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Sample records for 3-year-old male child

  1. A 3 Year-Old Male Child Ingested Approximately 750 Grams of Elemental Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Uysalol, Metin; Parlakgül, Güneş; Yılmaz, Yasin; Çıtak, Agop; Uzel, Nedret

    2016-01-01

    Background: The oral ingestion of elemental mercury is unlikely to cause systemic toxicity, as it is poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal system. However, abnormal gastrointestinal function or anatomy may allow elemental mercury into the bloodstream and the peritoneal space. Systemic effects of massive oral intake of mercury have rarely been reported. Case Report: In this paper, we are presenting the highest single oral intake of elemental mercury by a child aged 3 years. A Libyan boy aged 3 years ingested approximately 750 grams of elemental mercury and was still asymptomatic. Conclusion: The patient had no existing disease or abnormal gastrointestinal function or anatomy. The physical examination was normal. His serum mercury level was 91 µg/L (normal: <5 µg/L), and he showed no clinical manifestations. Exposure to mercury in children through different circumstances remains a likely occurrence. PMID:27606146

  2. [Dermatobia hominis infection in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Meissner, M; Kippenberger, S; Valesky, E M; Kaufmann, R

    2012-04-01

    In the context of increasing travel to the tropics, outpatient services are more frequently confronted with non-domestic diseases in Europe. A 3-year old child presented with a painful tumor of the scalp. After incision of the furuncle-like lesion, we extracted a larva of the botfly Dermatobia hominis. Botflies are mainly encountered in Central and South America; they should be considered if patients demonstrate a furuncle-like lesion and have returned from a holiday in these endemic regions.

  3. Pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Holdaway, M. D.; Kennedy, J.; Ashcroft, T.; Kay-Butler, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Until 1960, 179 cases of infection with Nocardia asteroides had been described in the world literature. Seventeen cases in children were reported by 1963. The organism is a common saprophyte in nature with probably a world-wide distribution. Infection can be primary but is more common in patients with underlying malignancy, auto-immune disease or preceding tuberculosis. Sulphonamides, particularly sulphadiazine, are the drugs of choice in treatment; the value of antibiotics is less clearly established. The indications for surgical treatment have not yet been defined. We record a further case of primary pulmonary nocardiosis in a 3-year-old child. Images PMID:6035802

  4. [Atypical presentation of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease in a 3-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Boiron, E; Soto, B; Zimmermann, B; Jullien, M

    2012-06-01

    Cat scratch disease is caused by a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacteria, Bartonella henselae. This disease is transmitted by cat scratches or bites. The typical form is a large and rough adenopathy, with no general signs. In a few cases, the symptoms are aspecific and various, which makes the diagnosis difficult. A 3-year-old child presented a prolonged fever with an aspecific skin eruption and hepatosplenic lesions seen 1 month after the beginning of the disease, which led to the diagnosis of hepatosplenic cat scratch disease. An adapted antibiotic therapy completely cured the disease.

  5. Acute dapsone poisoning in a 3-year-old child: Case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sunilkumar, Menon Narayanankutty; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Parvathy, Vadakut Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    Dapsone (DDS-diamino diphenyl sulphone) is a sulfone antibiotic being used for a variety of clinical conditions. Poisoning in children by DDS is rarely reported. Poisoning in acute cases will be frequently unrecognized due to relative lack of severe signs and symptoms. Methemoglobinemia is the major life-threatening situation associated with poisoning of DDS. Hence, any delay for medical attention can lead to increased rate of mortality. In this case, we describe acute DDS poisoning in a 3-year-old child and the successful management using intravenous methylene blue. PMID:26488029

  6. Development, Validation and Parametric study of a 3-Year-Old Child Head Finite Element Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shihai; Chen, Yue; Li, Haiyan; Ruan, ShiJie

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury caused by drop and traffic accidents is an important reason for children's death and disability. Recently, the computer finite element (FE) head model has been developed to investigate brain injury mechanism and biomechanical responses. Based on CT data of a healthy 3-year-old child head, the FE head model with detailed anatomical structure was developed. The deep brain structures such as white matter, gray matter, cerebral ventricle, hippocampus, were firstly created in this FE model. The FE model was validated by comparing the simulation results with that of cadaver experiments based on reconstructing the child and adult cadaver experiments. In addition, the effects of skull stiffness on the child head dynamic responses were further investigated. All the simulation results confirmed the good biofidelity of the FE model.

  7. Diffuse Spinal Leptomeningeal Spread of a Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a 3-year-old Child.

    PubMed

    Alyeldien, Ameer; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Cheko, Azad; Höll, Tanja; Scholz, Martin; Petridis, Athanasios K

    2016-03-25

    Pilocytic astrocytomas correspond to low-grade gliomas and therefore metastasize exceedingly rare. However, pilocytic astrocytomas are able to and leptomeningeal dissemination may be seen. What are the treatment options of these cases? We present a case report of a 3-year-old child with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm with leptomeningeal dissemination of the spinal meninges. Partial resection of the cerebral tumor has been performed. Since the leptomeningeal dissemination was seen all over the spinal meninges, the child did not undergo further surgical treatment. A wait and watch strategy were followed. Chemotherapy was initiated, if a 25% tumor growth was seen. Leptomeningeal dissemination of a pilocytic astrocytoma is seen so infrequently that no standard therapy is established. Since these metastases may occur even up to 2 decades after primary tumor resection, long-term follow-up is indicated. In case of spinal metastases, surgical treatment should be performed if feasible. Otherwise observation should be possessed and/or chemotherapy should be initiated.

  8. Diffuse Spinal Leptomeningeal Spread of a Pilocytic Astrocytoma in a 3-year-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Alyeldien, Ameer; Teuber-Hanselmann, Sarah; Cheko, Azad; Höll, Tanja; Scholz, Martin; Petridis, Athanasios K.

    2016-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas correspond to low-grade gliomas and therefore metastasize exceedingly rare. However, pilocytic astrocytomas are able to and leptomeningeal dissemination may be seen. What are the treatment options of these cases? We present a case report of a 3-year-old child with a pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm with leptomeningeal dissemination of the spinal meninges. Partial resection of the cerebral tumor has been performed. Since the leptomeningeal dissemination was seen all over the spinal meninges, the child did not undergo further surgical treatment. A wait and watch strategy were followed. Chemotherapy was initiated, if a 25% tumor growth was seen. Leptomeningeal dissemination of a pilocytic astrocytoma is seen so infrequently that no standard therapy is established. Since these metastases may occur even up to 2 decades after primary tumor resection, long-term follow-up is indicated. In case of spinal metastases, surgical treatment should be performed if feasible. Otherwise observation should be possessed and/or chemotherapy should be initiated. PMID:27162602

  9. Severe periodontal disease manifested in chronic disseminated type of langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 3-year old child.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Monika; Srivastava, Vinay Kumar; Bansal, Rajesh; Gupta, Vineeta; Bansal, Manish; Patne, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), previously known as histio-cytosis X, is a rare idiopathic disorder of reticulo-endothelial system with abnormal proliferation of bone marrow derived Langerhans cells along with a variable number of leukocytes, such as eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Three years old male child presented with multifocal osteolytic lesions and papulosquamous skin lesions. Clinical and radio-graphic features, such as severe alveolar bone loss, mobility of teeth, precocious eruption of teeth, foating appearance of teeth in orthopantomogram (OPG), osteolytic lesion in skull and cutaneous lesions were highly suggestive of LCH disease. Skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of LCH. Induction chemotherapy with oral prednisolone and intravenous vinblastine was started. Child responded well to chemotherapy. The clinical significance of the presented case is to diagnose the case of LCH on the basis of the manifestation of severe periodontal disease as this can be first or only manifestation of LCH. A dentist plays a major role in the multidisciplinary treatment of LCH through routine examination and periodic follow-up. How to cite this article: Bansal M, Srivastava VK, Bansal R, Gupta V, Bansal M, Patne S. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):217-219.

  10. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vinay Kumar; Bansal, Rajesh; Gupta, Vineeta; Bansal, Manish; Patne, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), previously known as histio-cytosis X, is a rare idiopathic disorder of reticulo-endothelial system with abnormal proliferation of bone marrow derived Langerhans cells along with a variable number of leukocytes, such as eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Three years old male child presented with multifocal osteolytic lesions and papulosquamous skin lesions. Clinical and radio-graphic features, such as severe alveolar bone loss, mobility of teeth, precocious eruption of teeth, foating appearance of teeth in orthopantomogram (OPG), osteolytic lesion in skull and cutaneous lesions were highly suggestive of LCH disease. Skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of LCH. Induction chemotherapy with oral prednisolone and intravenous vinblastine was started. Child responded well to chemotherapy. The clinical significance of the presented case is to diagnose the case of LCH on the basis of the manifestation of severe periodontal disease as this can be first or only manifestation of LCH. A dentist plays a major role in the multidisciplinary treatment of LCH through routine examination and periodic follow-up. How to cite this article: Bansal M, Srivastava VK, Bansal R, Gupta V, Bansal M, Patne S. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):217-219. PMID:25709306

  11. Conjunctival Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Diclehan; Kiratli, Hayyam; Kocabeyoğlu, Sibel

    2006-01-01

    A case of benign granulomas of the conjunctiva in a 3-year-old girl is reported. Histologic features of the excised conjunctival lesions were consistent with Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. This phenomenon is thought to be a granulomatous reaction to an antigen-antibody precipitate related to parasites or fungi. No causative agent is identified in our patient. Immunohistochemical analysis showed no immunoreactivity for immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, IgA, or the C3 component of the complement. We propose that the presence of small amelanotic nodular conjunctival tumors should arouse suspicion related to the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon even in early childhood.

  12. Bilateral cochlear nerve absence in a 3 year old child with VACTERL association.

    PubMed

    Rudić, Milan; Wong, Winson; Viner, Stuart; Strachan, David; Raine, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of a 3 year old boy with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss diagnosed from New Born Hearing Screening, with severe form of VACTERL association. He was referred to our Cochlear Implant Unit for assessment with regard to the possibility of cochlear implantation. MRI findings have showed bilateral vestibulocochlear cystic abnormalities. Only single nerve noted within the IAM on the right and likely single nerve within the IAM on the left. Hence, decision was made not to offer cochlear implantation. This is the first report of severe bilateral cochleovestibular nerve abnormalities to be associated with VACTERL.

  13. Periosteal desmoplastic fibroma of the tibia in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Sferopoulos, N K

    2015-12-01

    Desmoplastic fibroma is a rare benign fibrogenic, locally aggressive, primary bone tumor. It is the intraosseous counterpart of soft tissue aggressive fibromatosis. The lesion may very rarely appear as a superficial bone lesion arising from the periosteum; in such cases, a soft tissue mass with changes in the adjacent bone is evident. Periosteal lesions are very rare in the literature; diagnosis is usually based on the radiographic findings, and histological proof of the tumor origin is missing. A periosteal desmoplastic fibroma of the distal tibial metaphysis in a 3-year-old boy is presented. Radiographic investigation included plain radiographs and computed tomography imaging. Both demonstrated a soft tissue lesion involving the superficial bone tissues with non-aggressive looking borders and a pressure effect with a sclerotic rim in the bone. The lesion was excised, and the surgical as well as the histological findings indicated the diagnosis of a desmoplastic fibroma of bone arising from the periosteum. No recurrence was detected 5 years after surgery.

  14. Psychotherapy with a 3-Year-Old Child: The Role of Play in the Unfolding Process

    PubMed Central

    Salcuni, Silvia; Di Riso, Daniela; Mabilia, Diana; Lis, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the outcomes and process of psychodynamic psychotherapies with children. Among the limited number of studies, some only paid attention to play and verbal production, as they are fundamental aspects in assessing the psychotherapy process. This paper focuses on an empirical investigation of a 3-year, once-a-week psychodynamic psychotherapy carried out with a 3-year-old girl. A process-outcome design was implemented to evaluate play and verbal discourse in in the initial, middle, and final parts of 30 psychotherapy sessions. Repeated measurements of standardized play categories (the Play Category System and the Affect in Play Scale—Preschool version) and verbal discourse (Verbal Production) were analyzed. To increase the clinical validity of the study, data from the assessment phase and vignettes from the sessions were reported to deepen the patient’s picture during the unfolding therapy process. Parent reports before and after the therapy were also included. Empirically measured changes in play and verbal production were fundamental in evaluating the young patient’s psychotherapy process. Verbal production and discourse ability progressively increased and took the place of play, which instead became more symbolic. Developmental issues as well as psychotherapy’s influence on the patient’s change, were discussed in relation to the role of play in enhancing the development of verbal dialog and the expression of the child’s emotions, needs, and desires. PMID:28101070

  15. Mixed hepatoblastoma and teratoma of the liver in a 3-year-old child: a unique combination and clinical challenge

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Primary liver tumors in children are rare with malignant hepatoblastoma being the most common neoplasm. In this report, we describe the diagnosis and clinical management of a large liver tumor in a 3-year-old child that displayed the features of both, conventional hepatoblastoma and malignant teratoma. Pathological assessment on a pre-operative bioptical specimen showed an immature teratoid tumor with no area of hepatoblastic differentiation present. Histological and immunhistological examination of the resected tumor specimen additionally showed tumor areas of very different differentiation pattern intermixed with each other, namely areas of hepatoblastoma-typical and neuroblastoma-like morphology as well as areas of rhadomyosarcomatous differentiation. After chemotherapy the tumor size increased and an extended right hemihepatectomy was performed. Post-operatively, the general condition of the child improved and adjuvant chemotherapy was started two weeks later. 36 months after initial diagnosis the patient is healthy, in good general condition, and without any sign of residual tumor disease. Overall, we describe the diagnosis and clinical management of a large liver tumor in a 3-year-old child that displayed the features of both, conventional hepatoblastoma and malignant teratoma and was designated as mixed hepatoblastoma and teratoma. Though mesenchymal tumor portions can occur within hepatoblastomas, most commonly osteoid or chondroid, our case is different as it presents a large spectrum of mesenchymal and epithelial differentiation pattern in most of the lesion. PMID:19909520

  16. Why 3-Year-Old Children Get Spanked: Parent and Child Determinants as Reported by College-Educated Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, George W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Telephone interviews were conducted with 39 college-educated mothers of 3-year-old children to examine the conditions surrounding the occurrence of physical punishment. Responses suggest that certain types of misbehavior, notably aggression, were more likely to elicit spanking than other misbehavior. In addition, parents' positive attitudes toward…

  17. Management of symphysis fracture in a 3-year-old child with prefabricated acrylic splint and circum-mandibular wiring.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Ila; Kumar, M Naveen; Kumaran, P Satish; Bhandari, Arihant; Udhya, J

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric mandibular fractures are often the sequelae of facial skeletal injuries in patients with trauma and frequently require hospitalization. Due to the retrusive mid-face position relative to the calvarial prominence, facial fractures are rare in children younger than 5 years of age. Although rare, they most often occur as a result of motor vehicle accidents. The purpose of this report is to describe the management of a mandibular symphysis fracture in a 3-year-old boy with displacement between the primary mandibular left central and lateral incisors. The fracture was reduced and the fractured segment was stabilized under general anesthesia with a prefabricated acrylic splint with circum-mandibular wiring. Children have greater osteogenic potential and faster healing rates than adults; therefore, anatomic reduction in children is best accomplished earlier.

