389 articles, 14 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-regression indicated that the type of ceramic material (feldspathic porcelain vs. glass-ceramic), study design (retrospective vs. prospective), follow-up time (5 vs. 10 y), and study setting (university vs. private clinic) did not affect the survival rate. Estimated survival rates for glass-ceramics and feldspathic porcelain were between 92% and 95% at 5 y (n = 5,811 restorations) and were 91% at 10 y (n = 2,154 restorations). Failures were related to fractures/chipping (4%), followed by endodontic complications (3%), secondary caries (1%), debonding (1%), and severe marginal staining (0%). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.19 (0.04 to 0.96) and 0.54 (0.17 to 1.69) for pulp vitality and type of tooth involved (premolars vs. molars), respectively. Ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays showed high survival rates at 5 y and 10 y, and fractures were the most frequent cause of failure. PMID:27287305

  1. Scoring Systems to Estimate Intracerebral Control and Survival Rates of Patients Irradiated for Brain Metastases;Brain metastases; Radiation therapy; Local control; Survival; Prognostic scores

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Dziggel, Liesa; Haatanen, Tiina; Veninga, Theo; Lohynska, Radka; Dunst, Juergen; Schild, Steven E.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To create and validate scoring systems for intracerebral control (IC) and overall survival (OS) of patients irradiated for brain metastases. Methods and Materials: In this study, 1,797 patients were randomly assigned to the test (n = 1,198) or the validation group (n = 599). Two scoring systems were developed, one for IC and another for OS. The scores included prognostic factors found significant on multivariate analyses. Age, performance status, extracerebral metastases, interval tumor diagnosis to RT, and number of brain metastases were associated with OS. Tumor type, performance status, interval, and number of brain metastases were associated with IC. The score for each factor was determined by dividing the 6-month IC or OS rate (given in percent) by 10. The total score represented the sum of the scores for each factor. The score groups of the test group were compared with the corresponding score groups of the validation group. Results: In the test group, 6-month IC rates were 17% for 14-18 points, 49% for 19-23 points, and 77% for 24-27 points (p < 0.0001). IC rates in the validation group were 19%, 52%, and 77%, respectively (p < 0.0001). In the test group, 6-month OS rates were 9% for 15-19 points, 41% for 20-25 points, and 78% for 26-30 points (p < 0.0001). OS rates in the validation group were 7%, 39%, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Patients irradiated for brain metastases can be given scores to estimate OS and IC. IC and OS rates of the validation group were similar to the test group demonstrating the validity and reproducibility of both scores.

  2. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    SciTech Connect

    Hunke, Jes

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  3. Effects of Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the survival, feeding, respiratory rate and ionic regulation of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Gong, Qiyang; Li, Yanwei; Dan, Xueming; Sun, Peng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Peng, Shiming; Li, Anxing

    2014-02-01

    To clarify the effects of a Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the physiological functions of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus, this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 2500; 5000; 7500; 10,000; 20,000; and 30,000 theronts/fish to infect marbled rockfish weighing 45 ± 3 g. The survival rate, food intake, respiratory rate, serum ion concentrations and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity were determined. With the increase of the infection concentration and the passage of time, the survival rate of the rockfish gradually decreased. The groups infected with more than 5000 theronts/fish had stopped feeding within 4 days. The respiratory rates of the fish in the groups infected with 2500 and 5000 theronts/fish initially increased and then decreased. In contrast, the respiratory rate of the fish in the groups infected with more than 7500 theronts/fish was elevated to levels significantly higher than the control group after 12 h. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity and serum Na+ and Cl- concentrations increased with increasing infection concentration. In conclusion, the physiological functions of the fish infected with low concentrations of C. irritans can be effectively restored, whereas a high concentration infection induced severe stress. The declined food intake and accelerated respiratory rate could be useful for an early warning system as important indicators.

  4. Comparison of drug survival rates for tumor necrosis factor antagonists in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Santana, Virginia; González-Sarmiento, E; Calleja-Hernández, MA; Sánchez-Sánchez, T

    2013-01-01

    Background Persistence of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an overall marker of treatment success. Objective To assess the survival of anti-TNF treatment and to define the potential predictors of drug discontinuation in RA, in order to verify the adequacy of current practices. Design An observational, descriptive, longitudinal, retrospective study. Setting The Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain. Patients RA patients treated with anti-TNF therapy between January 2011 and January 2012. Measurements Demographic information and therapy assessments were gathered from medical and pharmaceutical records. Data is expressed as means (standard deviations) for quantitative variables and frequency distribution for qualitative variables. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to assess persistence, and Cox multivariate regression models were used to assess potential predictors of treatment discontinuation. Results In total, 126 treatment series with infliximab (n = 53), etanercept (n = 51) or adalimumab (n = 22) were administered to 91 patients. Infliximab has mostly been used as a first-line treatment, but it was the drug with the shortest time until a change of treatment. Significant predictors of drug survival were: age; the anti-TNF agent; and the previous response to an anti-TNF drug. Limitation The small sample size. Conclusion The overall efficacy of anti-TNF drugs diminishes with time, with infliximab having the shortest time until a change of treatment. The management of biologic therapy in patients with RA should be reconsidered in order to achieve disease control with a reduction in costs. PMID:24023512

  5. Survival thresholds and mortality rates in adaptive dynamics: conciliating deterministic and stochastic simulations.

    PubMed

    Perthame, Benoît; Gauduchon, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    Deterministic population models for adaptive dynamics are derived mathematically from individual-centred stochastic models in the limit of large populations. However, it is common that numerical simulations of both models fit poorly and give rather different behaviours in terms of evolution speeds and branching patterns. Stochastic simulations involve extinction phenomenon operating through demographic stochasticity, when the number of individual 'units' is small. Focusing on the class of integro-differential adaptive models, we include a similar notion in the deterministic formulations, a survival threshold, which allows phenotypical traits in the population to vanish when represented by few 'individuals'. Based on numerical simulations, we show that the survival threshold changes drastically the solution; (i) the evolution speed is much slower, (ii) the branching patterns are reduced continuously and (iii) these patterns are comparable to those obtained with stochastic simulations. The rescaled models can also be analysed theoretically. One can recover the concentration phenomena on well-separated Dirac masses through the constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the limit of small mutations and large observation times. PMID:19734200

  6. EVALUATION OF THE MORTALITY RATE ONE YEAR AFTER HIP FRACTURE AND FACTORS RELATING TO DIMINISHED SURVIVAL AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Guilherme; Longaray, Maurício Portal; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Neto, Ary da Silva Ungaretti; Manente, Marislei; Barbosa, Luíza Barbosa Horta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate after one year and correlated preoperative factors, among patients with hip fractures. Methods: We prospectively studied 202 out of a total of 376 patients with a diagnosis of hip fracture who were admitted to the Hospital Cristo Redentor, between October 2007 and March 2009. The database with the epidemiological analysis was set up during their hospitalization, and follow–up data were obtained preferentially by phone. Results: The overall mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7% or 58 deaths, among which 11 (5.45%) occurred during hospitalization. Fractures were more prevalent among women (71.3%) and rare among blacks (5%). Among the comorbidities, dementia and depression showed a statistically significant reduction in survival (p = 0.018 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusion: The mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7%. Dementia and depression increased this rate. PMID:27042638

  7. Evaluation of ultrastructure and random effects band recovery models for estimating relationships between survival and harvest rates in exploited populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otis, D.L.; White, Gary C.

    2004-01-01

    Increased population survival rate after an episode of seasonal exploitation is considered a type of compensatory population response. Lack of an increase is interpreted as evidence that exploitation results in added annual mortality in the population. Despite its importance to management of exploited species, there are limited statistical techniques for comparing relative support for these two alternative models. For exploited bird species, the most common technique is to use a fixed effect, deterministic ultrastructure model incorporated into band recovery models to estimate the relationship between harvest and survival rate. We present a new likelihood-based technique within a framework that assumes that survival and harvest are random effects that covary through time. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study under this framework to evaluate the performance of these two techniques. The ultrastructure models performed poorly in all simulated scenarios, due mainly to pathological distributional properties. The random effects estimators and their associated estimators of precision had relatively small negative bias under most scenarios, and profile likelihood intervals achieved nominal coverage. We suggest that the random effects estimation method approach has many advantages compared to the ultrastructure models, and that evaluation of robustness and generalization to more complex population structures are topics for additional research. ?? 2004 Museu de Cie??ncies Naturals.

  8. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Hamidi, Maryam; Manning, Matthew; Moody, John S.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999-1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  9. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  10. Estimation of Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus) survival, recapture, and recovery rate during and after a disease outbreak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fonnesbeck, C.J.; Dodd, C.K., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    We estimated survivorship, recapture probabilities and recovery rates in a threatened population of Flattened Musk Turtles (Sternotherus depressus) through a disease outbreak in Alabama in 1985. We evaluated a set of models for the demographic effects of disease by analyzing recaptures and recoveries simultaneously. Multiple-model inference suggested survival was temporally dynamic, whereas recapture probability was sex- and age-specifc. Biweekly survivorship declined from 98-99% before to 82-88% during the outbreak. Live recapture was twice as likely for male turtles relative to juveniles or females, whereas dead recoveries varied only slightly by sex and age. Our results suggest modest reduction in survival over a relatively short time period may severely affect population status.

  11. Effective Treatment for Improving the Survival Rate of Raccoon Dogs Infected with Sarcoptes scabiei

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; OMIYA, Tomoko; KAMEGAYA, Chihiro; WADA, Yuko; TAKAHASHI, Maya; YAMAMOTO, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarcoptes scabiei is one of the important external parasites. Although ivermectin is the recommended treatment, many raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) that were rescued and brought to the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Yokohama, Japan) have died because of S. scabiei, even after receiving single ivermectin treatment. Therefore, supportive treatment should be required. The present study revealed the number of animals that survived was greater after the administration of ivermectin along with an antibiotic for all raccoon dogs, as well as following the administration of fluid therapy to the debilitated raccoon dogs infected with S. scabiei, immediately after the rescue. During the initial period, treatment to improve the general clinical condition was required prior to deworming treatment for S. scabiei. PMID:24813465

  12. Effective treatment for improving the survival rate of raccoon dogs infected with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Omiya, Tomoko; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2014-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei is one of the important external parasites. Although ivermectin is the recommended treatment, many raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) that were rescued and brought to the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Yokohama, Japan) have died because of S. scabiei, even after receiving single ivermectin treatment. Therefore, supportive treatment should be required. The present study revealed the number of animals that survived was greater after the administration of ivermectin along with an antibiotic for all raccoon dogs, as well as following the administration of fluid therapy to the debilitated raccoon dogs infected with S. scabiei, immediately after the rescue. During the initial period, treatment to improve the general clinical condition was required prior to deworming treatment for S. scabiei.

  13. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Design Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Setting and participants Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts—Cohort I 1890–1919; Cohort II 1920–1959—and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Results Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). Conclusions This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. PMID:27091824

  14. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. AID awards 3-year Guatemala contract.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has awarded a 3-year US$593,036 grant to the Los Angeles firm of Juarez and Associates, Inc. to help implement a contraceptive social marketing project in Guatemala. The firm will provide marketing assistance to the for-profit organization. Importadora de Productos Farmaceuticos (PROFA), an offshoot of the nonprofit International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliate, Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia de Guatemala (APROFAM), created specifically to conduct the social marketing project. Juarez and Associates has previous market research experience in family planning in Guatemala. Contraceptive social marketing sales are projected to begin in early 1985. PMID:12313310

  16. AID awards 3-year Guatemala contract.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has awarded a 3-year US$593,036 grant to the Los Angeles firm of Juarez and Associates, Inc. to help implement a contraceptive social marketing project in Guatemala. The firm will provide marketing assistance to the for-profit organization. Importadora de Productos Farmaceuticos (PROFA), an offshoot of the nonprofit International Planned Parenthood Federation affiliate, Asociacion Pro-Bienestar de la Familia de Guatemala (APROFAM), created specifically to conduct the social marketing project. Juarez and Associates has previous market research experience in family planning in Guatemala. Contraceptive social marketing sales are projected to begin in early 1985.

  17. The survival rate of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Bacteroides forsythus following 4 randomized treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Shiloah, J; Patters, M R; Dean, J W; Bland, P; Toledo, G

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this clinical study was to determine the short-term anti-infective effects of four randomized treatment modalities on Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Bacteroides forsythus (Bf) and determine the effects of bacterial survival on treatment outcomes in patients with adult periodontitis. Twelve adult patients requiring therapy for moderate periodontitis were selected for this study. All patients had at least one tooth in each quadrant that had an inflamed pocket of probing depth > or =5 mm with probing attachment loss that harbored at least one of the following three periodontal pathogens: Aa, Pg, or Bf. The number of target organisms per site was determined pre-operatively, at 1 week, and 1 month and 3 months postoperatively utilizing DNA probes. One quadrant in each patient was randomly assigned to each one of the following four treatment groups: 1) scaling and root planing (SRP group); 2) pocket reduction through osseous surgery and apically-positioned flap (OS group); 3) modified Widman flap (MWF group); and 4) modified Widman flap and topical application of saturated citric acid at pH 1 for 3 minutes (CA group). The 4 treatment modalities were performed in one appointment. No postoperative antibiotics were used. Patients were instructed to supplement their daily oral hygiene with chlorohexidine oral rinse during the study. The results of this investigation indicated that: 1) none of the treatment modalities was effective in eliminating the target species; 2) the incidence of infected sites for all groups was 100% preoperatively; 62.5%, 33.3%, and 31.3% at 1 week, and 1 and 3 months postoperatively, respectively; 3) these infected sites lost 1.1 +/- 0.4 mm of probing attachment compared to gain of 0.0 +/- 0.3 mm for uninfected sites; 4) the infected sites had higher plaque and bleeding on probing 0.9 +/- 0.3, 73 +/- 12%, respectively, compared to 0.3 +/- 0.1 and 30 +/- 8% for the uninfected sites

  18. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

    PubMed

    Isomura, Naoko; Iwao, Kenji; Fukami, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  19. Survival and success rates of immediately and early loaded implants: 12-month results from a multicentric randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Guazzi, Paolo; Tarabini, Luciano; Forabosco, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Our objective was to compare survival and peri-implant bone levels of immediately nonocclusally vs early loaded implants in partially edentulous patients up to 12 months after implant placement. Eighty patients (inclusion criteria: general good health, good oral hygiene, 30-65 years old; exclusion criteria: head and neck irradiation/cancer, pregnancy, uncontrolled diabetes, substance abuse, bruxism, lack of opposing occluding dentition, smokers >10 cigarettes/day, need for bone augmentation procedures) were selected in 5 Italian study centers and randomized into 2 groups: 40 patients in the immediately loaded group (minimal insertion torque 30 Ncm) and 40 patients in the early loaded group. Immediately loaded implants were provided with nonoccluding temporary restorations. Final restorations were provided 2 months later. Early loaded implants were provided with a definitive restoration after 2 months. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically with software (ImageJ 1.42). No dropout occurred. Both groups gradually lost peri-implant bone. After 12 months, patients of both groups lost an average of 0.4 mm of peri-implant bone. There were no statistically significant differences (evaluated with t test) between the 2 loading strategies for peri-implant bone level changes at 2 (P = .6730), 6 (P = .6613) and 12 (P = .5957) months or for survival rates (100% in both groups). If adequate primary stability is achieved, immediate loading of dental implants can provide similar success rates, survival rates, and peri-implant bone resorption as compared with early loading, as evaluated in the present study. PMID:21480777

  20. Survival rates and lifetime reproduction of breeding male Cooper’s Hawks in Wisconsin, 1980-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Booms, Travis L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on annual survival and no reports of lifetime reproduction for breeding Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Breeding males (n  =  105) in central and southeastern Wisconsin had an annual mortality rate of 19%, or a survival rate of 81% for birds ≤10 years of age. We did not detect significant differences in mortality rates between urban and rural habitats, nor between the earlier 13 years and later 13 years of this study. Male Cooper's Hawks produced from zero to 32 nestlings during their lifetimes. Body mass or size appeared unrelated to annual survivorship and lifetime reproduction, although lifetime reproduction was correlated strongly with longevity of breeding males. Fifteen of 66 males (23%) produced most (53%) of the nestlings. Our studies occurred in an area where breeding populations may be increasing with some of the highest reported productivity indices and nesting densities for this species. Habitat used for nesting on our Wisconsin study areas may be less important for survivorship and lifetime reproduction than acquisition of a nesting area in which a male will breed throughout his life.

  1. Sulfide toxicity: Mechanical ventilation and hypotension determine survival rate and brain necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldelli, R.J.; Green, F.H.Y.; Auer, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide is one of the leading causes of sudden death in the workplace, especially in the oil and gas industry. High-dose exposure causes immediate neurogenic apnea and death; lower doses cause [open quotes]knockdown[close quotes] (transient loss of consciousness, with apnea). Because permanent neurological sequelae have been reported, the authors sought to determine whether sulfide can directly kill central nervous system neurons. Ventilated and unventilated rats were studied to allow administration of higher doses of sulfide and to facilitate physiological monitoring. It was extremely difficult to produce cerebral necrosis with sulfide. Only one of eight surviving unventilated rats given high-dose sulfide (a dose that was lethal in [ge]50% of animals) showed cerebral necrosis. Mechanical ventilation shifted the dose that was lethal in 50% of the animals to 190 mg/kg from 94 mg/kg in the unventilated rats. Sulfide was found to potently depress blood pressure. Cerebral necrosis was absent in the ventilated rats (n = 11), except in one rat that showed profound and sustained hypotension to [le]35 Torr. Electroencephalogram activity ceased during exposure but recovered when the animals regained consciousness. The authors conclude that very-high-dose sulfide is incapable of producing cerebral necrosis by a direct histotoxic effect. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Daily survival rates for nests of Black Skimmers from a core breeding area of the Southeastern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive success of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of undisturbed beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rates (DSR) of nests were examined at three nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), South Carolina, USA, 2009–2010. The percent of successful nests (n  =  346 nests) ranged from 42–69% among colony sites when data were pooled across both years. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, predation risk, height of high tide, and clutch size. Predation and overwash were the principal causes of identifiable nest loss, each accounting for ∼33% of nest failures during the two study years. Because of the challenges of resighting skimmer chicks, we were not able to measure chick survival effectively and therefore accurate measures of productivity remain elusive. High variability in nest success among sites within close proximity to each other (<20 km) suggests factors at local scales such as disturbance, predation, and overwash events strongly influenced nest success of Black Skimmers during these 2 years as opposed to more region-wide stressors such as tropical storms or food availability. Although time-intensive techniques to control predators do exist, management options to limit flooding and overwash are far more limited. Conservation of Black Skimmers in the southeastern USA would benefit from coordinated, multi-state efforts to measure nest and chick survival.

  3. Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival, Development, and Oviposition Rates of the Pupal Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-08-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had a pronounced effect on survival and development of the immature stages. Survival was highest at 25°C, where 88.5% of the parasitized host pupae resulted in adult parasitoids, and lowest at 35°C when only 3.78% emerged. Females constituted between 50% (at 20°C) and 100% (at 35°C) of the surviving immatures. Males developed faster than females, with the shortest developmental times at 30°C (18.18 d for males and 19.41 d for females). Longevity of adult females decreased with temperature from 80 d at 15°C to 18 d at 35°C. Total attack rate of female parasitoids was highest at 20°C (106 hosts per female), and life-time reproduction highest at 20°C and 25°C (about 60 offspring per female). Sex ratio was female biased (65% females). A generic model was used to estimate and predict the temperature effect on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproduction rate (R0), and the generation time (G). The model predicted that rm peaks at 33.5°C (rm = 0.182 d(-1)), that maximum R0 is reached at 27.2°C (R0 = 50.2), and that the shortest generation time occurs at 34.5°C (G = 21.1 d). Doubling time was 4.19 d at 33°C. In the temperature range between 20°C and 30°C, S. cameroni has the potential to be an efficient control agent against nuisance flies. PMID:27298392

  4. Correlations of survival with progression-free survival, response rate, and disease control rate in advanced biliary tract cancer: a meta-analysis of randomised trials of first-line chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Gosho, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sugaya, Akinori; Yamada, Takeshi; Endo, Shinji; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need to promote novel drug development for advanced biliary tract cancer (ABTC) has emphasised the importance of determining whether various efficacy end points can act as surrogates for overall survival (OS). Methods: We conducted a literature search of randomised trials of first-line chemotherapy for ABTC and investigated correlations between efficacy end points and OS using weighted linear regression analysis. The ratios of the median OS, median progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and disease control rate in each trial were used to summarise treatment effects. The surrogate threshold effect (STE), which was the minimum treatment effect on PFS required to predict a non-zero treatment effect on OS, was calculated. Results: Seventeen randomised trials with 36 treatment arms were identified, and a sample size of 2148 patients with 19 paired arms was analysed. The strongest correlation between all evaluated efficacy end points was observed between median OS and median PFS ratios (r2=0.66). In trials with gemcitabine-containing therapies and targeted agents, the r2-values were 0.78. The STE was estimated at 0.83 for all trials and 0.81 for trials with gemcitabine-containing therapies, and was not calculated for trials with targeted agents. Conclusions: The median PFS ratio correlated well with the median OS ratio, and may be useful for planning a clinical trial for novel drug development. PMID:27031848

  5. Early Detection, Curative Treatment, and Survival Rates for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance in Patients with Cirrhosis: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Amit G.; Pillai, Anjana; Tiro, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has level I evidence among patients with hepatitis B but only level II evidence in patients with cirrhosis. This lack of randomized data has spurred questions regarding the utility of HCC surveillance in this patient population; however, lack of randomized data does not equate to a lack of data supporting the efficacy of surveillance. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of HCC surveillance on early stage tumor detection, receipt of curative therapy, and overall survival in patients with cirrhosis. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic literature review using Medline from January 1990 through January 2014 and a search of national meeting abstracts from 2009–2012. Two investigators identified studies that reported rates of early stage tumor detection, curative treatment receipt, or survival, stratified by HCC surveillance status, among patients with cirrhosis. Both investigators independently extracted data on patient populations, study methods, and results using standardized forms. Pooled odds ratios, according to HCC surveillance status, were calculated for each outcome using the DerSimonian and Laird method for a random effects model. We identified 47 studies with 15,158 patients, of whom 6,284 (41.4%) had HCC detected by surveillance. HCC surveillance was associated with improved early stage detection (odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 95% CI 1.80–2.37) and curative treatment rates (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.99–2.52). HCC surveillance was associated with significantly prolonged survival (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.67–2.17), which remained significant in the subset of studies adjusting for lead-time bias. Limitations of current data included many studies having insufficient duration of follow-up to assess survival and the majority not adjusting for liver function or lead-time bias. Conclusions HCC surveillance is associated with significant improvements in early tumor detection, receipt of curative

  6. Does Habitat Heterogeneity in a Multi-Use Landscape Influence Survival Rates and Density of a Native Mesocarnivore?

    PubMed Central

    Gese, Eric M.; Thompson, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between predators, prey, and habitat have long been of interest to applied and basic ecologists. As a native Great Plains mesocarnivore of North America, swift foxes (Vulpes velox) depended on the historic disturbance regime to maintain open grassland habitat. With a decline in native grasslands and subsequent impacts to prairie specialists, notably the swift fox, understanding the influence of habitat on native predators is paramount to future management efforts. From 2001 to 2004, we investigated the influence of vegetation structure on swift fox population ecology (survival and density) on and around the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, southeastern Colorado, USA. We monitored 109 foxes on 6 study sites exposed to 3 different disturbance regimes (military training, grazing, unused). On each site we evaluated vegetation structure based on shrub density, basal coverage, vegetation height, and litter. Across all sites, annual fox survival rates ranged from 0.50 to 0.92 for adults and 0.27 to 0.78 for juveniles. Among sites, population estimates ranged from 1 to 7 foxes per 10 km transect. Fox density or survival was not related to the relative abundance of prey. A robust model estimating fox population size and incorporating both shrub density and percent basal cover as explanatory variables far outperformed all other models. Our results supported the idea that, in our region, swift foxes were shortgrass prairie specialists and also indicated a relationship between habitat quality and landscape heterogeneity. We suggest the regulation of swift fox populations may be based on habitat quality through landscape-mediated survival, and managers may effectively use disturbance regimes to create or maintain habitat for this native mesocarnivore. PMID:24963713

  7. Sex difference in the survival rate of wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) experimentally challenged with bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rouco, Carlos; Richardson, Kyle S; Buddle, Bryce M; French, Nigel P; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2016-08-01

    The main wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand is the introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), with spillover of infection from possums to livestock being regarded as the largest barrier to eradicating TB from the country. Past studies have experimentally challenged possums with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of TB) to quantify infection parameters. However, the challenge models used are invariably non-representative of natural infection due to their resulting in much faster rates, and different clinical patterns of disease progression. We monitored the survival of 16 wild free-living possums, fitted with VHF mortality collars and experimentally challenged with a new model, out to six months post-challenge. The aim was to assess whether the new model does indeed result in an ongoing pathogenesis trajectory that is more reflective of natural TB in possums. The mean survival period of challenged possums (~4.6months) did not differ from that estimated for wild free-living possums with naturally acquired TB. In addition, and unexpectedly, infected males survived on average for five weeks longer than females. This significant difference has not been previously observed in experimental trials with other TB/possum challenge models. If this is reflective of natural disease (as is the survival period produced by the percutaneous challenge model), TB infected males in the wild may be generating more secondary cases of infection than infected females. This insight has important implications for understanding the dynamics of, and managing, the disease in its New Zealand wildlife reservoir. PMID:27473982

  8. Causes and consequences of increase in child survival rates: ethnoepidemiology among the Hmong of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunstadter, P; Kunstadter, S L; Leepreecha, P; Podhisita, C; Laoyang, M; Thao, C S; Thao, R S; Yang, W S

    1992-12-01

    The Hmong "hill tribe" minority in Thailand has much higher exposure to factors usually associated with risk of child mortality (high fertility, low status of women, low education, less use of modern medical care for births, exposure to warfare, economic and physical disruption, and poor hygienic conditions) than the rural ethnic Thai population. Nonetheless, infant mortality has declined from over 120 per 1000 to under 50 per 1000 live births among both these populations in the past 30 years. The reason for the rapid increase in child survival among the Hmong appears to be better access to and more use of modern curative and preventive medical care associated with road construction rather than major changes in social or hygienic conditions. Conventional wisdom suggests that high fertility is both a cause and a consequence of high infant and child mortality and that parents will not reduce fertility until they see that mortality has declined. Most Hmong parents recognize the decline in child mortality and attribute it to better access to modern medical care. Most Hmong parents also say that, if they were starting to have children now, they would want to have fewer children. Fear of child death is infrequently mentioned as a motive for having more children, and the perceived decline in child mortality is rarely mentioned as a reason for reduced fertility. Most Hmong parents explain their desired family size in terms of economic conditions rather than perceived risk of child mortality. Results of this study suggest that fertility and child mortality can vary independently of one another and that major reductions in child mortality can be accomplished without waiting for major social changes (e.g., improved education or status of women) or major reductions in fertility.

  9. A cure rate survival model under a hybrid latent activation scheme.

    PubMed

    Borges, Patrick; Rodrigues, Josemar; Louzada, Francisco; Balakrishnan, Narayanaswamy

    2016-04-01

    In lifetimes studies, the occurrence of an event (such as tumor detection or death) might be caused by one of many competing causes. Moreover, both the number of causes and the time-to-event associated with each cause are not usually observable. The number of causes can be zero, corresponding to a cure fraction. In this article, we propose a method of estimating the numerical characteristics of unobservable stages (such as initiation, promotion and progression) of carcinogenesis from data on tumor size at detection in the presence of latent competing causes. To this end, a general survival model for spontaneous carcinogenesis under a hybrid latent activation scheme has been developed to allow for a simple pattern of the dynamics of tumor growth. It is assumed that a tumor becomes detectable when its size attains some threshold level (proliferation of tumorais cells (or descendants) generated by the malignant cell), which is treated as a random variable. We assume the number of initiated cells and the number of malignant cells (competing causes) both to follow weighted Poisson distributions. The advantage of this model is that it incorporates into the analysis characteristics of the stage of tumor progression as well as the proportion of initiated cells that had been 'promoted' to the malignant ones and the proportion of malignant cells that die before tumor induction. The lifetimes corresponding to each competing cause are assumed to follow a Weibull distribution. Parameter estimation of the proposed model is discussed through the maximum likelihood estimation method. A simulation study has been carried out in order to examine the coverage probabilities of the confidence intervals. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the proposed model by applying it to a real data involving malignant melanoma.

  10. Survival rate of sealed, refurbished and repaired defective restorations: 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Eduardo M; Martin, Javier A; Angel, Pablo A; Mjör, Ivar A; Gordan, Valeria V; Moncada, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    The most common treatment in general dental practice is the replacement of restorations affected by secondary caries or marginal deficiencies. Alternative treatments to replacement of defective restorations, such as marginal sealing, refurbishment and repair, have demonstrated improvement of their clinical properties with minimal intervention. The aim of this clinical study was to estimate the median survival time (MST) of marginal sealing, repair and refurbishment of amalgam and resin-based composite restorations with localized defects as a treatment to increase the restoration longevity. A cohort of 66 patients, with 271 class I and II restorations clinically diagnosed with localized defects was longitudinally assessed. Each restoration was assigned to one of the following 5 groups: Marginal Sealing (n=48), Refurbishment (n=73), Repair (n=27), Replacement (n=42), and Untreated (n=81). Two calibrated examiners assessed the restorations at baseline and annually during 4 years, using the modified Ryge criteria: marginal adaptation, anatomic form, roughness, secondary caries and luster. Fifty-two patients with 208 restorations were assessed after 4 years; the distribution of restorations in the groups was as follows: Marginal Sealing (n=36), Refurbishment (n=63), Repair (n=21), Replacement (n=28) and Untreated (n=60). Kaplan Meier test indicated that the Sealed margins group showed the lowest MST while the Repair group showed the highest MST for restorations examined after 4 years of follow up. Defective amalgam and resin-based composite restorations treated by sealing of marginal gaps, refurbishment of anatomic form, luster or roughness, and repair of secondary caries lesions, had their longevity increased.

  11. Causes and consequences of increase in child survival rates: ethnoepidemiology among the Hmong of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunstadter, P; Kunstadter, S L; Leepreecha, P; Podhisita, C; Laoyang, M; Thao, C S; Thao, R S; Yang, W S

    1992-12-01

    The Hmong "hill tribe" minority in Thailand has much higher exposure to factors usually associated with risk of child mortality (high fertility, low status of women, low education, less use of modern medical care for births, exposure to warfare, economic and physical disruption, and poor hygienic conditions) than the rural ethnic Thai population. Nonetheless, infant mortality has declined from over 120 per 1000 to under 50 per 1000 live births among both these populations in the past 30 years. The reason for the rapid increase in child survival among the Hmong appears to be better access to and more use of modern curative and preventive medical care associated with road construction rather than major changes in social or hygienic conditions. Conventional wisdom suggests that high fertility is both a cause and a consequence of high infant and child mortality and that parents will not reduce fertility until they see that mortality has declined. Most Hmong parents recognize the decline in child mortality and attribute it to better access to modern medical care. Most Hmong parents also say that, if they were starting to have children now, they would want to have fewer children. Fear of child death is infrequently mentioned as a motive for having more children, and the perceived decline in child mortality is rarely mentioned as a reason for reduced fertility. Most Hmong parents explain their desired family size in terms of economic conditions rather than perceived risk of child mortality. Results of this study suggest that fertility and child mortality can vary independently of one another and that major reductions in child mortality can be accomplished without waiting for major social changes (e.g., improved education or status of women) or major reductions in fertility. PMID:1427741

  12. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Hakan; Oguz, Basak; Ocak Serin, Sibel; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Gunaldi, Meral; Erismis, Betul; Ozdemir, Bahar; Tural, Deniz; Hursitoglu, Mehmet; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI), survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients' hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p = 0.230). The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.). Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor. PMID:27418926

  13. Survival Rate and Hematological Responses with Temperature Changes of Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Kim, Kyong Min; Son, Maeng Hyun; Park, Jae Min; Kang, Hee Woong

    2016-06-01

    The effect of sudden changes of water temperature (WT) on the survival rate and physiological responses of the red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) were examined by manipulating WT control system for 9 days. Experimental condition was divided in two different regimes at low (from 10°C to 4°C, decreased 1℃/d) and high (from 28°C to 34°C, increased 1°C/d) WT. Survival rate of experimental fishes were observed, and determined the changes of hematological characteristics by analyzing plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, total protein, and electrolytes (Na(+), Cl-, K(+)). No mortality was observed until low WT 6°C (144 h) and high WT 32°C (96 h), and 100% mortality was observed at low WT 4°C (216 h) and high WT 35°C (171 h). Plasma levels of cortisol and glucose increased rapidly as decreasing WT, and the loss of swimming ability and respiration response was observed at low WT 7°C and high WT 34°C conditions. PMID:27660825

  14. Survival Rate and Hematological Responses with Temperature Changes of Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Kim, Kyong Min; Son, Maeng Hyun; Park, Jae Min; Kang, Hee Woong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sudden changes of water temperature (WT) on the survival rate and physiological responses of the red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) were examined by manipulating WT control system for 9 days. Experimental condition was divided in two different regimes at low (from 10°C to 4°C, decreased 1℃/d) and high (from 28°C to 34°C, increased 1°C/d) WT. Survival rate of experimental fishes were observed, and determined the changes of hematological characteristics by analyzing plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, total protein, and electrolytes (Na+, Cl–, K+). No mortality was observed until low WT 6°C (144 h) and high WT 32°C (96 h), and 100% mortality was observed at low WT 4°C (216 h) and high WT 35°C (171 h). Plasma levels of cortisol and glucose increased rapidly as decreasing WT, and the loss of swimming ability and respiration response was observed at low WT 7°C and high WT 34°C conditions.

  15. IMPLANTS INSERTED IN POST EXTRACTIVE SOCKETS HAVE SURVIVAL RATES SIMILAR TO FIXTURES INSERTED IN HEALED BONE: A CASE SERIES STUDY.

    PubMed

    Corradini, G; Delle Donne, U; Boni, W; Tettamanti, L; Tagliabue, A

    2015-01-01

    Post-extractive implants (i.e. PEIs) are widely used to reduce surgical steps and improve patient compliance. The aim of this study is to perform a retrospective study on 2,273 PEIs to evaluate their survival rate. In the period between January 2008 and December 2013, 877 patients (498 females and 379 males) were operated at the BDD private Practice Clinic (Milan, Italy). The mean post-surgical follow-up was 30±17 months (max – min, 84 – 1). Two thousand two hundred and seventy-three PEIs (EDIERRE Implant System SpA, Genoa, Italy) were evaluated in the present study. All patients underwent the same surgical protocol and agreed to participate in a post-operative check-up program. SPSS program was used for statistical analysis. Survival rate (SVR) was 97.7% since only 53 fixtures were lost from a total of 2,273 implants. Cross-tabulation between failures and timing of loading demonstrated a statistically significant higher risk of failures in case of immediate loading (p= 0.013). There were 26 failures out of 761 immediate loaded implants against 27 lost fixtures out of 1,485 delayed loaded implants. PEIs is a reliable procedure, however surgeons should carefully select those cases which can be immediately loaded.

  16. Survival Rate and Hematological Responses with Temperature Changes of Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Kim, Kyong Min; Son, Maeng Hyun; Park, Jae Min; Kang, Hee Woong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sudden changes of water temperature (WT) on the survival rate and physiological responses of the red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) were examined by manipulating WT control system for 9 days. Experimental condition was divided in two different regimes at low (from 10°C to 4°C, decreased 1℃/d) and high (from 28°C to 34°C, increased 1°C/d) WT. Survival rate of experimental fishes were observed, and determined the changes of hematological characteristics by analyzing plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, total protein, and electrolytes (Na+, Cl–, K+). No mortality was observed until low WT 6°C (144 h) and high WT 32°C (96 h), and 100% mortality was observed at low WT 4°C (216 h) and high WT 35°C (171 h). Plasma levels of cortisol and glucose increased rapidly as decreasing WT, and the loss of swimming ability and respiration response was observed at low WT 7°C and high WT 34°C conditions. PMID:27660825

  17. Metabolic and protein interaction sub-networks controlling the proliferation rate of cancer cells and their impact on patient survival.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Amir; Bordel, Sergio

    2013-10-24

    Cancer cells can have a broad scope of proliferation rates. Here we aim to identify the molecular mechanisms that allow some cancer cell lines to grow up to 4 times faster than other cell lines. The correlation of gene expression profiles with the growth rate in 60 different cell lines has been analyzed using several genome-scale biological networks and new algorithms. New possible regulatory feedback loops have been suggested and the known roles of several cell cycle related transcription factors have been confirmed. Over 100 growth-correlated metabolic sub-networks have been identified, suggesting a key role of simultaneous lipid synthesis and degradation in the energy supply of the cancer cells growth. Many metabolic sub-networks involved in cell line proliferation appeared also to correlate negatively with the survival expectancy of colon cancer patients.

