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Sample records for 3-year-old male child

  1. A 3 Year-Old Male Child Ingested Approximately 750 Grams of Elemental Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Uysalol, Metin; Parlakgül, Güneş; Yılmaz, Yasin; Çıtak, Agop; Uzel, Nedret

    2016-01-01

    Background: The oral ingestion of elemental mercury is unlikely to cause systemic toxicity, as it is poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal system. However, abnormal gastrointestinal function or anatomy may allow elemental mercury into the bloodstream and the peritoneal space. Systemic effects of massive oral intake of mercury have rarely been reported. Case Report: In this paper, we are presenting the highest single oral intake of elemental mercury by a child aged 3 years. A Libyan boy aged 3 years ingested approximately 750 grams of elemental mercury and was still asymptomatic. Conclusion: The patient had no existing disease or abnormal gastrointestinal function or anatomy. The physical examination was normal. His serum mercury level was 91 µg/L (normal: <5 µg/L), and he showed no clinical manifestations. Exposure to mercury in children through different circumstances remains a likely occurrence. PMID:27606146

  2. A 3 Year-Old Male Child Ingested Approximately 750 Grams of Elemental Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Uysalol, Metin; Parlakgül, Güneş; Yılmaz, Yasin; Çıtak, Agop; Uzel, Nedret

    2016-01-01

    Background: The oral ingestion of elemental mercury is unlikely to cause systemic toxicity, as it is poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal system. However, abnormal gastrointestinal function or anatomy may allow elemental mercury into the bloodstream and the peritoneal space. Systemic effects of massive oral intake of mercury have rarely been reported. Case Report: In this paper, we are presenting the highest single oral intake of elemental mercury by a child aged 3 years. A Libyan boy aged 3 years ingested approximately 750 grams of elemental mercury and was still asymptomatic. Conclusion: The patient had no existing disease or abnormal gastrointestinal function or anatomy. The physical examination was normal. His serum mercury level was 91 µg/L (normal: <5 µg/L), and he showed no clinical manifestations. Exposure to mercury in children through different circumstances remains a likely occurrence.

  3. [Dermatobia hominis infection in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Meissner, M; Kippenberger, S; Valesky, E M; Kaufmann, R

    2012-04-01

    In the context of increasing travel to the tropics, outpatient services are more frequently confronted with non-domestic diseases in Europe. A 3-year old child presented with a painful tumor of the scalp. After incision of the furuncle-like lesion, we extracted a larva of the botfly Dermatobia hominis. Botflies are mainly encountered in Central and South America; they should be considered if patients demonstrate a furuncle-like lesion and have returned from a holiday in these endemic regions.

  4. Pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Holdaway, M. D.; Kennedy, J.; Ashcroft, T.; Kay-Butler, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Until 1960, 179 cases of infection with Nocardia asteroides had been described in the world literature. Seventeen cases in children were reported by 1963. The organism is a common saprophyte in nature with probably a world-wide distribution. Infection can be primary but is more common in patients with underlying malignancy, auto-immune disease or preceding tuberculosis. Sulphonamides, particularly sulphadiazine, are the drugs of choice in treatment; the value of antibiotics is less clearly established. The indications for surgical treatment have not yet been defined. We record a further case of primary pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child. Images PMID:6035802

  5. [Atypical presentation of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Boiron, E; Soto, B; Zimmermann, B; Jullien, M

    2012-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is caused by a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, Bartonella henselae. This disease is transmitted by cat scratches or bites. The typical form is a large and rough adenopathy, with no general signs. In a few cases, the symptoms are aspecific and various, which makes the diagnosis difficult. A 3-year-old child presented a prolonged fever with an aspecific skin eruption and hepatosplenic lesions seen 1 month after the beginning of the disease, which led to the diagnosis of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease. An adapted antibiotic therapy completely cured the disease.

  6. Acute dapsone poisoning in a 3-year-old child: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS-diamino diphenyl sulphone) is a sulfone antibiotic being used for a variety of clinical conditions. Poisoning in children by DDS is rarely reported. Poisoning in acute cases will be frequently unrecognized due to relative lack of severe signs and symptoms. Methemoglobinemia is the major life-threatening situation associated with poisoning of DDS. Hence, any delay for medical attention can lead to increased rate of mortality. In this case, we describe acute DDS poisoning in a 3-year-old child and the successful management using intravenous methylene blue. PMID:26488029

  7. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  8. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vinay Kumar; Bansal, Rajesh; Gupta, Vineeta; Bansal, Manish; Patne, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), previously known as histio-cytosis X, is a rare idiopathic disorder of reticulo-endothelial system with abnormal proliferation of bone marrow derived Langerhans cells along with a variable number of leukocytes, such as eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Three years old male child presented with multifocal osteolytic lesions and papulosquamous skin lesions. Clinical and radio-graphic features, such as severe alveolar bone loss, mobility of teeth, precocious eruption of teeth, foating appearance of teeth in orthopantomogram (OPG), osteolytic lesion in skull and cutaneous lesions were highly suggestive of LCH disease. Skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of LCH. Induction chemotherapy with oral prednisolone and intravenous vinblastine was started. Child responded well to chemotherapy. The clinical significance of the presented case is to diagnose the case of LCH on the basis of the manifestation of severe periodontal disease as this can be first or only manifestation of LCH. A dentist plays a major role in the multidisciplinary treatment of LCH through routine examination and periodic follow-up. How to cite this article: Bansal M, Srivastava VK, Bansal R, Gupta V, Bansal M, Patne S. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):217-219. PMID:25709306

  9. Malignant hyperthermia in a 3-year-old child with microstomia.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler A; Flores, Roberto L; Tholpady, Sunil S; Dierdorf, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Freeman-Sheldon syndrome is a congenital disorder that has been suggested to be associated with malignant hyperthermia. Clinical features of the Freeman-Sheldon syndrome include flexion contractures and characteristic facial features, including microstomia and a whistling shape to the lips. We report a case of malignant hyperthermia in a 3-year-old girl with microstomia but no other features of Freeman-Sheldon syndrome. The purpose of this report was to review the diagnosis and treatment of malignant hyperthermia as craniofacial surgeons have an increased exposure to this rare and potentially fatal condition. PMID:25478978

  10. Maternal Use of Corporal Punishment for 3-year-old Children and Subsequent Risk for Child Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Manganello, Jennifer A.; Lee, Shawna J.; Rice, Janet C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between maternal use of corporal punishment (CP) against their 3-year-old children and subsequent aggressive behavior among those children two years later. METHODS Respondents participated in waves 1, 3, and 5 of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (1998–2005), a population-based longitudinal birth cohort study of children (and their parents) born in one of 20 large U.S. cities (n=2,461), with oversampling of unmarried couples. Maternal reports of CP, children’s aggressive behaviors at 3 and 5 years of age, and a host of key demographics and potential confounding factors were assessed including: child physical maltreatment, psychological maltreatment, and neglect, intimate partner aggression and violence, and maternal stress, depression, substance use, and consideration of abortion. RESULTS Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that frequent use of CP (i.e., maternal use of spanking more than twice in the prior month) when the child was 3 years-old was associated with increased risk for higher levels of child aggression when the child was 5 years-old (adjusted odds ratio = 1.49 [CI=1.2–1.8] p<0.0001), even after simultaneously controlling for the child’s level of aggression at 3 years of age as well as all of the aforementioned confounding factors and key demographics. CONCLUSIONS Despite American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations to the contrary, most parents in the U.S. approve of and have used CP as a form of child discipline. The current findings support a growing body of evidence that even minor forms of CP, such as spanking, raise risk for increased subsequent child aggressive behavior. Importantly, these findings cannot be attributed to the possible confounding effects of a host of other maternal parenting risk factors. Increased and improved efforts to reduce the use of CP and promote the use of alternative, effective non-physical forms of child discipline among U.S. parents are warranted

  11. Anesthesia mumps resulting in temporary facial nerve paralysis after the auditory brainstem implantation in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Özdek, Ali; Bayır, Ömer; Işık, Murat Eray; Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Saylam, Güleser; Korkmaz, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    An acute transient sialadenitis of the major salivary glands in the early postoperative period is called 'anesthesia mumps'. It has been reported in different surgical procedures especially in neurosurgical procedures. Anesthesia mumps develops very fast after the extubation period but it usually regresses with no sequelae within a few hours. However, sometimes serious complication can occur such as respiratory distress. In this report, we present a 3-year-old girl with an anesthesia mumps and facial palsy occurring after successful auditory brainstem implantation and we discuss the cause and the management of this rare complication in this report.

  12. Fifty-four-month survival in a 3-year-old child presenting with an aggressive metastatic dedifferentiated clival chordoma.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Ciléin; Kearns, Cónail

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated chordoma is a rare, aggressive, chemoresistant and radioresistant malignancy arising from notochord remnants that can occur anywhere along the spine. Incidence in patients under 20 years of age is 1 per 250 million. We report a case of dedifferentiated clival chordoma presenting in a 3-year-old boy with pulmonary metastasis, which responded unusually well to chemotherapy, achieving complete metastatic clearance and debulking of the primary tumour. Proton beam therapy achieved further tumour control, with excellent quality of life for multiple years. On disease relapse, an atypical lateral transcondylar surgical approach achieved complete macroscopic clearance but there was cutaneous seeding. This, and continued primary site activity, failed to be controlled with targeted therapy, traditional chemotherapy and photon radiation, resulting in gradual neurological decline and death. Intensive management resulted in above-average survival despite diagnosis late in the disease course, which may be of value directing investigation into optimal management.

  13. Sewing needle: a rare cause of intra-cardiac foreign body in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sandeep; Pujar Venkateshacharya, Suresh; Reddy, Chinnaswamy

    2016-10-01

    Sewing needles are rare causes of penetrating cardiac injury. Suicidal attempt, accidental penetration, domestic violence, and child abuse are likely causes for such injury. 1 Owing to their sharp nature, needles can rapidly migrate through the tissues. Fatalities are due to cardiac tamponade, infection, peripheral embolism, and valve dysfunction. PMID:27321856

  14. Frontal Sled Tests Comparing Rear and Forward Facing Child Restraints with 1–3 Year Old Dummies

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, C. P.; Crandall, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads. PMID:18184491

  15. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads.

  16. Oral health of 3-year-old children and their parents after 29 months of child-focused antiatherosclerotic dietary intervention in a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, S; Sewón, L; Söderling, E; Lapinleimu, H; Seppänen, R; Simell, O

    1997-01-01

    A long-term prospective, randomized dietary intervention to prevent exposure of children to the known atherosclerosis risk factors (the STRIP baby project) was started when the age of the children was 7 months. The aim of this substudy was to analyze the oral effects of the dietary intervention in the children and their parents when the children had reached the age of 3 years. Every fifth family of the main study was invited to this substudy (n = 179). Those studied (n = 148) represented well the intervention and the control groups and both genders in terms of intake of saturated fatty acids, the dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid (PUFA/SAFA) ration and serum cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations. Though no difference was found in sucrose consumption between the intervention and the control groups, the intervention children received relatively (in E%) more energy from carbohydrates than the control children (p < 0.005), used absolutely (in g) and relatively (in E%) less fat (p < 0.05) and had a higher PUFA/SAFA ratio in their diet (p < 0.001). Of the 3-year-old children 93% were caries free, and dental decay was a prevalent in the intervention as in the control children. Control children brushed their teeth unassisted more often than the intervention children (p < 0.05). The intervention fathers also received more energy (in E%) from carbohydrates (p < 0.01), the intervention mothers used less fat (p < 0.05) and had a higher PUFA/SAFA ratio in the diet (p < 0.05) than the control fathers and mothers, respectively. Dental and periodontal health of the intervention and control parents (n = 250, 84% attending, mean +/- SD age: 34.2 +/- 54.5 years also showed no differences even though the control parents had more commonly last visited a dentist over 3 years before this examination (p < 0.05). We conclude that a 29-month period of a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol but high-carbohydrate diet as advocated in the STRIP baby trial does

  17. Family income, parental education and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among 2-3-year-old Chinese children: the mediator effect of parent-child conflict.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Using a sample of 156 Chinese children aged 2-3 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socio-economic status, specifically family income and parental education, on the children's internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and whether these effects were mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. Results indicated that family income, maternal education and paternal education all negatively predicted externalizing symptoms. Income also negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among boys but not girls. Maternal education negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among girls but not boys. The effects of income on psychopathology were fully mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. In contrast, the effects of education were not mediated or only partially mediated by conflict. Findings are discussed in the framework of the family stress model.

  18. Relations of Maternal Style and Child Self-Concept to Autobiographical Memories in Chinese, Chinese Immigrant, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2006-01-01

    The relations of maternal reminiscing style and child self-concept to children's shared and independent autobiographical memories were examined in a sample of 189 three-year-olds and their mothers from Chinese families in China, first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the United States, and European American families. Mothers shared…

  19. How Grammatical Are 3-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu; Germezia, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the level of grammatical accuracy in typically developing 3-year-olds and the types of errors they produce. Method: Twenty-two 3-year-olds participated in a picture description task. The percentage of grammatical utterances was computed and error types were analyzed. Results: The mean level of grammatical accuracy…

  20. Central Nervous System Lymphoma in a 3-Year-Old Male Suffering from a Severe Juvenile Xanthogranuloma – the Usefulness of Perfusion Weighted Imaging and Diffusion Weighted Imaging in the Diagnostics of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Neska-Matuszewska, Małgorzata; Zimny, Anna; Kałwak, Krzysztof; Sąsiadek, Marek J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas (PCNSLs) are rare, malignant brain tumors derived from lymphocytes B. Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans histiocytic cell disorder in children which mostly affects the skin. Rare fatalities have been reported in extracutaneous manifestation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a method of choice in the diagnostics of all neoplastic CNS lesions. Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) allow for more detailed analysis of brain tumors including the rate of neoangiogenesis and cellularity. We presented a pediatric patient suffering from JXG with CNS involvement and the role of brain MRI including DWI and PWI in the evaluation of brain focal lesions. Case Report A 3-year-old male with severe JXG underwent two stem cell transplantations with a development of neurological complications. The patient underwent emergency CT and MRI which revealed a non-specific enhancing focal brain lesion. In DWI it showed restricted diffusion while PWI revealed low values of rCBV and the signal intensity curve returning above the baseline level. Advanced MRI techniques such as DWI and PWI suggested PCNSL. Stereotactic biopsy confirmed PCNSL due to Ebstein-Barr virus reactivation. Conclusions The use of advanced MRI sequences is important to differentiate brain lesions in pediatric patients. The use of PWI and DWI facilitated the diagnosis of PCNSL. It is important to remember that PCNSLs show a very typical pattern of changes visualized with MRI such as: usually strong homogenous enhancement, restricted diffusion and low perfusion. PMID:25624957

  1. Severe hypercholesterolemia and liver disease in a 3-year old.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amol M; Brautbar, Ariel; Desai, Nirav K; Wilson, Don P

    2016-01-01

    Lipoprotein-X, which is composed of phospholipids and non-esterified cholesterol, is an abnormal lipoprotein with a density range similar to LDL-C. The two most common ways which lipoprotein-X accumulates is from reflux of bile salts into plasma or deficiency in lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase. This is a case of severe hypercholesterolemia and liver disease in a 3- year old male that presented with pruritus, pale stool, scleral ictus, and abdominal distention. He was diagnosed with primary sclerosing cholangitis which was confirmed by liver biopsy. Our patient was treated with steroids and immunomodulator therapy which was associated with significant reduction in cholestasis and LDL-C levels. Lipoprotein-X has several properties that make it anti-atherogenic, which raises the question if treatment for hypercholesterolemia should be initiated. PMID:27206954

  2. Two-and 3-Year-Olds Know What Others Have and Have Not Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have established that even infants can determine what others know based on previous visual experience. In the current study, we investigated whether 2-and 3-year-olds know what others know based on previous auditory experience. A child and an adult heard the sound of one object together, but only the child heard the sound of another…

  3. Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old Print A A A ... 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms) and grow about 2 to 3 inches (5 to 8 centimeters). They' ...

  4. Paternal Psychosocial Characteristics and Corporal Punishment of Their 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Guterman, Neil B.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the…

  5. How Selective Are 3-Year-Olds in Imitating Novel Linguistic Material?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannard, Colin; Klinger, Jörn; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In 3 studies we explored when 3-year-olds would imitate novel words in utterances produced by adult speakers. Child and experimenter took turns in requesting objects from a game master. The experimenter always went first and always preceded the object's familiar name with a novel adjective (e.g., "the dilsige duck"). In the first 2…

  6. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  7. The Structure of Executive Function in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Sheffield, Tiffany; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Clark, Caron A. C.; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    Although the structure of executive function (EF) during adulthood is characterized by both unity and diversity, recent evidence suggests that preschool EF may be best described by a single factor. The latent structure of EF was examined in 228 3-year-olds using confirmatory factor analysis. Children completed a battery of executive tasks that…

  8. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog.

    PubMed

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-02-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination.

  9. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children. PMID:27084549

  10. Paternal psychosocial characteristics and corporal punishment of their 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Perron, Brian E; Taylor, Catherine A; Guterman, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the past month, 23% reported using CP once or twice, and 16% reported using CP a few times in the past month or more. In multivariate models controlling for important sociodemographic factors as well as characteristics of the child, fathers' parenting stress, major depression, heavy alcohol use, and drug use were significantly associated with greater use of CP, whereas involvement with the child and generalized anxiety disorder were not. Girls were less likely to be the recipient of CP than were boys, and child externalizing behavior problems but not internalizing behavior problems were associated with more CP.

  11. Sharing memories and telling stories: American and Chinese mothers and their 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Leichtman, M D; Davies, K I

    2000-05-01

    American and Chinese mothers were asked to talk with their 3-year-old children at home about two shared past events and a story (41 mother-child dyads). Results revealed between-culture variation in the content and style of mother-child conversations when sharing memories and telling stories. American mothers and children showed a high-elaborative, independently oriented conversational style in which they co-constructed their memories and stories by elaborating on each other's responses and focusing on the child's personal predilections and opinions. In contrast, Chinese Mother-child dyads employed a low-elaborative, interdependently oriented conversational style where mothers frequently posed and repeated factual questions and showed great concern with moral rules and behavioural standards with their children. Findings suggest that children's early social-linguistic environments shape autobiographical remembering and contribute to cultural differences in the age and content of earliest childhood memories.

  12. Determinants of Imitation of Hand-to-Body Gestures in 2- and 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty children, ten 2-year-olds and ten 3-year-olds, participated in an AB procedure. In the baseline phase, each child was trained the same four matching relations to criterion under intermittent reinforcement. During the subsequent imitation test, the experimenter modeled a total of 20 target gestures (six trials each) interspersed with…

  13. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog

    PubMed Central

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination. PMID:24489399

  14. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog.

    PubMed

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-02-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination. PMID:24489399

  15. Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... when encouraging your child to be active. Play games together and provide age-appropriate active toys, such ... be fun for the entire family. Also, these games provide fun and fitness for parents and toddlers: ...

  16. Medical Care and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... well-child visits. The doctor will reinforce the importance of using car seats , closely supervising kids around ...

  17. No Own-Age Bias in 3-Year-Old Children: More Evidence for the Role of Early Experience in Building Face-Processing Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Pisacane, Antonella; Gava, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of an own-age bias in young children who accumulated different amounts of early experience with child faces. Discrimination abilities for upright and inverted adult and child faces were tested using a delayed two-alternative, forced-choice matching-to-sample task in two groups of 3-year-old children,…

  18. Perception and Production of Lexical Tones by 3-Year-Old, Mandarin-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.; Jenkins, James J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated 3-year-old children's perception and production of Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. Thirteen 3-year-old, Mandarin-speaking children participated in the study. Tone perception was examined by a picture-pointing task, and tone production was investigated by picture naming. To compare children's productions…

  19. A statistical skull geometry model for children 0-3 years old.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Park, Byoung-Keon; Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Jinhuan; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hoff, Carrie N; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Head injury is the leading cause of fatality and long-term disability for children. Pediatric heads change rapidly in both size and shape during growth, especially for children under 3 years old (YO). To accurately assess the head injury risks for children, it is necessary to understand the geometry of the pediatric head and how morphologic features influence injury causation within the 0-3 YO population. In this study, head CT scans from fifty-six 0-3 YO children were used to develop a statistical model of pediatric skull geometry. Geometric features important for injury prediction, including skull size and shape, skull thickness and suture width, along with their variations among the sample population, were quantified through a series of image and statistical analyses. The size and shape of the pediatric skull change significantly with age and head circumference. The skull thickness and suture width vary with age, head circumference and location, which will have important effects on skull stiffness and injury prediction. The statistical geometry model developed in this study can provide a geometrical basis for future development of child anthropomorphic test devices and pediatric head finite element models.

  20. A statistical skull geometry model for children 0-3 years old.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Park, Byoung-Keon; Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Jinhuan; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hoff, Carrie N; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Head injury is the leading cause of fatality and long-term disability for children. Pediatric heads change rapidly in both size and shape during growth, especially for children under 3 years old (YO). To accurately assess the head injury risks for children, it is necessary to understand the geometry of the pediatric head and how morphologic features influence injury causation within the 0-3 YO population. In this study, head CT scans from fifty-six 0-3 YO children were used to develop a statistical model of pediatric skull geometry. Geometric features important for injury prediction, including skull size and shape, skull thickness and suture width, along with their variations among the sample population, were quantified through a series of image and statistical analyses. The size and shape of the pediatric skull change significantly with age and head circumference. The skull thickness and suture width vary with age, head circumference and location, which will have important effects on skull stiffness and injury prediction. The statistical geometry model developed in this study can provide a geometrical basis for future development of child anthropomorphic test devices and pediatric head finite element models. PMID:25992998

  1. How selective are 3-year-olds in imitating novel linguistic material?

    PubMed

    Bannard, Colin; Klinger, Jörn; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-12-01

    In 3 studies we explored when 3-year-olds would imitate novel words in utterances produced by adult speakers. Child and experimenter took turns in requesting objects from a game master. The experimenter always went first and always preceded the object's familiar name with a novel adjective (e.g., "the dilsige duck"). In the first 2 experiments, we found that children were more likely to reproduce the adjective when there were 2 different instances of the same object present in the situation than when there was only 1 or when there were 2 objects of different types present. Thus, children seemed to be sensitive to the descriptive and contrastive function of the adjectives in determining which parts of the utterances to reproduce. Nonetheless, replication of even redundant material was over 50%, suggesting a strategy of somewhat blind copying. In the 3rd experiment, we found that children were less likely to reproduce a redundant adjective when the speaker indicated gesturally that he did not intend to produce it than when he clearly produced it intentionally. We distinguish insightful imitation (the copying of a speaker's goal and means when motivated by insight into why those particular means were chosen) and blind imitation (the copying of a speaker's goal and means with no awareness of why those specific means were chosen) from mimicry. We explore the roles that these modes of imitation might play in language development. PMID:23458663

  2. A Statistical Skull Geometry Model for Children 0-3 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhigang; Park, Byoung-Keon; Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Jinhuan; Reed, Matthew P.; Rupp, Jonathan D.; Hoff, Carrie N.; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Head injury is the leading cause of fatality and long-term disability for children. Pediatric heads change rapidly in both size and shape during growth, especially for children under 3 years old (YO). To accurately assess the head injury risks for children, it is necessary to understand the geometry of the pediatric head and how morphologic features influence injury causation within the 0–3 YO population. In this study, head CT scans from fifty-six 0–3 YO children were used to develop a statistical model of pediatric skull geometry. Geometric features important for injury prediction, including skull size and shape, skull thickness and suture width, along with their variations among the sample population, were quantified through a series of image and statistical analyses. The size and shape of the pediatric skull change significantly with age and head circumference. The skull thickness and suture width vary with age, head circumference and location, which will have important effects on skull stiffness and injury prediction. The statistical geometry model developed in this study can provide a geometrical basis for future development of child anthropomorphic test devices and pediatric head finite element models. PMID:25992998

  3. Enhancing the executive functions of 3-year-olds in the dimensional change card sort task

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a Dynamic Neural Field (DNF) model that prior experience with the post-switch dimension can enhance 3-year-old’s performance in the DCCS task. In Experiment 1A, a matching game was used to pre-expose 3-year-olds (n=36) to color. This facilitated switching from sorting by shape to color. In Experiment 1B, 3-year-olds (n=18) were pre-exposed to shape. This did not facilitate switching from sorting by color to shape. The DNF model was used to provide a mechanistic explanation for this asymmetry. PMID:25441395

  4. Determinants of imitation of hand-to-body gestures in 2- and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2008-03-01

    Twenty children, ten 2-year-olds and ten 3-year-olds, participated in an AB procedure. In the baseline phase, each child was trained the same four matching relations to criterion under intermittent reinforcement. During the subsequent imitation test, the experimenter modeled a total of 20 target gestures (six trials each) interspersed with intermittently reinforced baseline trials. In each session, target gestures were selected in a pre-randomized sequence from: Set 1--ear touches; Set 2--shoulder touches; Set 3--midarm touches; and Set 4--wrist touches; subjects' responses to targets were not reinforced. In each target set, half the gestures featured in nursery matching games and were termed common targets whereas the remainder, which were topographically similar but did not feature in the games, served as uncommon targets. The children produced significantly more matching responses to common target models than to uncommon ones. Common responses were also produced as mismatches to uncommon target models more often than vice versa. Response accuracy did not improve over trials, suggesting that "parity" did not serve as a conditioned reinforcer. All children showed a strong bias for "mirroring"--responding in the same hemispace as the modeler. The 2-year-olds produced more matching errors than the 3-year-olds and most children showed a bias for responding with their right hands. The strong effects of training environment (nursery matching games) are consistent with a Skinnerian account, but not a cognitive goal theory account, of imitation in young children.

  5. Interest and Agency in 2- and 3-Year-Olds' Participation in Emergent Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Deborah Wells; Neitzel, Carin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated 2- and 3-year-olds' personal interests as a possible source of variation in preschool writing activities. Structured observations of the play behaviors of 11 preschool children in a childcare classroom were conducted one to two days per week for one school year. These data were analyzed to determine choices of play…

  6. 3-Year-Old Children Make Relevance Inferences in Indirect Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Cornelia; Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated 3-year-old children's ability to determine a speaker's communicative intent when the speaker's overt utterance related to that intent only indirectly. Studies 1 and 2 examined children's comprehension of indirectly stated requests (e.g., "I find Xs good" can imply, in context, a request for…

  7. The Semiotic Landscape and 3-Year-Olds' Emerging Understanding of Multimodal Communication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of the increasing use of the visual mode in texts found in urban landscapes on two 3-year-olds' understanding of communication practices. The data discussed are taken from a study into a group of 3- to 6-year-olds' interaction with and emerging comprehension of the visual mode and its connection to…

  8. Directly Observed Physical Activity among 3-Year-Olds in Finnish Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Villberg, Jari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Gubbels, Jessica; Mehtälä, Anette; Kettunen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine 3-year-olds' physical activity levels and how these vary across season, gender, time of day, location, and the physical and social environment in childcare settings in Finland. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used…

  9. Creppy Crawlies. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (3-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This science teaching guide on insects and animals for 3-year-olds is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early…

  10. Allocation of Resources to Collaborators and Free-Riders in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melis, Alicia P.; Altrichter, Kristin; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that in situations where resources have been acquired collaboratively, children at around 3 years of age share mostly equally. We investigated 3-year-olds' sharing behavior with a collaborating partner and a free-riding partner who explicitly expressed her preference not to collaborate. Children shared more equally with…

  11. Enhancing the Executive Functions of 3-Year-Olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J.; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that…

  12. Words, Shape, Visual Search and Visual Working Memory in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated…

  13. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in 3-Year-Old Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Penelo, Eva; Domenech, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To test the factor structure of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and to study the relationships between the proposed dimensions and external variables in a community sample of preschool children. Method: A sample of 1,341 3-year-old preschoolers was randomly selected and screened for a double-phase design. In total, 622…

  14. Traumatic brain injury in infants and toddlers, 0–3 years old

    PubMed Central

    Gorgan, MR; Tascu, A; Sandu, AM; Rizea, RE

    2011-01-01

    Object: Children 0–3 years old present a completely different neurotraumatic pathology. The growing and the development processes in this age group imply specific anatomical and pathophysiological features of the skull, subarachnoid space, CSF flow, and brain. Most common specific neurotraumatic entities in children 0–3 years old are cephalhematoma, subaponeurotic (subgaleal) hematoma, diastatic skull fracture, grow skull fracture, depressed (‘ping–pong’) skull fracture, and extradural hematoma. Methods: We present our 10 years experience in neuropediatric traumatic brain injuries, between 1999 and 2009, in the First Department of Neurosurgery and Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Including criteria were children, 0–3 years old, presenting only traumatic brain injury. We excluded patients with politrauma, who require a different management. Results: We present the incidence of these specific head injuries, clinical and imagistic features, treatment, and outcome. We found 72 children with diastatic skull fracture, 61 cases with depressed (‘ping–pong’) skull fracture, 22 cases with grow skull fracture, 11 children harboring intrusive skull fracture, 58 cephalhematomas, 26 extradural hematomas, and 7 children with severe brain injury and major posttraumatic diffuse ischemia (‘black–brain’). Usually, infants and toddlers present with seizures, pallor, and rapid loss of consciousness. First choice examination, in all children was cerebral CT–scan, and for follow–up, we performed cerebral MRI. We emphasize on the importance of seizure prevention in this age group. Children presenting with extensive diffuse ischemia (‘black–brain’) had a poor outcome, death occurring in all 7 cases. Conclusion: Children 0–3 years old, present with a total distinctive pathology than adults. Children with head injury must be addressed to a pediatric department of neurosurgery and pediatric intensive care unit. Prophylaxis pays the most important role in

  15. Dystonia as acute adverse reaction to cough suppressant in a 3-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Polizzi, A; Incorpora, G; Ruggieri, M

    2001-01-01

    Cough suppressant preparations containing mixtures of dextromethorphan or codeine with antihistamines, decongestants (sympathomimetic), expectorants and antipyretics with either sedative or anticholinergic activity have been associated with dystonic reactions in children. We report on a 3-year-old girl who presented with episodic stiffness and abnormal posturing with rigidity after arbitrary maternal administration of a mixture of methylcodeine and extract from Hedera plant. PMID:11587381

  16. The Neural Correlates of Processing Newborn and Adult Faces in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Westerlund, Alissa; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Kuefner, Dana; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the processing of upright and inverted faces in 3-year-old children (n = 35). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive looking paradigm including adult and newborn face stimuli. We observed three face-sensitive components, the P1, the N170 and the P400. Inverted faces elicited shorter P1 latency and…

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 12 mosaicism: normal development of a 3 years old female child.

    PubMed

    Staals, J E A; Schrander-Stumpel, C T R M; Hamers, G; Fryns, J P

    2003-01-01

    Trisomy 12 mosaicism is a rare chromosomal mosaicism in prenatal diagnosis by amniocentesis. In the literature we found at least 27 cases. 13 Pregnancies were terminated, with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) in 2 out of 13. Of the 12 liveborns with follow-up ranging from 0 to 5 years, 5 presented MCA and died within the first weeks. 2 Fetus died during pregnancy and further data are lacking. A normal outcome, with limited follow up however, was reported in 7/12 liveborns without congenital anomalies and is well demonstrated in the presently reported girl. We describe the 3-years follow up in a girl with trisomy 12 mosaicism, detected by amniocentesis for advanced maternal age. She is a healthy girl with normal physical and psychomotor development.

  18. [Case Report - Bilateral humeral intraosseous access for CPR in a 3-years-old child].

    PubMed

    Hess, Thorsten; Böhmer, Roman; Arndt, Florian; Lorber, Gernot; Herrmann, Jochen; Püschel, Klaus; Kerner, Thoralf

    2016-07-01

    On-scene invasive emergency procedures, such as intraosseous puncture, are often unavoidable, when indicated, and present a challenge for the emergency physician. Personal, temporal or local conditions are often unsuitable. Even with regular intervention by the emergency medical service, "last resort" measures occur very infrequently, particularly in pediatric emergencies. For the first time, this case report presents the use of intraosseous access at the humeral head with children, with reference to indication, implementation, problems and risks. PMID:27479261

  19. Mitochondrial compromise in 3-year old patas monkeys exposed in utero to human-equivalent antiretroviral therapies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongmin; Shim Park, Eunwoo; Gibbons, Alexander T; Shide, Eric D; Divi, Rao L; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C

    2016-08-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) drug therapy, given during pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), induces fetal mitochondrial dysfunction in some children. However, the persistence/reversibility of that dysfunction is unclear. Here we have followed Erythrocebus patas (patas) monkey offspring for up to 3 years of age (similar in development to a 15-year old human) after exposure of the dams to human-equivalent in utero ARV exposure protocols. Pregnant patas dams (3-5/exposure group) were given ARV drug combinations that included zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC)/abacavir (ABC), or AZT/3TC/nevirapine (NVP), for the last 10 weeks (50%) of gestation. Infants kept for 1 and 3 years also received drug for the first 6 weeks of life. In offpsring at birth, 1 and 3 years of age mitochondrial morphology, examined by electron microscopy (EM), was compromised compared to the unexposed controls. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), measured by hybrid capture chemiluminescence assay (HCCA) was depleted in hearts of patas exposed to AZT/3TC/NVP at all ages (P < 0.05), but not in those exposed to AZT/3TC/ABC at any age. Compared to unexposed controls, mitochondrial reserve capacity oxygen consumption rate (OCR by Seahorse) in cultured bone marrow mesenchymal fibroblasts from 3-year-old patas offspring was ∼50% reduced in AZT/3TC/ABC-exposed patas (P < 0.01), but not in AZT/3TC/NVP-exposed patas. Overall the data show that 3-year-old patas sustain persistent mitochondrial dysfunction as a result of perinatal ARV drug exposure. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:526-534, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mitochondrial compromise in 3-year old patas monkeys exposed in utero to human-equivalent antiretroviral therapies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongmin; Shim Park, Eunwoo; Gibbons, Alexander T; Shide, Eric D; Divi, Rao L; Woodward, Ruth A; Poirier, Miriam C

    2016-08-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) drug therapy, given during pregnancy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), induces fetal mitochondrial dysfunction in some children. However, the persistence/reversibility of that dysfunction is unclear. Here we have followed Erythrocebus patas (patas) monkey offspring for up to 3 years of age (similar in development to a 15-year old human) after exposure of the dams to human-equivalent in utero ARV exposure protocols. Pregnant patas dams (3-5/exposure group) were given ARV drug combinations that included zidovudine (AZT)/lamivudine (3TC)/abacavir (ABC), or AZT/3TC/nevirapine (NVP), for the last 10 weeks (50%) of gestation. Infants kept for 1 and 3 years also received drug for the first 6 weeks of life. In offpsring at birth, 1 and 3 years of age mitochondrial morphology, examined by electron microscopy (EM), was compromised compared to the unexposed controls. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), measured by hybrid capture chemiluminescence assay (HCCA) was depleted in hearts of patas exposed to AZT/3TC/NVP at all ages (P < 0.05), but not in those exposed to AZT/3TC/ABC at any age. Compared to unexposed controls, mitochondrial reserve capacity oxygen consumption rate (OCR by Seahorse) in cultured bone marrow mesenchymal fibroblasts from 3-year-old patas offspring was ∼50% reduced in AZT/3TC/ABC-exposed patas (P < 0.01), but not in AZT/3TC/NVP-exposed patas. Overall the data show that 3-year-old patas sustain persistent mitochondrial dysfunction as a result of perinatal ARV drug exposure. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:526-534, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27452341

  1. Allocation of resources to collaborators and free-riders in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Melis, Alicia P; Altrichter, Kristin; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that in situations where resources have been acquired collaboratively, children at around 3 years of age share mostly equally. We investigated 3-year-olds' sharing behavior with a collaborating partner and a free-riding partner who explicitly expressed her preference not to collaborate. Children shared more equally with the collaborating partner than with the free rider. These results suggest that young children are sensitive to the contributions made by others to a collaborative effort (and possibly their reasons for not collaborating) and distribute resources accordingly.