  18. Replantation in scapulothoracic avulsion amputation of the right upper limb in a 3-year-old child- A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Mahendru, Sanjay; Khazanchi, Rakesh Kumar; Brajesh, Vimalendu; Jawed, Akram; Aggarwal, Aditya; Singh, Hardeep; Singh, Sukhdeep; Krishnan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Replantations for major amputations of upper extremity have been widely performed. We report a unique case of successful replantation of scapulothoracic avulsion amputation in a child. In this manuscript, we discuss the various challenges faced during the procedure and chances of neural recovery. PMID:27833298

  19. Respiratory failure during infusion of pamidronate in a 3 year-old male with osteogenesis imperfecta: a case report.

    PubMed

    Olson, Jennifer Ann

    2014-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are being used more frequently as part of the multi-disciplinary management of moderate to severe Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI). This report details the development of respiratory failure during the second infusion of pamidronate in a 3.5 year-old male with osteogenesis imperfecta type 1 and no prior history of respiratory disease.

  20. Frontal sled tests comparing rear and forward facing child restraints with 1-3 year old dummies.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, C P; Crandall, J R

    2007-01-01

    Although most countries recommend transitioning children from rear facing (RF) to forward facing (FF) child restraints at one year of age, Swedish data suggests that RF restraints are more effective. The objective of this study was to compare RF and FF orientations in frontal sled tests. Four dummies (CRABI 12 mo, Q1.5, Hybrid III 3 yr, and Q3) were used to represent children from 1 to 3 years of age. Restraint systems tested included both 1) LATCH and 2) rigid ISOFIX with support leg designs. Rear facing restraints with support legs provided the best results for all injury measures, while RF restraints in general provided the lowest chest displacements and neck loads.

  1. Relations of maternal style and child self-concept to autobiographical memories in chinese, chinese immigrant, and European american 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi

    2006-01-01

    The relations of maternal reminiscing style and child self-concept to children's shared and independent autobiographical memories were examined in a sample of 189 three-year-olds and their mothers from Chinese families in China, first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the United States, and European American families. Mothers shared memories with their children and completed questionnaires; children recounted autobiographical events and described themselves with a researcher. Independent of culture, gender, child age, and language skills, maternal elaborations and evaluations were associated with children's shared memory reports, and maternal evaluations and child agentic self-focus were associated with children's independent memory reports. Maternal style and child self-concept further mediated cultural influences on children's memory. The findings provide insight into the social-cultural construction of autobiographical memory.

  2. Family income, parental education and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among 2-3-year-old Chinese children: the mediator effect of parent-child conflict.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Using a sample of 156 Chinese children aged 2-3 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socio-economic status, specifically family income and parental education, on the children's internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and whether these effects were mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. Results indicated that family income, maternal education and paternal education all negatively predicted externalizing symptoms. Income also negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among boys but not girls. Maternal education negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among girls but not boys. The effects of income on psychopathology were fully mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. In contrast, the effects of education were not mediated or only partially mediated by conflict. Findings are discussed in the framework of the family stress model.

  3. Relations of Maternal Style and Child Self-Concept to Autobiographical Memories in Chinese, Chinese Immigrant, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2006-01-01

    The relations of maternal reminiscing style and child self-concept to children's shared and independent autobiographical memories were examined in a sample of 189 three-year-olds and their mothers from Chinese families in China, first-generation Chinese immigrant families in the United States, and European American families. Mothers shared…

  4. How Grammatical Are 3-Year-Olds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu; Germezia, Mor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the level of grammatical accuracy in typically developing 3-year-olds and the types of errors they produce. Method: Twenty-two 3-year-olds participated in a picture description task. The percentage of grammatical utterances was computed and error types were analyzed. Results: The mean level of grammatical accuracy…

  5. Surgical treatment of thoracic Pott disease in a 3-year-old child, with vertebral column resection and posterior-only circumferential reconstruction of the spinal column: case report.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Hwang, Steven W; Whitehead, William E; Curry, Daniel J; Luerssen, Thomas G; Jea, Andrew

    2012-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a common disease worldwide that is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the spine, also called Pott disease, is the most common site of bony dissemination. Although children are disproportionately affected, spinal TB is nonetheless rare in very young children. Cases involving infants requiring surgical intervention have been previously reported, and they are often associated with greater management challenges given the technical difficulty with instrumentation in very young children. This case involved a 3-year-old girl with TB centered at T-6, who presented with myelopathy from spinal cord compression and a severe kyphotic deformity (> 60°). She underwent a single-stage costotransversectomy for vertebral column resection, followed by reconstruction with an anterior expandable titanium cage and posterior pedicle screw instrumentation. At last follow-up, the patient was clinically and radiographically stable. The authors report on the youngest patient with spinal TB treated surgically with this strategy and review the literature regarding prior cases involving young children. Although limited by the paucity of cases in the literature, surgical debridement and spinal fusion appear to provide a safe alternative to prolonged bed rest or casting and may offer additional benefits of a faster recovery and ambulation.

  6. Two-and 3-Year-Olds Know What Others Have and Have Not Heard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Henrike; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have established that even infants can determine what others know based on previous visual experience. In the current study, we investigated whether 2-and 3-year-olds know what others know based on previous auditory experience. A child and an adult heard the sound of one object together, but only the child heard the sound of another…

  7. Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old Print A A A ... 4 pounds (1.8 kilograms) and grow about 2 to 3 inches (5 to 8 centimeters). They' ...

  8. Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old A A A Kids ... skills are appropriate for this age. By age 2, toddlers should be able to walk and run ...

  9. Paternal Psychosocial Characteristics and Corporal Punishment of Their 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Guterman, Neil B.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the…

  10. Examining Communicative Behaviors in a 3-Year-Old Boy Who Is Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfect, Michelle M.

    2001-01-01

    The communication patterns of a 3-year-old boy who is blind were observed during 35 videotaped classroom sessions to determine if his echolalic responses varied according to school activity and message category. Analysis revealed that, although the child was expressive with adults, he had difficulty communicating with his peers and in producing…

  11. How Selective Are 3-Year-Olds in Imitating Novel Linguistic Material?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannard, Colin; Klinger, Jörn; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In 3 studies we explored when 3-year-olds would imitate novel words in utterances produced by adult speakers. Child and experimenter took turns in requesting objects from a game master. The experimenter always went first and always preceded the object's familiar name with a novel adjective (e.g., "the dilsige duck"). In the first 2…

  12. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  13. Housing and mothering: their effects upon the developmental levels of 3-year-old children.

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, M

    1979-01-01

    The development of 200 3-year-old children was measured, using Gesell parameters of development. The levels of development were matched against the adequacy, or inadequacy, of maternal care and housing, the scales for which were derived from a questionnaire completed by the children's mothers. Housing was not found to affect the children's developmental levels, while the adequacy of maternal care was highly significantly related to satisfactory child development. PMID:420522

  14. Blowout Fracture in a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pluijmers, Britt I.; Koudstaal, Maarten J.; Paridaens, Dion; van der Wal, Karel G.H.

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial department with a fracture of the orbital floor. Due to the lack of clinical symptoms, a conservative approach was chosen. After 3 weeks, an enophthalmos developed. The orbital floor reconstruction was successfully performed through a transconjunctival approach. This case highlights the rarity of pure blowout fractures in young children. The specific presentation and diagnostics of orbital floor fractures in children and the related surgical planning and intervention are discussed. PMID:24436749

  15. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog.

    PubMed

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-02-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination.

  16. Extrinsic Rewards Diminish Costly Sharing in 3-Year-Olds.

    PubMed

    Ulber, Julia; Hamann, Katharina; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Two studies investigated the influence of external rewards and social praise in young children's fairness-related behavior. The motivation of ninety-six 3-year-olds' to equalize unfair resource allocations was measured in three scenarios (collaboration, windfall, and dictator game) following three different treatments (material reward, verbal praise, and neutral response). In all scenarios, children's willingness to engage in costly sharing was negatively influenced when they had received a reward for equal sharing during treatment than when they had received praise or no reward. The negative effect of material rewards was not due to subjects responding in kind to their partner's termination of rewards. These results provide new evidence for the intrinsic motivation of prosociality-in this case, costly sharing behavior-in preschool children.

  17. The structure of executive function in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Sandra A; Sheffield, Tiffany; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Clark, Caron A C; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-03-01

    Although the structure of executive function (EF) during adulthood is characterized by both unity and diversity, recent evidence suggests that preschool EF may be best described by a single factor. The latent structure of EF was examined in 228 3-year-olds using confirmatory factor analysis. Children completed a battery of executive tasks that differed in format and response requirements and in putative working memory and inhibitory control demands. Tasks appeared to be age appropriate, with adequate sensitivity across the range of performance and without floor or ceiling effects. Tests of the relative fit of several alternative models supported a single latent EF construct. Measurement invariance testing revealed less proficient EF in children at higher sociodemographic risk relative to those at lower risk and no differences between boys and girls. At 3years of age, when EF skills are emerging, EF appears to be a unitary, more domain-general process.

  18. Paternal psychosocial characteristics and corporal punishment of their 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Perron, Brian E; Taylor, Catherine A; Guterman, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from 2,309 biological fathers who participated in the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS) to examine associations between psychosocial characteristics and levels of corporal punishment (CP) toward their 3-year-old children over the past month. Results indicate that 61% of the fathers reported no CP over the past month, 23% reported using CP once or twice, and 16% reported using CP a few times in the past month or more. In multivariate models controlling for important sociodemographic factors as well as characteristics of the child, fathers' parenting stress, major depression, heavy alcohol use, and drug use were significantly associated with greater use of CP, whereas involvement with the child and generalized anxiety disorder were not. Girls were less likely to be the recipient of CP than were boys, and child externalizing behavior problems but not internalizing behavior problems were associated with more CP.

  19. Determinants of Imitation of Hand-to-Body Gestures in 2- and 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty children, ten 2-year-olds and ten 3-year-olds, participated in an AB procedure. In the baseline phase, each child was trained the same four matching relations to criterion under intermittent reinforcement. During the subsequent imitation test, the experimenter modeled a total of 20 target gestures (six trials each) interspersed with…

  20. Suspected disseminated histiocytic sarcoma in a 3-year-old Perro de Presa Canario dog

    PubMed Central

    Denstedt, Emily

    2014-01-01

    A 3-year-old intact male Perro de Presa Canario dog was presented with acutely inflamed and edematous right hind limb, scrotum, prepuce, and an enlarged left carpus. Two weeks later the dog returned with weight loss, draining tracts in the right hind limb, dermal nodules, a palpable abdominal mass, and uveitis in the left eye. The dog succumbed to his illness 2 days later and a widely disseminated round cell tumor compatible with histiocytic sarcoma was diagnosed following postmortem examination. PMID:24489399

  1. Rare Perilunate Injury as a Result of Chronic Trauma in 3-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    A 3-year-old girl was reported to have perilunate dislocation. The child had suffered, approximately 18 months before, a repetitive wrist injury by means of frequent pulling and bending of the hand by the father who may have physically abused the child for approximately 2 months. At the age of 3 years and 4 months, we performed the reduction of the perilunate dislocation and the plasty of the dorsal scapholunate ligament using the capsular flap prepared from the extensor retinaculum. The wrist was immobilized for 6 weeks. Two months after surgery, patient started the physiotherapy for 3 months. The patient could flex up the wrist to 40 degrees and extend up to 45 degrees (mobility of the healthy wrist was 60, 50 degrees) during the examination 24 months' post-op. Only the surgical treatment of the perilunate dislocation can lead to obtain the good surgical result. PMID:26788457

  2. Medical Care and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) one dose of chickenpox (varicella) vaccine two or three doses of rotavirus vaccine (RV) four doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV, PPSV) one or two doses of hepatitis A vaccine (HAV) Your child should also get ...

  3. No Own-Age Bias in 3-Year-Old Children: More Evidence for the Role of Early Experience in Building Face-Processing Biases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassia, Viola Macchi; Pisacane, Antonella; Gava, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of an own-age bias in young children who accumulated different amounts of early experience with child faces. Discrimination abilities for upright and inverted adult and child faces were tested using a delayed two-alternative, forced-choice matching-to-sample task in two groups of 3-year-old children,…

  4. The impact of early literacy guidance on language skills of 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Theriot, Judy A; Franco, Sofia M; Sisson, Barbara A; Metcalf, Sharon C; Kennedy, Mary A; Bada, Henrietta S

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to determine the impact of early literacy anticipatory guidance (AG) with provision of books on language development in 3-year-olds in an early literacy program at a University-affiliated inner-city pediatric clinic. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III) and the Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test (EOWPVT-R) were administered to 33-39-month-old children exposed to an early literacy program, which included AG and provision of an age-appropriate book at each well-child visit starting at 2 months old. Children with developmental delays were excluded. Parental surveys on literacy and demographic data were obtained. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Sixty-four children were evaluated; 88% African American, 89% Medicaid recipients. Fifty-eight percent of families reported family-centered literacy orientation. The PPVT-III scores directly correlated with the number of AG visits with book given x number of books purchased (r2 = 0.025, p = 0.0006). Higher scores in EOWPVT-R were predicted by race and the number of visits with books given x number of books purchased (r2 = 0.182, p = 0.0009). All families reported reading together, half reporting positive family-centered literacy. Given the same number of books purchased for each child, the outcome scores were higher the greater the number of clinic visits wherein AG included early literacy and provision of books.

  5. A statistical skull geometry model for children 0-3 years old.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Park, Byoung-Keon; Liu, Weiguo; Zhang, Jinhuan; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hoff, Carrie N; Hu, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    Head injury is the leading cause of fatality and long-term disability for children. Pediatric heads change rapidly in both size and shape during growth, especially for children under 3 years old (YO). To accurately assess the head injury risks for children, it is necessary to understand the geometry of the pediatric head and how morphologic features influence injury causation within the 0-3 YO population. In this study, head CT scans from fifty-six 0-3 YO children were used to develop a statistical model of pediatric skull geometry. Geometric features important for injury prediction, including skull size and shape, skull thickness and suture width, along with their variations among the sample population, were quantified through a series of image and statistical analyses. The size and shape of the pediatric skull change significantly with age and head circumference. The skull thickness and suture width vary with age, head circumference and location, which will have important effects on skull stiffness and injury prediction. The statistical geometry model developed in this study can provide a geometrical basis for future development of child anthropomorphic test devices and pediatric head finite element models.

  6. Complete recovery from acute encephalopathy of late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in a 3-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mak, C M; Siu, T-S; Lam, C-W; Chan, G C-F; Poon, G W-K; Wong, K-Y; Low, L C-K; Tang, N L; Li, S K; Lau, K-Y; Kwong, N-S; Tam, S

    2007-11-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is the commonest urea cycle disorder which is transmitted in X-linked inheritance. It is mainly characterized in males by acute encephalopathy and hyperammonaemia with fatal outcomes in both classical neonatal and late-onset types. We report a 3-year-old healthy Hong Kong Chinese boy who presented with acute encephalopathy and coma after three days of gastroenteritis. He had no focal neurological deficit and brain CT imaging was normal. His plasma ammonia (54 micromol/L) and glutamine (747 micromol/L) concentrations were normal. The only biochemical abnormalities detected were marked orotic aciduria (700 micromol/mmol creatinine) and elevated urinary uracil. He regained consciousness spontaneously after three days under intensive care with parenteral fluid therapy. He recovered completely without any neurological deficits. Five months after discharge, urinary uracil concentration remained elevated despite normalized orotic acid concentration. Finally, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency was diagnosed by DNA analysis. A missense mutation of arginine-to-glutamine substitution on amino acid 277 (p.R277Q) was revealed to be a late-onset mutant. Our case strengthens the argument that in any child with coma or acute encephalopathy of undetermined cause, genetic analysis of the OTC gene and the measurement of urinary uracil concentration remain the most reliable indicators of late-onset OTCD during acute and even quiescent phases. Existing neonatal screening programmes for inheritable metabolic disorders fail to detect late-onset variants. Therefore, a high clinical suspicion is a key to correct and timely diagnosis, especially in those patients with atypical presentations.