  18. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L/sub 50/ in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD/sub 50/s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively.

  19. High event-free survival rate with minimum-dose-anthracycline treatment in childhood acute promyelocytic leukaemia: a nationwide prospective study by the Japanese Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Kinoshita, Akitoshi; Yuza, Yuki; Moritake, Hiroshi; Terui, Kiminori; Iwamoto, Shotaro; Nakayama, Hideki; Shimada, Akira; Kudo, Kazuko; Taki, Tomohiko; Yabe, Miharu; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Yuka; Koike, Kazutoshi; Ogawa, Atsushi; Kosaka, Yoshiyuki; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Taga, Takashi; Saito, Akiko M; Horibe, Keizo; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Miyachi, Hayato; Tawa, Akio; Adachi, Souichi

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of treatment using reduced cumulative doses of anthracyclines in children with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) in the Japanese Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-P05 study. All patients received two and three subsequent courses of induction and consolidation chemotherapy respectively, consisting of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), cytarabine and anthracyclines, followed by maintenance therapy with ATRA. Notably, a single administration of anthracyclines was introduced in the second induction and all consolidation therapies to minimize total doses of anthracycline. The 3-year event-free (EFS) and overall survival rates for 43 eligible children were 83·6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 68·6-91·8%] and 90·7% (95% CI: 77·1-96·4%), respectively. Although two patients died of intracranial haemorrhage or infection during induction phases, no cardiac adverse events or treatment-related deaths were observed during subsequent phases. Patients not displaying M1 marrow after the first induction therapy, or those under 5 years of age at diagnosis, showed inferior outcomes (3-year EFS rate; 33·3% (95% CI: 19·3-67·6%) and 54·6% (95% CI: 22·9-78·0%), respectively). In conclusion, a single administration of anthracycline during each consolidation phase was sufficient for treating childhood APL. In younger children, however, conventional ATRA and chemotherapy may be insufficient so that alternative therapies should be considered.

  20. Treatment of the edentulous atrophic maxilla using zygomatic implants: evaluation of survival rates over 5-10 years.

    PubMed

    Yates, J M; Brook, I M; Patel, R R; Wragg, P F; Atkins, S A; El-Awa, A; Bakri, I; Bolt, R

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational cohort study was to analyse and report the 5-10-year survival rates of endosseous zygomatic implants used in the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Forty-three consecutive zygomatic implant placements in 25 patients were evaluated over a 5-10-year period. All zygomatic implant surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia. Nobel Biocare zygomatic machined-surface implants were used, and placement was undertaken using the modified sinus slot method. The main outcome measures and determinants for success were survival of the restored implants and the proportion of originally planned prostheses delivered to patients. Of the 25 patients treated, 12 were male and 13 were female; 19 were non-smokers, and the mean age at time of surgery was 64 years. Patients were treatment-planned for implant-retained bridgework, a removable prosthesis retained by fixed cast gold or milled titanium beams, or magnet-retained removable prostheses. A combination of zygomatic and conventional implants was used in all but one patient. In this study it was shown that the overall success rate for zygomatic implants was 86%, with six of the implants either failing to integrate or requiring removal due to persistent infection associated with the maxillary sinus. All patients received their planned prosthesis, although in six cases the method of retention required modification. This study illustrates that zygomatic implants are a successful and important treatment option when trying to restore the atrophic maxilla, with the potential to avoid additional augmentation/grafting procedures and resulting in a high long-term success rate. PMID:24120903

  1. Hypoglycemia: a factor associated with low survival rate of neonatal piglets infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, R; Morin, M; Fontaine, M

    1984-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to study changes in the balance of fluids, electrolytes and blood metabolites in neonatal piglets with severe transmissible gastroenteritis. Six two day old conventional piglets were infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus while six others were used as normal controls. Blood samples were collected in heparin when the infected piglets were moribund. The following variables were measured: packed red cell volume, total plasma protein and bicarbonate, blood pH, blood urea nitrogen and plasma glucose, creatinine, chloride, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Vomiting and diarrhea appeared 12 to 24 hours postinoculation in the infected piglets and they were moribund one or two days later. Before becoming moribund, most of the piglets fell rapidly into a lethargic and comatose state. The most evident changes in their blood variables were an increase in packed cell volume, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium levels and a decrease in pH and bicarbonate concentration as well as a severe hypoglycemia. The results suggest that severe hypoglycemia coupled with metabolic acidosis and dehydration might be an important factor contributing to the high mortality rates caused by transmissible gastroenteritis in neonatal piglets. The hypoglycemia results from a combination of the inadequate glucose metabolism inherent to neonatal piglets and the acute maldigestion and malabsorption resulting from the diffuse and severe villous atrophy induced by the virus. PMID:6478297

  2. Reactive oxygen species in plasma against E. coli cells survival rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ren-Wu; Zhang, Xian-Hui; Zong, Zi-Chao; Li, Jun-Xiong; Yang, Zhou-Bin; Liu, Dong-Ping; Yang, Si-Ze

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the contrastive analysis of inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution with different disinfection methods. Compared with the hydrogen peroxide solution and the ozone gas, the atmospheric-pressure He plasma can completely kill the E. coli cells in the shortest time. The inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution can be well described by using the chemical reaction rate model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the C-O or C=O content of the inactivated E. coli cell surface by plasma is predominantly increased, indicating the quantity of oxygen-containing species in plasma is more than those of two other methods, and then the C-C or C-H bonds can be broken, leading to the etching of organic compounds. Analysis also indicates that plasma-generated species can play a crucial role in the inactivation process by their direct reactions or the decompositions of reactive species, such as ozone into OH radicals in water, then reacting with E. coli cells. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2014J01025), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11275261), and the Funds from the Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, China.

  3. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Murray, A. Brad; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea-level rise rates are thought to dominate the formation and evolution of coastal wetlands. Here we demonstrate a contrasting scenario in which land-use-related changes in sediment delivery rates drive the formation of expansive marshland, and vegetation feedbacks maintain their morphology despite recent sediment supply reduction. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary (Massachusetts, United States) suggest that salt marshes expanded rapidly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to increased rates of sediment delivery following deforestation associated with European settlement. Numerical modeling coupled with the stratigraphic observations suggests that existing marshland could survive, but not form under the low suspended sediment concentrations observed in the estuary today. These results suggest that many of the expansive marshes that characterize the modern North American coast are metastable relicts of high nineteenth century sediment delivery rates, and that recent observations of degradation may represent a slow return to pre-settlement marsh extent. In contrast to ecosystem management practices in which restoring pre-anthropogenic conditions is seen as a way to increase ecosystem services, our results suggest that widespread efforts to restore valuable coastal wetlands actually prevent some systems from returning to a natural state.

  4. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation. PMID:22590639

  5. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  6. Sodium Chloride Inhibits the Growth and Infective Capacity of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus and Increases Host Survival Rates

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0–5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1–4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation. PMID:22590639

  7. Model-based estimates of annual survival rate are preferable to observed maximum lifespan statistics for use in comparative life-history studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longevity are available for many animals, and are commonly used in comparative life-history analyses. We suggest that annual survival rate is more appropriate life history parameter for most comparative life history analyses. Observed maximum longevities were not correlated with the annual survival rate estimates and appear to be unstable over time. We recommend that observed maximum lifespans not be used in life history analyses.

  8. A clinician's 3-year experience with perioscopy.

    PubMed

    Stambaugh, Roger V

    2002-11-01

    A medical endoscope has been modified for assisting the clinician in subgingival scaling and root planing. The dental endoscope provides real-time indirect visualization of the root surface for aiding the removal of root deposits and biofilm. When the majority of biofilm and visible calculus is removed from the root surface in a periodontal pocket, the pocket will most often close, resulting in a shallow sulcus. Many lesions on single-rooted teeth can be treated successfully with this technique, resulting in a significant reduction in probable pocket depth and a gain in the calibrated attachment level. Other sites, such as furcations and maxillary first bicuspids, may demonstrate significant improvement but not complete resolution of these parameters. Perioscopy is scaling and root planing aided by indirect vision with an endoscope. This technique can offer many patients an alternative to periodontal surgery in carefully selected sites. This article describes the clinical rationale for perioscopy, defines those sites that most predictably will respond to this mode of therapy, and offers some guidelines on integrating this technology into the dental practice. The observations and recommendations in this article are based on the author's 3-year experience with the dental endoscope in his periodontal practice, the experience of other periodontists and dental hygienists, and published reports. PMID:12789986

  9. A clinician's 3-year experience with perioscopy.

    PubMed

    Stambaugh, Roger V

    2002-11-01

    A medical endoscope has been modified for assisting the clinician in subgingival scaling and root planing. The dental endoscope provides real-time indirect visualization of the root surface for aiding the removal of root deposits and biofilm. When the majority of biofilm and visible calculus is removed from the root surface in a periodontal pocket, the pocket will most often close, resulting in a shallow sulcus. Many lesions on single-rooted teeth can be treated successfully with this technique, resulting in a significant reduction in probable pocket depth and a gain in the calibrated attachment level. Other sites, such as furcations and maxillary first bicuspids, may demonstrate significant improvement but not complete resolution of these parameters. Perioscopy is scaling and root planing aided by indirect vision with an endoscope. This technique can offer many patients an alternative to periodontal surgery in carefully selected sites. This article describes the clinical rationale for perioscopy, defines those sites that most predictably will respond to this mode of therapy, and offers some guidelines on integrating this technology into the dental practice. The observations and recommendations in this article are based on the author's 3-year experience with the dental endoscope in his periodontal practice, the experience of other periodontists and dental hygienists, and published reports.

  10. Clopidogrel use After Myocardial Revascularization: Prevalence, Predictors, and One-Year Survival Rate

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Paulo Roberto L.; Williams, Judson B.; Mehta, Rajendra H.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Thomas, Laine; Smith, Peter K.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Alexander, John H.; Lopes, Renato D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) has been used. Little is known about the predictors and efficacy of clopidogrel in this scenario. Objective Identify predictors of clopidogrel following CABG. Methods We evaluated 5404 patients who underwent CABG between 2000 and 2009 at Duke University Medical Center. We excluded patients undergoing concomitant valve surgery, those who had postoperative bleeding or death before discharge. Postoperative clopidogrel was left to the discretion of the attending physician. Adjusted risk for 1-year mortality was compared between patients receiving and not receiving clopidogrel during hospitalization after undergoing CABG. Results At hospital discharge, 931 (17.2%) patients were receiving clopidogrel. Comparing patients not receiving clopidogrel at discharge, users had more comorbidities, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease and cerebrovascular disease. Patients who received aspirin during hospitalization were less likely to receive clopidogrel at discharge (P≤0.0001). Clopidogrel was associated with similar 1-year mortality compared with those who did not use clopidogrel (4.4% vs. 4.5%, P=0.72). There was, however, an interaction between the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and clopidogrel, with lower 1-year mortality in patients undergoing off-pump CABG who received clopidogrel, but not those undergoing conventional CABG (2.6% vs 5.6%, P Interaction = 0.032). Conclusion Clopidogrel was used in nearly one-fifth of patients after CABG. Its use was not associated with lower mortality after 1 year in general, but lower mortality rate in those undergoing off-pump CABG. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the benefit of routine use of clopidogrel in CABG. PMID:27556308

  11. Effect of Clearcutting Operations on the Survival Rate of a Small Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Martín A. H.; Uribe, Sandra V.; Chiappe, Romina; Estades, Cristián F.

    2015-01-01

    Clearcutting is a common timber harvesting technique that represents a significant and abrupt change in habitat conditions for wildlife living in industrial forests. Most research on this type of impact has focused on comparing populations or communities in mature forests/plantations and the resulting clearcut stands. However, this approach does not separate the effect of changes in habitat attributes from direct mortality produced by the intensive use of heavy machinery required for cutting down trees and dragging them to a road. Because knowing the fate of individuals after a disturbance is important for modelling landscape-scale population dynamics in industrial forests, we conducted a study in South-Central Chile to understand the short-term response to clearcutting operations of the long-haired Akodont (Abrothrix longipillis), a forest specialist mouse. Between 2009 and 2013 we radiotracked a total of 51 adult male Akodonts, before, during and after the clearcutting of the pine plantations in which they lived. A minimum of 52.4% of the individuals died as a direct cause of the timbering operations, being crushed by vehicles or logs during logging operations. Our observations suggest that, instead of fleeing the area, the response of long-haired Akodonts to the approaching machinery is to hide under the forest litter or in burrows, which exposes them to a serious risk of death. The real mortality rate associated to clearcutting may be higher than that estimated by us because of some methodological biases (i.e. individuals with crushed radiotransmitters not recorded) and the fact that additional mortality sources may affect the population in the weeks following logging operations (e.g. higher exposure to predation, effects of site preparation for the new plantation, etc). PMID:25748217

  12. Inverted teats (Mammillae invertitae) in gilts - effect on piglet survival and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, H; Ekman, E; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Jacobson, M

    2014-06-01

    In the modern pig industry, the increasing number of piglets born per litter augments the importance of the number of functional teats in the sow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and importance of inverted teats during nursing and to analyze structural and functional differences between the mammary glands of inverted teats versus normal teats. Nine farrowing gilts (8 purebred Swedish Yorkshire gilts and 1 cross between Swedish Yorkshire and Norwegian Landrace) and 94 piglets (59 piglets suckling normal teats, 32 piglets suckling protruded teats [i.e., previously inverted], 2 piglets suckling inverted teats, and 3 piglets suckling considerably smaller teats) were included in the study. Teat fidelity (keeping the same teat between the nursings) was registered, excluding the first 48 h postpartum. Piglet weight was recorded daily during the first week of life and thereafter once a week until weaning at 4 wk of age. Weight and growth rate were analyzed using repeated observation mixed-model analysis of variance. The 2 piglets that suckled the inverted teats were not able to emerge the teats and they were euthanized 4 and 8 d after birth, respectively, due to loss of BW. The average weight at weaning (28 d of age) was 8.1 kg (range 3.2-13.8 kg). In the normal teats (n = 53), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue at necropsy was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.33, P < 0.05), 3 (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), and 4 (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). In the protruded teats (n = 32), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.63, P < 0.001) and 3 (r = 0.43, P < 0.05). Among the piglets nursing normal teats, 82% kept fidelity to its teat and the corresponding percent for the protruded teats was 26%. In 7 of the 9 sows, the weaning weight of the piglets suckling protruded teats was numerically lower compared to the

  13. Enhanced cardiac TBC1D10C expression lowers heart rate and enhances exercise capacity and survival

    PubMed Central

    Volland, Cornelia; Bremer, Sebastian; Hellenkamp, Kristian; Hartmann, Nico; Dybkova, Nataliya; Khadjeh, Sara; Kutschenko, Anna; Liebetanz, David; Wagner, Stefan; Unsöld, Bernhard; Didié, Michael; Toischer, Karl; Sossalla, Samuel; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Seidler, Tim

    2016-01-01

    TBC1D10C is a protein previously demonstrated to bind and inhibit Ras and Calcineurin. In cardiomyocytes, also CaMKII is inhibited and all three targeted enzymes are known to promote maladaptive cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Here, in accordance with lack of Calcineurin inhibition in vivo, we did not observe a relevant anti-hypertrophic effect despite inhibition of Ras and CaMKII. However, cardiomyocyte-specific TBC1D10C overexpressing transgenic mice exhibited enhanced longevity. Ejection fraction and exercise capacity were enhanced in transgenic mice, but shortening of isolated cardiomyocytes was not increased. This suggests longevity resulted from enhanced cardiac performance but independent of cardiomyocyte contractile force. In further search for mechanisms, a transcriptome-wide analysis revealed expressional changes in several genes pertinent to control of heart rate (HR) including Hcn4, Scn10a, Sema3a and Cacna2d2. Indeed, telemetric holter recordings demonstrated slower atrial conduction and significantly lower HR. Pharmacological reduction of HR was previously demonstrated to enhance survival in mice. Thus, in addition to inhibition of stress signaling, TBC1D10C economizes generation of cardiac output via HR reduction, enhancing exercise capacity and survival. TBC1D10C may be a new target for HR reduction and longevity. PMID:27667030

  14. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Larabee, Fredrick J.; Suarez, Andrew V.

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation) has been co-opted for another (defense). PMID:25970637

  15. Factors relating to poor survival rates of aged cervical cancer patients: a population-based study with the relative survival model in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    Poor survival of older cervical cancer patients has been reported; however, related factors, such as the extent of disease and the competitive risk by aging have not been well evaluated. We applied the relative survival model developed by Dickman et al to resolve this issue. Study subjects were cervical cancer patients retrieved from the Osaka Cancer Registry. They were limited to the 10,048 reported cases diagnosed from 1975 to 1999, based on the quality of data collection on vital status. Age at diagnosis was categorized into <30, 30-54, 55-64, and > or = 65 years. The impact of prognostic factors on 5-year survival was evaluated with the relative survival model, incorporating patients' expected survival in multivariate analysis. The age-specific relative excess risk (RER) of death was significantly higher for older groups as compared with women aged 30-54 years (RER, 1.58 at 55-64 and 2.51 at > or = 65 years). The RER was decreased by 64.8% among the 55-64 year olds as an effect of cancer stage at diagnosis, and by 43.4% among those 65 years old and over. After adding adjustment for treatment modalities, the RER was no longer significantly higher among 55-64 year olds; however, it was still higher among 65 year olds and over. Advanced stage at diagnosis was the main determinant of poor survival among the aged cervical cancer patients, although other factors such as limitations on the combination of treatment were also suggested to have an influence in those aged 65 years and over.

  16. Long Cut Straw Provides Stable the Rates of Survival, Pregnancy and Live Birth for Vitrification of Human Blasotcysts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Woo; Cha, Jeong-Ho; Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Seul-Ki; Cha, Hye-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hae; Ahn, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye-Young; Pak, Kyung-Ah; Yoon, Ji-Sung; Park, Seo-Young; Park, Choon-keun

    2016-01-01

    Most of the commercial devices for vitrification are directly immersed into the warming solution (WS) for increasing of warming rate. However, the previous modified cut standard straw (MCS) which has reported is difficult to immerse into the WS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long cut straw (LCS) could be useful as a stable tool for vitrified-warmed human blastocysts. A total of 138 vitrified-warmed cycles were performed between November 2013 and November 2014 (exclusion criteria: women ≥38 years old, poor responder, surgical retrieval sperm, and severe male factor). The artificial shrinkage was conducted using 29-gauge needles. Ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (7.5% and 15% (v/v)) were used as cryoprotectants. Freezing and warming were conducted using the LCS tool. The cap of LCS was removed using the forceps in the liquid nitrogen (LN2) and then directly immersed into the first WS for 1 min at 37℃ (1 M sucrose). Only re-expanded blastocysts were transferred after it was cultured in sequential media for 18-20 h. A total of 294 blastocysts were warmed, and all were recovered (100%). Two hundred eighty-five embryos were survived (96.9%). The vitrifiedwarmed blastocysts of all patients were transferred without any cancellation. We were able to achieve a reasonable implantation (24.2%), following by clinical pregnancy (36.2%), which then continued to ongoing pregnancy (36.2%), and live birth (31.2%). Using LCS is achieved the acceptable rates of survival, pregnancy and live birth. Therefore, the LCS could be considered as a stable and simple tool for human embryo vitrificaton. PMID:27796003

  17. Effect of Warming Rate on the Survival of Vitrified Mouse Oocytes and on the Recrystallization of Intracellular Ice1

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Successful cryopreservation demands there be little or no intracellular ice. One procedure is classical slow equilibrium freezing, and it has been successful in many cases. However, for some important cell types, including some mammalian oocytes, it has not. For the latter, there are increasing attempts to cryopreserve them by vitrification. However, even if intracellular ice formation (IIF) is prevented during cooling, it can still occur during the warming of a vitrified sample. Here, we examine two aspects of this occurrence in mouse oocytes. One took place in oocytes that were partly dehydrated by an initial hold for 12 min at −25°C. They were then cooled rapidly to −70°C and warmed slowly, or they were warmed rapidly to intermediate temperatures and held. These oocytes underwent no IIF during cooling but blackened from IIF during warming. The blackening rate increased about 5-fold for each five-degree rise in temperature. Upon thawing, they were dead. The second aspect involved oocytes that had been vitrified by cooling to −196°C while suspended in a concentrated solution of cryoprotectants and warmed at rates ranging from 140°C/min to 3300°C/min. Survivals after warming at 140°C/min and 250°C/min were low (<30%). Survivals after warming at ≥2200°C/min were high (80%). When warmed slowly, they were killed, apparently by the recrystallization of previously formed small internal ice crystals. The similarities and differences in the consequences of the two types of freezing are discussed. PMID:18562703

  18. Polymorphism at the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor locus: associations with birth weight, growth rate, carcass composition and cold survival.

    PubMed

    Forrest, R H; Hickford, J G H; Hogan, A; Frampton, C

    2003-02-01

    The beta3-adrenergic receptors (ADRB3s) are predominantly found on the surface of adipocytes and are the major mediators of the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of high catecholamine concentrations. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of part of the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) intron was used to screen 12 large Merino half-sib families for sequence variation. Six different alleles that segregated in a Mendelian fashion were observed. The genetic basis for the allelic differences were identified by sequencing the ADRB3 (coding and non-coding regions) from animals that were homozygous for each of the alleles. Five sire lines (two Merino x Merino, two Merino x Coopworth, one Dorset Down x Coopworth) provided phenotypic and genotypic data used to ascertain the effects of allelic variation at the ADRB3 locus on birth weight, weaning weight, growth rate (up until weaning), carcass composition at 63 days post-weaning and cold survival. Statistical analyses within each half-sib family showed that in some sire lines (S13, S15, and S17) the inheritance of a particular allele was associated with increased birth weights and/or increased growth rates up until weaning. The inheritance of a particular sire allele was associated with fatter carcasses in sire line S16. Chi-squared analysis revealed the association of the E allele with cold survival and the D allele with cold-related mortality in sire line S14. Such associations support the hypothesis that ADRB3s are involved in energy homeostasis. With more research, the variation detected at the ADRB3 locus may assist in the genetic selection for desirable animal production traits.

  19. Novel brachytherapy treatment planning system utilizing dose rate dependent average cell survival, CT-simulator, and dose-volume histogram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, R.; Fong, W.; Frankel, T.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes a new brachytherapy planning program that provides an evaluation of a given low or high dose rate treatment taking into account spatial dose heterogeneity and cell response to radiation. This brachytherapy scheme uses the images from a CT-Simulator (AcQSim, Picker International, Cleveland, Ohio) to simultaneously localize the seed positions and to axially scan the patient. This procedure helps to ensure accurate registration of the putative seed positions with the patient tissues and organs. The seed positions are determined by back-projecting positions of seeds or dummy seeds from the CT-Simulator setup scout images. Physicians delineate the tissues of interest on the axial slices. Dose is computed after assigning activity (low dose rate) of dwell times (high dose rate) to the Ir{sup 192} or I{sup 125} seed. The planar isodose distribution is superimposed onto axial cuts of the tissues and onto coronal or sagital views of the tissues following image reconstruction. Areal or volumetric calculations of the dose distribution within a given tissue are computed from the tissue outlines. The treatment plan computes (1) volume differential and cummulative dose histograms of the dose delivered to individual tissues, (2) the average, standard deviation, and coefficient of skewness of the dose distribution delivered to the individual tissues, (3) the average survival probability for a given radiation treatment.

  20. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort Methods This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. Results After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). Conclusion In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better

  1. Population-based study of ovarian cancer in Côte d'Or: prognostic factors and trends in relative survival rates over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess independent prognostic factors in ovarian cancer using relative survival (RS) and to investigate changes in RS rates from 1982 to 2005. Methods Data on 748 patients with ovarian cancer were provided by the Côte d'Or gynaecologic cancer registry. The RS was estimated using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error structure. Relative survival and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were described at the following specific time points 1, 3 and 5 years. The effect of prognostic factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses of RS. Results The median follow-up was 12 years. The RS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 81%, 55% and 44%, respectively. As compared with the period 1982-1989, an improvement in survival was found for the period 1998-2005: HR = 0.52[0.40-0.67]. Women who lived in urban areas had better RS: HR = 0.82[0.67-0.99]. Patients with epithelial types of ovarian cancer other than mucinous or endometrioid cancer had worse RS than those with serous histology. Age ≥ 70 years was associated with lower survival. Conclusions Period of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, histology, place of residence and age were independent prognostic factors for survival in ovarian cancer. An improvement in the survival rate was observed after 1998 but a significant improvement was limited to advanced stage cancers. PMID:21067600

  2. Extralevator Abdominoperineal Excision for Low Rectal Cancer—Extensive Surgery to Be Used With Discretion Based on 3-Year Local Recurrence Results

    PubMed Central

    Prytz, Mattias; Angenete, Eva; Bock, David; Haglind, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this prospective registry-based population study was to investigate the efficacy of extralevator abdominoperineal excision (ELAPE) regarding local recurrence rates within 3 years after surgery. Background: Local recurrence of rectal cancer is more common after abdominoperineal excision (APE) than after anterior resection. Extralevator abdominoperineal excision was introduced to address this problem. No large-scale studies with long-term oncological outcomes have been published. Methods: All Swedish patients operated on with an APE and registered in the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry 2007 to 2009 were included (n = 1397) and analyzed with emphasis on the perineal part of the operation. Local recurrence at 3 years was collected from the registry. Results: The local recurrence rates at 3 years [median follow-up, 3.43 years (APE, 3.37 years; ELAPE, 3.41 years; not stated: 3.43 years)] were significantly higher for ELAPE compared with APE (relative risk, 4.91). Perioperative perforation was also associated with an increased risk of local recurrence (relative risk, 3.62). There was no difference in 3-year overall survival between APE and ELAPE. In the subgroup of patients with very low tumors (≤4 cm from the anal verge), no significant difference in the local recurrence rate could be observed. Conclusions: Extralevator abdominoperineal excision results in a significantly increased 3-year local recurrence rate as compared with standard APE. Intraoperative perforation seems to be an important risk factor for local recurrence. In addition to significantly increased 3-year local recurrence rates, the significantly increased incidence of wound complications leads to the conclusion that ELAPE should only be considered in selected patients at risk of intraoperative perforation. PMID:25906414

  3. Daily survival rate for nests and chicks of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) at natural nest sites in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2013-01-01

    Although a species of conservation concern, little is known about the reproductive success of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of natural beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests and chicks was examined at four natural nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, 2009–2010. Measures of nest success (n = 257 nests) ranged from 0–93% among colony sites. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, but year and estimates of predation risk also were related to DSR. Predation was the principal cause of identifiable nest loss, accounting for 47% of nest failures when the two years of data were pooled. The probability (± SE) of a chick surviving from hatching to fledging = 0.449 ± 0.01 (n = 92 chicks). DSR of chicks was negatively related to tide height and rainfall. Therefore, productivity of Least Terns is being lost during both the nesting and chick stage through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors that may prove difficult to fully mitigate or manage. Although natural nesting sites within Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge intermittently produce successful nests, the consistency of productivity over the long term is still unknown. Given that the long term availability of anthropogenic nest sites (e.g., rooftops, dredge-spoil islands) for Least Terns is questionable, further research is required both locally and throughout the region to assess the extent to which natural sites act as population sources or sinks.

  4. Conditional Survival of All Primary Brain Tumor Patients by Age, Behavior, and Histology

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Kimberly R.; McCarthy, Bridget J.; Berbaum, Michael L.; Davis, Faith G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Survival statistics commonly reflect survival from the time of diagnosis but do not take into account survival already achieved after a diagnosis. The objective of this study was to provide conditional survival estimates for brain tumor patients as a more accurate measure of survival for those who have already survived for a specified amount of time after diagnosis. Methods Data on primary malignant and nonmalignant brain tumor cases diagnosed from 1985–2005 from selected SEER state cancer registries were obtained. Relative survival up to 15 years postdiagnosis and varying relative conditional survival rates were computed using the life-table method. Results The overall 1-year relative survival estimate derived from time of diagnosis was 67.8% compared to the 6-month relative conditional survival rate of 85.7% for 6-month survivors (the probability of surviving to 1 year given survival to 6 months). The 10-year overall relative survival rate was 49.5% from time of diagnosis compared to the 8-year relative conditional survival rate of 79.2% for 2-year survivors. Conditional survival estimates and standard survival estimates varied by histology, behavior, and age at diagnosis. The 5-year relative survival estimate derived from time of diagnosis for glioblastoma was 3.6% compared to the 3-year relative conditional survival rate of 36.4% for 2-year survivors. For most nonmalignant tumors, the difference between relative survival and the corresponding conditional survival estimates were minimal. Older age groups had greater numeric gains in survival but lower conditional survival estimates than other age groups. Similar findings were seen for other conditional survival intervals. Conclusions Conditional survival is a useful disease surveillance measure for clinicians and brain tumor survivors to provide them with better ‘real-time’ estimates and hope. PMID:21677447

  5. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  6. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  7. Effects of hydroperiod duration on survival, developmental rate, and size at metamorphosis in boreal chorus frog tadpoles (Pseudacris maculata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amburgey, Staci; Funk, W. Chris; Murphy, Melanie; Muths, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between climate-driven habitat conditions and survival is key to preserving biodiversity in the face of rapid climate change. Hydroperiod—the length of time water is in a wetland—is a critical limiting habitat variable for amphibians as larvae must metamorphose before ponds dry. Changes in precipitation and temperature patterns are affecting hydroperiod globally, but the impact of these changes on amphibian persistence is poorly understood. We studied the responses of Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., water level reductions) in the laboratory using individuals collected from ponds spanning a range of natural hydroperiods (Colorado Front Range, USA). To assess the effects of experimental hydroperiod reduction, we measured mortality, time to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. We found that tadpoles grew at rates reflecting the hydroperiods of their native ponds, regardless of experimental treatment. Tadpoles from permanent ponds metamorphosed faster than those from ephemeral ponds across all experimental treatments, a pattern which may represent a predation selection gradient or countergradient variation in developmental rates. Size at metamorphosis did not vary across experimental treatments. Mortality was low overall but varied with pond of origin. Our results suggest that adaptation to local hydroperiod and/or predation and temperature conditions is important in P. maculata. Moreover, the lack of a plastic response to reduced hydroperiods suggests that P. maculata may not be able to metamorphose quickly enough to escape drying ponds. These results have important implications for amphibian persistence in ponds predicted to dry more quickly due to rapid climate change.

  8. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations.

  9. Active Smoking May Negatively Affect Response Rate, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival of Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Keizman, Daniel; Gottfried, Maya; Ish-Shalom, Maya; Maimon, Natalie; Peer, Avivit; Neumann, Avivit; Hammers, Hans; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Sinibaldi, Victoria; Pili, Roberto; Hayat, Henry; Kovel, Svetlana; Sella, Avishay; Boursi, Ben; Weitzen, Rony; Mermershtain, Wilmosh; Rouvinov, Keren; Berger, Raanan; Carducci, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes are risk factors for renal cell carcinoma development. Their presence has been associated with a worse outcome in various cancers. We sought to determine their association with outcome of sunitinib treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Methods. An international multicenter retrospective study of sunitinib-treated mRCC patients was performed. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between outcome and the pretreatment status of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and other known prognostic factors. Results. Between 2004 and 2013, 278 mRCC patients were treated with sunitinib: 59 were active smokers, 67 were obese, 73 were diabetic, and 165 had pretreatment hypertension. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9 months, and overall survival (OS) was 22 months. Factors associated with PFS were smoking status (past and active smokers: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.17, p = .39; never smokers: HR: 2.94, p < .0001), non-clear cell histology (HR: 1.62, p = .011), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 3.51, p < .0001), use of angiotensin system inhibitors (HR: 0.63, p = .01), sunitinib dose reduction or treatment interruption (HR: 0.72, p = .045), and Heng risk (good and intermediate risk: HR: 1.07, p = .77; poor risk: HR: 1.87, p = .046). Factors associated with OS were smoking status (past and active smokers: HR: 1.25, p = .29; never smokers: HR: 2.7, p < .0001), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 2.95, p < .0001), and sunitinib-induced hypertension (HR: 0.57, p = .002). Conclusion. Active smoking may negatively affect the PFS and OS of sunitinib-treated mRCC. Clinicians should consider advising patients to quit smoking at initiation of sunitinib treatment for mRCC. PMID:24309979

  10. The effects of ambient temperature and mixing time of glass ionomer cement material on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    PubMed Central

    Kemoli, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Temperature fluctuations and material mixing times are likely to affect the consistency and integrity of the material mixture, and hence the restoration made out of it. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of the ambient temperature and the mixing time of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorative material on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations placed in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 804 restorations were placed in the primary molars of 6-8-year-olds using the ART approach. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years and evaluated at given intervals. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer statistical program, and the results tested and compared using the Chi-square, Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox Proportional hazard statistical tests. Results: The cumulative survival rate of the restorations dropped from the initial 94.4% to 30.8% at the end of 2 years. The higher survival rate of the restorations was associated with the experienced operators and assistants when using the rubber dam isolation method. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the restorations when related to the room temperature and the mixing time of the GIC materials used in spite of the variations in the temperature recoded and the methods used in mixing the materials. Conclusion: The ambient temperature and mixing time of GIC did not have a significant effect on the survival of the proximal ART restorations. PMID:24808692

  11. Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Kern, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    In order to minimize the forward contamination of Mars, spacecraft are assembled under clean-room conditions that often require several procedures to clean and sterilize components. Surface characteristics of spacecraft materials may contribute to microbial survival by protecting spores from sterilizing agents, including UV irradiation on the surface of Mars. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface characteristics of several spacecraft materials on the survival of Bacillus subtilis spores under simulated Martian conditions.

  12. Changes in survival rate of multiple myeloma after the introduction of bortezomib: a single institutional experience over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Manabu; Suehara, Yasuhito; Fukumoto, Kota; Takeuchi, Masami; Matsue, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    The data of factors on the changes in survival before and after the introduction of bortezomib in unselected multiple myeloma (MM) patients is scarce in Asian population. We analyzed the clinical features and treatment outcomes of 270 consecutive MM patients admitted to our hospital between January 1995 and August 2014. The patients were divided into two groups, 1995–2005 (n=106) and 2006–2014 (n=164), based on bortezomib availability. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the groups, except age and percentage of patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). The proportion of patients obtaining ≥very good partial response (VGPR) was higher in the recent cohort, which was translated as better overall survival in both younger and older patients (36.1 vs. 79.8 months, P=0.024, and 40.0 vs. 110.7 months, respectively). Patients receiving bortezomib early after diagnosis showed significantly better survival. However, there was no difference in survival between patients obtaining ≥VGPR in the two groups. On multivariate analysis, age ≥75 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) >normal were associated with shorter survival, while early bortezomib use and auto-SCT were associated with longer survival. On Cox regression analysis, International Staging System (ISS) stage III, LDH, and treatment response survival. Our observations indicated marked improvement of survival in MM patients diagnosed from 2006 to 2014 mainly due to the availability of bortezomib in Japan.

  13. Linking reproduction and survival can improve model estimates of vital rates derived from limited time-series counts of pinnipeds and other species.