  2. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Myopia in 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Valencia Hui Xian; Verkicharla, Pavan Kumar; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Chua, Sharon Yu Lin; Cai, Shirong; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter; Wong, Tien-Yin; Ngo, Cheryl; Saw, Seang-Mei; on behalf of the GUSTO study group

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the association of axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CRC) ratio with spherical equivalent (SE) in a 3-year old Asian cohort. Methods Three-hundred forty-nine 3-year old Asian children from The Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study underwent AL and CRC measurements with a noncontact ocular biometer and cycloplegic refraction using an autorefractor. The ratio of AL to CRC (AL/CRC) was calculated for all the participants, and subsequently AL, CRC, and AL/CRC were analyzed in relationship to SE. Results The SE showed better correlation with AL/CRC (Spearman's correlation coefficient, ρ = −0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.66; −0.49; P < 0.001) compared to either AL or CRC alone ([ρ = −0.36; 95% CI: −0.51 to 0.51; P = 0.01] and [ρ = 0.05; 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.17; P = 0.34], respectively). Mean AL/CRC was 2.91 ± 0.06 among myopes and decreased to 2.79 ± 0.06 among hyperopes. Axial length to corneal radius of curvature was strongly correlated with SE in myopes (ρ = −0.78; 95% CI: −3.76; −0.79; P = < 0.001), but not in emmetropes and hyperopes ([ρ = −0.39; 95% CI: −10.73; −0.57; P = 0.01] and [ρ = −0.18; 95% CI: −17.28; 12.42; P = 0.38], respectively). Linear regression adjusted for gender and ethnicity showed a 0.74-diopter shift in SE towards myopia with every 0.1 increase in AL/CRC ratio (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.33). Conclusion The correlation between SE and AL/CRC is stronger than that between AL or CRC alone. This suggests that in a research setting, when cycloplegic refraction is difficult to perform on 3-year-old children, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error. Translational Relevance In the research setting, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error over AL alone when cycloplegic refraction is unavailable in 3-year old children. PMID:26929885

  3. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance. PMID:21479943

  4. Sample Length Affects the Reliability of Language Sample Measures in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence From Parent-Elicited Conversational Samples

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which sample length affected the reliability of total number of words (TNW), number of different words (NDW), and mean length of C-units in morphemes (MLCUm) in parent-elicited conversational samples for 3-year-olds. Method Participants were sixty 3-year-olds. A 22-min language sample was collected from each child during free play with the parent in the laboratory. Samples of 1, 3, 7, and 10 min were extracted from the 22-min samples. TNW, NDW, and MLCUm were computed from each shorter sample and the 22-min sample. TNW and NDW were adjusted by number of minutes for comparisons. The differences and correlations between each shorter sample cut and the 22-min sample on MLCUm and adjusted TNW and NDW were computed. Results The shorter samples and the 22-min samples significantly differed in adjusted TNW and NDW, but not in MLCUm. TNW reached an acceptable reliability level (i.e., r = .90) in 7-min samples. NDW and MLCUm approached the acceptable reliability level (rs = .88) in 7-min samples and reached it in 10-min samples. Conclusion For conversational language samples with similar collection procedures, samples of 7 to 10 min are desirable for calculating TNW, NDW, and MLCUm in 3-year-olds. PMID:25615272

  5. Unicystic ameloblastoma in 3 year old paediatric patient - A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shelly; Kumar, Priya; Urs, Aadithya B; Augustine, Jeyaseelan

    2013-02-01

    Unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) is a benign epithelial odontogenic tumor of the jaws that commonly occurs in 2nd and 3rd decade of life. In fact, this entity is rare in children under 12 years of age. It is characterised as a distinct variant of ameloblastoma, exhibiting a less aggressive behaviour and a lower rate of recurrence than solid conventional ameloblastoma. There are very few reported cases of UA occurring in children below five years of age. The purpose of this case report is to describe a case of UA involving the crown of an unerupted maxillary second premolar in a 3 year old girl. The pathogenesis, clinical appearance, radiographic presentation, histological findings and management of the tumour have also been discussed.

  6. Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome. Magnetic resonance findings in a 3-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Salafia, Stefania; Praticò, Andrea D; Pizzo, Enza; Greco, Filippo; Di Bella, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The term 'hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome' (HHE) was first used by Gastaut et al. to describe the se-quential combination of unilateral or predominantly unilateral clonic seizures (hemiconvulsion), occurring during the first 2 years of life, immediately followed by an ipsilateral flaccid hemiplegia lasting 7 or more days. In the following phase partial epileptic seizures occur. We report a case of HHE syndrome in a 3-year-old boy with partial seizures (hemiconvulsion lasting 15-30 minutes) followed by left hemiplegia and hyporeflexia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse and high signal hyperintensity of the whole right cerebral hemisphere. Diffusion-weighted images showed a reduction of the apparent diffusion coefficient in the subcortical region. Magnetic resonance arterio-graphy showed a narrow flow signal in the distal territory of the right middle cerebral artery. The authors emphasize the importance of neuroradiological findings in early diagnosis and in the follow-up of HHE syndrome. PMID:24375005

  7. An unlikely cause of severe malnutrition in a 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis.

    PubMed

    Ashton, J J; Blackburn, S; Burge, D; Beattie, R M

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis associated with jejunal and colonic atresia presented with severe oedema, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Clinically she was malnourished. Serum albumin and concentrations of micronutrients were low. A barium meal examination showed jejunal dilation. A stricture was suspected and the patient was taken to theatre where an 8 cm length of bowel was resected including a jejunal stricture at the point of previous atresia repair. Inside the proximal dilated jejunum was a large trichobezoar (hairball), thought to be acting as a ball valve inside the bowel. This girl made a rapid recovery after surgery. Her nutritional state improved, symptoms resolved and serum biochemistry normalised. She remains well at follow-up with normal blood results, normal albumin and no diarrhoea. PMID:25183805

  8. An unlikely cause of severe malnutrition in a 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, J J; Blackburn, S; Burge, D; Beattie, R M

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl with previous gastroschisis associated with jejunal and colonic atresia presented with severe oedema, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. Clinically she was malnourished. Serum albumin and concentrations of micronutrients were low. A barium meal examination showed jejunal dilation. A stricture was suspected and the patient was taken to theatre where an 8 cm length of bowel was resected including a jejunal stricture at the point of previous atresia repair. Inside the proximal dilated jejunum was a large trichobezoar (hairball), thought to be acting as a ball valve inside the bowel. This girl made a rapid recovery after surgery. Her nutritional state improved, symptoms resolved and serum biochemistry normalised. She remains well at follow-up with normal blood results, normal albumin and no diarrhoea. PMID:25183805

  9. Epidermoid cyst in the floor of the mouth of a 3-year-old.

    PubMed

    Pascual Dabán, Rossana; García Díez, Eloy; González Navarro, Beatriz; López-López, José

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are a rare entity in the oral cavity and are even less frequent in the floor of the mouth, representing less than 0.01% of all the cases. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a growth in the floor of the mouth with 2 months of evolution and without changes since it was discovered by her parents. The lesion was asymptomatic; it did not cause dysphagia, dyspnea, or any other alteration. A CT scan with contrast was done which revealed the location and exact size of the lesion, allowing an intraoral approach for its excision. The histological examination confirmed the clinical speculation of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:25694831

  10. Dutch and German 3-Year-Olds' Representations of Voicing Alternations.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Helen; Fikkert, Paula

    2016-06-01

    The voicing contrast is neutralized syllable and word finally in Dutch and German, leading to alternations within the morphological paradigm (e.g., Dutch 'bed(s)', be[t]-be[d]en, German 'dog(s)', Hun[t]-Hun[d]e). Despite structural similarity, language-specific morphological, phonological and lexical properties impact on the distribution of this alternation in the two languages. Previous acquisition research has focused on one language only, predominantly focusing on children's production accuracy, concluding that alternations are not acquired until late in the acquisition process in either language. This paper adapts a perceptual method to investigate how voicing alternations are represented in the mental lexicon of Dutch and German 3-year-olds. Sensitivity to mispronunciations of voicing word-medially in plural forms was measured using a visual fixation procedure. Dutch children exhibited evidence of overgeneralizing the voicing alternation, whereas German children consistently preferred the correct pronunciation to mispronunciations. Results indicate that the acquisition of voicing alternations is influenced by language-specific factors beyond the alternation itself. PMID:27363255

  11. Dutch and German 3-Year-Olds' Representations of Voicing Alternations.

    PubMed

    Buckler, Helen; Fikkert, Paula

    2016-06-01

    The voicing contrast is neutralized syllable and word finally in Dutch and German, leading to alternations within the morphological paradigm (e.g., Dutch 'bed(s)', be[t]-be[d]en, German 'dog(s)', Hun[t]-Hun[d]e). Despite structural similarity, language-specific morphological, phonological and lexical properties impact on the distribution of this alternation in the two languages. Previous acquisition research has focused on one language only, predominantly focusing on children's production accuracy, concluding that alternations are not acquired until late in the acquisition process in either language. This paper adapts a perceptual method to investigate how voicing alternations are represented in the mental lexicon of Dutch and German 3-year-olds. Sensitivity to mispronunciations of voicing word-medially in plural forms was measured using a visual fixation procedure. Dutch children exhibited evidence of overgeneralizing the voicing alternation, whereas German children consistently preferred the correct pronunciation to mispronunciations. Results indicate that the acquisition of voicing alternations is influenced by language-specific factors beyond the alternation itself.

  12. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children’s communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  13. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Do words cue children’s visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information. PMID:24720802

  14. Acquired unilateral pulmonary vein atresia in a 3-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Firdouse, Mohammed; Agarwal, Arnav; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Mondal, Tapas K

    2015-03-01

    While unilateral pulmonary venous atresia (UPVA) most commonly presents as an extremely rare late embryological defect resulting in complete occlusion or absence of the PV pathway, it may also be an acquired pathology. We present a 3-year-old boy who presented with mild respiratory distress. Neonatal echocardiographic investigations revealed normal mediastinal anatomy and pulmonary vasculature with a bicuspid aortic valve. However, follow-up Doppler investigation revealed a pulmonary artery size difference with minimal forward flow and reverse flow during diastole. Absence of the left pulmonary veins and the presence of collaterals draining to the innominate vein confirmed the diagnosis of acquired UPVA. Our case represents the first case of acquired UPVA in conjunction with a normally functioning bicuspid aortic valve. The Doppler flow patterns discussed might be of significant interest to pediatricians, cardiologists and imaging specialists. These findings suggest that acquired UPVA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such patients when radiographic and echocardiographic findings may rule out other more common diagnoses. While the management of such a condition remains unclear and conservative management was agreed upon for our patient, the vulnerability of such cases warrants timely diagnosis and routine monitoring.

  15. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72 hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day. Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment. PMID:25906092

  16. Adiposity is Associated with Endothelial Activation in Healthy 2- to 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Cecilia; Tracy, Russell P.; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Basch, Charles E.; Shea, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Adiposity is associated with C-reactive protein level in healthy 2–3 year old children and with other markers of endothelial activation adults, but data are lacking in very young children. Data from 491 healthy Hispanic children were analyzed. Mean age was 2.7 years (S.D. 0.5, range 2 to 3 years); mean body mass index (BMI) was 17.2 kg/m2 (S.D. 1.9) among boys and 17.1 kg/m2 (S.D. 2.1) among girls. E-selectin level was associated with BMI (R =0.11; p < 0.02), ponderal index (p < 0.02), waist circumference (p = 0.02), fasting insulin (p < 0.02), and insulin resistance (p ≤ 0.05); these associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex and fasting glucose. sVCAM was also associated with BMI (R = 0.12; P<0.05). These observations indicate that adiposity is associated with inflammation and endothelial activation in very early childhood. PMID:20020578

  17. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information. PMID:24720802

  18. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information.

  19. Pragmatic inference, not semantic competence, guides 3-year-olds' interpretation of unknown number words.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Neon; Audet, Jennifer; Barner, David

    2013-06-01

    Before children learn the specific meanings of numerals like six, do they know that they represent precise quantities? Previous studies have reported conflicting evidence and have found that children expect numerals to label precise quantities in some tasks but not in others (Condry & Spelke, 2008; Sarnecka & Gelman, 2004). In this article, we present evidence that some of children's apparent successes are best explained not by domain-specific semantic understanding of number but instead by language-general pragmatic abilities. In Experiment 1, we replicated the findings of the previous studies in a within-subject design. When 3-year-olds saw a set labeled with a number (e.g., five) and an item was added, they preferred a new label (six) over the old one, as though they believed that number words have precise meanings. However, when 1 of 2 sets was labeled (e.g., as five) and children were asked to find the same quantity (five) or a new quantity (six), they performed identically whether the original set was changed in quantity or merely rearranged. Thus, when 2 numerals were offered as alternative labels for 1 set, children behaved as though they had precise meanings, whereas when they were asked to determine which of 2 sets a single numeral referred to, they did not. In Experiment 2, children were tested using similar methods but with novel nouns and objects that were transformed, instead of sets. Children showed the identical pattern of results despite lacking meanings for these words, suggesting that their judgments for numerals may not have relied on semantic knowledge that numerals have precise meanings. We propose that children's behavior can be explained by the use of domain-general pragmatic inference and does not require positing domain-specific numerical knowledge.

  20. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 μg/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  1. Thyrotoxicosis after a massive levothyroxine ingestion in a 3-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Hays, Hannah L; Jolliff, Heath A; Casavant, Marcel J

    2013-11-01

    Most children with exploratory levothyroxine ingestions remain asymptomatic or suffer only minor effects, and most patients can be managed in the home or with supportive care in the hospital. We present a case of a 3-year-old girl who was found after a witnessed massive ingestion of levothyroxine. The patient was initially seen in an emergency department and discharged in stable condition, only to return 4 days after ingestion with thyrotoxicosis, hypertension, tachycardia, 24 hours of persistent vomiting, and clinical and laboratory evidence of dehydration. On the day of hospital admission, her thyroid-stimulating hormone was 0.018 µIU/mL (reference range, 0.6-4.5 µIU/mL); free T4 (tetraiodothyronine) was greater than 6.0 ng/dL (reference range, 0.7-2.1 ng/dL); and T3 (triiodothyronine) total was 494 ng/dL (reference range, 100-200 ng/dL). During a 3-day hospital admission, she was managed with supportive care, including intravenous fluid rehydration and antiemetics, and was ultimately discharged in good condition. The patient was followed up until 2 months after ingestion and remained asymptomatic. Although most exploratory levothyroxine ingestions suffer little to no clinical effects, serious symptoms can occur. Because serious symptoms can occur in a delayed fashion, it is important for clinicians to give proper anticipatory guidance regarding home symptom monitoring, follow-up, and reasons to return to the emergency department when patients present for medical evaluation. PMID:24196094

  2. Investigating key beliefs guiding mothers' dietary decisions for their 2-3 year old.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Teagan; Hamilton, Kyra

    2015-06-01

    Currently, there is no research in Australia that systematically investigates the underlying beliefs for mothers' decisions regarding their young child's nutritional needs based on current guidelines. We aimed to determine, using a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) belief-based approach, key beliefs that guide mothers' decisions with regards to: (a) providing their child with a wide range of foods from the five food groups ('healthy eating'); and (b) limiting their child's intake of 'discretionary choices' (e.g. lollies). Mothers (N = 197, M age = 34.39, SD = 5.65) completed a main questionnaire either online or on hard copy (paper-based), with a 1-week phone follow-up of the target behaviours (N = 161). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were conducted, and a number of key behavioural, normative, and control beliefs emerged for both healthy eating and discretionary choice behaviours. For healthy eating, mothers identified behavioural beliefs 'improving my child's health' and 'resistance from my child'; normative beliefs 'other family members' and 'spouse/partner'; and control beliefs 'child's food preferences'. For discretionary choices, behavioural beliefs 'maintain consistent energy levels in my child' for intentions, and 'give my child their required nutritional intake'; normative beliefs 'spouse/partner', 'healthcare professionals' and 'friends'; and control beliefs 'child's food preferences' were identified. These findings can inform the development of future intervention programmes aimed at modifying mothers' child feeding practices to encourage healthy eating and limit discretionary choice intake and, ultimately, increase the life expectancy of the current generation of children.

  3. Investigating key beliefs guiding mothers' dietary decisions for their 2-3 year old.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Teagan; Hamilton, Kyra

    2015-06-01

    Currently, there is no research in Australia that systematically investigates the underlying beliefs for mothers' decisions regarding their young child's nutritional needs based on current guidelines. We aimed to determine, using a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) belief-based approach, key beliefs that guide mothers' decisions with regards to: (a) providing their child with a wide range of foods from the five food groups ('healthy eating'); and (b) limiting their child's intake of 'discretionary choices' (e.g. lollies). Mothers (N = 197, M age = 34.39, SD = 5.65) completed a main questionnaire either online or on hard copy (paper-based), with a 1-week phone follow-up of the target behaviours (N = 161). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were conducted, and a number of key behavioural, normative, and control beliefs emerged for both healthy eating and discretionary choice behaviours. For healthy eating, mothers identified behavioural beliefs 'improving my child's health' and 'resistance from my child'; normative beliefs 'other family members' and 'spouse/partner'; and control beliefs 'child's food preferences'. For discretionary choices, behavioural beliefs 'maintain consistent energy levels in my child' for intentions, and 'give my child their required nutritional intake'; normative beliefs 'spouse/partner', 'healthcare professionals' and 'friends'; and control beliefs 'child's food preferences' were identified. These findings can inform the development of future intervention programmes aimed at modifying mothers' child feeding practices to encourage healthy eating and limit discretionary choice intake and, ultimately, increase the life expectancy of the current generation of children. PMID:25675857

  4. Poorly differentiated cutaneous carcinoma of non-sebaceous origin in a 3-year-old Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Heather; Forzán, María J.; Desmarchelier, Marion; Woodland, Meghan; Sayi, Soraya; Gilroy, Cornelia V.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old female gerbil developed a non-healing skin wound due to a malignant neoplasm. Histology, immunohistochemistry (cytokeratin 19 positive; vimentin, estrogen, and progesterone receptor negative), and electron microscopy (no desmosomes or melanosomes) revealed an undifferentiated carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis. Unlike in previous reports, it did not arise from the abdominal pad’s sebaceous gland. PMID:26740704

  5. 1 to 3-Year-Old Children in Day Care Centres in Finland: An Overview of Eight Doctoral Dissertations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannikainen, Maritta

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a general picture of the policy and main structural features of early childhood education services for the younger children in Finland. It also provides an overview of the research on 1 to 3-year-old children in day care centres carried out in Finland during the last 15 years, the focus being on a review of all the eight…

  6. The Magic Shrinking Machine Revisited: The Presence of Props at Recall Facilitates Memory in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Jonna J.; Kingo, Osman S.; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a seminal study Simcock and Hayne (2002) showed that 3-year-olds were unable to use newly acquired words to describe a "magic" event experienced 6 or 12 months earlier. In the reference study the children's verbal recall was tested without props being present. Inspired by recent evidence, the original design was replicated, testing…

  7. "No Shoes; They Walked Away?": Effects of Enhancements on Learning and Using Blissymbols by Normal 3-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavendra, Parimala; Fristoe, Macalyne

    1995-01-01

    Forty 3-year-olds learned either 12 standard Blissymbols (SBS) or their enhanced forms (EBS). Results demonstrated that the subjects learned EBS faster than SBS, remembered more EBS than SBS, did not differ in the communicative use of SBS and EBS, and were affected more negatively when presented with the untrained SBS than EBS. (Author/JDD)

  8. Intergenerational Transmission of Warm-Sensitive-Stimulating Parenting: A Prospective Study of Mothers and Fathers of 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Jaffee, Sara R.; Sligo, Judith; Woodward, Lianne; Silva, Phil A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 200 New Zealand men and women studied repeatedly since age 3 were videotaped interacting with their own 3-year-old children to determine (a) whether childrearing and family climate experienced in 3 distinct developmental periods while growing up (i.e., early childhood, middle childhood, early adolescence) predicted parenting and (b)…

  9. Mothers and Fathers Teaching 3-Year-Olds: Authoritative Parenting and Adult Scaffolding of Young Children's Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Michael W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Data from 24 mothers and fathers who worked separately with their 3-year-old children on difficult block construction, matrix classification, and story retelling tasks were consistent with the hypothesis that authoritative parents may obtain some of their reported success in cognitive skill socialization by using a tutoring style that is more…

  10. Emotion Situation Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory in Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…

  11. Phonological Whole-Word Measures in 3-Year-Old Bilingual Children and Their Age-Matched Monolingual Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English).…

  12. "This Way!", "No! That Way!"--3-Year Olds Know that Two People Can Have Mutually Incompatible Desires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakoczy, Hannes; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In theory of mind research, there is a long standing dispute about whether children come to understand the subjectivity of both desires and beliefs at the same time (around age 4), or whether there is an asymmetry such that desires are understood earlier. To address this issue, 3-year olds' understanding of situations in which two persons have…

  13. "A Spinach with a V on It": What 3-Year-Olds See in Standard and Enhanced Blissymbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavendra, Parimala; Fristoe, Macalyne

    1990-01-01

    Standard or enhanced Blissymbols, designed to represent familiar actions, attributes, and objects, were shown to 20 3 year olds, who guessed their meaning. The number of their guesses that referred to the enhancements was twice as great as the number that referred to the standard Blissymbol base. (Author/JDD)

  14. Qualitative Feasibility of Using Three Accelerometers With 2-3-Year-Old Children and Both Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Silvia; Barber, Sally E.; Griffiths, Paula L.; Cameron, Noël; Clemes, Stacy A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed mothers' opinions about the feasibility and acceptability of using the ActiGraph GT3X+, Actiheart, and activPAL3 with their 2- to 3-year-old children, as well as with themselves and their husbands/partners, for an 8-day period. Method: Six focus groups were run with Pakistani and White British mothers…

  15. The Internal Validity and Acceptability of the Danish SI-3: A Language-Screening Instrument for 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Jorgensen, Rune N.; Worm, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To document the development of a new parent- and day care-administered screening instrument (the Screening Instrument for 3-Year-Olds [SI-3]) to be used in a newly implemented, educationally motivated population language screening in Denmark. The authors investigated whether the basic principles of the SI-3 were working satisfactorily and…

  16. Meritocratic Sharing Is Based on Collaboration in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Katharina; Bender, Johanna; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated young preschoolers' proportional allocation of rewards in 2 different work contexts. We presented 32 pairs of 3.5-year-old peers with a collaborative task to obtain rewards by pulling ropes. In order to establish differences in work input, 1 child's rope was not immediately accessible but had to be…

  17. No own-age bias in 3-year-old children: more evidence for the role of early experience in building face-processing biases.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Pisacane, Antonella; Gava, Lucia

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of an own-age bias in young children who accumulated different amounts of early experience with child faces. Discrimination abilities for upright and inverted adult and child faces were tested using a delayed two-alternative, forced-choice matching-to-sample task in two groups of 3-year-old children, one composed of first-born children and the other composed of children who, from the time of their birth, had daily exposure to a child face through the presence of an older sibling in their home. Children without an older sibling were better at differentiating among adult faces than among child faces and showed an inversion effect that was selective for adult faces. Children with an older sibling were equally skilled at differentiating upright adult and child faces and showed inversion effects of comparable magnitude for both face types. Results support the notion that face representational space of younger children is tuned to adult faces and suggest that age biases during early childhood are dependent on the effects of early experience.

  18. Parent-Reported Distress in Children Under 3-years Old During Preventive Medical and Dental Care

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Travis M.; Huebner, Colleen E.; Kim, Amy; Scott, JoAnna M.; Pickrell, Jacqueline E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined factors related to young children’s distress during preventive oral health visits. Additionally, associations between parent-reported child behavior during the dental visit and during prior medical visits were tested. Methods One hundred twenty two children under 3 years of age enrolled in a government insurance program for low-income children were seen for examination, prophylaxis, and fluoride application at a university-based dental clinic. Child distress was rated by parents on a numerical rating scale. Results The average age of children enrolled was 23.5 ± 7.3 months. The majority (55.7%) were judged to have little or no distress pre-examination. Mild or no distress during the examination was reported for 42.6% of the children and severe distress was reported for 39.4%. Intensity of distress during the examination was not associated with the child’s age, gender, dental health, or prior experience with dental care. Distress was also unrelated to the caregiver’s education level or own dental health. Intensity of distress was associated with the child’s pre-dental examination distress and distress during prior medical examinations and injections. Conclusions Dental professionals can better anticipate child distress by assessing children before examination and inquiring about previous medical experiences. Strategies to prepare parents and alleviate distress may help children cope with the preventive dental visit. PMID:25514877

  19. Perceptions of Child Support and Sexual Activity of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2004-01-01

    Using the 1995 new cohort of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, this paper examines the association between perceptions of child support and adolescent males' sexual activity. The results indicate that adolescent males who expect the chance of being required to pay child support is high if one becomes a non-resident father or who has a…

  20. Comprehension and production of body part labels in 2- to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-09-01

    This study examined which body part labels children could (i) produce when the experimenter touched different locations on her own body, asking each time 'What's this?' and (ii) comprehend by touching the correct locations on their own bodies in response to the experimenter asking 'Where's the [body-part label]?'. Seventeen children aged between 26 and 41 months, tested in a repeated measures procedure, were presented with 50 different body part stimuli in 200 test trials per child. Overall, the children produced fewer body part labels than they could comprehend. The accuracy of children's responses depended on (i) the location or extent of each body part (facial and broad body features were better known; joints and features in or attached to broad body parts the least well known); (ii) the amount of sensory (but not motor) representation each body part has in the human cortex; and (iii) whether a body part was commonly named by caregivers. These results present a precise mapping of the body parts that young children are able to name and locate on their own bodies in response to body part names; they suggest several possible determinants of lexical-semantic body knowledge and add to the understanding of how it develops in childhood.

  1. Comprehension and production of body part labels in 2- to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-09-01

    This study examined which body part labels children could (i) produce when the experimenter touched different locations on her own body, asking each time 'What's this?' and (ii) comprehend by touching the correct locations on their own bodies in response to the experimenter asking 'Where's the [body-part label]?'. Seventeen children aged between 26 and 41 months, tested in a repeated measures procedure, were presented with 50 different body part stimuli in 200 test trials per child. Overall, the children produced fewer body part labels than they could comprehend. The accuracy of children's responses depended on (i) the location or extent of each body part (facial and broad body features were better known; joints and features in or attached to broad body parts the least well known); (ii) the amount of sensory (but not motor) representation each body part has in the human cortex; and (iii) whether a body part was commonly named by caregivers. These results present a precise mapping of the body parts that young children are able to name and locate on their own bodies in response to body part names; they suggest several possible determinants of lexical-semantic body knowledge and add to the understanding of how it develops in childhood. PMID:21848746

  2. 46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY karyotype in a 3-year-old boy ascertained because of radioulnar synostosis

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.; Robson, L.; Jackson, J.

    1995-05-08

    Chromosome analysis was performed on a 3-year-old boy because of bilateral radioulnar synostosis and demonstrated a mosaic karyotype 46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY. He had minor facial anomalies and mild intellectual delay. He appears to be the youngest patient reported with this rare chromosome complement. His father, mother, and brother had normal chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on the propositus and his father with the Y chromosome heterochromatic probe (pHY3.4) to add to the evaluation of mosaicism. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Nonword Repetition and Fast Mapping in 3-Year-Olds with a History of Expressive Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Dalton, Kevin Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability on sublexical (phonological) and lexical representations in 3-year-olds who had a history of being late talkers in comparison with their peers with typical language development. Method: Ten 3-year-olds who were late talkers and 10 age-matched typically…

  4. Sample Length Affects the Reliability of Language Sample Measures in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence from Parent-Elicited Conversational Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Eisenberg, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which sample length affected the reliability of total number of words (TNW), number of different words (NDW), and mean length of C-units in morphemes (MLCUm) in parent-elicited conversational samples for 3-year-olds. Method: Participants were sixty 3-year-olds. A 22-min language…

  5. Monosyllabic Mandarin Tone Productions by 3-Year-Olds Growing up in Taiwan and in the United States: Interjudge Reliability and Perceptual Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Puisan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The author compared monosyllabic Mandarin lexical tones produced by 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and in the United States. Method: Following the procedures in Wong, Schwartz, and Jenkins (2005), the author collected monosyllabic tone productions from 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children in Taiwan and…

  6. [Potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old: review of literature].

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Inga; Sikorska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The literature review regarding potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old, is presented. In this article, cognitive aspects of development include acquisition of language, attention, learning and later school performance. The constant increase of children's access to television is noted, indicating that 60% of infants and toddlers watch TV regularly for 1-2 hours per day. The review included 40 articles and book chapters of significant such as Anderson, Barr, Christakis, Zimmerman, Meltzoff, Courage, Setliff, Troseth. The data was selected from electronic databases of scientific publications: Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and Humanities Full Text (H.W. Wilson) available in Poland. Cited articles provide evidence of the negative impact of exposure to television, media and video on the cognitive functioning of children under 3 years old. The potential impact of watching TV for difficulties in ability to focus attention appears as a core danger. Furthermore, studies suggest a possible connection between early exposure to television and ADHD as well as difficulties with language acquisition, learning and poorer school results.

  7. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA.

    PubMed

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Jensen, Signe M; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-27

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2-4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity.

  8. Lead exposure among 3-year-old children and their mothers living in a pottery-producing area.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Y; Toriumi, H; Kawai, M

    1983-01-01

    The present study's aim was to compare the levels of lead exposure between 3-year-old children and their mothers in a pottery-producing area, and to assess the levels of lead exposure for 3-year-old children of the parents engaged in pottery-manufacturing work. For these purposes urinary lead, coproporphyrin, and delta-aminolevulinic acid were determined for the children and their mothers, living in a pottery-producing area and in a control area. The mean urinary lead was 9.3 to 10.8 micrograms/1 for the mothers in the pottery-producing area and 10.6 micrograms/1 for the children in the control area. In contrast, among the children in the pottery-producing area, those whose parents had been engaged in the pottery production had a much higher mean urinary lead of 13.6 to 15.8 micrograms/1. These results suggest that parental work related to lead contributes appreciably to lead exposure for children.

  9. [Potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old: review of literature].

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Inga; Sikorska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The literature review regarding potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old, is presented. In this article, cognitive aspects of development include acquisition of language, attention, learning and later school performance. The constant increase of children's access to television is noted, indicating that 60% of infants and toddlers watch TV regularly for 1-2 hours per day. The review included 40 articles and book chapters of significant such as Anderson, Barr, Christakis, Zimmerman, Meltzoff, Courage, Setliff, Troseth. The data was selected from electronic databases of scientific publications: Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and Humanities Full Text (H.W. Wilson) available in Poland. Cited articles provide evidence of the negative impact of exposure to television, media and video on the cognitive functioning of children under 3 years old. The potential impact of watching TV for difficulties in ability to focus attention appears as a core danger. Furthermore, studies suggest a possible connection between early exposure to television and ADHD as well as difficulties with language acquisition, learning and poorer school results. PMID:27416629

  10. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA

    PubMed Central

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T.; Jensen, Signe M.; Christensen, Line B.; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height2/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2–4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity. PMID:24463487

  11. 78 FR 69943 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Q3s 3-Year-Old Child Side Impact Test Dummy, Incorporation by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical issues: Peter... of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) which NHTSA published on May 2, 2002, 67 FR 21836. In early 2002... tests and component tests. Sled tests establish the consistency of the dummy's kinematics, its...

  12. The magic shrinking machine revisited: The presence of props at recall facilitates memory in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Jonna J; Kingo, Osman S; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2015-12-01

    In a seminal study Simcock and Hayne (2002) showed that 3-year-olds were unable to use newly acquired words to describe a "magic" event experienced 6 or 12 months earlier. In the reference study the children's verbal recall was tested without props being present. Inspired by recent evidence, the original design was replicated, testing 33-and 39-month-olds (n = 180), but with props present at recall while controlling for potential online reasoning. The results revealed that the children did use newly acquired words to describe their preverbal memory. Thus, the present study shows that nonverbal memories can be verbalized if the recall setting provides a high level of contextual support, a finding relevant to researchers investigating the offset of childhood amnesia. PMID:26436869

  13. A peripheral ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in a 3-year-old girl: case report, immunohistochemical analysis, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Hsiu-Ming; Liu, Chiang-Shin; Yuan, Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) predominantly occurs in the jaw bones of children and young adults. Extraosseous AFO is extremely rare. We describe a peripheral ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in the maxillary gingiva of a 3-year-old girl. The clinical appearance resembled fiery red reactive gingival lesions. The histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed small islands and cords of odontogenic epithelium with cellular myxoid stroma in the subepithelial tissue. The mass contained calcified material and an enamel-like deposit. Many small blood vessels appeared in the connective tissue surrounding the odontogenic epithelium. The immunohistochemical assays showed strong reactivity for amelogenin, β-catenin, CD44, and CD31 in the tissue sections. There was no recurrence after the 1-year follow-up. Because this lesion clinically resembles other nonneoplastic lesions and is very rare in gingiva, establishing a correct diagnosis is achieved only based on specific histological characteristics. Conservative excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice.

  14. Hypoparathyroidism in a 3-year-old Korean boy with Sotos syndrome and a novel mutation in NSD1.

    PubMed

    Wejaphikul, Karn; Cho, Sung Yoon; Huh, Rimm; Kwun, Younghee; Lee, Jieun; Ki, Chang-Seok; Jin, Dong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Sotos syndrome is a common genetic overgrowth syndrome caused by a mutation of the NSD1 gene, which is located at chromosome 5q35 and normally encodes a histone methyltransferase protein. The general characteristics of this syndrome include a characteristic facial appearance, developmental delay, and overgrowth, resulting in macrocephaly and tall stature. We describe rhabdomyolysis and hypocalcemia due to hypoparathyroidism in a 3-year-old Korean boy with Sotos syndrome. He was diagnosed with Sotos syndrome based on the typical phenotype and has a heterozygous nonsense mutation (c.4710C>A [p.Cys1570*]) of the NSD1 gene, which causes a premature stop codon and a truncating protein mutation. Hypoparathyroidism has never been described in Sotos syndrome. This report may therefore expand the phenotypic spectrum of this syndrome.