  7. Use of Corporal Punishment for 3-year Old Children and Associated Intimate Partner Aggression or Violence

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Catherine A.; Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Rice, Janet C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between maternal and paternal use of corporal punishment (CP) for 3-year old children and intimate partner aggression or violence (IPAV) in a population-based sample. Methods The study sample (n = 1997) was derived from wave 3 of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study. Mother and father reports regarding their use of CP and their IPAV victimization were analyzed. IPAV included coercion, non-physical and physical aggression. Results About 65% of the children were spanked at least once in the prior month by one or both parents. Of those couples that reported any family aggression (87%), 54% reported that both CP and IPAV occurred. The most prevalent patterns of co-occurrence involved both parents as aggressors either toward each other (i.e., bilateral IPAV) or toward the child. The presence of bilateral IPAV essentially doubled the odds that one or both parents would use CP, even after controlling for potential confounders such as parenting stress, depression, and alcohol or other drug use. Of the five patterns of co-occurring family aggression assessed, the “single aggressor” model, in which only one parent aggressed in the family, received the least amount of empirical support. Conclusions Despite American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendations against the use of CP, CP use remains common in the U.S. CP prevention and intervention efforts should carefully consider assumptions made about patterns of co-occurring aggression in families, given that adult victims of IPAV, including even minor, non-physical aggression between parents, have increased odds of using CP with their children. PMID:20732943

  8. The Role of Parents and Parental Mediation on 0-3-Year Olds' Digital Play with Smart Devices: Estonian Parents' Attitudes and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevski, Elyna; Siibak, Andra

    2016-01-01

    In this manuscript, we analyse the attitudes and practices of Estonian parents (N = 198) who allowed their 0-3-year olds to use smart devices. We aimed to discover if there was an interaction between parental use of smart technologies, parents' attitudes and the child's age that would predict young children's usage of smart devices. We also wanted…

  9. Two- and 3-year-olds integrate linguistic and pedagogical cues in guiding inductive generalization and exploration.

    PubMed

    Butler, Lucas P; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Young children can in principle make generic inferences (e.g., "doffels are magnetic") on the basis of their own individual experience. Recent evidence, however, shows that by 4 years of age children make strong generic inferences on the basis of a single pedagogical demonstration with an individual (e.g., an adult demonstrates for the child that a single "doffel" is magnetic). In the current experiments, we extended this to look at younger children, investigating how the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are integrated with other aspects of inductive inference during early development. We found that both 2- and 3-year-olds used pedagogical cues to guide such generic inferences, but only so long as the "doffel" was linguistically labeled. In a follow-up study, 3-year-olds, but not 2-year-olds, continued to make this generic inference even if the word "doffel" was uttered incidentally and non-referentially in a context preceding the pedagogical demonstration, thereby simply marking the opportunity to learn about a culturally important category. By 3 years of age, then, young children show a remarkable ability to flexibly combine different sources of culturally relevant information (e.g., linguistic labeling, pedagogy) to make the kinds of generic inferences so central in human cultural learning.

  10. Enhancing the Executive Functions of 3-Year-Olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J.; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that…

  11. Abstract Sentence Representations in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence from Language Production and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencini, Giulia M. L.; Valiana, Virginia V.

    2008-01-01

    We use syntactic priming to test the abstractness of the sentence representations of young 3-year-olds (35-42 months). In describing pictures with inanimate participants, 18 children primed with passives produced more passives (11 with a strict scoring scheme, 16 with lax scoring) than did 18 children primed with actives (2 on either scheme) or 12…

  12. Directly Observed Physical Activity among 3-Year-Olds in Finnish Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Villberg, Jari; Sääkslahti, Arja; Gubbels, Jessica; Mehtälä, Anette; Kettunen, Tarja; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to determine 3-year-olds' physical activity levels and how these vary across season, gender, time of day, location, and the physical and social environment in childcare settings in Finland. A modified version of the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool (OSRAC-P) was used to…

  13. Earth Science. Developing an Early Interest in Science: A Preschool Science Curriculum. (3-Year-Olds).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summer, Gail L.; Giovannini, Kathleen

    This teaching guide on earth sciences for 3-year-old children is based on a modification of the "Plan, Do, Review" approach to education devised by High Scope in Ypsilanti, Michigan. First implemented as an outreach early childhood program in North Carolina, the science activities described in this guide can be adapted to various early childhood…

  14. Turning Believers into Skeptics: 3-Year-Olds' Sensitivity to Cues to Speaker Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Malone, Lauren S.

    2007-01-01

    Under most circumstances, children (and adults) can safely assume that the testimony they hear is true. In two studies, we investigated whether 3-year-olds (N = 100) would continue to hold this assumption even if the person who provided the testimony behaved in an uncertain, ignorant, and/or distracted manner. In Study 1, children were less likely…

  15. Words, Shape, Visual Search and Visual Working Memory in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated…

  16. Dimensions of Oppositional Defiant Disorder in 3-Year-Old Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Penelo, Eva; Domenech, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To test the factor structure of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and to study the relationships between the proposed dimensions and external variables in a community sample of preschool children. Method: A sample of 1,341 3-year-old preschoolers was randomly selected and screened for a double-phase design. In total, 622…

  17. The Semiotic Landscape and 3-Year-Olds' Emerging Understanding of Multimodal Communication Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada-Rice, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the impact of the increasing use of the visual mode in texts found in urban landscapes on two 3-year-olds' understanding of communication practices. The data discussed are taken from a study into a group of 3- to 6-year-olds' interaction with and emerging comprehension of the visual mode and its connection to writing in…

  18. 3-Year-Old Children Make Relevance Inferences in Indirect Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Cornelia; Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated 3-year-old children's ability to determine a speaker's communicative intent when the speaker's overt utterance related to that intent only indirectly. Studies 1 and 2 examined children's comprehension of indirectly stated requests (e.g., "I find Xs good" can imply, in context, a request for…

  19. Acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation in a 3-year-old Standardbred gelding

    PubMed Central

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Setlakwe, Emile; Sallaway, John; Wood, Darren; Fromstein, Jordan; Arroyo, Luis G.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old Standardbred gelding with a history of pyrexia, persistent hemorrhage from the oral cavity, and a large, soft swelling at the junction of the caudal aspect of the mandibular rami and proximal neck was evaluated. The horse had neutropenia and anemia, with atypical granulated cells in a blood smear. Additional tests confirmed acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation, which has been reported in humans, cats, dogs, and cattle but not horses. PMID:27708445

  20. The Neural Correlates of Processing Newborn and Adult Faces in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Westerlund, Alissa; Cassia, Viola Macchi; Kuefner, Dana; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the processing of upright and inverted faces in 3-year-old children (n = 35). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive looking paradigm including adult and newborn face stimuli. We observed three face-sensitive components, the P1, the N170 and the P400. Inverted faces elicited shorter P1 latency and…

  1. Acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation in a 3-year-old Standardbred gelding.

    PubMed

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Setlakwe, Emile; Sallaway, John; Wood, Darren; Fromstein, Jordan; Arroyo, Luis G

    2016-10-01

    A 3-year-old Standardbred gelding with a history of pyrexia, persistent hemorrhage from the oral cavity, and a large, soft swelling at the junction of the caudal aspect of the mandibular rami and proximal neck was evaluated. The horse had neutropenia and anemia, with atypical granulated cells in a blood smear. Additional tests confirmed acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation, which has been reported in humans, cats, dogs, and cattle but not horses.

  2. Prevalence of malocclusion traits and sucking habits among 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor; Bondemark, Lars; Söderfeldt, Björn; Lennartsson, Bertil

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusion traits and sucking habits among 3-year-old children. A sample of 457 3-year-old children (234 girls and 223 boys) was obtained from three Public Dental Health clinics in Orebro County Council, Sweden. Data from clinical examination and a questionnaire were used to determine malocclusion traits, sucking habits, snoring and breathing pattern including nocturnal breathing disturbances. The results showed that 70% had one or more malocclusion traits at 3 years of age. The most common malocclusion traits were anterior open bite (50%), Class II occlusion (26%), increased overjet (23%) and posterior crossbite (19%). The prevalence of sucking habit was 66% and dummy sucking was dominating and in connection with more malocclusion traits than finger/thumb sucking. A significant association was found between the sucking habits and the most prevalent malocclusions, anterior open bite, Class II occlusion, increased overjet and posterior crossbite. In conclusion, the prevalence of malocclusion traits in 3-year-old children was high. Sucking habits was highly prevalent and dummy sucking resulted in more malocclusion traits than finger/thumb sucking did.

  3. Small peripheral developing odontoma of the maxilla in a 3-year-old patient depicted on cone-beam tomograms.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Reinhard E; Fuhrmann, Andreas; Scheuer, Hanna A; Zustin, Jozef

    2010-01-01

    A 3-year-old male patient was referred to the Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic due to a painless swelling of the right palatal region. Conventional radiographs revealed no alteration of the dentition and did not delineate a lesion in the region of interest. Cone-beam tomography depicted small radiopaque, extraosseous deposits inside the palatal space. Histological examination revealed a minute mixed epithelial-mesenchymal lesion of odontogenic origin. We made the diagnosis of a peripheral developing odontoma, taking into consideration the components and arrangements of structures of the lesion. Early intervention is advisable to prevent these odontogenic lesions from eventually deforming the jaw and displacing adjacent teeth. Cone-beam tomography was a valuable pre-operative diagnostic tool to assess the lesion as being composed in part of hard tissue.

  4. Hyperimmunoglobulin E Syndrome Presenting as Osteogenesis Imperfecta in a 3 Year Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Gorgas, Stephen; Abuhammour, Walid; Blackwood, R. Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of hyperimmunoglobulin E (hyper-IgE) syndrome in a three year old boy. There are many pitfalls in diagnosing this disease in the very young population, mainly due to the ambiguity of some diagnostic criteria in this population. Recognizing this syndrome early in life can potentially be very beneficial to the patients involved and the medical system as a whole. Early diagnosis can lead to fewer diagnostic tests, fewer referrals, and more focused exams, thus potentially reducing medical cost while also reducing the number of serious infections later in life, including those which are potentially fatal. Additionally, a wellknown association between lymphoma and hyper-IgE syndrome has been established; while no recommendations are currently in place for screening, early diagnosis could help medical providers have a higher threshold for diagnosis of this disease. PMID:24470957

  5. Determinants of Imitation of Hand-to-body Gestures in 2- and 3-year-old Children

    PubMed Central

    Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty children, ten 2-year-olds and ten 3-year-olds, participated in an AB procedure. In the baseline phase, each child was trained the same four matching relations to criterion under intermittent reinforcement. During the subsequent imitation test, the experimenter modeled a total of 20 target gestures (six trials each) interspersed with intermittently reinforced baseline trials. In each session, target gestures were selected in a pre-randomized sequence from: Set 1—ear touches; Set 2—shoulder touches; Set 3—midarm touches; and Set 4—wrist touches; subjects' responses to targets were not reinforced. In each target set, half the gestures featured in nursery matching games and were termed common targets whereas the remainder, which were topographically similar but did not feature in the games, served as uncommon targets. The children produced significantly more matching responses to common target models than to uncommon ones. Common responses were also produced as mismatches to uncommon target models more often than vice versa. Response accuracy did not improve over trials, suggesting that "parity" did not serve as a conditioned reinforcer. All children showed a strong bias for "mirroring"—responding in the same hemispace as the modeler. The 2-year-olds produced more matching errors than the 3-year-olds and most children showed a bias for responding with their right hands. The strong effects of training environment (nursery matching games) are consistent with a Skinnerian account, but not a cognitive goal theory account, of imitation in young children. PMID:18422018

  6. Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Myopia in 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Valencia Hui Xian; Verkicharla, Pavan Kumar; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Chua, Sharon Yu Lin; Cai, Shirong; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter; Wong, Tien-Yin; Ngo, Cheryl; Saw, Seang-Mei; on behalf of the GUSTO study group

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the association of axial length (AL) to corneal radius of curvature (CRC) ratio with spherical equivalent (SE) in a 3-year old Asian cohort. Methods Three-hundred forty-nine 3-year old Asian children from The Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort study underwent AL and CRC measurements with a noncontact ocular biometer and cycloplegic refraction using an autorefractor. The ratio of AL to CRC (AL/CRC) was calculated for all the participants, and subsequently AL, CRC, and AL/CRC were analyzed in relationship to SE. Results The SE showed better correlation with AL/CRC (Spearman's correlation coefficient, ρ = −0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.66; −0.49; P < 0.001) compared to either AL or CRC alone ([ρ = −0.36; 95% CI: −0.51 to 0.51; P = 0.01] and [ρ = 0.05; 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.17; P = 0.34], respectively). Mean AL/CRC was 2.91 ± 0.06 among myopes and decreased to 2.79 ± 0.06 among hyperopes. Axial length to corneal radius of curvature was strongly correlated with SE in myopes (ρ = −0.78; 95% CI: −3.76; −0.79; P = < 0.001), but not in emmetropes and hyperopes ([ρ = −0.39; 95% CI: −10.73; −0.57; P = 0.01] and [ρ = −0.18; 95% CI: −17.28; 12.42; P = 0.38], respectively). Linear regression adjusted for gender and ethnicity showed a 0.74-diopter shift in SE towards myopia with every 0.1 increase in AL/CRC ratio (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.33). Conclusion The correlation between SE and AL/CRC is stronger than that between AL or CRC alone. This suggests that in a research setting, when cycloplegic refraction is difficult to perform on 3-year-old children, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error. Translational Relevance In the research setting, AL/CRC may be the next best reference for refractive error over AL alone when cycloplegic refraction is unavailable in 3-year old children. PMID:26929885

  7. Mycoplasma pneumoniae associated stroke in a 3-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gun-Ha; Seo, Won Hee; Je, Bo-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases precede a significant proportion of acute ischemic strokes in children. Here, we report a case of acute ischemic stroke in a 3-year-old girl with a Mycoplasma pneumonia-associated respiratory tract infection. She developed an acquired prothrombotic state of protein S deficiency and had increased fibrinogen and fibrinogen degradation product levels and increased titer of antinuclear antibodies. However, these conditions were completely alleviated at the 1-month follow-up examination. Infection with M. pneumoniae may cause a transient prothrombotic state that can potentially cause a thrombus. PMID:24223604

  8. Fever and rash in a 3-year-old girl: Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Julie M; Zaenglein, Andrea L; Kaul, Aditya; Chang, Mary Wu

    2002-09-01

    Initial symptoms of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a tick-borne illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, are nonspecific and include headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, malaise, and myalgias, followed by fever and rash. The classic triad of fever, rash, and history of tick exposure is uncommon at presentation. Clinical manifestations of RMSF range from virtually asymptomatic to severe. Because of the potentially fatal outcome of RMSF, presumptive clinical diagnosis and empiric antimicrobial therapy can be critical. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl from New York State who presented with fever and rash.

  9. A special case of lower back pain in a 3-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Tassinari, Davide; Forti, Sara; Torella, Michele; Tani, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    We describe the case of a 3-year-old girl with a 15-day clinical history of lower back pain. We diagnosed a spondylodiscitis of vertebral bodies L5–S1 caused by Salmonella species group B that totally recovered with appropriate antibiotic therapy. Spondylodiscitis in children is a rare condition and Salmonella infection is one of the rarest aetiology. A high index of suspicion is needed for prompt diagnosis to ensure better long-term outcome. Microbiological diagnosis is essential for the appropriate choice of antibiotic treatment. PMID:23475989

  10. Estimating age: college males versus convicted male child sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Robert; Romero, Sergio; Patrick, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Two samples, male college students and convicted male child sex offenders, are compared on their abilities to accurately estimate the age group of a series of photographs of a sole female ranging in age from 11 to 29. Both samples tend to overestimate the age group of the subject photos, and no significant difference was found between college students and convicted child sex offenders in their ability to estimate the age of females. Both groups are compared demographically, and only limited differences were found. The implications are discussed in regard to theory and prevention of child sexual abuse.