    PubMed

    Battaile, Brian C; Trites, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to model the physiological link between somatic survival and reproductive output that reduces the number of parameters that need to be estimated by models designed to determine combinations of birth and death rates that produce historic counts of animal populations. We applied our Reproduction and Somatic Survival Linked (RSSL) method to the population counts of three species of North Pacific pinnipeds (harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardii (Gray, 1864); northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (L., 1758); and Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776))--and found our model outperformed traditional models when fitting vital rates to common types of limited datasets, such as those from counts of pups and adults. However, our model did not perform as well when these basic counts of animals were augmented with additional observations of ratios of juveniles to total non-pups. In this case, the failure of the ratios to improve model performance may indicate that the relationship between survival and reproduction is redefined or disassociated as populations change over time or that the ratio of juveniles to total non-pups is not a meaningful index of vital rates. Overall, our RSSL models show advantages to linking survival and reproduction within models to estimate the vital rates of pinnipeds and other species that have limited time-series of counts. PMID:24324541

  14. Effects of Some Natural Immunomodulatory Compounds in Combination with Thalidomide on Survival Rate and Tumor Size in Fibrosarcoma-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aghebati Maleki, Reza; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Sadigh Eteghad, Saeed; Zarredar, Habib; Zare Shahneh, Fatemeh; Aghebati Maleki, Leili; Samavati, Mehrnosh; Asadi, Hamed; Mosavi, Seyed Ehsan; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite significant advances have been achieved in cancer therapy, response to conventional treatments like surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy varies among individuals. Immunotherapy is known to be an effective strategy for patients who are resistant to the currently available interventions. Methods: Ninety-six male Balb/c mice (aged 6-8 weeks) were selected and divided into twelve groups of eight. Approximately, 1×106of WEHI-164 cells were injected to each mouse for tumor genesis. Five immunotherapy treatments were considered in this study, including Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), Bifidobacterium, Immuno-Modulator Drug (IMOD) and Thalidomide. After tumor formation, the groups were treated with one or more of these therapies. Tumor size and survival rate was regularly monitored. Results: Depending on the treatment group, tumor sizes were different. In some groups, combined treatments demonstrated more inhibitory effects on tumor growth rate. The mice in group (IMOD+ Thalidomide) had the lowest survival rate but group (BCG+ HSP+ Thalidomide) survived until the end of the experiment. Conclusion: The (HSP+ BCG+ Thalidomide) group exhibited satisfactory outcomes and two third of the mice in this group went into complete remission. Some combination therapies in test groups had significant impacts on survival and tumor growth rate. PMID:25364664

  15. Influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sodium, and Compound 48/80 on the survival rates after intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zi-qing, Hei; Xiao-liang, Gan; Pin-jie, Huang; Jing, Wei; Ning, Shen; Wan-ling, Gao

    2008-01-01

    Background Mast cells were associated with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, the study was to observe the influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sdium(CS), and Compound 48/80(CP) on the survival rates on the third day after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods 120 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, Sham-operated group (group S), model group (group M), group K, group C and group CP. Intestinal damage was triggered by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 75 minutes, group K, C, and CP were treated with kotifen 1 mg·kg-1, CS 50 mg·kg-1, and CP 0.75 mg·kg-1 i.v. at 5 min before reperfusion and once daily for three days following reperfusion respectively. Survival rate in each group was recorded during the three days after reperfusion. All the surviving rats were killed for determining the concentration of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(AST), glutamic pyruvic transaminase(ALT), the ratio of AST compare ALT(S/L), total protein(TP), albumin(ALB), globulin(GLB), the ratio of ALB compare GLB(A/G), phosphocreatine kinase(CK), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), urea nitrogen(BUN) and creatinine(CRE) at the 3rd day after reperfusion. And ultrastructure of IMMC, Chiu's score, lung histology, IMMC counts, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 of the small intestine were detected at the same time. Results Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury reduced the survival rate. The concentrations of TP, ALB and level of IL-10 in intestine in group M decreased significantly while the concentrations of S/L, LDH and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestine increased significantly compared with group S (P < 0.05). Treatment with Ketotifen and CS increased the survival rate compared with group M (P < 0.05), attenuated the down-regulation or up-regulation of the above index (P < 0.05). Treatment with CP decreased the survival rate on the 3rd day after reperfusion compared with group M(P < 0.05). Group K and C had better

  16. COMPLETE STEROID AVOIDANCE IS EFFECTIVE AND SAFE IN CHILDREN WITH RENAL TRANSPLANTS: A MULTICENTER RANDOMIZED TRIAL WITH 3 YEAR FOLLOW UP

    PubMed Central

    Sarwal, Minnie M.; Ettenger, Robert; Dharnidharka, Vikas; Benfield, Mark; Mathias, Robert; Portale, Anthony; McDonald, Ruth; Harmon, William; Kershaw, David; Vehaskari, V. Matti; Kamil, Elaine; Baluarte, H. Jorge; Warady, Bradley; Tang, Lily; Liu, Jun; Li, Li; Naesens, Maarten; Sigdel, Tara; Waskerwitz, Janie; Salvatierra, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether steroid avoidance in pediatric kidney transplantation is safe and efficacious, a randomized, multicenter trial was performed in 12 pediatric kidney transplant centers. One hundred thirty children receiving primary kidney transplants were randomized to steroid-free (SF) or steroid-based (SB) immunosuppression, with concomitant tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and standard dose daclizumab (SB group) or extended dose daclizumab (SF group). Follow-up was 3 years post-transplant. Standardized height Z score change after 3 years follow-up was −0.99±2.20 in SF vs. −0.93±1.11 in SB; p=0.825. In subgroup analysis, recipients under 5 years of age showed improved linear growth with SF compared to SB treatment (change in standardized height Z score at 3 years −0.43±1.15 vs. −1.07±1.14; p=0.019). There were no differences in the rates of biopsy-proven acute rejection at 3 years after transplantation (16.7% in SF vs. 17.1% in SB; p=0.94). Patient survival was 100% in both arms; graft survival was 95% in the SF and 90% in the SB arms (p=0.30) at 3 years follow-up. Over the three year follow-up period, the SF group showed lower systolic BP (p=0.017) and lower cholesterol levels (p=0.034). In conclusion, complete steroid avoidance is safe and effective in unsensitized children receiving primary kidney transplants. PMID:22694755

  17. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Migration Years 1996-1998 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, Thomas J.; Basham, Larry R.

    2000-10-01

    The Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) is a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to measure the smolt-to-adult survival rates of hatchery spring and summer chinook at major production hatcheries in the Snake River basin and at selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates for Snake River basin chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Estimates of smolt-to-adult survival rates will be made both from Lower Granite Dam back to Lower Granite Dam (upriver stocks) and from the hatchery back to the hatchery (upriver and downriver stocks). This status report covers the first three migration years, 1996 to 1998, of the study. Study fish were implanted with a PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tag which allows unique identification of individual fish. Beginning in 1997, a predetermined proportion of the PIT tagged study fish in the collection/bypass channel at the transportation sites, such as Lower Granite and Little Goose dams, was purposely routed to the raceways for transportation and the rest was routed back to the river. Two categories of in-river migrating fish are used in this study. The in-river group most representative of the non-tagged fish are fish that migrate past Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental dams undetected in the bypass systems. This is because all non-tagged fish collected at these three dams are currently being transported. The other in-river group contains those fish remaining in-river below Lower Monumental Dam that had previously been detected at one or more dams. The number of fish starting at Lower Granite dam that are destined to one of these two in-river groups must be estimated. The Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methodology was used for that purpose. Adult (including jacks) study fish returning to the hatcheries in the Snake River basin were sampled at the Lower Granite Dam adult trap. There the PIT

  18. Does the use of vaginal-implant transmitters affect neonate survival rate of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.; DePerno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Tardiff, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We compared survival of neonate white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus captured using vaginal-implant transmitters (VITs) and traditional ground searches to determine if capture method affects neonate survival. During winter 2003, 14 adult female radio-collared deer were fitted with VITs to aid in the spring capture of neonates; neonates were captured using VITs (N = 14) and traditional ground searches (N = 7). Of the VITs, seven (50%) resulted in the location of birth sites and the capture of 14 neonates. However, seven (50%) VITs were prematurely expelled prior to parturition. Predation accounted for seven neonate mortalities, and of these, five were neonates captured using VITs. During summer 2003, survival for neonates captured using VITs one. two, and three months post capture was 0.76 (SE = 0.05; N = 14). 0.64 (SE = 0.07; N = 11) and 0.64 (SE = 0.08; N = 9), respectively. Neonate survival one, two and three months post capture for neonates captured using ground searches was 0.71 (SE = 0.11 N = 7), 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5) and 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5), respectively. Although 71% of neonates that died were captured <24 hours after birth using VITs, survival did not differ between capture methods. Therefore, use of VITs to capture neonate white-tailed deer did not influence neonate survival. VITs enabled us to capture neonates in dense habitats which would have been difficult to locate using traditional ground searches. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  19. Implant survival rates, marginal bone level changes, and complications in full-mouth rehabilitation with flapless computer-guided surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Velloso, G; Luz, D; Barboza, E Porto

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review evaluated the implant survival rate, changes in marginal bone level, and complications associated with guided surgery for the treatment of fully edentulous patients followed up for longer than 1 year. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to retrieve studies published up until July 2014 that met predefined eligibility criteria. Thirteen studies were included. In studies on the guided surgery technique, a survival rate of 97.2% and a mean marginal bone loss of 1.45 mm were found during 1-4 years of follow-up. However, associated complications, such as implant loss, prosthesis or surgical guide fractures, and low primary stability, were often found, and there is a learning curve to achieve treatment success. Further longitudinal comparative studies should improve the technique and its success rate.

  20. Prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction based on gender in Isfahan, Iran (2000-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Mahdi; Hosseini, Shidokht; Salehiniya, Hamid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Khazaei, Salman; Soltani, Shahin; Sarrafkia, Ali; Golshahi, Jafar; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Determinant prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) based on gender in teen year’s period in Isfahan, Iran, was the aim of this study. METHODS This study is a prospective hospital-based study that consisted, all patients with AMI admitted to all hospitals (private and universal hospitals) in Isfahan and Najafabad (Iran) during 2000-2009. To determinant the prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients based on gender, analysis conducted separately for male and female. In analysis, we use of t-test, log Rank tests, Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS Short-term (28 days) survival rate was 92.5% in male and 86.7% in female (P < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of death for age group 80 years and older was 12.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.14-31.3] in male and 8.78 (95% CI: 1.2-63.1) in female. HR for acute transmural MI of the unspecified site in male was 8.9 (95% CI: 4.68-16.97) and in female 9.33 (95% CI: 4.42-19.7). HR for receive of streptokinase in male was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.94-1.31) and in female was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.84). CONCLUSION Short-term survival rate in male was a higher than female. In male age, anatomic location of MI and hospital status and in female streptokinase use and anatomic location of MI was the most important prognostic factors of survival in-patient with AMI in Isfahan. PMID:26862341

  1. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles reduce the survival rate of osteocytes in bone-tendon constructs without affecting the mechanical properties of tendons.

    PubMed

    Suto, Kaori; Urabe, Ken; Naruse, Kouji; Uchida, Kentaro; Matsuura, Terumasa; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Nemoto, Noriko; Kamiya, Kentaro; Itoman, Moritoshi

    2012-03-01

    Frozen bone-patellar tendon bone allografts are useful in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as the freezing procedure kills tissue cells, thereby reducing immunogenicity of the grafts. However, a small portion of cells in human femoral heads treated by standard bone-bank freezing procedures survive, thus limiting the effectiveness of allografts. Here, we characterized the survival rates and mechanisms of cells isolated from rat bones and tendons that were subjected to freeze-thaw treatments, and evaluated the influence of these treatments on the mechanical properties of tendons. After a single freeze-thaw cycle, most cells isolated from frozen bone appeared morphologically as osteocytes and expressed both osteoblast- and osteocyte-related genes. Transmission electron microscopic observation of frozen cells using freeze-substitution revealed that a small number of osteocytes maintained large nuclei with intact double membranes, indicating that these osteocytes in bone matrix were resistant to ice crystal formation. We found that tendon cells were completely killed by a single freeze-thaw cycle, whereas bone cells exhibited a relatively high survival rate, although survival was significantly reduced after three freeze-thaw cycles. In patella tendons, the ultimate stress, Young's modulus, and strain at failure showed no significant differences between untreated tendons and those subjected to five freeze-thaw cycles. In conclusion, we identified that cells surviving after freeze-thaw treatment of rat bones were predominantly osteocytes. We propose that repeated freeze-thaw cycles could be applied for processing bone-tendon constructs prior to grafting as the treatment did not affect the mechanical property of tendons and drastically reduced surviving osteocytes, thereby potentially decreasing allograft immunogenecity.

  2. Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old Print A A A ... 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms) and grow about 2 to 3 inches (5 to 8 centimeters). They' ...

  3. Lowering GTP level increases survival of amino acid starvation but slows growth rate for Bacillus subtilis cells lacking (p)ppGpp.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Alycia N; Kriel, Allison; Wang, Jue D

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial cells sense external nutrient availability to regulate macromolecular synthesis and consequently their growth. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the starvation-inducible nucleotide (p)ppGpp negatively regulates GTP levels, both to resist nutritional stress and to maintain GTP homeostasis during growth. Here, we quantitatively investigated the relationship between GTP level, survival of amino acid starvation, and growth rate when GTP synthesis is uncoupled from its major homeostatic regulator, (p)ppGpp. We analyzed growth and nucleotide levels in cells that lack (p)ppGpp and found that their survival of treatment with a nonfunctional amino acid analog negatively correlates with both growth rate and GTP level. Manipulation of GTP levels modulates the exponential growth rate of these cells in a positive dose-dependent manner, such that increasing the GTP level increases growth rate. However, accumulation of GTP levels above a threshold inhibits growth, suggesting a toxic effect. Strikingly, adenine counteracts GTP stress by preventing GTP accumulation in cells lacking (p)ppGpp. Our results emphasize the importance of maintaining appropriate levels of GTP to maximize growth: cells can survive amino acid starvation by decreasing GTP level, which comes at a cost to growth, while (p)ppGpp enables rapid adjustment to nutritional stress by adjusting GTP level, thus maximizing fitness.

  4. Evaluation of survival and success rates of dental implants reported in longitudinal studies with a follow-up period of at least 10 years: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Poubel, L A da C; Ferreira, V F; Barboza, E dos S P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the survival and success rates of osseointegrated implants determined in longitudinal studies that conducted a follow-up of at least 10 years. A broad electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for relevant publications in indexed journals, evaluating the clinical performance of dental implants. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers analyzed titles, abstracts, and complete articles, prioritizing studies of the randomized clinical trial type. A total of 23 articles were included in this review. Ten prospective studies, nine retrospective studies, and four randomized clinical trials, which evaluated 7711 implants, were selected. The mean follow-up time of the studies included was 13.4 years. All of the studies reported survival rates and mean marginal bone resorption values, with cumulative mean values of 94.6% and 1.3mm, respectively. Fourteen studies related success rates. Taking into consideration the disparate outcome measures employed to assess dental implant performance and within the limitations of this systematic review, we may affirm that osseointegrated implants are safe and present high survival rates and minimal marginal bone resorption in the long term.

  5. Nasopharyngeal cancer: a review of 1605 patients treated radically with cobalt 60. [5- and 10-year survival rates and complications of radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.C.

    1980-04-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 1605 patients with histologically proven and radically treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. All were followed for a minimum of five years; 833 patients had a minimum follow-up period of ten years. Treatment results were reviewed according to: (1) size of primary tumor; (2) base of skull invasion; (3) cranial nerve involvement; (4) cervical node metastases; and (5) distant spread. An appropriate staging system was developed that reflected these prognostic factors. The evidence presented indicates that in this series of patients, base of skull involvement was less ominous than cranial nerve involvement. Unilteral lymph node involvement carried a better prognosis than bilateral neck nodes, this was the poorest sign of all since it predicted distant metastases. The average 5-year survival rate for 1605 patients in all stages, was 529/1605(32.1%); the 10-year survival rate for 833 patients in all stages was 20.2%.

  6. Robust estimates of environmental effects on population vital rates: an integrated capture-recapture model of seasonal brook trout growth, survival and movement in a stream network.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Benjamin H; Schueller, Paul; Bassar, Ronald D; Nislow, Keith H; Coombs, Jason A; Sakrejda, Krzysztof; Morrissey, Michael; Sigourney, Douglas B; Whiteley, Andrew R; O'Donnell, Matthew J; Dubreuil, Todd L

    2015-03-01

    Modelling the effects of environmental change on populations is a key challenge for ecologists, particularly as the pace of change increases. Currently, modelling efforts are limited by difficulties in establishing robust relationships between environmental drivers and population responses. We developed an integrated capture-recapture state-space model to estimate the effects of two key environmental drivers (stream flow and temperature) on demographic rates (body growth, movement and survival) using a long-term (11 years), high-resolution (individually tagged, sampled seasonally) data set of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from four sites in a stream network. Our integrated model provides an effective context within which to estimate environmental driver effects because it takes full advantage of data by estimating (latent) state values for missing observations, because it propagates uncertainty among model components and because it accounts for the major demographic rates and interactions that contribute to annual survival. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong effects on brook trout demography. Some effects, such as reduction in survival associated with low stream flow and high temperature during the summer season, were consistent across sites and age classes, suggesting that they may serve as robust indicators of vulnerability to environmental change. Other survival effects varied across ages, sites and seasons, indicating that flow and temperature may not be the primary drivers of survival in those cases. Flow and temperature also affected body growth rates; these responses were consistent across sites but differed dramatically between age classes and seasons. Finally, we found that tributary and mainstem sites responded differently to variation in flow and temperature. Annual survival (combination of survival and body growth across seasons) was insensitive to body growth and was most sensitive to flow (positive) and temperature (negative

  7. Estimating movement and survival rates of a small saltwater fish using autonomous antenna receiver arrays and passive integrated transponder tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.

  8. Genotypic variation in spike fertility traits and ovary size as determinants of floret and grain survival rate in wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zifeng; Slafer, Gustavo A; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    Spike fertility traits are critical attributes for grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we examine the genotypic variation in three important traits: maximum number of floret primordia, number of fertile florets, and number of grains. We determine their relationship in determining spike fertility in 30 genotypes grown under two contrasting conditions: field and greenhouse. The maximum number of floret primordia per spikelet (MFS), fertile florets per spikelet (FFS), and number of grains per spikelet (GS) not only exhibited large genotypic variation in both growth conditions and across all spikelet positions studied, but also displayed moderate levels of heritability. FFS was closely associated with floret survival and only weakly related to MFS. We also found that the post-anthesis process of grain set/abortion was important in determining genotypic variation in GS; an increase in GS was mainly associated with improved grain survival. Ovary size at anthesis was associated with both floret survival (pre-anthesis) and grain survival (post-anthesis), and was thus believed to 'connect' the two traits. In this work, proximal florets (i.e. the first three florets from the base of a spikelet: F1, F2, and F3) produced fertile florets and set grains in most cases. The ovary size of more distal florets (F4 and beyond) seemed to act as a decisive factor for grain setting and effectively reflected pre-anthesis floret development. In both growth conditions, GS positively correlated with ovary size of florets in the distal position (F4), suggesting that assimilates allocated to distal florets may play a critical role in regulating grain set. PMID:27279276

  9. The Development of Inhibitory Control in Early Childhood: A Twin Study from 2-3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2016-01-01

    Parent- and lab-based observer ratings were employed to examine genetic and environmental influences on continuity and change in inhibitory control (IC) in over 300 twin-pairs assessed longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age. Genetic influences accounted for approximately 60% of the variance in parent-rated IC at both ages. Although many of the…

  10. Impact of competitor species composition on predicting diameter growth and survival rates of Douglas-fir trees in southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, Felipe; Hann, D.W.; Maguire, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Mixed conifer and hardwood stands in southwestern Oregon were studied to explore the hypothesis that competition effects on individual-tree growth and survival will differ according to the species comprising the competition measure. Likewise, it was hypothesized that competition measures should extrapolate best if crown-based surrogates are given preference over diameter-based (basal area based) surrogates. Diameter growth and probability of survival were modeled for individual Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees growing in pure stands. Alternative models expressing one-sided and two-sided competition as a function of either basal area or crown structure were then applied to other plots in which Douglas-fir was mixed with other conifers and (or) hardwood species. Crown-based variables outperformed basal area based variables as surrogates for one-sided competition in both diameter growth and survival probability, regardless of species composition. In contrast, two-sided competition was best represented by total basal area of competing trees. Surrogates reflecting differences in crown morphology among species relate more closely to the mechanics of competition for light and, hence, facilitate extrapolation to species combinations for which no observations are available.

  11. A flexible cure rate model for spatially correlated survival data based on generalized extreme value distribution and Gaussian process priors.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xia; Dey, Dipak K

    2016-09-01

    Our present work proposes a new survival model in a Bayesian context to analyze right-censored survival data for populations with a surviving fraction, assuming that the log failure time follows a generalized extreme value distribution. Many applications require a more flexible modeling of covariate information than a simple linear or parametric form for all covariate effects. It is also necessary to include the spatial variation in the model, since it is sometimes unexplained by the covariates considered in the analysis. Therefore, the nonlinear covariate effects and the spatial effects are incorporated into the systematic component of our model. Gaussian processes (GPs) provide a natural framework for modeling potentially nonlinear relationship and have recently become extremely powerful in nonlinear regression. Our proposed model adopts a semiparametric Bayesian approach by imposing a GP prior on the nonlinear structure of continuous covariate. With the consideration of data availability and computational complexity, the conditionally autoregressive distribution is placed on the region-specific frailties to handle spatial correlation. The flexibility and gains of our proposed model are illustrated through analyses of simulated data examples as well as a dataset involving a colon cancer clinical trial from the state of Iowa. PMID:27225466

  12. A flexible cure rate model for spatially correlated survival data based on generalized extreme value distribution and Gaussian process priors.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xia; Dey, Dipak K

    2016-09-01

    Our present work proposes a new survival model in a Bayesian context to analyze right-censored survival data for populations with a surviving fraction, assuming that the log failure time follows a generalized extreme value distribution. Many applications require a more flexible modeling of covariate information than a simple linear or parametric form for all covariate effects. It is also necessary to include the spatial variation in the model, since it is sometimes unexplained by the covariates considered in the analysis. Therefore, the nonlinear covariate effects and the spatial effects are incorporated into the systematic component of our model. Gaussian processes (GPs) provide a natural framework for modeling potentially nonlinear relationship and have recently become extremely powerful in nonlinear regression. Our proposed model adopts a semiparametric Bayesian approach by imposing a GP prior on the nonlinear structure of continuous covariate. With the consideration of data availability and computational complexity, the conditionally autoregressive distribution is placed on the region-specific frailties to handle spatial correlation. The flexibility and gains of our proposed model are illustrated through analyses of simulated data examples as well as a dataset involving a colon cancer clinical trial from the state of Iowa.

  13. Postoperative Mortality after Hip Fracture Surgery: A 3 Years Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Un, Canan; Sacan, Ozlem; Gamli, Mehmet; Baskan, Semih; Baydar, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims To determine mortality rates and predisposing factors in patients operated for a hip fracture in a 3-year follow-up period. Methods The study included patients who underwent primary surgery for a hip fracture.The inclusion criteria were traumatic, non-traumatic, osteoporotic and pathological hip fractures requiring surgery in all age groups and both genders. Patients with periprosthetic fractures or previous contralateral hip fracture surgery and patients who could not be contacted by telephone were excluded. At 36 months after surgery, evaluation was made using a structured telephone interview and a detailed examination of the hospital medical records, especially the documents written during anesthesia by the anesthesiologists and the documents written at the time of follow-up visits by the orthopaedic surgeons. A total of 124 cases were analyzed and 4 patients were excluded due to exclusion criteria. The collected data included demographics, type of fracture, co-morbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, anesthesia techniques, operation type (intramedullary nailing or arthroplasty; cemented-noncemented), peroperative complications, refracture during the follow-up period, survival period and mortality causes. Results The total 120 patients evaluated comprised 74 females(61.7%) and 46 males(38.3%) with a mean age of 76.9±12.8 years (range 23–95 years). The ASA scores were ASA I (0.8%), ASA II (21.7%), ASA III (53.3%) and ASA IV (24.2%). Mortality was seen in 44 patients (36.7%) and 76 patients (63.3%) survived during the 36-month follow-up period. Of the surviving patients, 59.1% were female and 40.9% were male.The survival period ranged between 1–1190 days. The cumulative mortality rate in the first, second and third years were 29.17%, 33.33% and 36.67% respectively. The factors associated with mortality were determined as increasing age, high ASA score, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, Alzheimer

  14. Increased interleukin-10 associated with low IL-6 concentration correlated with greater survival rates in mice infected by rabies virus vaccinated against it and immunomodulated with P. acnes.

    PubMed

    Megid, J; Kaneno, R; Nozaki, C N; Brito, C J C; Almeida, M F

    2004-11-01

    Macrophage activity, cytokines serum concentration, serum neutralizing antibodies and lethality by rabies were evaluated in swiss mice experimentally infected with street rabies virus and submitted or not to antirabies vaccination and immunomodulation with P. acnes. Animals were killed at different times and serum was collected in order to evaluate cytokines concentration; peritonial and splenic macrophages were collected for macrophage activity evaluation. Greater survival rates higher IL-10 and low IL-6 serum concentration were observed in vaccinated animals treated using P. acnes.

  15. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L-1) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  16. The effects of different routes of inulin administration on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (Fenneropenaeus indicus).

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zare, Parviz; Kolangi Miandare, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of different routes of inulin administration as prebiotic on gut microbiota and survival rate of Indian white shrimp post-larvae. Four hundred and fifty Indian white shrimp post-larvae (PL1) were stocked in nine tanks. The tanks were assigned into three treatments: feeding with inulin-treated (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-T), feeding with inulin-enriched (110 mg L(-1)) Artemia nauplii (I-E) and control which repeated triplicates. Feeding trial was performed until PL11 stage and then gut microbiota was studied using culture based method. Also, survival rate was calculated at the end of feeding trial. Our results showed that feeding on inulin enriched or treated Artemia nauplii had no significant effect on total viable culturable autochthonous bacteria and Vibrio spp. levels of the gut microbiota (p > 0.05). However, a remarkable increase of lactic acid bacteria levels (LAB) was observed in I-E treatment (p < 0.05). Administration of inulin enriched Artemia nauplii significantly elevated survival rates of Indian white shrimp post-larvae (p < 0.05). These results encourage administration of prebiotic-enriched Artemia nauplii in post larval stage of Indian white shrimp but determination the mode of action of prebiotic on various aspects of shrimp larviculture merit further research. PMID:26973770

  17. Retrospective Study of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Effects on Survival Rate after Three-Field Lymph Node Dissection for Stage IIA Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-Xia; Wang, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel plus cisplatin (Taxol+DDP, TP therapy) for stage IIA esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to investigate the expression of RUNX3 in lymph node metastasis-negative esophageal cancer and its relationship with medical prognosis, a retrospective summary of clinical treatment of 143 cases of stage IIA esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients was made. The patients were divided into two groups, a surgery alone control group (52 patients) and a chemotherapy group that received postoperative TP therapy (91 patients). The disease-free and 5 year survival rates were compared between the groups and a multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was performed. The same analysis was performed for cases classified as RUNX3 positive and negative, with post-operative specimens assessed by immunohistochemistry. Although the disease-free and 5 year survival rates in control and chemotherapy groups did not significantly differ and there was no significance in RUNX3 negative cases, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in the chemotherapy group was shown to improve disease-free and 5 year survival rate compared to the control group in RUNX3 positive cases. On Cox regression multivariate analysis, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy (P<0.01) was an independent prognostic factor for RUNX3 positive cases, suggesting that postoperative TP may be effective as adjuvant chemotherapy for stage IIA esophageal cancer patients with RUNX3 positive lesions. PMID:26225648

  18. Vascular Calcification in Patients with Nondialysis CKD over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Pablo; Cerverón, M. Jesús; Vila, Rocío; Bover, Jordi; Nieto, Javier; Barril, Guillermina; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Fernández, Elvira; Escudero, Verónica; Piñera, Celestino; Adragao, Teresa; Navarro-Gonzalez, Juan F.; Molinero, Luis M.; Castro-Alonso, Cristina; Pallardó, Luis M.; Jamal, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Vascular calcification (VC) is common in CKD, but little is known about its prognostic effect on patients with nondialysis CKD. The prevalence of VC and its ability to predict death, time to hospitalization, and renal progression were assessed. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Study of Mineral and Bone Disorders in CKD in Spain is a prospective, observational, 3-year follow-up study of 742 patients with nondialysis CKD stages 3–5 from 39 centers in Spain from April to May 2009. VC was assessed using Adragao (AS; x-ray pelvis and hands) and Kauppila (KS; x-ray lateral lumbar spine) scores from 572 and 568 patients, respectively. The primary end point was death. Secondary outcomes were hospital admissions and appearance of a combined renal end point (beginning of dialysis or drop >30% in eGFR). Factors related to VC were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Survival analysis was assessed by Cox proportional models. Results VC was present in 79% of patients and prominent in 47% (AS≥3 or KS>6). Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.02 to 1.07; P<0.001), phosphorous (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.28 to 2.20; P<0.001), and diabetes (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.32 to 3.35; P=0.002) were independently related to AS≥3. After a median follow-up of 35 months (interquartile range=17–36), there were 70 deaths (10%). After multivariate adjustment for age, smoking, diabetes, comorbidity, renal function, and level of phosphorous, AS≥3 but not KS>6 was independently associated with all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.07 to 4.01; P=0.03) and cardiovascular (HR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.27 to 9.45; P=0.02) mortality as well as a shorter hospitalization event–free period (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.22; P<0.001). VC did not predict renal progression. Conclusions VC is highly prevalent in patients with CKD. VC assessment using AS independently predicts death and time to hospitalization. Therefore, it could be a useful

  19. Self-rated health in the last 12 years of life compared to matched surviving controls: the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Stenholm, Sari; Pentti, Jaana; Kawachi, Ichiro; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is a valid measure of health status and associated with mortality. Based on individual-level biannual repeat data on SRH we sought to characterize the natural history of poor SRH during the 12 years prior to death in men and women in different age groups. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Health and Retirement Study participants who died between 1998 and 2010 and had at least two SRH measurements in the 12 years prior to death. We used a nested case-control design to compare SRH trajectories of deceased men and women aged 30-64, 65-79 and 80 years versus surviving participants. The cases comprised 3,350 deceased participants who were matched to surviving controls (n = 8,127). SRH was dichotomized into good vs. poor health. Men and women dying at age 65-79 and ≥ 80 years had 1.5 to 3 times higher prevalence of poor SRH already 11-12 years prior to death compared to surviving controls. The risk estimates remained statistically significant even after adjusting for life-style related risk factors and diagnosed diseases. Prevalence of poor SRH before death was lowest among those aged ≥ 80 years and highest in 30-64 year-olds. In conclusion, men and women who subsequently die perceive their health worse already 11-12 years prior to death compared to their surviving controls.

  20. Comparison of migration rate and survival between radio-tagged and PIT-tagged migrant yearling chinook salmon in the Snake and Columbia rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hockersmith, E.E.; Muir, W.D.; Smith, S.G.; Sandford, B.P.; Perry, R.W.; Adams, N.S.; Rondorf, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the travel times, detection probabilities, and survival of migrant hatchery-reared yearling chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha tagged with either gastrically or surgically implanted sham radio tags (with an imbedded passive integrated transponder [PIT] tag) with those of their cohorts tagged only with PIT tags in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Juvenile chinook salmon with gastrically implanted radio tags migrated significantly faster than either surgically radio-tagged or PIT-tagged fish, while migration rates were similar among surgically radio-tagged and PIT-tagged fish. The probabilities of PIT tag detection at downstream dams varied by less than 5% and were not significantly different among the three groups. Survival was similar among treatments for median travel times of less than approximately 6 d (migration distance of 106 km). However, for both gastrically and surgically radio-tagged fish, survival was significantly less than for PIT-tagged fish, for which median travel times exceeded approximately 10 d (migration distance of 225 km). The results of this study support the use of radio tags to estimate the survival of juvenile chinook salmon having a median fork length of approximately 150 mm (range, 127-285 mm) and a median travel time of migration of less than approximately 6 d.

  1. Prognostic heterogeneity of diastolic abnormalities along left ventricular remodeling continuum according to survival rates and laser polarimetry of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boychuk, T. M.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Kolomoiets, M. Y.; Mikhaliev, K. O.; Chursina, T. Y.

    2011-09-01

    The results of examination of 35 arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease patients are presented. The clinical, paraclinical and echocardiographic examinations were performed, and the parameters of prognosis (survival) according to Seattle Heart Failure Model, as well as the optical (polarimetric) properties of erythrocytic suspension were determined. The group of patients under examination was stratified by patterns of remodeling of left ventricle (LV). It was determined that increasing of anisotropy of erythrocytic suspension along LV remodeling patterns continuum correlates with aggravation of structural and functional state of LV and is associated with unfavorable prognosis.

  2. Prognostic heterogeneity of diastolic abnormalities along left ventricular remodeling continuum according to survival rates and laser polarimetry of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boychuk, T. M.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Kolomoiets, M. Y.; Mikhaliev, K. O.; Chursina, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The results of examination of 35 arterial hypertension and coronary heart disease patients are presented. The clinical, paraclinical and echocardiographic examinations were performed, and the parameters of prognosis (survival) according to Seattle Heart Failure Model, as well as the optical (polarimetric) properties of erythrocytic suspension were determined. The group of patients under examination was stratified by patterns of remodeling of left ventricle (LV). It was determined that increasing of anisotropy of erythrocytic suspension along LV remodeling patterns continuum correlates with aggravation of structural and functional state of LV and is associated with unfavorable prognosis.

  3. Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian

    2004-02-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2002 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2003. We tagged 20,950 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,904 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 1 April 2003 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 15 April 2003. We tagged 20,820 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,628 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning during two acclimation periods. The volitional release for the early acclimation group began 12 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 23 March 2003. The volitional release for the late acclimation group began 31 March 2003, and all remaining fish were forced out of the ponds on 14 April 2003. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2003, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Survival rates for the Imnaha River, Lostine River, and Catherine Creek stocks were 0.714, 0.557, and 0.350, respectively. We PIT-tagged 20,944 BY 2002 Imnaha River stock and 20,980 BY 2002 Catherine Creek stock captive and conventional brood progeny in October and November 2003 as part of the CSS for MY 2004. From tagging to January 28, 2004, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.16% and 0.04%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.19% and 0.06%, respectively.

  4. Contributions of unfrozen fraction and of salt concentration to the survival of slowly frozen human erythrocytes: influence of warming rate

    SciTech Connect

    Mazur, P.; Rigopoulos, N.

    1983-01-01

    The general belief is that slow freezing injury is either the result of exposure to high salt concentrations or the result of excessive cell shrinkage. Ordinarily, salt concentration and the amount of liquid in the unfrozen channels are reciprocally related; but they can be separated within limits by varying the total concentration of solutes in the suspending medium while holding the mass ratio of additive to salt constant, and by then slowly freezing samples to various subzero temperatures. The authors have recently reported that when human red cells are frozen under these conditions and thawed rapidly, survival is more dependent on the unfrozen water fraction than it is on the salt concentration in that fraction. The present work compares these results with those obtained with slow thawing. While the general conclusion remains unaltered, slowly thawed cells were able to survive the freezing of a higher fraction of extracellular water than were rapidly thawed cells. Calculations were made of the changes in cell volume during the equilibration with glycerol and the subsequent freezing involved in these experiments.

  5. Effects of environmental pH and temperature on embryonic survival capacity and metabolic rates in the smallmouth salamander, Ambystoma texanum

    SciTech Connect

    Punzo, F.

    1983-10-01

    Although the deleterious effects of acid precipitation on forest ecosystems and fisheries have been documented, relatively little information is available on the effects of environmental pH in combination with temperature on the survival capacity and/or physiology of amphibians. Increased acidity resulting from acid precipitation common to the northwestern United States, can lead to increased mortality in the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum. In view of the potentially significant deleterious effects of stressful pH conditions on amphibian survivorship and the relative paucity of data on this subject, the present study was conducted in order to ascertain the combined effects of temperature and pH on embryonic metabolic rates and survival capacity in the smallmouth salamander, Ambystoma texanum Mathes. No previous data on these parameters are available for this species.