  15. Phonological whole-word measures in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers.

    PubMed

    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English). Phonological whole-word measures (pMLU and Proximity) and consonant accuracy (PCC) were calculated on elicited single words. Differences were found on each measure between bilinguals and monolinguals in English, but in Spanish, only the PCC displayed differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. Bilinguals displayed language separation on the pMLU and the PCC but not the Proximity, indicating structural phonological differences between the Spanish and English of bilinguals but commensurate target approximations. This suggests that maintaining a consistent level of phonological proximity to the target is an important factor in phonological acquisition. The measures and their relationships are also discussed.

  16. Periurethral and vulval condylomata acuminata: an unusual juvenile venereal disease in a 3-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramnik V; Desai, Divyesh; Cherian, Abraham; Martyn-Simmons, Claire

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of giant condyloma acuminatum (CA) in a 3-year-old girl with rapidly growing vulval and periurethral lesions, which was investigated thoroughly and successfully treated with excision biopsy. Genital warts in the form of giant alarming vestibular, vulval and periurethral lesions of CA are very rare in children. There is need for a multidisciplinary approach with potential sociomedicolegal implications. Surgical excision is safe, effective and provides an opportunity to assess the extent of the lesion and tissue for accurate diagnosis. Genital warts in the form of giant alarming vestibular, vulval and periurethral lesions of CA are very rare in children. Indications for surgical treatment include large, recurrent or refractory lesions, as well as the need for histological identification and acquiring tissue for immunotherapy when necessary. The strategy of an extended follow-up is recommended so as to ensure identification of any risk situations. PMID:25199183

  17. The impact of body-part-naming training on the accuracy of imitative performances in 2- to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-11-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training that enabled them to (i) tact the target locations on their own and the experimenter's bodies or (ii) respond accurately as listeners to the experimenter's tacts of the target locations. Prompts for on-task naming of target body parts were also provided later in the procedure. In Experiment 1, only tact training followed by listener probes were conducted; in Experiment 2, tacting was trained first and listener behavior second, whereas in Experiment 3 listener training preceded tact training. Both tact and listener training resulted in emergence of naming together with significant and large improvements in the children's matching performances; this was true for each child and across most target gestures. The present series of experiments provides evidence that naming--the most basic form of self-instructional behavior--may be one means of establishing untrained matching as measured in generalized imitation tests. This demonstration has a bearing on our interpretation of imitation reported in the behavior analytic, cognitive developmental, and comparative literature.

  18. Informal musical activities are linked to auditory discrimination and attention in 2-3-year-old children: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Putkinen, V; Tervaniemi, M; Huotilainen, M

    2013-02-01

    The relation between informal musical activities at home and electrophysiological indices of neural auditory change detection was investigated in 2-3-year-old children. Auditory event-related potentials were recorded in a multi-feature paradigm that included frequency, duration, intensity, direction, gap deviants and attention-catching novel sounds. Correlations were calculated between these responses and the amount of musical activity at home (i.e. musical play by the child and parental singing) reported by the parents. A higher overall amount of informal musical activity was associated with larger P3as elicited by the gap and duration deviants, and smaller late discriminative negativity responses elicited by all deviant types. Furthermore, more musical activities were linked to smaller P3as elicited by the novel sounds, whereas more paternal singing was associated with smaller reorienting negativity responses to these sounds. These results imply heightened sensitivity to temporal acoustic changes, more mature auditory change detection, and less distractibility in children with more informal musical activities in their home environment. Our results highlight the significance of informal musical experiences in enhancing the development of highly important auditory abilities in early childhood. PMID:23167769

  19. The Impact of Body-Part-Naming Training on the Accuracy of Imitative Performances in 2- to 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-01-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training that enabled them to (i) tact the target locations on their own and the experimenter's bodies or (ii) respond accurately as listeners to the experimenter's tacts of the target locations. Prompts for on-task naming of target body parts were also provided later in the procedure. In Experiment 1, only tact training followed by listener probes were conducted; in Experiment 2, tacting was trained first and listener behavior second, whereas in Experiment 3 listener training preceded tact training. Both tact and listener training resulted in emergence of naming together with significant and large improvements in the children's matching performances; this was true for each child and across most target gestures. The present series of experiments provides evidence that naming —the most basic form of self-instructional behavior—may be one means of establishing untrained matching as measured in generalized imitation tests. This demonstration has a bearing on our interpretation of imitation reported in the behavior analytic, cognitive developmental, and comparative literature. PMID:22084492

  20. Ocular biometric parameters among 3-year-old Chinese children: testability, distribution and association with anthropometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan; Chen, Xuejuan; Gong, Qi; Yuan, Chaoqun; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Zhu, Hui; Fu, Zhujun; Yu, Rongbin; Liu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This survey was conducted to determine the testability, distribution and associations of ocular biometric parameters in Chinese preschool children. Ocular biometric examinations, including the axial length (AL) and corneal radius of curvature (CR), were conducted on 1,688 3-year-old subjects by using an IOLMaster in August 2015. Anthropometric parameters, including height and weight, were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The testability was 93.7% for the AL and 78.6% for the CR overall, and both measures improved with age. Girls performed slightly better in AL measurements (P = 0.08), and the difference in CR was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The AL distribution was normal in girls (P = 0.12), whereas it was not in boys (P < 0.05). For CR1, all subgroups presented normal distributions (P = 0.16 for boys; P = 0.20 for girls), but the distribution varied when the subgroups were combined (P < 0.05). CR2 presented a normal distribution (P = 0.11), whereas the AL/CR ratio was abnormal (P < 0.001). Boys exhibited a significantly longer AL, a greater CR and a greater AL/CR ratio than girls (all P < 0.001).

  1. Ocular biometric parameters among 3-year-old Chinese children: testability, distribution and association with anthropometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dan; Chen, Xuejuan; Gong, Qi; Yuan, Chaoqun; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Zhu, Hui; Fu, Zhujun; Yu, Rongbin; Liu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This survey was conducted to determine the testability, distribution and associations of ocular biometric parameters in Chinese preschool children. Ocular biometric examinations, including the axial length (AL) and corneal radius of curvature (CR), were conducted on 1,688 3-year-old subjects by using an IOLMaster in August 2015. Anthropometric parameters, including height and weight, were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The testability was 93.7% for the AL and 78.6% for the CR overall, and both measures improved with age. Girls performed slightly better in AL measurements (P = 0.08), and the difference in CR was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The AL distribution was normal in girls (P = 0.12), whereas it was not in boys (P < 0.05). For CR1, all subgroups presented normal distributions (P = 0.16 for boys; P = 0.20 for girls), but the distribution varied when the subgroups were combined (P < 0.05). CR2 presented a normal distribution (P = 0.11), whereas the AL/CR ratio was abnormal (P < 0.001). Boys exhibited a significantly longer AL, a greater CR and a greater AL/CR ratio than girls (all P < 0.001). PMID:27384307

  2. Ocular biometric parameters among 3-year-old Chinese children: testability, distribution and association with anthropometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan; Chen, Xuejuan; Gong, Qi; Yuan, Chaoqun; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Zhu, Hui; Fu, Zhujun; Yu, Rongbin; Liu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This survey was conducted to determine the testability, distribution and associations of ocular biometric parameters in Chinese preschool children. Ocular biometric examinations, including the axial length (AL) and corneal radius of curvature (CR), were conducted on 1,688 3-year-old subjects by using an IOLMaster in August 2015. Anthropometric parameters, including height and weight, were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The testability was 93.7% for the AL and 78.6% for the CR overall, and both measures improved with age. Girls performed slightly better in AL measurements (P = 0.08), and the difference in CR was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The AL distribution was normal in girls (P = 0.12), whereas it was not in boys (P < 0.05). For CR1, all subgroups presented normal distributions (P = 0.16 for boys; P = 0.20 for girls), but the distribution varied when the subgroups were combined (P < 0.05). CR2 presented a normal distribution (P = 0.11), whereas the AL/CR ratio was abnormal (P < 0.001). Boys exhibited a significantly longer AL, a greater CR and a greater AL/CR ratio than girls (all P < 0.001). PMID:27384307

  3. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis.We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72  hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day.Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment.

  4. Production of Mandarin tones by 3-year-old children acquiring L1 (Mandarin) in an L2 (English) environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2001-05-01

    Thirteen monolingual Mandarin-speaking children residing in the U.S. were recruited to examine their production of the four Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. A picture-naming task was used to elicit the children's productions of lexical tones in isolated words and in sentence final position. Four mothers were asked to say the same set of words to their children in a picture reading activity. The children's and the mothers' productions were recorded and low-pass filtered at 500 and 400 Hz, respectively, to eliminate phonemic and semantic information. Ten Mandarin-speaking judges were recruited to identify the children's and adults' tone productions from the filtered stimuli. Contrary to the findings of L1 research conducted in countries where Mandarin is the language of the environment, the present results revealed that the lexical tones produced by 3-year-old children acquiring Mandarin as their first language in the U.S. were not yet adultlike. Children's tone productions were more difficult to categorize than the mothers' productions. The judges had significantly more difficulty identifying children's dipping tones than the children's level tones, rising tones, or falling tones, suggesting that the dipping tone posed the most difficulties for the children.

  5. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  6. Aggregate exposure approaches for parabens in personal care products: a case assessment for children between 0 and 3 years old

    PubMed Central

    Gosens, Ilse; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; ter Burg, Wouter; de Heer, Cees; Schuur, A Gerlienke

    2014-01-01

    In the risk assessment of chemical substances, aggregation of exposure to a substance from different sources via different pathways is not common practice. Focusing the exposure assessment on a substance from a single source can lead to a significant underestimation of the risk. To gain more insight on how to perform an aggregate exposure assessment, we applied a deterministic (tier 1) and a person-oriented probabilistic approach (tier 2) for exposure to the four most common parabens through personal care products in children between 0 and 3 years old. Following a deterministic approach, a worst-case exposure estimate is calculated for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. As an illustration for risk assessment, Margins of Exposure (MoE) are calculated. These are 991 and 4966 for methyl- and ethylparaben, and 8 and 10 for propyl- and butylparaben, respectively. In tier 2, more detailed information on product use has been obtained from a small survey on product use of consumers. A probabilistic exposure assessment is performed to estimate the variability and uncertainty of exposure in a population. Results show that the internal exposure for each paraben is below the level determined in tier 1. However, for propyl- and butylparaben, the percentile of the population with an exposure probability above the assumed “safe” MoE of 100, is 13% and 7%, respectively. In conclusion, a tier 1 approach can be performed using simple equations and default point estimates, and serves as a starting point for exposure and risk assessment. If refinement is warranted, the more data demanding person-oriented probabilistic approach should be used. This probabilistic approach results in a more realistic exposure estimate, including the uncertainty, and allows determining the main drivers of exposure. Furthermore, it allows to estimate the percentage of the population for which the exposure is likely to be above a specific value. PMID:23801276

  7. Gingival hypertrophy in a child: Expect the unexpected

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Rekha; Manohar, Rakesh; Latha, Sneha Magatha; Scott, Julius Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common malignant disorder of childhood. Acute leukemia is characterized by marrow failure due to the replacement of marrow elements by leukemic blasts. Gingival hypertrophy (GH) due to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a child is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of AML (subtype M5 of FAB classification) in a 3-year-old male child wherein the disease primarily presented as GH. PMID:27433057

  8. An Ecological Approach of Constraint Induced Movement Therapy for 2-3-Year-Old Children: A Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Shaw, Karin; Berg, Elisabeth; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of Eco-CIMT in young children with unilateral cerebral palsy in a randomized controlled crossover design. The training was implemented within the regular pediatric services, provided by the child's parents and/or preschool teacher and supervised by the child's regular therapist. Methods: Twenty-five children…

  9. Acting and Planning on the Basis of a False Belief: Its Effects on 3-Year-Old Children's Reasoning About Their Own False Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atance, Cristina M.; O'Neill, Daniela K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 3-year-olds' explanations for actions of theirs that were premised on a false belief. In Experiment 1, children stated what they thought was inside a crayon box. After stating "crayons," they went to retrieve some paper to draw on. Children were then shown that the box contained candles and were asked to (a) state their initial…

  10. The Impact of Body-Part-Naming Training on the Accuracy of Imitative Performances in 2- to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camoes-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training…

  11. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  12. Is the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd Edition a Reliable Instrument to Measure Motor Performance in 3 Year Old Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Formal testing of 3 year old children is a new feature in the revised version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC-2). Our study evaluated the reliability and explored the clinical applicability of the Movement ABC-2 Test in this young age group. A total of 50 typically children were given two trials of the test within a…

  13. Attachment-Based Intervention for Enhancing Sensitive Discipline in Mothers of 1- to 3-Year-Old Children at Risk for Externalizing Behavior Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zeijl, Jantien; Mesman, Judi; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie; Stolk, Mirjam N.; Koot, Hans M.; Alink, Lenneke R. A.

    2006-01-01

    The home-based intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) was tested in a randomized controlled trial with 237 families screened for their 1- to 3-year-old children's relatively high scores on externalizing behavior. VIPP-SD, based on attachment theory and coercion theory,…

  14. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  15. The Effect of Language on Chinese and American 2- and 3-Year Olds' Small Number Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xia; Sun, Ye; Baroody, Arthur J.; Purpura, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has found that linguistic cues may affect children's number word acquisition. Two studies were undertaken to evaluate the use of singular/plural markings and small number words in Chinese and English and its effect on children's number concepts. The first study utilized the CHILDES data and investigated how…

  16. Sticking out and fitting in: culture-specific predictors of 3-year-olds' autobiographical memories during joint reminiscing.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Lisa; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi; Chaudhary, Nandita

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between mother-child interaction styles with 19 months and children's autobiographical memory with 3 years of age in two cultural contexts: New Delhi, India (n = 25) and Berlin, Germany (n = 33). Results demonstrate similarities as well as culture specificities. In both contexts, maternal elaborations during reminiscing were related to children's memory contributions. Over time, maternal support for toddlers' self-expression during free play at 19 months predicted their children's memory elaborations at 3 years in the Berlin context. In the Delhi context, toddlers' willingness to carry out their mothers' requests at 19 months predicted their memory elaborations at 3 years. These results suggest different motivational bases underlying children's autobiographical memory contributions during mother-child reminiscing related to different cultural orientations.

  17. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2013-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed. PMID:23730121

  18. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males.

    PubMed

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E

    2010-05-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a sample of African American males (N = 2,335) born before 1990. Multivariable logistic regression models compared those with a delinquency-based juvenile justice petition to those without. Results indicate that African American males with a history of neglect, physical abuse, or other/mixed abuse were more likely to be involved in the juvenile justice system than those without any child maltreatment. Additionally, multiple maltreatment reports, a prior history of mental health treatment, victimization, and having a parent who did not complete high school also increased the likelihood of a delinquency petition. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.

  19. Social risk factors as predictors for parental report of deviant behaviour in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Else; Obel, Carsten; Nedergård, Niels Jørgen; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether social risk factors adjusted for gender and some well-known perinatal risk factors were related to parental descriptions of deviant behaviour in 3(1/2)-year-old children. The study was a prospective cohort study of 1345 mothers enrolled during early pregnancy. Parents answered a questionnaire and children's behavioural difficulties were categorized into the following groups; "hyperactive-distractible", "hostile-aggressive" and "anxious-fearful" following a modified Behar scale. The male gender was found to be related to a description of all kinds of deviant behaviour. Having a family member experiencing employment difficulties was the factor most closely related to "hyperactive-distractible" behaviour. Familial stress due to lack of time, experience of divorce and mothers in excess of 35 years at childbirth were found to be related to "hostile-aggressive" behaviour, but male gender was the most closely related. Social disadvantage was not found to be related to "anxious-fearful" behaviour. PMID:14985150

  20. Social risk factors as predictors for parental report of deviant behaviour in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Else; Obel, Carsten; Nedergård, Niels Jørgen; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether social risk factors adjusted for gender and some well-known perinatal risk factors were related to parental descriptions of deviant behaviour in 3(1/2)-year-old children. The study was a prospective cohort study of 1345 mothers enrolled during early pregnancy. Parents answered a questionnaire and children's behavioural difficulties were categorized into the following groups; "hyperactive-distractible", "hostile-aggressive" and "anxious-fearful" following a modified Behar scale. The male gender was found to be related to a description of all kinds of deviant behaviour. Having a family member experiencing employment difficulties was the factor most closely related to "hyperactive-distractible" behaviour. Familial stress due to lack of time, experience of divorce and mothers in excess of 35 years at childbirth were found to be related to "hostile-aggressive" behaviour, but male gender was the most closely related. Social disadvantage was not found to be related to "anxious-fearful" behaviour.

  1. Factors Affecting Psychosocial and Motor Development in 3-Year-Old Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has shown an association between children's development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing devices, hearing device used, presence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, maternal education, socio-economic status (SES), language ability, and communication mode. Caregivers reported on children's development using the Child Development Inventory (CDI). On average, both psychosocial and motor development quotients were within the typical range for hearing children, with large individual differences. There was a positive correlation between language ability and both social and motor development, and also between social and motor development. Age at first fitting of hearing aids (as an indicator of age at identification of hearing loss), SES, degree of hearing loss, and maternal education were not significant predictors of social skill or motor development, whereas presence of additional disabilities and birth weight were. Girls performed better than boys on all but the Gross Motor subscale of the CDI. Children with hearing aids tended to perform better than those with cochlear implants on the Gross Motor subscale.

  2. The influence of lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries among 3-year-old Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masako; Wang, Da-Hong; Ijichi, Akihiro; Shirai, Chika; Zou, Yu; Kubo, Masayuki; Takemoto, Kei; Masatomi, Chie; Ogino, Keiki

    2014-12-05

    The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child's late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake.

  3. Factors Affecting Psychosocial and Motor Development in 3-Year-Old Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown an association between children’s development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing devices, hearing device used, presence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, maternal education, socio-economic status (SES), language ability, and communication mode. Caregivers reported on children’s development using the Child Development Inventory (CDI). On average, both psychosocial and motor development quotients were within the typical range for hearing children, with large individual differences. There was a positive correlation between language ability and both social and motor development, and also between social and motor development. Age at first fitting of hearing aids (as an indicator of age at identification of hearing loss), SES, degree of hearing loss, and maternal education were not significant predictors of social skill or motor development, whereas presence of additional disabilities and birth weight were. Girls performed better than boys on all but the Gross Motor subscale of the CDI. Children with hearing aids tended to perform better than those with cochlear implants on the Gross Motor subscale. PMID:26209447

  4. Combined immunodeficiency in a 3-year-old boy with 16p11.2 and 20p12.2-11.2 chromosomal duplications.

    PubMed

    Batanian, Jacqueline R; Braddock, Stephen R; Christensen, Katherine; Knutsen, Alan P

    2014-02-01

    We report for the first time on a 3-year-old boy with paternally inherited 212.85 kb-16p11.2 and 7.8 Mb-20p12.2-11.23 interstitial microduplications associated with having congenital cardiac defect, dysmorphic facial features, and combined T-, B-, and NK cell immunodeficiency. In addition the 7.8 Mb-20p12.2-11.23 microduplication is unique showing novel breakpoints among all partial trisomy/duplication 20p reported to date, narrowing down the critical region for trisomy 20p syndrome. PMID:24311374

  5. Acting and planning on the basis of a false belief: its effects on 3-year-old children's reasoning about their own false beliefs.

    PubMed

    Atance, Cristina M; O'Neill, Daniela K

    2004-11-01

    This study examined 3-year-olds' explanations for actions of theirs that were premised on a false belief. In Experiment 1, children stated what they thought was inside a crayon box. After stating "crayons," they went to retrieve some paper to draw on. Children were then shown that the box contained candles and were asked to (a) state their initial belief and (b) explain their action of getting paper. Children who were unable to retrieve their false belief were unable to correctly explain their action. Experiments 2 and 3 ruled out several alternative interpretations for these findings. In Experiment 4, children planned and acted on their false belief. Again, children who were unable to retrieve their false belief were unable to correctly explain their action. PMID:15535750

  6. Atopic allergy and chronic inflammation of the oral mucosa in a 3-year-old boy after heart transplantation – diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Machura, Edyta; Chodór, Beata; Pindycka-Piaszczyńska, Małgorzata; Chrobak, Ewelina; Białkowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have been observing an increased proportion of atopic diseases in children after solid organ transplantation. The pathogenesis of post-transplantation allergy is not completely understood and probably involves several factors, including immunosuppressive therapy. In this paper we present a case of 3-year old boy, after orthotopic heart transplantation at 6 months of age, with symptoms of food allergy associated with atopic dermatitis and changes in the orofacial area. The mentioned symptoms and elevated levels of total and specific IgE occurred with a year of transplant. Because of failure to achieve remission after typical allergy therapy we suspected that the reason of allergy in this case can be immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:26336506

  7. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation. PMID:25844514

  8. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation.

  9. Dystocia in 3-year-old beef heifers; relationship to maternal nutrient intake during early- and mid-gestation, pelvic area and hormonal indicators of placental function.

    PubMed

    Micke, G C; Sullivan, T M; Rolls, P J; Hasell, B; Greer, R M; Norman, S T; Perry, V E A

    2010-04-01

    The influence of nutrition during the first and second trimesters of gestation on the occurrence of dystocia was investigated in 3-year-old composite-breed beef heifers. Heifers were allocated according to stratification by weight and genotype to either a high (H/-=76 MJ metabolisable energy (ME) and 1.4 kg crude protein (CP)), or low (L/-=62 MJ ME and 0.4 kg CP daily) nutritional treatment on the day of artificial insemination (day 0) to the same Senepol bull. Half of each nutritional group changed to an opposite nutritional group on day 93 of gestation (-/H=82 MJ ME and 1.4 kg CP; -/L=63 MJ ME and 0.4 kg CP daily), resulting in four treatment groups: HH (n=16); HL (n=19); LH (n=17); LL (n=19). From 180 days until calving all heifers were fed the same diets. Pelvic area measures were taken at heifer selection (-72 days) and at 117 days. Maternal circulating concentrations of estrone sulphate (ES), bovine placental lactogen (bPL), bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein and progesterone were monitored throughout gestation. Heifers were observed continuously over the calving period and delivery type classified as being either eutocic or dystocic. The occurrence of dystocia was 14.1%. Increased calf birth weight increased the odds of occurrence of dystocia (odds ratio (OR)=1.40; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.12-1.76; P<0.01). High diets in the second trimester were associated with heavier calves at birth (P=0.01). The mean pelvic area of eutocic heifers on -72 d, tended to be greater compared to that of dystocic heifers (P=0.08) such that a 1-cm(2) difference in pelvic area tended to decrease the risk of dystocia (OR=0.97; 95% CI 0.93-1.01; P=0.09). Longer gestation length was associated with an increased risk of dystocia (P=0.03). ES (P=0.04) and bPL (P=0.09) at calving were positively associated with the risk of dystocia. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates (a) that pelvic area measurement at selection in 3-year-old Bos indicusxBos taurus heifers

  10. Dystocia in 3-year-old beef heifers; relationship to maternal nutrient intake during early- and mid-gestation, pelvic area and hormonal indicators of placental function.

    PubMed

    Micke, G C; Sullivan, T M; Rolls, P J; Hasell, B; Greer, R M; Norman, S T; Perry, V E A

    2010-04-01

    The influence of nutrition during the first and second trimesters of gestation on the occurrence of dystocia was investigated in 3-year-old composite-breed beef heifers. Heifers were allocated according to stratification by weight and genotype to either a high (H/-=76 MJ metabolisable energy (ME) and 1.4 kg crude protein (CP)), or low (L/-=62 MJ ME and 0.4 kg CP daily) nutritional treatment on the day of artificial insemination (day 0) to the same Senepol bull. Half of each nutritional group changed to an opposite nutritional group on day 93 of gestation (-/H=82 MJ ME and 1.4 kg CP; -/L=63 MJ ME and 0.4 kg CP daily), resulting in four treatment groups: HH (n=16); HL (n=19); LH (n=17); LL (n=19). From 180 days until calving all heifers were fed the same diets. Pelvic area measures were taken at heifer selection (-72 days) and at 117 days. Maternal circulating concentrations of estrone sulphate (ES), bovine placental lactogen (bPL), bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein and progesterone were monitored throughout gestation. Heifers were observed continuously over the calving period and delivery type classified as being either eutocic or dystocic. The occurrence of dystocia was 14.1%. Increased calf birth weight increased the odds of occurrence of dystocia (odds ratio (OR)=1.40; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.12-1.76; P<0.01). High diets in the second trimester were associated with heavier calves at birth (P=0.01). The mean pelvic area of eutocic heifers on -72 d, tended to be greater compared to that of dystocic heifers (P=0.08) such that a 1-cm(2) difference in pelvic area tended to decrease the risk of dystocia (OR=0.97; 95% CI 0.93-1.01; P=0.09). Longer gestation length was associated with an increased risk of dystocia (P=0.03). ES (P=0.04) and bPL (P=0.09) at calving were positively associated with the risk of dystocia. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates (a) that pelvic area measurement at selection in 3-year-old Bos indicusxBos taurus heifers

  11. Voice onset time of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers

    PubMed Central

    FABIANO-SMITH, LEAH; BUNTA, FERENC

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English. Twenty-four 3-year-olds participated in this study (8 bilingual Spanish–English, 8 monolingual Spanish and 8 monolingual English). The VOT productions of /p/ and /k/ in syllable-initial stressed singleton position were compared across participants. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed to examine differences (1) between monolinguals and bilinguals and (2) between English and Spanish. The main findings of the study were that monolingual and bilingual children generally differed on VOT in English, but not in Spanish. No statistically significant differences were found between the Spanish and the English VOT of the bilingual children, but the VOT values did differ significantly for monolingual Spanish-versus monolingual English-speaking participants. Our findings were interpreted in terms of Flege’s Speech Learning Model, finding possible evidence for equivalence classification. PMID:21787142

  12. 3-Year-Old Children Selectively Generalize Object Functions Following a Demonstration from a Linguistic In-group Member: Evidence from the Phenomenon of Scale Error

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Katalin; Elekes, Fruzsina; Pető, Réka; Peres, Krisztina; Király, Ildikó

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated 3-year-old children’s learning processes about object functions. We built on children’s tendency to commit scale errors with tools to explore whether they would selectively endorse object functions from a linguistic in-group over an out-group model. Participants (n = 37) were presented with different object sets, and a model speaking either in their native or a foreign language demonstrated how to use the presented tools. In the test phase, children received the object sets with two modifications: the original tool was replaced by one that was too big to achieve the goal but was otherwise identical, and another tool was added to the set that looked different but was appropriately scaled for goal attainment. Children in the Native language condition were significantly more likely to commit scale errors – that is, choose the over-sized tool – than children in the Foreign language condition (48 vs. 30%). We propose that these results provide insight into the characteristics of human-specific learning processes by showing that children are more likely to generalize object functions to a category of artifacts following a demonstration from an in-group member. PMID:27445925

  13. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in breast milk increases autistic traits of 3-year-old children in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nishijo, M; Pham, T T; Nguyen, A T N; Tran, N N; Nakagawa, H; Hoang, L V; Tran, A H; Morikawa, Y; Ho, M D; Kido, T; Nguyen, M N; Nguyen, H M; Nishijo, H

    2014-11-01

    Dioxin levels in the breast milk of mothers residing near a contaminated former airbase in Vietnam remain much higher than in unsprayed areas, suggesting high perinatal dioxin exposure for their infants. The present study investigated the association of perinatal dioxin exposure with autistic traits in 153 3-year-old children living in a contaminated area in Vietnam. The children were followed up from birth using the neurodevelopmental battery Bayley-III. The high-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposed groups (⩾3.5 pg per g fat) showed significantly higher Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (ASRS) scores for both boys and girls than the mild-TCDD exposed groups, without differences in neurodevelopmental scores. In contrast, the high total dioxin-exposed group, indicated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/Fs)--the toxic equivalents (TEQ) levels⩾17.9 pg-TEQ per g fat, had significantly lower neurodevelopmental scores than the mild-exposed group in boys, but there was no difference in the ASRS scores. The present study demonstrates a specific impact of perinatal TCDD on autistic traits in childhood, which is different from the neurotoxicity of total dioxins (PCDDs/Fs).

  14. Sociodemographic risk and early environmental factors that contribute to resilience in executive control: A factor mixture model of 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Clark, Caron A C; James, Tiffany D; Fang, Hua; Wiebe, Sandra A; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2015-01-01

    Young children at sociodemographic risk generally demonstrate lower executive control (EC), although with substantial heterogeneity across children. Given this marked variability, there may be some at-risk children who display higher EC and may be buffered from or resilient to the effects of sociodemographic risk who can be studied to identify the contributory factors. In this study, factor mixture modelling was used to determine whether subgroups of 3-year-old children existed based on their observed performance on a battery of EC tasks. Results indicated 2 latent groups: One characterized by lower EC and the other by higher EC. Both sociodemographically at-risk and low-risk children were represented in each group, yielding 4 risk-status-by-EC groups, where at-risk higher EC children were termed the resilient group. Proximal household enrichment (e.g., exposure to learning materials, varied enriching experiences, academic and language stimulation, parental responsivity) distinguished the resilient group from lower performing children of similar risk status, whereas distal financial resources and proximal social network resources did not distinguish these two groups. Results suggest potential intervention targets to promote optimal EC development, particularly among children at risk.

  15. Child Support Enforcement and Sexual Activity of Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2007-01-01

    Strong child support enforcement requires fathers to take financial responsibility for their children and may also encourage more responsible sexual behavior. Using the 1997-2001 waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 4,272), this article examines the association between child support enforcement and the sexual activity of…

  16. The Male Advantage in Child Facial Resemblance Detection: Behavioral and ERP evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haiyan; Yang, Suyong; Sun, Shiyue; Liu, Chao; Luo, Yue-jia

    2013-01-01

    Males have been suggested to have advantages over females in reactions to child facial resemblance, which reflects the evolutionary pressure on males to solve the adaptive paternal uncertainty problem and to identify biological offspring. However, previous studies showed inconsistent results and the male advantage in child facial resemblance perception, as a kin detection mechanism, is still unclear. Here we investigated the behavioral and brain mechanisms underlying the self-resembling faces processing and how it interacts with sex and age using ERP technique. The results showed a stable male advantage in self-resembling child faces processing, such that males have higher detectability to self-resembling child faces than females. For ERP results, males showed smaller N2 and larger LPC amplitudes for self-resembling child faces, which may reflect face-matching and self-referential processing in kin detection, respectively. Further source analysis showed that the N2 and LPC components were originated from the anterior cingulate cortex and medial frontal gyrus, respectively. Our results support the male advantage in self-resembling child detection and further indicate that such distinctions can be found in both early and late processing stages in the brain at different regions. PMID:24053135

  17. A Little Boy's Use of His Male Child Psychotherapist to Help Him Understand a Painful Conundrum?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The role of a child psychotherapist's gender is not often considered in terms of treatment outcome. This paper discusses how aspects of being a male child psychotherapist influenced the successful treatment of a very young boy with Asperger's Syndrome. The paper highlights how the nature of his very early relationship with his mother and the…

  18. Distinguishing Characteristics of Male and Female Child Sex Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Craig M.; Pothast, Henry L.