  11. Learning higher-order generalizations through free play: Evidence from 2- and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sim, Zi L; Xu, Fei

    2017-04-01

    Constructivist views of cognitive development often converge on 2 key points: (a) the child's goal is to build large conceptual structures for understanding the world, and (b) the child plays an active role in developing these structures. While previous research has demonstrated that young children show a precocious capacity for concept and theory building when they are provided with helpful data within training settings, and that they explore their environment in ways that may promote learning, it remains an open question whether young children are able to build larger conceptual structures using self-generated evidence, a form of active learning. In the current study, we examined whether children can learn high-order generalizations (which form the basis for larger conceptual structures) through free play, and whether they can do so as effectively as when provided with relevant data. Results with 2- and 3-year-old children over 4 experiments indicate robust learning through free play, and generalization performance was comparable between free play and didactic conditions. Therefore, young children's self-directed learning supports the development of higher-order generalizations, laying the foundation for building larger conceptual structures and intuitive theories. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. 3-Year-olds' comprehension, production, and generalization of Sesotho passives.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Katherine; Moloi, Francina; Machobane, Malillo

    2010-05-01

    Researchers have long been puzzled by the challenge English passive constructions present for language learners, with adult-like comprehension and production emerging only around the age of 5. It has therefore been of significant interest that researchers of other languages, including the Bantu language Sesotho, have reported acquisition of the passive by the age of 3 (Demuth, 1989). Such reports have typically been based on spontaneous production data, calling for further investigation. This study carried out a series of experiments with Sesotho-speaking 3-year-olds, testing their ability to comprehend the passive, produce the passive, and generalize novel verbs to passive frames. The results showed that passive comprehension was good, with no effect of actional/non-actional verb type. Elicited production of the passive was also good, with no difference between adversive and non-adversive verbs. Finally, all participants made both active and passive generalizations to novel verbs. These findings provide strong evidence that Sesotho-speaking 3-year-olds have robust, abstract knowledge of passive syntax. The paper concludes with a discussion of the factors that contribute to the early learning of the Sesotho passive, why acquisition of the passive may be delayed in English, and the implications for understanding grammatical development more generally.

  13. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance.

  14. Epidermoid Cyst in the Floor of the Mouth of a 3-Year-Old

    PubMed Central

    Pascual Dabán, Rossana; García Díez, Eloy; González Navarro, Beatriz; López-López, José

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cysts are a rare entity in the oral cavity and are even less frequent in the floor of the mouth, representing less than 0.01% of all the cases. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl with a growth in the floor of the mouth with 2 months of evolution and without changes since it was discovered by her parents. The lesion was asymptomatic; it did not cause dysphagia, dyspnea, or any other alteration. A CT scan with contrast was done which revealed the location and exact size of the lesion, allowing an intraoral approach for its excision. The histological examination confirmed the clinical speculation of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:25694831

  15. Hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome. Magnetic resonance findings in a 3-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Salafia, Stefania; Praticò, Andrea D; Pizzo, Enza; Greco, Filippo; Di Bella, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    The term 'hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia-epilepsy syndrome' (HHE) was first used by Gastaut et al. to describe the se-quential combination of unilateral or predominantly unilateral clonic seizures (hemiconvulsion), occurring during the first 2 years of life, immediately followed by an ipsilateral flaccid hemiplegia lasting 7 or more days. In the following phase partial epileptic seizures occur. We report a case of HHE syndrome in a 3-year-old boy with partial seizures (hemiconvulsion lasting 15-30 minutes) followed by left hemiplegia and hyporeflexia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse and high signal hyperintensity of the whole right cerebral hemisphere. Diffusion-weighted images showed a reduction of the apparent diffusion coefficient in the subcortical region. Magnetic resonance arterio-graphy showed a narrow flow signal in the distal territory of the right middle cerebral artery. The authors emphasize the importance of neuroradiological findings in early diagnosis and in the follow-up of HHE syndrome.

  16. The neural correlates of processing newborn and adult faces in 3-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Peykarjou, Stefanie; Westerlund, Alissa; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Kuefner, Dana; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the processing of upright and inverted faces in 3-year-old children (n = 35). Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive-looking paradigm including adult and newborn face stimuli. We observed three face-sensitive components, the P1, the N170 and the P400. Inverted faces elicited shorter P1 latency and larger P400 amplitude. P1 and N170 amplitudes were larger for adult faces. To examine the role of experience in the development of face processing, the processing of adult and newborn faces was compared for children with a younger sibling (n = 23) and children without a younger sibling (n = 12). Age of sibling at test correlated negatively with P1 amplitude for adult and newborn faces. This may indicate more efficient processing of different face ages in children with a younger sibling and potentially reflects a more flexible face representation. PMID:24118716

  17. Oral Hemorrhage in a 3-year-old Boy Caused by Self-Mutilating Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Uy, Jenny Lyn Y.; Lapeña, José Florencio F.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy referred for persistent tongue bleeding was diagnosed with a rare self-mutilating disease that had also affected his lip and fingers. He underwent multiple odontectomy and partial glossectomy and continues to undergo behavior therapy and on-demand splints and restraints. He has stopped self-biting and has gained appetite and weight. Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome can cause significant morbidity including self-inflicted oral hemorrhage and emergent measures are not easily decided. The long-term management of its neurobehavioral symptoms is problematic and multidisciplinary, and health providers remain challenged to find the best treatment, prolong lifespan and improve quality of life within their respective contexts. PMID:28083069

  18. Rational action selection in 1½- to 3-year-olds following an extended training experience.

    PubMed

    Klossek, Ulrike M H; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1½ and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen to obtain video clips as outcomes. Subsequently, a visual habituation procedure was employed to devalue one of the training outcomes. As in previous studies, 2- and 3-year-olds chose actions associated with an expected valued outcome significantly more often during a subsequent choice test. Moreover, analysis of children's first responses in the post-devaluation test revealed evidence of rational action selection even in the youngest age group (18-23 months). Consistent with dual-process accounts of action control, the findings support the view that the ability to make rational action choices develops gradually.

  19. Natural experience modulates the processing of older adult faces in young adults and 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Proietti, Valentina; Pisacane, Antonella; Macchi Cassia, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Just like other face dimensions, age influences the way faces are processed by adults as well as by children. However, it remains unclear under what conditions exactly such influence occurs at both ages, in that there is some mixed evidence concerning the presence of a systematic processing advantage for peer faces (own-age bias) across the lifespan. Inconsistency in the results may stem from the fact that the individual's face representation adapts to represent the most predominant age traits of the faces present in the environment, which is reflective of the individual's specific living conditions and social experience. In the current study we investigated the processing of younger and older adult faces in two groups of adults (Experiment 1) and two groups of 3-year-old children (Experiment 2) who accumulated different amounts of experience with elderly people. Contact with elderly adults influenced the extent to which both adult and child participants showed greater discrimination abilities and stronger sensitivity to configural/featural cues in younger versus older adult faces, as measured by the size of the inversion effect. In children, the size of the inversion effect for older adult faces was also significantly correlated with the amount of contact with elderly people. These results show that, in both adults and children, visual experience with older adult faces can tune perceptual processing strategies to the point of abolishing the discrimination disadvantage that participants typically manifest for those faces in comparison to younger adult faces.

  20. The cultural and linguistic diversity of 3-year-old children with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y C

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children's communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence.

  1. Racial and Ethnic Differentials in Overweight and Obesity Among 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated racial/ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in a national sample of 3-year-olds from urban, low-income families and assessed possible determinants of differences. Methods. Survey, in-home observation, and interview data were collected at birth, 1 year, and 3 years. We used logistic regression analyses and adjusted for a range of covariates in examining overweight and obesity differentials according to race/ethnicity. Results. Thirty-five percent of the study children were overweight or obese. Hispanic children were twice as likely as either Black or White children to be overweight or obese. Although we controlled for a wide variety of characteristics, we were unable to explain either White–Hispanic or Black–Hispanic differences in overweight and obesity. However, birthweight, taking a bottle to bed, and mother’s weight status were important predictors of children’s overweight or obesity at age 3 years. Conclusions. Children’s problems with overweight and obesity begin as early as age 3, and Hispanic children and those with obese mothers are especially at risk. PMID:17194857

  2. Idiopathic midaortic syndrome with malignant hypertension in 3-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Kyung Jin; Yoon, Ja Kyoung; Kwon, Bo Sang; Bae, Eun Jung; Noh, Chung Il

    2016-01-01

    Midaortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare vascular disease that commonly causes renovascular hypertension. The lumen of the abdominal aorta narrows and the ostia of the branches show stenosis. MAS is associated with diminished pulses in the lower extremities compared with the upper extremities, severe hypertension with higher blood pressure in the upper rather than lower extremities, and an abdominal bruit. The clinical symptoms are variable, and recognition in children with hypertension can aid early diagnosis and optimal treatment. Hypertension with MAS is malignant and often refractory to several antihypertensive drugs. Recently, radiologic modalities have been developed and have led to numerous interventional procedures. We describe the case of a 3-year-old boy presenting with left ventricular hypertrophy whose severely elevated blood pressure led to the diagnosis of idiopathic MAS. This case highlights the importance of measuring blood pressure and conducting a detailed physical examination to diagnose MAS. This is the first reported case of idiopathic MAS diagnosed in childhood in Korea. PMID:28018454

  3. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Do words cue children’s visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information. PMID:24720802

  4. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children’s communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  5. Acquired unilateral pulmonary vein atresia in a 3-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Firdouse, Mohammed; Agarwal, Arnav; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Mondal, Tapas K

    2015-03-01

    While unilateral pulmonary venous atresia (UPVA) most commonly presents as an extremely rare late embryological defect resulting in complete occlusion or absence of the PV pathway, it may also be an acquired pathology. We present a 3-year-old boy who presented with mild respiratory distress. Neonatal echocardiographic investigations revealed normal mediastinal anatomy and pulmonary vasculature with a bicuspid aortic valve. However, follow-up Doppler investigation revealed a pulmonary artery size difference with minimal forward flow and reverse flow during diastole. Absence of the left pulmonary veins and the presence of collaterals draining to the innominate vein confirmed the diagnosis of acquired UPVA. Our case represents the first case of acquired UPVA in conjunction with a normally functioning bicuspid aortic valve. The Doppler flow patterns discussed might be of significant interest to pediatricians, cardiologists and imaging specialists. These findings suggest that acquired UPVA should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such patients when radiographic and echocardiographic findings may rule out other more common diagnoses. While the management of such a condition remains unclear and conservative management was agreed upon for our patient, the vulnerability of such cases warrants timely diagnosis and routine monitoring.

  6. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis. We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72 hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day. Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment. PMID:25906092

  7. Words, shape, visual search and visual working memory in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated search times and to examine one route through which labels could have their effect: By influencing the visual working memory representation of the target. The targets and distractors were pictures of instances of basic-level known categories and the labels were the common name for the target category. We predicted that the label would enhance the visual working memory representation of the target object, guiding attention to objects that better matched the target representation. Experiments 1 and 2 used conjunctive search tasks, and Experiment 3 varied shape discriminability between targets and distractors. Experiment 4 compared the effects of labels to repeated presentations of the visual target, which should also influence the working memory representation of the target. The overall pattern fits contemporary theories of how the contents of visual working memory interact with visual search and attention, and shows that even in very young children heard words affect the processing of visual information.

  8. Sport and the Sexually Abused Male Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…

  9. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 μg/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  10. Pragmatic inference, not semantic competence, guides 3-year-olds' interpretation of unknown number words.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Neon; Audet, Jennifer; Barner, David

    2013-06-01

    Before children learn the specific meanings of numerals like six, do they know that they represent precise quantities? Previous studies have reported conflicting evidence and have found that children expect numerals to label precise quantities in some tasks but not in others (Condry & Spelke, 2008; Sarnecka & Gelman, 2004). In this article, we present evidence that some of children's apparent successes are best explained not by domain-specific semantic understanding of number but instead by language-general pragmatic abilities. In Experiment 1, we replicated the findings of the previous studies in a within-subject design. When 3-year-olds saw a set labeled with a number (e.g., five) and an item was added, they preferred a new label (six) over the old one, as though they believed that number words have precise meanings. However, when 1 of 2 sets was labeled (e.g., as five) and children were asked to find the same quantity (five) or a new quantity (six), they performed identically whether the original set was changed in quantity or merely rearranged. Thus, when 2 numerals were offered as alternative labels for 1 set, children behaved as though they had precise meanings, whereas when they were asked to determine which of 2 sets a single numeral referred to, they did not. In Experiment 2, children were tested using similar methods but with novel nouns and objects that were transformed, instead of sets. Children showed the identical pattern of results despite lacking meanings for these words, suggesting that their judgments for numerals may not have relied on semantic knowledge that numerals have precise meanings. We propose that children's behavior can be explained by the use of domain-general pragmatic inference and does not require positing domain-specific numerical knowledge.

  11. Investigating key beliefs guiding mothers' dietary decisions for their 2-3 year old.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Teagan; Hamilton, Kyra

    2015-06-01

    Currently, there is no research in Australia that systematically investigates the underlying beliefs for mothers' decisions regarding their young child's nutritional needs based on current guidelines. We aimed to determine, using a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) belief-based approach, key beliefs that guide mothers' decisions with regards to: (a) providing their child with a wide range of foods from the five food groups ('healthy eating'); and (b) limiting their child's intake of 'discretionary choices' (e.g. lollies). Mothers (N = 197, M age = 34.39, SD = 5.65) completed a main questionnaire either online or on hard copy (paper-based), with a 1-week phone follow-up of the target behaviours (N = 161). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were conducted, and a number of key behavioural, normative, and control beliefs emerged for both healthy eating and discretionary choice behaviours. For healthy eating, mothers identified behavioural beliefs 'improving my child's health' and 'resistance from my child'; normative beliefs 'other family members' and 'spouse/partner'; and control beliefs 'child's food preferences'. For discretionary choices, behavioural beliefs 'maintain consistent energy levels in my child' for intentions, and 'give my child their required nutritional intake'; normative beliefs 'spouse/partner', 'healthcare professionals' and 'friends'; and control beliefs 'child's food preferences' were identified. These findings can inform the development of future intervention programmes aimed at modifying mothers' child feeding practices to encourage healthy eating and limit discretionary choice intake and, ultimately, increase the life expectancy of the current generation of children.

  12. Qualitative Feasibility of Using Three Accelerometers With 2-3-Year-Old Children and Both Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Silvia; Barber, Sally E.; Griffiths, Paula L.; Cameron, Noël; Clemes, Stacy A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed mothers' opinions about the feasibility and acceptability of using the ActiGraph GT3X+, Actiheart, and activPAL3 with their 2- to 3-year-old children, as well as with themselves and their husbands/partners, for an 8-day period. Method: Six focus groups were run with Pakistani and White British mothers ("n" =…

  13. The Internal Validity and Acceptability of the Danish SI-3: A Language-Screening Instrument for 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Jorgensen, Rune N.; Worm, Torben

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To document the development of a new parent- and day care-administered screening instrument (the Screening Instrument for 3-Year-Olds [SI-3]) to be used in a newly implemented, educationally motivated population language screening in Denmark. The authors investigated whether the basic principles of the SI-3 were working satisfactorily and…

  14. Emotion Situation Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory in Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…

  15. Intergenerational Transmission of Warm-Sensitive-Stimulating Parenting: A Prospective Study of Mothers and Fathers of 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Jaffee, Sara R.; Sligo, Judith; Woodward, Lianne; Silva, Phil A.