  6. [Establishment of full-sib families of Branchiostoma japonicum and the relationship between early development patterns and larvae survival rates].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ye; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2013-10-01

    One general requirement of individual laboratory animals is that they have known genetic backgrounds. However, ensuring such genetic similarity is difficult, and can be facilitated by breeding a full strain for experimentation. To this end, the authors bred 34 full-sib families of amphioxus larvae/embryos. Due to the high mortality of the embryos and larvae, only seven full-sib families of juvenile amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum were obtained. Among them, the highest and lowest survival ratios were 32.4% and 1.67%, respectively, whereas the shortest metamorphosis and longest larva duration were 24 d and 42 d, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility of establishing full-sib families of amphioxus, and provide fundamental data needed for the future breeding of amphioxus strains.

  7. [Mid-term outcomes and survival rates in patients with radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) under current Czech healthcare system].

    PubMed

    Safarík, L; Bílek, R; Vísek, J A; Novák, K; Tuíková, J; Pesl, M; Stolz, J; Dvorácek, J

    2009-01-01

    The mid-term results (5 yr) after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) are outlined and compared with pre- and postoperative parameters of patients. While 5 years survival could be expected in as many as 92.4%, relatively higher age (majority over 65) brings a higher risk of complications with it, though fully comparable with international standards. No perioperative mortality was recorded (0%), obstructive symptoms post-operatively developed in 13.4% patients, who were subsequently managed successfully endoscopically. Continence with maximum one pad per 24 hours was recorded in 77.2%, the severe incontinence was only in 3.3%. Spontaneous erection was reported in 4.3%, but except for higher age, the other objective factors were involved.

  8. [Establishment of full-sib families of Branchiostoma japonicum and the relationship between early development patterns and larvae survival rates].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ye; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2013-10-01

    One general requirement of individual laboratory animals is that they have known genetic backgrounds. However, ensuring such genetic similarity is difficult, and can be facilitated by breeding a full strain for experimentation. To this end, the authors bred 34 full-sib families of amphioxus larvae/embryos. Due to the high mortality of the embryos and larvae, only seven full-sib families of juvenile amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum were obtained. Among them, the highest and lowest survival ratios were 32.4% and 1.67%, respectively, whereas the shortest metamorphosis and longest larva duration were 24 d and 42 d, respectively. These results demonstrate the feasibility of establishing full-sib families of amphioxus, and provide fundamental data needed for the future breeding of amphioxus strains. PMID:24115654

  9. Effects of fluctuating flows and a controlled flood on incubation success and early survival rates and growth of age-0 rainbow trout in a large regulated river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2011-01-01

    Hourly fluctuations in flow from Glen Canyon Dam were increased in an attempt to limit the population of nonnative rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Colorado River, Arizona, due to concerns about negative effects of nonnative trout on endangered native fishes. Controlled floods have also been conducted to enhance native fish habitat. We estimated that rainbow trout incubation mortality rates resulting from greater fluctuations in flow were 23-49% (2003 and 2004) compared with 5-11% under normal flow fluctuations (2006-2010). Effects of this mortality were apparent in redd excavations but were not seen in hatch date distributions or in the abundance of the age-0 population. Multiple lines of evidence indicated that a controlled flood in March 2008, which was intended to enhance native fish habitat, resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 rainbow trout. Age-0 abundance in July 2008 was over fourfold higher than expected given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch date analysis indicated that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the controlled flood (~April 15) relative to those that hatched before this date. The cohorts that were fertilized after the flood were not exposed to high flows and emerged into better-quality habitat with elevated food availability. Interannual differences in age-0 rainbow trout growth based on otolith microstructure supported this hypothesis. It is likely that strong compensation in survival rates shortly after emergence mitigated the impact of incubation losses caused by increases in flow fluctuations. Control of nonnative fish populations will be most effective when additional mortality is applied to older life stages after the majority of density-dependent mortality has occurred. Our study highlights the need to rigorously assess instream flow decisions through the evaluation of population-level responses.

  10. Survival rate and neurodevelopmental outcome of extremely premature babies: an 8-year experience of an Italian single neonatal tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Uccella, Sara; De Carli, Agnese; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Schiavolin, Paola; Damiano, Giuseppe; Ghirardi, Beatrice; Maglioli Carpano, Francesca; Bassi, Laura; Gangi, Silvana; Picciolini, Odoardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Mosca, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Extremely preterm babies are at major risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome, being the gestational age (GA) the main determinant for a good-quality survival. Aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the neurodevelopmental outcome in a population of extremely preterm babies admitted to a single neonatal tertiary care unit over an 8-year period. All babies born between 23+0 and 25+6 weeks of GA from January 2003 until December 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. Perinatal and neonatal variables were recorded. Motor and cognitive development was assessed using the neurofunctional scale (NFS) and the Griffith's scales at 2 years. Fifty-five out of 122 infants survived to discharge. Survival rates doubled for each additional gestational week from 23 to 25: 16%, 38% and 74% at 23, 24 and 25 weeks GA respectively. Forty-six infants were evaluated at 2 years. A poor cognitive and motor outcome was observed in all babies born at 23 weeks. Griffith's general quotient (GQ) was ≥76 in 62% and ≥88 in 33% of babies born between 24 and 25 weeks. No severe motor disabilities were found in 81% of babies born between 24 and 25 weeks. Preterm premature rupture of membranes, absence of prenatal steroids, intrauterine growth restriction, male, lower GA and major brain abnormalities at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were significantly associated with worse NFS and lower mean GQ at 2 years of age. GA, gender and abnormal MRI findings remained significantly associated with impaired NFS at the multivariate analysis. Survival rates and neurodevelopmental outcome improved with each week of GA. These results are relevant for clinicians counselling families facing an unavoidable extremely preterm birth. PMID:26714779

  11. Better management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest increases survival rate and improves neurological outcome in the Swiss Canton Ticino

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, Romano; Burkart, Roman; Benvenuti, Claudio; Caputo, Maria Luce; Moccetti, Tiziano; Del Bufalo, Alessandro; Gallino, Augusto; Casso, Carlo; Anselmi, Luciano; Cassina, Tiziano; Klersy, Catherine; Auricchio, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) fulfilling Utstein criteria in the Canton Ticino, Switzerland, the survival rate of OHCA patients and their neurological outcome. Methods and results All OHCAs treated in Canton Ticino between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were followed until either death or hospital discharge. The survival and neurological outcome of those OHCA fulfilling Utstein criteria are reported. A total of 3367 OHCAs occurred in the Canton Ticino over a 10-year period. Resuscitation was attempted in 2298 patients; of those 1492 (65%) were of presumed cardiac origin, 454 fulfilling the Utstein comparator criteria. About 69% [95% confidence interval (CI), 66.6–71.4%] of the patients had a bystander-witnessed arrest; a dispatched cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) steadily and significantly increased from 2005 to 2014. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest occurred prevalently home (67%), in men (71%) of a mean age of 71 ± 13 years. There were no statistically significant differences either in demographic characteristics of OHCA victims over these years or in presenting rhythm. There was a progressive increase in the survival at discharge from 15% in 2005 to 55% in 2014; overall 96% (95% CI, 93.3–99.9%) of the survivors had a good neurological outcome. Conclusion The significant increase in Utstein comparator survival rates and improved neurological outcome in OHCA victims in Canton Ticino are the result of an effective OHCA management programme which includes large-scale public education, a coordinated fast EMS response, high density of external defibrillators, and advances in clinical interventions for OHCAs. PMID:26346920

  12. Maxillary Overdentures Supported by Four Splinted Direct Metal Laser Sintering Implants: A 3-Year Prospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Francesco; Shibli, Jamil Awad; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Nowadays, the advancements in direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) technology allow the fabrication of titanium dental implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate implant survival, complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss of DMLS implants used to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures. Materials and Methods. Over a 2-year period, 120 implants were placed in the maxilla of 30 patients (18 males, 12 females) to support bar-retained maxillary overdentures (ODs). Each OD was supported by 4 implants splinted by a rigid cobalt-chrome bar. At each annual follow-up session, clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed. The outcome measures were implant failure, biological and prosthetic complications, and peri-implant marginal bone loss (distance between the implant shoulder and the first visible bone-to-implant contact, DIB). Results. The 3-year implant survival rate was 97.4% (implant-based) and 92.9% (patient-based). Three implants failed. The incidence of biological complication was 3.5% (implant-based) and 7.1% (patient-based). The incidence of prosthetic complication was 17.8% (patient-based). No detrimental effects on marginal bone level were evidenced. Conclusions. The use of 4 DMLS titanium implants to support bar-retained maxillary ODs seems to represent a safe and successful procedure. Long-term clinical studies on a larger sample of patients are needed to confirm these results. PMID:25580124

  13. Overall Response Rate, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival With Targeted and Standard Therapies in Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: US Food and Drug Administration Trial-Level and Patient-Level Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Gideon M.; Karuri, Stella W.; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Lijun; Khozin, Sean; Kazandjian, Dickran; Tang, Shenghui; Sridhara, Rajeshwari; Keegan, Patricia; Pazdur, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To conduct analyses exploring trial-level and patient-level associations between overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) trials. Methods We identified 14 trials (N = 12,567) submitted to US Food and Drug Administration since 2003 of treatments for advanced NSCLC. Only randomized, active-controlled trials with more than 150 patients were included. Associations between trial-level PFS hazard ratio (HR), OS HR, and ORR odds ratio were analyzed using a weighted linear regression model. Patient-level responder analyses comparing PFS and OS between patients with and without an objective response were performed using pooled data from all studies. Results In the trial-level analysis, the association between PFS and ORR was strong (R2 = 0.89; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.98). There was no association between OS and ORR (R2 = 0.09; 95% CI, 0 to 0.33) and OS and PFS (R2 = 0.08; 95% CI, 0 to 0.31). In the patient-level responder analyses, patients who achieved a response had better PFS and OS compared with nonresponders (PFS: HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.42; OS: HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.43). Conclusion On a trial level, there is a strong association between ORR and PFS. An association between ORR and OS and between PFS and OS was not established, possibly because of cross-over and longer survival after progression in the targeted therapy and first-line trials. The patient-level analysis showed that responders have a better PFS and OS compared with nonresponders. A therapy in advanced NSCLC with a large magnitude of effect on ORR may have a large PFS effect. PMID:25667291

  14. Swift fox survival and production in southeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, T.L.; Lindzey, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    We estimated annual survival rates of swift foxes (Vulpes velox) and documented number of young per pair in a transition zone between shortgrass prairie and sagebrush steppe plant communities in southeastern Wyoming during 1996-2000. Annual adult survival ranged from 40% to 69%, with predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) the primary cause of deaths. Two foxes died of canine distemper virus. Annual survival rates did not differ among years (P>0.12). Nineteen of 24 (79%) swift fox pairs were observed with young over 3 years. Mean minimum litter size was 4.6 based on these 19 litters and 6 others not associated with our radiocollared foxes. Adult survival was similar and litter size slightly larger than observed elsewhere in the species range, suggesting that viable swift fox populations can be supported by sagebrush steppe and shortgrass prairie transition habitat.

  15. The influence of “conical plus octagonal” internal connection on implant survival and success rate: a retrospective study of 66 fixtures.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M A; Andreasi Bassi, M; Confalone, L; Gaudio, R M; Lombardo, L; Lauritano, D

    2016-01-01

    Implant oral rehabilitation has become one of the most successful dentistry techniques over the last 30 years. However, peri-implantitis is the most important complication in implant dentistry. Peri-implantits can be caused by inadequate implant-abutment connections (IAC). The aim of our study is to evaluate the influence of “conical plus octagonal” (i.e. I-Fix connection) on implant survival and success rate. All the implants included in this study were of a completely new type (I-Fix implants and abutments by FMD Falappa Medical Devices S.p.A. Rome, Italy). Sixty-six implants were inserted in males and females. The implants were of different diameters and lengths, inserted both in the mandible and in the maxilla with immediate or delayed loading, with guided bone regeneration (GBR), and post-extractive surgery. All implants were provided with I-Fix connection, 64 abutments using passing screws and 2 using full screws. None of the 66 implants were lost (i.e. survival rate - SVR = 100%). Cox-regression analysis demonstrated that diabetes (p=0.0074), GBR (p=0.0115), maxilla (p=0.0117) and smoking (p=0.0194) have a statistical significant impact on clinical outcome (i.e. greater bone resorption around implant neck). Our data show that I-Fix connection did not influence SVR. This finding demonstrates that I-Fix design seemed to significantly affect the survival rate of the implants in a recent meta-analysis. In spite of the limits of our study, I-Fix connection has been demonstrated to be efficient in closing the gap between implant and abutment and maintaining a good connection over time.

  16. Decreasing salinity of seawater moderates immune response and increases survival rate of giant groupers post betanodavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tz-Shiang; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Giant groupers (Epinephelus lanceolatus), an important aquaculture fish in Asia, are attacked by nervous necrosis virus (NNV), belonging to betanodavirus. Environmental salinity can affect fish immunity and physiology. We examined whether decreasing salinity from 30 to 15 ppt during acclimation of groupers could affect survival with NNV infection and the associated factors. Although NNV infection decreased muscle moisture, up-regulated the gene expression of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 2, and elevated plasma cortisol level in groupers, these factors were not related to the higher mortality of groupers reared at 30-ppt salinity (S30-groupers), compared to 15-ppt reared groupers (S15-groupers). Infected S30-groupers exhibited high leukocyte count and innate immune gene expression level. Moreover, NNV-infected dead S30-groupers showed high IL-1β gene expression level but low NNV load in the brain. The high or excess IL-1β gene expression levels in the brain of NNV-infected S30-groupers may be the factor in high mortality. PMID:27569983

  17. Very low survival rates after non-traumatic lower limb amputation in a consecutive series: what to do?

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Holm, Gitte; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Krasheninnikoff, Michael; Gebuhr, Peter

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate factors potentially influencing short- and long-term mortality in patients who had a non-traumatic lower limb amputation in a university hospital. A consecutive series of 93 amputations (16% toe/foot, 33% trans-tibial, 9% through knee and 42% trans-femoral) were studied. Their mean age was 75.8 years; 21 (23%) were admitted from a nursing home and 87 (92%) were amputated due to a vascular disease and/or diabetes. Thirty days and 1-year mortality were 30 and 54%, respectively. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the 30-day mortality was associated with older age (P = 0.01), and the number of co-morbidities (P = 0.04), when adjusted for gender, previous amputations, cause of and amputation level, and residential status. Thus, a patient with 4 or 5 co-morbidities (n = 20) was seven times more likely to die within 30 days, compared with a patient with 1 co-morbidity (n = 16). Further, the risk of not surviving increased with 7% per each additional year the patient got older. Of concern, almost one-third of patients died within 1 month. This may be unavoidable, but a multidisciplinary, optimized, multimodal pre- and postoperative programme should be instituted, trying to improve the outcome.

  18. Decreasing salinity of seawater moderates immune response and increases survival rate of giant groupers post betanodavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tz-Shiang; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Giant groupers (Epinephelus lanceolatus), an important aquaculture fish in Asia, are attacked by nervous necrosis virus (NNV), belonging to betanodavirus. Environmental salinity can affect fish immunity and physiology. We examined whether decreasing salinity from 30 to 15 ppt during acclimation of groupers could affect survival with NNV infection and the associated factors. Although NNV infection decreased muscle moisture, up-regulated the gene expression of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 2, and elevated plasma cortisol level in groupers, these factors were not related to the higher mortality of groupers reared at 30-ppt salinity (S30-groupers), compared to 15-ppt reared groupers (S15-groupers). Infected S30-groupers exhibited high leukocyte count and innate immune gene expression level. Moreover, NNV-infected dead S30-groupers showed high IL-1β gene expression level but low NNV load in the brain. The high or excess IL-1β gene expression levels in the brain of NNV-infected S30-groupers may be the factor in high mortality.

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the influence of peritoneal dialysis catheter type on complication rate and catheter survival.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Sander M; Lafranca, Jeffrey A; IJzermans, Jan N M; Dor, Frank J M F

    2014-04-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective treatment for end-stage renal disease. There are several configurations of PD catheter design that may impact catheter function, such as the shape of the intraperitoneal segment, the number of cuffs, and the subcutaneous configuration. This review and meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether there is a clinical advantage for one of the catheter types or configurations. Comprehensive searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library 2012, issue 10). The methodology was in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Interventional Systematic Reviews and written based on the PRISMA statement. The initial search yielded 682 hits from which 13 randomized controlled trials were identified. Outcomes of interest were as follows: catheter survival, drainage dysfunction, migration, leakage, exit-site infections, peritonitis, and catheter removal. Comparing straight vs. swan neck and single vs. double-cuffed catheters, no differences were found when results were pooled. Comparison of straight vs. coiled-tip catheters demonstrated that survival was significantly different in favor of straight catheters (hazard ratio 2.05; confidence interval 1.10-3.79, P=0.02). For surgically inserted catheters, the removal rate and survival at 1 year after insertion were significantly in favor of straight catheters. Our meta-analysis clearly demonstrates benefits for catheters with a straight intraperitoneal segment. PMID:24088961

  20. Combination therapy of molecular hydrogen and hyperoxia improves survival rate and organ damage in a zymosan-induced generalized inflammation model

    PubMed Central

    HONG, YUNCHUAN; SUN, LI; SUN, RUIQIANG; CHEN, HONGGUANG; YU, YONGHAO; XIE, KELIANG

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Hyperoxia treatment may be beneficial to critically ill patients. However, the clinical use of hyperoxia is hindered as it may exacerbate organ injury by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydrogen gas (H2) exerts a therapeutic antioxidative effect by selectively reducing ROS. Combination therapy of H2 and hyperoxia has previously been shown to significantly improve survival rate and organ damage extent in mice with polymicrobial sepsis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether combination therapy with H2 and hyperoxia could improve survival rate and organ damage in a zymosan (ZY)-induced generalized inflammation model. The results showed that the inhalation of H2 (2%) or hyperoxia (98%) alone improved the 14-day survival rate of ZY-challenged mice from 20 to 70 or 60%, respectively. However, combination therapy with H2 and hyperoxia could increase the 14-day survival rate of ZY-challenged mice to 100%. Furthermore, ZY-challenged mice showed significant multiple organ damage characterized by increased serum levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, as well as lung, liver and kidney histopathological scores at 24 h after ZY injection. These symptoms where attenuated by H2 or hyperoxia alone; however, combination therapy with H2 and hyperoxia had a more marked beneficial effect against lung, liver and kidney damage in ZY-challenged mice. In addition, the beneficial effects of this combination therapy on ZY-induced organ damage were associated with decreased serum levels of the oxidative product 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, increased activity of superoxide dismutase and reduced levels of the proinflammatory cytokines high-mobility group box 1 and tumor necrosis factor-α. In conclusion, combination therapy with H2 and hyperoxia provides enhanced therapeutic efficacy against multiple organ damage in

  1. Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

  2. Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Heon; Jin, Gong Yong Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Yong Chul; Kwon, Keun Sang; Lynch, David

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0-2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

  3. Local Response and Impact on Survival After Local Ablation of Liver Metastases From Colorectal Carcinoma by Computed Tomography-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ricke, Jens; Mohnike, Konrad; Pech, Maciej; Seidensticker, Max; Ruehl, Ricarda; Wieners, Gero; Gaffke, Gunnar; Kropf, Siegfried; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: To determine local tumor control after CT-guided brachytherapy at various dose levels and the prognostic impact of extensive cytoreduction in colorectal liver metastases. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients were treated on a single-center prospective trial that was initially designed to be randomized to three dose levels of 15 Gy, 20 Gy, or 25 Gy per lesion, delivered in a single fraction. However, because there was a high rate of cross-over of subjects from higher to lower dose levels, this study is better understood as a prospective trial with three dose levels. No upper size limit for the metastases was applied. We assessed time to local progression, progression-free survival, and overall survival. Results: According to safety constraints cross-over was performed. The final assignment was n = 98, n = 68, and n = 33 in the 15-Gy, 20-Gy, and 25-Gy groups, respectively. Median diameter of the largest tumor lesion in each patient was 5 cm (range, 1-13.5 cm). Estimated mean local recurrence-free survival for all lesions was 34 months (median not reached). The group assigned to 15 Gy after cross-over displayed 34 local recurrences out of 98 lesions; 20 Gy, 15 out of 68 lesions; 25 Gy, 1 out of 33 lesions. The difference between the 25-Gy and the 20-Gy or 15-Gy group was significant (p < 0.05). Repeated local tumor ablations were the most prominent factor for increased survival and dominated additional systemic antitumor treatments. Conclusions: Local tumor control after CT-guided brachytherapy of colorectal liver metastases demonstrated a strong dose dependency. The role of extensive minimally invasive tumor ablation in metastatic colorectal cancer needs to be further established.

  4. Effect of cooling rate on the survival of cryopreserved rooster sperm: Comparison of different distances in the vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, M; Mosca, F; Abdel Sayed, A; Zaniboni, L; Mangiagalli, M G; Colombo, E; Cerolini, S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present trial was to study the effect of different freezing rates on the survival of cryopreserved rooster semen packaged in straws. Slow and fast freezing rates were obtained keeping straws at different distances in the vapor above the surface of the nitrogen during freezing. Adult Lohmann roosters (n=27) were used. Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, semen was packaged in straws and frozen comparing the distances of 1, 3 and 5cm in nitrogen vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 2, the distances of 3, 7 and 10cm above the surfaces of the liquid nitrogen were compared. Sperm viability, motility and progressive motility and the kinetic variables were assessed in fresh and cryopreserved semen samples. The recovery rates after freezing/thawing were also calculated. In Experiment 1, there were no significant differences among treatments for all semen quality variables. In Experiment 2, the percentage of viable (46%) and motile (22%) sperm in cryopreserved semen was greater when semen was placed 3cm compared with 7 and 10cm in the vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen. The recovery rate of progressive motile sperm after thawing was also greater when semen was stored 3cm in the vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen. More rapid freezing rates are required to improve the survival of rooster sperm after cryopreservation and a range of distances from 1 to 5cm in nitrogen vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen is recommended for optimal sperm viability. PMID:27349144

  5. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  6. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  7. The Structure of Executive Function in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Clark, Caron A. C.; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    Although the structure of executive function (EF) during adulthood is characterized by both unity and diversity, recent evidence suggests that preschool EF may be best described by a single factor. The latent structure of EF was examined in 228 3-year-olds using confirmatory factor analysis. Children completed a battery of executive tasks that…

  8. A Study of Differentiated Instructional Change over 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Feng, Annie Xuemei; Brown, Elissa; Bracken, Bruce; Stambaugh, Tamra; French, Heather; McGowan, Susan; Worley, Bess; Quek, Chwee; Bai, Wenyu

    2008-01-01

    This study examines Title 1 heterogeneous classroom teachers' instructional behavior change through implementing well-designed research-based curriculum units and attending regular professional development activities across 3 years. Employing an experimental design, this study compares experimental and comparison teachers' behavioral changes as…

  9. Developing Dialogic Argumentation Skills: A 3-Year Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Amanda; Kuhn, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation is increasingly recognized as a fundamental intellectual skill, but evidence suggests that few adolescents or adults are skilled arguers. This article reports on an extended (3-year, twice weekly) intervention designed to afford dense practice in dialogic argumentation to middle-school students from traditionally academically…

  10. ENSO, nest predation risk, food abundance, and male status fail to explain annual variations in the apparent survival rate of a migratory songbird.

    PubMed

    Vernouillet, Alizée; Villard, Marc-André; Haché, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Adult mortality can be a major driver of population decline in species whose productivity is relatively low. Yet, little is known about the factors influencing adult survival rates in migratory bird species, nor do we know much about the longer-term effects of habitat disturbance on the fitness of individuals. The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) is one of the vertebrate species most sensitive to forest management, yet it is still common and widespread. We monitored the fate of 330 colour-banded Ovenbird males in four pairs of 25-ha plots during 9 successive breeding seasons. One plot of each pair was treated through selection harvesting (30-40% basal area removed) during the first winter. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) higher physiological costs in harvested plots as a result of lower food abundance will reduce apparent survival rate (ASR) relative to controls; (2) lower ASR following years with low nest survival and higher probability of renesting; (3) fluctuations in ASR reflecting El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); and (4) higher ASR in returning males than in recruits (unbanded immigrants) owing to greater site familiarity in the former. We tested the relative importance of these hypotheses, or combinations thereof, by generating 23 models explaining variation in ASR. The year-dependent model received the most support, showing a 41% decrease in ASR from 2007 to 2014. The important year-to-year variation we observed in ASR (Σw(i) = 0.99) was not explained by variation in nest predation risk nor by ENSO. There was also little evidence for an effect of selection harvesting on ASR of Ovenbird males, despite a slight reduction in lifespan relative to males from control plots (2.7 vs 2.9 years). An avenue worth exploring to explain this intriguing pattern would be to determine whether conditions at migratory stopover sites or in the wintering area of our focal population have gradually worsened over the past decade.

  11. ENSO, Nest Predation Risk, Food Abundance, and Male Status Fail to Explain Annual Variations in the Apparent Survival Rate of a Migratory Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Vernouillet, Alizée; Villard, Marc-André; Haché, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Adult mortality can be a major driver of population decline in species whose productivity is relatively low. Yet, little is known about the factors influencing adult survival rates in migratory bird species, nor do we know much about the longer-term effects of habitat disturbance on the fitness of individuals. The Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla) is one of the vertebrate species most sensitive to forest management, yet it is still common and widespread. We monitored the fate of 330 colour-banded Ovenbird males in four pairs of 25-ha plots during 9 successive breeding seasons. One plot of each pair was treated through selection harvesting (30–40% basal area removed) during the first winter. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) higher physiological costs in harvested plots as a result of lower food abundance will reduce apparent survival rate (ASR) relative to controls; (2) lower ASR following years with low nest survival and higher probability of renesting; (3) fluctuations in ASR reflecting El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); and (4) higher ASR in returning males than in recruits (unbanded immigrants) owing to greater site familiarity in the former. We tested the relative importance of these hypotheses, or combinations thereof, by generating 23 models explaining variation in ASR. The year-dependent model received the most support, showing a 41% decrease in ASR from 2007 to 2014. The important year-to-year variation we observed in ASR (Σwi = 0.99) was not explained by variation in nest predation risk nor by ENSO. There was also little evidence for an effect of selection harvesting on ASR of Ovenbird males, despite a slight reduction in lifespan relative to males from control plots (2.7 vs 2.9 years). An avenue worth exploring to explain this intriguing pattern would be to determine whether conditions at migratory stopover sites or in the wintering area of our focal population have gradually worsened over the past decade. PMID:25419839

  12. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)−MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN−MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN−MTX produced nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN−MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively. PMID:27621591

  13. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)−MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN−MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN−MTX produced nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN−MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN−MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively.

  14. Nanomedical strategy to prolong survival period, heighten cure rate, and lower systemic toxicity of S180 mice treated with MTX/MIT.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning; Zhao, Ming; Wang, Yuji; Hu, Xi; Wu, Jianhui; Jiang, Xueyun; Li, Shan; Cui, Chunying; Peng, Shiqi

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the usual combination form of methotrexate (MTX)/mitoxantrone (MIT) and various complex combination regimens of MTX/MIT with other anticancer drugs, the survival period, cure rate, and systemic toxicity still need to be improved. For this purpose, a nanostructured amino group-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNN)-MTX/MIT was designed. In the preparation, the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) was modified with amino groups to form MSNN. The covalent modification of the amino groups on the surface of MSNN with MTX resulted in MSNN-MTX. The loading of MIT into the surface pores of MSNN-MTX produced nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT. Compared with the usual combination form (MTX/MIT), nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT increased the survival period greatly, heightened the cure rate to a great extent, and lowered the systemic toxicity of the treated S180 mice, significantly. These superior in vivo properties of nanostructured MSNN-MTX/MIT over the usual combination form (MTX/MIT) were correlated with the former selectively releasing MTX and MIT in tumor tissue and inside cancer cells in vitro. The chemical structure and the nanostructure of MSNN-MTX/MIT were characterized using infrared and differential scanning calorimeter spectra as well as transmission electron microscope images, respectively. PMID:27621591

  15. Microbial survival rates of Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans under low temperature, low pressure, and UV-Irradiation conditions, and their relevance to possible Martian life.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Benjamin; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2006-04-01

    Viability rates were determined for microbial populations of Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans under the environmental stresses of low temperature (-35 degrees C), low-pressure conditions (83.3 kPa), and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (37 W/m(2)). During the stress tests the organisms were suspended in saltwater soil and freshwater soil media, at variable burial depths, and in seawater. Microbial populations of both organisms were most susceptible to dehydration stress associated with low-pressure conditions, and to UV irradiation. However, suspension in a liquid water medium and burial at larger depths (5 cm) improved survival rates markedly. Our results indicate that planetary surfaces that possess little to no atmosphere and have low water availability do not constitute a favorable environment for terrestrial microorganisms.

  16. Microbial Survival Rates of Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans Under Low Temperature, Low Pressure, and UV-Irradiation Conditions, and Their Relevance to Possible Martian Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Benjamin; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2006-04-01

    Viability rates were determined for microbial populations of Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans under the environmental stresses of low temperature (-35°C), low-pressure conditions (83.3 kPa), and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (37 W/m2). During the stress tests the organisms were suspended in saltwater soil and freshwater soil media, at variable burial depths, and in seawater. Microbial populations of both organisms were most susceptible to dehydration stress associated with low-pressure conditions, and to UV irradiation. However, suspension in a liquid water medium and burial at larger depths (5 cm) improved survival rates markedly. Our results indicate that planetary surfaces that possess little to no atmosphere and have low water availability do not constitute a favorable environment for terrestrial microorganisms.

  17. Conditional disease-free survival after liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jian; Zhu, Ying; Ma, Feng; Ren, Yifang; Lu, Jianwen; Wang, Zhengxin; Qin, Lunxiu; Wu, Rongqian; Lv, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Traditionally, survival estimates following liver transplantation (LT) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients were calculated as survival from the surgery date, but future survival probabilities can change over time and conditional disease-free survival (CDFS) may provide patients and clinicians with more accurate prognostic information. This study aimed to assess CDFS in HCC patients after LT. Three hundred eighty-four HCC patients who underwent LT were included. Disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated using the Kaplan–Meier analysis. The 3-year CDFS, which represents the probability of remaining disease free for an additional 3 years, was calculated. 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS rates after LT were 69.9%, 45.8%, and 39.0 %, respectively. Based on the concept of CDFS, the probability of surviving an additional 3 years given that the patient was disease free at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 58.4%, 76.9%, and 83.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated that larger tumor size (hazard ratio [HR], 1.509; 95% CI, 1.146–1.985; P = 0.003) was associated with poorer DFS. Patients with worse prognostic features at baseline demonstrated the greater increase in CDFS over time. Survival estimates following liver transplantation of HCC patients change according to survival time accrued since surgery. CDFS estimates improved dramatically over time especially among patients with worse prognostic features at the time of surgery. CDFS may be a useful tool in counseling patients with HCC, as it is a more accurate assessment of future survival for those patients who have already survived a certain amount of time. PMID:27495049

  18. The Relationship of a Combination of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells and Frozen Fat with the Survival Rate of Transplanted Fat

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ki-Young; Park, Hojin; Park, Seung-Ha; Lee, Byung-Il; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Kim, Tae-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Background The survival rate of grafted fat is difficult to predict, and repeated procedures are frequently required. In this study, the effects of the freezing period of harvested adipose tissue and the addition of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) on the process of fat absorption were studied. Methods Adipose tissue was obtained from patients who underwent a lipoaspirated fat graft. The fat tissue was cryopreserved at -20℃ in a domestic refrigerator. A total of 40 nude mice were used. The mice in the experimental group received three different subcutaneous injections in the back: an injection of fresh fat and ASCs, an injection of fat that had been frozen for one month and ASCs, and an injection of fat that had been frozen for two months and ASCs. The control mice received fat grafts without ASCs. The mice were sacrificed at four or eight weeks after the procedure, and the grafted fat tissues were harvested. The extracted fat was evaluated using photographic analysis, volume measurements, and histological examination. Results In the control group, the fat resorption rates four weeks after transplantation in the grafts of fresh fat, fat that had been frozen for one month, and fat that had been frozen for two months were 21.14%, 22.46%, and 42.56%, respectively. In the experimental group, the corresponding resorption rates were 6.68%, 13.0%, and 33.9%, respectively. Conclusions ASCs can increase the fat graft survival rate. The use of ASCs in fat grafting can reduce the need for repeated fat grafts and provide good long term results. PMID:26618113

  19. Survival of Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, M.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Jackson, D.H.; Wolfe, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus; CWTD) are an endangered subspecies on which little demographic information exists. We determined survival rates and causes of mortality for 64 radiocollared adults from 1996 to 1998, and for 63 radiocollared neonatal fawns during the summer and fall months of 1996-2001 in Douglas County, Oregon, USA. Annual adult survival rates averaged 0.74 over 3 years, and most mortality (73%) occurred between fall and winter. Seasonal survival was lowest (0.75) for the fall-winter 1997-1998, and was ???0.90 during all spring-summer periods. Annual and seasonal survival rates did not differ by gender. Average annual survival was 0.77 for deer in wildland areas compared with 0.66 for deer in suburban areas, but these differences were not consistent between years and seasons. Survival over the entire 3-year study was low (0.38). Eight deer died from a combination of emaciation and disease, and almost all (92%) necropsied deer were in poor body condition. Fawn survival to 7 months was low (0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.26) and declined most rapidly during the first 1.5 months of life. Predation (n = 21) and abandonment (n = 6) were the most frequent known causes of death for fawns. Our results suggest that CWTD may have responded to density-dependent factors during this short-term study, although the effects of other environmental or intrinsic factors cannot be ignored. Fawn survival may be insufficient to produce enough recruits for population growth and eventual range expansion.

  20. Survival of Columbian white-tailed deer in western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Anthony, Robert G.; Jackson, Dewaine H.; Wolfe, Scott A.

    2002-01-01

    Columbian white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus leucurus; CWTD) are an endangered subspecies on which little demographic information exists. We determined survival rates and causes of mortality for 64 radiocol- lared adults from 1996 to 1998, and for 63 radiocollared neonatal fawns during the summer and fall months of 1996-2001 in Douglas County, Oregon, USA. Annual adult survival rates averaged 0.74 over 3 years, and most mor- tality (73%) occurred between fall and winter. Seasonal survival was lowest (0.75) for the fall-winter 1997-1998, and was 20.90 during all spring-summer periods. Annual and seasonal survival rates did not differ by gender. Average annual survival was 0.77 for deer in wildland areas compared with 0.66 for deer in suburban areas, but these dif- ferences were not consistent between years and seasons. Survival over the entire 3-year study was low (0.38). Eight deer died from a combination of emaciation and disease, and almost all (92%) necropsied deer were in poor body condition. Fawn survival to 7 months was low (0.14, 95% CI = 0.02-0.26) and declined most rapidly during the first 1.5 months of life. Predation (n = 21) and abandonment (n = 6) were the most frequent known causes of death for fawns. Our results suggest that CWTD may have responded to density-dependent factors during this short-term study, although the effects of other environmental or intrinsic factors cannot be ignored. Fawn survival may be insufficient to produce enough recruits for population growth and eventual range expansion.

  1. Laboratory-derived temperature preference and effect on the feeding rate and survival of juvenile Hemimysis anomala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Jennifer; Rudstam, Lars S.; Boscarino, Brent T.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Hemimysis anomala is a warm-water mysid that invaded the Great Lakes region in 2006 and has since rapidly spread throughout the basin. We conducted three laboratory experiments to better define the temperature preference, tolerance limits, and temperature effects on feeding rates of juvenile Hemimysis, using individuals acclimated to mid (16 °C) and upper (22 °C) preferred temperature values previously reported for the species. For temperature preference, we fit a two-parameter Gaussian (μ, σ) function to the experimental data, and found that the peak values (μ, interpreted as the preference temperature) were 22.0 °C (SE 0.25) when acclimated to 16 and 21.9 °C (SE 0.38) when acclimated to 22 °C, with the σ-values of the curves at 2.6 and 2.5 °C, respectively. No mysids were observed in temperatures below 10 or above 28 °C in these preference experiments. In short-term tolerance experiments for temperatures between 4 and 32 °C, all mysids died within 8 h at 30.2 °C for 16 °C acclimated mysids, and at 31.8 °C for 22 °C acclimated mysids. No lower lethal limit was found. Feeding rates increased with temperature from an average of 4 Bosmina eaten per hour at 5 °C to 19 Bosmina eaten per hour at 27 °C. The results of our experiments indicate an optimal temperature for Hemimysis between 21 and 27 °C, which corresponds with temperatures during periods of high population growth in the field. These results contribute a better understanding of this species' biological response to temperature that will help guide field studies and inform bioenergetics modeling.