    1994-01-01

    Explores the relationship among gender, gender role identity, emotional need, and sexual need in adult relationships of child sexual abusers and nonabusers. Implications of these and other findings are discussed in terms of theory and practice. (LKS)

  19. The Influence of Malnutrition and Micronutrient Status on Anemic Risk in Children under 3 Years Old in Poor Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Hui; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Yu, Wentao; Man, Qingqing; Scherpbier, Robert; Pan, Lili; Duan, Yifan; Yin, Shi-an

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition and anemia affect large numbers of young children living in poor areas of China. Multi-micronutrient deficiencies may be related to the prevalence of anemia in different populations, and identifying the risk factors that render children susceptible to anemia is the first step in combating anemia effectively. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1370 children under 3 years old were selected based on probability proportional to size sampling principles from poor counties of China. Basic characteristics data were collected by questionnaire; then anthropometrics and hemoglobin were measured in the field and anemia prevalence evaluated. Venous blood was drawn from children aged 12–35 months (N = 553) to evaluate micronutrient status. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for children’s anemia. Results Among children aged 0–35 months, the prevalence of stunting, low body weight and wasting was 17.5%, 8.6% and 5.1%, respectively, and 25.6% of the children were affected by anemia, with more anemic infants and younger children than older children (P <0.01). There were 26.5%, 12.8%, 14.1% and 20.0% of the children aged 12–35 months affected by iron deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, folic acid deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency, respectively. For children aged 0–11 months who were breastfed, the mothers’ anemic status was the only factor associated with the child’s anemia (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2–5.4, P < 0.05). For children aged 12–35 months, multivariate logistic regression indicated that anemia was significantly associated with iron and vitamin B12 deficiency (OR = 5.3; 95% CI: 1.9–14.5, P < 0.01) and monotonous diet (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–4.7, P < 0.05) after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion The prevalence of anemia was higher in children under 2 years old and requires urgent intervention. An effective intervention strategy should include iron and vitamin B12 supplements, improving

  20. Processing Demands Impact 3-Year-Olds' Performance in a Spontaneous-Response Task: New Evidence for the Processing-Load Account of Early False-Belief Understanding.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rose M; Roby, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Prior to age four, children succeed in non-elicited-response false-belief tasks but fail elicited-response false-belief tasks. To explain this discrepancy, the processing-load account argues that the capacity to represent beliefs emerges in infancy, as indicated by early success on non-elicited-response tasks, but that children's ability to demonstrate this capacity depends on the processing demands of the task and children's processing skills. When processing demands exceed young children's processing abilities, such as in standard elicited-response tasks, children fail despite their capacity to represent beliefs. Support for this account comes from recent evidence that reducing processing demands improves young children's performance: when demands are sufficiently reduced, 2.5-year-olds succeed in elicited-response tasks. Here we sought complementary evidence for the processing-load account by examining whether increasing processing demands impeded children's performance in a non-elicited-response task. 3-year-olds were tested in a preferential-looking task in which they heard a change-of-location false-belief story accompanied by a picture book; across children, we manipulated the amount of linguistic ambiguity in the story. The final page of the book showed two images: one that was consistent with the main character's false belief and one that was consistent with reality. When the story was relatively unambiguous, children looked reliably longer at the false-belief-consistent image, successfully demonstrating their false-belief understanding. When the story was ambiguous, however, this undermined children's performance: looking times to the belief-consistent image were correlated with verbal ability, and only children with verbal skills in the upper quartile of the sample demonstrated a significant preference for the belief-consistent image. These results support the processing-load account by demonstrating that regardless of whether a task involves an elicited

  1. Processing Demands Impact 3-Year-Olds' Performance in a Spontaneous-Response Task: New Evidence for the Processing-Load Account of Early False-Belief Understanding.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rose M; Roby, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Prior to age four, children succeed in non-elicited-response false-belief tasks but fail elicited-response false-belief tasks. To explain this discrepancy, the processing-load account argues that the capacity to represent beliefs emerges in infancy, as indicated by early success on non-elicited-response tasks, but that children's ability to demonstrate this capacity depends on the processing demands of the task and children's processing skills. When processing demands exceed young children's processing abilities, such as in standard elicited-response tasks, children fail despite their capacity to represent beliefs. Support for this account comes from recent evidence that reducing processing demands improves young children's performance: when demands are sufficiently reduced, 2.5-year-olds succeed in elicited-response tasks. Here we sought complementary evidence for the processing-load account by examining whether increasing processing demands impeded children's performance in a non-elicited-response task. 3-year-olds were tested in a preferential-looking task in which they heard a change-of-location false-belief story accompanied by a picture book; across children, we manipulated the amount of linguistic ambiguity in the story. The final page of the book showed two images: one that was consistent with the main character's false belief and one that was consistent with reality. When the story was relatively unambiguous, children looked reliably longer at the false-belief-consistent image, successfully demonstrating their false-belief understanding. When the story was ambiguous, however, this undermined children's performance: looking times to the belief-consistent image were correlated with verbal ability, and only children with verbal skills in the upper quartile of the sample demonstrated a significant preference for the belief-consistent image. These results support the processing-load account by demonstrating that regardless of whether a task involves an elicited

  2. Daddy's Gone to Colorado: Male-Staffed Child Care for Father-Absent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Steve

    1978-01-01

    The article presents the goals, methods, and case examples of The Nutury, a predominantly male-staffed child care center serving single-parent children. The primary goal is to provide consistent relationships with men for children without a male model in their home. Clinical observations reveal positive life-styles and attitudes. (LPG)

  3. Lifestyle, Dwelling Conditions and Daily Routine as Qualitative Indicators of Infant Development: A Study of 0-3 Years Old Children from Rural Brazilian Northeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    The developing child and his/her eco-social-cultural context is the focus of study of 28 children ages 0-3 years in the rural area of Cocal, Piaui in Northeast Brazil. Ethnographic methods, naturalistic observations and semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain the physical context (the house and its surroundings), as well as maternal…

  4. Prompts to eat novel and familiar fruits and vegetables in families with 1-3 year-old children: Relationships with food acceptance and intake.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Lisa R; Mokdad, Cassandra; Martin, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Toddlers often go through a picky eating phase, which can make it difficult to introduce new foods into the diet. A better understanding of how parents' prompts to eat fruits and vegetables are related to children's intake of these foods will help promote healthy eating habits. 60 families recorded all toddler meals over one day, plus a meal in which parents introduced a novel fruit/vegetable to the child. Videos were coded for parent and child behaviors. Parents completed a feeding style questionnaire and three 24-h dietary recalls about their children's intake. Parents made, on average, 48 prompts for their children to eat more during the main meals in a typical day, mostly of the neutral type. Authoritarian parents made the most prompts, and used pressure the most often. In the novel food situation, it took an average of 2.5 prompts before the child tasted the new food. The most immediately successful prompt for regular meals across food types was modeling. There was a trend for using another food as a reward to work less well than a neutral prompt for encouraging children to try a novel fruit or vegetable. More frequent prompts to eat fruits and vegetables during typical meals were associated with higher overall intake of these food groups. More prompts for children to try a novel vegetable was associated with higher overall vegetable intake, but this pattern was not seen for fruits, suggesting that vegetable variety may be more strongly associated with intake. Children who ate the most vegetables had parents who used more "reasoning" prompts, which may have become an internalized motivation to eat these foods, but this needs to be tested explicitly using longer-term longitudinal studies. PMID:26792770

  5. Prompts to eat novel and familiar fruits and vegetables in families with 1-3 year-old children: Relationships with food acceptance and intake.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Lisa R; Mokdad, Cassandra; Martin, Nathalie

    2016-04-01

    Toddlers often go through a picky eating phase, which can make it difficult to introduce new foods into the diet. A better understanding of how parents' prompts to eat fruits and vegetables are related to children's intake of these foods will help promote healthy eating habits. 60 families recorded all toddler meals over one day, plus a meal in which parents introduced a novel fruit/vegetable to the child. Videos were coded for parent and child behaviors. Parents completed a feeding style questionnaire and three 24-h dietary recalls about their children's intake. Parents made, on average, 48 prompts for their children to eat more during the main meals in a typical day, mostly of the neutral type. Authoritarian parents made the most prompts, and used pressure the most often. In the novel food situation, it took an average of 2.5 prompts before the child tasted the new food. The most immediately successful prompt for regular meals across food types was modeling. There was a trend for using another food as a reward to work less well than a neutral prompt for encouraging children to try a novel fruit or vegetable. More frequent prompts to eat fruits and vegetables during typical meals were associated with higher overall intake of these food groups. More prompts for children to try a novel vegetable was associated with higher overall vegetable intake, but this pattern was not seen for fruits, suggesting that vegetable variety may be more strongly associated with intake. Children who ate the most vegetables had parents who used more "reasoning" prompts, which may have become an internalized motivation to eat these foods, but this needs to be tested explicitly using longer-term longitudinal studies.

  6. [Study on availability of dental health services for children in health center--correlation between attendance of 3-year-old children at dental health services and caries prevalence].

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental health services for children in a health center. The samples were 316 children who had 3-year-old dental examination at a health center in Tokyo. The analysis was carried out by a computer using the results of the children's oral status and of their mothers', questionnaires and past records showing when and how many times they had attended such activities. The results were as follows: 1. Attendance of children at dental services showed the effectiveness in preventing dental caries, and it was suggested that attendance at least 3 times before the age of 18 months should be the most effective way to decrease the dental caries in the 3-year-olds. 2. According to the questionnaires, time of going to bed, snacks time, and the habit of thumb-sucking at the age of 3 years, and stopping the habit of bottle-feeding and of night breast-feeding at 18 months of age showed a great correlation concerning the number of dental caries in the 3-year-olds. 3. The more often the children had attended the dental services, the more often their behavior for eating snacks and toothbrushing changed for the better. 4. The more the mothers had dental caries, the more was the number of dental caries in their children and moreover their attendance at the dental services was less.

  7. Infant male circumcision and the autonomy of the child: two ethical questions.

    PubMed

    McMath, Akim

    2015-08-01

    Routine neonatal circumcision--the non-therapeutic circumcision of infant males--has generated considerable ethical controversy. In this article, I suggest that much of the disagreement results from conflicting ideas about the autonomy of the child. I examine two questions about autonomy. First, I ask whether we should be realists or idealists about the future autonomous choices of the child-that is, whether we should account for the fact that the child may not make the best choices in future, or whether we should assume that his future choices will reflect his best interests. Second, I ask whether the child has a right to autonomy with respect to circumcision, an interest in autonomy or neither--that is, whether respect for autonomy overrides considerations of interests, whether it counts as one interest among many or whether it counts for nothing. In response to the first question, I argue that we should be idealists when evaluating the child's own interests, but realists when evaluating public health justifications for circumcision. In response to the second question, I argue that the child has an interest in deciding whether or not to be circumcised, insofar as the decision is more likely to reflect his actual interests and his own values. Finally, I show how these findings may help to resolve some particular disputes over the ethics of infant male circumcision.

  8. Exploring taboos: comparing male- and female-perpetrated child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Peter, Tracey

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female abusers. Results show a prevalence rate of 10.7% for female-perpetrated sexual abuse. Girls were more likely to be victimized for both male- and female-perpetrated sexual violence and females tended to abuse younger children. The majority of children came from families with lower socioeconomic status although one in five victims of female-perpetrated sexual abuse came from middle-class homes. Referrals to child welfare agencies were more likely to be made by nonprofessionals when females abused.

  9. Exploring clinical and personality characteristics of adult male internet-only child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Magaletta, Philip R; Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; McLearen, Alix M

    2014-02-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the number of convicted child pornography offenders, little is known about their potential clinical needs. The few studies that do explore this subgroup of sex offenders suggest clinical heterogeneity compared with other sex offender subgroups. However, research designs used in many studies have limited generalizability, have examined primarily treated or treatment samples, and have not included comparisons with nontreatment, community samples of men. The current study addresses such limitations by using nontreatment samples and multiple comparison groups to examine mean scales score differences on a commonly used clinical and personality assessment, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The sample, drawn from an admissions cohort of federal offenders, those Internet-only Child Pornography Offenders (ICPOs; n = 35) and those with a history of child molesting exclusively (child molesters, n = 26). They were compared with each other and the male normative sample from the PAI. Results indicate that interpersonal deficits and depression featured most prominently in the profiles of the ICPOs. Consistent with prior research, they also obtained lower scores on aggression and dominance compared with the child molesters and the male normative sample. Implications for future research, training, and clinical practice with incarcerated ICPOs are offered. PMID:23174820

  10. Exploring clinical and personality characteristics of adult male internet-only child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Magaletta, Philip R; Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; McLearen, Alix M

    2014-02-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the number of convicted child pornography offenders, little is known about their potential clinical needs. The few studies that do explore this subgroup of sex offenders suggest clinical heterogeneity compared with other sex offender subgroups. However, research designs used in many studies have limited generalizability, have examined primarily treated or treatment samples, and have not included comparisons with nontreatment, community samples of men. The current study addresses such limitations by using nontreatment samples and multiple comparison groups to examine mean scales score differences on a commonly used clinical and personality assessment, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The sample, drawn from an admissions cohort of federal offenders, those Internet-only Child Pornography Offenders (ICPOs; n = 35) and those with a history of child molesting exclusively (child molesters, n = 26). They were compared with each other and the male normative sample from the PAI. Results indicate that interpersonal deficits and depression featured most prominently in the profiles of the ICPOs. Consistent with prior research, they also obtained lower scores on aggression and dominance compared with the child molesters and the male normative sample. Implications for future research, training, and clinical practice with incarcerated ICPOs are offered.

  11. Dysosteosclerosis Presents as an “Osteoclast-Poor” Form of Osteopetrosis: Comprehensive Investigation of a 3-Year-Old Girl and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Nenninger, Angie R; Zhang, Xiafang; Huskey, Margaret; Mumm, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Dysosteosclerosis (DSS), an extremely rare dense bone disease, features short stature and fractures and sometimes optic atrophy, cranial nerve palsy, developmental delay, and failure of tooth eruption in infancy or early childhood consistent with osteopetrosis (OPT). Bone histology during childhood shows unresorbed primary spongiosa from deficient osteoclast action. Additionally, there is remarkable progressive flattening of all vertebrae and, by adolescence, paradoxical metaphyseal osteopenia with thin cortical bone. Reports of consanguinity indicate autosomal recessive inheritance, yet more affected males than females suggest X-linked recessive inheritance. We investigated a nonconsanguineous girl with DSS. Osteosclerosis was discovered at age 7 months. Our studies, spanning ages 11 to 44 months, showed weight at approximately 50th percentile, and length diminishing from approximately 30th percentile to –2.3 SD. Head circumference was +4 SD. The patient had frontal bossing, blue sclera, normal teeth, genu valgum, and unremarkable joints. Radiographs showed orbital and facial sclerosis, basilar thickening, bone-in-bone appearance of the pelvis, sclerotic long bone ends, and fractures of ribs and extremities. Progressive metaphyseal widening occurred as vertebrae changed from ovoid to flattened and became beaked anteriorly. A hemogram was normal. Consistent with OPT, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations reflected dietary calcium levels. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and TRACP-5b were subnormal. The iliac crest contained excessive primary spongiosa and no osteoclasts. No mutations were identified in the splice sites or exons for the genes encoding chloride channel 7, T-cell immune regulator 1, OPT-associated transmembrane protein 1, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor C-FMS, ANKH, OPG, RANK, and RANKL. Genomic copy-number microarray was unrevealing. Hence, DSS is a distinctive OPT of unknown etiology featuring

  12. THE CHILD-REARING ATTITUDES OF THE PARENTS OF (MALE AND FEMALE) SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Bani; Nandi, D.N.

    1982-01-01

    SUMMARY It was hypothesised that there exists significant difference between the parents of male and of female schizophrenics and those of the corresponding control group, in the child-rearing attitudes. The experimental group consisted of the 62 pairs of parents of 62 male and 38 pairs of parents of 38 female schizophrenics. A control group of 100 pairs of parents of mentally and physically healthy off-springs were taken. Subjects were matched for intelligence, age, sex, level of education, religion and per capita income and all of them were free from mental illness at any time during their life. The Bengali version of PARI for fathers were used. The results were consistent with the hypotheses. Certain child-rearing attitudes of the parents of schizophrenics were found which were significantly different from the corresponding control groups. PMID:21965903

  13. Bilateral Atypical Granular Corneal Dystrophy Associated with Unilateral Keratoconus in a Male Child

    PubMed Central

    Dangra, Kavita Lohiya; Das, Manoranjan; Periasamy, Sundersan; Prajna, N. Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old male presented with decreased vision. Slit lamp examination indicated multiple anterior corneal stromal opacities with clear intervening spaces accompanied with superficial subepithelial lines arranged in a quasi-whorl-like fashion bilateral with greater prominence in the right eye. Corneal steepening associated with thinning was noted only in the right eye. Genetic analysis confirmed a mutation suggestive of granular corneal dystrophy. Here, we describe a rare case of an atypical granular dystrophy associated with unilateral keratoconus in a male child. PMID:27555713

  14. Bilateral Atypical Granular Corneal Dystrophy Associated with Unilateral Keratoconus in a Male Child.

    PubMed

    Dangra, Kavita Lohiya; Das, Manoranjan; Periasamy, Sundersan; Prajna, N Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old male presented with decreased vision. Slit lamp examination indicated multiple anterior corneal stromal opacities with clear intervening spaces accompanied with superficial subepithelial lines arranged in a quasi-whorl-like fashion bilateral with greater prominence in the right eye. Corneal steepening associated with thinning was noted only in the right eye. Genetic analysis confirmed a mutation suggestive of granular corneal dystrophy. Here, we describe a rare case of an atypical granular dystrophy associated with unilateral keratoconus in a male child. PMID:27555713

  15. Urinary Amino Acid Alterations in 3-Year-Old Children with Neurodevelopmental Effects due to Perinatal Dioxin Exposure in Vietnam: A Nested Case-Control Study for Neurobiomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  16. Where are the men? Targeting male partners in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission.

    PubMed

    Koo, Kevin; Makin, Jennifer D; Forsyth, Brian W C

    2013-01-01

    Involvement of male partners may increase adherence to and improve outcomes of programs to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT). Greater understanding of factors impeding male voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) is needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tshwane, South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were completed with men whose partners had recently been pregnant. Of 124 men who participated, 94% believed male HIV testing was important, but 40% had never been tested. Of those tested, 32% were tested during the pregnancy, while 37% were tested afterward. Fifty-eight percent of men reported that their female partners had disclosed their test results during pregnancy. A man's likelihood of testing during pregnancy was associated with prior discussion of testing in PMTCT, knowing the female partner had tested, and her disclosure of the test result (all p<0.05). In terms of increasing male-partner HIV testing rates, 74% of the men reported they would respond favorably to a written invitation for VCT from their partners. Based on themes that emerged during the interviews, six partner invitation cards to encourage male involvement in PMTCT were designed. Responses to the cards were elicited from 158 men and 409 women. One invitation card framed by the themes of fatherhood and the baby was selected by 41% of men and 31% of women as the most likely for women undergoing PMTCT to bring to their male partners and the most successful at encouraging men to be tested. In conclusion, this study found that a substantial proportion of men whose partners were recently pregnant had never been tested themselves; of those who had tested, most had done so only after the pregnancy. Encouraging partner communication and clinic attendance using an invitation card could facilitate increased male testing and participation in PMTCT. PMID:22670795

  17. Modeling environmental influences on child growth in the MAL-ED cohort study: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Richard, Stephanie A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Miller, Mark A; Caulfield, Laura E; Checkley, William

    2014-11-01

    Although genetics, maternal undernutrition and low birth weight status certainly play a role in child growth, dietary insufficiency and infectious diseases are key risk factors for linear growth faltering during early childhood. A primary goal of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is to identify specific risk factors associated with growth faltering during the first 2 years of life; however, growth in early childhood is challenging to characterize because growth may be inherently nonlinear with age. In this manuscript, we describe some methods for analyzing longitudinal growth to evaluate both short- and long-term associations between risk factors and growth trajectories over the first 2 years of life across 8 resource-limited settings using harmonized protocols. We expect there will be enough variability within and between sites in the prevalence of risk factors and burden of linear growth faltering to allow us to distinguish some of the key pathways to linear growth faltering in the MAL-ED study. PMID:25305295

  18. Cushing’s Syndrome Secondary to isolated Micronodular Adrenocortical Disease (iMAD) associated with Rapid Onset Weight Gain and Negative Abdominal MRI Findings in a 3 year old Male

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Rohan K.; Keil, Margaret F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Fechner, Patricia Y.

    2011-01-01

    Cushing’s syndrome (CS) is uncommon in childhood. CS may be either dependent or independent of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). ACTH independent micronodular adrenocortical (MAD) disease may present in the second to third decade of life or between ages 2–3years. It may occur in isolation, or as a part of the Carney complex and it represents an elusive entity to diagnose. We present a 3 year 7 month old boy with isolated MAD (iMAD). Abdominal CT revealed prominent mildly lobulated anteromedial margin of adrenals with nodular appearance. Cardiac echo, thyroid and testicular ultrasounds performed as a work up for Carney complex were normal. Bilateral adrenalectomy confirmed MAD as the cause of CS. We present the history’ and identification of a unique case of iMAD. PMID:20662336

  19. A novel genotype c.1228C>G/c.1448C-1498C (L371V/Rec-NciI) in a 3-year-old child with type 1 Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Yassin, Nabil A; Muwakkit, Samar A; Ibrahim, Ahmad O; Kayim, Imad M; Habbal, Mohammad-Zohair M; Chamseddine, Nabil M; Musallam, Khaled M; Shamseddine, Ali I

    2008-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism, resulting from a deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, causing an accumulation of the glycolipid glucocerebroside within lysosomes of macrophages in the reticuloendothelial system. Three major clinical forms have been assigned and more than 200 gene mutations have been identified. We herein report a Lebanese boy born with a novel combined mutation L371V/Rec-NciI, who presented with moderate-severe type 1 GD. An overview of the clinical and biomarker improvement following enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase is described in a follow-up of 30 months. Imiglucerase seems to be efficacious in decreasing the severity of the disease associated with this mutation. However, a high dose may be required to achieve optimal growth, platelet count, and hemoglobin level.

  20. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    PubMed Central

    Machisa, Mercilene T.; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. Methods We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Results Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective

  1. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality.

  2. Some Indicators of Fathering Behaviors in the United States: A Crosscultural Examination of Adult Male-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Wade C.; Day, Randal D.

    1979-01-01

    Adult male-child dyads of the United States, Ireland, Spain, Japan, and Mexico were examined at the proxemic level. Findings challenge the idea that American children are relatively more deprived of nurturing behavior from the father figure. American men do not interact with children much differently than men from other countries. (Author/BEF)

  3. Pulmonary eosinophilic gramuloma in a child.

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, G; Gad, A; Godfrey, S

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma in a 3-year-old child is described. She presented with a pneumothorax and typical radiological changes and the diagnosis was confirmed by lung biopsy. There was no objective evidence of improvement after radiotherapy when lung function was assessed by gamma scans. She died suddenly while abroad. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1008587

  4. Behavioral treatment of deviant sex-role behaviors in a male child1

    PubMed Central

    Rekers, George A.; Lovaas, O. Ivar

    1974-01-01

    This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child who had been psychologically evaluated as manifesting “childhood cross-gender identity”. The clinical history of the subject paralleled the retrospective reports of adult transsexuals, including (a) cross-gender clothing preferences, (b) actual or imaginal use of cosmetic articles, (c) feminine behavior mannerisms, (d) aversion to masculine activities, coupled with preference for girl playmates and feminine activities, (e) preference for female role, (f) feminine voice inflection and predominantly feminine content in speech, and (g) verbal statements about the desire or preference to be a girl. The subject was treated sequentially in the clinic and home environments by his mother, trained to be his therapist. The mother was taught to reinforce masculine behaviors and to extinguish feminine behaviors, by using social reinforcement in the clinic and a token reinforcement procedure in the home. During this treatment, his feminine behaviors sharply decreased and masculine behavior increased. The treatment effects were found to be largely response-specific and stimulus-specific; consequently, it was necessary to strengthen more than one masculine behavior and weaken several feminine behaviors, in both clinic and home settings. A multiple-baseline intrasubject design was used to ensure both replication and identification of relevant treatment variables. Follow-up data three years after the treatment began suggests that the boy's sex-typed behaviors have become normalized. This study suggests a preliminary step toward correcting pathological sex-role development in boys, which may provide a basis for the primary prevention of adult transsexualism or similar adult sex-role deviation. PMID:4436165

  5. A Study in Child Care (Case Study from Volume II-A): "They Understand." Day Care Programs Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Brigid

    This day care center, operated by Syracuse University and serving 100 children (birth to 3-year-old), admits only one child per family. The child must be the first or second child in a family where both parents have high school education or less and earn less than $5,000 per year. The program philosophy maintains that quality day care must carry…

  6. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  7. Time till death study: how soon after "first contact" is a non-biologically related male likely to kill his partners child?

    PubMed

    Obenson, Ken; England, Carrie

    2015-05-01

    Non-biologically related males who are intimate partners of women with young children are the most likely perpetrators of homicidal violence against these children. The primary objective of this study is to determine the usual time interval between first child/unrelated adult male contact and the child's death. The secondary objective is to examine possible predisposing factors. First contact is defined as the time when the child initially interacted or met with the unrelated adult male, whether or not they lived together and for the purposes of this study is based on the length of the mothers relationship with her partner before the child was killed. The coroners office database in Indianapolis, Indiana was examined for records of child homicides from which victim data (age, sex, race and cause of death) was recovered. The associated child protective services (CPS) reports were examined to create a forensic epidemiologic profile including in particular, the length of time the unrelated adult male had known or lived with the child and when the child was killed. Over a period of 14 years, 79 cases of homicides were recovered in children aged 5 years and younger. Of these, there were 15 cases in which all relevant data was recorded. The time interval from first contact to death ranged from 14 to 240 days with a median of 75 days. Approximately 80% of all victims were killed within 90 days. The victims included 12 males and 3 females with an age range of 2-61 months. The median age was 22 months. There were 10 white, 4 black, and 1 Hispanic victim. Blunt force trauma to the head was the cause of death in 13 of 15 deaths. Forty percent (6/15) had prior CPS contact. Young children are most likely to be killed within 90 days of first unsupervised contact with a non-biologically related male. Most victims were male and blunt force trauma to the head was the leading cause of death.

  8. Male partners' involvement in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Manjate Cuco, Rosa Marlene; Munguambe, Khátia; Bique Osman, Nafissa; Degomme, Olivier; Temmerman, Marleen; Sidat, Mohsin M

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), male partners are rarely present during prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. This systematic review aims to synthesize, from a male perspective, male partners' perceived roles, barriers and enablers of their involvement in PMTCT, and highlights persisting gaps. We carried out a systematic search of papers published between 2002 and 2013 in English on Google Scholar and PubMed using the following terms: men, male partners, husbands, couples, involvement, participation, Antenatal Care (ANC), PMTCT, SSA countries, HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing and disclosure. A total of 28 qualitative and quantitative original studies from 10 SSA countries were included. Men's perceived role was addressed in 28% (8/28) of the studies. Their role to provide money for ANC/PMTCT fees was stated in 62.5% (5/8) of the studies. For other men, the financial responsibilities seemed to be used as an excuse for not participating. Barriers were cited in 85.7% (24/28) of the studies and included socioeconomic factors, gender role, cultural beliefs, male unfriendly ANC/PMTCT services and providers' abusive attitudes toward men. About 64% (18/28) of the studies reported enablers such as: older age, higher education, being employed, trustful monogamous marriages and providers' politeness. In conclusion, comprehensive PMTCT policies that are socially and culturally sensitive to both women and men need to be developed. PMID:26726756

  9. Male partners' involvement in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Manjate Cuco, Rosa Marlene; Munguambe, Khátia; Bique Osman, Nafissa; Degomme, Olivier; Temmerman, Marleen; Sidat, Mohsin M

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), male partners are rarely present during prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. This systematic review aims to synthesize, from a male perspective, male partners' perceived roles, barriers and enablers of their involvement in PMTCT, and highlights persisting gaps. We carried out a systematic search of papers published between 2002 and 2013 in English on Google Scholar and PubMed using the following terms: men, male partners, husbands, couples, involvement, participation, Antenatal Care (ANC), PMTCT, SSA countries, HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing and disclosure. A total of 28 qualitative and quantitative original studies from 10 SSA countries were included. Men's perceived role was addressed in 28% (8/28) of the studies. Their role to provide money for ANC/PMTCT fees was stated in 62.5% (5/8) of the studies. For other men, the financial responsibilities seemed to be used as an excuse for not participating. Barriers were cited in 85.7% (24/28) of the studies and included socioeconomic factors, gender role, cultural beliefs, male unfriendly ANC/PMTCT services and providers' abusive attitudes toward men. About 64% (18/28) of the studies reported enablers such as: older age, higher education, being employed, trustful monogamous marriages and providers' politeness. In conclusion, comprehensive PMTCT policies that are socially and culturally sensitive to both women and men need to be developed.

  10. Comparing male and female juveniles charged with homicide: child maltreatment, substance abuse, and crime details.

    PubMed

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-04-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders, female juvenile homicide offenders have higher rates of reported childhood abuse, more serious substance abuse, and mental health problems including suicidal ideations, depression, anxiety, anger, and irritability. Male juvenile homicide offenders reported higher rates of substance use than their female counterparts but the females had more serious substance abuse problems. Female juveniles were found to more often kill a person known to them and male homicide offenders were found to more often kill a stranger. These findings suggest strongly that male and female juvenile homicide offenders are dissimilar and require unique assessment and treatment.

  11. Building Bridges between Physical and Behavioral Health: The Child Development Specialist in Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Hamburger, Ellie

    2007-01-01

    This article uses the case study of 3-year-old Anna and her parents to illustrate how a child development specialist can be integrated into a private pediatric practice. First, pediatrician Hamburger describes how she and other members of her practice integrated a child development specialist into their pediatric practice. Second, Anna's parents…

  12. Parent-Child Mutuality in Early Childhood: Two Behavioral Genetic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; O'Connor, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    Used quantitative genetic design to examine between- and within-family variations and gene-environment processes in parent-child mutuality among 3-year-old identical and same-sex fraternal twins. Found that greater mutuality was associated with higher socioeconomic status. Moderate sibling similarity in parent-child mutuality was accounted for by…

  13. Classroom Management of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. A Storied Model: Torey Hayden's One Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; Disney, Gayle; Wilson, Kayce Jo

    2004-01-01

    Torey Hayden's style of classroom management in her nonfiction book "One Child" was examined. "One Child" unfolds within the space of a special education classroom for children with severe behavioral impairments and focuses on Sheila, a troubled 6-year-old, who has tied a 3-year-old boy to a tree and critically burned him. Each technique Hayden…

  14. Predicting Young Children's Externalizing Problems: Interactions among Effortful Control, Parenting, and Child Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karreman, Annemiek; van Tuijl, Cathy; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Dekovi, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between observed temperamental effortful control and observed parenting in the prediction of externalizing problems. Child gender effects on these relations were examined. The relations were examined concurrently when the child was 3 years old and longitudinally at 4.5 years. The sample included 89 two-parent…

  15. Parent-Child Relationship and Sexual Identity in Male and Female Homosexuals and Heterosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jr., Norman L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Striking features of the studies of male and female homosexuality reported here are (a) the prominent role played by weak and/or hostile fathers in the etiology of homosexuality for both women and men; (b) the lack of a clear role of mothers in female homosexual etiology but the striking role of mothers in the etiology of male homosexuals; (c) the…

  16. Intrapersonal and Familial Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on Female Partners of Male Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Christine M. Anderson; Veach, Patricia McCarthy

    2005-01-01

    Intrapersonal and familial effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were investigated by interviewing 10 female partners of male survivors. Consensual qualitative research analysis (C. Hill, B. Thompson, & E. Nutt Williams, 1997) yielded 13 domains describing male partner, female partner, couple, and family functioning. Findings concerning…

  17. Child-Parent Psychotherapy and Traumatic Exposure to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Vilma; Lieberman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates the multidimensional impact of violence during infancy and the effectiveness of a relationship-focused treatment, child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), in addressing the traumatic consequences of exposure to violence. The authors describe the treatment of a 3-year-old boy and his mother and highlight three key points: (a)…

  18. Sex Equity in Teacher-Child Interaction in Preschool Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simac, Kathleen L.

    Three private preschool classes, one with 3-year-olds and two with 4-year-olds, were observed to determine if there was differential treatment of boys and girls. The observer used an observational form developed to observe and assess sex equity or inequity in teacher-child interactions. The data obtained from the observations was processed through…

  19. The Role of Sports in the Development of the Superego of the Male Latency Child.

    PubMed

    Shopper, Moisy

    2014-01-01

    Psychoanalytic literature has often overlooked the child's participation in organized sports, which often can facilitate or impede not only expression of aggression and narcissism, but enhance or skew the growth of the child's superego and ego ideal. Specific outcomes are largely determined by the experience and knowledge of the parents, the coaches, and sports organizations for latency-aged youth. Sports participation facilitates a major step forward in psychic development, that is, an agreed-upon adherence to a set of rules and regulations, monitored by an official embodying the final word regarding rules and their infractions. This paper is an attempt to delineate the role of sports in the life of the latency child, the parents who become involved, the coaches who teach and supervise, and the social and individual milieu within which sports take place. All these contribute to common goals: the engendering of good sportsmanship and the encouragement of psychic growth, particularly regarding how aggression and narcissism contribute to the development of superego and ego ideals. The fate of aggression and narcissism in superego and ego ideal development is influenced to a large degree by the nature, orientation, and motivations of all involved in sports for the latency-aged.

  20. Problem Child or Problem Context: An Ecological Approach to Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Jonathan N.; Nahimana, Cinawendela

    2006-01-01

    Educating young African American males has become an increasing concern for educators and human service professionals over the past 20 years. Disproportionate rates of school failure, drop out, and incarceration all speak to a need to develop interventions, which can account for the structural and ecological factors that impact Black families and…

  1. Is No Child Left Behind "Wise Schooling" for African American Male Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillian, M. Monique

    2004-01-01

    To improve achievement among African American students, education professionals must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement.…

  2. Effects of Infant Cries on Alcohol Consumption in College Males at Risk for Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    1989-01-01

    The study with 32 male college students supported previous studies depicting the infant cry as a stressful and aversive event, capable of eliciting increased drinking. Subjects who heard an infant cry consumed significantly more alcohol and reported feeling more aversion, arousal, and distress than subjects who listened to a smoke alarm.…

  3. Exploring the relevance of male involvement in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV services in Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Male involvement (MI) in Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) services remains low despite the progress registered in the implementation of the PMTCT program. Male involvement in PMTCT is a fairly new concept in Malawi that has not been fully implemented within PMTCT service provision despite its inclusion in the PMTCT guidelines. One of the reasons for the limited MI is the lack of knowledge on both its relevance and the role of men in the program. Currently, men have been encouraged to participate in PMTCT services without prior research on their understanding of the relevance and their role in PMTCT. This information is vital to the development of programs that will require MI in PMTCT. The objective of this study was to explore the views of men, pregnant women and health care providers on the importance and roles of MI in PMTCT services in Blantyre Malawi. Methods An exploratory descriptive qualitative study was conducted from December 2012 to January 2013 at South Lunzu Health Centre (SLHC) and its catchment area in Blantyre, Malawi. We conducted 6 key informant interviews (KIIs) with health care workers and 4 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 18 men and 17 pregnant women. Interviews and discussions were digitally recorded and simultaneously transcribed and translated into English. Data were analyzed using framework analysis approach. Results The major themes that emerged on the relevance of MI in PMTCT were a) uptake of interventions along the PMTCT cascade b) support mechanism and c) education strategy. Lack of MI in PMTCT was reported to result into non-disclosure of HIV test results and non-compliance with PMTCT interventions. Conclusions Male involvement is paramount for the uptake of interventions at the different cascades of PMTCT. The absence of male involvement may compromise compliance with PMTCT interventions. PMID:25359447

  4. Effects of multisensory yoga on behavior in a male child with Apert and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scroggins, Michaela L; Litchke, Lyn G; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child.

  5. Effects of multisensory yoga on behavior in a male child with Apert and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scroggins, Michaela L; Litchke, Lyn G; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child. PMID:26865777

  6. Stakeholders’ perceptions on factors influencing male involvement in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV services in Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Male Involvement (MI) in the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) services is essential in a patriarchal society where men are decision makers of the household. Male partners have a role in the woman’s risk of acquiring HIV, uptake of HIV testing and participation in Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) prevention programmes. Although MI is important for uptake of PMTCT interventions, it remains low in Africa. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that promote and hinder MI in PMTCT services in antenatal care (ANC) services in Blantyre, Malawi. Understanding of the factors that influence MI will assist in developing strategies that will involve men more in the programme thereby improving the uptake of PMTCT and HIV testing and counselling services by women and men respectively. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was conducted from December 2012 to January 2013 at South Lunzu Health Centre (SLHC) in Blantyre, Malawi. It consisted of six face to face Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with health care workers and four Focus Group discussions (FGDs) with 18 men and 17 pregnant women attending antenatal care at the clinic. The FGDs were divided according to sex and age. All FGDs and KIIs were digitally recorded and simultaneously transcribed and translated verbatim into English. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results Participants in both FGDs and KIIs identified the following barriers: lack of knowledge of MI in PMTCT, socioeconomic factors, relationship issues, timidity to be seen in a woman’s domain, unplanned and or extramarital pregnancies, fear of knowing one's HIV status, unwillingness to be associated with the service, health facility based factors, peer influence and cultural factors. The factors that would potentially promote male involvement were categorized into community, health facility and personal or family level factors. Conclusions The factors that may

  7. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27) was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42%) was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%). In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008). A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17). Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and death related to

  8. Spontaneous Analog Number Representations in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Safford, Kelley E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    When enumerating small sets of elements nonverbally, human infants often show a set-size limitation whereby they are unable to represent sets larger than three elements. This finding has been interpreted as evidence that infants spontaneously represent small numbers with an object-file system instead of an analog magnitude system (Feigenson,…

  9. Are Sex Drive and Hypersexuality Associated with Pedophilic Interest and Child Sexual Abuse in a Male Community Sample?