    2005-01-01

    More than 200 New Zealand men and women studied repeatedly since age 3 were videotaped interacting with their own 3-year-old children to determine (a) whether childrearing and family climate experienced in 3 distinct developmental periods while growing up (i.e., early childhood, middle childhood, early adolescence) predicted parenting and (b)…

  16. 1 to 3-Year-Old Children in Day Care Centres in Finland: An Overview of Eight Doctoral Dissertations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannikainen, Maritta

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a general picture of the policy and main structural features of early childhood education services for the younger children in Finland. It also provides an overview of the research on 1 to 3-year-old children in day care centres carried out in Finland during the last 15 years, the focus being on a review of all the eight…

  17. "No Shoes; They Walked Away?": Effects of Enhancements on Learning and Using Blissymbols by Normal 3-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavendra, Parimala; Fristoe, Macalyne

    1995-01-01

    Forty 3-year-olds learned either 12 standard Blissymbols (SBS) or their enhanced forms (EBS). Results demonstrated that the subjects learned EBS faster than SBS, remembered more EBS than SBS, did not differ in the communicative use of SBS and EBS, and were affected more negatively when presented with the untrained SBS than EBS. (Author/JDD)

  18. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the third eyelid in a 3-year-old Rhodesian Ridgeback

    PubMed Central

    vom Hagen, Franziska; Romkes, Gwendolyna; Kershaw, Olivia; Eule, J Corinna

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A 3-year-old Rhodesian Ridgeback was presented with conjunctivitis, enlargement of the third eyelid and a dorsotemporal deviation of the right eye. A mass within the third eyelid was detected and excised. The histopathologic examination showed a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, which most likely is a neurofibrosarcoma based on immunohistochemistry. PMID:25678975

  19. The Magic Shrinking Machine Revisited: The Presence of Props at Recall Facilitates Memory in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Jonna J.; Kingo, Osman S.; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a seminal study Simcock and Hayne (2002) showed that 3-year-olds were unable to use newly acquired words to describe a "magic" event experienced 6 or 12 months earlier. In the reference study the children's verbal recall was tested without props being present. Inspired by recent evidence, the original design was replicated, testing…

  20. "A Spinach with a V on It": What 3-Year-Olds See in Standard and Enhanced Blissymbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavendra, Parimala; Fristoe, Macalyne

    1990-01-01

    Standard or enhanced Blissymbols, designed to represent familiar actions, attributes, and objects, were shown to 20 3 year olds, who guessed their meaning. The number of their guesses that referred to the enhancements was twice as great as the number that referred to the standard Blissymbol base. (Author/JDD)

  1. Poorly differentiated cutaneous carcinoma of non-sebaceous origin in a 3-year-old Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Heather; Forzán, María J.; Desmarchelier, Marion; Woodland, Meghan; Sayi, Soraya; Gilroy, Cornelia V.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old female gerbil developed a non-healing skin wound due to a malignant neoplasm. Histology, immunohistochemistry (cytokeratin 19 positive; vimentin, estrogen, and progesterone receptor negative), and electron microscopy (no desmosomes or melanosomes) revealed an undifferentiated carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis. Unlike in previous reports, it did not arise from the abdominal pad’s sebaceous gland. PMID:26740704

  2. Meritocratic Sharing Is Based on Collaboration in 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Katharina; Bender, Johanna; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated young preschoolers' proportional allocation of rewards in 2 different work contexts. We presented 32 pairs of 3.5-year-old peers with a collaborative task to obtain rewards by pulling ropes. In order to establish differences in work input, 1 child's rope was not immediately accessible but had to be retrieved from the…

  3. The Effect of Language on Chinese and American 2- and 3-Year Olds' Small Number Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xia; Sun, Ye; Baroody, Arthur J.; Purpura, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has found that linguistic cues may affect children's number word acquisition. Two studies were undertaken to evaluate the use of singular/plural markings and small number words in Chinese and English and its effect on children's number concepts. The first study utilized the CHILDES data and investigated how singular/plural markings…

  4. Comprehension and production of body part labels in 2- to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-09-01

    This study examined which body part labels children could (i) produce when the experimenter touched different locations on her own body, asking each time 'What's this?' and (ii) comprehend by touching the correct locations on their own bodies in response to the experimenter asking 'Where's the [body-part label]?'. Seventeen children aged between 26 and 41 months, tested in a repeated measures procedure, were presented with 50 different body part stimuli in 200 test trials per child. Overall, the children produced fewer body part labels than they could comprehend. The accuracy of children's responses depended on (i) the location or extent of each body part (facial and broad body features were better known; joints and features in or attached to broad body parts the least well known); (ii) the amount of sensory (but not motor) representation each body part has in the human cortex; and (iii) whether a body part was commonly named by caregivers. These results present a precise mapping of the body parts that young children are able to name and locate on their own bodies in response to body part names; they suggest several possible determinants of lexical-semantic body knowledge and add to the understanding of how it develops in childhood.

  5. Succesful treatment of food allergy with Nambudripad's Allergy Elimination Techniques (NAET) in a 3-year old: A case report.

    PubMed

    Terwee, Caroline B

    2008-09-19

    Food allergy may constitute a major burden to children and their families. A 3-year-old girl was intolerant to milk, sugar, egg white, pork meat, and other foods, causing eczema and dyspnoe. She was treated with Nambudripad's Allergy Elimnation Technique (NAET), a combination of kinesiology and acupressure. After 7 treatment sessions (within 4 weeks) she was free of symptoms. After three years, she can still eat everything without symptoms. This case report highlights the possible benefit of NAET for children with food allergy. Randomized clinical trials should be encouraged to study the effectiveness of NAET in treating food allergy.

  6. Valproate-associated reversible encephalopathy in a 3-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gerstner, Thorsten; Bell, Nellie; Koenig, Stephan A

    2008-06-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is considered to be a drug of first choice for the therapy of generalized and focal epilepsies, including special epileptic syndromes. The drug is usually well tolerated, rare serious complications may occur in some patients, including hemorrhagic pancreatitis, coagulapathies, bone marrow suppression, VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and encephalopathy. We report a case of VPA-associated encephalopathy without hyperammonemia in a 3-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian-Syndrom, combined with a mild hepatopathy and thrombopathy. After withdrawal of VPA, the clinical symptoms and the electroencephalography-alterations vanished rapidly.

  7. Valproate-associated reversible encephalopathy in a 3-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Thorsten; Bell, Nellie; Koenig, Stephan A

    2008-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is considered to be a drug of first choice for the therapy of generalized and focal epilepsies, including special epileptic syndromes. The drug is usually well tolerated, rare serious complications may occur in some patients, including hemorrhagic pancreatitis, coagulapathies, bone marrow suppression, VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and encephalopathy. We report a case of VPA-associated encephalopathy without hyperammonemia in a 3-year-old girl with Pallister-Killian-Syndrom, combined with a mild hepatopathy and thrombopathy. After withdrawal of VPA, the clinical symptoms and the electroencephalography-alterations vanished rapidly. PMID:18827862

  8. 46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY karyotype in a 3-year-old boy ascertained because of radioulnar synostosis

    SciTech Connect

    James, C.; Robson, L.; Jackson, J.

    1995-05-08

    Chromosome analysis was performed on a 3-year-old boy because of bilateral radioulnar synostosis and demonstrated a mosaic karyotype 46,XY/47,XYY/48,XYYY. He had minor facial anomalies and mild intellectual delay. He appears to be the youngest patient reported with this rare chromosome complement. His father, mother, and brother had normal chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed on the propositus and his father with the Y chromosome heterochromatic probe (pHY3.4) to add to the evaluation of mosaicism. 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. The Influence of Phonotactic Probability on Nonword Repetition and Fast Mapping in 3-Year-Olds with a History of Expressive Language Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacRoy-Higgins, Michelle; Dalton, Kevin Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of phonotactic probability on sublexical (phonological) and lexical representations in 3-year-olds who had a history of being late talkers in comparison with their peers with typical language development. Method: Ten 3-year-olds who were late talkers and 10 age-matched typically…

  10. Monosyllabic Mandarin Tone Productions by 3-Year-Olds Growing up in Taiwan and in the United States: Interjudge Reliability and Perceptual Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Puisan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The author compared monosyllabic Mandarin lexical tones produced by 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and in the United States. Method: Following the procedures in Wong, Schwartz, and Jenkins (2005), the author collected monosyllabic tone productions from 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children in Taiwan and…

  11. Sample Length Affects the Reliability of Language Sample Measures in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence from Parent-Elicited Conversational Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Eisenberg, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which sample length affected the reliability of total number of words (TNW), number of different words (NDW), and mean length of C-units in morphemes (MLCUm) in parent-elicited conversational samples for 3-year-olds. Method: Participants were sixty 3-year-olds. A 22-min language…

  12. The shadow of the future: 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, adjust their sharing in anticipation of reciprocation.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation can be maintained if individuals reciprocate favors over repeated interactions. However, it is not known when during development the psychological capacities to engage in contingent reciprocation emerge. Therefore, we tested when children begin to differentiate between reciprocal and nonreciprocal interactions in their resource sharing. We compared the sharing behavior of 3- and 5-year-olds in two situations. In an experimental condition, the child and a puppet partner alternated the roles of donor and recipient. In a control condition, the puppet had no opportunity to reciprocate. Results showed that 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, increased their sharing toward a potential reciprocator. In addition, we found that children's ability to delay gratification was positively related to their tendency to share in both conditions. These findings show that reciprocity in anticipation of repeated interactions emerges during middle childhood. Moreover, our results highlight the importance of the ability to delay gratification as a prerequisite for children's sharing. We discuss how children's emerging cognitive abilities enable reciprocal sharing in situations where a child must react to or anticipate a partner's behavior.

  13. 78 FR 69943 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Q3s 3-Year-Old Child Side Impact Test Dummy, Incorporation by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    .... DATES: You should submit your comments early enough to ensure that Docket Management receives them not... Management Facility, M-30, U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building, Ground Floor, Rm. W12-140, 1200... critiques, and through committee meetings of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)...

  14. [Potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old: review of literature].

    PubMed

    Brzozowska, Inga; Sikorska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The literature review regarding potential effects of screen media on cognitive development among children under 3 years old, is presented. In this article, cognitive aspects of development include acquisition of language, attention, learning and later school performance. The constant increase of children's access to television is noted, indicating that 60% of infants and toddlers watch TV regularly for 1-2 hours per day. The review included 40 articles and book chapters of significant such as Anderson, Barr, Christakis, Zimmerman, Meltzoff, Courage, Setliff, Troseth. The data was selected from electronic databases of scientific publications: Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, Social Sciences Full Text (H.W. Wilson) and Humanities Full Text (H.W. Wilson) available in Poland. Cited articles provide evidence of the negative impact of exposure to television, media and video on the cognitive functioning of children under 3 years old. The potential impact of watching TV for difficulties in ability to focus attention appears as a core danger. Furthermore, studies suggest a possible connection between early exposure to television and ADHD as well as difficulties with language acquisition, learning and poorer school results.

  15. Prediction of fat-free body mass from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry among 3-year-old children using DXA.

    PubMed

    Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Jensen, Signe M; Christensen, Line B; Ritz, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian

    2014-01-27

    For 3-year-old children suitable methods to estimate body composition are sparse. We aimed to develop predictive equations for estimating fat-free mass (FFM) from bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and anthropometry using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method using data from 99 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Predictive equations were derived from two multiple linear regression models, a comprehensive model (height(2)/resistance (RI), six anthropometric measurements) and a simple model (RI, height, weight). Their uncertainty was quantified by means of 10-fold cross-validation approach. Prediction error of FFM was 3.0% for both equations (root mean square error: 360 and 356 g, respectively). The derived equations produced BIA-based prediction of FFM and FM near DXA scan results. We suggest that the predictive equations can be applied in similar population samples aged 2-4 years. The derived equations may prove useful for studies linking body composition to early risk factors and early onset of obesity.

  16. Incontinentia Pigmenti: A Rare Genodermatosis in a Male Child

    PubMed Central

    Arunagirinathan, Arulkumaran; Krishnakumar, Revathi; Sangili, Sivaraman

    2015-01-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is rare X-linked dominant disorder. There is no consistent expression of Incontinetia pigmenti in female child, but in male child, they always lead to death in utero. Vesicular, verrucous, hyperpigmented, and atrophic stages are the four stages of Incontinetia Pigmenti and it is uncommon for all stages to be seen in a same case. It is a rare genodermatosis, with only very few cases of male child with Incontinentia pigmenti have been reported. Thus, we report this case due to its extreme rarity and the child showed all the first 3 stages on followup. PMID:25859498

  17. Phonological whole-word measures in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers.

    PubMed

    Bunta, Ferenc; Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian; Ingram, David

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated phonological whole-word measures and consonant accuracy in bilingual and monolingual children to investigate how target approximations drive phonological acquisition. The study included eight bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking 3-year-olds and their monolingual peers (eight Spanish and eight American English). Phonological whole-word measures (pMLU and Proximity) and consonant accuracy (PCC) were calculated on elicited single words. Differences were found on each measure between bilinguals and monolinguals in English, but in Spanish, only the PCC displayed differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. Bilinguals displayed language separation on the pMLU and the PCC but not the Proximity, indicating structural phonological differences between the Spanish and English of bilinguals but commensurate target approximations. This suggests that maintaining a consistent level of phonological proximity to the target is an important factor in phonological acquisition. The measures and their relationships are also discussed.

  18. Ecthyma gangrenosum following toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome in a 3-year-old boy-a survivable series of events.

    PubMed

    Gresik, Christine M; Brewster, Luke P; Abood, Gerard; Supple, Kathy G; Silver, Geoffrey M; Gamelli, Richard L; Nickoloff, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome (TENS) is a severe but rare skin reaction leading to epidermal desquamation of greater than 30% of the TBSA. It is most commonly precipitated by the administration of medication. Frequent complications of this syndrome include local wound infections, respiratory, mucocutaneous, and ocular complications. Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a rare disease characterized by a milliary seeding of the cutaneous tissue with Gram-negative bacteria; it is most commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals. Here we report a 3-year-old boy who developed EG subsequent to TENS. Although he had a complicated and prolonged hospital course, he survived these series of events. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of TENS/EG in the pediatric population, and the first report of survivability following these illnesses.

  19. Odontogenic myxoma involving the orbit in a 3-year-old boy: removal, reconstruction and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Teis Schjals; Danielsson, Lina Isabella; Fast, Søren; Thygesen, Torben H

    2016-02-17

    We present a rare case of a 3-year-old boy with an odontogenic myxoma (OM) involving the orbita. Including our case, only nine cases of OM have been reported to involve the eye in children.There is no gold standard for treatment of OM in children with orbital involvement. The recurrence rate of OM in children seems low, which advocates for less invasive surgery. A gentle resection of the OM was carried out. The floor and medial wall of the orbit was reconstructed immediately using a non-resorbable Medpor implant with passive adaptation. Reconstruction with a Medpor implant in children has rarely been reported in the literature. No clinical or radiological recurrence was observed 24 months after surgical removal, and the patient presented with symmetric appearance and normal vision.