  2. Tropical tree rings reveal preferential survival of fast-growing juveniles and increased juvenile growth rates over time.

    PubMed

    Rozendaal, Danaë M A; Brienen, Roel J W; Soliz-Gamboa, Claudia C; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2010-02-01

    Long-term juvenile growth patterns of tropical trees were studied to test two hypotheses: fast-growing juvenile trees have a higher chance of reaching the canopy ('juvenile selection effect'); and tree growth has increased over time ('historical growth increase'). Tree-ring analysis was applied to test these hypotheses for five tree species from three moist forest sites in Bolivia, using samples from 459 individuals. Basal area increment was calculated from ring widths, for trees < 30 cm in diameter. For three out of five species, a juvenile selection effect was found in rings formed by small juveniles. Thus, extant adult trees in these species have had higher juvenile growth rates than extant juvenile trees. By contrast, rings formed by somewhat larger juveniles in four species showed the opposite pattern: a historical growth increase. For most size classes of > 10 cm diameter none of the patterns was found. Fast juvenile growth may be essential to enable tropical trees to reach the forest canopy, especially for small juvenile trees in the dark forest understorey. The historical growth increase requires cautious interpretation, but may be partially attributable to CO(2) fertilization.

  3. [Dermatobia hominis infection in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Meissner, M; Kippenberger, S; Valesky, E M; Kaufmann, R

    2012-04-01

    In the context of increasing travel to the tropics, outpatient services are more frequently confronted with non-domestic diseases in Europe. A 3-year old child presented with a painful tumor of the scalp. After incision of the furuncle-like lesion, we extracted a larva of the botfly Dermatobia hominis. Botflies are mainly encountered in Central and South America; they should be considered if patients demonstrate a furuncle-like lesion and have returned from a holiday in these endemic regions.

  4. Improved survival rate in primary intracranial lymphoma treated by high-dose radiation and systemic vincristine-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide-prednisolone chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Shibamoto, Y; Tsutsui, K; Dodo, Y; Yamabe, H; Shima, N; Abe, M

    1990-05-01

    Thirty patients with histologically proven primary intracranial non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated at Kyoto University. Ten of them were treated prospectively with a radiation-chemotherapy protocol. All but four specimens were recently reexamined and classified according to the Working Formulation system. The predominant histologic types were diffuse large cell type, large cell immunoblastic type, and diffuse mixed small and large cell type, seen in 38%, 21%, and 21% of cases, respectively. Before 1980, 16 patients were treated with postoperative radiation without definite chemotherapy, and only one has survived more than 5 years. Local recurrence was the most common cause of failure. In 1981, the authors started a protocol in which four to six courses of systemic chemotherapy with vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisolone (VEPA) was given after whole brain radiation (30-40 Gy) with a local boost up to 50 to 60 Gy. Eight patients completed this protocol, and all of them are alive at 16 to 100 months after diagnosis, with three patients surviving more than 5 years. Only one patient developed recurrence. On the other hand, six patients who did not complete or receive chemotherapy after 1981 are dead or alive with recurrence. Correlation between the Working Formulation subtype and prognosis was not clear because of the variety of treatment. Two patients receiving chemotherapy developed brain necrosis, which was fatal in one case, and the other two patients treated with the protocol are in a poor state without signs of recurrence. Chemotherapy may enhance the radiation effect on normal brain tissue as well as tumor. Combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy can improve the survival rate, but the optimal dosage needs to be investigated further.

  5. Chinese Herbal Medicine Treatment Improves the Overall Survival Rate of Individuals with Hypertension among Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Modulates In Vitro Smooth Muscle Cell Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Shiao, Yi-Tzone; Wang, Chang-Bi; Chien, Wen-Kuei; Chen, Jin-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Tsang, Hsinyi; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Li, Ju-Pi; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Pang, Hao-Yu; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lan, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chen, Shih-Yin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Liang, Wen-Miin

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic, multifactorial, and metabolic disorder accounting for 90% diabetes cases worldwide. Among them, almost half of T2D have hypertension, which is responsible for cardiovascular disease, morbidity, and mortality in these patients. The Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) prescription patterns of hypertension individuals among T2D patients have yet to be characterized. This study, therefore, aimed to determine their prescription patterns and evaluate the CHM effect. A cohort of one million randomly sampled cases from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to investigate the overall survival rate of CHM users, and prescription patterns. After matching CHM and non-CHM users for age, gender and date of diagnosis of hypertension, 980 subjects for each group were selected. The CHM users were characterized with slightly longer duration time from diabetes to hypertension, and more cases for hyperlipidaemia. The cumulative survival probabilities were higher in CHM users than in non-CHM users. Among these top 12 herbs, Liu-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Dan-Shen, and Ge-Gen were the most common herbs and inhibited in vitro smooth muscle cell contractility. Our study also provides a CHM comprehensive list that may be useful in future investigation of the safety and efficacy for individuals with hypertension among type 2 diabetes patients. PMID:26699542

  6. Shock experiments in support of the Lithopanspermia theory: The influence of host rock composition, temperature, and shock pressure on the survival rate of endolithic and epilithic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Cornelia; Fritz, Jörg; Misgaiski, Martin; Stäffler, Dieter; Artemieva, Natalia A.; Hornemann, Ulrich; Moeller, Ralf; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Cockell, Charles; Horneck, Gerda; Ott, Sieglinde; Rabbow, Elke

    2011-05-01

    Shock recovery experiments were performed with an explosive set-up in which three types of microorganisms embedded in various types of host rocks were exposed to strong shock waves with pressure pulse lengths of lower than 0.5 μs: spores of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, Xanthoria elegans lichens, and cells of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp. 029. In these experiments, three fundamental parameters were systematically varied (1) shock pressures ranging from 5 to 50 GPa, (2) preshock ambient temperature of 293, 233 and 193 K, and (3) the type of host rock, including nonporous igneous rocks (gabbro and dunite as analogs for the Martian shergottites and chassignites, respectively), porous sandstone, rock salt (halite), and a clay-rich mineral mixture as porous analogs for dry and water-saturated Martian regolith. The results show that the three parameters have a strong influence on the survival rates of the microorganisms. The most favorable conditions for the impact ejection from Mars for microorganisms would be (1) low porosity host rocks, (2) pressures <10-20 GPa, and (3) low ambient temperature of target rocks during impact. All tested microorganisms were capable of surviving to a certain extent impact ejection in different geological materials under distinct conditions.

  7. RNAi-Mediated Knockdown of Catalase Causes Cell Cycle Arrest in SL-1 Cells and Results in Low Survival Rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Meiying; Chen, Shaohua; Muhammad, Rizwan-ul-Haq; Dong, Xiaolin; Gong, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT) is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444) was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT). This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival. PMID:23555693

  8. Upregulation of MALAT-1 and its association with survival rate and the effect on cell cycle and migration in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wenjian; Bai, Yu; Li, Yan; Guo, Ling; Zeng, Ping; Wang, Yonglian; Qi, Bo; Liu, Shangguo; Qin, Xiuguang; Li, Yongzhen; Zhao, Baosheng

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1) can be used as a potential therapy target for human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. MALAT-1 expression levels were detected in 137 paired EC samples and adjacent nonneoplastic tissues. Human esophageal carcinoma cell lines EC9706 and KYSE150 were transfected with MALAT-1 small interference RNA. Cell proliferation, migration/invasion ability, cell cycle, and apoptosis were assessed. MALAT-1 expressed higher levels in esophageal cancer tissues when compared with paired adjacent normal tissues. This high expression was associated with a decreased survival rate. MALAT-1 knockdown induced a decrease in proliferation-enhanced apoptosis, inhibited migration/invasion, and reduced colony formation and led to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. These data indicates that MALAT-1 could be exploited for therapeutic benefit.

  9. Two-part survival models applied to administrative data for determining rate of and predictors for maternal-child transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Hauck, W W; McKee, L J; Turner, B J

    1997-08-15

    In analysing maternal-child HIV transmission from Medicaid claims data, we must deal with follow-up that is sometimes so short that we cannot claim that an apparently uninfected infant is actually uninfected as opposed to not yet exhibiting HIV-associated symptoms. To overcome this, we have been using analyses of 'time-to-diagnosis' of HIV infection to estimate transmission rates and predictors of transmission. Such analyses mix the event of transmission with that of our ability to diagnose HIV infection from coded claims data. We would like to separate these two pieces. Also, due to incomplete follow-up, Kaplan-Meier analyses will underestimate transmission rates. In econometrics and biostatistics there are two-part (mixture) models that can serve the goal of separating transmission from the process of diagnosing HIV infection in the newborn. Farewell describes a model that combines a logistic regression for the yes/no event (in our case, HIV transmission) and a Weibull regression model for the survival analysis portion (in our case, time-to-diagnosis). We use this approach to fit models that have potentially separate covariates for transmission and for time-to-diagnosis. The results allow us to identify predictors of transmission and estimate transmission rates with reduced concern for adequacy of follow-up.

  10. Density and survival rate of Culex quinquefasciatus at Parque Ecológico do Tietê, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Gabriel Z; Sallum, Maria Anice M

    2008-03-01

    Parity rate, gonotrophic cycle length, and density of a Culex quinquefasciatus female population was estimated at the Parque Ecológico do Tietê (PET), São Paulo, Brazil. Adult Cx. quinquefasciatus females were collected from vegetation along the edges of a polluted drainage canal with the use of a battery-powered backpack aspirator from September to November 2005 and from February to April 2006. We examined 255 Cx. quinquefasciatus ovaries to establish the parity rate of 0.22 and determined the gonotrophic cycle length under laboratory conditions to be 3 and 4 days. From these data, we calculated the Cx. quinquefasciatus survival rate to be 0.60 and 0.68 per day. Density of the Cx. quinquefasciatus female (5.71 females per m2) was estimated based on a population size of 28,810 individuals divided by the sampled area of 5,040 m2. Results of all experiments indicate medium survivorship and high density of the Cx. quinquefasciatus female population. This species is epidemiologically relevant in the PET area and should be a target of the vector control program of São Paulo municipality.

  11. Pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Holdaway, M. D.; Kennedy, J.; Ashcroft, T.; Kay-Butler, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Until 1960, 179 cases of infection with Nocardia asteroides had been described in the world literature. Seventeen cases in children were reported by 1963. The organism is a common saprophyte in nature with probably a world-wide distribution. Infection can be primary but is more common in patients with underlying malignancy, auto-immune disease or preceding tuberculosis. Sulphonamides, particularly sulphadiazine, are the drugs of choice in treatment; the value of antibiotics is less clearly established. The indications for surgical treatment have not yet been defined. We record a further case of primary pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child. Images PMID:6035802

  12. Adaptive Significance of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Regulation of Rhamnolipids by Integration of Growth Rate in Burkholderia glumae: A Trade-Off between Survival and Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    promoting the chances of survival, even if the cell density might not be high enough for an otherwise efficient production of rhamnolipids. In conclusion, we propose that the adaptive significance of growth rate-dependent functionality of QS in biosynthesis of costly public goods lies within providing a regulatory mechanism for selecting the optimal trade-off between survival and efficiency. PMID:27540372

  13. Adaptive Significance of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Regulation of Rhamnolipids by Integration of Growth Rate in Burkholderia glumae: A Trade-Off between Survival and Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    motility, thus promoting the chances of survival, even if the cell density might not be high enough for an otherwise efficient production of rhamnolipids. In conclusion, we propose that the adaptive significance of growth rate-dependent functionality of QS in biosynthesis of costly public goods lies within providing a regulatory mechanism for selecting the optimal trade-off between survival and efficiency. PMID:27540372

  14. Galaxy Disks Do Not Need to Survive in the ΛCDM Paradigm: The Galaxy Merger Rate Out to z ~ 1.5 from Morpho-kinematic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puech, M.; Hammer, F.; Hopkins, P. F.; Athanassoula, E.; Flores, H.; Rodrigues, M.; Wang, J. L.; Yang, Y. B.

    2012-07-01

    About two-thirds of present-day, large galaxies are spirals such as the Milky Way or Andromeda, but the way their thin rotating disks formed remains uncertain. Observations have revealed that half of their progenitors, six billion years ago, had peculiar morphologies and/or kinematics, which exclude them from the Hubble sequence. Major mergers, i.e., fusions between galaxies of similar mass, are found to be the likeliest driver for such strong peculiarities. However, thin disks are fragile and easily destroyed by such violent collisions, which creates a critical tension between the observed fraction of thin disks and their survival within the ΛCDM paradigm. Here, we show that the observed high occurrence of mergers among their progenitors is only apparent and is resolved when using morpho-kinematic observations that are sensitive to all the phases of the merging process. This provides an original way of narrowing down observational estimates of the galaxy merger rate and leads to a perfect match with predictions by state-of-the-art ΛCDM semi-empirical models with no particular fine-tuning needed. These results imply that half of local thin disks do not survive but are actually rebuilt after a gas-rich major merger occurring in the past nine billion years, i.e., two-thirds of the lifetime of the universe. This emphasizes the need to study how thin disks can form in halos with a more active merger history than previously considered and to investigate what is the origin of the gas reservoir from which local disks would reform.

  15. Survival rates and causes of revision in cemented primary total knee replacement: a report from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register 1994-2009.

    PubMed

    Gøthesen, O; Espehaug, B; Havelin, L; Petursson, G; Lygre, S; Ellison, P; Hallan, G; Furnes, O

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated the rates of survival and cause of revision of seven different brands of cemented primary total knee replacement (TKR) in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register during the years 1994 to 2009. Revision for any cause, including resurfacing of the patella, was the primary endpoint. Specific causes of revision were secondary outcomes. Three posterior cruciate-retaining (PCR) fixed modular-bearing TKRs, two fixed non-modular bearing PCR TKRs and two mobile-bearing posterior cruciate-sacrificing TKRs were investigated in a total of 17 782 primary TKRs. The median follow-up for the implants ranged from 1.8 to 6.9 years. Kaplan-Meier 10-year survival ranged from 89.5% to 95.3%. Cox's relative risk (RR) was calculated relative to the fixed modular-bearing Profix knee (the most frequently used TKR in Norway), and ranged from 1.1 to 2.6. The risk of revision for aseptic tibial loosening was higher in the mobile-bearing LCS Classic (RR 6.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8 to 12.1)), the LCS Complete (RR 7.7 (95% CI 4.1 to 14.4)), the fixed modular-bearing Duracon (RR 4.5 (95% CI 1.8 to 11.1)) and the fixed non-modular bearing AGC Universal TKR (RR 2.5 (95% CI 1.3 to 5.1)), compared with the Profix. These implants (except AGC Universal) also had an increased risk of revision for femoral loosening (RR 2.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.8), RR 3.7 (95% CI 1.6 to 8.9), and RR 3.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 11.0), respectively). These results suggest that aseptic loosening is related to design in TKR. PMID:23632673

  16. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children. PMID:27084549

  17. GRB 030329: 3 years of radio afterglow monitoring.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, A J; Kamble, A; Wijers, R A M J; Resmi, L; Bhattacharya, D; Rol, E; Strom, R; Kouveliotou, C; Oosterloo, T; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2007-05-15

    Radio observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are essential for our understanding of the physics of relativistic blast waves, as they enable us to follow the evolution of GRB explosions much longer than the afterglows in any other wave band. We have performed a 3-year monitoring campaign of GRB 030329 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescopes and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Our observations, combined with observations at other wavelengths, have allowed us to determine the GRB blast wave physical parameters, such as the total burst energy and the ambient medium density, as well as to investigate the jet nature of the relativistic outflow. Further, by modelling the late-time radio light curve of GRB 030329, we predict that the Low-Frequency Array (30-240 MHz) will be able to observe afterglows of similar GRBs, and constrain the physics of the blast wave during its non-relativistic phase.

  18. Severe hypercholesterolemia and liver disease in a 3-year old.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amol M; Brautbar, Ariel; Desai, Nirav K; Wilson, Don P

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein-X, which is composed of phospholipids and non-esterified cholesterol, is an abnormal lipoprotein with a density range similar to LDL-C. The two most common ways which lipoprotein-X accumulates is from reflux of bile salts into plasma or deficiency in lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase. This is a case of severe hypercholesterolemia and liver disease in a 3- year old male that presented with pruritus, pale stool, scleral ictus, and abdominal distention. He was diagnosed with primary sclerosing cholangitis which was confirmed by liver biopsy. Our patient was treated with steroids and immunomodulator therapy which was associated with significant reduction in cholestasis and LDL-C levels. Lipoprotein-X has several properties that make it anti-atherogenic, which raises the question if treatment for hypercholesterolemia should be initiated. PMID:27206954

  19. GRB 030329: 3 years of radio afterglow monitoring.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, A J; Kamble, A; Wijers, R A M J; Resmi, L; Bhattacharya, D; Rol, E; Strom, R; Kouveliotou, C; Oosterloo, T; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2007-05-15

    Radio observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are essential for our understanding of the physics of relativistic blast waves, as they enable us to follow the evolution of GRB explosions much longer than the afterglows in any other wave band. We have performed a 3-year monitoring campaign of GRB 030329 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescopes and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope. Our observations, combined with observations at other wavelengths, have allowed us to determine the GRB blast wave physical parameters, such as the total burst energy and the ambient medium density, as well as to investigate the jet nature of the relativistic outflow. Further, by modelling the late-time radio light curve of GRB 030329, we predict that the Low-Frequency Array (30-240 MHz) will be able to observe afterglows of similar GRBs, and constrain the physics of the blast wave during its non-relativistic phase. PMID:17293318

  20. 3-year experience with US QML: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leseur, M.

    2002-12-01

    Based on its 20 years experience in manufacturing semiconductor devices, Atmel Nantes has chosen to apply QML concept to move from Product Qualification to Technology Qualification. Defense Supply Center Colombus granted Atmel Nantes QML Q & V (class Q = military quality level , class V = space quality level), in December 1999. A demonstration phase is on-going with draft ESA/SCC 25400 and 2549000 basic specifications for the definition of a European QML. Atmel is a candidate as an integrated microcircuits manufacturer. After 3 years producing QML devices, some optimisations of screening tests have been implemented. This appears to be a valid solution for reducing both cost and cycle time with no impact on product reliability.

  1. ISS ECLSS: 3 Years of Logistics for Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkedi, Brienne; Thompson, Dean

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) is designed to be maintainable. During the 3 years since the ISS US Lab became operational, there have been numerous ECLSS Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) launched and returned to Maintain the ECLSS operation in the US segments. The maintenance logistics have provided tools for maintenance, replaced limited life ORUs and failed ORUs, upgraded ECLSS hardware to improve reliability and placed critical spares onboard prior to need. In most cases, the removed ORUs have been returned for either failure analysis and repair or refurbishment. This paper describes the ECLSS manifesting history and maintenance events and quantifies the numbers of ECLSS items, weights, and volumes.

  2. Annual recapture and survival rates of two non-breeding adult populations of Roseate Terns Stema dougallii captured on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, and estimates of their population sizes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, P.; Minton, C.D.T.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hines, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Capture-recapture data from two disparate breeding populations of Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) captured together as non-breeding individuals from 2002 to 2007 in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Australia were analyzed for both survival rate and recapture rate. The average annual survival rate for the birds from the Asian population (S. d. bangsi) (0.901) is higher than that of the other population of unknown breeding origin (0.819). There was large variability in survival in both populations among years, but the average survival rate of 0.85 is similar to estimates for the same species in North America. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber models used in program MARK to estimate survival rates also produced estimated of recapture probabilities and population sizes. These estimates of population size were 29,000 for S. D. bangsi and 8,300 for the study area and much larger than the documented numbers in the likely breeding areas, suggesting that many breeding sites are currently unknown.

  3. Survival rate of wine-related yeasts during alcoholic fermentation assessed by direct live/dead staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Branco, Patrícia; Monteiro, Margarida; Moura, Patrícia; Albergaria, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Real-time detection of microorganisms involved in complex microbial process, such as wine fermentations, and evaluation of their physiological state is crucial to predict whether or not those microbial species will be able to impact the final product. In the present work we used a direct live/dead staining (LDS) procedure combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to simultaneously assess the identity and viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (Hg) during fermentations performed with single and mixed cultures. The population evolution of both yeasts was determined by plating and by LDS combined with species-specific FISH-probes labeled with Fluorescein. Since the FISH method involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane prior to hybridization and that it may influence the free diffusion of PI in and out of the cells, we optimized the concentration of this dye (0.5 μg of PI per 10(6) cells) for minimal diffusion (less than 2%). Fluorescent cells were enumerated by hemocytometry and flow cytometry. Results showed that the survival rate of Sc during mixed cultures was high throughout the entire process (60% of viable cells at the 9th day), while Hg began to die off at the 2nd day, exhibited 98% of dead cells at the 3rd day (45 g/l of ethanol) and became completely unculturable at the 4th day. However, under single culture fermentation the survival rate and culturability of Hg decreased at a much slower pace, exhibiting at the 7th day (67 g/l of ethanol) 8.7×10(4) CFU/ml and 85% of dead cells. Thus, our work demonstrated that the LDS-FISH method is able to simultaneously assess the viability and identity of these wine-related yeast species during alcoholic fermentation in a fast and reliable way. In order to validate PI-staining as a viability marker during alcoholic fermentation, we evaluated the effect of ethanol on the membrane permeability of Sc and Hg cells, as well as their capacity to recover membrane

  4. Survival rate and expression of Heat-shock protein 70 and Frost genes after temperature stress in Drosophila melanogaster lines that are selected for recovery time from temperature coma.

    PubMed

    Udaka, Hiroko; Ueda, Chiaki; Goto, Shin G

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying temperature tolerance using Drosophila melanogaster lines with rapid, intermediate, or slow recovery from heat or chill coma that were established by artificial selection or by free recombination without selection. Specifically, we focused on the relationships among their recovery from heat or chill coma, survival after severe heat or cold, and survival enhanced by rapid cold hardening (RCH) or heat hardening. The recovery time from heat coma was not related to the survival rate after severe heat. The line with rapid recovery from chill coma showed a higher survival rate after severe cold exposure, and therefore the same mechanisms are likely to underlie these phenotypes. The recovery time from chill coma and survival rate after severe cold were unrelated to RCH-enhanced survival. We also examined the expression of two genes, Heat-shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Frost, in these lines to understand the contribution of these stress-inducible genes to intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma. The line showing rapid recovery from heat coma did not exhibit higher expression of Hsp70 and Frost. In addition, Hsp70 and Frost transcription levels were not correlated with the recovery time from chill coma. Thus, Hsp70 and Frost transcriptional regulation was not involved in the intraspecific variation in recovery from temperature coma.

  5. SMOS Instrument Performance and Calibration after 3 Years in Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Neira, Manuel; Corbella, Ignasi; Torres, Francesc; Kainulainen, Juha; Oliva, Roger; Closa, Josep; Cabot, François; Castro, Rita; Barbosa, Jose; Gutierrez, Antonio; Anterrieu, Eric; Tenerelli, Joe; Martin-Porqueras, Fernando; Buenadicha, Guillermo; Delwart, Steven; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; Suess, Martin

    2013-04-01

    ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has been in orbit for already over 3 years which has allowed the calibration and data processing team consolidating both the calibration strategy and the Level-1 processor which transforms the raw visibility samples into polarimetric brightness temperature images. The payload on board SMOS, MIRAS, is quite unique in that it is the first microwave radiometer in space ever capable to generate wide field of view images at every snapshot measurement. This means that most of the calibration as well as image processing techniques are being developed for the first time with little heritage from any previous space mission. Issues intrinsically attached to its wide field of view such as spatial ripples across the snapshot images are particular to MIRAS and to no other earlier radiometer. Even the fundamental theory behind the instrument was put at test, first on ground inside an electromagnetic compatibility chamber, and now in orbit when imaging the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation of the cold sky. A groundbreaking effort is being carried out by the SMOS project team to understand and master all calibration and image reconstruction issues of this novel microwave interferometer payload. MIRAS in-orbit performance is driven by the amplitude of spatial ripples across the image and orbital and seasonal radiometer stability. Spatial ripples are unique to interferometric radiometers and are produced by (a) a limited knowledge of the antenna patterns and, in general, of the model of the instrument, (b) some fundamental limitations related to the inverse problem of image reconstruction in undetermined conditions and (c) subtle data processing inconsistencies which are discovered and corrected. To reduce the spatial ripples sea surface salinity retrievals are performed by first removing the brightness temperature spatial errors using a uniform region of the Pacific Ocean. However soil moisture retrievals cannot benefit of

  6. Mental Health Diagnoses 3 Years After Receiving or Being Denied an Abortion in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, John M.; Foster, Diana G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We set out to assess the occurrence of new depression and anxiety diagnoses in women 3 years after they sought an abortion. Methods. We conducted semiannual telephone interviews of 956 women who sought abortions from 30 US facilities. Adjusted multivariable discrete-time logistic survival models examined whether the study group (women who obtained abortions just under a facility’s gestational age limit, who were denied abortions and carried to term, who were denied abortions and did not carry to term, and who received first-trimester abortions) predicted depression or anxiety onset during seven 6-month time intervals. Results. The 3-year cumulative probability of professionally diagnosed depression was 9% to 14%; for anxiety it was 10% to 15%, with no study group differences. Women in the first-trimester group and women denied abortions who did not give birth had greater odds of new self-diagnosed anxiety than did women who obtained abortions just under facility gestational limits. Conclusions. Among women seeking abortions near facility gestational limits, those who obtained abortions were at no greater mental health risk than were women who carried an unwanted pregnancy to term. PMID:26469674

  7. TNFR-Fc fusion protein expressed by in vivo electroporation improves survival rates and myocardial injury in coxsackievirus induced murine myocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong-Mook; Lim, Byung-Kwan; Ho, Seong-Hyun; Yun, Soo-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Ok; Park, Eun-Min; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Kim, Sunyoung; Jeon, Eun-Seok . E-mail: esjeon@smc.samsung.co.kr

    2006-06-09

    Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) is one of the major cytokines that modulate the immune response in viral myocarditis, but its role has not yet been thoroughly evaluated. We antagonized TNF-{alpha} using the expressed soluble p75 TNF receptor linked to the Fc portion of the human IgG1 gene (sTNFR:Fc) by in vivo electroporation, and evaluated its effects on experimental coxsackieviral B3 (CVB3) myocarditis. A plasmid DNA encoding sTNFR:Fc (15 {mu}g/mouse) was injected into the gastrocnemius muscles of Balb/C male mice followed by electroporation (day -1). Control mice were injected with an empty vector. One day after electroporation, mice were infected with CVB3 (day 0). Serum levels of sTNFR:Fc increased from day 2 and peaked at day 5 following electroporation. The heart virus titers of sTNFR:Fc mice were higher than those of controls at day 3. However, subsequent to day 12, the survival rates of the sTNFR:Fc mice were significantly higher than those of the controls (36% versus 0% at day 27, P < 0.01). Histopathological examination indicated that inflammation and myocardial fibrosis were significantly decreased in sTNFR:Fc mice at day 12. The expressed sTNFR:Fc could modulate the inflammatory process during the post-viremic phase of viral myocarditis.

  8. Predicting survival in heart failure case and control subjects by use of fully automated methods for deriving nonlinear and conventional indices of heart rate dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, K. K.; Moody, G. B.; Peng, C. K.; Mietus, J. E.; Larson, M. G.; Levy, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite much recent interest in quantification of heart rate variability (HRV), the prognostic value of conventional measures of HRV and of newer indices based on nonlinear dynamics is not universally accepted. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have designed algorithms for analyzing ambulatory ECG recordings and measuring HRV without human intervention, using robust methods for obtaining time-domain measures (mean and SD of heart rate), frequency-domain measures (power in the bands of 0.001 to 0.01 Hz [VLF], 0.01 to 0.15 Hz [LF], and 0.15 to 0.5 Hz [HF] and total spectral power [TP] over all three of these bands), and measures based on nonlinear dynamics (approximate entropy [ApEn], a measure of complexity, and detrended fluctuation analysis [DFA], a measure of long-term correlations). The study population consisted of chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) case patients and sex- and age-matched control subjects in the Framingham Heart Study. After exclusion of technically inadequate studies and those with atrial fibrillation, we used these algorithms to study HRV in 2-hour ambulatory ECG recordings of 69 participants (mean age, 71.7+/-8.1 years). By use of separate Cox proportional-hazards models, the conventional measures SD (P<.01), LF (P<.01), VLF (P<.05), and TP (P<.01) and the nonlinear measure DFA (P<.05) were predictors of survival over a mean follow-up period of 1.9 years; other measures, including ApEn (P>.3), were not. In multivariable models, DFA was of borderline predictive significance (P=.06) after adjustment for the diagnosis of CHF and SD. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that HRV analysis of ambulatory ECG recordings based on fully automated methods can have prognostic value in a population-based study and that nonlinear HRV indices may contribute prognostic value to complement traditional HRV measures.

  9. Changes in conception rate, calving performance, and calf health and survival from the use of crossbred Jersey x Holstein sires as mates for Holstein dams.

    PubMed

    Maltecca, C; Khatib, H; Schutzkus, V R; Hoffman, P C; Weigel, K A

    2006-07-01

    Differences in conception rates in matings of Holstein sires or F1 Jersey x Holstein sires to Holstein dams in the University of Wisconsin-Madison experimental herd were evaluated, as were differences in birth weight, dystocia, serum protein, serum IgG, fecal consistency, respiratory disease, and perinatal and pre-weaning mortality among the resulting calves. When mated to randomly chosen, lactating Holstein cows, Holstein sires (n = 74) and crossbred sires (n = 7) did not differ in male fertility. Calves from Holstein sires and multiparous Holstein dams (n = 99) were 1.9 kg heavier than calves from crossbred sires and multiparous Holstein dams (n = 211), leading to greater likelihood (odds ratio of 1.24) of dystocia. Furthermore, calves from crossbred sires and multiparous Holstein dams had higher serum protein and serum IgG levels between 24 and 72 h of age, as well as lower rates of perinatal and preweaning morality than calves from Holstein sires and multiparous or primiparous Holstein dams. Mean fecal consistency scores from birth to 7 d of age and number of days with scours also tended to be lower among calves from crossbred sires, compared with calves from Holstein sires. No differences were observed in the incidence or severity of respiratory disease. Results of this study suggest that introduction of Jersey genes via crossbreeding may lead to a reduction in dystocia and improvements in calf health and survival in Holstein herds. Future studies should address other traits related to dairy farm profitability, including milk composition, female fertility, longevity, feed efficiency, and resistance to infectious and metabolic diseases.

  10. The Prognostic Value of the Tumor Shrinkage Rate for Progression-Free Survival in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Receiving Gefitinib

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Il; Kim, Sun Young; Kim, Ju Ock; Jung, Sung Soo; Park, Hee Sun; Moon, Jae Young; Chung, Chae Uk; Kim, Song Soo; Seo, Jae Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) therapy can be measured based on the rate of treatment response, based on the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria or progression-free survival (PFS). However, there are some patients harboring sensitive EGFR mutations who responded poorly to EGFR-TKI therapy. In addition, there is variability in the PFS after EGFR-TKI treatment. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 85 patients with non-small cell lung cancer, who had achieved a stable disease or better response at the first evaluation of treatment response, after receiving a 2-month course of gefitinib. We calculated the tumor shrinkage rate (TSR) by measuring the longest and perpendicular diameter of the main mass on computed tomography before, and 2 months after, gefitinib therapy. Results There was a significant positive correlation between the TSR and PFS (R=0.373, p=0.010). In addition, a simple linear regression analysis showed that the TSR might be an indicator for the PFS (B±standard error, 244.54±66.79; p=0.001). On univariate analysis, the sex, histologic type, smoking history and the number of prior chemotherapy regimens, were significant prognostic factors. On multivariate regression analysis, both the TSR (β=0.257, p=0.029) and adenocarcinoma (β=0.323, p=0.005) were independent prognostic factors for PFS. Conclusion Our results showed that the TSR might be an early prognostic indicator for PFS in patients receiving EGFR-TKI therapy. PMID:26508917

  11. Prostate-specific antigen nadir after high-dose-rate brachytherapy predicts long-term survival outcomes in high-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Takefumi; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Komori, Shouko; Sekiguchi, Akane; Ikeda, Masaomi; Kurosaka, Shinji; Fujita, Tetsuo; Kitano, Masashi; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen nadir (nPSA) after high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy in clinically non-metastatic high-risk prostate cancer patients. Material and methods Data from 216 patients with high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer who underwent HDR brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy with long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) between 2003 and 2008 were analyzed. The median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at diagnosis was 24 ng/ml (range: 3-338 ng/ml). The clinical stage was T1c-2a in 55 cases (26%), T2b-2c in 48 (22%), T3a in 75 (35%), and T3b-4 in 38 (17%). The mean dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 Gy/fraction of HDR brachytherapy. After 5 fractions, external beam radiation therapy with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administered. All patients initially underwent neoadjuvant ADT for at least 6 months, and adjuvant ADT was continued for 36 months. The median follow-up was 7 years from the start of radiotherapy. Results The 7-year PSA relapse-free rate among patients with a post-radiotherapy nPSA level of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was 94%, compared with 23% for patients with higher nPSA values (HR = 28.57; 95% CI: 12.04-66.66; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the nPSA value after radiotherapy was a significant independent predictor of biochemical failure, whereas pretreatment predictive values for worse biochemical control including higher level of initial PSA, Gleason score ≥ 8, positive biopsy core rate ≥ 67%, and T3b-T4, failed to reach independent predictor status. The 7-year cancer-specific survival rate among patients with a post-radiotherapy nPSA level of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was 99%, compared with 82% for patients with higher nPSA values (HR = 32.25; 95% CI: 3.401-333.3; p = 0.002). Conclusions A post-radiotherapy nPSA value of ≤ 0.02 ng/ml was associated with better long-term biochemical tumor control even if patients had pretreatment predictive values for worse

  12. Flapless CAD/CAM-guided surgery for staged transition from failing dentition to complete arch implant rehabilitation: a 3-year clinical report.

    PubMed

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; White, George Shelby; Lal, Kunal

    2012-03-01

    The transition of patients from failing dentition to complete arch implant rehabilitation often requires that the patient be rendered edentulous and has to wear a complete removable dental prosthesis for varying periods of time. This is objectionable to many patients. A staged treatment approach allows a fixed interim restoration, patient comfort, and prosthodontic control throughout the rehabilitation process. CAD/CAM-guided flapless implant surgery has the advantage of prosthetically driven implant placement and minimal postoperative sequelae. A patient with a failing dentition was treated with this combined protocol and was followed up for 3 years after loading. Implant and prosthesis survival rates were 100%, with no technical complications encountered up to the last recall. The purpose of this clinical report is to describe a combination of CAD/CAM-guided flapless surgery and a staged treatment approach, thereby giving the patient a tooth-supported or implant-supported fixed interim prosthesis during the entire rehabilitation process. The various surgical, laboratory, and prosthetic stages are illustrated for the complete arch prosthetic rehabilitation, and the 3-year follow-up outcome is reported.

  13. Sun tanning-related burns--a 3-year experience.

    PubMed

    Piccolo-Lobo, M S; Piccolo, N S; Piccolo-Daher, M T; Cardoso, V M

    1992-04-01

    A retrospective study has analyzed 562 sun-related burns out of 19,643 patients treated at our institution from 1 March 1988 to 28 February 1991. These patients were analysed according to sex, age, burn area, mode and length of treatment and outcome. Females, mainly adults, represented 60.8 per cent of all patients presenting burned due to sun bathing. There is a marked seasonal incidence, proportionally constant throughout these 3 years. The main causes of injury were sun only (36.7 per cent), sun plus fig leaf 'tea' tanning lotion (17.7 per cent) and lemon juice (17.7 per cent). Healing to normal skin appearance was achieved in 99.1 per cent, 0.7 per cent healed with scarring and one patient died due to massive sepsis. The effect of sunlight on skin and the process of 'sunburn' when using homemade plant-derived tanning lotions containing substances which can induce a photodermatitis reaction is also discussed.