    PubMed

    Klein, Verena; Schmidt, Alexander F; Turner, Daniel; Briken, Peer

    2015-01-01

    Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior) among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established.The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets(TSO) and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and anti sociality.There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and anti sociality. Nevertheless, in convicted sexual offenders anti sociality, sexual preoccupation (like hypersexuality), and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual reoffending against prepubescent children.Therefore, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered [corrected]. PMID:26147099

  10. Are Sex Drive and Hypersexuality Associated with Pedophilic Interest and Child Sexual Abuse in a Male Community Sample?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Verena; Schmidt, Alexander F.; Turner, Daniel; Briken, Peer

    2015-01-01

    Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior) among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets (TSO) and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and antisociality. There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and antisociality. Nevertheless, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered as particularly antisociality and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual offending against prepubescent children. PMID:26147099

  11. Are Sex Drive and Hypersexuality Associated with Pedophilic Interest and Child Sexual Abuse in a Male Community Sample?

    PubMed

    Klein, Verena; Schmidt, Alexander F; Turner, Daniel; Briken, Peer

    2015-01-01

    Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior) among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established.The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets(TSO) and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and anti sociality.There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and anti sociality. Nevertheless, in convicted sexual offenders anti sociality, sexual preoccupation (like hypersexuality), and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual reoffending against prepubescent children.Therefore, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered [corrected].

  12. Using an Antecedent Art Intervention to Improve the Behavior of a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…

  13. Investing in Our Children: A Plan to Expand Access to Preschool and Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia G.; Cooper, Donna; Herman, Juliana; Lazarín, Melissa; Linden, Michael; Post, Sasha; Tanden, Neera

    2013-01-01

    This issue brief presents a plan to expand educational opportunities and care for children ages 0-5 years old by investing significant federal dollars to: (1) Make high-quality preschool universally accessible to all 3- and 4-year-old children; and (2) Enable more lower-income families to afford child care for children ages 0-3 years old. These…

  14. Fostering Environmental Control in a Young Child with Rett Syndrome: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The performance of a 3-year-old with Rett Syndrome in a Contingency Intervention Program using head and hand switches and adapted toys was assessed over 18 months. Learning contingent control of the stimuli positively motivated the child, promoted attention to toys and objects, and generalized to the classroom. (SW)

  15. Using Class-Specific Compound Consequences to Teach Dictated and Printed Letter Relations to a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varella, André A. B.; de Souza, Deisy G.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of class-specific compound consequences embedded in an identity-matching task to establish arbitrary emergent relations were evaluated. A 3-year-old child with autism was taught identity relations between lowercase letters (Set 1) and uppercase letters (Set 2). A compound stimulus that consisted of an auditory component (dictated…

  16. Emotion Talk in Mother-Child Conversations of the Shared Past: The Effects of Culture, Gender, and Event Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivush, Robyn; Wang, Qi

    2005-01-01

    We examined how mother-child emotional reminiscing is affected by culture, gender, and the valence of the event. Thirty-one Euro-American and 30 Chinese middle-class mothers and their 3-year-old children discussed 1 highly positive and 1 highly negative experience. Mothers and children in both cultures used a greater variety of negative emotion…

  17. Talking about Internal States in Mother-Child Reminiscing Influences Children's Self-Representations: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Doan, Stacey N.; Song, Qingfang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation of mother-child discussions of internal states during reminiscing to the development of trait and evaluative self-representations in 131 European American and Chinese immigrant 3-year olds. Mothers and children discussed one positive and one negative event, and children were interviewed for self-descriptions.…

  18. Effects of Different Social Partners on the Discriminated Requesting of a Young Child with Autism and Severe Language Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drasgow, Erik; Halle, James W.; Phillips, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    A study examined effects of two adults on the requesting repertoire of a 3-year-old child with autism and language delays. Reinforcement contingencies associated with each adult were reversed after the participant reached a preestablished criterion of discriminated responding. The participant learned to request in a discriminated manner with each…

  19. Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in the Community: Task-sharing Between Male and Female Health Workers in an Indian Rural Context

    PubMed Central

    Elazan, Sara J; Higgins-Steele, Ariel E; Fotso, Jean Christophe; Rosenthal, Mila H; Rout, Dharitri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Male community health workers (CHWs) have rarely been studied as an addition to the female community health workforce to improve access and care for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH). Objective: To examine how male health activists (MHAs) coordinated RMNCH responsibilities with existing female health workers in an Indian context. Materials and Methods: Interviews from male and female CHWs were coded around community-based engagement, outreach services, and links to facility-based care. Results: Community-based engagement: MHAs completed tasks both dependent and independent of their gender, such as informing couples on safe RMNCH care in the antenatal and postnatal periods. MHAs motivated males on appropriate family planning methods, demonstrating clear gendered responsibility. Outreach services: MHAs were most valuable traveling to remote areas to inform about and bring mothers and children to community health events, with this division of labor appreciated by female health workers. Link to facility-based services: MHAs were recognized as a welcome addition accompanying women to health facilities for delivery, particularly in nighttime. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the importance of gendered CHW roles and male-female task-sharing to improve access to community health events, outreach services, and facility-based RMNCH care. PMID:26917871

  20. The Long-Term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse by Female Perpetrators: A Qualitative Study of Male and Female Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denov, Myriam S.

    2004-01-01

    Although the long-term effects of sexual abuse by men have been studied extensively, minimal research has explored the effects of sexual abuse by women. This qualitative study explores the experience and long-term impact of sexual abuse by women. The data were derived from in-depth interviews with 14 adult victims (7 men, 7 women) of child sexual…

  1. The etiology, risk factors, and interactions of enteric infections and malnutrition and the consequences for child health and development study (MAL-ED): description of the Tanzanian site.

    PubMed

    Mduma, Estomih R; Gratz, Jean; Patil, Crystal; Matson, Kristine; Dakay, Mary; Liu, Sarah; Pascal, John; McQuillin, Lauren; Mighay, Emmanuel; Hinken, Elizabeth; Ernst, Alexandra; Amour, Caroline; Mvungi, Regisiana; Bayyo, Eliwaza; Zakaria, Yeconia; Kivuyo, Sokoine; Houpt, Eric R; Svensen, Erling

    2014-11-01

    The Haydom, Tanzania, site (TZH) of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) Study is in north-central Tanzania, 300 km from the nearest urban center. TZH is in a remote rural district where most of the population are agropastoralists and grow maize as the staple food. The average household size is 7. The average woman achieves a parity of 6 and has 1 child death. Socioeconomic indicators are poor, with essentially no household having access to electricity, piped water, or improved sanitary facilities (compared with 14%, 7%, and 12%, respectively, reported nationally). The Demographic Health Survey Tanzania 2004 indicated that the region had high rates of stunting and underweight (40% and 31% of children aged <5 years had a height-for-age z score and weight-for-age z score, respectively, of <-2 ) and an under-5 child mortality rate of 5.8%. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among 18-month-old children is <0.5%. TZH represents a remote rural African population with profound poverty and malnutrition, but a strong community-based research infrastructure.

  2. Does warmth moderate longitudinal associations between maternal spanking and child aggression in early childhood?

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T

    2013-11-01

    This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years of age. Maternal warmth and child aggressive behavior were measured at 3 years and 5 years of age. Models controlled for demographic characteristics (measured at the child's birth), child emotionality (measured at age 1), and maternal psychosocial risk factors (measured when children were 3 years old). Cross-lagged path models examined the within-time and longitudinal associations between spanking and child aggression. Results indicated that maternal spanking at age 1 was associated with higher levels of child aggression at age 3; similarly, maternal spanking at age 3 predicted increases in child aggression by age 5. Maternal warmth when children were 3 years old did not predict changes in child aggression between 3 and 5 years old. Furthermore, maternal warmth did not moderate the association between spanking and increased child aggression over time. Beginning as early as age 1, maternal spanking is predictive of child behavior problems, and maternal warmth does not counteract the negative consequences of the use of spanking.

  3. Male engagement as a strategy to improve utilization and community-based delivery of maternal, newborn and child health services: evidence from an intervention in Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In response to persistently poor levels of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) in rural India, the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was launched to support the provision of accessible, affordable and quality health care in deprived and underserved communities. The Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs), local women, are trained as health promoters to generate demand for, and facilitate access to MNCH care in their communities. While they are also expected to provide husbands of expectant women with information on MNCH care and family planning, their reach to the husbands is limited. The aim of this study is to describe the influence of a male engagement project on the utilization and community-based delivery of MNCH care in a rural district of the country. Methods We used qualitative data from the evaluation of a project which recruited and trained male Community Health Workers (CHWs) known as Male Health Activists (MHAs) to complement the work of ASHAs and target outreach to men. This paper uses data from in-depth interviews (IDIs) with ASHAs (n=11), Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) (n=4) and Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) (n=2); with women who had delivered at home, community health center or district hospital in the few months preceding the date of the interview (n=11); and with husbands of these women (n=7). Results Participants’ responses are broadly organized around the facilitation of ASHAs’ work by MHAs, and male engagement activities undertaken by MHAs. More specifically, the narratives reflected gender-based divisions of work and space in three core areas of delivery and use of MNCH services: escorting women to health centers for facility-based deliveries; mobilizing women and children to attend Village Health and Nutrition Days and Immunization Days; and raising awareness among men on MNCH and family planning. Conclusion This study sheds light on male engagement as a strategy to improve the delivery, access and uptake of maternal

  4. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  5. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    PubMed Central

    Tadjalli, Mina; Nazifi, Saeed; Marzban Abbasabadi, Behrokh; Majidi, Banafsheh

    2013-01-01

    In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old). The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks. PMID:25653798

  6. Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Low-Income Males with Child Care Responsibilities Support Inclusion as a Target Audience in SNAP-Ed.

    PubMed

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Wamboldt, Patricia; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Federally funded nutrition programs mostly target females. Changes in family dynamics suggest low-income men have an important role in food management responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to inform nutrition education program planning to meet needs of lower-income males. Cross-sectional telephone and face-to-face interviews. Stratified random sample of men (n = 101), 18-59 years of age, with child care responsibilities, living in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and a convenience sample of adult males (n = 25) recruited from lower income venues. (1) Scripted telephone interviews about health status, eating behaviors, eating competence, food security, technology usage and topics and strategies for nutrition education. (2) In-person cognitive interviews during review of selected online nutrition education lessons. Nutrition education topics of interest, preferred educational strategies, influences on and barriers to intake, eating competence, critiques of online program content, graphics, format. Bivariate correlations, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance or Chi square, as appropriate. Thematic analyses of cognitive interviews. Of telephone interviewees, 92.1% prepared meals/snacks for children and 54.5% made major household food decisions. Taste was the greatest influence on food selection and the greatest barrier to eating healthful foods. Topics of highest interest were "which foods are best for kids" and "how to eat more healthy foods." Preferred nutrition education strategies included online delivery. Online lessons were highly rated. Interactive components were recognized as particularly appealing; enhanced male centricity of lessons was supported. Findings provided compelling evidence for including needs specific to low-income males when planning, designing, and funding nutrition education programs.

  7. Prevalence and attitudinal predictors of child sexual offending in a nonforensic sample of South African high school males.

    PubMed

    Magojo, Thandekile S; Collings, Steven J

    2003-03-01

    Objective - The prevalence, and attitudinal predictors, of sexual aggression were examined in a non-forensic sample of South African high school males. Method - Survey questionnaires were administered to 446 males (aged 16 to 25 years) attending schools in the greater Durban area, South Africa. Results - A history of sexually aggressive behaviour was reported by 66.8% of respondents, with 17.5% reporting an act of sexual aggression that met the legal definition of rape or attempted rape. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated a significant relationship between sexually abusive behaviour and attitudes supportive of both sexual and physical aggression. Additionally, a tendency to attribute blame to the victim of sexual aggression and attitudes reflecting an internalised culture of violence significantly discriminated between respondents who committed rape/attempted rape, indecent assault, and crimen injuria. Conclusions - These findings indicate relatively high rates of sexual offending among South African high school males and suggest that primary prevention programmes are likely to be most effective if they target attitudes supportive of both sexual and physical violence.

  8. Predictions for sex of first born child reflect masculine and feminine characteristics in male and female undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Palmer-Hague, Jaime L; Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2013-08-13

    Previous research has identified physical and behavioral differences between parents who produce sons and those who produce daughters. However, the possibility that men and women have predictions about the sexes of their offspring based on these differences, or any other interoceptive cues, has not been investigated. We compared the dominance, sociosexual orientation, estradiol, testosterone, and 2D:4D ratios of men and women who predicted they would conceive a boy as their first child with those who predicted a girl. Women who predicted they would have a boy were more dominant and less sociosexually restricted than those who predicted they would have a girl. Men who predicted they would have a girl had higher salivary estradiol and higher (more feminine) 2D:4D ratios than those who predicted they would have a boy. Possible implications of these results are discussed in the context of evolutionary theory.

  9. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... represented by test dummy (pounds) CRABI 12-month-old infant dummy (49 CFR Part 572, Subpart R) 22 Hybrid III 3-year-old dummy(49 CFR Part 572, Subpart P) 31 Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy 49 CFR Part 572, Subpart N) 45 Hybrid III 6-year-old weighted child test dummy (49 CFR Part 572 Subpart S) 62 Hybrid II...

  10. Mother-Child Conversations about Pictures and Objects: Referring to Categories and Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Chesnick, Robert J.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2005-01-01

    The distinction between individuals (e.g., Rin-Tin-Tin) and categories (e.g., dogs) is fundamental in human thought. Two studies examined factors that influence when 2- to 3-year-old children and adults focus on individuals versus categories. Mother-child dyads were presented with pictures and toys (e.g., a picture of a boat or a toy boat).…

  11. Religious Factors Associated with Alcohol Involvement: Results from the Mauritian Joint Child Health Project

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Susan E.; Prescott, Carol A.; Dalais, Cyril; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine religious factors associated with alcohol involvement in Mauritius. The three main religions on the island, Hinduism, Catholicism, and Islam, promote different views of the appropriate use of alcohol. Based on reference group theory, we hypothesized that both the content of a religion’s alcohol norms and an individual’s religious commitment would relate to alcohol use behavior. Methods Participants were from the Joint Child Health Project, a longitudinal study that has followed a birth cohort of 1,795 individuals since 1972 when they were 3 years old. All available participants (67%; 55% male) were assessed in mid-adulthood on religious variables, lifetime drinking, and lifetime alcohol use disorders. Results Across religions, individuals who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence were less likely to be drinkers. Religious commitment was associated with reduced probability of drinking only in those who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence. Among drinkers, abstention norms and religious commitment were not associated with lower likelihood of alcohol use disorders. In Catholics who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence and still were drinkers, high religious commitment was associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorders. Conclusions Predictions based on reference group theory were largely supported, with religious norms and commitment differentially related to alcohol use and problems both across religions and among individuals within religions. Findings highlight the importance of examining multiple aspects of religion to better understand the relationship of religion with alcohol behaviors. PMID:24332801

  12. Victim to abuser: mental health and behavioral sequels of child sexual abuse in a community survey of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Bagley, C; Wood, M; Young, L

    1994-08-01

    Respondents in a stratified random sample of 750 males aged 18 to 27 in Calgary, Canada were asked to recall unwanted sexual contacts occurring before their 17th birthday: 117 (15.6%) had experienced one or more unwanted sexual contacts. Those recalling multiple events of abuse (52 individuals, 6.9% of all respondents) were distinguished from other respondents at a statistically significant level on the following indicators: emotional abuse in childhood, higher rates of current or recent depression, anxiety, suicidal feelings and behavior, and current sexual interest in or actual behavior involving minors. The combination of emotional abuse in the respondent's childhood with multiple events of sexual abuse was a relatively good predictor of both poor mental health, and later sexual interest in or sexual contact with children. Eight apparently active pedophiles were identified, using a computer response system that assured anonymity. This study underscores the need for preventive measures, and the prompt identification and treatment of victims before they enter the victim-to-abuser cycle.

  13. Victim to abuser: mental health and behavioral sequels of child sexual abuse in a community survey of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Bagley, C; Wood, M; Young, L

    1994-08-01

    Respondents in a stratified random sample of 750 males aged 18 to 27 in Calgary, Canada were asked to recall unwanted sexual contacts occurring before their 17th birthday: 117 (15.6%) had experienced one or more unwanted sexual contacts. Those recalling multiple events of abuse (52 individuals, 6.9% of all respondents) were distinguished from other respondents at a statistically significant level on the following indicators: emotional abuse in childhood, higher rates of current or recent depression, anxiety, suicidal feelings and behavior, and current sexual interest in or actual behavior involving minors. The combination of emotional abuse in the respondent's childhood with multiple events of sexual abuse was a relatively good predictor of both poor mental health, and later sexual interest in or sexual contact with children. Eight apparently active pedophiles were identified, using a computer response system that assured anonymity. This study underscores the need for preventive measures, and the prompt identification and treatment of victims before they enter the victim-to-abuser cycle. PMID:7953908

  14. The MAL-ED Cohort Study: Methods and Lessons Learned When Assessing Early Child Development and Caregiving Mediators in Infants and Young Children in 8 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Rasmussen, Zeba A.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Rasheed, Muneera A.; Svensen, Erling; Seidman, Jessica C.; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Shrestha, Rita; Maphula, Angelina; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; da Costa, Hilda P.; Yousafzai, Aisha K.; Oria, Reinaldo B.; Roshan, Reeba; Bayyo, Eliwasa B.; Kosek, Margaret; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Schaefer, Barbara A.; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lang, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we assessed child development in a harmonious manner across 8 sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. From birth to 24 months, development and language acquisition were assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and a modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Other measures were infant temperament, the child's environment, maternal psychological adjustment, and maternal reasoning abilities. We developed standard operating procedures and used multiple techniques to ensure appropriate adaptation and quality assurance across the sites. Test adaptation required significant time and human resources but is essential for data quality; funders should support this step in future studies. At the end of this study, we will have a portfolio of culturally adapted instruments for child development studies with examination of psychometric properties of each tool used. PMID:25305296

  15. The MAL-ED cohort study: methods and lessons learned when assessing early child development and caregiving mediators in infants and young children in 8 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Rasmussen, Zeba A; Scharf, Rebecca J; Rasheed, Muneera A; Svensen, Erling; Seidman, Jessica C; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Shrestha, Rita; Maphula, Angelina; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; da Costa, Hilda P; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Oria, Reinaldo B; Roshan, Reeba; Bayyo, Eliwasa B; Kosek, Margaret; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Schaefer, Barbara A; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lang, Dennis

    2014-11-01

    More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we assessed child development in a harmonious manner across 8 sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. From birth to 24 months, development and language acquisition were assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and a modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Other measures were infant temperament, the child's environment, maternal psychological adjustment, and maternal reasoning abilities. We developed standard operating procedures and used multiple techniques to ensure appropriate adaptation and quality assurance across the sites. Test adaptation required significant time and human resources but is essential for data quality; funders should support this step in future studies. At the end of this study, we will have a portfolio of culturally adapted instruments for child development studies with examination of psychometric properties of each tool used. PMID:25305296

  16. Family affection as a protective factor against the negative effects of perceived Asian values gap on the parent-child relationship for Asian American male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong S; Vo, Leyna P; Tsong, Yuying

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether family affection (i.e., affective responsiveness, affectionate communication, and affective orientation) protected against the negative effects of perceived parent-child Asian values gap on the quality of their parent relationships for 259 female and 77 male Asian American college students. Asian values gap was higher for women than men, and inversely related to a perceived healthy parent-child relationship for both genders. Participants rated the relationship with their mothers as more positive and affectionate than with their fathers. Both parents were reported to communicate more supportive affection than verbal and nonverbal affection. Affective responsiveness was identified as a protective factor in the father-son relationship whereas verbal affection protected the mother-daughter relationship. The study also revealed that daughters' affective orientation had beneficial effects on the father-daughter relationship at lower levels of Asian values gap. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19209977

  17. Dietary intakes at child-care centers in central Texas fail to meet Food Guide Pyramid recommendations.

    PubMed

    Padget, Alison; Briley, Margaret E

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary intakes of children who attend child-care centers with the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children. Three-day dietary records were obtained for 50 children ages 3 to 5 years old who attended nine child-care centers in central Texas. Dietary intakes during child care were measured by a researcher, and dietary intakes at home were recorded by a parent. During child care, the 3-year-old children consumed sufficient fruits and meat/alternates, but not sufficient grains, vegetables, or dairy to meet two thirds of Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children recommendations. The 4- and 5-year-old children only consumed sufficient dairy. Ninety-one percent (20 of 22) of the 3-year-old children met two thirds of their estimated energy requirements during child care, compared with 5% (1 of 20) of 4-year-old children and 25% (2 of 8) of 5-year-old children. Intakes at home did not compensate for lack of grain and vegetable consumption during child care. PMID:15883557

  18. Dietary intakes at child-care centers in central Texas fail to meet Food Guide Pyramid recommendations.

    PubMed

    Padget, Alison; Briley, Margaret E

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary intakes of children who attend child-care centers with the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children. Three-day dietary records were obtained for 50 children ages 3 to 5 years old who attended nine child-care centers in central Texas. Dietary intakes during child care were measured by a researcher, and dietary intakes at home were recorded by a parent. During child care, the 3-year-old children consumed sufficient fruits and meat/alternates, but not sufficient grains, vegetables, or dairy to meet two thirds of Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children recommendations. The 4- and 5-year-old children only consumed sufficient dairy. Ninety-one percent (20 of 22) of the 3-year-old children met two thirds of their estimated energy requirements during child care, compared with 5% (1 of 20) of 4-year-old children and 25% (2 of 8) of 5-year-old children. Intakes at home did not compensate for lack of grain and vegetable consumption during child care.

  19. Difficulties in Emotion Regulation as a Mediator of the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse Victimization and Sexual Aggression Perpetration in Male College Students.

    PubMed

    Parkhill, Michele R; Pickett, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies document a link between child sexual abuse and later sexual assault perpetration in men, little research has examined why this relationship exists. One potential mechanism may be emotional regulation difficulties. The current study utilizes a college sample of 132 men to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties on the relationship between experiencing child sexual abuse and later sexual aggression. Although emotion regulation difficulties in general was not significantly related to sexual aggression, one facet, impulse control difficulties, emerged as a significant mediator of the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual aggression. Intervention programs should focus on the care that children receive following sexual abuse, with particular emphasis on how emotion regulation abilities may be impacted. PMID:27561122

  20. Adult Responses to Child Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teyber, Edward C.; And Others

    Oral responses of 180 male and female undergraduates to scenarios containing positive-loving, neutral-informational, and/or negative-rejecting (male) child communications were obtained and scored along 25 specific categories, as well as a global rating of acceptance/rejection of child. A factor analysis generated six factors, which, along with the…

  1. Mycotic encephalitis, sinus osteomyelitis, and guttural pouch mycosis in a 3-year-old Arabian colt.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Barbara; Nation, Patrick N

    2011-12-01

    Mycotic encephalitis caused severe ataxia and other neurologic deficits in a horse. The finding of a single, large focus of cerebral malacia, with histopathologic evidence of fungal elements, suggested infection was a result of direct transfer from the frontal sinuses, rather than hematogenous spread from the guttural pouch.

  2. 3-Year-Olds' Comprehension, Production, and Generalization of Sesotho Passives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine; Moloi, Francina; Machobane, Malillo

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have long been puzzled by the challenge English passive constructions present for language learners, with adult-like comprehension and production emerging only around the age of 5. It has therefore been of significant interest that researchers of other languages, including the Bantu language Sesotho, have reported acquisition of the…

  3. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene as a Biomarker of PAH Exposure in 3-Year-Old Ukrainian Children

    PubMed Central

    Mucha, Amy Pelka; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Serdyuk, Andrij; Nakonechny, Joseph; Zvinchuk, Alexander; Erdal, Serap; Caudill, Motria; Scheff, Peter; Lukyanova, Elena; Shkiryak-Nyzhnyk, Zoreslava; Chislovska, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. We measured urinary 1-OHP in 48 children 3 years of age in Mariupol, Ukraine, who lived near a steel mill and coking facility and compared these with 1-OHP concentrations measured in 42 children of the same age living in the capital city of Kiev, Ukraine. Children living in Mariupol had significantly higher urinary 1-OHP and creatinine-adjusted urinary 1-OHP than did children living in Kiev (adjusted: 0.69 vs. 0.34 μmol/mol creatinine, p < 0.001; unadjusted: 0.42 vs. 0.30 ng/mL, p = 0.002). Combined, children in both cities exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes had higher 1-OHP than did children not exposed (0.61 vs. 0.42 μmol/mol creatinine; p = 0.04; p = 0.07 after adjusting for city). In addition, no significant differences were seen with sex of the children. Our sample of children in Mariupol has the highest reported mean urinary 1-OHP concentrations in children studied to date, most likely due to their proximity to a large industrial point source of PAHs. PMID:16581553

  4. When 2-Year-Olds and 3-Year-Olds Think Like Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, George E.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, which includes three video clips, the author argues that the small experiments, inventions, strategies, and pauses in young children's play seen in the clips reveal a legitimate form of scientific thinking. He notes that science and play both represent a frame of mind, an attitude toward the events one observes. (Contains 3…

  5. Management of chronic gangrenous mastitis in a 3-year-old cow using partial (quarter) mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Phiri, A M; Muleya, W; Mwape, K E

    2010-08-01

    Bovine gangrenous mastitis is an acute or peracute condition involving one or more quarters of the cow's udder. It occurs infrequently, but when it occurs, mortality of the affected cows is high. A partial mastectomy of one quarter using a cranial epidural analgesia with 2% lignocaine is described to manage a gangrenous mastitis affecting only one quarter caused by Proteus mirabilis (a gram-negative bacteria) which was not amenable to medical treatment. Partial mastectomy can be a safe and effective procedure for ruminants with udder disease in genetically or otherwise valuable cattle. PMID:20213222

  6. Early lead exposure (<3 years old) prospectively predicts fourth grade school suspension in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (USA).

    PubMed

    Amato, Michael S; Magzamen, Sheryl; Imm, Pamela; Havlena, Jeffrey A; Anderson, Henry A; Kanarek, Marty S; Moore, Colleen F

    2013-10-01

    School suspensions are associated with negative student outcomes. Environmental lead exposure increases hyperactivity and sensory defensiveness, two traits likely to increase classroom misbehavior and subsequent discipline. Childhood Blood Lead Level (BLL) test results categorized urban fourth graders as exposed (2687; lifetime max BLL 10-20 µg/dL) or unexposed (1076; no lifetime BLL ≥5 µg/dL). Exposed children were over twice as likely as unexposed children to be suspended (OR=2.66, 95% CI=[2.12, 3.32]), controlling for covariates. African American children were more likely to be suspended than white children, but lead exposure explained 23% of the racial discipline gap. These results suggest that different rates of environmental lead exposure may contribute to the racial discipline gap.

  7. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their…

  8. BE, DO, and Modal Auxiliaries of 3-Year-Old African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Stockman, Ida J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined African American English--speaking children's use of BE, DO, and modal auxiliaries. Method: The data were based on language samples obtained from 48 three-year-olds. Analyses examined rates of marking by auxiliary type, auxiliary surface form, succeeding element, and syntactic construction and by a number of child…

  9. The Facilitative Effect of Positive Stimuli on 3-Year-Olds' Flexible Rule Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qu, Li; Zelazo, Philip David

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of emotional stimuli on 3- to 4-year old children's flexible rule use, as measured by the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS). In Experiment 1, children in two countries (Canada and China) were given 2 versions of the DCCS. The Standard version required children to sort red and blue boats and rabbits first by shape…

  10. Relations between Temperament, Sensory Processing, and Motor Coordination in 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sukigara, Masune; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakai, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys) were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), the Sensory Profile (SP-J), and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ), this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control) through covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J. PMID:27199852

  11. Conflict in the Dyadic Play of 3-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Marion; Roy, Carolyn; Jacobs, Anne; Macaluso, Mery; Peyton, Vicki

    1999-01-01

    Examined the nature of conflicts among young preschoolers. Observed 184 three-year-olds in a dyadic play situation. Found that children's conflicts arose in the context of ongoing play and were brief. Concluded that by age 36 months, most children have acquired the skills to play positively with a peer. (JS)

  12. Mycotic encephalitis, sinus osteomyelitis, and guttural pouch mycosis in a 3-year-old Arabian colt.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Barbara; Nation, Patrick N

    2011-12-01

    Mycotic encephalitis caused severe ataxia and other neurologic deficits in a horse. The finding of a single, large focus of cerebral malacia, with histopathologic evidence of fungal elements, suggested infection was a result of direct transfer from the frontal sinuses, rather than hematogenous spread from the guttural pouch. PMID:22654140

  13. Language Development in a 3-Year-Old Boy with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2007-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which has widespread developmental consequences including motor, cognitive and language delay. Previous research on PWS children has focused primarily on phonological development and dysfluency. In the present study, the lexical development of a boy with PWS was investigated in a series of 18 play…

  14. Source Monitoring and Executive Function in 2.5- to 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hala, Suzanne; McKay, Lee-Ann; Brown, Alisha M. B.; San Juan, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Hala, Brown, McKay, and San Juan (2013) found that children as young as 2.5 years of age demonstrated high levels of accuracy when asked to recall whether they or the experimenter had carried out a particular action. In the research reported here, we examined the relation of early-emerging source monitoring to executive function abilities.…

  15. Soil ingestion rates for children under 3 years old in Taiwan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil and dust ingestion rates by children are among the most critical exposure factors in determining risks to children from exposures to environmental contaminants in soil and dust. This is the first published soil ingestion study for children in Taiwan using tracer element meth...

  16. Pragmatic Inference, Not Semantic Competence, Guides 3-Year-Olds' Interpretation of Unknown Number Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Neon; Audet, Jennifer; Barner, David

    2013-01-01

    Before children learn the specific meanings of numerals like six, do they know that they represent precise quantities? Previous studies have reported conflicting evidence and have found that children expect numerals to label precise quantities in some tasks but not in others (Condry & Spelke, 2008; Sarnecka & Gelman, 2004). In this article, we…

  17. When Kids Know Better: Paternalistic Helping in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Alia; Olson, Kristina R.

    2013-01-01

    Helping others is often more complicated than fulfilling their requests, for instance, when an individual requests something that is not suited to achieving her or his ultimate goal. Are children indiscriminate helpers, responding to any object-directed action or request, or do their helping actions prioritize ultimate goals over specific…

  18. "With Mother" and Its Viewers: Behavior Monitoring of 2- and 3-year-olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodaira, Sachiko Imaizumi; Akiyama, Takashiro

    This study focused on the television viewing behavior of a sample of 277 two- and three-year-old children, who were observed by their mothers as they watched a children's studio variety television program entitled "With Mother." The program consists of skits by performers disguised as animals, songs and games, exercises, an animation segment…

  19. A terminal Pleistocene child cremation and residential structure from eastern Beringia.

    PubMed

    Potter, Ben A; Irish, Joel D; Reuther, Joshua D; Gelvin-Reymiller, Carol; Holliday, Vance T

    2011-02-25

    The dearth of human remains and residential sites has constrained inquiry into Beringian lifeways at the transition of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene. We report on human skeletal remains and a residential structure from central Alaska dated to ~11,500 calendar years ago. The remains are from a ~3-year-old child who was cremated in a pit within a semisubterranean house. The burial-cremation and house have exceptional integrity and preservation and exhibit similarities and differences to both Siberian Upper Paleolithic and North American Paleoindian features.

  20. A terminal Pleistocene child cremation and residential structure from eastern Beringia.

    PubMed

    Potter, Ben A; Irish, Joel D; Reuther, Joshua D; Gelvin-Reymiller, Carol; Holliday, Vance T

    2011-02-25

    The dearth of human remains and residential sites has constrained inquiry into Beringian lifeways at the transition of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene. We report on human skeletal remains and a residential structure from central Alaska dated to ~11,500 calendar years ago. The remains are from a ~3-year-old child who was cremated in a pit within a semisubterranean house. The burial-cremation and house have exceptional integrity and preservation and exhibit similarities and differences to both Siberian Upper Paleolithic and North American Paleoindian features. PMID:21350175

  1. Fathers and Maternal Risk for Physical Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong; Lee, Shawna J.; Waldfogel, Jane; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to examine father-related factors predicting maternal physical child abuse risk in a national birth cohort of 1,480 families. In-home and phone interviews were conducted with mothers when index children were 3 years old. Predictor variables included the mother–father relationship status; father demographic, economic, and psychosocial variables; and key background factors. Outcome variables included both observed and self-reported proxies of maternal physical child abuse risk. At the bivariate level, mothers married to fathers were at lower risk for most indicators of maternal physical child abuse. However, after accounting for specific fathering factors and controlling for background variables, multivariate analyses indicated that marriage washed out as a protective factor, and on two of three indicators was linked with greater maternal physical abuse risk. Regarding fathering factors linked with risk, fathers’ higher educational attainment and their positive involvement with their children most discernibly predicted lower maternal physical child abuse risk. Fathers’ economic factors played no observable role in mothers’ risk for physical child maltreatment. Such multivariate findings suggest that marriage per se does not appear to be a protective factor for maternal physical child abuse and rather it may serve as a proxy for other father-related protective factors. PMID:19581432

  2. From Recess to Lockdown: Targeting Adult and Child School-Based Practices and Behaviors That Impact Black Male Entry into the School to Prison Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Lance Montieth

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies establish that Black males follow a disproportionate trajectory from school to prison when compared to other groups. This same research has documented that multiple risk factors operating within schools may contribute to this phenomenon, commonly known as the "school to prison pipeline." The specific focus of the present…

  3. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC CDC A-Z ... Z # Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Child Development Cancel Submit Search The CDC Child Development Note: ...