  20. The acquisition of allophones among bilingual Spanish-English and French-English 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Fabiano-Smith, Leah

    2015-03-01

    Children are exposed to highly variable input from multiple sources within their speech community. This study examines the acquisition of allophones in Spanish and French by monolingual and bilingual children. We hypothesised that two factors would influence allophone acquisition: (1) the amount of exposure to phonological input, and (2) the degree of variability of the allophonic pattern. Thirty-four typically developing 3-year-old participated in the study. The analyses revealed that regardless of the language, the monolingual children produced similar error rates in the production of the target allophones. In contrast, the bilingual children produced different patterns of acquisition of the allophones: the Spanish-English bilinguals produced higher error rates than the monolinguals, whereas the French-English bilinguals produced lower error rates than the monolinguals. Possibilities for these differences are discussed within the context of structural complexity as well as in light of the effects of between-language interaction on bilingual phonological development.

  1. The impact of body-part-naming training on the accuracy of imitative performances in 2- to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Camões-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J

    2011-11-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training that enabled them to (i) tact the target locations on their own and the experimenter's bodies or (ii) respond accurately as listeners to the experimenter's tacts of the target locations. Prompts for on-task naming of target body parts were also provided later in the procedure. In Experiment 1, only tact training followed by listener probes were conducted; in Experiment 2, tacting was trained first and listener behavior second, whereas in Experiment 3 listener training preceded tact training. Both tact and listener training resulted in emergence of naming together with significant and large improvements in the children's matching performances; this was true for each child and across most target gestures. The present series of experiments provides evidence that naming--the most basic form of self-instructional behavior--may be one means of establishing untrained matching as measured in generalized imitation tests. This demonstration has a bearing on our interpretation of imitation reported in the behavior analytic, cognitive developmental, and comparative literature.

  2. Male social workers in child welfare: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Warde, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory study conducted with a cohort of male social workers (N = 17) who practice in child welfare. The findings revealed that among other things, participants experience a high level of satisfaction with their role. Moreover, they believe they have made significant contributions to child welfare practice, which include challenging hegemonic masculinity that supports the notion that child welfare is the exclusive responsibility of women. The findings and their implications are discussed.

  3. The Finnish Family Competence Study: the effects of living conditions on sucking habits in 3-year-old Finnish children and the association between these habits and dental occlusion.

    PubMed

    Paunio, P; Rautava, P; Sillanpää, M

    1993-02-01

    Sucking habits and their connection with family background was investigated in 3-year-old Finnish children. The association between sucking habits and malocclusion was also studied. The study was based on a survey with stratified randomized cluster sampling, confidential questionnaires, and clinical dental examinations. Dummy (pacifier) use was often associated with a negligent attitude towards the child's toothbrushing. This may imply that these parents need more support, encouragement, and counseling from the well-baby clinic than others. Sucking habits were strongly associated with malocclusion.

  4. Child and Adolescent Predictors of Male Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study addresses to what extent child and adolescent explanatory factors predict male perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood. Methods: We use prospective longitudinal data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD). The CSDD is a survey of 411 male born in the 1950s in an inner London area. The men…

  5. A 3-year-old boy with Guillain-Barré syndrome and encephalitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Hanzawa, Fumie; Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Ishii, Wakako; Nakajima, Sonoko; Kawamura, Yuki; Endo, Ayumi; Arakawa, Chikako; Kohira, Ryutaro; Fujita, Yukihiko; Takahashi, Shori

    2014-02-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract illness in children. Among the most common extrapulmonary manifestations are disorders of the central nervous system, including meningitis, meningoencephalitis, cerebellitis, polyneuropathy, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Guillain-Barré syndrome, also known as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, is an acute-onset, immune-mediated disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system is usually intact in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. However, there have been some reports of an association of Guillain-Barré syndrome with central nervous system involvement in children. We report a 3-year-old boy with M. pneumoniae infection associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome and encephalitis. Both serum anti-GM1 ganglioside (IgG and IgM) and anti-galactocerebroside IgG antibodies were detected in our patient: the former in the earlier stage of the disease, and the latter in the later stage. We speculate that anti-GM1 ganglioside was associated more with encephalitis, and anti-galactocerebroside antibody was associated more with GBS in our case. Our patient is the youngest report of Guillain-Barré syndrome with central nervous system involvement, and the first report of a pediatric patient with associated M. pneumoniae infection. Such cases are rarely reported, but highlight the need for awareness of the association of the infection with Guillain-Barré syndrome with central nervous system involvement.

  6. Intestinal Obstruction in a 3-Year-Old Girl by Ascaris lumbricoides Infestation: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Angel Medina; Perez, Yeudiel; Lopez, Cecilia; Collazos, Stephanie Serrano; Andrade, Alejandro Medina; Ramirez, Grecia Ortiz; Andrade, Laura Medina

    2015-04-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection affects approximately 1.5 billion people globally. Children with environmental and socio-economic risk factors are more susceptible to infestation, with serious complications such as intestinal obstruction (IO), volvulus, intussusception, and intestinal necrosis.We present the case of a 3-year-old girl who arrived at emergency department with abdominal pain and diarrhea for the last 3 days. The previous day she took an unspecified anthelmintic. Symptoms worsened with vomiting and diarrhea, with expulsion of roundworms through mouth and anus. Physical examination revealed bloating, absence of bowel sounds, abdominal tenderness, and a palpable mass in right hemi-abdomen. Abdominal radiographs showed air-fluid levels with mild bowel distention and shadows of roundworms. The diagnosis of IO by A lumbricoides. infestation was established and surgical approach scheduled. During exploratory laparotomy an intraluminal bolus of roundworms from jejunum to ascendant colon was evident. An ileum enterotomy was performed and worms were removed. Fluid therapy and antibiotics for 72  hours were administered, with posterior albendazol treatment for 3 days. Patient was uneventfully discharged on the tenth day.Reduction in parasitic load by means of improvements in sanitation, health education, and anthelmintic treatment must be implemented in endemic zones to prevent serious life-threatening complications by A lumbricoides. infestation, because some of them require urgent surgical treatment.

  7. Production of Mandarin tones by 3-year-old children acquiring L1 (Mandarin) in an L2 (English) environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2004-05-01

    Thirteen monolingual Mandarin-speaking children residing in the U.S. were recruited to examine their production of the four Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. A picture-naming task was used to elicit the children's productions of lexical tones in isolated words and in sentence final position. Four mothers were asked to say the same set of words to their children in a picture reading activity. The children's and the mothers' productions were recorded and low-pass filtered at 500 and 400 Hz, respectively, to eliminate phonemic and semantic information. Ten Mandarin-speaking judges were recruited to identify the children's and adults' tone productions from the filtered stimuli. Contrary to the findings of L1 research conducted in countries where Mandarin is the language of the environment, the present results revealed that the lexical tones produced by 3-year-old children acquiring Mandarin as their first language in the U.S. were not yet adultlike. Children's tone productions were more difficult to categorize than the mothers' productions. The judges had significantly more difficulty identifying children's dipping tones than the children's level tones, rising tones, or falling tones, suggesting that the dipping tone posed the most difficulties for the children.

  8. Ocular biometric parameters among 3-year-old Chinese children: testability, distribution and association with anthropometric parameters

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Dan; Chen, Xuejuan; Gong, Qi; Yuan, Chaoqun; Ding, Hui; Bai, Jing; Zhu, Hui; Fu, Zhujun; Yu, Rongbin; Liu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This survey was conducted to determine the testability, distribution and associations of ocular biometric parameters in Chinese preschool children. Ocular biometric examinations, including the axial length (AL) and corneal radius of curvature (CR), were conducted on 1,688 3-year-old subjects by using an IOLMaster in August 2015. Anthropometric parameters, including height and weight, were measured according to a standardized protocol, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The testability was 93.7% for the AL and 78.6% for the CR overall, and both measures improved with age. Girls performed slightly better in AL measurements (P = 0.08), and the difference in CR was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The AL distribution was normal in girls (P = 0.12), whereas it was not in boys (P < 0.05). For CR1, all subgroups presented normal distributions (P = 0.16 for boys; P = 0.20 for girls), but the distribution varied when the subgroups were combined (P < 0.05). CR2 presented a normal distribution (P = 0.11), whereas the AL/CR ratio was abnormal (P < 0.001). Boys exhibited a significantly longer AL, a greater CR and a greater AL/CR ratio than girls (all P < 0.001). PMID:27384307

  9. A Peripheral Ameloblastic Fibro-Odontoma in a 3-Year-Old Girl: Case Report, Immunohistochemical Analysis, and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsu, Hsiu-Ming; Liu, Chiang-Shin

    2014-01-01

    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) predominantly occurs in the jaw bones of children and young adults. Extraosseous AFO is extremely rare. We describe a peripheral ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in the maxillary gingiva of a 3-year-old girl. The clinical appearance resembled fiery red reactive gingival lesions. The histopathological examination of the excised lesion showed small islands and cords of odontogenic epithelium with cellular myxoid stroma in the subepithelial tissue. The mass contained calcified material and an enamel-like deposit. Many small blood vessels appeared in the connective tissue surrounding the odontogenic epithelium. The immunohistochemical assays showed strong reactivity for amelogenin, β-catenin, CD44, and CD31 in the tissue sections. There was no recurrence after the 1-year follow-up. Because this lesion clinically resembles other nonneoplastic lesions and is very rare in gingiva, establishing a correct diagnosis is achieved only based on specific histological characteristics. Conservative excision of the tumor is the treatment of choice. PMID:25161776

  10. Screen Sense: Setting the Record Straight--Research-Based Guidelines for Screen Use for Children under 3 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Barr, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    A robust body of research shows that the most important factor in a child's healthy development is a positive parent-child relationship, characterized by warm, loving interactions in which parents and other caregivers sensitively respond to their child's cues and provide age-appropriate activities that nurture curiosity, exploration, and learning.…

  11. Comparative Evaluation of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-Year-Old Dummies in Biofidelity and Static Out-of-Position Airbag Tests.

    PubMed

    Berliner, J; Athey, J; Baayoun, E; Byrnes, K; Elhagediab, A; Hultman, R; Jensen, J; Kim, A; Kostyniuk, G; Mertz, H; Prest, J; Rouhana, S; Scherer, R; Xu, L

    2000-11-01

    A comparison of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old crash test dummies is presented in this paper. The performance of the dummies were compared in sixty biofidelity tests, seventy-seven static out-of-position airbag tests and sixty-three calibration tests. Various time histories and other data pertaining to accelerations, deflections, forces and moments are compared. In addition, the ease of positioning, handling, and the durability of the dummies in various out-of-position test configurations was assessed. Both the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old dummies were calibrated to their respective specifications. The Hybrid III 3-year-old met its calibration requirements, while the Q3 did not always meet its own calibration requirements. The calibration specifications of the Q3 dummy need to be re-examined and possibly refined. The biofidelity of the Q3 and Hybrid III 3-year-old dummies were evaluated in both frontal and lateral test modes. Each dummy was evaluated against its own and the other's specified requirements, when possible. In the frontal test mode, the Hybrid III 3-year-old acceptably met all of its requirements. The Q3 dummy did not meet all of its own frontal biofidelity requirements. Based on these results, the Hybrid III 3-year-old is more biofidelic for primarily frontal loading conditions. With respect to the lateral biofidelity specifications, neither the Hybrid III 3-year-old nor the Q3 dummy met the requirements for the thorax and pelvis tests performed. Both dummies met the head drop requirements. Neither dummy is recommended for lateral loading conditions. For lateral testing where only the head is impacted, the Hybrid III 3-year-old could be used. In general, the responses of both dummies were repeatable in both the frontal and lateral biofidelity tests performed. The Hybrid III 3-year-old and the Q3 dummies were evaluated in static out-of-position airbag tests with three different side airbag systems (two seat-mounted and one door-mounted system), and

  12. Gender and racial differences in the looking and talking behaviors of mothers and their 3-year-old prematurely born children.

    PubMed

    Cho, June; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Belyea, Michael

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the relationship of child gender and maternal race to the looking and talking interactions of fifty-four 3-year-old prematurely born children and their mothers. More gender differences occurred for looking than for talking, whereas racial differences were stronger for talking than for looking. Transitional probabilities between looking situations suggested that gender differences occurred because girls were more likely to respond when their mothers were looking at them than were boys. Transitional probabilities between talking situations suggested that racial differences occurred because non-White mothers (African Americans and Native Americans in this study) were less likely to respond when their children were talking to them than were White mothers. The only significant interaction of gender by race was with White mothers who were more likely to respond when their girls were talking. When analyses were repeated, controlling for the effects of intelligence quotient, gestational age, neurobiologic risk score, and socioeconomic status (SES), gender differences for looking situations became smaller, whereas racial differences for talking situations became larger. Gender and ethnicity differences for looking and talking interactions cannot be explained by simple differences in health status or SES. These differences may possibly be related to the differential brain functions and hormonal effects of boys and girls, as well as to differential socialization that influences gender identity and gender roles. They also may be related to the higher incidence of language delays in non-White children and to differences in sociocultural norms and parenting between White and non-White mothers.

  13. Aggregate exposure approaches for parabens in personal care products: a case assessment for children between 0 and 3 years old.

    PubMed

    Gosens, Ilse; Delmaar, Christiaan J E; Ter Burg, Wouter; de Heer, Cees; Schuur, A Gerlienke

    2014-01-01

    In the risk assessment of chemical substances, aggregation of exposure to a substance from different sources via different pathways is not common practice. Focusing the exposure assessment on a substance from a single source can lead to a significant underestimation of the risk. To gain more insight on how to perform an aggregate exposure assessment, we applied a deterministic (tier 1) and a person-oriented probabilistic approach (tier 2) for exposure to the four most common parabens through personal care products in children between 0 and 3 years old. Following a deterministic approach, a worst-case exposure estimate is calculated for methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butylparaben. As an illustration for risk assessment, Margins of Exposure (MoE) are calculated. These are 991 and 4966 for methyl- and ethylparaben, and 8 and 10 for propyl- and butylparaben, respectively. In tier 2, more detailed information on product use has been obtained from a small survey on product use of consumers. A probabilistic exposure assessment is performed to estimate the variability and uncertainty of exposure in a population. Results show that the internal exposure for each paraben is below the level determined in tier 1. However, for propyl- and butylparaben, the percentile of the population with an exposure probability above the assumed "safe" MoE of 100, is 13% and 7%, respectively. In conclusion, a tier 1 approach can be performed using simple equations and default point estimates, and serves as a starting point for exposure and risk assessment. If refinement is warranted, the more data demanding person-oriented probabilistic approach should be used. This probabilistic approach results in a more realistic exposure estimate, including the uncertainty, and allows determining the main drivers of exposure. Furthermore, it allows to estimate the percentage of the population for which the exposure is likely to be above a specific value.

  14. Validation of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 3 year old children of a multi-ethnic Asian population: The GUSTO cohort study.

    PubMed

    Quah, Phaik Ling; Cheung, Yin Bun; Pang, Wei Wei; Toh, Jia Ying; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Yap, Fabian; Chong, Yap Seng; Mary, Chong Foong-Fong

    2017-02-20

    The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was developed to measure eating behaviors related to obesity risk in children. However, this questionnaire has not been validated for use in South East Asia, where parenting practices are different from those in western countries and child obesity rates are increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the CEBQ administered to mothers of children aged 3 years in Singapore. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine if the original 35-item, 8-factor model was supported in our cohort. Participants were 636 mother-child dyads (mean (SD) child age = 36.7 (1.6) months), from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort in which the mothers were characterized in pregnancy and children were followed up to age 3 years. The CFA showed a poor model fit; RMSEA = 0.072 (PCLOSE<0.001), SRMR = 0.094, CFI = 0.826, and TLI = 0.805. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35 item, 7-factor structure (factor loadings ≥ 0.35): enjoyment of food, food fussiness, emotional overeating, desire to drink, emotional under eating, satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating. Cronbach's alpha estimates ranged from 0.70 to 0.88 for the 7 subscales. Convergent validity tests via correlation analysis revealed that emotional under eating (r = -0.14), slowness in eating (r = -0.16) and satiety responsiveness (r = -0.11) were negatively correlated with BMI z-score at 3 years, while enjoyment of food (r = 0.12) was positively correlated, p < 0.05. In conclusion, we found a revised 7-factor structure of the CEBQ more appropriate for examining eating behavior in 3 year old children in the Singapore setting. Further replication studies in a separate cohort study are warranted before further use of these factor structures generated.