  14. Modified Cisplatin/Interferon α-2b/Doxorubicin/Fluorouracil (PIAF) chemotherapy in patients with no hepatitis or cirrhosis is associated with improved response rate, resectability and survival of initially unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaseb, Ahmed O.; Shindoh, Junichi; Patt, Yehuda Z.; Roses, Robert E.; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Lozano, Richard D.; Hassan, Manal M.; Hassabo, Hesham M.; Curley, Steven A.; Aloia, Thomas A.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purposes of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with response rate, resectability, and survival after cisplatin/interferon α-2b/doxorubicin/5-flurouracil (PIAF) combination therapy in patients with initially unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and Methods The study included two groups of patients treated with conventional high-dose PIAF (n=84) between 1994 and 2003 and those without hepatitis or cirrhosis treated with modified PIAF (n=33) between 2003 and 2012. Tolerance of chemotherapy, best radiographic response, rate of conversion to curative surgery, and overall survival were analyzed and compared between the two groups, and multivariate and logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of response and survival. Results The modified PIAF group had a higher median number of PIAF cycles (4 vs. 2, P = .049), higher objective response rate (36% vs. 15%, P = .013), higher rate of conversion to curative surgery (33% vs. 10%, P = .004), and longer median overall survival (21.3 vs. 10.6 months, P = .002). Multivariate analyses confirmed that positive hepatitis B serology (hazard ratio [HR], 1.68; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.59) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥2 (HR, 1.75; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.93) were associated with worse survival while curative surgical resection after PIAF treatment (HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.35) was associated with improved survival. Conclusions In patients with initially unresectable HCC, the modified PIAF regimen in patients with no hepatitis or cirrhosis is associated with improved response, resectability, and survival. PMID:23821538

  15. The development of inhibitory control in early childhood: A twin study from 2-3 years

    PubMed Central

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2015-01-01

    Parent and lab-based observer ratings were employed to examine genetic and environmental influences on continuity and change in inhibitory control (IC) in over 300 twin-pairs assessed longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age. Genetic influences accounted for approximately 60% of the variance in parent-rated IC at both ages. Although many of the same genetic effects on parent-rated IC were stable across age, there were also novel genetic effects that emerged at age 3 (i.e., genetic factors contributed to both continuity and change in parent ratings of IC). Observed IC displayed a different developmental pattern. Genetic influences were moderate at age 2 (38%) and nonsignificant at age 3 (6%). Change in observed IC across early childhood was due to shared and nonshared environmental factors. Findings indicate that it is important to consider the measurement of IC when interpreting developmental and etiological findings. PMID:26784384

  16. Effects of Stimulant Medication on Growth Rates across 3 Years in the MTA Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, James M.; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Wigal, Timothy; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Hechtman, Lily; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pelham, William E.; Abikoff, Howard B.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Wells, Karen C.; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; Gibbons, Robert D.; Hur, Kwan; Stehli, Annamarie; Davies, Mark; March, John S.; Conners, C. Keith; Caron, Mark; Volkow, Nora D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypothesis of stimulant medication effect on physical growth in the follow-up phase of the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD. Method: Naturalistic subgroups were established based on patterns of treatment with stimulant medication at baseline, 14-, 24-, and 36-month assessments: not medicated (n = 65),…

  17. Gender Differences in the Self-Rated Health-Mortality Association: Is It Poor Self-Rated Health that Predicts Mortality or Excellent Self-Rated Health that Predicts Survival?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyamini, Yael; Blumstein, Tzvia; Lusky, Ayala; Modan, Baruch

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates gender differences in the association between self-rated health (SRH) and mortality. This association has been well-documented, but findings regarding gender differences are inconsistent. The specific objectives were (a) to examine these differences in a short and a long time frame, (b) to examine these differences…

  18. Prostate-Specific Antigen at 4 to 5 Years After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy Is a Strong Predictor of Disease-Free Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, Andrea C.; Morris, W. James; Lapointe, Vincent; Hamm, Jeremy; Keyes, Mira; Pickles, Tom; McKenzie, Michael; Spadinger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prognostic utility of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration at 45 to 60 months (48mPSA) after low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy (LDR-PB); (2) the predictors of 48mPSA; and (3) the prognostic utility of directional trends between PSA levels at 24, 36, and 48 months after LDR-PB. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2008, 2223 patients with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer received LDR-PB monotherapy. A cohort of 1434 of these patients was identified with a documented 48mPSA and no evidence of disease relapse prior to the 48mPSA. In addition, a subset of this cohort (n=585) was identified with ≥72 months of follow-up and documented PSA values at both 24 and 36 months after implantation. Results: Median follow-up time was 76 months. Eight-year Kaplan-Meier disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 100% vs 73.4% for patients with 48mPSA ≤0.2 vs those with >0.2 ng/mL; 99.1% versus 53.8% for a 48mPSA threshold of ≤0.4 versus >0.4 ng/mL, respectively; and 97.3% versus 0% for a threshold of ≤1.0 versus >1.0 ng/mL, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the only factor predictive of DFS was 48mPSA (P<.0001). On subset analysis (n=585), 29 patients had a PSA rise (defined as >0.2 ng/mL) between 24 and 36 months, 24 patients had a rise between 36 and 48 months, and 11 patients had rises over both intervals. Failure rates in these patients were 52%, 79%, and 100%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, initial PSA, androgen deprivation therapy, and dose to 90% of the prostate significantly correlated with 48mPSA but together accounted for only ∼5% of its total variance. Conclusions: The 48mPSA after LDR-PB is highly predictive of long-term DFS. Patients with 48mPSA ≤0.4 ng/mL had a <1% risk of disease relapse at 8 years, whereas all patients with 48mPSA >1.0 ng/mL relapsed. Consecutive PSA rises of >0.2 ng/mL from 24 to 36 months and from 36 to 48 months were also highly predictive of subsequent failure.

  19. Adherence to Competing Strategies for Colorectal Cancer Screening Over 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Peter S.; Wheat, Chelle L.; Abhat, Anshu; Brenner, Alison T.; Fagerlin, Angela; Hayward, Rodney A.; Thomas, Jennifer P.; Vijan, Sandeep; Inadomi, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We have shown that, in a randomized trial comparing adherence to different colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies, participants assigned to either fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) or given a choice between FOBT and colonoscopy had significantly higher adherence than those assigned to colonoscopy during the first year. However, how adherence to screening changes over time is unknown. Methods In this trial, 997 participants were cluster randomized to one of the three screening strategies: (i) FOBT, (ii) colonoscopy, or (iii) a choice between FOBT and colonoscopy. Research assistants helped participants to complete testing only in the first year. Adherence to screening was defined as completion of three FOBT cards in each of 3 years after enrollment or completion of colonoscopy within the first year of enrollment. The primary outcome was adherence to assigned strategy over 3 years. Additional outcomes included identification of sociodemographic factors associated with adherence. Results Participants assigned to annual FOBT completed screening at a significantly lower rate over 3 years (14%) than those assigned to colonoscopy (38%, P<0.001) or choice (42%, P<0.001); however, completion of any screening test fell precipitously, indicating the strong effect of patient navigation. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, being randomized to the choice or colonoscopy group, Chinese language, homosexuality, being married/partnered, and having a non-nurse practitioner primary care provider were independently associated with greater adherence to screening (P<0.01). Conclusions In a 3-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing competing CRC screening strategies, participants offered a choice between FOBT and colonoscopy continued to have relatively high adherence, whereas adherence in the FOBT group fell significantly below that of the choice and colonoscopy groups. Patient navigation is crucial to achieving adherence to CRC screening, and FOBT is

  20. Anticancer compound ABT-263 accelerates apoptosis in virus-infected cells and imbalances cytokine production and lowers survival rates of infected mice.

    PubMed

    Kakkola, L; Denisova, O V; Tynell, J; Viiliäinen, J; Ysenbaert, T; Matos, R C; Nagaraj, A; Ohman, T; Kuivanen, S; Paavilainen, H; Feng, L; Yadav, B; Julkunen, I; Vapalahti, O; Hukkanen, V; Stenman, J; Aittokallio, T; Verschuren, E W; Ojala, P M; Nyman, T; Saelens, X; Dzeyk, K; Kainov, D E

    2013-01-01

    ABT-263 and its structural analogues ABT-199 and ABT-737 inhibit B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), BCL2L1 long isoform (Bcl-xL) and BCL2L2 (Bcl-w) proteins and promote cancer cell death. Here, we show that at non-cytotoxic concentrations, these small molecules accelerate the deaths of non-cancerous cells infected with influenza A virus (IAV) or other viruses. In particular, we demonstrate that ABT-263 altered Bcl-xL interactions with Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (Bad), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), uveal autoantigen with coiled-coil domains and ankyrin repeats protein (UACA). ABT-263 thereby activated the caspase-9-mediated mitochondria-initiated apoptosis pathway, which, together with the IAV-initiated caspase-8-mediated apoptosis pathway, triggered the deaths of IAV-infected cells. Our results also indicate that Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w interact with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense virus constituents to regulate cellular apoptosis. Importantly, premature killing of IAV-infected cells by ABT-263 attenuated the production of key pro-inflammatory and antiviral cytokines. The imbalance in cytokine production was also observed in ABT-263-treated IAV-infected mice, which resulted in an inability of the immune system to clear the virus and eventually lowered the survival rates of infected animals. Thus, the results suggest that the chemical inhibition of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w could potentially be hazardous for cancer patients with viral infections. PMID:23887633

  1. Acute dapsone poisoning in a 3-year-old child: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS-diamino diphenyl sulphone) is a sulfone antibiotic being used for a variety of clinical conditions. Poisoning in children by DDS is rarely reported. Poisoning in acute cases will be frequently unrecognized due to relative lack of severe signs and symptoms. Methemoglobinemia is the major life-threatening situation associated with poisoning of DDS. Hence, any delay for medical attention can lead to increased rate of mortality. In this case, we describe acute DDS poisoning in a 3-year-old child and the successful management using intravenous methylene blue. PMID:26488029

  2. Tsunami-exposed tourist survivors: signs of recovery in a 3-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Kerstin Bergh; Lundin, Tom; Fröjd, Thomas; Hultman, Christina M; Michel, Per-Olof

    2011-03-01

    Long-term follow-up after disaster exposure indicates increased rates of psychological distress. However, trajectories and rates of recovery in large samples of disaster-exposed survivors are largely lacking. A group of 3457 Swedish survivors temporarily on vacation in Southeast Asia during the 2004 tsunami were assessed by postal questionnaire at 14 months and 3 years after the tsunami regarding post-traumatic stress reactions (IES-R) and general mental health (GHQ-12). There was a general pattern of resilience and recovery 3 years postdisaster. Severe exposure and traumatic bereavement were associated with increased post-traumatic stress reactions and heightened risk for impaired mental health. The rate of recovery was lower among respondents exposed to life threat and among bereaved. Severe trauma exposure and bereavement seem to have considerable long-term impact on psychological distress and appear to slow down the recovery process. Readiness among health agencies for identification of symptoms and provision of interventions might facilitate optimal recovery. PMID:21346486

  3. Preventing Pregnancy in High School Students: Observations From a 3-Year Longitudinal, Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Dierschke, Nicole; Lowe, Diana; Plastino, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess whether a sexual health education intervention reduces pregnancy rates in high school students. Methods. We performed a secondary analysis of a 3-year quasi-experimental study performed in South Texas from 2011 to 2015 in which 1437 students without a history of pregnancy at baseline were surveyed each fall and spring. Potentially confounding risk factors considered included sexual behaviors, intentions, and demographics. The outcome measure was self-reported pregnancy status for male and female students. We performed analyses for male and female students using separate discrete time-to-event models. Results. We found no difference in pregnancy rates between intervention and comparison students within the first 3 years of high school. Female and male students in the intervention groups had pregnancy hazard ratios of, respectively, 1.62 (95% CI = 0.9, 2.61; P = .1) and 0.78 (95% CI = 0.44, 1.48; P = .4) relative to the comparison groups. Conclusions. The educational intervention had no impact on the pregnancy rate. Social media tools in pregnancy prevention programs should be adaptive to new technologies and rapidly changing adolescent preferences for these services. PMID:27689503

  4. Tsunami-exposed tourist survivors: signs of recovery in a 3-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Kerstin Bergh; Lundin, Tom; Fröjd, Thomas; Hultman, Christina M; Michel, Per-Olof

    2011-03-01

    Long-term follow-up after disaster exposure indicates increased rates of psychological distress. However, trajectories and rates of recovery in large samples of disaster-exposed survivors are largely lacking. A group of 3457 Swedish survivors temporarily on vacation in Southeast Asia during the 2004 tsunami were assessed by postal questionnaire at 14 months and 3 years after the tsunami regarding post-traumatic stress reactions (IES-R) and general mental health (GHQ-12). There was a general pattern of resilience and recovery 3 years postdisaster. Severe exposure and traumatic bereavement were associated with increased post-traumatic stress reactions and heightened risk for impaired mental health. The rate of recovery was lower among respondents exposed to life threat and among bereaved. Severe trauma exposure and bereavement seem to have considerable long-term impact on psychological distress and appear to slow down the recovery process. Readiness among health agencies for identification of symptoms and provision of interventions might facilitate optimal recovery.

  5. Deep Space 1 Ion Engine Completed a 3-Year Journey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Patterson, Michael J.; Rawlin, Vincent K.; Hamley, John A.

    2001-01-01

    A xenon ion engine and power processor system, which was developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in partnership with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices, completed nearly 3 years of operation aboard the Deep Space 1 spacecraft. The 2.3-kW ion engine, which provided primary propulsion and two-axis attitude control, thrusted for more than 16,000 hr and consumed more than 70 kg of xenon propellant. The Deep Space 1 spacecraft was launched on October 24, 1998, to validate 12 futuristic technologies, including the ion-propulsion system. After the technology validation process was successfully completed, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft flew by the small asteroid Braille on July 29, 1999. The final objective of this mission was to encounter the active comet Borrelly, which is about 6 miles long. The ion engine was on a thrusting schedule to navigate the Deep Space 1 spacecraft to within 1400 miles of the comet. Since the hydrazine used for spacecraft attitude control was in short supply, the ion engine also provided two-axis attitude control to conserve the hydrazine supply for the Borrelly encounter. The comet encounter took place on September 22, 2001. Dr. Marc Rayman, project manager of Deep Space 1 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory said, "Deep Space 1 plunged into the heart of the comet Borrelly and has lived to tell every detail of its spinetingling adventure! The images are even better than the impressive images of comet Halley taken by Europe's Giotto spacecraft in 1986." The Deep Space 1 mission, which successfully tested the 12 high-risk, advanced technologies and captured the best images ever taken of a comet, was voluntarily terminated on December 18, 2001. The successful demonstration of the 2-kW-class ion propulsion system technology is now providing mission planners with off-the-shelf flight hardware. Higher power, next generation ion propulsion systems are being developed for large flagship missions, such as outer planet

  6. 3 Year simvastatin treatment and lens nuclear back scattering

    PubMed Central

    Qian, W.; Soderberg, P.; Chen, E.; Magnius, K.; Philipson, B.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To determine if 3 year treatment of hypercholesterolaemia with simvastatin causes an increase of lens nuclear back scattering.
METHODS—160 patients with hypercholesterolaemia in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) were followed for 3 years. Half (80) of the patients took simvastatin and half (80) received placebo. The lens was photographed with a Topcon SL-45 slit lamp camera at the beginning and at 1 year intervals. A common lens nuclear area was used for measuring lens nuclear back scattering.
RESULTS—Nuclear back scattering increased with age and there was more pronounced scattering in women than in men. Lens nuclear back scattering did not differ significantly between the simvastatin and placebo groups, but the power was low (0.2). Lens nuclear back scattering increased during the study period independently of baseline back scattering, age, and sex for both groups.
CONCLUSION—Although no significant difference was found between the simvastatin and placebo groups, the currently available data are insufficient for exclusion of the possibility that taking simvastatin during a 3 year period increases nuclear back scattering. However, a possible minor increase of nuclear back scattering is clinically irrelevant considering known beneficial effects of simvastatin on coronary heart disease.

 PMID:10781516

  7. Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Kern, Roger G.

    2004-01-01

    In order to minimize the forward contamination of Mars, spacecraft are assembled under cleanroom conditions that require several procedures to clean and sterilize components. Surface characteristics of spacecraft materials may contribute to microbial survival on the surface of Mars by protecting spores from sterilizing agents, including UV irradiation. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface characteristics of several spacecraft materials on the survival of Bacillus subtilis spores under simulated Martian conditions.

  8. Failure to Achieve a PSA Level {<=}1 ng/mL After Neoadjuvant LHRHA Therapy Predicts for Lower Biochemical Control Rate and Overall Survival in Localized Prostate Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Darren M. McAleese, Jonathan; Park, Richard M.; Stewart, David P.; Stranex, Stephen; Eakin, Ruth L.; Houston, Russell F.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether failure to suppress the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level to {<=}1 ng/mL after {>=}2 months of neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy in patients scheduled to undergo external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate carcinoma is associated with reduced biochemical failure-free survival. Methods and Materials: A retrospective case note review of consecutive patients with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer treated between January 2001 and December 2002 with neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy, followed by concurrent hormonal therapy and radiotherapy was performed. Patient data were divided for analysis according to whether the PSA level in Week 1 of radiotherapy was {<=}1.0 ng/mL. Biochemical failure was determined using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (Phoenix) definition. Results: A total of 119 patients were identified. The PSA level after neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy was {<=}1 ng/mL in 67 patients and >1 ng/mL in 52. At a median follow-up of 49 months, the 4-year actuarial biochemical failure-free survival rate was 84% vs. 60% (p = 0.0016) in favor of the patients with a PSA level after neoadjuvant hormonal deprivation therapy of {<=}1 ng/mL. The overall survival rate was 94% vs. 77.5% (p = 0.0045), and the disease-specific survival rate at 4 years was 98.5% vs. 82.5%. Conclusions: The results of our study have shown that patients with a PSA level >1 ng/mL at the beginning of external beam radiotherapy after {>=}2 months of neoadjuvant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist therapy have a significantly greater rate of biochemical failure and lower survival rate compared with those with a PSA level of {<=}1 ng/mL. Patients without adequate PSA suppression should be considered a higher risk group and considered for dose escalation or the use of novel treatments.

  9. Preoperative [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Standardized Uptake Value of Neck Lymph Nodes Predicts Neck Cancer Control and Survival Rates in Patients With Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Pathologically Positive Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Chang, J.T.-C.; Wang, H.-M.; Ng, S.-H.; Hsueh, C.; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.; Chen, I-H.; Huang, S.-F.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) depends heavily on locoregional control. In this prospective study, we sought to investigate whether preoperative maximum standardized uptake value of the neck lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) may predict prognosis in OSCC patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 120 OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes were investigated. All subjects underwent a [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scan within 2 weeks before radical surgery and neck dissection. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months after surgery or until death. Postoperative adjuvant therapy was performed in the presence of pathologic risk factors. Optimal cutoff values of SUVnodal-max were chosen based on 5-year disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months. The optimal cutoff value for SUVnodal-max was 5.7. Multivariate analyses identified the following independent predictors of poor outcome: SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 for the 5-year neck cancer control rate, distant metastatic rate, DFS, DSS, and extracapsular spread (ECS) for the 5-year DSS and OS. Among ECS patients, the presence of a SUVnodal-max {>=}5.7 identified patients with the worst prognosis. Conclusion: A SUVnodal-max of 5.7, either alone or in combination with ECS, is an independent prognosticator for 5-year neck cancer control and survival rates in OSCC patients with pathologically positive lymph nodes.

  10. Melatonin treatment of embryo donor and recipient ewes during anestrus affects their endocrine status, but not ovulation rate, embryo survival or pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, T G; Robinson, J J; Aitken, R P; Robertson, I S

    1998-04-01

    Thirty-two Border Leicester x Scottish Blackface ewes that lambed in March were individually penned with their lambs from April 16th and given daily an oral dose of 3 mg melatonin at 1500 h (Group M). A further 32 acted as controls (Group C). Within each group half were used as embryo donors (Group D) following superovulation and half received embryos (Group R) following an induced estrus. Prior to weaning on 21 May ewes received ad libitum a complete diet providing 9 megajoules (MJ) of metabolizable energy and 125 g/kg crude protein. Thereafter each received 1.6 kg of the diet daily. In early June each ewe received an intravaginal device (300 mg progesterone) inserted for 12 d. Donors were superovulated with 4 i.m. injections of porcine FSH 12 h apart, commencing 24 h before progesterone withdrawal. Ovulation in recipients was induced with 800 IU PMSG injected i.m. at progesterone removal. Donor ewes were inseminated 52 h after progesterone withdrawal. Embryos were collected 4 d later and transferred to recipients. Melatonin suppressed plasma prolactin (P < 0.001) and advanced estrus (P < 0.05) and timing of the LH peak (P < 0.05). These events also occurred earlier in donors than in recipients (P < 0.01). Mean (+/- SEM) ovulation rates for melatonin-treated and control donors were 5.5 +/- 0.71 and 4.7 +/- 0.66, respectively (NS). Corresponding recipient values were 3.3 +/- 0.40 and 3.4 +/- 0.39 (NS). Mean (+/- SEM) embryo yields were 2.9 +/- 0.64 and 2.6 +/- 0.73 for melatonin-treated (n = 15) and control (n = 16) donors, respectively, and for the 12 ewes per treatment that supplied embryos, corresponding numbers classified as viable were 2.7 +/- 0.47 and 2.3 +/- 0.61 (NS). Following transfer, 57% of embryos developed to lambs when both donor and recipient received melatonin, 86% when only the donor received melatonin, 91% when only the recipient received melatonin, and 67% when neither received melatonin (NS). Thus, embryo survival following transfer was not

  11. High-dose total-body irradiation and autologous marrow reconstitution in dogs: dose-rate-related acute toxicity and fractionation-dependent long-term survival

    SciTech Connect

    Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.; Weiden, P.L.; Schumacher, D.; Shulman, H.; Graham, T.; Thomas, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    Beagle dogs treated by total-body irradiation (TBI) were given autologous marrow grafts in order to avoid death from marrow toxicity. Acute and delayed non-marrow toxicities of high single-dose (27 dogs) and fractionated TBI (20 dogs) delivered at 0.05 or 0.1 Gy/min were compared. Fractionated TBI was given in increments of 2 Gy every 6 hr for three increments per day. Acute toxicity and early mortality (<1 month) at identical total irradiation doses were comparable for dogs given fractionated or single-dose TBI. With single-dose TBI, 14, 16, and 18 Gy, respectively, given at 0.05 Gy/min, 0/5, 5/5, and 2/2 dogs died from acute toxicity; with 10, 12, and 14 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 5/5 dogs died acutely. With fractionated TBI, 14 and 16 Gy, respectively, given at 0.1 Gy/min, 1/5, 4/5, and 2/2 dogs died auctely. Early deaths were due to radiation enteritis with or without associated septicemia (29 dogs; less than or equal to Day 10). Three dogs given 10 Gy of TBI at 0.1 Gy/min died from bacterial pneumonia; one (Day 18) had been given fractionated and two (Days 14, 22) single-dose TBI. Fifteen dogs survived beyond 1 month; eight of these had single-dose TBI (10-14 Gy) and all died within 7 months of irradiation from a syndrome consisting of hepatic damage, pancreatic fibrosis, malnutrition, wasting, and anemia. Seven of the 15 had fractionated TBI, and only one (14 Gy) died on Day 33 from hepatic failure, whereas 6 (10-14 Gy) are alive and well 250 to 500 days after irradiation. In conclusion, fractionated TBI did not offer advantages over single-dose TBI with regard to acute toxicity and early mortality; rather, these were dependent upon the total dose of TBI. The total acutely tolerated dose was dependent upon the exposure rate; however, only dogs given fractionated TBI became healthy long-term survivors.

  12. Early ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences after breast conservation affect survival: An analysis of the National Cancer Institute randomized trial

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Joseph P.; Danforth, David N.; Albert, Paul; Sciuto, Linda C. B.S.N.; Smith, Sharon L.; Camphausen, Kevin A.; Poggi, Matthew M. . E-mail: MMPoggi@Bethesda.med.navy.mil

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of an ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) after breast-conservation therapy (BCT) on survival. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-one women were randomized to BCT. Patients with an IBTR were analyzed to determine survival. Analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier estimates, log-rank tests, and time-dependent covariate Cox models. Results: At a median follow-up of 18.4 years, 27 patients had an IBTR. The median survival time after IBTR was 13.1 years. The 5-year survival rate was 91.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.5-100%). The 10-year survival rate was 54.3% (95% CI, 35.8-82.6%). According to a Cox model with time-dependent covariates, the hazard ratio or relative risk of dying for those with an IBTR at <5.3 years after BCT relative to patients without an IBTR after BCT is 1.47 (95% CI, 1.02-2.12%; p = 0.04). The hazard ratio for those who relapse after 5.3 years is 0.59 (95% CI, 0.22-1.61%; p = 0.31). Age at randomization, original tumor size, and the presence of positive regional nodes at initial presentation were not found to be associated with decreased survival. Conclusions: There seems to be a significant association of early IBTR after BCT with decreased survival. Local control should be maximized.

  13. Younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia in remission for ≥3 years have a high likelihood of cure: the ECOG experience in over 1200 patients

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Justin M.; Wang, Xin Victoria; Litzow, Mark R.; Luger, Selina M.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Cassileth, Peter A.; Fernandez, Hugo F.; Douer, Dan; Zickl, Lynette; Paietta, Elisabeth; Rowe, Jacob M.; Tallman, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    We examined 1229 younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia who achieved CR1 on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group trials. We defined late relapse as occurring after ≥3 years of CR1. With median follow-up of 11.3 years, there were 14 late relapses (1.1% of CR1 patients; 3.3% of 3-year CR1 patients). Eight achieved second CR and median overall survival after late relapse was 3.2 years. Most patients tested (9/11) had a normal karyotype at diagnosis; none had new cytogenetic abnormalities at relapse. Late relapse is rare and nearly all 3-year CR1 patients are cured. If late relapse occurs, outcomes are relatively favorable. PMID:24986381

  14. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention.

  15. A 3-year follow-up of temporomandibular disorders in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Tegelberg, A; Kopp, S

    1996-02-01

    Sixteen individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and 19 individuals with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) participated in this 3-year follow-up study. The individuals in each disease group were allocated to an experimental group (E group) and a comparison group (C group). They were investigated by questionnaire, clinical examination of the stomatognathic system, and laboratory tests. The individuals of the two E groups had performed a physical training program of the stomatognathic system during 3 weeks. After 3 years most of the patients in the E groups reported an unaltered or decreased severity of symptoms and signs from the stomatognathic system compared with the initial status. The clinical dysfunction score according to Helkimo (CDS) was lower in the RA group, and the mouth opening capacity was larger than before training. In the AS group there was no long-term change in the CDS but an increase of mouth opening capacity. The general inflammatory disease process in the RA group showed an increased activity during this follow-up period as assessed by erythrocyte sedimentation rate. This study suggests that local physical training of the stomatognathic system has a positive effect in individuals with RA.

  16. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention. PMID:19748044

  17. Red blood cell distribution width and 3-year outcome in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Arbel, Yaron; Birati, Edo Y; Finkelstein, Ariel; Halkin, Amir; Berliner, Shlomo; Katz, Ben-Zion; Revivo, Miri; Saranga, Hila; Herz, Itzhak; Keren, Gad; Banai, Shmuel

    2014-05-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW), which is routinely reported in complete blood counts, is a measure of the variability in size of circulating erythrocytes. RDW is a novel, independent predictor of prognosis in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the significance of this biomarker in a relatively large cohort of patients, and to assess its association with a more severe underlying cardiovascular disease. A cohort of 3,222 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography was divided according RDW median. The association between RDW and 3-year outcome in the context of other predictors was assessed using Cox's proportional hazards analysis. Patients with elevated RDWs were older, had higher body mass indices, and had more cardiovascular risk factors and more cardiovascular diseases. The total rate of mortality, MI and stroke (MACE) was 7.7% (120 events) in the lower RDW group, and 18.2% (303 events) in the higher RDW group, p < 0.001. Following adjustment for multiple background risk factors, medications, and laboratory results, the RDW value was independently associated with worse outcome (HR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.07-1.18, p < 0.001, for each 1% increase in RDW). Elevated RDW values are independently associated with adverse 3-year outcome in patients undergoing coronary angiography. PMID:23836454

  18. [The influence of consecutive application of B-190 preparation and interleukin-1beta on survival rate and bone marrow hematopoiesis of irradiated mice].

    PubMed

    Grebeniuk, A N; Zatsepin, V V; Aksenova, N V; Nazarov, V B; Vlasenko, T N

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of research was the experimental estimation of efficiency of consecutive application of a radioprotector B-190 and means of emergency therapy of radiating injury interleukin-1beta at acute irradiation. An estimation of treatment-and-prophylactic action of the given circuit of introduction of preparations carried out by studying 30 day-survival and average life expectancy of the lost animals, research of bone marrow hemopoiesis. It is established, that consecutive application of a radioprotector B-190 in a doze of 50 mg/kg for 15 mines up to an irradiation and interleukin-1beta in a doze of 50 mkg/kg through 15 mines after irradiating increases survival and prevents decrease in quantity of CFU-S9 at the irradiated mice in the greater degree, than their isolated introduction. PMID:20968059

  19. [Comment on the intervention of Traditional Chinese Medicine on survival rates of patients living with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhibin; Yang, Jiping; Guo, Huijun; Xu, Liran

    2016-06-01

    Despite many differences between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and conventional medicine, the use of TCM in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is increasingly recognized and accepted by patients. Recent research findings on the benefits of Chinese herbal medicine on long-term survival in patients with HIV/AIDS are encouraging and hopeful, but inconclusive. More research is needed.

  20. Risk Factors Associated With Complication Rates of Becker-Type Expander Implants in Relation to Implant Survival: Review of 314 Implants in 237 Patients.

    PubMed

    Taboada-Suarez, Antonio; Brea-García, Beatriz; Magán-Muñoz, Fernando; Couto-González, Iván; González-Álvarez, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Although autologous tissue reconstruction is the best option for breast reconstruction, using implants is still a reliable and simple method, offering acceptable aesthetic results. Becker-type implants are permanent implants that offer a 1-stage reconstructive option. A retrospective study was carried out in our center reviewing the clinical reports of 237 patients, in whom a total of 314 Becker-type prostheses were implanted. Overall survival was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier estimate. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios. At the end of the study, 214 expanders (68.15%) presented no complications, 40 (12.47%) developed significant capsular contracture, in 27 (8.60%) infection occurred, 24 (7.64%) suffered minor complications, and 9 (2.87%) ruptured. The mean survival time of the expanders was 120.41 months (95% CI: 109.62, 131.19). Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, high Molecular Immunology Borstel, age, mastectomy performed previously to the implant, ductal carcinoma, advanced tumoral stage, experience of the surgeon, and Becker 35-type implants were significantly related to a high number of complications in relation to the survival of the implants. Cox regression analysis revealed that the main risk factors for the survival of expander implants included radiotherapy and surgeon experience. The complication hazard ratio or relative risk caused by these 2 factors was 1.976 and 1.680, respectively. One-stage reconstruction using Becker-type expanders is an appropriate, simple, and reliable option in delayed breast reconstruction in patients who have not received radiotherapy and as long as the procedure is carried out by surgeons skilled in the technique.

  1. Survival after Radiofrequency Ablation in 122 Patients with Inoperable Colorectal Lung Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Gillams, Alice; Khan, Zahid; Osborn, Peter; Lees, William

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To analyze the factors associated with favorable survival in patients with inoperable colorectal lung metastases treated with percutaneous image-guided radiofrequency ablation. Methods. Between 2002 and 2011, a total of 398 metastases were ablated in 122 patients (87 male, median age 68 years, range 29-90 years) at 256 procedures. Percutaneous CT-guided cool-tip radiofrequency ablation was performed under sedation/general anesthesia. Maximum tumor size, number of tumors ablated, number of procedures, concurrent/prior liver ablation, previous liver or lung resection, systemic chemotherapy, disease-free interval from primary resection to lung metastasis, and survival from first ablation were recorded prospectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed, and factors were compared by log rank test. Results. The initial number of metastases ablated was 2.3 (range 1-8); the total number was 3.3 (range 1-15). The maximum tumor diameter was 1.7 (range 0.5-4) cm, and the number of procedures was 2 (range 1-10). The major complication rate was 3.9 %. Overall median and 3-year survival rate were 41 months and 57 %. Survival was better in patients with smaller tumors-a median of 51 months, with 3-year survival of 64 % for tumors 2 cm or smaller versus 31 months and 44 % for tumors 2.1-4 cm (p = 0.08). The number of metastases ablated and whether the tumors were unilateral or bilateral did not affect survival. The presence of treated liver metastases, systemic chemotherapy, or prior lung resection did not affect survival. Conclusion. Three-year survival of 57 % in patients with inoperable colorectal lung metastases is better than would be expected with chemotherapy alone. Patients with inoperable but small-volume colorectal lung metastases should be referred for ablation.

  2. Unicystic ameloblastoma in 3 year old paediatric patient - A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shelly; Kumar, Priya; Urs, Aadithya B; Augustine, Jeyaseelan

    2013-02-01

    Unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor of the jaws that commonly occurs in 2nd and 3rd decade of life. In fact, this entity is rare in children under 12 years of age. It is characterised as a distinct variant of ameloblastoma, exhibiting a less aggressive behaviour and a lower rate of recurrence than solid conventional ameloblastoma. There are very few reported cases of UA occurring in children below five years of age. The purpose of this case report is to describe a case of UA involving the crown of an unerupted maxillary second premolar in a 3 year old girl. The pathogenesis, clinical appearance, radiographic presentation, histological findings and management of the tumour have also been discussed.