  4. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  5. A rare nasal cavity mass in a child: Accessory middle turbinate

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andrew; Ulualp, Seckin O; Koral, Korgun; Veling, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The accessory middle turbinate, a rare anatomical variation of the nasal cavity, have been systematically studied in adults. Presence of accessory middle turbinate and its clinical significance in a child has not been reported. We describe clinical appearance and radiologic features of accessory middle turbinate in a child. Methods: Retrospective chart review. Results: A 3-year-old boy presented to the otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of recurrent epistaxis. Anterior rhinoscopy revealed moist nasal mucosa without inflammation and bilateral prominent blood vessels on the anterior nasal septum. Nasal endoscopy showed turbinate like protuberances in bilateral middle meatus. CT images documented accessory middle turbinate in the bilateral nasal cavity. Conclusion: Otolaryngologists should be cognizant of anatomical variations of middle turbinate to achieve correct diagnosis and avoid potential complications during surgical management. PMID:27757233

  6. Male Puberty Rites: A Path Analytic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitahara, Michio

    1982-01-01

    Studies two determinants of male puberty rites: communitywide exclusive male work groups and polygyny which act as an extension of male subculture; and sexual integration in the division of labor and distant father-child relationship which act to reduce the distance between the sexes. (Author/RC)

  7. Evaluation and Monitoring of a Child With Hydrocarbon Pneumonitis Using Point-of-Care Lung Ultrasound in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Michelle; Paul, Audrey Z; Tay, Ee Tein; Tsung, James W

    2016-09-01

    A well-appearing 3-year-old boy presented to the pediatric emergency department 2 hours after a presumed hydrocarbon ingestion. He was referred to the emergency department by his pediatrician after consultation with the local poison control center after possibly ingesting ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) fragrance oil. The child was asymptomatic with a normal physical examination. Point-of-care lung ultrasound identified focal hydrocarbon pneumonitis in the right lung and demonstrated resolution of these findings. Utilization of point-of-care ultrasound resulted in a shorter emergency department length of stay and the avoidance of radiation exposure from serial chest x-rays. PMID:26890296

  8. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  9. Macronutrient and micronutrient intakes of children in Oklahoma child-care centres, USA

    PubMed Central

    Rasbold, Andrea H; Adamiec, Ruth; Anderson, Michael P; Campbell, Janis E; Horm, Diane M; Sitton, Leslie K; Sisson, Susan B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine macronutrients and micronutrients in foods served to and consumed by children at child-care centres in Oklahoma, USA and compare them with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Design Observed lunch nutrients compared with one-third of the age-based DRI (for 1–3 years-olds and 4–8-year-olds). Settings Oklahoma child-care centres (n 25), USA. Subjects Children aged 3–5 years (n 415). Results Regarding macronutrients, children were served 1782 (sd 686) kJ (426 (sd 164) kcal), 22·0 (sd 9·0) g protein, 51·5 (sd 20·4) g carbohydrate and 30·7 (sd 8·7) % total fat; they consumed 1305 (sd 669) kJ (312 (sd 160 kcal), 16·0 (sd 9·1) g protein, 37·6 (sd 18·5) g carbohydrate and 28·9 (sd 10·6) % total fat. For both age-based DRI: served energy (22–33 % of children), protein and carbohydrate exceeded; consumed energy (7–13% of children) and protein exceeded, while carbohydrate was inadequate. Regarding micronutrients, for both age-based DRI: served Mg (65·9 (sd 24·7) mg), Zn (3·8 (sd 11·8) mg), vitamin A (249·9 (sd 228·3) µg) and folate (71·9 (sd 40·1) µg) exceeded; vitamin E (1·4 (sd 2·1) mg) was inadequate; served Fe (2·8 (sd 1·8) mg) exceeded only in 1–3-year-olds. Consumed folate (48·3 (sd 38·4) µg) met; Ca (259·4 (sd 146·2) mg) and Zn (2·3 (sd 3·0) mg) exceeded for 1–3-year-olds, but were inadequate for 4–8-year-olds. For both age-based DRI: consumed Fe (1·9 (sd 1·2) mg) and vitamin E (1·0 (sd 1·7) mg) were inadequate; Mg (47·2 (sd 21·8) mg) and vitamin A (155·0 (sd 126·5) µg) exceeded. Conclusions Lunch at child-care centres was twice the age-based DRI for consumed protein, while energy and carbohydrate were inadequate. Areas of improvement for micronutrients pertain to Fe and vitamin E for all children; Ca, Zn, vitamin E and folate for older pre-schoolers. Adequate nutrients are essential for development and the study reveals where public health nutrition experts, policy makers and care providers

  10. Child sex rings.

    PubMed

    Wild, N J; Wynne, J M

    1986-07-19

    Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a "family friend" or obtained a position of authority over children. Secrecy was encouraged and bribery, threats, and peer pressure used to induce participation in sexual activities. Offences reported included fondling, masturbation, pornography, and oral, vaginal, and anal intercourse. Eleven perpetrators were successfully prosecuted; all but one received a sentence of three years or less. Behavioural problems were common among those children who had participated for a long time. Child sex rings are difficult to detect and may be common. Many children are seriously abused as a consequence of them. PMID:3730803

  11. Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatments may include medicines, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology. Happily, many couples treated for infertility are able to have babies. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  12. The Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms, Appraisals, and Physical Punishment on Later Child Externalizing Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Callender, Kevin A.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Choe, Daniel E.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents’ appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were approximately 3 years old at Time 1 (T1) and 5 ½ years old at Time 2 (T2). At T1, mothers and fathers reported their depressive symptoms, perceptions of their child’s reciprocal affection and responsiveness, frequency of physical punishment, and child externalizing problems. Mothers, fathers, and teachers provided ratings of externalizing behavior at T2. Structural equation modeling revealed that parents’ negative attributions mediated positive relations between their depressive symptoms and frequency of physical punishment for both fathers and mothers. More frequent physical punishment, in turn, predicted increased child externalizing behavior at T2. In future research, transactional mechanisms underlying effects of clinical depression on child conduct problems should be explored at multiple stages of development. For parents showing depressive symptoms, restructuring distorted perceptions about their children’s behavior may be an important component of intervention programs. PMID:21947616

  13. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    As children grow older, they develop in several different ways. Child development includes physical, intellectual, social, and emotional changes. Children grow and mature at very different rates. It's ...

  14. CHILD syndrome in a boy

    SciTech Connect

    Happle, R.; Effendy, I., Megahed, M.; Orlow, S.J.; Kuester, W. |

    1996-03-15

    CHILD syndrome (congential hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) occurs, as a rule, exclusively in girls because of the underlying X-linked gene exerts a lethal effect on male embryos. In this report the characteristic manifestations of CHILD syndrome are described in a 2-year-old boy with a normal chromosome constitution 46,XY. This exceptional case is best explained by the assumption of an early somatic mutation and thus compatible with the concept of X-linked dominant male-lethal inheritance of this trait. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Vivek; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the current available options for male contraception. PMID:23226635

  16. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not ...

  17. Laparoscopic extraction of an intrahepatic foreign body after transduodenal migration in a child.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Stéphane; Wildhaber, Barbara E; Spadola, Luca; Mehrak, Anooshiravani-Dumont; Chardot, Christophe

    2009-11-01

    We report on a 3-year-old boy who, after ingestion of turpentine, had an x-ray and was incidentally diagnosed with an intrahepatic needle. He was asymptomatic with no history of needle ingestion. Imaging (ultrasound and computed tomographic scans) showed a needle in segment 1, close to the inferior vena cava, with a proximal end in contact with the superior angle of the duodenum. Because of the localization of the needle and subsequent risks of complications, removal was proposed. Laparoscopy showed dense adhesions between liver and duodenum, confirming the migration route. Laparoscopic extraction of an entire sewing needle was performed. Postoperative course was uneventful; the child was discharged home after 2 days and is alive and well 19 months after surgery. Laparoscopy may be useful in children for extraction of intrahepatic foreign bodies, after transduodenal migration.

  18. Gastric heterotopia of rectum in a child: a mimicker of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Lone, Khurram; Al-Sofyani, Medhat; El Bagir, Asim

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding per rectum is an uncommon presentation in pediatric patients. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum is a rare cause of rectal bleeding. Here, we report a 3-year-old child with a bleeding rectal ulcer that was initially diagnosed and managed as a solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. After 1 month, the patient persisted to have intermittent rectal bleed and severe anal pain. Repeat colonoscopy showed the worsening of the rectal ulcer in size. Pediatric surgeon excised the ulcer, and histopathological examination revealed a gastric fundic-type mucosa consistent with the diagnosis of gastric heterotopia of the rectum. Over the following 18 months, our patient had experienced no rectal bleeding and remained entirely asymptomatic. In conclusion, heterotopic gastric mucosa of the rectum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a bleeding rectal ulcer.

  19. Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saadoon, Muna; Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Nour, Ibtisam El; Al-Said, Basma

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is common worldwide, and can take many forms. It may even endanger the child’s life, especially when younger children are the victims. CM affects the child’s quality of life and consequently leads to long term issues to be dealt with by the child, family and community. This case series discusses six children who have been subjected to CM, and diagnosed by the child protection team of the departments of Child Health and Behavioural Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. The aim of this case series is to increase the level of awareness of CM among Oman’s medical professionals and to highlight the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and providing optimal care for these children. Although treatment is provided in Oman’s health care system, it is clear that there are gaps in the existing system which affect the quality of child protection services provided to the children and their families. PMID:22375265

  20. Interviewing Child Victims of Sexual Exploitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, William

    The interviewing of the child victim of sexual exploitation is one of the first and most important steps in solving and prosecuting a case of child exploitation and is the topic of this document. The first chapter discusses the interviewer's role, focusing on improving communication, dealing with emotion, the interviewer's response, male or female…

  1. Recruiting and Retaining Male Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Craig J.; Goessling, Deborah Peters

    2005-01-01

    The percentage of male students who complete an undergraduate degree in the field of special education continues to be much lower than that of female graduates. Low status, low salaries, the perception of teaching as women's work, potential complaints of child abuse and sexual harassment, and a lack of male peer groups factor into this low…

  2. Seeing the World Anew: A Case Study of Ideas, Engagement, and Transfer in a 3 Year Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kevin

    According to the philosophy of John Dewey, the goal of education is to provide students with an increased capacity for having worthwhile experiences. This paper draws on Dewey's writings to develop a theory of worthwhile experience, termed "idea-based experience." A model is proposed of how individuals are apprenticed into having an idea-based…

  3. A Strategy to Increase the Social Interactions of 3-Year-Old Children with Disabilities in an Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Brown, Tiara S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the play behaviors of children with disabilities (e.g., developmental delays, specific language impairment) who participated in a social communication intervention targeting skills such as initiations, responses, name use, proximity, and turn-taking. Three children who were enrolled in an inclusive classroom met the…

  4. Analogue Mental Transformations in 3-Year-Olds: Introducing a New Mental Rotation Paradigm Suitable for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krüger, Markus; Kaiser, Marlen; Mahler, Kristin; Bartels, Wolfgang; Krist, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Until now, a successful application of the mental rotation paradigm was restricted to children 5?years or older. By contrast, recent findings suggest that even infants can perform mental rotation. Unlike the methods used in infant studies (looking time), our new research paradigm allows for the measurement and interpretation of reaction times.…

  5. Molecular evidence of true-to-type propagation of a 3-year-old Norway spruce through somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Harvengt, L; Trontin, J F; Reymond, I; Canlet, F; Paques, M

    2001-09-01

    Some progress has recently been made in establishing a system enabling somatic embryos to be initiated from old elite trees. We report here the first results demonstrating the molecular conformity of somatic embryos initiated from increasingly old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), as indicated by an analysis of six nuclear microsatellites that showed an extremely high tendency to mutate during in vitro culture. No allelic difference was detected at these loci among plants regenerated from somatic embryos or between the former and mother plants. Moreover, phenotypical data acquired on the same 3- to 9-year-old plants growing in the field sampled for molecular analyses were totally in accord with the results on molecular conformity.

  6. The role of utterance length and position in 3-year-olds' production of third person singular -s.

    PubMed

    Mealings, Kiri T; Demuth, Katherine

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE Evidence from children's spontaneous speech suggests that utterance length and utterance position may help explain why children omit grammatical morphemes in some contexts but not others. This study investigated whether increased utterance length (hence, increased grammatical complexity) adversely affects children's third person singular -s production in more controlled experimental conditions. METHOD An elicited imitation task with 12 Australian English-speaking children ages 2;9 (years;months) to 3;2 (Mage = 2;11) was conducted comparing third person singular -s production in 3-word and 5-word utterances, both utterance medially (e.g., He sits back; He sits back and swings) and utterance finally (e.g., There he sits; That's the way he sits) using a within-subjects design. Children were shown pictorial representations of each utterance on a computer and were invited to repeat 16 pseudorandomized prerecorded utterances. Acoustic analysis determined the presence/absence and duration of the third person singular morpheme. RESULTS Third person singular production was significantly lower utterance medially compared to utterance finally for the 5-word utterances and significantly lower utterance medially in the 5-word compared to 3-word utterances. CONCLUSION These results suggest that increased utterance length results in significantly lower third person singular production, but only in the more articulatorily challenging utterance-medial position. Thus, morpheme omission is greatest at the intersection of grammatical and phonological complexity.

  7. Rational Action Selection in 1 1/2- to 3-Year-Olds Following an Extended Training Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klossek, Ulrike M. H.; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1 1/2 and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen…

  8. Parent Praise to 1-3 Year-Olds Predicts Children’s Motivational Frameworks 5 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Gripshover, Sarah J.; Romero, Carissa; Dweck, Carol S.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    In laboratory studies, praising children’s effort encourages them to adopt incremental motivational frameworks—they believe ability is malleable, attribute success to hard work, enjoy challenges, and generate strategies for improvement. In contrast, praising children’s inherent abilities encourages them to adopt fixed-ability frameworks. Does the praise parents spontaneously give children at home show the same effects? Although parents’ early praise of inherent characteristics was not associated with children’s later fixed-ability frameworks, parents’ praise of children’s effort at 14-38 months (N=53) did predict incremental frameworks at 7-8 years, suggesting that causal mechanisms identified in experimental work may be operating in home environments. PMID:23397904

  9. Effectiveness of Video Self-Modeling to Promote Social Initiations by 3-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video Self-Modeling (VSM) provides individuals the opportunity to view themselves performing a task beyond their present functioning level through the careful editing of videos. In this study, a single-case multiple-baseline design was used to determine whether VSM would facilitate social initiations across three young children (M = 3 years 10…

  10. The Influence of Lifestyle on the Incidence of Dental Caries among 3-Year-Old Japanese Children

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masako; Wang, Da-Hong; Ijichi, Akihiro; Shirai, Chika; Zou, Yu; Kubo, Masayuki; Takemoto, Kei; Masatomi, Chie; Ogino, Keiki

    2014-01-01

    The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child’s late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake. PMID:25489996

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid status at 9 months is inversely associated with communicative skills in 3-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Engel, Sara; Tronhjem, Kathrine Marie Hagerup; Hellgren, Lars I; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the present observational study was to investigate if the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status assessed in infant erythrocytes (RBC) at 9 months was associated with the age when the infants reach developmental milestones and their psychomotor function at 3 years of age. Three hundred eleven healthy Danish children were followed from 9 months to 3 years of age (the SKOT cohort). RBC fatty acid composition was analysed by gas chromatography in 272 of the children. Milestone age was collected by questionnaires at 9 and 18 months and psychomotor development at 3 years of age was assessed by the parents using third edition of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3). RBC DHA levels ranged from 2.2% to 12.6% of the RBC fatty acids. The age of reaching milestones correlated with psychomotor development, particularly with gross motor function at 3 years. An association between milestones and later personal and social skills was also observed, but only for girls. In girls, RBC-DHA was found to be inversely correlated with communication at 3 years of age (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.86, P = 0.001), but no other associations with psychomotor development or milestones were found. The results from study indicate that DHA status at 9 months may not have a pronounced beneficial effect on psychomotor development in early childhood and that communicative skills at 3 years of age may even be inversely associated with early RBC-DHA levels in girls.

  12. Factors Affecting Psychosocial and Motor Development in 3-Year-Old Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown an association between children's development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing…

  13. The First Year Inventory: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of 12-Month-Old to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Baranek, Grace T.; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory--regulatory and social--communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of…

  14. Dairy and plant based food intakes are associated with altered faecal microbiota in 2 to 3 year old Australian children

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Brown, P.; Morrison, M.; Krause, L.; Davies, P. S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The first 1000 days (conception to 24 months) is when gut microbiota composition and eating patterns are established, and a critical period influencing lifelong health. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between food intakes and microbiota composition at the end of this period. Diet was quantified for 37 well-nourished Australian children aged between 2 to 3 years by using a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hr recalls. Both dairy and plant-based (fruit, vegetables, soy, pulses and nuts) food intakes were associated with distinct microbiota profiles. Dairy intake was positively associated with the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, and in particular Erysipelatoclostridium spp., but negatively associated with species richness and diversity. Vegetable intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of the Lachnospira genus, while soy, pulse and nut intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides xylanisolvens. Fruit intake, especially apples and pears, were negatively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Ruminococcus gnavus. In this cohort of young children dairy and plant based food intakes were found to be associated with altered microbiota composition. Further exploration is needed to elucidate the effect of these dietary and microbial differences on host phenotype. PMID:27694811

  15. Concurrent Validity of the Cognitive Abilities Scale and Binet IV for Nonvocal 2- and 3-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Richard; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    Examined concurrent validity of Nonvocal Cognitive Quotient (NVCQ) of Cognitive Abilities Scale (CAS) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (Binet IV) for two and three year olds. Found adequate concurrent validity for CAS NVCQ and Binet IV Verbal Comprehension at both age levels as well as for Nonverbal Reasoning/Visualization…

  16. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  17. Parental Spanking and Subsequent Risk for Child Aggression in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Altschul, Inna; Rice, Janet C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined separate and combined maternal and paternal use of spanking with children at age 3 and children's subsequent aggressive behavior at age 5. The sample was derived from a birth cohort study and included families (n = 923) in which both parents lived with the child at age 3. In this sample, 44% of 3-year-olds were spanked 2 times or more in the past month by either parent or both parents. In separate analyses, being spanked more than twice in the prior month at age 3, by either mother or father, was associated with increased child aggression at 5 years. In combined analyses, there was a dose-response association; the greatest risk for child aggression was reported when both parents spanked more than twice in the prior month (adjusted odds ratio: 2.01; [confidence interval: 1.03-3.94]). Violence prevention initiatives should target and engage mothers and fathers in anticipatory guidance efforts aimed at increasing the use of effective and non-aggressive child discipline techniques and reducing the use of spanking. PMID:24019558

  18. Child Temperament, Maternal Parenting Behavior, and Child Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Julie; Schreck, Meghan; Rettew, David C.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ayer, Lynsay; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Kuny-Slock, Ana V.; Hudziak, James J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined child temperament, maternal parenting, and the effects of their interactions with each other on child social functioning. A total of 355 children aged 5–18 years old (54% male; mean age=10.8) were evaluated. Regression equations were used to test models of the main and interactive effects of temperament and maternal parenting behavior on the Social Problems and Social Competence Subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a questionnaire assessing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children ages 4 to 18. Higher levels of child Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance and lower levels of Persistence were significantly associated with poorer social functioning. When accounting for child temperament, neither maternal parenting nor the interaction between maternal parenting and child temperament were significantly associated with social functioning. However, the interaction between maternal positive involvement and harm avoidance trended toward significance, such that at higher levels of harm avoidance, more extreme levels of maternal positive involvement were related to lower levels of social functioning. Further research on the interplay between child temperament and parenting across different stages of development is warranted. PMID:26085784

  19. Child Labor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Michel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Uprooted Children Threatened by Exploitation" (Bonnet); "Child of the Wind" (Roess); "At the Fishing School with the Sampaneers" (Bertrand); and "The Street Kids of Nairobi: Surviving in the City" (Goodson). (SK)

  20. Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    Children's healthy development depends on safe and positive experiences when they are very young. If you work or go to school, you want to know that your child is in good hands while you are away. You may ...

  1. Disobedient Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... friendless, or even suicidal If your family has developed a pattern of responding to disagreements with physical or emotional abuse If you or your spouse or child use alcohol or other drugs to feel better ...

  2. [Child abuse: a disturbing problem].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, E; Reyes-Rodrguez, R

    1993-08-01

    This current information on "battered child syndrome" (BCS) was obtained during 1990 from nine institutions in Tijuana, Baja California; 549 cases of BCS were studied, of which 338 were female, 203 male, eight of indeterminate sex due to loss documentation. Child abuse was manifested in all its forms: beatings, sexual abuse, neglect, and affective indifference. The victim's and perpetrator's characters were analyzed together with other factors which had to be taken into consideration in order to detect results which were similarly described in the literature. It is of utmost importance to alert all medical staff to this terrible social problem for the complete treatment of the affected child and the family environment. Community support, and legislation to adequately cover rights of minors and their protection are imperative to elimination of the battered child syndrome. PMID:8357515

  3. Urethral triplication and urethrovasal reflux in 5-day-old male infant.

    PubMed

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Taleb, Shayandokht; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Tanhaeivash, Roozbeh; Monajemzadeh, Maryam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad

    2011-07-01

    To present the case of a 5-day-old male infant referred to our clinic with complaints of huge swollen testes, recurrent urinary tract infection, and diarrhea. The imaging studies and surgical assessments revealed a urethrorectal fistula and 2 nonfunctional urethras. Cutaneous vesicostomy was performed urgently to avoid additional renal infection. At the age of 6 months, the anterior anal insertion was repaired by perineal access. Eventually, urethral reconstruction was performed when the boy was 3 years old. The patient was asymptomatic at the last follow-up examination without additional urinary tract infections. The combination of urethrovasal reflux and congenital urethral triplication, consisting of urethrorectal fistula, has not been previously reported. PMID:21131033

  4. Cueing, demand fading, and positive reinforcement to establish self-feeding and oral consumption in a child with chronic food refusal.

    PubMed

    Luiselli, J K

    2000-07-01

    A 3-year-old child with multiple medical disorders and chronic food refusal was treated successfully using a program that incorporated antecedent control procedures combined with positive reinforcement. The antecedent manipulations included visual cueing of a criterion number of self-feeding responses that were required during meals to receive reinforcement and a gradual increase in the imposed criterion (demand fading) that was based on improved frequency of oral consumption. As evaluated in a changing criterion design, the child learned to feed himself as an outcome of treatment. One year following intervention, he was consuming a variety of foods and had gained weight. Advantages of antecedent control methods for the treatment of chronic food refusal are discussed.

  5. Catheter-associated fungemia due to Exophiala oligosperma in a leukemic child and review of fungemia cases caused by Exophiala species.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaid, I; Ahmad, S; Khan, Z U; Dinesh, B; Hejab, H M

    2006-11-01

    A case of catheter-associated fungemia due to Exophiala oligosperma in a 3-year-old leukemic child is presented. The etiologic agent was isolated from blood specimens and the catheter tip. The isolate was identified by its morphological characteristics and DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. Despite initial amphotericin B and itraconazole therapy, the child's fever subsided only after removal of the catheter. A review of the medical literature revealed 29 cases of infection due to Exophiala species. Twenty-three of these 29 patients had a CVC in place when they developed fever or other manifestations of fungemia. Withdrawal of the CVC together with amphotericin B and/or itraconazole therapy generally resulted in a good prognosis. PMID:17033790

  6. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  7. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  8. Improving Educational Outcomes for Minority Males in Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Ralph, III; Rizzi, Gleides Lopes; Council, Morris, III

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the academic underachievement and disproportionate special education placement of minority males. Causes and consequences for poor academic performance by minority males are reviewed. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and No Child Left Behind Act are discussed in relation to minority male academic achievement.…

  9. [Heterophyiasis and diarrhea after travel: a case report of a child returning from a trip to Egypt].

    PubMed

    Bastien, P; Basset, D; Dedet, J P

    1995-01-01

    The most frequently reported parasite-related diarrheal diseases in tropical travellers are amibiaisis, giardiasis, and certain types of nematoodiasis. Intestinal distomiasis is uncommon because the parasite is strictly limited to certain areas of the world. However observation is possible as is demonstrated by this case report involving a 3-year-old child who presented diarrhea two weeks after returning from a six-week stay Egypt. Heterophyes heterophyes eggs were identified. This small fluke has only exceptionally been reported in France where no indigenous case has ever been described. The present report provides an opportunity to review the clinical symptoms and epidemiology of this rare distomiasis, found only in south-east Asia and Egypt. Comparison of egg morphology allowed diagnosis of hysterophiasis by differentiation from smaller fluke species (Clonorchis and Opistorchis). The authors of this report emphasize that this is a rare but possible cause of diarrhea in travellers.

  10. Male hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Isidori, Andrea M; Giannetta, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis regulates the development, endocrine and reproductive function of the gonads throughout all phases of life. Male hypogonadism is defined an inadequate gonadal function, as manifested by deficiency in gametogenesis and/or secretion of gonadal hormones. In most cases, male hypogonadism is diagnosed through detailed history, physical examination and a few basic hormonal evaluations. In selected cases, however, additional tests are needed to define the aetiology and the extent of HPG axis dysfunction. These include semen analysis, pituitary imaging studies, genetic studies, bone densitometry, testicular ultrasonography, testicular biopsy and hormonal dynamic testing. The stimulation tests of the HPG are of particular importance in the differential diagnosis of congenital delayed puberty versus pre-pubertal hypogonadism in children. This review will focus on the methods, indications and limitations of endocrine testing in the characterisation and differential diagnosis of male hypogonadism at various ages. A practical hands-on guide on how to perform these tests is also provided.

  11. Child's Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolsey, Kristina; Woolsey, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Emerging digital technologies enable teachers and students to access and manipulate sights and sounds in their school environments. The challenge is to systematically include these new media in academic environments, and to include adults who are ill prepared in technical issues as primary guides in this effort. This article suggests that child's…

  12. Child Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... them Limit fast food and junk food Offer water or milk instead of sugary fruit drinks and sodas Learn about your children's nutrient requirements. Some of them, such as the requirements for iron and calcium, change as your child ages. NIH: ...

  13. Child CPR

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  14. Cohort Profile Update: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Magnus, Per; Birke, Charlotte; Vejrup, Kristine; Haugan, Anita; Alsaker, Elin; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Handal, Marte; Haugen, Margaretha; Høiseth, Gudrun; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Paltiel, Liv; Schreuder, Patricia; Tambs, Kristian; Vold, Line; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2016-04-01

    This is an update of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) cohort profile which was published in 2006. Pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination were initially invited. The first child was born in October 1999 and the last in July 2009. The participation rate was 41%. The cohort includes more than 114 000 children, 95 000 mothers and 75 000 fathers. About 1900 pairs of twins have been born. There are approximately 16 400 women who participate with more than one pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from both parents during pregnancy and from mothers and children (umbilical cord) after birth. Samples of DNA, RNA, whole blood, plasma and urine are stored in a biobank. During pregnancy, the mother responded to three questionnaires and the father to one. After birth, questionnaires were sent out when the child was 6 months, 18 months and 3 years old. Several sub-projects have selected participants for in-depth clinical assessment and exposure measures. The purpose of this update is to explain and describe new additions to the data collection, including questionnaires at 5, 7, 8 and 13 years as well as linkages to health registries, and to point to some findings and new areas of research. Further information can be found at [www.fhi.no/moba-en]. Researchers interested in collaboration and access to the data can complete an electronic application available on the MoBa website above.

  15. Prosthetic Oral Rehabilitation of a Child With S-ECC: A Case Report with Histopathologic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tannure, P N; Moraes, G G; Borba, McU; Abrahão, A; Andrade, Mtrc; Fidalgo, Tks

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment planning of a young child with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) as well as the prosthetic rehabilitation technique. A 3-year-old female child was referred to the pediatric dentistry clinic with the chief complaint of tooth pain, difficulty in eating and recurrent hospitalizations caused by dental infections. The mother reported intermittent episodes of fever and recurrent swelling of child's face. The girl presented angular cheilitis and was referred to a dietitian. The treatment plain consisted on a behavior changes in oral hygiene habits, exodontias of all primary teeth and oral rehabilitation with a prosthesis. The extracted teeth with periapical lesions were submitted to histopathologic analysis (hematoxilin and eosin staining) and revealed an inflammatory infiltrate. The aesthetic requirement of children with S-ECC has been a challenge to pediatric dentists. In the present case, the oral rehabilitation provided for the children better aesthetic, nutrition, phonation, and functional conditions. PMID:26551361

  16. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27–6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child’s usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  17. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Manning, Wendy D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  18. Family structure and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Oliver, William J; Kuhns, Lawrence R; Pomeranz, Elaine S

    2006-03-01

    Knowledge of the characteristics of family structure may be helpful to the pediatrician for predicting child abuse. During the past several decades progressive shifts from the classic family unit of two biological parents and their children to a variety of parental living arrangements have occurred. Most notable are the increases in teenage pregnancies, unmarried motherhood, divorce rates approximating 50% of marriage rates, and frequency of unrelated surrogate parents, most often male, cohabitating in the home. In these settings, identifiable characteristics of the mother, the father or surrogate, the child, the family history, and the immediate neighborhood of the family have been associated with a greater likelihood of child and/or spousal abuse. The accumulated information may be used for preventative intervention. PMID:16528430

  19. Impact of approaches in improving male partner involvement in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV on the uptake of PMTCT services in sub-Saharan Africa: a protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Takah, Noah F; Kennedy, Iain T R; Johnman, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have reported approaches used in improving the delivery of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services through the involvement of male partners, but evidence from a systematic review is limited. We aim at determining the impact of male partner involvement on PMTCT in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and analysis This will be a systematic review of published literature. Interventional and observational studies on male involvement in PMTCT carried out in sub-Saharan Africa will be included irrespective of the year and language of publication. OVID Medline, Embase, PschINFO, and Cochrane database of controlled trials will be searched. After manual searching of articles, authors shall be contacted for further information. 2 authors (NFT and CJ) will independently screen potential articles for eligibility using defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools, Jadad scale and the STROBE checklist will be used for critical appraisal, and the 2 authors will independently assess the quality of articles. Authors will independently extract data from studies using a pre-established data collection form, and any discrepancies will be sorted by a third author (TRK). Outcomes will be analysed using STATA V.12.0. The random effect model will be used to produce forest plots. The heterogeneity χ2 statistics and I2 will be used to assess for heterogeneity. Publication bias will be assessed using funnel plots. This protocol is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 guidelines. Ethics and dissemination No ethical approval since included studies will be published studies that had already obtained ethical approvals. The findings will guide HIV programmes on the best approaches towards involving male partners in PMTCT with a view to improving PMTCT services in sub-Saharan Africa. PROSPERO registration number 42016032673

  20. Attitudes toward straight, gay male, and transsexual parenting.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Brittany A; Zinner, Leah

    2015-01-01

    This study examined American attitudes toward transsexual and gay male parenting, compared to straight parenting. After reporting levels of transphobia, participants read a vignette regarding a couple seeking child adoption. Individuals high in transphobia perceived nontraditional couples as more emotionally unstable than straight couples and were less willing to grant custody of a child to the nontraditional couples vs. the straight couples. In addition, the transsexual couple faced more prejudice and discrimination than the gay male couple. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  2. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the nonhormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  3. Male hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad

    2014-04-01

    Male hypogonadism is a clinical syndrome that results from failure to produce physiological concentrations of testosterone, normal amounts of sperm, or both. Hypogonadism may arise from testicular disease (primary hypogonadism) or dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit (secondary hypogonadism). Clinical presentations vary dependent on the time of onset of androgen deficiency, whether the defect is in testosterone production or spermatogenesis, associated genetic factors, or history of androgen therapy. The clinical diagnosis of hypogonadism is made on the basis of signs and symptoms consistent with androgen deficiency and low morning testosterone concentrations in serum on multiple occasions. Several testosterone-replacement therapies are approved for treatment and should be selected according to the patient's preference, cost, availability, and formulation-specific properties. Contraindications to testosterone-replacement therapy include prostate and breast cancers, uncontrolled congestive heart failure, severe lower-urinary-tract symptoms, and erythrocytosis. Treatment should be monitored for benefits and adverse effects. PMID:24119423

  4. Child Care in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Clotilde Juarez

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the following issues pertaining to Mexican child care: history of child care in Mexico; prevalence of child care in the national system; other agencies providing child care and the nature of their services; extent to which working families use child care; circumstances requiring day care; licensing, accreditation, and quality standards;…

  5. The Relation of Parental Depression and Self Esteem to Behavior Problems in Three-Year-Old Sons of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Andrew M.; And Others

    Preliminary results from a longitudinal study designed to systematically examine the family life of children reared in a home with an alcoholic father are reported. Analysis is restricted to 15 families from a larger study in which the target child was a 3-year-old male. Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Progress Evaluation…

  6. The Relationship between Articulatory Control and Improved Phonemic Accuracy in Childhood Apraxia of Speech: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigos, Maria I.; Kolenda, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Jaw movement patterns were examined longitudinally in a 3-year-old male with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and compared with a typically developing control group. The child with CAS was followed for 8 months, until he began accurately and consistently producing the bilabial phonemes /p/, /b/, and /m/. A movement tracking system was used to…

  7. Comparing Female and Male Perpetrators' Modus Operandi: Victims' Reports of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Keith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated similarities and differences in modus operandi of female and male child sexual abusers by comparing victims of female and male perpetrators. Females were more often involved with males in co-offender situations and were more likely to exploit victims. Males were more sexually invasive and more likely to use bribes to obtain victim…

  8. Ileostomy and your child

    MedlinePlus

    ... embarrassment. You may see some changes in your child's behavior at first. Sometimes teenagers have a harder time ... You being open and natural will help your child's behavior stay positive. Help your child learn how to ...

  9. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connected With Enews Subscribe Child Care Aware® of America Overview Vision & Mission Audience Partners Child Care Providers ... Public Policy Agenda 2016-2017 Child Care in America: 2016 State Fact Sheets We Can Do Better – ...

  10. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States—so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children’s wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education—a key indicator of both economic and social resources—than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don’t have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation’s effects are tied to a child’s age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family

  11. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  12. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giunta, Leandra; Spataro, Giuseppina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Velardita, Mario; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease. PMID:23970901

  13. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giunta, Leandra; Spataro, Giuseppina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Velardita, Mario; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease. PMID:23970901

  14. Recurrent Salmonellosis in a Child with Complete IL-12Rβ1 Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zahid, Mohammad Faizan; Ali, Syed Asad; Jehan, Fyezah; Billo, Abdul Gaffar; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stephanie; Mir, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    A 3 year old boy presented with fever, abdominal pain and cervical lymphadenopathy. He had previously been treated empirically with anti-tuberculous therapy twice, at age 9 months and 27 months, for peripheral lymphadenopathy. An older sibling died of suspected tuberculous meningitis. Mantoux test was normal. Bone marrow and lymph node biopsy ruled out lymphoma and absolute neutrophil and lymphocyte counts were normal. Blood and lymph node cultures were positive for Salmonella typhi. The child’s symptoms resolved with IV ceftriaxone and he was discharged. Over the next 2 years, the child was admitted every 2–3 months for culture positive S. typhi bacteremia with complaints of fever, abdominal distention and dysentery. HIV workup was negative. A prolonged course of probenicid and high dose amoxicillin increased interval between episodes to 4–5 months only. Cholecystectomy was debated and deferred due to suspicion of immunodeficiency. Blood samples from patient and parents were sent to France for workup and IL-12Rβ1 deficiency was found. Parental counseling and subsequent patient management remained difficult in view of financial constraints and outstation residence of family. At age 7 years, the child presented with small bowel obstruction. He was managed conservatively with antibiotics, IV fluids and blood transfusions, but eventually succumbed to endotoxic shock. This case highlights the importance of considering IL-12Rβ1 deficiency in children with repeated salmonellosis, a diagnosis which precludes intensive and aggressive monitoring and management of the patient in scenarios where bone marrow transplants are not feasible. PMID:25544967

  15. A Mothers Journey of Healing: When a Child Changes Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Recounts the personal experience of an art therapist whose child, diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder, underwent a female-to-male gender change. Through art therapy, this mother illustrates the confusion, denial, anger, and acceptance she grappled with during her child's gender dysphoria. (LSR)

  16. Developmental Factors Related to Deviant Sexual Preferences in Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lussier, Patrick; Beauregard, Eric; Proulx, Jean; Nicole, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between developmental factors and deviant sexual preferences in child molesters. In total, 146 adult males having committed a sexual offence against a child were included in the study. Three types of factors were investigated: negative experiences during childhood, behavior problems during…

  17. Mothering and Fathering: The Gender Differences in Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thevenin, Tine

    Both parents have unique contributions to make in the development of a child. Mothers and fathers think and act differently from one another, and children thrive on these differences. This book examines gender differences in child rearing, focusing on the conflict between male experts' advice promoting early independence and women's desire for…

  18. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  19. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  20. 20 CFR 222.17 - “Child in care” when child of the employee is living with the claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... remarried widow(er) annuities) or older with a mental disability and the claimant does not exercise parental control and responsibility; or (d) The child is 18 years old (16 with respect to male spouse, divorced..., but it is not necessary for the claimant to perform personal services for the child. (e)...