  15. An Ecological Approach of Constraint Induced Movement Therapy for 2-3-Year-Old Children: A Randomized Control Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Shaw, Karin; Berg, Elisabeth; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of Eco-CIMT in young children with unilateral cerebral palsy in a randomized controlled crossover design. The training was implemented within the regular pediatric services, provided by the child's parents and/or preschool teacher and supervised by the child's regular therapist. Methods: Twenty-five children…

  16. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  17. Male soldier family violence offenders: spouse and child offenders compared to child offenders.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Sullivan, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Army data from 2000 to 2004 were used to compare two groups of married, male, Army soldier, first-time family violence offenders: 760 dual offenders (whose initial incident included both child maltreatment and spouse abuse) and 2,209 single offenders (whose initial incident included only child maltreatment). The majority (81%) of dual offenders perpetrated physical spouse abuse; however, dual offenders were less likely than single offenders to perpetrate physical child abuse (16% vs. 42%) or sexual child abuse (1% vs. 11%), but they were more likely to perpetrate emotional child abuse (45% vs. 12%). These findings may be, at least in part, explained in light of the Army Family Advocacy Program policy, which considers spouse offenders as also being emotional child abuse offenders since children may be traumatized by exposure to spouse abuse.

  18. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  19. Examining Subtypes of Behavior Problems among 3-Year-Old Children, Part II: Investigating Differences in Parent Psychopathology, Couple Conflict, and Other Family Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Lauren H.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Friedman-Weieneth, Julie L.; Pierce, Courtney; Tellert, Alexis; Sippel, Jenna C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined family stressors among 3-year-old children who were classified as hyperactive (HYP), hyperactive and oppositional defiant (HYP/OD), and non-problem based on mothers' reports of behavior. Children with HYP/OD were found to experience higher levels of family stressors than non-problem children on almost every family stressor…

  20. The Impact of Body-Part-Naming Training on the Accuracy of Imitative Performances in 2- to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camoes-Costa, Vera; Erjavec, Mihela; Horne, Pauline J.

    2011-01-01

    A series of three experiments explored the relationship between 3-year-old children's ability to name target body parts and their untrained matching of target hand-to-body touches. Nine participants, 3 per experiment, were presented with repeated generalized imitation tests in a multiple-baseline procedure, interspersed with step-by-step training…

  1. Acting and Planning on the Basis of a False Belief: Its Effects on 3-Year-Old Children's Reasoning About Their Own False Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atance, Cristina M.; O'Neill, Daniela K.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined 3-year-olds' explanations for actions of theirs that were premised on a false belief. In Experiment 1, children stated what they thought was inside a crayon box. After stating "crayons," they went to retrieve some paper to draw on. Children were then shown that the box contained candles and were asked to (a) state their initial…

  2. Is the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2nd Edition a Reliable Instrument to Measure Motor Performance in 3 Year Old Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C. M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Waelvelde, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    Formal testing of 3 year old children is a new feature in the revised version of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC-2). Our study evaluated the reliability and explored the clinical applicability of the Movement ABC-2 Test in this young age group. A total of 50 typically children were given two trials of the test within a…

  3. Sticking out and fitting in: culture-specific predictors of 3-year-olds' autobiographical memories during joint reminiscing.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Lisa; Kärtner, Joscha; Keller, Heidi; Chaudhary, Nandita

    2012-12-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between mother-child interaction styles with 19 months and children's autobiographical memory with 3 years of age in two cultural contexts: New Delhi, India (n = 25) and Berlin, Germany (n = 33). Results demonstrate similarities as well as culture specificities. In both contexts, maternal elaborations during reminiscing were related to children's memory contributions. Over time, maternal support for toddlers' self-expression during free play at 19 months predicted their children's memory elaborations at 3 years in the Berlin context. In the Delhi context, toddlers' willingness to carry out their mothers' requests at 19 months predicted their memory elaborations at 3 years. These results suggest different motivational bases underlying children's autobiographical memory contributions during mother-child reminiscing related to different cultural orientations.

  4. Social risk factors as predictors for parental report of deviant behaviour in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Else; Obel, Carsten; Nedergård, Niels Jørgen; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether social risk factors adjusted for gender and some well-known perinatal risk factors were related to parental descriptions of deviant behaviour in 3(1/2)-year-old children. The study was a prospective cohort study of 1345 mothers enrolled during early pregnancy. Parents answered a questionnaire and children's behavioural difficulties were categorized into the following groups; "hyperactive-distractible", "hostile-aggressive" and "anxious-fearful" following a modified Behar scale. The male gender was found to be related to a description of all kinds of deviant behaviour. Having a family member experiencing employment difficulties was the factor most closely related to "hyperactive-distractible" behaviour. Familial stress due to lack of time, experience of divorce and mothers in excess of 35 years at childbirth were found to be related to "hostile-aggressive" behaviour, but male gender was the most closely related. Social disadvantage was not found to be related to "anxious-fearful" behaviour.

  5. Factors Affecting Psychosocial and Motor Development in 3-Year-Old Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown an association between children’s development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing devices, hearing device used, presence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, maternal education, socio-economic status (SES), language ability, and communication mode. Caregivers reported on children’s development using the Child Development Inventory (CDI). On average, both psychosocial and motor development quotients were within the typical range for hearing children, with large individual differences. There was a positive correlation between language ability and both social and motor development, and also between social and motor development. Age at first fitting of hearing aids (as an indicator of age at identification of hearing loss), SES, degree of hearing loss, and maternal education were not significant predictors of social skill or motor development, whereas presence of additional disabilities and birth weight were. Girls performed better than boys on all but the Gross Motor subscale of the CDI. Children with hearing aids tended to perform better than those with cochlear implants on the Gross Motor subscale. PMID:26209447

  6. Factors Affecting Psychosocial and Motor Development in 3-Year-Old Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y C; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has shown an association between children's development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing devices, hearing device used, presence of additional disabilities, severity of hearing loss, maternal education, socio-economic status (SES), language ability, and communication mode. Caregivers reported on children's development using the Child Development Inventory (CDI). On average, both psychosocial and motor development quotients were within the typical range for hearing children, with large individual differences. There was a positive correlation between language ability and both social and motor development, and also between social and motor development. Age at first fitting of hearing aids (as an indicator of age at identification of hearing loss), SES, degree of hearing loss, and maternal education were not significant predictors of social skill or motor development, whereas presence of additional disabilities and birth weight were. Girls performed better than boys on all but the Gross Motor subscale of the CDI. Children with hearing aids tended to perform better than those with cochlear implants on the Gross Motor subscale.

  7. The influence of lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries among 3-year-old Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masako; Wang, Da-Hong; Ijichi, Akihiro; Shirai, Chika; Zou, Yu; Kubo, Masayuki; Takemoto, Kei; Masatomi, Chie; Ogino, Keiki

    2014-12-05

    The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child's late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake.

  8. Childhood experiences of incarcerated male child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-10-01

    While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.

  9. Case report of oral cavity infestation in a 3-year old jackass with Limnatis nilotica from Ilam province, west of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Karamati, Seyed Ahmad; Anari, Morteza Mohamad Hosseini; Rahimirad, Amir; Asadzadeh, Jafar; Kheiri, Aghakhan; Hajiglolizadeh, Ghader; Ghotbian, Fereidoun; Bahmani, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Leeches (phylum: Annelida, class: hirudinea) could infest wide range of livestock such as cow, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, mule, ass, dog, pig and even human. In November 2013, a 3-year old jackass from Dehloran county, Ilam province, Iran, was infected through his mouth due to drinking spring water. Symptoms including stress, anxiety and tachycardia were seen. After examining oral cavity of jackass, a leech was observed in upper gum. The leech was measured after separation which was three inches in length. The leech was adult which has dark green with orange lines, and it was identified as Limnatis nilotica species. It seems that using spring, subterranean water, pond etc. is the main causes of livestock infestation with leech. Ranchers could be recommended to decontaminate leech waters to prevent further leech infestation cases.

  10. Acting and planning on the basis of a false belief: its effects on 3-year-old children's reasoning about their own false beliefs.

    PubMed

    Atance, Cristina M; O'Neill, Daniela K

    2004-11-01

    This study examined 3-year-olds' explanations for actions of theirs that were premised on a false belief. In Experiment 1, children stated what they thought was inside a crayon box. After stating "crayons," they went to retrieve some paper to draw on. Children were then shown that the box contained candles and were asked to (a) state their initial belief and (b) explain their action of getting paper. Children who were unable to retrieve their false belief were unable to correctly explain their action. Experiments 2 and 3 ruled out several alternative interpretations for these findings. In Experiment 4, children planned and acted on their false belief. Again, children who were unable to retrieve their false belief were unable to correctly explain their action.

  11. Atopic allergy and chronic inflammation of the oral mucosa in a 3-year-old boy after heart transplantation – diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Machura, Edyta; Chodór, Beata; Pindycka-Piaszczyńska, Małgorzata; Chrobak, Ewelina; Białkowski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, we have been observing an increased proportion of atopic diseases in children after solid organ transplantation. The pathogenesis of post-transplantation allergy is not completely understood and probably involves several factors, including immunosuppressive therapy. In this paper we present a case of 3-year old boy, after orthotopic heart transplantation at 6 months of age, with symptoms of food allergy associated with atopic dermatitis and changes in the orofacial area. The mentioned symptoms and elevated levels of total and specific IgE occurred with a year of transplant. Because of failure to achieve remission after typical allergy therapy we suspected that the reason of allergy in this case can be immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:26336506

  12. Dysplastic L5-S1 Spondyloptosis in a 3-Year-Old Child: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Nanda, Ankur

    2017-01-01

    A three-year-old girl presented with primary complaint of severe low back pain with radiation to both lower limbs below the knees since 2 months following history of fall and marked restriction of her daily routine activities. After clinicoradiological evaluation she was diagnosed of having dysplastic L5-S1 spondyloptosis. A staged procedure was planned after thorough discussion with her parents. During initial stage she underwent posterior decompression along L5-S1 segment including exposure of bilateral L5 and S1 nerve roots followed by instrumented reduction (L3-S2 5.5 mm pedicle screws) utilizing a rotational-translational technique. No interbody fusion was done at L5-S1 level and inner nuts of bilateral L3, L4, and S2 screws were intentionally kept loose. Subsequently after about symptom-free three-year follow up, she presented with recurrence of symptoms and underwent revision surgery as per initial plan discussed with her parents. Removals of posterior implants were done followed by stabilization with larger diameter pedicle screws (6.5 mm) at L5 and S1 level. During the same stage through anterior transperitoneal approach L5-S1 interbody fusion was done. At one-year follow-up after second-stage definitive surgery, patient remains symptom-free and fully active without any radiological evidence of reduction loss or implant failure. PMID:28357146

  13. Predicting recidivism among adult male child pornography offenders: Development of the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT).

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we developed a structured risk checklist, the Child Pornography Offender Risk Tool (CPORT), to predict any sexual recidivism among adult male offenders with a conviction for child pornography offenses. We identified predictors of sexual recidivism using a 5-year fixed follow-up analysis from a police case file sample of 266 adult male child pornography offenders in the community after their index offense. In our 5-year follow-up, 29% committed a new offense, and 11% committed a new sexual offense, with 3% committing a new contact sexual offense against a child and 9% committing a new child pornography offense. The CPORT items comprised younger offender age, any prior criminal history, any contact sexual offending, any failure on conditional release, indication of sexual interest in child pornography material or prepubescent or pubescent children, more boy than girl content in child pornography, and more boy than girl content in other child depictions. The CPORT was significantly associated with any sexual recidivism, with moderate predictive accuracy, and thus has promise in the risk assessment of adult male child pornography offenders with further cross-validation.

  14. Immature teratoma of the tectum mesencephali with histopathological detection of rudimentary eye anlage in a 3-year-old boy: Report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Dubinski, Daniel; Mittelbronn, Michel; Marquardt, Gerhard; Tews, Dominique S; Noack, Anika; Behmanesh, Bedjan; Seifert, Volker; Freiman, Thomas M

    2016-12-01

    Intracranial teratoma is a rare neoplasm derived from omnipotent germinal cells that can contain mesoderm, endoderm and/or ectoderm layer tissue. Histologically teratomas are characterized by abnormal structures like teeth or bone that can be further subdivided into mature and immature according to the presence of incompletely differentiated tissue. Characteristic intracranial teratomas are space-occupying lesions in the pineal region and often present with hydrocephalic symptoms due to aqueduct stenosis. A 3-year-old boy presented with a peracute hemiparesis, fatigue and speech deficit. MRI diagnostics showed a cystic, partially solid, inhomogeneous contrast-enhancing formation at the top of the tectum mesencephali with consecutive aqueduct compression. The patient underwent a sub-occipital craniotomy via a supracerebellar approach and complete resection was achieved. The histopathological examination mainly showed mature tissue of ectodermal, mesodermal and endodermal origin. However, small areas of undifferentiated neuroectodermal tissue within an optic vesicle formation were detected, leading to the diagnosis of an immature teratoma. In due course, the patient was discharged in good health without neurological deficits. To our knowledge, optic vesicle-containing intracranial germ cell tumors are extremely rare. Here we report a unique case with immature neuroectodermal tissue within an optic vesicle formation in an otherwise mature teratoma.