  3. The impact of the extent of surgical resection on survival of gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Angelov, Kostadin Georgiev; Vasileva, Mariela Borisova; Grozdev, Konstantin Savov; Toshev, Svetoslav Yordanov; Sokolov, Manol Bonev; Todorov, Georgi Todorov

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the significance of the extent of gastric resection on the postoperative and overall gastric cancer survival. Background Resection with clean margins (4 cm or more) is widely accepted as the standard-ized goal for radical treatment of gastric cancer according to current guidelines, while the type of resection (subtotal or total) is still a matter of debate. Patients and methods The study included 155 patients diagnosed and treated in the Department of Surgery, Aleksandrovska University Hospital between January 2005 and December 2014. In order to determine the significance of the resection volume, we excluded from the study 54 patients receiving palliative intervention or staging exploratory laparoscopy. The remaining 101 patients were divided into two groups based on the volume of the performed gastric resection (total and subtotal) and compared based on overall survival and perioperative mortality. We also investigated the 3-year survival in the two groups as well as the overall survival only in the subgroup of patients with D2 lymphadenectomy. Results We could not determine any statistically significant difference in overall survival and 3-year survival (P=0.990) based on the extent of surgical resection (P=0.824) or perioperative mortality. The statistical analysis on patients with D2 lymph node dissection only did not show significance for overall survival. Conclusion Our study shows no difference in safety and long-term survival rate of patients with gastric carcinoma based on the volume of stomach resection. Comparison with other studies also shows no difference in survival based on volume of the resection. PMID:27555787

  4. Trajectories of maternal harsh parenting in the first 3 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their related longitudinal risk factors (contextual and intrapersonal). Partner aggression was also tested as a time-varying predictor to examine its time-specific influence on maternal harsh parenting. Methods Longitudinal data from four assessments of a community sample of 488 at-risk mothers were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Maternal risk factors and harsh parenting behaviors were assessed at birth and at ages 1, 2, and 3 years. Results There was a significant increase in maternal harsh parenting from birth to age 3, particularly between ages 1 and 2. There was a significant direct effect of maternal alcohol use and abuse history on maternal harsh parenting at age 3, and maternal age was positively associated with change in maternal harsh parenting over time. In addition, partner aggression was significantly and positively associated with maternal harsh parenting at each time point. Conclusions The findings suggest possible developmental trends in the emergence of maternal harsh parenting during infancy and toddlerhood. Further investigation is needed to elucidate individual differences in the developmental patterns and to differentiate predictive factors that persist across time and factors that are unique to specific developmental stages. Practice implications The overall high prevalence rates of harsh parenting behavior and growth of such behavior in infancy and toddlerhood support the need for developmentally sensitive early intervention programs. PMID:21030081

  5. ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 increases thaw-survival rates and preserves stemness and differentiation potential of human Wharton's jelly stem cells after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Gauthaman, Kalamegam; Fong, Chui-Yee; Subramanian, Arjunan; Biswas, Arijit; Bongso, Ariff

    2010-12-01

    The ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 inhibits apoptosis and increases proliferation of frozen-thawed cells. We examined the role of Y-27632 on human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (hWJSCs) for (1) thaw-survival (2) proliferation and (3) preservation of stemness and differentiation potential after cryopreservation. hWJSCs were allotted to 4 groups [Gp I: Untreated hWJSC controls; Gp II: Pretreatment with Y-27632 (10 μM) for 24 h before freezing; Gp III: Y-27632 (10 μM) in freezing medium and Gp IV: Pretreatment with Y-27632 (10 μM) for 24 h and inclusion in freezing medium]. All groups were frozen using a rapid freezing method and stored at -196°C in liquid nitrogen for 90 days before evaluation for apoptosis, cell proliferation, stemness and differentiation. After thawing, Groups II, III and IV showed improved cell attachment, increased thaw-survival (live/dead cell counts) and increased cell proliferation (Trypan blue and MTT assay) compared to controls. CD marker stemness profiles, morphology and normal karyotypes were maintained in the treatment groups after thawing and there was no obvious evidence of apoptosis (Annexin V-FITC and TUNEL assays). After thawing, qRT-PCR demonstrated up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 gene and down-regulation of the pro-apoptotic BAX gene and cell cycle regulators (P53 and P21) in the treatment groups. Treated frozen-thawed hWJSCs from all groups differentiated into a neuronal phenotype (neuronal morphology and expression of GFAP, β-3 tubulin and SOX2). Increased thaw-survival and retention of stemness and differentiation potential in hWJSCs following cryopreservation is useful for their storage in cord blood banks for future regenerative medicine purposes.

  6. Surface characteristics of spacecraft components affect the aggregation of microorganisms and may lead to different survival rates of bacteria on Mars landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kern, Roger G.

    2005-01-01

    Layers of dormant endospores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 were applied to eight different spacecraft materials and exposed to martian conditions of low pressure (8.5 mbar), low temperature (-10 degrees C), and high CO(2) gas composition and irradiated with a Mars-normal ultraviolet (UV-visible- near-infrared spectrum. Bacterial layers were exposed to either 1 min or 1 h of Mars-normal UV irradiation, which simulated clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars (0.1 tau). When exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation, the numbers of viable endospores of B. subtilis were reduced three to four orders of magnitude for two brands of aluminum (Al), stainless steel, chemfilm-treated Al, clear-anodized Al, and black-anodized Al coupons. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only one to two orders of magnitude for endospores on the non-metal materials astroquartz and graphite composite when bacterial endospores were exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation. When bacterial monolayers were exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation, no viable bacteria were recovered from the six metal coupons listed above. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only two to three orders of magnitude for spore layers on astroquartz and graphite composite exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large aggregates of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials. It is likely that the formation of multilayered aggregates of endospores on astroquartz and graphite composite is responsible for the enhanced survival of bacterial cells on these materials.

  7. Surface Characteristics of Spacecraft Components Affect the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Different Survival Rates of Bacteria on Mars Landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuerger, Andrew W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Hintze, Paul E.; Kern, Roger G.

    2005-08-01

    Layers of dormant endospores of Bacillus subtilis HA101 were applied to eight different spacecraft materials and exposed to martian conditions of low pressure (8.5 mbar), low temperature (-10°C), and high CO2 gas composition and irradiated with a Mars-normal ultraviolet (UV-visible- near-infrared spectrum. Bacterial layers were exposed to either 1 min or 1 h of Mars-normal UV irradiation, which simulated clear-sky conditions on equatorial Mars (0.1 tau). When exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation, the numbers of viable endospores of B. subtilis were reduced three to four orders of magnitude for two brands of aluminum (Al), stainless steel, chemfilm-treated Al, clear-anodized Al, and black-anodized Al coupons. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only one to two orders of magnitude for endospores on the non-metal materials astroquartz and graphite composite when bacterial endospores were exposed to 1 min of Mars UV irradiation. When bacterial monolayers were exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation, no viable bacteria were recovered from the six metal coupons listed above. In contrast, bacterial survival was reduced only two to three orders of magnitude for spore layers on astroquartz and graphite composite exposed to 1 h of Mars UV irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy images of the bacterial monolayers on all eight spacecraft materials revealed that endospores of B. subtilis formed large aggregates of multilayered spores on astroquartz and graphite composite, but not on the other six spacecraft materials. It is likely that the formation of multilayered aggregates of endospores on astroquartz and graphite composite is responsible for the enhanced survival of bacterial cells on these materials.

  8. Pyogenic liver abscess: a retrospective analysis of 107 patients during a 3-year period.

    PubMed

    Chan, Khee-Siang; Chen, Chin-Ming; Cheng, Kuo-Chen; Hou, Ching-Cheng; Lin, Hung-Jung; Yu, Wen-Liang

    2005-12-01

    Pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a potentially life-threatening disease, and early diagnosis may be difficult. In order to provide diagnostic clues and to enhance the prompt management of such cases, we retrospectively investigated the clinical characteristics of PLA during a 3-year period in a tertiary-care hospital. The crude incidence rate of PLA in our study was 446.1 per 100,000 hospital admissions. Male predominance and a mean age of 57.6 +/- 14.4 years were observed. Diabetes mellitus was the most common concomitant disease, and biliary pathologies were the most common predisposing cause of this type of abscess. The most common clinical features were fever, chills, and abdominal pain. Leukocytosis was found in 67.3% of the patients, and the observed C-reactive protein (CRP) values were high. The most common pathogen was Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mortality rate was 6.5%. A complete history, physical examination, evaluation of the white blood cell count and CRP, and the prompt arrangement of imaging studies may lead to an earlier diagnosis. The aggressive performance of image-guided catheter drainage and the appropriate administration of antibiotics may reduce the mortality rate of PLA. PMID:16377869

  9. Application of a direct fluorescence-based live/dead staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization for assessment of survival rate of Bacteroides spp. in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Savichtcheva, Olga; Okayama, Noriko; Ito, Tsukasa; Okabe, Satoshi

    2005-11-01

    To evaluate the viability and survival ability of fecal Bacteroides spp. in environmental waters, a fluorescence-based live/dead staining method using ViaGram Red+ Bacterial gram stain and viability kit was combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe (referred as LDS-FISH). The proposed LDS-FISH was a direct and reliable method to detect fecal Bacteroides cells and their viability at single-cell level in complex microbial communities. The pure culture of Bacteroides fragilis and whole human feces were dispersed in aerobic drinking water and incubated at different water temperatures (4 degrees C, 13 degrees C, 18 degrees C, and 24 degrees C), and then the viability of B. fragilis and fecal Bacteroides spp. were determined by applying the LDS-FISH. The results revealed that temperature and the presence of oxygen have significant effects on the survival ability. Increasing the temperature resulted in a rapid decrease in the viability of both pure cultured B. fragilis cells and fecal Bacteroides spp. The live pure cultured B. fragilis cells could be found at the level of detection in drinking water for 48 h of incubation at 24 degrees C, whereas live fecal Bacteroides spp. could be detected for only 4 h of incubation at 24 degrees C. The proposed LDS-FISH method should provide useful quantitative information on the presence and viability of Bacteroides spp., a potential alternative fecal indicator, in environmental waters.

  10. Beyond Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffenson, Dave

    1975-01-01

    The author argues that environmentalists need to realize that the present ecological crisis is essentially a value crisis, not merely a fight for survival alone. He envisions a complete value change for the human population and advocates the incorporation of value strategies into all environmental education programs immediately. (MA)

  11. Prediction of recurrence-free survival using a protein expression-based risk classifier for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S S; Kaur, J; Kumar, M; Matta, A; Srivastava, G; Alyass, A; Assi, J; Leong, I; MacMillan, C; Witterick, I; Colgan, T J; Shukla, N K; Thakar, A; Sharma, M C; Siu, K W M; Walfish, P G; Ralhan, R

    2015-04-20

    Loco-regional recurrence in 50% of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients poses major challenge for oncologists. Lack of biomarkers that can predict disease aggressiveness and recurrence risk makes the scenario more dismal. On the basis of our earlier global proteomic analyses we identified five differentially expressed proteins in OSCC. This study aimed to develop protein biomarkers-based prognostic risk prediction model for OSCC. Sub-cellular expression of five proteins, S100A7, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteinK (hnRNPK), prothymosin α (PTMA), 14-3-3ζ and 14-3-3σ was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in test set (282 Indian OSCCs and 209 normal tissues), correlated with clinic-pathological parameters and clinical outcome over 12 years to develop a risk model for prediction of recurrence-free survival. This risk classifier was externally validated in 135 Canadian OSCC and 96 normal tissues. Biomarker signature score based on PTMA, S100A7 and hnRNPK was associated with recurrence free survival of OSCC patients (hazard ratio=1.11; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 1.13, P<0.001, optimism-corrected c-statistic=0.69) independent of clinical parameters. Biomarker signature score stratified OSCC patients into high- and low-risk groups with significant difference for disease recurrence. The high-risk group had median survival 14 months, and 3-year survival rate of 30%, whereas low-risk group survival probability did not reach 50%, and had 3-year survival rate of 71%. As a powerful predictor of 3-year recurrence-free survival in OSCC patients, the newly developed biomarkers panel risk classifier will facilitate patient counseling for personalized treatment.

  12. Estuarine survival and migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts.

    PubMed

    Halfyard, E A; Gibson, A J F; Ruzzante, D E; Stokesbury, M J W; Whoriskey, F G

    2012-10-01

    To estimate mortality rates, assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of natural mortality and examine migratory behaviour during the fresh to saltwater transition, 185 wild Atlantic salmon Salmo salar smolts were implanted with coded acoustic transmitters. Seaward migration of tagged S. salar from four river systems in an area of Nova Scotia, Canada known as the Southern Upland was monitored using fixed receivers and active telemetry over 3 years. Cumulative survival through the river, inner estuary, outer estuary and bay habitats averaged 59·6% (range = 39·4-73·5%). When standardized to distance travelled, survival rates followed two patterns: (1) constant rates of survival independent of habitat or (2) low survival most frequently associated with inner estuary habitats. In rivers where survival was independent of habitat, residency periods were also independent of habitat, post-smolts exhibited few upstream movements, took a more direct route to the ocean and reached the ocean rapidly. Alternatively, in rivers where survival was habitat specific, residency was also habitat specific with overall increased residency, more frequent upstream movements and delayed arrival to the open ocean. The sudden disappearance of most (75-100%) smolts and post-smolts assumed dead during the course of this study warrants further examination into the role of avian predators as a mortality vector.

  13. Extreme rapid warming yields high functional survivals of vitrified 8-cell mouse embryos even when suspended in a half-strength vitrification solution and cooled at moderate rates to −196°C✰

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Shinsuke; Jin, Bo; Mazu, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To cryopreserve cells, it is essential to avoid intracellular ice formation during cooling and warming. One way to do so is to subject them to procedures that convert cell water into a non-crystalline glass. Current belief is that to achieve this vitrification, cells must be suspended in very high concentrations of glass-inducing solutes (i.e., ≥ 6 molal) and cooled at very high rates (i.e., >> 1,000°C/min). We report here that both these beliefs are incorrect with respect to the vitrification of 8-cell mouse embryos. In this study, precompaction 8-cell embryos were vitrified in several dilutions of EAFS10/10 using various cooling rates and warming rates. Survival was based on morphology, osmotic functionality, and on the ability to develop to expanded blastocysts. With a warming rate of 117,500°C/min, the percentages of embryos vitrified in 1×, 0.75×, and 0.5× EAFS that developed to blastocysts were 93%, 92%, and 86%, respectively. And the percentages of morphological survivors that developed to expanded blastocysts were 100%, 92%, and 97%, respectively. Even when the solute concentration of the EAFS was reduced to 33% of normal, we obtained 40% functional survival of these 8-cell embryos. PMID:24333434

  14. Predictability of persistent frequent attendance: a historic 3-year cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Frans ThM; Brouwer, Henk J; van Weert, Henk CP; Schene, Aart H; ter Riet, Gerben

    2009-01-01

    Background Few patients who attend GP consultations frequently continue to do so long term. While transient frequent attendance may be readily explicable, persistent frequent attendance often is not. It increases GPs' workload while reducing work satisfaction. It is neither reasonable, nor efficient to target diagnostic assessment and intervention at transient frequent attenders. Aim To develop a prediction rule for selecting persistent frequent attenders, using readily available information from GPs' electronic medical records. Design of study A historic 3-year cohort study. Method Data of 28 860 adult patients from 2003 to 2005 were examined. Frequent attenders were patients whose attendance rate ranked in the (age- and sex-adjusted) top 10% during 1 year (1-year frequent attenders) or 3 years (persistent frequent attenders). Bootstrapped multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine which predictors contained information on persistent frequent attendance. Results Of 3045 1-year frequent attenders, 470 (15.4%) became persistent frequent attenders. The prediction rule could update this prior probability to 3.3% (lowest value) or 43.3% (highest value). However, the 10th and 90th centiles of the posterior probability distribution were 7.4% and 26.3% respectively, indicating that the model performs modestly. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.67 (95% confidence limits 0.64 and 0.69). Conclusion Among 1-year frequent attenders, six out of seven are transient frequent attenders. With the present indicators, the rule developed performs modestly in selecting those more likely to become persistent frequent attenders. PMID:19192367

  15. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients: a 3-year multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Sterkers, Yvon; Yera, Hélène; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Menotti, Jean; Cassaing, Sophie; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Delhaes, Laurence; Bonhomme, Julie; Villena, Isabelle; Scherer, Emeline; Dalle, Frédéric; Touafek, Feriel; Filisetti, Denis; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Bastien, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a life-threatening infection in immunocompromised patients (ICPs). The definitive diagnosis relies on parasite DNA detection, but little is known about the incidence and burden of disease in HIV-negative patients. A 3-year retrospective study was conducted in 15 reference laboratories from the network of the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, in order to record the frequency of Toxoplasma gondii DNA detection in ICPs and to review the molecular methods used for diagnosis and the prevention measures implemented in transplant patients. During the study period, of 31,640 PCRs performed on samples from ICPs, 610 were positive (323 patients). Blood (n = 337 samples), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 101 samples), and aqueous humor (n = 100 samples) were more frequently positive. Chemoprophylaxis schemes in transplant patients differed between centers. PCR follow-up of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) patients was implemented in 8/15 centers. Data from 180 patients (13 centers) were further analyzed regarding clinical setting and outcome. Only 68/180 (38%) patients were HIV(+); the remaining 62% consisted of 72 HSCT, 14 solid organ transplant, and 26 miscellaneous immunodeficiency patients. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and disseminated toxoplasmosis were most frequently observed in HIV and transplant patients, respectively. Of 72 allo-HSCT patients with a positive PCR result, 23 were asymptomatic; all were diagnosed in centers performing systematic blood PCR follow-up, and they received specific treatment. Overall survival of allo-HSCT patients at 2 months was better in centers with PCR follow-up than in other centers (P < 0.01). This study provides updated data on the frequency of toxoplasmosis in HIV-negative ICPs and suggests that regular PCR follow-up of allo-HSCT patients could guide preemptive treatment and improve outcome.

  16. Impact of multiple liver resections prior to salvage liver transplantation on survival in patients with recurrent HCC

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenhua; Zhang, Qijun; Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhiwei; Xiang, Jie; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Salvage liver transplantation (SLT) is a controversial technique that has been reported to be acceptable for the management of patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after primary hepatic resection (HR). However, whether the number of times liver resection is performed has an impact on survival after SLT has not yet been reported. Design Retrospective study. Setting The level of care is primary and the study was carried out at only 1 centre. Participants The study included 59 patients who underwent SLT for HCC from September 2001 to December 2012. 51 patients underwent HR only once before SLT, while the remaining 8 patients underwent HR more than once before SLT (HR=2 [7], HR=3, [1]). Primary and secondary outcome measures In this study, the 1-year, 3-year and 5-year overall and tumour-free survival outcomes between the 2 groups were compared. Results There were no significant differences between patients who underwent HR once and those who underwent HR more than once with respect to overall or tumour-free survival after receiving SLT. The 1-year, 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates for patients who underwent HR once were 72.9%, 35.3% and 35.5% vs 50%, 50% and 50%, respectively (p=0.986), while the 1-year, 3-year and 5-year tumour-free survival rates for those who underwent HR more than once were 66.3%, 55.3% and 44.4% vs 40%, 40% and 40%, respectively (p=0.790). Conclusions There was no significant difference in the survival rate of patients who underwent HR once before SLT and those who underwent HR more than once. This suggests that SLT is a reasonable choice for patients who suffer from recurrent HCC after HR. Trial registration number This is a retrospective study and no registry or number is required. PMID:26353871

  17. Effects of sewage sludge compost application on crops and cropland in a 3-year field study.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongjie; Liu, Yangsheng

    2005-06-01

    Composted sewage sludge can be applied to cropland to supply nutrients and improve soil physical properties. However, farmers are much concerned about heavy metal accumulation in cropland and heavy metal availability for crops. A 3-year field study was carried out in this study to investigate the effects of sewage sludge compost (SSC) application on the heavy metal accumulation in cropland soil, rapeseed germination and plumelet development, and yields of barley and Chinese cabbage, compared with conventional mineral fertilization. In addition, the availability of heavy metals for barley and Chinese cabbage was examined. Experimental results showed that SSC application produced little effects on rapeseed germination and stimulated the rape plumelet development at lower application rates (<150 ton ha(-1)). Heavy metals (Cu and Zn) were accumulated in the topsoil (0-20 cm), the barley grains and the cabbage leaves. The yields of barley and Chinese cabbage generated positive response to the SSC application. Addition of mineral N-P-K fertilizers into SSC could further increase the crop yield. Considering the heavy metals accumulation in cropland soil and their availability for crops, SSC should be applied to cropland at a limited application rate (<150 ton ha(-1)).

  18. Parent-Reported Distress in Children Under 3-years Old During Preventive Medical and Dental Care

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Travis M.; Huebner, Colleen E.; Kim, Amy; Scott, JoAnna M.; Pickrell, Jacqueline E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined factors related to young children’s distress during preventive oral health visits. Additionally, associations between parent-reported child behavior during the dental visit and during prior medical visits were tested. Methods One hundred twenty two children under 3 years of age enrolled in a government insurance program for low-income children were seen for examination, prophylaxis, and fluoride application at a university-based dental clinic. Child distress was rated by parents on a numerical rating scale. Results The average age of children enrolled was 23.5 ± 7.3 months. The majority (55.7%) were judged to have little or no distress pre-examination. Mild or no distress during the examination was reported for 42.6% of the children and severe distress was reported for 39.4%. Intensity of distress during the examination was not associated with the child’s age, gender, dental health, or prior experience with dental care. Distress was also unrelated to the caregiver’s education level or own dental health. Intensity of distress was associated with the child’s pre-dental examination distress and distress during prior medical examinations and injections. Conclusions Dental professionals can better anticipate child distress by assessing children before examination and inquiring about previous medical experiences. Strategies to prepare parents and alleviate distress may help children cope with the preventive dental visit. PMID:25514877

  19. Bald eagle survival and population dynamics in Alaska after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, T.D.; Bernatowicz, J.A.; Schempf, P.F.

    1995-04-01

    We investigated age-specific annual survival rates for 159 bald eagles (Haliaeetus Leucocephalus) radiotagged from 1989 to 1992 in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. We monitored radio-tagged eagles for {le}3 years beginning 4 months after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in survival rates between eagles radiotagged in oiled areas and eagles radiotagged in unoiled areas of PWS. Pooled annual survival rates were 71% for first-year eagles, 95% for subadults, and 88% for adult bald eagles. Most deaths occurred from March to May. We found no indication that survival of bald eagles radiotagged >4 months after the oil spill in PWS was directly influenced by the spill and concluded that any effect of the spill on survival occurred before eagles were radiotagged. A deterministic life table model suggests that the PWS bald eagle population has an annual finite growth rate of 2%. Given the cumulative effects of direct mortality and reduced productivity caused by the oil spill, we predicted that the bald eagle population would return to its pre-spill size by 1992. 27 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Comparison of two all-in-one adhesives bonded to non-carious cervical lesions--results at 3 years.

    PubMed

    Burrow, Michael F; Tyas, Martin J

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of S(3) Bond (Kuraray Corp., Japan) and G-Bond (GC Corp., Japan) all-in-one bonding agents, over 3 years in non-carious cervical lesions (NCCLs). Ethics Committee approval was obtained, and 60 restorations were placed in 11 patients aged 45-84 years (mean 60.5 years), using either Clearfil ST resin composite (Kuraray) and S(3) Bond or Gradia resin composite (GC) and G-Bond alternately, without phosphoric acid etch on the uncut enamel margins. Patients were recalled at 6 months, 1 year, 2 years and 3 years, and photographs were taken for assessment of colour match and marginal discoloration. One patient was not available at 3 years, resulting in 54 restorations being available for evaluation. One restoration of S(3)/Clearfil ST was lost at 2 years, giving retention rates of 97% for S(3) and 100% for G-Bond. At 3 years, six restorations for S(3)/Clearfil ST showed slight marginal discoloration and one restoration pronounced marginal staining. For G-Bond/Gradia at 3 years, 11 restorations exhibited slight marginal staining and one restoration pronounced marginal staining. Most restorations were bonded to sclerotic dentin. Statistical analysis of marginal staining showed no significant difference between the two restoration groups. The degree of marginal staining was almost identical for both materials and tended to be in larger restorations. Both S(3) and G-Bond all-in-one bonding systems appear to be good adhesives for the restoration of NCCL for the length of the current study. Restoration of NCCLs with the newer all-in-one adhesives appears to be a viable alternative technique to more complicated adhesive materials. PMID:21789590

  1. Coyote removal, understory cover, and survival of white-tailed deer neonates: Coyote Control and Fawn Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John C.; Vukovich, Mark; Ray, H. Scott; Shaw, Christopher E.; Ruth, Charles

    2014-09-01

    Predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) neonates has led to reduced recruitment in many deer populations in southeastern North America. This low recruitment combined with liberal antlerless deer harvest has resulted in declines in some deer populations, and consequently, increased interest in coyote population control. We investigated whether neonate survival increased after coyote removal, whether coyote predation on neonates was additive to other mortality sources, and whether understory vegetation density affected neonate survival. We monitored neonate survival for 4 years prior to (2006–2009) and 3 years during (2010–2012) intensive coyote removal on 3 32-km2 units on the United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site, South Carolina. We removed 474 coyotes (1.63 coyotes/km2 per unit per year), reducing coyote abundance by 78% from pre-removal levels. The best model (wi = 0.927) describing survival probability among 216 radio-collared neonates included a within-year quadratic time trend variable, date of birth, removal treatment, and a varying removal year effect. Under this model, survival differed between pre-treatment and removal periods and it differed among years during the removal period, being >100% greater than pre-treatment survival (0.228) during the first removal year (0.513), similar to pre-treatment survival during the second removal year (0.202), and intermediate during the third removal year (0.431). Despite an initial increase, the overall effect of coyote removal on neonate survival was modest. Mortality rate attributable to coyote predation was lowest during the first removal year (0.357) when survival was greatest, but the mortality rate from all other causes did not differ between the pretreatment period and any year during removals, indicating that coyote predation acted as an additive source of mortality. Survival probability was not related to

  2. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Paparazzo, Francesco; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe) and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina) with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor. PMID:26154519

  3. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Paparazzo, Francesco; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe) and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina) with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor.

  4. Plasticity and rectangularity in survival curves

    PubMed Central

    Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho

    2011-01-01

    Living systems inevitably undergo a progressive deterioration of physiological function with age and an increase of vulnerability to disease and death. To maintain health and survival, living systems should optimize survival strategies with adaptive interactions among molecules, cells, organs, individuals, and environments, which arises plasticity in survival curves of living systems. In general, survival dynamics in a population is mathematically depicted by a survival rate, which monotonically changes from 1 to 0 with age. It would be then useful to find an adequate function to describe complicated survival dynamics. Here we describe a flexible survival function, derived from the stretched exponential function by adopting an age-dependent shaping exponent. We note that the exponent is associated with the fractal-like scaling in cumulative mortality rate. The survival function well depicts general features in survival curves; healthy populations exhibit plasticity and evolve towards rectangular-like survival curves, as examples in humans or laboratory animals. PMID:22355622

  5. Perception and Production of Lexical Tones by 3-Year-Old, Mandarin-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.; Jenkins, James J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated 3-year-old children's perception and production of Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. Thirteen 3-year-old, Mandarin-speaking children participated in the study. Tone perception was examined by a picture-pointing task, and tone production was investigated by picture naming. To compare children's productions…

  6. Changes in Strength Abilities of Adolescent Girls: The Effect of a 3-Year Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czarniecka, Renata; Milde, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate changes in strength abilities of adolescent girls that underwent a 3-year physical education curriculum. Material and methods: The research participants comprised 141 girls aged 13.3 plus or minus 0.35 years who participated in a 3-year physical education curriculum (PEC). Evaluation was based on the following EUROFIT…

  7. Allocation of Resources to Collaborators and Free-Riders in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Alicia P.; Altrichter, Kristin; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in situations where resources have been acquired collaboratively, children at around 3 years of age share mostly equally. We investigated 3-year-olds' sharing behavior with a collaborating partner and a free-riding partner who explicitly expressed her preference not to collaborate. Children shared more equally with…

  8. Long-term effectiveness of four pulpotomy techniques: 3-year randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Huth, Karin Christine; Hajek-Al-Khatar, Niran; Wolf, Petra; Ilie, Nicoleta; Hickel, Reinhard; Paschos, Ekaterini

    2012-08-01

    A pulpotomy is the therapy for management of pulp exposures due to caries in symptom-free primary molars. The aim was to longitudinally compare the relative effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser, calcium hydroxide and ferric sulphate techniques with dilute formocresol in retaining symptom-free molars. Two hundred primary molars in 107 healthy children were included and randomly allocated to one technique. The treated teeth were blindly reevaluated after 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. Descriptive data analysis and logistic regression analysis accounting for multiple observations per patient by generalised estimating equation were used. Additionally, various influences including tooth type, upper and lower jaws, type of anaesthesia, operator and the final restoration on treatment success were evaluated (Wald chi-square test). After 36 months, the following total (considering clinical and clinically symptom-free radiographic failures) and clinical success rates were determined (in percent): Formocresol 72 (92), laser 73 (89), calcium hydroxide 46 (75), ferric sulphate 76 (97). No significant differences were detected between formocresol and any other technique after 36 months. However, the odds ratio of failure appeared to be three times higher for calcium hydroxide than for formocresol. No significant differences in total success rates were seen regarding the aforementioned influencing clinical parameters. The correct diagnosis of the pulpal status, bleeding control and the specific technique are highly important for long-term success of pulpotomies in primary molars. According to the presented long-term data, pulpotomies using ferric sulphate revealed the best treatment outcome among the used techniques, while calcium hydroxide resulted in the lowest success rates after 3 years. Therefore, we can recommend ferric sulphate for easy and successful treatment of primary molars with caries-exposed pulps. PMID:21842145

  9. Anti-CD45 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy using Bismuth-213: High Rates of Complete Remission and Long-Term Survival in a Mouse Myeloid Leukemia Xenograft Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Back, Tom; Hamlin, Donald K; Wilbur, D Scott; Fisher, Darrell R; Park, Steven I; Frayo, Shani; Axtman, Amanda; Orgun, Nural; Orozoco, Johnnie; Shenoi, Jaideep; Lin, Yukang; Gopal, Ajay K; Green, Damian J; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Press, Oliver W

    2011-07-21

    Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) using an anti-CD45 antibody (Ab)-streptavidin (SA) conjugate and DOTA-biotin labeled with β-emitting radionuclides has been explored as a strategy to decrease relapse and toxicity. α-emitting radionuclides exhibit high cytotoxicity coupled with a short path-length, potentially increasing the therapeutic index and making them an attractive alternative to β-emitting radionuclides for patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Accordingly, we have used 213Bi in mice with human leukemia xenografts. Results demonstrated excellent localization of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin to tumors with minimal uptake into normal organs. After 10 minutes, 4.5 ± 1.1% of the injected dose of 213Bi was delivered per gram of tumor. α imaging demonstrated uniform radionuclide distribution within tumor tissue 45 minutes after 213Bi-DOTA-biotin injection. Radiation absorbed doses were similar to those observed using a β-emitting radionuclide (90Y) in the same model. We conducted therapy experiments in a xenograft model using a single-dose of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin given 24 hours after anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate. Among mice treated with anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate followed by 800 μCi of 213Bi- or 90Y-DOTA-biotin, 80% and 20%, respectively, survived leukemia-free for >100 days with minimal toxicity. These data suggest that anti-CD45 PRIT using an α-emitting radionuclide may be highly effective and minimally toxic for treatment of AML.

  10. Microbes in nature are limited by carbon and energy: the starving-survival lifestyle in soil and consequences for estimating microbial rates.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, John E; Hobbie, Erik A

    2013-01-01

    Understanding microbial transformations in soils is important for predicting future carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling. This review questions some methods of assessing one key microbial process, the uptake of labile organic compounds. First, soil microbes have a starving-survival life style of dormancy, arrested activity, and low activity. Yet they are very abundant and remain poised to completely take up all substrates that become available. As a result, dilution assays with the addition of labeled substrates cannot be used. When labeled substrates are transformed into (14)CO2, the first part of the biphasic release follows metabolic rules and is not affected by the environment. As a consequence, when identical amounts of isotopically substrates are added to soils from different climate zones, the same percentage of the substrate is respired and the same half-life of the respired (14)CO2 from the labeled substrate is estimated. Second, when soils are sampled by a variety of methods from taking 10 cm diameter cores to millimeter-scale dialysis chambers, amino acids (and other organic compounds) appear to be released by the severing of fine roots and mycorrhizal networks as well as from pressing or centrifuging treatments. As a result of disturbance as well as of natural root release, concentrations of individual amino acids of ~10 μM are measured. This contrasts with concentrations of a few nanomolar found in aquatic systems and raises questions about possible differences in the bacterial strategy between aquatic and soil ecosystems. The small size of the hyphae (2-10 μm diameter) and of the fine roots (0.2-2 mm diameter), make it very difficult to sample any volume of soil without introducing artifacts. Third, when micromolar amounts of labeled amino acids are added to soil, some of the isotope enters plant roots. This may be an artifact of the high micromolar concentrations applied.

  11. Effect of different cryoprotectants and transfer temperatures on the survival rate of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cell suspension in deep freezing.

    PubMed

    Jekkel, Z; Heszky, L E; Ali, A H

    1989-01-01

    Adequate cell dehydration is the precipitating element in the successful cryopreservation of plant cells and organs. This could be achieved by using different cooling rates, transfer temperatures and cryoprotectants. Experiments were performed to determine these critical points in the freeze preservation procedure of Cannabis sativa (L.) suspension cultures. The explants were frozen at a cooling rate of 2 degrees C/min, while the transfer temperatures were -10 degrees C, -20 degrees C, -30 degrees C, -40 degrees C and -50 degrees C. The applied cryoprotectants were the DMSO, glycerol, proline and PEG in different concentration. The highest viability (58%) was obtained by using 10% DMSO and at -10 degrees C transfer temperature. The optimum transfer temperature varied remarkably by different cryoprotectant concentrations indicating the importance of their interactions. PMID:2633578

  12. Effects of Experimental High Flow Releases and Increased Fluctuations in Flow from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lee's Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Josh

    2010-05-01

    The abundance of adult fish populations is controlled by the growth and survival rates of early life stages. Evaluating the effects of flow regimes on early life stages is therefore critical to determine how these regimes affect the abundance of adult populations. Experimental high flow releases from Glen Canyon Dam, primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ, have been conducted in 1996, 2004, and 2008. These flows potentially affect the Lee's Ferry reach rainbow trout population, located immediately downstream of the dam, which supports a highly valued fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Due to concerns about negative effects of high trout abundance on endangered native fish, hourly variation in flow from Glen Canyon Dam was experimentally increased between 2003 and 2005 to reduce trout abundance. This study reports on the effects of experimental high flow releases and fluctuating flows on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lee's Ferry reach based on monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance and growth of age-0 trout between 2003 and 2009. Data on spawn timing, spawning elevations, and intergravel temperatures were integrated in a model to estimate the magnitude and seasonal trend in incubation mortality resulting from redd dewatering due to fluctuations in flow. Experimental fluctuations from January through March promoted spawning at higher elevations where the duration of dewatering was longer and intergravel temperatures exceeded lethal thresholds. Flow-dependent incubation mortality rates were 24% (2003) and 50% (2004) in years with higher flow fluctuations, compared to 5-11% under normal operations (2006-2009). Spatial and temporal predictions of mortality were consistent with direct observations of egg mortality determined from the excavation of 125 redds. The amount of variation in backcalculated hatch

  13. Improved survival rate in children with stage III and IV B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and leukemia using multi-agent chemotherapy: results of a study of 114 children from the French Pediatric Oncology Society.

    PubMed

    Patte, C; Philip, T; Rodary, C; Bernard, A; Zucker, J M; Bernard, J L; Robert, A; Rialland, X; Benz-Lemoine, E; Demeocq, F

    1986-08-01

    Children with B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who have not relapsed 1 year after diagnosis and treatment are generally cured. We report here the results of treatment in 114 children who all had a minimum follow-up of 20 months. The protocol LMB 0281 from the French Pediatric Oncology Society was used. This nine-drug intensive-pulsed chemotherapy was based on high-dose cyclophosphamide, high-dose methotrexate (HD MTX), and cytosine arabinoside (ara-C) in continuous infusion. CNS prophylaxis was with chemotherapy only. No local irradiation was performed. No debulking surgery was recommended. There were 72 patients with stage III lymphoma and 42 patients with stage IV lymphoma or B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL). Among those 42 patients, seven had CNS involvement alone, 21 had bone marrow alone, and 14 had both; 26 had greater than 25% blast cells in bone marrow, 14 of whom had blast cells in blood. The primary site of involvement was the abdomen in 90 patients, the Waldeyer Ring in nine, and various sites in eight; seven patients presented without tumor. Seventy-seven patients are alive with a median follow-up of 2 years and 8 months. Seven patients died due to initial treatment failure, 11 died from toxicity, and 19 died after relapse. Among the 93 patients without initial CNS involvement, only one isolated relapse in CNS occurred. Survival and disease-free survival rates reached 67% and 64%, respectively, for all patients, 75% and 73% for stage III patients and 54% and 48% for stage IV and B-ALL patients. Bone marrow involvement was not an adverse prognostic factor. Contrary initial CNS involvement indicated a bad prognosis with a disease-free survival rate of 19% compared with 76% without CNS disease. This study showed that CNS prophylaxis and local control of the primary tumor can be achieved by intensive chemotherapy alone, without radiotherapy or debulking surgery. PMID:3525767

  14. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children’s communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  15. Negative cognitive styles synergistically predict suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders: a 3-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stange, Jonathan P; Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Kleiman, Evan M; O'Garro-Moore, Jared K; Seligman, Nicole D; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-03-30

    Rates of suicidal ideation and behavior are extremely high in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). However, relatively little work has evaluated potentially synergistic relationships between cognitive and emotion-regulatory processes proposed by theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs. The present study evaluated whether negative cognitive style and subtypes of rumination would exacerbate the impact of self-criticism on suicidal ideation in a prospective study of individuals with BSDs. Seventy-two young adults with BSDs (bipolar II, bipolar NOS, or cyclothymia) completed diagnostic interviews and trait measures of self-criticism, negative cognitive style, and brooding and reflective rumination at a baseline assessment. The occurrence of suicidal ideation was assessed as part of diagnostic interviews completed every 4 months for an average of 3 years of follow-up. Negative cognitive style and reflective rumination strengthened the association between self-criticism and the prospective occurrence of suicidal ideation across follow-up. Individuals with high levels of self-criticism in conjunction with negative cognitive style or reflective rumination were most likely to experience the onset of suicidal ideation. Self-criticism may work synergistically with negative cognitive style and rumination to confer risk for suicidal ideation in bipolar spectrum disorders. These results support theoretical models of suicidality in BSDs and indicate that evaluating and understanding negative cognitive styles may help to identify individuals who are at risk of suicide.