  1. Mother--Child and Father--Child Emotional Expressiveness in Mexican-American Families and Toddlers' Peer Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Rivera, Mitzie

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation explored the association of mother--child and father--child emotional expressiveness during toddlerhood to children's prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers. Data were collected from 62 Mexican-American families with toddlers (29 females, 33 males) during a home visit. Children's peer interactions were also…

  2. Child involvement in interparental conflict and child adjustment problems: a longitudinal study of violent families.

    PubMed

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents' conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children's involvement in their parents' conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children's involvement in their parents' conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families.

  3. Children's Responses to Strangers: Effects of Family Status, Stress, and Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinraub, Marsha; Ansul, Susan

    Children's responses toward strangers, qualities of mother-child interaction, and maternal stresses were examined in 38 mother-child pairs, with children from single and two-parent families. Responses to female and male strangers were observed in a modified Strange Situation. Mother-child interaction was assessed with a modified version of…

  4. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers. PMID:23772822

  5. Physiological Studies of the Hyperkinetic Child I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, James H.; And Others

    Reported were results of the first year of a 3-year physiological study of the hyperkinetic child. The male subjects were 6 to 9 years of age, attending school, without sensory defects, 80 or above in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Full Scale, off medication for 3 months prior to testing, and diagnosed as hyperactive.…

  6. Child Care Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    This book discusses various aspects of child care programs. Chapter titles include: Child Care Needs and Issues; Present Influences on Early Childhood Programs; Licensing and Standards; The Program; Stories and Music; Art and Science; The Physical Environment Staffing the Child Care Center; Working with Parents; Guidance of the Young Child; Health…

  7. Child Support Report, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 12 monthly issues of the 1998 "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

  8. Child Support Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of interest and…

  9. Toilet Training Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  10. THE DIFFICULT CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ROUCEK, JOSEPH S.

    THIS BOOK CONSISTS OF 16 ESSAYS BY SPECIALISTS ON PROBLEMS WHICH MAY MAKE A CHILD DIFFICULT. EACH AUTHOR DISCUSSES ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS, CHARACTERISTICS, AND HOW DIFFICULTIES MAY BE REDUCED. THE FOLLOWING TOPICS ARE CONSIDERED--(1) "THE CREATIVE CHILD" BY E.P. TORRANCE, (2) "THE INATTENTIVE CHILD" BY I.W. SCHERER, (3) "THE CHILD WITH LANGUAGE…

  11. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  12. Child Support Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and funding…

  13. Plasma steroid concentrations and male phallus size in juvenile alligators from seven Florida lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillette, L.J.; Woodward, A.R.; Crain, D.A.; Pickford, D.B.; Rooney, A.A.; Percival, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Neonatal and juvenile alligators from contaminated Lake Apopka in central Florida exhibit abnormal plasma sex steroid concentrations as well as morphological abnormalities of the gonad and phallus. This study addresses whether similar abnormalities occur in juvenile alligators inhabiting six other lakes in Florida. For analysis, animals were partitioned into two subsets, animals 40-79 cm total length (1-3 years old) and juveniles 80-130 cm total length (3-7 years old). Plasma testosterone (T) concentrations were lower in small males from lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Jessup than from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Similar differences were observed in the larger juveniles, with males from lakes Jessup, Apopka, and Okeechobee having lower plasma T concentrations than Lake Woodruff males. Plasma estradiol-17?? (E2) concentrations were significantly elevated in larger juvenile males from Lake Apopka compared to Lake Woodruff NWR. When compared to small juvenile females from Lake Woodruff NWR, females from lakes Griffin, Apopka, Orange, and Okeechobee had elevated plasma E2 concentrations. Phallus size was significantly smaller in males from lakes Griffin and Apopka when compared to males from Lake Woodruff NWR. An association existed between body size and phallus size on all lakes except Lake Apopka and between phallus size and plasma T concentration on all lakes except lakes Apopka and Orange. Multiple regression analysis, with body size and plasma T concentration as independent covariables, explained the majority of the variation in phallus size on all lakes. These data suggest that the differences in sex steroids and phallus size observed in alligators from Lake Apopka are not limited to that lake, nor to one with a history of a major pesticide spill. Further work examining the relationship of sex steroids and phallus size with specific biotic and abiotic factors, such as antiandrogenic or estrogenic contaminants, is needed.

  14. The development of the interest in child molestation scale.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Theresa A; O'Connor, Alisha

    2011-12-01

    Although numerous research studies have been conducted to investigate apprehended child molesters' sexual interest in children and associated concepts, very little research has been conducted to investigate community males' sexual interest in children. In this article, the authors describe the development and preliminary validation of a new measure--the Interest in Child Molestation Scale--to assess community male's sexual arousal, behavioral propensity toward, and enjoyment of child sexual abuse. Preliminary results show that the Interest in Child Molestation Scale holds some promising psychometric properties, representing a reasonably reliable measure of community males' sexual interest in children. Using this scale, the authors find that a good proportion of community males (57%) did not emphatically reject an interest in child sexual abuse. The authors also find that self-reported sexual arousal to child sexual abuse that is relatively low in forcefulness was significantly related to implicit child sexualization as measured via a pen-and-paper implicit association test. The authors discuss these results with reference to possible future uses of the measure for theory and research development.

  15. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies. PMID:26056058

  16. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  17. Child pornography offenses are a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated whether being charged with a child pornography offense is a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia, as represented by an index of phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to children. The sample of 685 male patients was referred between 1995 and 2004 for a sexological assessment of their sexual interests and behavior. As a group, child pornography offenders showed greater sexual arousal to children than to adults and differed from groups of sex offenders against children, sex offenders against adults, and general sexology patients. The results suggest child pornography offending is a stronger diagnostic indicator of pedophilia than is sexually offending against child victims. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:16866601

  18. Child pornography offenses are a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated whether being charged with a child pornography offense is a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia, as represented by an index of phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to children. The sample of 685 male patients was referred between 1995 and 2004 for a sexological assessment of their sexual interests and behavior. As a group, child pornography offenders showed greater sexual arousal to children than to adults and differed from groups of sex offenders against children, sex offenders against adults, and general sexology patients. The results suggest child pornography offending is a stronger diagnostic indicator of pedophilia than is sexually offending against child victims. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  19. Income and Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    We examine how income is associated with the home environments and the cognitive and behavioral development of pre-school children, using data from a birth cohort study of children born at the end of the 20th century. Lower-income 3-year-old children are more likely than wealthier children to live in homes with inadequate physical environments and to have mothers who are more likely to be stressed, depressed, harsh and unresponsive. Additionally, low income children have lower PPVT scores, more mother-reported aggressive, withdrawn, and anxious behavior problems, and also more interviewer-reported problems with behavior, than more affluent children. A key policy question is whether increases in the incomes of poor families would result in improvements in children’s outcomes, at least in part through improvements in the home environment. This question is difficult to answer using observational data. However, we argue that, even under the most generous interpretation of the associations we estimate, large income transfer programs would have relatively small effects on children’s cognitive and behavioral outcomes. PMID:20368763

  20. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a child of any race, religion, or economic status. HELP AN ABUSED CHILD Learn about the ... as cigarette burns Choke marks around the neck Circular marks around the wrists or ankles from twisting ...

  1. FPG Child Development Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Education October 4, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  2. Concussion - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge; Mild traumatic brain injury - child - discharge; Closed head injury - child - discharge ... mild brain injury that can result when the head hits an object or a moving object strikes ...

  3. Estimating Local Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ards, Sheila

    1989-01-01

    Three conceptual approaches to estimating local child abuse rates using the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect data set are evaluated. All three approaches yield estimates of actual abuse cases that exceed the number of reported cases. (SLD)

  4. Normal Child Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... age. Development can be uneven, too, with a child's social development lagging behind his intellectual growth, or vice versa. ... members, and others. They may interfere with the child's intellectual development. They may be forbidden by law, ethics, religion, ...

  5. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... child small rewards, such as stickers or time reading with Mommy, every time your child goes in ...

  6. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  7. Child Dental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  8. What makes a child a 'competent' child?

    PubMed

    van Rooyen, Amanda; Water, Tineke; Rasmussen, Shayne; Diesfeld, Kate

    2015-12-01

    Competence is a vital component of the informed consent process. The perceived level of a child's competence may influence their degree of participation in health decisions that affect them. It is the responsibility of the health professional to gauge a child's level of competence. Child competence, however, is not a static attribute that is linked to age. Rather, it is dynamic, changing in nature and dependent on a child's previous experiences, personal attributes, network of relationships around them and cultural and environmental context. Consequently, there is no single verified assessment tool to assist in the recognition of competence for New Zealand children. Adding to this complexity are the unclear interpretations of New Zealand health legislation and policy regarding whether or not a child can legally consent or refuse healthcare advice and treatment without the consent of a legal guardian. Under the Care of Children Act 2004 and the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights 1996, the Health and Disability Commissioner states "a child may consent themselves [to health treatment] if and when the child achieves sufficient understanding and maturity to understand fully what is proposed". This paper poses the question: What is 'competency' and how is this decided? For the purpose of this article, 'child' pertains to those under the age of 16 years. PMID:26913912

  9. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  10. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  11. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  12. Maternal child-centered attributions and harsh discipline: the moderating role of maternal working memory across socioeconomic contexts.

    PubMed

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Suor, Jennifer H; Skibo, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive models of parenting give emphasis to the central role that parental cognitions may play in parental socialization goals. In particular, dual process models suggest that parental attribution styles affect the way parents interpret caregiving situations and enact behaviors, particularly within the realm of discipline. Although research has documented the negative behavioral repercussions of dysfunctional child-centered responsibility biases, there is heterogeneity in the level of these associations. Research has also demonstrated that parental working memory capacity may serve as an individual difference factor in influencing caregiving behaviors. Thus, our first aim was to document how maternal working memory capacity may moderate the association between mother's dysfunctional child-oriented attributions and use of harsh discipline. In addition, from an ecological perspective, a second aim was to examine how socioeconomic risk may further potentiate the impact of maternal working memory. To accomplish these aims, a socioeconomically diverse sample of 185 mothers and their 3-year old children were recruited to participate in a laboratory-based research assessment. Findings revealed that lower maternal working memory capacity may operate as a risk factor for attributional biases and harsh discipline, and higher working memory may serve as a protective factor in this relationship. Socioeconomic risk further moderated these findings. Results suggest that the moderating role of working memory may be particularly pronounced under conditions of socioeconomic risk. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Child Labour and Child Schooling in Rural Ethiopia: Nature and Trade-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou

    2012-01-01

    We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…

  14. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  15. Child Care Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum is designed to be a handbook for the development of child care programs. It details the competencies, developed through a survey of child care provider-employers in Alaska, that students will require in a vocational child care program. The handbook is organized in seven sections. Section I introduces the concept of…

  16. Child Care Bulletin, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Bulletin, 1998

    1998-01-01

    These two issues address topics related to state and federal public policy concerning child care. Issue 19 focuses on how various federal agencies work with the Child Care Bureau to strengthen and support child care services across the country. The issue includes articles describing initiatives of the Departments of Transportation, Labor,…

  17. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  18. Managing the Difficult Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Della Corte, Suzanne

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on ways parents can manage the difficult child with special needs. Characteristics of the difficult child are listed including poor listening skills, irritableness, impulsivity, and tendency to have tantrums. Typical reactions to the difficult child by parents, siblings, other relatives, neighbors, the school, and…

  19. [Autism and child protection].

    PubMed

    Coron, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The fostering of an autistic child deemed to be a child at risk leads one to question one's professional practices. In a children's home, an approach guided by psychoanalysis can recognise the benefits of behavioural or cognitive approaches. The aim of the professional's particular educational position is therefore to construct a relationship with each child.

  20. Child Care Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Marilyn, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document is comprised of six issues of the Child Care Bulletin, a bimonthly publication of the National Child Care Information Center. The January-February issue focuses on involving communities in child care planning. Topics discussed in this issue include: community mobilization strategies, assessing needs and establishing goals, and…

  1. Child Care Update: 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Vic; And Others

    This paper provides information on child care needs, existing services, and special topics related to child care in Dane County, Wisconsin. Section I describes and compares needs and services; indicates locations of current full-day services; and offers specific recommendations for expanding child care. Section II concerns cost and affordability…

  2. Child Care Design Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Anita Rui

    This book provides architects, interior designers, developers, and child-care professionals with detailed information on the planning and design of child care centers. Part 1 examines the current state of child care in the United States and offers an overall philosophical concert--the spirit of place--as the framework for all center design. Part 2…

  3. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  4. Parents' child-directed communication and child language development: a longitudinal study with Italian toddlers.

    PubMed

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-09-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1 ; 3 and 1 ; 9. The characteristics of the maternal and paternal child-directed language (characteristics of communicative functions and lexicon as reported in psycholinguistic norms for Italian language) were coded during free play. Child language development was assessed during free play and at ages 2 ; 6 and 3 ; 0 using the Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (2 ; 6) and the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) (3 ; 0). Data analysis indicated differences between mothers and fathers in the quantitative characteristics of communicative functions and language, such as the mean length of utterances (MLU), and the number of tokens and types. Mothers also produced the more frequent nouns in the child lexicon. There emerged a relation between the characteristics of parental child-directed language and child language development.

  5. Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Dosing Schedules for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among College Age Males

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng; Zimmerman, Richard K; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Raviotta, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, for protection against sexually transmitted HPV infection, is licensed for females and males 9–26 years on a 3-dose schedule (0, 2, and 6 months; Standard schedule). Vaccine uptake has been low and catch-up vaccination of older adolescents using an alternate dosing schedule may increase coverage. This study tested the non-inferiority of the immunogenicity of an alternate dosing schedule (0, 2, 12 months) among college age males. Methods 220 18–25 year old males were randomly assigned to Standard or Alternate schedules. Blood samples were drawn immediately before Dose 1 and 2–6 weeks after Dose 3 and analyzed for antibody titers using a Luminex immunoassay. A value <1.5 for the upper 95% confidence interval (CI) bound of the Standard to Alternate schedule geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio was deemed non-inferior. Results Participants averaged 21.3 years old; 19.1% were non-white; completion rate was 93%. The anti-HPV titers for the Alternate schedule group were non-inferior to those of Standard schedule group for all four HPV vaccine virus types. Our results also demonstrated superiority of the Alternate schedule group for all four HPV vaccine virus types. Conclusion A delayed third dose at 12 months is immunologically non-inferior and superior for four HPV virus types. Using an alternate dosing schedule offers more flexibility to receive the 3-dose HPV vaccine and may result in higher vaccination rates among college-age males. PMID:24342252

  6. From child to child: children as communicators.

    PubMed

    Phinney, R; Evans, J

    1993-01-01

    Older children commonly care for their younger siblings while parents work to provide for the household. Through play, dance, and talk, children tend to interact with each other more intensely than do adults. In so doing, messages and awareness are exchanged more effectively. Child-to-Child is an active, child-centered learning approach which aims to capitalize on this phenomenon by training older siblings to be effective communicators. This approach has been formally practiced in over 70 countries since 1979. Child-to-Child encourages children to learn the meaning and importance of health messages on their own. Children will then be most likely to retain and communicate information throughout the family, to neighbors, and to the general community. No blueprint exists, however, on which program planners may base the design of new programs. Programs should instead be adapted by those living within the community and culture to fit local needs and circumstances. Nonetheless, the Aga Khan Foundation supported the study of 7 highly different Child-to-Child projects over 3 years in India to obtain some sense of which program elements are successful and potentially useful in other settings. The study revealed that all of the programs helped increase the health knowledge of children and teachers. Little information was obtained on the extent to which information was diffused by children within the community. Overall, the study produced the following results: planners should consider using Child-to-Child projects in schools; teacher training should be made a priority; administrative support should be provided; entire staffs should be made to feel involved in the decision making process; obstacles to changing teaching methods should not be underestimated; teaching materials should be locally made; projects should be integrated into official curricula; program topics should be relevant to local realities; respected authorities should be called upon to reinforce the validity

  7. Passage to Manhood: Rearing the Male African-American Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul, Jr.

    It is traditional among some peoples of the world to celebrate an individual's coming-of-age with ritual. Through these ceremonies, and the tests which sometimes accompany them, a society socializes its youth and transforms them inwardly by molding their moral and mental disposition. Without such ritualization there is a breakdown in the…

  8. Microflora analysis of a child with severe combined immune deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Kropp, K. D.; Molina, T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a microflora analysis of a 5-year-old male child with severe combined immune deficiency who was delivered by Caesarean section and continuously maintained in an isolator. Despite precautions, it was found that the child had come in contact with at least 54 different microbial contaminants. While his skin autoflora was similar to that of a reference group of healthy male adults in numbers of different species and the number of viable cells present per square centimeter of surface area, the subject's autoflora differed from the reference group in that significantly fewer anaerobic species were recovered from the patient's mouth and feces. It is suggested that the child's remaining disease free shows that the reported bacteria are noninvasive or that the unaffected components of the child's immune defense mechanisms are important.

  9. Craniofrontonasal dysplasia in two male sibs.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, U; Baraitser, M; Nicolaides, K; Gosden, C

    1993-10-01

    Craniofrontonasal dysplasia (CFND) was diagnosed in a male child who had bilateral coronal craniosynostosis, midline facial clefting with cleft lip and palate, a broad and high forehead, and hypertelorism. The parents were normal and there was no family history suggestive of CFND. A small recurrence risk was counselled and prenatal ultrasound was recommended in the next pregnancy. At 23 weeks, the ultrasound scan detected a number of dysmorphic features and the pregnancy was terminated. Autopsy of the aborted male foetus showed the following features: High arched palate, a sloping forehead, flattened nose and receding chin, multiple joint contractures, particularly of the mid phalangeal joints, elbows and ankles. This report highlights the occurrence of CFND in two male siblings born to normal parents, and therefore the need to perform prenatal ultrasound in a subsequent pregnancy, even if CFND is diagnosed in an isolated case.

  10. Mother-child planning and child compliance.

    PubMed

    Gauvain, Mary; Perez, Susan M

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated child compliance and maternal instruction during planning. Based on the Child Behavior Checklist and free-play observations, 40 mothers and their 4- to 5-year-old children were assigned to a group with children who behaved within the normal range of compliance (n = 20) or a group with children with high rates of noncompliance for this age (n = 20). Mothers in the noncompliant group provided more low-level, directive, and negative instruction; requested more compliance; and shared less task responsibility with children. Mothers in both groups responded to child compliance by increasing or maintaining the level of instruction. Results are discussed in relation to the role of child compliance in regulating opportunities for cognitive development in social context. PMID:18489426

  11. Study of male effect on feeding and estrus behavior of Afshari ewes.

    PubMed

    Asgari Safdar, Amir Hossein; Sadeghi, Ali Asghar

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the male effect on the manifestation of estrus and feeding behavior of Afshari ewes during their breeding season. The study consists of 48 Afshari ewes, 3 years old, 67 ± 2 kg live weight, body condition score 3, along with 10 Afshari rams. The study was for a period of 6 weeks in a complementary randomized design. Ewes were equally divided into three treatments (T₁, T₂, and T₃) along with a control (T₄) with six animals in each group. Variable factors of treatments was the distance of the ram box (from the ewes), which was determined to be the T₁(0-5 m), T₂(10-15 m), and T₃(25-30 m). Exposure of the ewes to the rams resulted in an earlier manifestation of estrus signs (p < 0.05). Moreover, the total recorded estrus signs were significantly affected by the distance from the rams (p < 0.05). The result of this study showed differences in feed intake of the ewes due to the distance from the rams (p < 0.05). In the other words, the distance of the ewes from the rams significantly affected feed intake of the Afshari ewes.

  12. Causes of Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Societies and Organizations Home › Causes of Male Infertility Dr. Roger Lobo of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine covers causes of male infertility. "Understanding Infertility - The Basics" is a series of ...

  13. Is Young Children's Recognition of Pretense Metarepresentational or Merely Behavioral? Evidence from 2- and 3-Year-Olds' Understanding of Pretend Sounds and Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Burnstein, Corinna L.; Leslie, Alan M.

    2010-01-01

    When young children observe pretend-play, do they interpret it simply as a type of behavior, or do they infer the underlying mental state that gives the behavior meaning? This is a long-standing question with deep implications for how "theory on mind" develops. The two leading accounts of shared pretense give opposing answers. The behavioral…

  14. The relationship between bifidobacteria and allergic asthma and/or allergic dermatitis: a prospective study of 0-3 years-old children in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akay, Hatice Kubra; Bahar Tokman, Hrisi; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Hatipoglu, Huseyin; Siraneci, Rengin; Demirci, Mehmet; Borsa, Baris Ata; Yuksel, Pelin; Karakullukcu, Asiye; Kangaba, Achille Aime; Sirekbasan, Serhat; Aka, Sibel; Mamal Torun, Muzeyyen; Kocazeybek, Bekir S

    2014-08-01

    Bifidobacteria are beneficial bacteria for humans. These bacteria are particularly effective at protecting against infectious diseases and modulating the immune response. It was shown that in newborns, the fecal distribution of the colonizing Bifidobacterium species influences the prevalence of allergic diseases. This study aimed to compare the faecal Bifidobacterium species of allergic children to those of healthy children to detect species level differences in faecal distribution. Stool samples were obtained from 99 children between 0 and 3 years of age whose clinical symptoms and laboratory reports were compatible with atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma. Samples were also obtained from 102 healthy children who were similar to the case group with respect to age and sex. Bifidobacteria were isolated by culture and identified at the genus level by API 20 A. In addition, 7 unique species-specific primers were used for the molecular characterization of bifidobacteria. The McNemar test was used for statistical analyses, and p < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Bifidobacterium longum was detected in 11 (11.1%) of the allergic children and in 31 (30.3%) of the healthy children. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the prevalence of B. longum between these two groups (X(2): 11.2, p < 0.001). However, no significant differences in the prevalence of other Bifidobacterium species were found between faecal samples from healthy and allergic children. (p > 0.05). The significant difference in the isolation of B. longum from our study groups suggests that this species favors the host by preventing the development of asthma and allergic dermatitis. Based on these results, we propose that the production of probiotics in accordance with country-specific Bifidobacterium species densities would improve public health. Thus, country-specific prospective case-control studies that collect broad data sets are needed.

  15. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Black, T E; Bischoff, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Marquezini, G H L; Dilorenzo, N; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Maddock, T D; Lamb, G C

    2013-05-01

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-yr-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered facility and fed similar forage-based diets, and individual feed intakes, BW, BCS, chute scores (CS), exit velocities (EV), and pen scores (PS) were collected throughout the 70-d feeding trials. In Phase 2, cows were milked on trial d 14 (lactation d 28 ± 3.5) and trial d 70 (lactation d 84 ± 3.5) to determine energy-corrected milk (ECM) production. Ultrasonic backfat thickness (BF), and ribeye area (REA) were evaluated on d 0 and 70 of the trial in Phase 2. Heifers were ranked by RFI and placed into Low (<0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 27), Medium (within ± 0.5 SD; n = 23), and High (>0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 24) RFI groups. Body weight, BCS, and ADG were similar among all RFI groups; however, daily DMI differed for all groups (P < 0.01) and was greater (10.76 ± 0.24 kg/d) for High, intermediate (9.88 ± 0.25 kg/d) for Medium, and less (8.52 ± 0.23 kg/d) for Low RFI heifers. When cow performance was analyzed based on RFI rank as heifers, BW, BCS, ADG, RFI, d 14 and d 70 ECM, BF, and REA were similar among RFI groups; however, cows that were most efficient as heifers (Low) had decreased (P < 0.05) daily DMI values (10.30 ± 0.41 kg/d) compared with cows that ranked Medium (11.60 ± 0.44 kg/d) or High (11.50 ± 0.43 kg/d) as heifers. The Pearson rank correlation between Phase 1 and 2 RFI was r = 0.13 (P = 0.30), and Pearson rank correlations showed no relationship (P > 0.1) between RFI and temperament. Phase 1 CS was negatively associated with ADG in Phase 1 (r = -0.28; P = 0.02) and 2 (r = -0.32; P = 0.01), and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.24; P = 0.04) and 70 (r = 0.25; P = 0.03) ECM. Phase 2 CS was negatively associated with Phase 2 ADG (r = -0.29; P = 0.01) and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.46; P = 0.001) and 70 (r = 0.33; P = 0.004) ECM. Phase 2 PS also tended to be negatively associated with DMI in Phase 1 (r = -0.20; P = 0.096) and 2 (r = -0.20; P = 0.08). In this study, heifers that were most feed efficient subsequently consumed less feed as lactating cows and maintained similar performance. Feed efficiency was not associated with differences in temperament; however, more excitable females had poorer BW gains and tended to have reduced feed intakes but produced more ECM.

  16. Changes in cortisol release and heart rate and heart rate variability during the initial training of 3-year-old sport horses.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alice; Aurich, Jörg; Möstl, Erich; Müller, Jürgen; Aurich, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Based on cortisol release, a variety of situations to which domestic horses are exposed have been classified as stressors but studies on the stress during equestrian training are limited. In the present study, Warmblood stallions (n=9) and mares (n=7) were followed through a 9 respective 12-week initial training program in order to determine potentially stressful training steps. Salivary cortisol concentrations, beat-to-beat (RR) interval and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined. The HRV variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR), RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR differences) and the geometric means standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2) were calculated. Nearly each training unit was associated with an increase in salivary cortisol concentrations (p<0.01). Cortisol release varied between training units and occasionally was more pronounced in mares than in stallions (p<0.05). The RR interval decreased slightly in response to lunging before mounting of the rider. A pronounced decrease occurred when the rider was mounting, but before the horse showed physical activity (p<0.001). The HRV variables SDRR, RMSSD and SD1 decreased in response to training and lowest values were reached during mounting of a rider (p<0.001). Thereafter RR interval and HRV variables increased again. In contrast, SD2 increased with the beginning of lunging (p<0.05) and no changes in response to mounting were detectable. In conclusion, initial training is a stressor for horses. The most pronounced reaction occurred in response to mounting by a rider, a situation resembling a potentially lethal threat under natural conditions.

  17. Spatial distribution of leaf morphological and physiological characteristics in relation to local radiation regime within the canopies of 3-year-old Populus clones in coppice culture.

    PubMed

    Casella, E; Ceulemans, R

    2002-12-01

    Spatial distributions of leaf characteristics relevant to photosynthesis were compared within high-density coppice canopies of Populus spp. of contrasting genetic origin. We studied three clones representative of the range in growth potential, leaf morphology, coppice and canopy structure: Clone Hoogvorst (Hoo) (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray x Populus deltoides Bartr. & Marsh), Clone Fritzi Pauley (Fri) (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) and Clone Wolterson (Wol) (Populus nigra L.). Leaf area index ranged from 2.7 (Fri and Wol) to 3.8 (Hoo). The clones exhibited large vertical variation in leaf area density (0.02-1.42 m2 m-3). Leaf dry mass per unit leaf area (DM(A)) increased with increasing light in Clones Hoo and Fri, from about 56 g m-2 at the bottom of the canopy to 162 g m-2 at the top. In Clone Wol, DM(A) varied only from 65 to 100 g m-2, with no consistent relationship with respect to light. Conversely, nitrogen concentration on a mass basis was nearly constant (around 1.3-2.1%) within the canopies of Clones Hoo and Fri, but increased strongly with light in Clone Wol, from 1.4% at the bottom of the canopy to 4.1% at the top. As a result, nitrogen per unit leaf area (N(A)) increased with light in the canopies of all clones, from 0.9 g m-2 at the bottom to 2.9 g m-2 at the top. Although a single linear relationship described the dependence of maximum carboxylation rate (17-93 micromol CO2 m-2 s-1) or electron transport capacity (45-186 micromol electrons m-2 s-1) on N(A), for all clones, Clone Wol differed from Clones Hoo and Fri by exhibiting a higher dark respiration rate at low N(A) (1.8 versus 0.8 micromol CO2 m-2 s-1).

  18. Parent Praise to 1- to 3-Year-Olds Predicts Children's Motivational Frameworks 5 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Gripshover, Sarah J.; Romero, Carissa; Dweck, Carol S.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    In laboratory studies, praising children's effort encourages them to adopt incremental motivational frameworks--they believe ability is malleable, attribute success to hard work, enjoy challenges, and generate strategies for improvement. In contrast, praising children's inherent abilities encourages them to adopt fixed-ability…

  19. The Finnish Family Competence Study: the relationship between caries, dental health habits and general health in 3-year-old Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Paunio, P; Rautava, P; Helenius, H; Alanen, P; Sillanpää, M

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how dental health related habits, infectious diseases and long-term illness are associated with dental health at the age of 3 in first-born children resident in a Finnish province. The study was designed as a survey using stratified randomised cluster sampling, confidential questionnaires and clinical dental examinations. The results were analysed using polytomous logistic models. In the stepwise analysis the only statistically significant explanatory factors were the use of juice at night and dental cleanliness. Antibiotic treatment or long-term illness was not significantly associated with dental health.

  20. Can Severely Language Delayed 3-Year-Olds Be Identified at 18 Months? Evaluation of a Screening Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Monica; Berglund, Eva; Eriksson, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's…

  1. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Black, T E; Bischoff, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Marquezini, G H L; Dilorenzo, N; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Maddock, T D; Lamb, G C

    2013-05-01

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-yr-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered facility and fed similar forage-based diets, and individual feed intakes, BW, BCS, chute scores (CS), exit velocities (EV), and pen scores (PS) were collected throughout the 70-d feeding trials. In Phase 2, cows were milked on trial d 14 (lactation d 28 ± 3.5) and trial d 70 (lactation d 84 ± 3.5) to determine energy-corrected milk (ECM) production. Ultrasonic backfat thickness (BF), and ribeye area (REA) were evaluated on d 0 and 70 of the trial in Phase 2. Heifers were ranked by RFI and placed into Low (<0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 27), Medium (within ± 0.5 SD; n = 23), and High (>0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 24) RFI groups. Body weight, BCS, and ADG were similar among all RFI groups; however, daily DMI differed for all groups (P < 0.01) and was greater (10.76 ± 0.24 kg/d) for High, intermediate (9.88 ± 0.25 kg/d) for Medium, and less (8.52 ± 0.23 kg/d) for Low RFI heifers. When cow performance was analyzed based on RFI rank as heifers, BW, BCS, ADG, RFI, d 14 and d 70 ECM, BF, and REA were similar among RFI groups; however, cows that were most efficient as heifers (Low) had decreased (P < 0.05) daily DMI values (10.30 ± 0.41 kg/d) compared with cows that ranked Medium (11.60 ± 0.44 kg/d) or High (11.50 ± 0.43 kg/d) as heifers. The Pearson rank correlation between Phase 1 and 2 RFI was r = 0.13 (P = 0.30), and Pearson rank correlations showed no relationship (P > 0.1) between RFI and temperament. Phase 1 CS was negatively associated with ADG in Phase 1 (r = -0.28; P = 0.02) and 2 (r = -0.32; P = 0.01), and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.24; P = 0.04) and 70 (r = 0.25; P = 0.03) ECM. Phase 2 CS was negatively associated with Phase 2 ADG (r = -0.29; P = 0.01) and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.46; P = 0.001) and 70 (r = 0.33; P = 0.004) ECM. Phase 2 PS also tended to be negatively associated with DMI in Phase 1 (r = -0.20; P = 0.096) and 2 (r = -0.20; P = 0.08). In this study, heifers that were most feed efficient subsequently consumed less feed as lactating cows and maintained similar performance. Feed efficiency was not associated with differences in temperament; however, more excitable females had poorer BW gains and tended to have reduced feed intakes but produced more ECM. PMID:23463567

  2. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility.

  3. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  4. Early Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agostino, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…

  5. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... permanent memorialization of the crimes committed against them. Studies indicate that child victims endure depression, withdrawal, anger, and other psychological disorders. Victims also experience feelings ...

  6. Child maltreatment: international perspectives.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, I J; Darwish, A M; McLean, M

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to explore definitions, incidence, and management of child maltreatment across cultures. Articles written in the English language published from 1962 to 1991 were reviewed to answer the following questions: (1) What role does cross-cultural variability play in defining child maltreatment? (2) What is the incidence of maltreatment in developed and developing countries across continents? (3) What measures have been instituted by countries to prevent and manage child maltreatment? Cross-cultural information was found to be limited. Child rearing attitudes had an impact on the identification, prevention, and management of maltreatment across nations.

  7. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or adults. Threatening the child with violence or abandonment. Constantly criticizing or blaming the child for problems. ... alone for a long time. This is called abandonment. These are signs that a child that may ...

  8. Loss of a child - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  9. Status of tribal girl child.

    PubMed

    Dashora, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes socioeconomic conditions for the girl child among tribals in India. India has the largest tribal population in the world: about 67.7 million in 1991. 1 in every 12 Indian women is a tribal woman. Tribal populations are distributed unevenly across India. 85% of the tribal population live in the central belt extending from Gujarat and Rajasthan to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar states to the east. There are 250 officially recognized tribal groups. Article 46 of the Constitution provides for special care in education and economic matters for scheduled tribes (STs) and for protection from social injustice and exploitation. In practice, STs are denied rights over resources, and their social governing systems are not recognized. Tribal girls do not have the same inheritance rights, except in matrilineal society. The incidence of child labor is very high. Girls are paid less than boys and are forced to stay home from school to care for younger siblings. Tribal girls are denied nutritious food and proper health care. Literacy among tribal women increased from 3.16% in 1961 to 18.19% in 1991. Male literacy increased from 13.04% to 32.5%. Girl children are enrolled in school but are withdrawn early. Lower female enrollment is attributed to lack of parental awareness, lack of institutional support, girls who are the eldest in the family, irrelevant school curricula, and teaching in a language different from the child's spoken language. During 1991-92, there were insufficient numbers of schools for girls. Tribal mothers have high rates of anemia, and girl children receive less than the desired nutritional level. Tribal girls suffer from inadequate food intake, hard work, and diseases. The community is also deficient in adequate food intake. Tribals have learned to live with minimum subsistence. Tribals need to be made aware of politics, economic opportunities, and how to achieve a higher quality of life. PMID:12158010

  10. Status of tribal girl child.

    PubMed

    Dashora, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes socioeconomic conditions for the girl child among tribals in India. India has the largest tribal population in the world: about 67.7 million in 1991. 1 in every 12 Indian women is a tribal woman. Tribal populations are distributed unevenly across India. 85% of the tribal population live in the central belt extending from Gujarat and Rajasthan to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar states to the east. There are 250 officially recognized tribal groups. Article 46 of the Constitution provides for special care in education and economic matters for scheduled tribes (STs) and for protection from social injustice and exploitation. In practice, STs are denied rights over resources, and their social governing systems are not recognized. Tribal girls do not have the same inheritance rights, except in matrilineal society. The incidence of child labor is very high. Girls are paid less than boys and are forced to stay home from school to care for younger siblings. Tribal girls are denied nutritious food and proper health care. Literacy among tribal women increased from 3.16% in 1961 to 18.19% in 1991. Male literacy increased from 13.04% to 32.5%. Girl children are enrolled in school but are withdrawn early. Lower female enrollment is attributed to lack of parental awareness, lack of institutional support, girls who are the eldest in the family, irrelevant school curricula, and teaching in a language different from the child's spoken language. During 1991-92, there were insufficient numbers of schools for girls. Tribal mothers have high rates of anemia, and girl children receive less than the desired nutritional level. Tribal girls suffer from inadequate food intake, hard work, and diseases. The community is also deficient in adequate food intake. Tribals have learned to live with minimum subsistence. Tribals need to be made aware of politics, economic opportunities, and how to achieve a higher quality of life.

  11. Differential Patterns of Disclosure of Child Abuse among Boys and Girls: Implications for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the differential incidence of male versus female reports of sexual abuse through hotlines and solicited reports. Reports occurred after the institution of a child abuse prevention program for 1,920 children K-12. (RJC)

  12. Child Wellness and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  13. Building the Biocentric Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, David

    2002-01-01

    Advocates an environmentally congruent conception of child development and includes Montessori theory as part of a biocentric view where child development connects to the laws of nature. Explains orientations to the world informing development of a biocentric vision of childhood: mastery, immersion, and engagement. Discusses how mastery and…

  14. Child Care in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Describes the experiences of American educators on a tour of "kindergarten" (preschool) programs in China, and highlights the major characteristics of child care and preschool in that country. Addresses funding, staff training, enrollment, child-staff ratios, health and immunization, parent involvement, politicization, materials and equipment, and…

  15. Child Care '92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anne; Gage, Diane

    1992-01-01

    This special issue on child care presents articles on children's health, day care, grandparents, father-child relationships, pregnancy after age 40, children's dental care, children's moral development, parties for children, children's fighting, fashions in children's clothes, sibling relationships, and health care programs for children. (BC)

  16. Defining Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giovannoni, Jeanne M.; Becerra, Rosina M.

    In seeking to clarify the meaning of the terms "child abuse" and "child neglect" it has been assumed that, like other forms of social deviance, they are socially defined phenomena. Interviews were conducted with those professionals (lawyers, pediatricians, police officers, and social workers) who daily handle the problems of abuse and neglect for…

  17. [Child Abuse: 1979 Report].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Welfare, Harrisburg.

    As mandated by Pennsylvania's Child Protective Services Law (Act 124), the document presents the Department of Public Welfare's 1979 report on child abuse. Following an introductory section is a brief section on the nature and scope of the problem. Section III outlines the past year's activities of the Department of Public Welfare's Office of…

  18. The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  19. Child Care Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech. Univ., Lubbock. School of Home Economics.

    This course of study for the child care aide is one of a series available for use by teacher-coordinators and students in Grade 11 and 12 home economics cooperative education programs. Based on job analysis interviews with child care center personnel, the course was prepared by teacher and Instructional Materials Center staff, field-tested, and…

  20. Tutoring Your Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Joanne

    The parents' role as teacher is important to a child's learning process. Parents tutoring their children are advised to remain positive and patient, be aware of the child's feelings, keep the tutoring time short, select a quiet place away from distractions, use games and manipulative objects rather than more abstract experiences, etc. Informal…

  1. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  2. Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    A series of four documents address the definition and identification of child abuse and neglect. In the first, which is designed for professionals, a historical review is followed by discussion of clinical and social evidence of abuse. Resources for managing child abuse are described, and personnel functions are outlined. The second document,…

  3. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  4. Child Development through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landau, Elliott D., Ed.; And Others

    This volume is an attempt to provide literature that will enhance through vicarious experience and emotional involvement the adult's understanding of the principles of child development. The selections are organized into categories and cross-indexed with most of the standard texts in child development and psychology. It is divided into ten major…

  5. Headstart for Every Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Annie L.

    An early learning kit provides a booklet of ten articles on educational head starts for children along with an activity packet for classroom use. The articles deal with: the crucial early school years; emotional preparation of the child; broadening a child's background; selecting toys and games; reading readiness; mathematical skills; learning to…

  6. The Normalized Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Kathleen H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes characteristics of the normalized child, the ultimate goal of Montessori education. First outlines children's basic needs, then describes traits of the normalized child, including love of order, work, silence and working alone; mutual aid and cooperation; profound spontaneous concentration; obedience; independence and initiative;…

  7. Divorce Child Custody Disputes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlgate, Laurence D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines ethical issues in making policy decisions regarding divorce child custody disputes. Suggests dilemma occurs when legislator must decide between discretionary standard promoting best interest of child and nondiscretionary arbitrary assignment of custody. Advocates normative analysis of various types of dispute-settling processes and…

  8. Your Child's Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations Print A A A Text Size What's in ... But in both cases, the protection is temporary. Immunization (vaccination) is a way of creating immunity to ...

  9. Child Development Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, J. Lynne; Garfield, Nancy

    The Education for Parenthood Child Development Guide is designed to encourage Girl Scouts to choose various activities relating to: observing and working with children; drawing conclusions based on their own experiences and evidence; choosing their own activities and projects; collecting their own evidence on child development; creating projects…

  10. The Only Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marcia Ellen McGuire

    This review of the literature on the "only child" indicates that the single child is likely to be oriented more toward adults than towards peers, to be subjected more to an adult culture, to be an achiever who strikes out on his own, and to have a heightened sense of responsibility compared with children who have siblings. Statistics show only…

  11. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  12. Child Safety Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    This document presents a set of child safety curriculum guidelines intended to help prevent child victimization and to promote safer living and learning environments for children and adolescents across America. These guidelines were developed to help educators, law enforcement personnel, and members of other youth-serving agencies teach children…

  13. The Chicano Migrant Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfaro, Manuel R., Jr.; Hawkins, Homer C.

    The paper deals with the culture and background of the Chicano migrant child and with his frustrations and conflicts in encountering the Anglo culture as represented by the school. It is pointed out that the Chicano migrant child, whose home base is in the Rio Grande Valley, lives in either a barrio or, in summer, a migrant camp and has little…

  14. [Child neurology and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, K

    2000-05-01

    The history of child neurology and the changing pattern of research methods in this field are reviewed with special reference to holoprosencephaly and recent technical advances in sleep research. This is followed by a discussion on the relationship between child neurology and rehabilitation. The majority of child neurologic disorders are developmental disabilities, but acquired child neurological diseases also show chronic progressive course in many cases. Therefore, child neurologist should understand the basis of rehabilitation approach and appreciate the three classes of disabilities; subsequently, a plan needs to be incorporating medical treatment and a program of rehabilitation for the disabled children. It is important that the role of the various rehabilitation specialists (rehabilitation doctor, physiotherapist, occupational therapist, and others) are understood in relation to the work of pediatric neurologist. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on the rehabilitation approach of patients with hypoxic encephalopathy and the information of welfare equipment.

  15. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  16. Parent-Child Communication about Television: A View from the Parent's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantz, Walter; Weaver, James B., III

    This study examined both general and specific parent-child television viewing experiences together with any interactions related to television viewing whether the child has watched television with a parent or alone. A total of 384 telephone interviews of parents (57% female, 43% male) with children at home between the ages of 6 and 18 were…

  17. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  18. Parental Psychopathology and Child-Rearing Practices in Young Alcoholic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. Hobart; And Others

    The relationship of parent alcohol involvement, depression, and antisocial behavior to self-reported parenting practices in a sample of 79 intact alcoholic families with male children of 3-6 years of age was studied. Child rearing practices were measured with the Block Child Rearing Practices Report. Psychopathology was measured with the…

  19. Child Molesters vs. Rapists as Reflected in Their Self-Figure Drawings: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Witztum, Eliezer

    2006-01-01

    This study explored whether child molesters can be differentiated from rapists in their self-figure drawings. To achieve this aim, the Machover Draw-A-Person test (Machover, 1949) was used. A sample of 41 male adult perpetrators of sexual assault, 19 rapists and 22 child molesters (all incarcerated in jail) participated in the study. Participants…

  20. Power Mobility and Socialization in Preschool: Follow-up Case Study of a Child with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ragonesi, Christina B.; Chen, Xi; Agrawal, Sunil; Galloway, James Cole

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Our previous study found it feasible for a preschooler with cerebral palsy (CP) to use a power mobility device in his classroom but noted a lack of typical socialization. The purpose of this follow-up study was to determine the feasibility of providing mobility and socialization training for this child. Methods Will, a 3-year-old with CP, one comparison peer, two preschool teachers, and two therapists were filmed daily during a training and post-training phase. Adult-directed training was provided in the classroom by therapists and teachers during the training phase. Mobility and socialization measures were coded from video. Outcomes During training, Will demonstrated higher socialization but less mobility than the comparison peer. Post training, Will socialized less but was more mobile, though less mobile than the comparison peer. Discussion Short-term, adult-directed power mobility and socialization training appears feasible for the preschool classroom. Important issues regarding socialization and power mobility are discussed. PMID:22090084

  1. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel T.; Nikolas, Molly A.

    2015-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD’s) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6–17 years (N=498; 50.4 % ADHD, 55 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment that included parent, child, and teacher report measures of parenting practices, child temperament, and ADHD symptoms. Statistical models examined the direct and indirect effects of maternal and paternal involvement, poor supervision, and inconsistent discipline on inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity via child temperament and personality traits. Results indicated differential patterns of effect for negative and positive parenting dimensions. First, inconsistent discipline exerted indirect effects on both ADHD symptom dimensions via child conscientiousness, such that higher levels of inconsistency predicted lower levels of conscientiousness, which in turn, predicted greater ADHD symptomatology. Similarly, poor supervision also exerted indirect effects on inattention via child conscientiousness as well as significant indirect effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity via its impact on both child reactive control and conscientiousness. In contrast, primarily direct effects of positive parenting (i.e., involvement) on ADHD emerged. Secondary checks revealed that similar pathways may also emerge for comorbid disruptive behavior disorders. Current findings extend upon past work by examining how parenting practices influence child ADHD via within child mechanisms and provide support for multi-pathway models accounting for heterogeneity in the disorder. PMID:25684446

  2. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed

    Ullsperger, Josie M; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD's) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6-17 years (N = 498; 50.4 % ADHD, 55 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment that included parent, child, and teacher report measures of parenting practices, child temperament, and ADHD symptoms. Statistical models examined the direct and indirect effects of maternal and paternal involvement, poor supervision, and inconsistent discipline on inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity via child temperament and personality traits. Results indicated differential patterns of effect for negative and positive parenting dimensions. First, inconsistent discipline exerted indirect effects on both ADHD symptom dimensions via child conscientiousness, such that higher levels of inconsistency predicted lower levels of conscientiousness, which in turn, predicted greater ADHD symptomatology. Similarly, poor supervision also exerted indirect effects on inattention via child conscientiousness as well as significant indirect effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity via its impact on both child reactive control and conscientiousness. In contrast, primarily direct effects of positive parenting (i.e., involvement) on ADHD emerged. Secondary checks revealed that similar pathways may also emerge for comorbid disruptive behavior disorders. Current findings extend upon past work by examining how parenting practices influence child ADHD via with-in child mechanisms and provide support for multi-pathway models accounting for heterogeneity in the disorder.

  3. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed

    Ullsperger, Josie M; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD's) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6-17 years (N = 498; 50.4 % ADHD, 55 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment that included parent, child, and teacher report measures of parenting practices, child temperament, and ADHD symptoms. Statistical models examined the direct and indirect effects of maternal and paternal involvement, poor supervision, and inconsistent discipline on inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity via child temperament and personality traits. Results indicated differential patterns of effect for negative and positive parenting dimensions. First, inconsistent discipline exerted indirect effects on both ADHD symptom dimensions via child conscientiousness, such that higher levels of inconsistency predicted lower levels of conscientiousness, which in turn, predicted greater ADHD symptomatology. Similarly, poor supervision also exerted indirect effects on inattention via child conscientiousness as well as significant indirect effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity via its impact on both child reactive control and conscientiousness. In contrast, primarily direct effects of positive parenting (i.e., involvement) on ADHD emerged. Secondary checks revealed that similar pathways may also emerge for comorbid disruptive behavior disorders. Current findings extend upon past work by examining how parenting practices influence child ADHD via with-in child mechanisms and provide support for multi-pathway models accounting for heterogeneity in the disorder. PMID:25684446

  4. Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dunstan, Frank; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Mann, Mala; Rolfe, Kim; Datta, Shalini; Thomas, D Phillip; Sibert, Jonathan R; Maguire, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types. Design Systematic review. Data sources All language literature search of Medline, Medline in Process, Embase, Assia, Caredata, Child Data, CINAHL, ISI Proceedings, Sciences Citation, Social Science Citation Index, SIGLE, Scopus, TRIP, and Social Care Online for original study articles, references, textbooks, and conference abstracts until May 2007. Study selection Comparative studies of fracture at different bony sites, sustained in physical abuse and from other causes in children <18 years old were included. Review articles, expert opinion, postmortem studies, and studies in adults were excluded. Data extraction and synthesis Each study had two independent reviews (three if disputed) by specialist reviewers including paediatricians, paediatric radiologists, orthopaedic surgeons, and named nurses in child protection. Each study was critically appraised by using data extraction sheets, critical appraisal forms, and evidence sheets based on NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidance. Meta-analysis was done where possible. A random effects model was fitted to account for the heterogeneity between studies. Results In total, 32 studies were included. Fractures resulting from abuse were recorded throughout the skeletal system, most commonly in infants (<1 year) and toddlers (between 1 and 3 years old). Multiple fractures were more common in cases of abuse. Once major trauma was excluded, rib fractures had the highest probability for abuse (0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.91). The probability of abuse given a humeral fracture lay between 0.48 (0.06 to 0.94) and 0.54 (0.20 to 0.88), depending on the definition of abuse used. Analysis of fracture type showed that supracondylar humeral fractures were less likely

  5. CHILD-to-Child Trial Program. Ajoya, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, David

    1983-01-01

    The CHILD-to-Child program is based on the recognition that older siblings often influence their younger family members. Activities of the CHILD-to-Child Program in Ajoya, Sinaloa, Mexico, relating to teaching about diarrhea and breast-feeding, are described. (CJ)

  6. Child Outcome Measures in the Study of Child Care Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha; Halle, Tamara; Martin, Laurie; Cabrera, Natasha; Calkins, Julia; Pitzer, Lindsay; Margie, Nancy Geyelin

    2006-01-01

    This article assesses whether there are methodological problems with child outcome measures that may contribute to the small associations between child care quality and child outcomes found in the literature. Outcome measures used in 65 studies of child care quality published between 1979 and December 2005 were examined, taking the previous review…

  7. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  8. [The child and society].

    PubMed

    Diagne, A

    1990-04-01

    This article describes how important it is in traditional Africa to integrate a child to his group and environment from the time of infancy and throughout adulthood. Unfortunately today, African children are exposed to materialistic and psychological conditions that negatively affect their psychological and sociological development. This process of socialization begins during breastfeeding; the stage involves the child among his extended family and community; between 6-7 a child is separated and integrated into gender-specific and socio-cultural institutions. An African child learns at an early age the importance of remaining a close part of traditional life and must remain responsive to the needs of the collective. The traditional child differs from the modern African child in how much deviant behavior he is allowed. The process of modernization and urbanization is changing the development of the traditional African family; the needs to the collective are diminishing to that of the nuclear family. Schools' are only educating the intellect of students and leaving the psychosocial aspects of education to the family. In modern Africa where urban parents work and do not have the time to devote to their children, and there is no longer an extended family and community to socialize the child, children are growing up without the security of a community and culture and are, instead, learning to emulate marginal and materialistic values. Recommendations include redefining the roles of mothers and fathers to become sensitive to the needs of children and adolescents during their years of development.

  9. "I Keep That Hush-Hush": Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse and the Challenges of Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorsoli, Lynn; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Grossman, Frances K.

    2008-01-01

    Disclosure is a prominent variable in child sexual abuse research, but little research has examined male disclosure experiences. Sixteen male survivors of childhood sexual abuse were interviewed regarding experiences of disclosure. Analytic techniques included a grounded theory approach to coding and the use of conceptually clustered matrices.…

  10. Theoretical Perspectives of Male Sexual Abuse: Conceptualization of a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamanduros, Terry; Cosentino, Clare E.; Tysinger, P. Dawn; Tysinger, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the traumatic impact that sexual abuse can have on a young male's development by addressing mediating dispositions that can render a child vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse. Consideration is given to three different theoretical perspectives that are not exclusive to male victims but shed light…

  11. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology.

  12. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology. PMID:26439062

  13. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  14. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  15. Sexual preference for child and aggressive stimuli: comparison of rapists and child molesters using auditory and visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Miner, M H; West, M A; Day, D M

    1995-06-01

    154 Ss were tested using penile plethysmography as part of intake into a voluntary inpatient sex offender treatment program. The testing protocol included slide stimuli of nude males and females in four age categories ranging from age 1 to adult; audiotaped descriptions of sexual activity with children of both genders which included fondling, sexual contact with no resistance, coercive sexual contact, sexual assault, nonsexual assault, and consensual sexual contact with an adult; videotaped depictions of rape of an adult woman, nonsexual assault of an adult woman and consensual sexual involvement with an adult woman, and audiotaped descriptions that paralleled the videotapes. The results indicated that child molesters (male victim) show a decidedly more offense related arousal profile than either child molesters (female victim) or rapists, and that the profiles of child molesters (female victim) and rapists are remarkably similar, although statistically significantly different from each other. Rapists respond significantly more to rape and nonsexual assault than either of the two child molester groups, with child molesters with female victims responding more than those with male victims. In all three groups, the highest level of noncoercive adult responding was to women, with differences among offense groups present for visual stimuli, but not in response to auditory stimuli. Overall, the patterns of results are similar whether they are based on composites across stimulus modality or on the individual stimuli.

  16. Sexual preference for child and aggressive stimuli: comparison of rapists and child molesters using auditory and visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Miner, M H; West, M A; Day, D M

    1995-06-01

    154 Ss were tested using penile plethysmography as part of intake into a voluntary inpatient sex offender treatment program. The testing protocol included slide stimuli of nude males and females in four age categories ranging from age 1 to adult; audiotaped descriptions of sexual activity with children of both genders which included fondling, sexual contact with no resistance, coercive sexual contact, sexual assault, nonsexual assault, and consensual sexual contact with an adult; videotaped depictions of rape of an adult woman, nonsexual assault of an adult woman and consensual sexual involvement with an adult woman, and audiotaped descriptions that paralleled the videotapes. The results indicated that child molesters (male victim) show a decidedly more offense related arousal profile than either child molesters (female victim) or rapists, and that the profiles of child molesters (female victim) and rapists are remarkably similar, although statistically significantly different from each other. Rapists respond significantly more to rape and nonsexual assault than either of the two child molester groups, with child molesters with female victims responding more than those with male victims. In all three groups, the highest level of noncoercive adult responding was to women, with differences among offense groups present for visual stimuli, but not in response to auditory stimuli. Overall, the patterns of results are similar whether they are based on composites across stimulus modality or on the individual stimuli. PMID:7598675

  17. Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh

    2006-01-01

    We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…

  18. Gender, Education and Child Labour: A Sociological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    In all societies, boys and girls are assigned different societal roles and experience different perspectives of life as a result of their being male or female. Such differences have a gigantic impact on their lives. The importance of gender perspective is very important in understanding the convolution of child labour. Gender, as opposed to sex,…

  19. Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Neil, Debra A.; Taylor, Tamara N.

    2009-01-01

    The component structure of the Child Dissociative Checklist was examined among abused children. A factor described as pathological dissociation emerged that was predicted by participants being male. There also were differences in pathological dissociation between groups of sexually abused and physically abused children. Replication of this factor…

  20. Victim Therapy with Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Thomas L.

    This paper describes a four-phase therapeutic approach that has proven useful to adult female and male survivors of child sexual abuse. The methods described are primarily used in individual therapy, although the context is within the family therapy realm and relies heavily upon Structural Family Systems Theory. The four phases which a victim…

  1. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming. Images p452-a PMID:2507011

  2. A Psychodynamic Child Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    Research showing psychodynamic child therapy to be less effective than other forms of child treatment have used outcome measures focusing on symptomatic and behavioral change rather than on psychodynamic processes. A child therapy assessment procedure than measures the psychological functioning of the child in a psychodynamically meaningful way is…

  3. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  4. Scratchcard gambling among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M

    2000-01-01

    Playing instant scratchcards has become a popular activity among a significant minority of the UK population since their introduction by the National Lottery operators (Camelot) on March 21, 1995. This study examined scratchcard gambling in a group of adolescent males. A total of 204 boys from two secondary schools in Birmingham (aged 11 to 16 years; mean age 13.6 years) were administered a questionnaire on their scratchcard gambling behaviour. Ten classes (five in each school) took part in the survey with one class from each year group selected at random by the headteacher. Within each class almost all the children took part. Forty-two percent of the sample (n=86) had bought their own scratchcards since their introduction in March 1995. Ten children (12% of the gamblers who had bought scratchcards themselves) met an adapted version of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling on scratchcards. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between parents buying scratchcards and the child's scratchcard purchasing behaviour. PMID:14634322

  5. Predictors of male microchimerism.

    PubMed

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K; Tjønneland, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The association between microchimerism acquired primarily through pregnancy and later disease is of increasing scientific interest. Because this line of research is new and little is known about the nature of microchimerism, studies of microchimerism are potentially vulnerable to error from confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily confounded by the variables examined in the present investigation. More research focused on acquisition, retention and clearing of male cells in the maternal circulation is needed. PMID:22926759

  6. Predictors of male microchimerism.

    PubMed

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Gadi, Vijayakrishna K; Tjønneland, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The association between microchimerism acquired primarily through pregnancy and later disease is of increasing scientific interest. Because this line of research is new and little is known about the nature of microchimerism, studies of microchimerism are potentially vulnerable to error from confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills and hormone replacement therapy reduced the odds of testing positive for male microchimerism. However, prediction of male microchimerism presence was poor based on the available variables. Studies of the possible role of male microchimerism in maternal health and disease are therefore unlikely to be heavily confounded by the variables examined in the present investigation. More research focused on acquisition, retention and clearing of male cells in the maternal circulation is needed.

  7. Fats and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Fats and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Fats and ... an important part of a healthy diet. About Fat Fats are nutrients in food that the body ...

  8. Choosing Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... child is safe and happy in a childcare environment that is fun, educational, and nurturing. Here are ... the opportunity to learn and grow in this environment? If none of the caregivers or childcare centers ...

  9. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    MedlinePlus

    ... snacks. The child athlete, however, will have higher energy and fluid requirements. Kids and teens who are ... consume more food to keep up with increased energy demands. Most athletes will naturally eat the right ...

  10. Child safety seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... own lap and shoulder belts fit correctly. The lap belt should fall across your child's upper thighs. The ... seats. The vests are used with the vehicle's lap and seat belts. As with car seats, children should be sitting ...

  11. Child Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... important to recognize and treat mental illnesses in children early on. Once mental illness develops, it becomes a regular part of your child's behavior. This makes it more difficult to treat. ...

  12. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse and neglect reported to child protective services (CPS) in 2014. The youngest children are the most ... reported victims being under the age of three. CPS reports may underestimate the true occurrence of abuse ...

  13. Helping Your Overweight Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... in calories, sugar, and salt like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy refined grains (white flour, ... Buy fewer high-calorie foods like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy. Offer your child water ...

  14. Child safety (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Keep cleaning fluids, bug poisons, and other chemicals well out of a child's reach. Avoid storing toxic substances in unmarked or inappropriate containers (such as food containers). If you suspect poisoning or have questions, call 1-800-222-1222.

  15. Your Child's Growth

    MedlinePlus

    ... and eat healthy. Bicycling, hiking, in-line skating, sports, or any enjoyable activity that will motivate kids ... have concerns about dating, driving, and participating in sports. It's important to try to understand your child's ...

  16. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  17. Office of Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reauthorization Act of 2014 includes a requirement to design and develop a national website and hotline to disseminate publicly available child care consumer education information for parents. Learn more about this project > What ...

  18. Your Child's Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... should help your child breathe more easily. Try reading a book together to pass the time. A ...

  19. Child Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems are at higher risk for school failure, mental health problems, and even suicide. Classes or family therapy may help parents learn to set and enforce limits. Talk therapy and behavior therapy for your child can also help.

  20. Child Development & Behavior Topics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children about September 11th Talking to Kids about War and Terrorism Tantrums: Behavior Problems Tantrums Podcast Teen ... Video Games Back to top W Walking Safety Water and Pool Safety Welcome to Your Child: Development ...

  1. Disciplining Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Give your child one warning (unless it is aggression). If it happens again, send her to the ... are less likely to be consistent. Spanking increases aggression and anger instead of teaching responsibility. Parents may ...

  2. Empathy deficits and cognitive distortions in child molesters.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W L; Hamilton, K; Fernandez, Y

    2001-04-01

    An attempt was made to examine the thesis that the apparent empathy deficits in child molesters are simply another aspect of their self-serving tendency to distort information by, in this case, failing to recognize victim harm. Thirty-four child molesters were compared on a victim empathy measure and a measure of cognitive distortions, with 24 nonsex offenders and 28 nonoffending males. Child molesters displayed greater cognitive distortions than the other subjects and their greatest empathy deficits were toward their own victims. Consistent with the theory being examined it was found that the empathy scores of the child molesters toward their own victims were significantly correlated with the responses to the cognitive distortions scale. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for theory and practice.

  3. Holocaust child survivors and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during the war completed open-ended interviews. The data was qualitatively analyzed according to Tutty, Rothery, and Grinnell's (1996) guidelines. Three major themes were found: issues relating to the sexual abuse trauma, survivors' perceptions of the abuse, and survivors' general perspectives towards life. The identity of the offenders, Jewish or non-Jewish, determined the survivors' feelings towards themselves, the perpetrators, and about the worth of life.

  4. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  5. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  6. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  7. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  8. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  9. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePlus

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  10. Chlamydial infections - male

    MedlinePlus

    Chlamydia infection in males is an infection of the urethra (the tube that drains urine from the ... and passes through the penis). This type of chlamydia infection is passed from one person to another ...

  11. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually. PMID:15974425

  12. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.

  13. Adults' perceptions of children's independence and other sex-role characteristics as a function of child's gender label.

    PubMed

    Bell, N J; Hibbs, K; Milholland, T

    1978-12-01

    Male and female college students were presented with a photograph labeled as a 5-yr.-old boy or girl and heard statements attributed to the child. They then rated the child on sex-role traits and responded to open-ended questions about the child. The primary findings involved sex of child by sex of adult interactions on ratings of independence and leadership: in both cases, same-sex children were rated higher than opposite-sex children. There was also some evidence that women having high contact with children rated the child more extremely on opposite-sex traits than did those with little contact. PMID:740494

  14. Female offenders in child sexual abuse cases: a national picture.

    PubMed

    McLeod, David Axlyn

    2015-01-01

    Female sexual offenders are significantly underrepresented in the literature. Largely due to a failure of our society to recognize women as offenders, we allow them to avoid detection, prosecution, and interventions like tracking, registration, or mandated treatment. This could be partially due to differences that exist in their offending behaviors, victim profiles, and personal characteristics that set them apart from male offenders, to whom our systems have become more attuned. This article features an examination of virtually every substantiated child sexual abuse case reported to child protective services in the United States for 2010. Findings detail observed differences between male and female offenders on multiple domains and affirm female sexual offenders to be distinctly different from their male counterparts.

  15. A longitudinal investigation of maternal influences on the development of child hostile attributions and aggression.

    PubMed

    Healy, Sarah J; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J; Hughes, Claire; Halligan, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Aggression in children is associated with an enhanced tendency to attribute hostile intentions to others. However, limited information is available regarding the factors that contribute to the development of such hostile attribution tendencies. We examined factors that contribute to individual differences in child hostile attributions and aggression, focusing on potential pathways from maternal hostile attributions via negative parenting behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 98 mothers and children (47 male, 51 female), recruited from groups experiencing high and low levels of psychosocial adversity. Maternal hostile attributions, observed parenting, and child behaviour were assessed at 18 months and 5 years child age, and child hostile attributions were also examined at 5 years. Independent assessments of maternal and child processes were utilized where possible. Analyses provided support for a direct influence of maternal hostile attributions on the development of child hostile attributions and aggressive behaviour. Maternal hostile attributions were also associated with negative parenting behaviour, which in turn influenced child adjustment. Even taking account of possible parenting influences and preexisting child difficulties, hostile attributions in the mother showed a direct link with child aggression at 5 years. Maternal hostile attributions were themselves related to psychosocial adversity. We conclude that maternal hostile attributions are prevalent in high-risk samples and are related to less optimal parenting behaviour, child hostile attributions, and child aggression. Targeting hostile maternal cognitions may be a useful adjunct to parenting programs.

  16. Gender difference in child mortality.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, F A

    1990-12-01

    1976 census data and data on births to 8788 ever married women from the 1980 Egyptian Fertility Survey were analyzed to determine if son preference was responsible for higher mortality among girls than among boys and what factors were associated with this higher mortality. During 0-3 years, boys were more likely to die than females. For example, the overall male-female sex ratio for the 1st year was 118:100. At ages 5, 10, 15, and 2 0, however, girls were more likely to die. The sex rations for these years were 98, 95, 93, and 91. In fact, the excess mortality among illiterate mothers accounted for most of the overall excess mortality. As mother's educational level rose, the excess mortality of girls fell, so that by university level boys experienced excess mortality (130, 111, 112, 105). Less educated mothers breast fed sons longer and waited more months after birth of a son to have another child indicating son preference, but these factors did not necessarily contribute to excess mortality. The major cause of female excess mortality in Egypt was that boys received favored treatment of digestive and respiratory illnesses as indicated by accessibility to a pharmacy (p.01). Norms/traditions and religion played a significant role in excess mortality. The effect of norms/traditions was greater than religion, however. Mother's current and past employment strongly contributed to reducing girls' mortality levels (p.01). These results indicated that Egypt should strive to increase the educational level of females and work opportunities for women to reduce female child mortality. Further, it should work to improve women's status which in turn will reduce norms/traditions that encourage son preference and higher mortality level for girls.

  17. Support Person Presence and Child Victim Testimony: Believe it or Not.

    PubMed

    McAuliff, Bradley D; Lapin, Joshua; Michel, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of support person presence on participants' perceptions of an alleged child sexual abuse victim and defendant. Two hundred jury-eligible community members (n = 100 males) viewed a DVD of an 11-year-old girl's simulated courtroom testimony either with or without a female support person seated next to her. Participants found the child victim to be less accurate and trustworthy, and the defendant to be less guilty and less likely to have sexually abused children, when the support person was present. Participants who viewed the female support person (n = 100) believed that she had probably coached and spent a great deal of time with the child victim before testifying. Female participants perceived the child to be more accurate, and the defendant to be more guilty and likely to have sexually abused children, than male participants. The degree to which the child victim's testimonial behavior violated participants' expectancies mediated the negative relation between support person presence and child victim accuracy and trustworthiness. Support person presence was positively associated with expectancy violation, which in turn was negatively associated with child victim accuracy and trustworthiness. These preliminary findings suggest that seating a support person next to an alleged child victim in court may have the unintended effect of decreasing the child's perceived credibility and, if replicated, suggest that alternative seating arrangements might be necessary. PMID:26294385

  18. Targeting the adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Tumor-induced rickets in a child with a central giant cell granuloma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cooke, Elisa; Cruz-Rojo, Jaime; Gallego, Carmen; Romance, Ana Isabel; Mosqueda-Peña, Rocio; Almaden, Yolanda; Sánchez del Pozo, Jaime

    2015-06-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia/rickets is a rare paraneoplastic disorder associated with a tumor-producing fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). We present a child with symptoms of rickets as the first clinical sign of a central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) with high serum levels of FGF23, a hormone associated with decreased phosphate resorption. A 3-year-old boy presented with a limp and 6 months later with painless growth of the jaw. On examination gingival hypertrophy and genu varum were observed. Investigations revealed hypophosphatemia, normal 1,25 and 25 (OH) vitamin D, and high alkaline phosphatase. An MRI showed an osteolytic lesion of the maxilla. Radiographs revealed typical rachitic findings. Incisional biopsy of the tumor revealed a CGCG with mesenchymal matrix. The CGCG was initially treated with calcitonin, but the lesions continued to grow, making it necessary to perform tracheostomy and gastrostomy. One year after onset the hyperphosphaturia worsened, necessitating increasing oral phosphate supplements up to 100 mg/kg per day of elemental phosphorus. FGF23 levels were extremely high. Total removal of the tumor was impossible, and partial reduction was achieved after percutaneous computed tomography-guided radiofrequency, local instillation of triamcinolone, and oral propranolol. Compassionate use of cinacalcet was unsuccessful in preventing phosphaturia. The tumor slowly regressed after the third year of disease; phosphaturia improved, allowing the tapering of phosphate supplements, and FGF23 levels normalized. Tumor-induced osteomalacia/rickets is uncommon in children and is challenging for physicians to diagnose. It should be suspected in patients with intractable osteomalacia or rickets. A tumor should be ruled out if FGF23 levels are high.

  20. Development and verification of child observation sheet for 5-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Keiko; Nagai, Toshisaburo; Okazaki, Shin; Kawajiri, Mie; Tomiwa, Kiyotaka

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a newly devised child observation sheet (COS-5) as a scoring sheet, based on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), for use in the developmental evaluation of 5-year-old children, especially focusing on children with autistic features, and to verify its validity. Seventy-six children were studied. The children were recruited among participants of the Japan Children's Cohort Study, a research program implemented by the Research Institute of Science and Technology for Society (RISTEX) from 2004 to 2009. The developmental evaluation procedure was performed by doctors, clinical psychologists, and public health nurses. The COS-5 was also partly based on the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development 2001 (Kyoto Scale 2001). Further, the Developmental Disorders Screening Questionnaire for 5-Years-Olds, PDD-Autism Society Japan Rating Scale (PARS), doctor interview questions and neurological examination for 5-year-old children, and the Draw-a-Man Test (DAM) were used as evaluation scales. Eighteen (25.4%) children were rated as Suspected, including Suspected PDD, Suspected ADHD and Suspected MR. The COS-5 was suggested to be valid with favorable reliability (α=0.89) and correlation with other evaluation scales. The COS-5 may be useful, with the following advantages: it can be performed within a shorter time frame; it facilitates the maintenance of observation quality; it facilitates sharing information with other professions; and it is reliable to identify the autistic features of 5-year-old children. In order to verify its wider applications including the screening of infants (18months to 3years old) by adjusting the items of younger age, additional study is needed. PMID:23415454