  16. Interacting effects of age, density, and weather on survival and current reproduction for a large mammal

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Emmanuelle; Simpson, Steven E; Medill, Sarah A; McLoughlin, Philip D

    2014-01-01

    Individual-based study of natural populations allows for accurate and precise estimation of fitness components and the extent to which they might vary with ecological conditions. By tracking the fates of all 701 horses known to have lived on Sable Island, Canada, from 2009 to 2013 (where there is no predation, human interference, or interspecific competition for food), we present a detailed analysis of structured population dynamics with focus on interacting effects of intraspecific competition and weather on reproduction and survival. Annual survival of adult females (0.866 ± 0.107 [ ± SE]) was lower than that of 3-year-olds (0.955 ± 0.051), although annual fecundity (producing a foal in a year that was observed during our census) was higher in adults (0.616 ± 0.023) compared to 3-year-olds (0.402 ± 0.054). Milder winters and lower densities during gestation increased fecundity. Density negatively impacted survival for all age and sex categories; however, highest adult female survival was observed during high-density years coupled with a harsh winter, the result expected if pregnancy loss during winter or loss of foals in spring improved survival. Three-year-old females, which reproduced at lower rates, experienced higher survival than adults. Our results contrast with a previous study of feral horses that suggested recently feral ungulates might be artificially selected to reproduce even when costs to survival are high. In part, this may be because of the comparably long history of feralization (250 years; at least 25 generations) for Sable Island horses. PMID:25614799

  17. Nitrous oxide emissions from Chinese maize-wheat rotation systems: A 3-year field measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yanjiang; Ding, Weixin; Luo, Jiafa

    2013-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes were measured over a 3-year period (2004-2007) in a long-term experimental field. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the interannual variation of N2O emissions from a maize-wheat rotation, under different fertilizer regimes and to determine the key controlling factors. The study involved four treatments: compost (OM), half compost N plus half inorganic fertilizer-N (HOM), inorganic fertilizer-N (NPK), and control (CK) where no N application. The mean annual N2O emission over a 3-year period was 0.30 ± 0.11 kg N2O-N ha-1 in the CK treatment, but increased to 1.61 ± 0.10 kg N2O-N ha-1 in the HOM treatment, 2.13 ± 0.15 kg N2O-N ha-1 in the OM treatment, and 2.76 ± 0.19 kg N2O-N ha-1 in the NPK treatment. Differences were significant among treatments. The N2O emission factors of the applied OM, NPK and HOM were 0.61 ± 0.02, 0.82 ± 0.10 and 0.44 ± 0.04%, respectively, at a rate of 300 kg N ha-1 year-1, indicating that the combined application of compost with inorganic fertilizer significantly reduced N2O emission. Over a maize-wheat rotation year, more than 65% of the annual N2O emission occurred during the maize growing season. There was a large interannual variation in N2O emission in all treatments, albeit not significant either during the maize growing season or at an inter-year scale. This interannual variation was mainly attributable to differences in soil moisture after basal fertilizer application, and irrigation and/or heavy rainfall events immediately following basal fertilization could induce more N2O production than pre-irrigation before plowing. The HOM treatment had higher N fertilizer use efficiency and lowest yield-scaled N2O emissions compared with the OM and NPK treatments. We therefore argue that the combined application of half compost N plus half fertilizer-N will mitigate N2O emissions from soils in the North China plain.

  18. Modelling postfledging survival and age- specific breeding probabilities in species with delayed maturity: A case study of Roseate Terns at Falkner Island, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Lebreton, J.D.; Pradel, R.

    2002-01-01

    We modelled postfledging survival and age-specific breeding probabilities in endangered Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) at Falkner Island, Connecticut, USA using capture-recapture data from 1988-1998 of birds ringed as chicks and as adults. While no individuals bred as 2-year-olds during this period, about three-quarters of the young that survived and returned as 3-year-olds nested, and virtually all surviving birds had begun breeding by the time they reached 5 years of age. We found no evidence of temporal variation age of first breeding of birds from different cohorts. There was significant temporal variation in the annual survival of adults and the survival over the typical 3-year maturation period of prebreeding birds, with extremely low values for both groups from the 1991 breeding season. The estimated overwinter survival rate (0.62) for adults from 1991-1992 was about three-quarters the usual rate of about 0.83, but the low survival of fledglings from 1991 resulted in less than 25% of the otherwise expected number of young from that cohort returning as breeding birds; this suggests that fledglings suffered a greater proportional decrease in survival than did adults. The survival estimates of young from 1989 and 1990 show that these cohorts were not negatively influenced by the events that decimated the young from 1991, and the young from 1992 and 1993 had above-average survival estimates. The apparent decrease since 1996 in development of fidelity of new recruits to this site is suspected to be due mainly to nocturnal disturbance and predation of chicks causing low productivity.

  19. Early response with dasatinib or imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia: 3-year follow-up from a randomized phase 3 trial (DASISION)

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Elias; Saglio, Giuseppe; Steegmann, Juan Luis; Shah, Neil P.; Boqué, Concepción; Chuah, Charles; Pavlovsky, Carolina; Mayer, Jiří; Cortes, Jorge; Baccarani, Michele; Kim, Dong-Wook; Bradley-Garelik, M. Brigid; Mohamed, Hesham; Wildgust, Mark; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This analysis explores the impact of early cytogenetic and molecular responses on the outcomes of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP) in the phase 3 DASatinib versus Imatinib Study In treatment-Naive CML patients trial with a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Patients with newly diagnosed CML-CP were randomized to receive 100 mg dasatinib (n = 259) or 400 mg imatinib (n = 260) once daily. The retrospective landmark analysis included patients evaluable at the relevant time point (3, 6, or 12 months). Median time to complete cytogenetic response was 3 vs 6 months with dasatinib vs imatinib. At 3 and 6 months, the proportion of patients with BCR-ABL transcript levels ≤10% was higher in the dasatinib arm. Deeper responses at 3, 6, and 12 months were observed in a higher proportion of patients on dasatinib therapy and were associated with better 3-year progression-free survival and overall survival in both arms. First-line dasatinib resulted in faster and deeper responses compared with imatinib. The achievement of an early molecular response was predictive of improved progression-free survival and overall survival, supporting new milestones for optimal response in patients with early CML-CP treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00481247. PMID:24311723

  20. Post-vitrification survival and in vitro maturation rate of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) oocytes: effect of ethylene glycol concentration and exposure time.

    PubMed

    Dhali, A; Manik, R S; Das, S K; Singla, S K; Palta, P

    2000-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ethylene glycol concentration and time of exposure to equilibration solution on the post-thaw morphological appearance and the in vitro maturation rate of buffalo oocytes. Vitrification solution-I (VS-I) consisted of 4.5M ethylene glycol (EG), 3.4M dimethyl sulphoxide, 5. 56mM glucose, 0.33mM sodium pyruvate and 0.4% w/v bovine serum albumin in Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (DPBS), whereas vitrification solution-II (VS-II) contained 3.5M EG, with other constituents at same concentrations as in VS-I. The equilibration solutions-I and II were prepared by 50% dilution (v/v) of VS-I and VS-II, respectively, in DPBS. Prior to vitrification, the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were exposed to equilibration solution-I or II for 1 or 3min at room temperature (25-30 degrees C). Groups of four to five oocytes were then placed in 15microl of respective vitrification solution, and immediately loaded into 0. 25ml French straws, each containing 150microl of 0.5M sucrose in DPBS. The straws were placed in liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapour for 2min, plunged and stored in LN(2) for at least 7 days. The straws were thawed by keeping in warm water at 28 degrees C for 20s, and the oocytes were equilibrated for 5min in 0.5M sucrose for one-step dilution. The percentage of oocytes found to be morphologically normal varied from 89 to 96% for the two equilibration solutions and the two exposure times. Among the damaged oocytes, cracking of zona pellucida was the abnormality observed most frequently. The nuclear maturation rate of oocytes equilibrated in equilibration solutions-I and II for 1 (28 and 24%, respectively) or 3min (32 and 33%, respectively) did not differ significantly. These results show that it is possible to cryopreserve buffalo oocytes by vitrification using a combination of 3.5M EG and 3.4M DMSO with an exposure time of 3min.

  1. Enhancing the executive functions of 3-year-olds in the dimensional change card sort task

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF) model that prior experience with the post-switch dimension can enhance 3-year-old’s performance in the DCCS task. In Experiment 1A, a matching game was used to pre-expose 3-year-olds (n=36) to color. This facilitated switching from sorting by shape to color. In Experiment 1B, 3-year-olds (n=18) were pre-exposed to shape. This did not facilitate switching from sorting by color to shape. The DNF model was used to provide a mechanistic explanation for this asymmetry. PMID:25441395

  2. A retrospective multicenter evaluation of the survival rate of osseointegrated fixtures supporting fixed partial prostheses in the treatment of partial edentulism.

    PubMed

    van Steenberghe, D

    1989-02-01

    Whether the excellent prognosis of the osseointegration technique also applies for the rehabilitation of partially edentulous jaws was investigated through a multicenter retrospective study. Six centers from three continents participated in the study, which included 133 fixtures in 38 patients. Forty fixtures were installed in the upper jaw and 93 in the lower jaw. The observation time varied between 6 and 36 months after prosthetic reconstruction. Clinical evaluation included mobility measurement of the restorations and control of infectious or neurologic complication. Radiologically the absence of radiolucency around the fixtures was checked by a single observer who also calculated the distance between the marginal bone and the top of the fixture. Fifty-eight percent of the prostheses were connected to natural teeth. The success rate for the individual fixtures in the upper and lower jaws was 87% and 92%, respectively. The most failures occurred before the prosthetic rehabilitation. The mean maximum distance between the margin of the bone and the fixture-abutment junction was 2.5 mm. Since only two of the 53 fixed prostheses were lost during the observation period, and since most fixture losses occurred before the prosthetic phase of the treatment, this study supports the concept that osseointegrated prostheses can also be applied to the rehabilitation of partial edentulism.

  3. Parental Styles and Religious Values among Teenagers: A 3-Year Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaven, Patrick C. L.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Leeson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the effect of Grade 7 parental styles on Grade 10 religious values. The authors surveyed 784 participants (382 boys, 394 girls; 8 unreported) in Grade 7. The mean age of the group at Time 1 was 12.3 years (SD = 0.5 years). Time 2 occurred 3 years later when students were in Grade 10 (372 boys, 375 girls). In addition to…

  4. Coeliac disease--associated disorders and survival.

    PubMed Central

    Collin, P; Reunala, T; Pukkala, E; Laippala, P; Keyriläinen, O; Pasternack, A

    1994-01-01

    The associated diseases in 335 coeliac patients diagnosed 1980-90 were compared with age and sex matched control patients with various gastrointestinal symptoms. Endocrine disorders were found in 11.9% of coeliac and 4.3% of control patients (p = 0.0003). Coeliac patients had insulin dependent diabetes mellitus significantly (p = 0.0094) more often (5.4%) than control patients (1.5%). connective tissue diseases were found in 7.2% of coeliac and in 2.7% of control patients (p = 0.011). Sjögren's syndrome occurred in 3.3% of coeliac patients and in 0.3% of controls (p = 0.0059). Autoimmune thyroid diseases were found in 5.4% and asthma in 3.6% of coeliac patients, but also in 2.7% and 3.6%, respectively, among control patients. The incidences of malignant diseases and the survival rate in coeliac patients were compared with those in the Finnish population. Ten coeliac patients developed a cancer during the follow up (mean 5.3 years, range 1-12) but none had a lymphoma. The risk of malignant diseases in coeliac patients did not differ from that in the Finnish population in general. Eleven coeliac patients died during the follow up. The five year survival rates of coeliac patients did not differ from those in the general population. At least 83% of the coeliac patients adhered strictly to the gluten free diet, which may explain the favourable outcome. PMID:7959226

  5. Survival prognostic factors for lateral bucco-pharyngeal junction squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Yann; Robin, Yves-Marie; Bedoui, Sophie El; Fournier, Charles; Penel, Nicolas; Lefebvre, Jean-Louis

    2008-07-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) localized at the lateral buccopharyngeal junction are frequent occurrences in our experience. This anatomical site gives the tumor ample space to spread in different directions, making tumor management all the more difficult. We focused our study on this localization to underline their specificities and evaluate our practices. In the Department of Head and Neck Oncology at the Centre Oscar Lambret, 57 patients with lateral bucco-pharyngeal junction SCC were treated from 1995 to 2000. Epidemiological data were extracted from the medical chart. Description of the tumor was based on clinical and imaging data. Treatment modalities frequently combined surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Protocol was adapted with the health status and the aggressiveness of the disease. Follow-up and survival rates are outlined below. Fifty men and seven women with a mean age of 57 years constitute the patient population. Forty-nine out of 57 presented a history of smoking, and 44 out of 46 presented a history of alcoholism. Patient overall clinical status, social and family background were also discussed. Thirty-one of fifty-seven tumors were categorized as T1 or T2. Forty-five out of fifty-seven presented limited lymph-node involvement. Tumor extension, growth pathology and degree of differentiation were described. Twenty-eight out of fifty-seven had undergone primary surgery. Primary radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy was delivered to the others. The modality of the different treatments and their results were specified. The 3-year disease-free survival rate was 52.7% and the 3-year overall survival rate was 48.2%. The mean survival rate was 3 years. Univariate analysis was performed on all occasions. Gender (P=0.008), surgery first versus non-surgical treatment first (P=0.03), spread beyond the midline (P=0.03), and small tumors T1 T2 versus T3 T4 (P=0.003) were predictive factors of overall survival. A Multivariate analysis showed that the

  6. Food insufficiency and women's mental health: findings from a 3-year panel of welfare recipients.

    PubMed

    Heflin, Colleen M; Siefert, Kristine; Williams, David R

    2005-11-01

    Household food insufficiency is a significant problem in the United States, and has been associated with poor outcomes on mental health indicators among low-income women. However, it is difficult to disentangle the mental health consequences of household food insufficiency from poverty and other shared risk factors. Drawing on theories of the social production of health and disease, research evidence linking food insufficiency with poor mental health, and high rates of food insufficiency among welfare recipients, we examined whether a change in household food insufficiency is associated with a change in women's self-reported mental health in a sample of current and recent welfare recipients over a 3-year period of time, controlling for common risk factors. Data were obtained from a prospective survey of women who were welfare recipients in an urban Michigan county in February 1997 (n=753). We estimated fixed effect models for changes in mental health status that make use of information on household food insufficiency gathered in the fall of 1997, 1998, and 1999. The relationship between household food insufficiency and respondents' meeting the diagnostic screening criteria for major depression remained highly significant even when controlling for factors known to confer increased risk of depression and time invariant unobserved heterogeneity. These findings add to growing evidence that household food insufficiency has potentially serious consequences for low-income women's mental health. If confirmed by further research, they suggest that the public health burden of depression in welfare recipients and other low-income women could be reduced by policy-level interventions to reduce their exposure to household food insufficiency.

  7. Co-silence of the coatomer β and v-ATPase A genes by siRNA feeding reduces larval survival rate and weight gain of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jianjun; Zhang, Peizhuo; Liu, Changyan; Zeng, Fanrong

    2015-02-01

    Coatomer and v-ATPase are two genes expressed in insect midgut epithelial cells and their knockdown is lethal to insect larvae. To investigate the RNAi response mediated by multiple siRNA duplexes, partial length cDNA of Helicoverpa armigera coatomer β and v-ATPase A was cloned and siRNA feeding-based RNAi was performed. Simultaneous ingestion of siRNAs specific to the H. armigera coatomer β and v-ATPase A led to co-silencing of the target genes and reduction in larval survival rate and weight gain. These results suggest that silencing two genes by feeding of multiple siRNAs is a good RNAi strategy. PMID:25752433

  8. Clinical evaluation of 860 anterior and posterior lithium disilicate restorations: retrospective study with a mean follow-up of 3 years and a maximum observational period of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Giacomo; Zarone, Fernando; Dellificorelli, Gianluca; Cannistraro, Giorgio; De Lorenzi, Marco; Mosca, Alberto; Sorrentino, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the clinical performance of lithium disilicate restorations supported by natural teeth or implants. Eight hundred sixty lithium disilicate adhesive restorations, including crowns on natural teeth and implant abutments, veneers, and onlays, were made in 312 patients. Parafunctional patients were included, but subjects with uncontrolled periodontitis and gingival inflammation were excluded. Veneers up to 0.5 mm thick were luted with flowable composite resin or light curing cements, while dual-curing composite systems were used with veneers up to 0.8 mm thick. Onlays up to 2 mm in thickness were luted with flowable composite resins or dual-curing composite cements. Crowns up to 1 mm in thickness were cemented with self-adhesive or dual-curing resin cements. The observational period ranged from 12 to 72 months, with a mean follow-up of 3 years. The mechanical and esthetic outcomes of the restorations were evaluated according to the modified California Dental Association (CDA) criteria. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Twenty-six mechanical complications were observed: 17 porcelain chippings, 5 fractures, and 4 losses of retention. Structural drawbacks occurred mainly in posterior segments, and monolithic restorations showed the lowest number of mechanical complications. The clinical ratings of the successful restorations, both monolithic and layered, were satisfactory according to the modified CDA criteria for color match, porcelain surface, and marginal integrity. The cumulative survival rates of lithium disilicate restorations ranged from 95.46% to 100%, while cumulative success rates ranged from 95.39% to 100%. All restorations recorded very high survival and success rates. The use of lithium disilicate restorations in fixed prosthodontics proved to be effective and reliable in the short- and medium-term.

  9. Potent, transient inhibition of BCR-ABL with dasatinib 100 mg daily achieves rapid and durable cytogenetic responses and high transformation-free survival rates in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance, suboptimal response or intolerance to imatinib

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Neil P.; Kim, Dong-Wook; Kantarjian, Hagop; Rousselot, Philippe; Llacer, Pedro Enrique Dorlhiac; Enrico, Alicia; Vela-Ojeda, Jorge; Silver, Richard T.; Khoury, Hanna Jean; Müller, Martin C.; Lambert, Alexandre; Matloub, Yousif; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Background Dasatinib 100 mg once daily achieves intermittent BCR-ABL kinase inhibition and is approved for chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients resistant or intolerant to imatinib. To better assess durability of response to and tolerability of dasatinib, data from a 2-year minimum follow-up for a dose-optimization study in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia are reported here. Design and Methods In a phase 3 study, 670 chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia patients with resistance, intolerance, or suboptimal response to imatinib were randomized to dasatinib 100 mg once-daily, 50 mg twice-daily, 140 mg once-daily, or 70 mg twice-daily. Results Data from a 2-year minimum follow-up demonstrate that dasatinib 100 mg once daily achieves major cytogenetic response and complete cytogenetic response rates comparable to those in the other treatment arms, and reduces the frequency of key side effects. Comparable 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were observed (80% and 91%, respectively, for 100 mg once daily, and 75%–76% and 88%–94%, respectively, in other arms). Complete cytogenetic responses were achieved rapidly, typically by 6 months. In patients treated with dasatinib 100 mg once daily for 6 months without complete cytogenetic response, the likelihood of achieving such a response by 2 years was 50% for patients who had achieved a partial cytogenetic response, and only 8% or less for patients with minor, minimal, or no cytogenetic response. Less than 3% of patients suffered disease transformation to accelerated or blast phase. Conclusions Intermittent kinase inhibition can achieve rapid and durable responses, indistinguishable from those achieved with more continuous inhibition. PMID:20139391

  10. Response to high-pressure, low-temperature treatment in vegetables: determination of survival rates of microbial populations using flow cytometry and detection of peroxidase activity using confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, G; Sanz, P D; Préstamo, G

    1999-03-01

    Application of high hydrostatic pressure (200, 300, 350 and 400 MPa) at 5 degrees C for 30 min to different micro-organisms, including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, moulds and yeasts, proved to be more effective in inactivating these organisms than treatments at 20 degrees C for 10 min and at 10 degrees C for 20 min. Moulds, yeasts, Gram-negative bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes were most sensitive, and their populations were completely inactivated at pressures between 300 and 350 MPa. The same conditions of pressure, temperature, and time were applied to different vegetables (lettuce, tomato, asparagus, spinach, cauliflower and onion), achieving reductions of from 2-4 log units in both viable mesophiles and moulds and yeasts at pressures of between 300 and 400 MPa. Sensory characteristics were unaltered, especially in asparagus, onion, tomato and cauliflower, though slight browning was observed in cauliflower at 350 MPa. Flow cytometry was applied to certain of the microbial populations used in the above experiment before and after the pressurization treatment. The results were indicative of differing percentage survival rates depending on micro-organism type, with higher survival rates for Gram-positive bacteria, except L. monocytogenes, than in the other test micro-organisms. Growth of survivors was undetectable using the plate count method, suggesting that micro-organisms suffering from pressure stress were metabolically inactive though alive. The pressurization treatments did not inactivate the peroxidase responsible for browning in vegetables. Confocal microscopic examination of epidermal tissue from onion showed that the enzyme had been displaced to the cell interior. Use of low temperatures and moderately long pressurization times yielded improved inactivation of micro-organisms and better sensorial characteristics of the vegetables, and should lower industrial costs.

  11. Metformin is not associated with improved biochemical free survival or cause-specific survival in men with prostate cancer treated with permanent interstitial brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Al V.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Morris, Mallory; Butler, Wayne M.; Adamovich, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Several recent studies have suggested improved clinical outcomes in diabetic men with prostate cancer who also use metformin. We explore whether metformin use is associated with improved outcomes specifically in men undergoing prostate brachytherapy. Material and methods 2,298 consecutive patients underwent permanent interstitial brachytherapy by a single brachytherapist (GSM). The cohort included 2028 non-diabetic men, 144 men with diabetes who were not taking metformin, and 126 men with diabetes who were taking metformin. Median follow up was 8.3 years. Differences in biochemical free survival, cause specific survival, and overall survival between men taking metformin and those not taking metformin were compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log rank tests. Results Fifteen year biochemical failure rate, cause specific mortality and overall mortality for non-diabetic men was 4.6%, 1.5%, 47.0%, respectively; for diabetic men taking metformin 4.8%, 2.0%, 37.2%; and for diabetic men not taking metformin was 2.8%, 0%, 72.7%, respectively. Metformin use was not predictive in multivariate analysis of biochemical failure or prostate cancer specific mortality. However, diabetic men not taking metformin had higher overall mortality than non-diabetic men. Conclusions Metformin use was not associated with improved biochemical survival or cancer specific survival in this cohort of men treated with prostate brachytherapy. PMID:25337126

  12. Effects of High-Flow Experiments from Glen Canyon Dam on Abundance, Growth, and Survival Rates of Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout in the Lees Ferry Reach of the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Kaplinski, Matthew; Melis, Theodore S.

    2010-01-01

    High-flow experiments (HFEs) from Glen Canyon Dam are primarily intended to conserve fine sediment and improve habitat conditions for native fish in the Colorado River as it flows through Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. These experimental flows also have the potential to affect the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population in the Lees Ferry tailwater reach immediately below the dam, which supports a highly valued recreational fishery and likely influences the abundance of rainbow trout in Grand Canyon. Understanding how flow regimes affect the survival and growth of juvenile rainbow trout is critical to interpreting trends in adult abundance. This study reports on the effects of HFEs in 2004 and 2008 on early life stages of rainbow trout in the Lees Ferry reach on the basis of monthly sampling of redds (egg nests) and the abundance of the age-0 trout (fertilization to about 1 to 2 months from emergence) and their growth during a 7-year period between 2003 and 2009. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the March 2008 HFE resulted in a large increase in early survival rates of age-0 trout because of an improvement in habitat conditions. A stock-recruitment analysis demonstrated that age-0 abundance in July 2008 was more than fourfold higher than expected, given the number of viable eggs that produced these fish. A hatch-date analysis showed that early survival rates were much higher for cohorts that hatched about 1 month after the 2008 HFE (about April 15, 2008) relative to those fish that hatched before this date. These cohorts, fertilized after the 2008 HFE, would have emerged into a benthic invertebrate community that had recovered, and was possibly enhanced by, the HFE. Interannual differences in growth of age-0 trout, determined on the basis of otolith microstructure, support this hypothesis. Growth rates in the summer and fall of 2008 (0.44 mm/day) were virtually the same as in 2006 (0.46 mm/day), the highest recorded during 6 years, even though

  13. Survival of hatching-year female canvasbacks wintering on Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Jorde, D.G.; Bunck, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Low annual survival of hatching-year (HY) females is a critical management concern for canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria), and may contribute substantially to reduced reproductive potential and the male-biased sex ratio of the species. To evaluate the contribution of mortality on a traditional wintering area to low annual survival, we estimated survival rates of HY female canvasbacks during 3 winters (1987-89) on Chesapeake Bay. We implanted radio transmitters in 204 HY and 44 after-hatching-year (AHY; 1989 only) female canvasbacks and tracked them from mid-December to early March. Ten-week survival rates did not differ (P > 0.05) among years for HY females; estimates ranged from 0.833 to 0.930 and averaged 0.887. Of 17 mortalities recorded for HY females during the 3-year study, 14 of 15 dated deaths occurred during the duck hunting season (first 3 weeks of the study), even though the hunting season on canvasbacks was closed. As a result, survival rates were lower during hunting versus posthunting periods (P 5 0.05 for 2 of 3 yr). Illegal hunting was the single largest source of mortality for HY females. Shot ducks accounted for a loss of 4% and suspected crippling losses (ducks scavenged by shoreline predators) may have increased hunting-associated losses to as high as 7%. In 1989, no deaths were observed for AHY females, and their survival was higher (P = 0.02) than HY females. High winter survival for HY females indicates that substantial mortality occurs at some other time of the annual cycle.

  14. The Survival of Roma Minority Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis Therapy - A Romanian Multicenter Survey

    PubMed Central

    Stoian, Dana; Schiller, Oana; Timar, Romulus; Timar, Bogdan; Bob, Flaviu; Donciu, Mihaela Dora; Munteanu, Mircea; Mihaescu, Adelina; Covic, Adrian; Schiller, Adalbert

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Roma minority represents the largest ethnic group in Central and South-East European countries. Data regarding the mortality in Roma hemodialysis subjects are limited. We evaluated the 3 year mortality of ESRD Roma patients treated with hemodialysis (HD). Study Design and Setting Our prospective cohort study included 600 ESRD patients on HD therapy recruited from 7 HD centers, from the main geographical regions of Romania. The median age of the patients was 56 (19) years, 332 (55.3%) being males, 51 (8.5%) having Roma ethnicity. Results Roma ESRD patients initiate dialysis at a younger age, 47.8 years vs. 52.3 years (P = 0.017), present higher serum albumin (P = 0.013) and higher serum phosphate levels (P = 0.021). In the Roma group, the overall 3 year mortality was higher when compared to Caucasians (33.3% vs. 24.8%). The multivariate survival analysis revealed that being of Roma ethnicity is an independent risk factor for mortality (HR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.04–2.91; P = 0.035). Conclusions Roma patients with ESRD initiate HD therapy at a younger age as compared to Caucasians. They have a higher 3 year mortality rate and are dying at a younger age. Roma ethnicity represents an independent risk factor for mortality in our cohort. PMID:27196564

  15. Allocation of resources to collaborators and free-riders in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Melis, Alicia P; Altrichter, Kristin; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that in situations where resources have been acquired collaboratively, children at around 3 years of age share mostly equally. We investigated 3-year-olds' sharing behavior with a collaborating partner and a free-riding partner who explicitly expressed her preference not to collaborate. Children shared more equally with the collaborating partner than with the free rider. These results suggest that young children are sensitive to the contributions made by others to a collaborative effort (and possibly their reasons for not collaborating) and distribute resources accordingly.

  16. The influence of home-rearing environment on children's behavioral problems 3 years' later.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wencan; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Kumi; Tomisaki, Etuko; Watanabe, Taeko; Wu, Bailiang; Anme, Tokie

    2016-10-30

    Reduction of children's behavioral problems has the potential to ameliorate parental stress, mental health problems, and family dysfunction. The current study was designed as a 3-year longitudinal study with secondary data. A total of 99 caregivers with preschool aged children were required to complete two self-reported questionnaires: the Index of Child Care Environment and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. It demonstrated that a positive home-rearing environment had a positive influence on children's behavioral problem 3 years' later. Our study suggests that we may reduce behavioral problems in children's later development by providing a positive home rearing environment.

  17. Prognostic factors for disease-free survival in patients with T-4 or N+ rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiation therapy, surgery, and intraoperative irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Gonzalez, Juan A.; Calvo, Felipe A.; Cortes, Javier; Garcia-Sabrido, Jose L.; Gomez-Espi, Marina; Valle, Emilio del; Munoz-Jimenez, Fernando; Alvarez, Emilio

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: Fluoropyrimidine-radiosensitizing agents in conjunction with preoperative radiotherapy have proven to induce tumor and nodal downstaging effects, sphincter preservation promotion, and mid-term favorable survival rates. Intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy may improve pelvic control in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer stages. Potential predictive factors for response and disease-free survival, with intense local multidisciplinary approach, are analyzed. Methods and Materials: One hundred fifteen patients with rectal cancer were treated with oral 5-fluorouracil or Tegafur with preoperative radiotherapy, surgery, and intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy to identify potential pre- and on-treatment characteristics that might be of prognostic value for disease outcome. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Results: Older patients and those treated with Tegafur were more likely to achieve a major histologic response, categorized as persistence of minimal residual microscopic disease foci in the surgical specimen ('mic' response). Factors unfavorably associated with disease-free survival in the multivariate model were male gender and persistence of macroscopic disease in the rectal wall ('mac' response). Accordingly, 3-year disease-free survival rates in the groups of patients with 0, 1, or 2 of these risk factors were 100%, 81%, and 53%, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Females with an intense pathologic response (pT{sub mic} residue) to preoperative chemoradiotherapy have an excellent 3-year disease-free survival. This information might be of interest for stratification of patients in the development of adjuvant treatment trials.

  18. Bimolecular recombination reactions: K-adiabatic and K-active forms of RRKM theory, nonstatistical aspects, low-pressure rates, and time-dependent survival probabilities with application to ozone. 2.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Nima; Marcus, R A

    2014-11-01

    We consider for bimolecular recombination reactions the K-adiabatic versus the K-active forms of RRKM theory, where K is the component of the total angular momentum along the axis of least moment of inertia of the recombination product. When that product is approximately a prolate symmetric top, with two moments of inertia of the product substantially larger than the third, K becomes a dynamically slowly varying quantity and the K-adiabatic form of RRKM theory is the appropriate version to use. Using classical trajectory results for the rate constant for ozone formation in the low-pressure region as an example, excellent agreement for the recombination rate constant k(rec) with the K-adiabatic RRKM theory is observed. Use of a two transition state (inner, outer TS) formalism also obviates any need for assessing recrossings in the exit channel. In contrast, the K-active form of RRKM theory for this system disagrees with the trajectory results by a factor of about 2.5. In this study we also consider the distribution of the (E, J) resolved time-dependent survival probabilities P(E, J, t) of the intermediate O3* formed from O + O2. It is calculated using classical trajectories. The initial conditions for classical trajectories were selected using action-angle variables and a total J representation for (E, J) resolved systems, as described in Part I.1 The difference between K-active and K-adiabatic treatments is reflected also in a difference of the K-active RRKM survival probability P(E, J, t) from its trajectory-based value and from its often non-single-exponential decay. It is shown analytically that krec (K-active) ≥ k(rec) (K-adiabatic), independent of the details of the TS (e.g., variational or fixed RRKM theory, 1-TS or 2-TS). Nonstatistical effects for O3* formation include a small initial recrossing of the transition state, a slow (several picoseconds) equipartitioning of energy among the two O-O bonds of the newly formed O3*, and a small nondissociation (a

  19. Comparison of the clinicopathological characteristics and the survival outcomes between the Siewert type II/III adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Han; Chen, Xin-Zu; Liu, Kai; Anil, Kumar; Yang, Kun; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes in Siewert type II and Siewert type III tumors. The clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes were analyzed in patients diagnosed with Siewert II/III tumors, who underwent transabdominal gastrectomy from Jan 2006 to Dec 2010. A total of 321 patients diagnosed with Siewert II/III tumors who underwent gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. Siewert III tumors are larger and have a higher proportion of Borrmann 3-4 types than Siewert II tumors (p < 0.05). For Siewert II and the Siewert III tumors, the 3-year overall survival rate was 59.1 versus 57.1 %, respectively, and the median survival time was 46.0 (31.5-60.5) months versus 46.0 (31.3-60.7) months, respectively. Positive proximal resection margin, large tumor size, Borrmann 3-4 types, poor or undifferentiated degree and advanced T stages and N stages were found to be poor prognostic risk factors for the overall survival outcomes by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the differentiation degree (poor and undifferentiated) and advanced T and N stages were independent prognostic factors for poor overall survival. Siewert III tumors were larger and had a lower differentiation degree than Siewert II tumors, whereas there was no difference in the survival outcomes.

  20. GALAXY DISKS DO NOT NEED TO SURVIVE IN THE {Lambda}CDM PARADIGM: THE GALAXY MERGER RATE OUT TO z {approx} 1.5 FROM MORPHO-KINEMATIC DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Puech, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H.; Rodrigues, M.; Wang, J. L.; Yang, Y. B.; Hopkins, P. F.; Athanassoula, E.

    2012-07-10

    About two-thirds of present-day, large galaxies are spirals such as the Milky Way or Andromeda, but the way their thin rotating disks formed remains uncertain. Observations have revealed that half of their progenitors, six billion years ago, had peculiar morphologies and/or kinematics, which exclude them from the Hubble sequence. Major mergers, i.e., fusions between galaxies of similar mass, are found to be the likeliest driver for such strong peculiarities. However, thin disks are fragile and easily destroyed by such violent collisions, which creates a critical tension between the observed fraction of thin disks and their survival within the {Lambda}CDM paradigm. Here, we show that the observed high occurrence of mergers among their progenitors is only apparent and is resolved when using morpho-kinematic observations that are sensitive to all the phases of the merging process. This provides an original way of narrowing down observational estimates of the galaxy merger rate and leads to a perfect match with predictions by state-of-the-art {Lambda}CDM semi-empirical models with no particular fine-tuning needed. These results imply that half of local thin disks do not survive but are actually rebuilt after a gas-rich major merger occurring in the past nine billion years, i.e., two-thirds of the lifetime of the universe. This emphasizes the need to study how thin disks can form in halos with a more active merger history than previously considered and to investigate what is the origin of the gas reservoir from which local disks would reform.

  1. Determinants of physician antibiotic prescribing behavior: a 3 year cohort study in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Teixeira Rodrigues, António; Ferreira, Mónica; Piñeiro-Lamas, Maria; Falcão, Amílcar; Figueiras, Adolfo; Herdeiro, Maria T

    2016-05-01

    Objectives Antibiotic misprescription is a major driver of resistance, which is a worldwide public health problem. Therefore, our aim is to assess the influence of the determinants of physician prescribing on the quality of antibiotic use. Methods A 3 year cohort study including all primary-care physicians working in Portugal's Central Regional Health Administration (n = 1094) was conducted. We assessed the determinants of prescribing using a pre-validated, personally addressed, reply-paid, self-administered questionnaire (sent four times to non-responders, between September 2011 and February 2012) designed to collect information on physicians' attitudes to and knowledge of antibiotic prescribin