  15. Voice onset time of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers

    PubMed Central

    FABIANO-SMITH, LEAH; BUNTA, FERENC

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English. Twenty-four 3-year-olds participated in this study (8 bilingual Spanish–English, 8 monolingual Spanish and 8 monolingual English). The VOT productions of /p/ and /k/ in syllable-initial stressed singleton position were compared across participants. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed to examine differences (1) between monolinguals and bilinguals and (2) between English and Spanish. The main findings of the study were that monolingual and bilingual children generally differed on VOT in English, but not in Spanish. No statistically significant differences were found between the Spanish and the English VOT of the bilingual children, but the VOT values did differ significantly for monolingual Spanish-versus monolingual English-speaking participants. Our findings were interpreted in terms of Flege’s Speech Learning Model, finding possible evidence for equivalence classification. PMID:21787142

  16. A 3-Year-Old Girl with Recurrent Infections and Autoimmunity due to a STAT1 Gain-of-Function Mutation: The Expanding Clinical Presentation of Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Aldave Becerra, Juan Carlos; Cachay Rojas, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    We report a 3-year-old Peruvian girl, born to non-consanguineous parents. At the age of 8 months, she had a severe pneumonia complicated with empyema that required thoracic drainage and mechanical ventilation. Although no microorganisms were isolated, the patient recovered with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Since that date, she has presented multiple episodes of pneumonia and recurrent episodes of bronchospasm. At 1 year 5 months of age, the patient began with recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal, vaginal, and skin candidiasis, which improved transiently after using oral azole drugs. At 2.5 years of age, she was admitted with lupus-like syndrome, including serositis, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and positive antinuclear (1:80) and dsDNA (1:10) autoantibodies. Available immunologic testing was not contributory. Imaging studies revealed bilateral ethmoidal sinusitis and mild hepatomegaly. Bone marrow analysis did not showed evidence of leukemia or myelodysplasia, while renal biopsy concluded mild mesangial proliferation. Genetic studies revealed a pathogenic heterozygous signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 gain-of-function mutation (WT/P293L). The clinical status and lung function of the patient has worsened progressively. She has not achieved an optimal response to therapy, including high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, GM-CSF, prophylactic antibiotics and antifungal drugs, so we plan to perform hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:28367431

  17. 3-Year-Old Children Selectively Generalize Object Functions Following a Demonstration from a Linguistic In-group Member: Evidence from the Phenomenon of Scale Error

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Katalin; Elekes, Fruzsina; Pető, Réka; Peres, Krisztina; Király, Ildikó

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated 3-year-old children’s learning processes about object functions. We built on children’s tendency to commit scale errors with tools to explore whether they would selectively endorse object functions from a linguistic in-group over an out-group model. Participants (n = 37) were presented with different object sets, and a model speaking either in their native or a foreign language demonstrated how to use the presented tools. In the test phase, children received the object sets with two modifications: the original tool was replaced by one that was too big to achieve the goal but was otherwise identical, and another tool was added to the set that looked different but was appropriately scaled for goal attainment. Children in the Native language condition were significantly more likely to commit scale errors – that is, choose the over-sized tool – than children in the Foreign language condition (48 vs. 30%). We propose that these results provide insight into the characteristics of human-specific learning processes by showing that children are more likely to generalize object functions to a category of artifacts following a demonstration from an in-group member. PMID:27445925

  18. The effect of sucking habits, cohort, sex, intercanine arch widths, and breast or bottle feeding on posterior crossbite in Norwegian and Swedish 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Øgaard, Bjørn; Larsson, Erik; Lindsten, Rune

    1994-08-01

    The upper and lower intercanine arch widths and the prevalence of posterior crossbite were registered for 445 3-year-old children with and without a continuing or previous dummy-sucking or finger-sucking habit in different areas in Sweden and Norway. Sami children from northern Norway also took part in the study, as well as 15 medieval skulls with intact deciduous dentitions. Compared with the nonsuckers, an increased prevalence of posterior crossbite was observed for the finger suckers, especially the Swedish girls. Stepwise logistic regression showed that posterior crossbite could be predicted with upper intercanine arch width alone. The finger sucking variable would not improve prediction; neither did other entities such as cohort (residental area), sex, lower intercanine arch width, nor the difference between upper and lower intercanine arch width. High prevalences of posterior crossbite were registered for dummy suckers (pacifiers) especially the Swedish girls (26%). Stepwise logistic regression showed that posterior crossbite in dummy suckers could be predicted with upper and lower intercanine arch width. Stepwise linear regression showed that both arches tended to be narrower in Swedes and girls, and that dummy sucking decreased the upper and increased the lower intercanine arch width. Analyses of covariance revealed that at least 2 years of dummy sucking is necessary to produce a significant effect in the upper jaw and 3 years in the lower jaw. (AM J ORTHOD DENTOFAC ORTHOP 1994;106:161-6.).

  19. The effect of sucking habits, cohort, sex, intercanine arch widths, and breast or bottle feeding on posterior crossbite in Norwegian and Swedish 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Ogaard, B; Larsson, E; Lindsten, R

    1994-08-01

    The upper and lower intercanine arch widths and the prevalence of posterior crossbite were registered for 445 3-year-old children with and without a continuing or previous dummy-sucking or finger-sucking habit in different areas in Sweden and Norway. Sami children from northern Norway also took part in the study, as well as 15 medieval skulls with intact deciduous dentitions. Compared with the nonsuckers, an increased prevalence of posterior crossbite was observed for the finger suckers, especially the Swedish girls. Stepwise logistic regression showed that posterior crossbite could be predicted with upper intercanine arch width alone. The finger sucking variable would not improve prediction; neither did other entities such as cohort (residential area), sex, lower intercanine arch width, nor the difference between upper and lower intercanine arch width. High prevalences of posterior crossbite were registered for dummy suckers (pacifiers) especially the Swedish girls (26%). Stepwise logistic regression showed that posterior crossbite in dummy suckers could be predicted with upper and lower intercanine arch width. Stepwise linear regression showed that both arches tended to be narrower in Swedes and girls, and that dummy sucking decreased the upper and increased the lower intercanine arch width. Analyses of covariance revealed that at least 2 years of dummy sucking is necessary to produce a significant effect in the upper jaw and 3 years in the lower jaw.

  20. Voice onset time of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in 3-year-old bilingual children and their age-matched monolingual peers.

    PubMed

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Bunta, Ferenc

    2012-02-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English. Twenty-four 3-year-olds participated in this study (8 bilingual Spanish-English, 8 monolingual Spanish and 8 monolingual English). The VOT productions of /p/ and /k/ in syllable-initial stressed singleton position were compared across participants. Non-parametric statistical analyses were performed to examine differences (1) between monolinguals and bilinguals and (2) between English and Spanish. The main findings of the study were that monolingual and bilingual children generally differed on VOT in English, but not in Spanish. No statistically significant differences were found between the Spanish and the English VOT of the bilingual children, but the VOT values did differ significantly for monolingual Spanish- versus monolingual English-speaking participants. Our findings were interpreted in terms of Flege's Speech Learning Model, finding possible evidence for equivalence classification.

  1. Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Signe M; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Christensen, Line B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André

    2015-07-01

    Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition, associated with infections, remains unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between common anthropometric indices and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a sample of 121 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Appendicular (arms and legs) lean mass was used to estimate muscle mass. Overall, anthropometric measures were more effective to measure absolute size of fat, lean and muscle mass than their relative sizes. Proportion of the variance explained by anthropometry was 79% for lean mass, 76% for fat mass and 74% for muscle mass. For fat mass and lean mass expressed as percentage of total body mass, this proportion was 51% and 66%, respectively; and for muscle mass as percentage of lean mass it was 34%. All the best reduced multivariate models included weight, skinfold and gender except the model estimating the proportion of muscle mass in lean body mass, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess body composition, and especially for muscle mass as a proportion of lean mass, should be acknowledged.

  2. Association between the purchase price of Thoroughbred yearlings and their performance during the 2- and 3-year-old racing seasons.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Ma; Vizard, Al; Anderson, Ga; Clarke, Af; Whitton, Rc

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVES Describe the association between the purchase price of Thoroughbred yearlings sold in Australia and racing performance as 2- and 3-year-olds. METHODS Race performance data of 2773 Thoroughbred yearlings sold at auction during 2003 were collected. Associations between purchase price and the probability of starting, the number of race starts and the prize money earned were examined. RESULTS In total, 2206 (79.6%) horses started a race. The mean number of race starts was six and the mean prize money earned was A$24,420. A total of 1711 (61.5%) horses earned prize money, 402 (14.4%) earned more than their purchase price, 312 (11.2%) earned more than A$40,000, the estimated cost of training, and 142 (5.1%) earned A$40,000 more than their purchase price. There was a positive association between purchase price category and the probability of starting, number of starts, earning prize money and earning greater than A$40,000 (P < 0.001). Purchase price category was negatively associated with the probability of earning greater than the purchase price (P < 0.001). The proportion of horses earning greater than the purchase price plus $40,000 was significantly different (P = 0.03) among the five price categories. CONCLUSION Yearling purchase price was positively associated with all race performance outcomes measured and researchers examining the race performance of yearlings purchased at sales should consider including purchase price when modelling. The Thoroughbred yearling market in Australia behaves in a similar manner to the United States market; owners pay a premium to enter the sport of racing and an additional premium in the quest to own a champion.

  3. Male Gender Assignment of a Child with Aphallia and Associated Complex Urological Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Satish Kumar Kolar; Babu, P. R.; Joseph, T. P.; Varma, Karthikeya K.

    2017-01-01

    A 2-year-old male child presented to us with aphallia. At birth, he was passing urine from the anus and had undergone emergency colostomy and pyelostomy for urinary sepsis at 1 week of life. After a complete evaluation, the child underwent perineal urethrostomy and scrotal phalloplasty followed by buccal mucosal tube urethroplasty in the second stage, which was completed before the child started schooling. PMID:28082775

  4. Male Gender Assignment of a Child with Aphallia and Associated Complex Urological Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Satish Kumar Kolar; Babu, P R; Joseph, T P; Varma, Karthikeya K

    2017-01-01

    A 2-year-old male child presented to us with aphallia. At birth, he was passing urine from the anus and had undergone emergency colostomy and pyelostomy for urinary sepsis at 1 week of life. After a complete evaluation, the child underwent perineal urethrostomy and scrotal phalloplasty followed by buccal mucosal tube urethroplasty in the second stage, which was completed before the child started schooling.

  5. The Influence of Malnutrition and Micronutrient Status on Anemic Risk in Children under 3 Years Old in Poor Areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Hui; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Yu, Wentao; Man, Qingqing; Scherpbier, Robert; Pan, Lili; Duan, Yifan; Yin, Shi-an

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition and anemia affect large numbers of young children living in poor areas of China. Multi-micronutrient deficiencies may be related to the prevalence of anemia in different populations, and identifying the risk factors that render children susceptible to anemia is the first step in combating anemia effectively. Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1370 children under 3 years old were selected based on probability proportional to size sampling principles from poor counties of China. Basic characteristics data were collected by questionnaire; then anthropometrics and hemoglobin were measured in the field and anemia prevalence evaluated. Venous blood was drawn from children aged 12–35 months (N = 553) to evaluate micronutrient status. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for children’s anemia. Results Among children aged 0–35 months, the prevalence of stunting, low body weight and wasting was 17.5%, 8.6% and 5.1%, respectively, and 25.6% of the children were affected by anemia, with more anemic infants and younger children than older children (P <0.01). There were 26.5%, 12.8%, 14.1% and 20.0% of the children aged 12–35 months affected by iron deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, folic acid deficiency and vitamin B12 deficiency, respectively. For children aged 0–11 months who were breastfed, the mothers’ anemic status was the only factor associated with the child’s anemia (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2–5.4, P < 0.05). For children aged 12–35 months, multivariate logistic regression indicated that anemia was significantly associated with iron and vitamin B12 deficiency (OR = 5.3; 95% CI: 1.9–14.5, P < 0.01) and monotonous diet (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1–4.7, P < 0.05) after adjusting for age and gender. Conclusion The prevalence of anemia was higher in children under 2 years old and requires urgent intervention. An effective intervention strategy should include iron and vitamin B12 supplements, improving

  6. Exploring Taboos: Comparing Male- and Female-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female…

  7. Quantity and Quality of Caregivers’ Linguistic Input to 18-month and 3-year-old Children who are Hard of Hearing

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Sophie E.; Walker, Elizabeth A.; Unflat-Berry, Lauren M.; Oleson, Jacob J.; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this study was to examine the quantity and quality of caregiver talk directed to children who are hard of hearing (CHH) as compared to children with normal hearing (CNH). For the CHH only, the study explored how caregiver input changed as a function of child age (18 months versus 3 years), which child and family factors contributed to variance in caregiver linguistic input at 18 months and 3 years, and how caregiver talk at 18 months related to child language outcomes at 3 years. Design Participants were 59 CNH and 156 children with bilateral, mild-to-severe hearing loss. When children were approximately 18-months and/or 3-years of age, caregivers and children participated in a 5-minute semi-structured, conversational interaction. Interactions were transcribed and coded for two features of caregiver input representing quantity (number of total utterances and number of total words) and four features representing quality (number of different words, mean length of utterance in morphemes, proportion of utterances that were high-level, and proportion of utterances that were directing). Additionally, at the 18-month visit, parents completed a standardized questionnaire regarding their child’s communication development. At the 3-year visit, a clinician administered a standardized language measure. Results At the 18-month visit, the CHH were exposed to a greater proportion of directing utterances than the CNH. At the 3-year visit, there were significant differences between the CNH and CHH for number of total words and all four of the quality variables, with the CHH being exposed to fewer words and lower quality input. Caregivers generally provided higher quality input to CHH at the 3-year visit, as compared to the 18-month visit. At the 18-month visit, quantity variables, but not quality variables, were related to several child and family factors. At the 3-year visit, the variable most strongly related to caregiver input was child

  8. Infant male circumcision and the autonomy of the child: two ethical questions.

    PubMed

    McMath, Akim

    2015-08-01

    Routine neonatal circumcision--the non-therapeutic circumcision of infant males--has generated considerable ethical controversy. In this article, I suggest that much of the disagreement results from conflicting ideas about the autonomy of the child. I examine two questions about autonomy. First, I ask whether we should be realists or idealists about the future autonomous choices of the child-that is, whether we should account for the fact that the child may not make the best choices in future, or whether we should assume that his future choices will reflect his best interests. Second, I ask whether the child has a right to autonomy with respect to circumcision, an interest in autonomy or neither--that is, whether respect for autonomy overrides considerations of interests, whether it counts as one interest among many or whether it counts for nothing. In response to the first question, I argue that we should be idealists when evaluating the child's own interests, but realists when evaluating public health justifications for circumcision. In response to the second question, I argue that the child has an interest in deciding whether or not to be circumcised, insofar as the decision is more likely to reflect his actual interests and his own values. Finally, I show how these findings may help to resolve some particular disputes over the ethics of infant male circumcision.

  9. Masculinity and Femininity in Male and Female Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pothast, Henry L.; Allen, Craig M.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined masculinity and femininity in adult male (n=75) and female (n=38) perpetrators of child sexual abuse. Results did not support the hypothesis that perpetrators of either sex would be more masculine and less feminine than nonclinical adult groups. Findings suggested a trend opposite the predicted direction. (DB)

  10. Behavior Treatment of Deviant Sex-Role Behaviors in a Male Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekers, George A.; And Others

    This study demonstrated reinforcement control over pronounced feminine behaviors in a male child who had been psychologically evaluated as manifesting "childhood cross-gender identity." Reinforcement control over cross-gender behavior was demonstrated by identifying some behavioral treatment conditions under which feminine behaviors could be…

  11. Exploring clinical and personality characteristics of adult male internet-only child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Magaletta, Philip R; Faust, Erik; Bickart, William; McLearen, Alix M

    2014-02-01

    Despite the dramatic increase in the number of convicted child pornography offenders, little is known about their potential clinical needs. The few studies that do explore this subgroup of sex offenders suggest clinical heterogeneity compared with other sex offender subgroups. However, research designs used in many studies have limited generalizability, have examined primarily treated or treatment samples, and have not included comparisons with nontreatment, community samples of men. The current study addresses such limitations by using nontreatment samples and multiple comparison groups to examine mean scales score differences on a commonly used clinical and personality assessment, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). The sample, drawn from an admissions cohort of federal offenders, those Internet-only Child Pornography Offenders (ICPOs; n = 35) and those with a history of child molesting exclusively (child molesters, n = 26). They were compared with each other and the male normative sample from the PAI. Results indicate that interpersonal deficits and depression featured most prominently in the profiles of the ICPOs. Consistent with prior research, they also obtained lower scores on aggression and dominance compared with the child molesters and the male normative sample. Implications for future research, training, and clinical practice with incarcerated ICPOs are offered.

  12. Dysosteosclerosis Presents as an “Osteoclast-Poor” Form of Osteopetrosis: Comprehensive Investigation of a 3-Year-Old Girl and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Nenninger, Angie R; Zhang, Xiafang; Huskey, Margaret; Mumm, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Dysosteosclerosis (DSS), an extremely rare dense bone disease, features short stature and fractures and sometimes optic atrophy, cranial nerve palsy, developmental delay, and failure of tooth eruption in infancy or early childhood consistent with osteopetrosis (OPT). Bone histology during childhood shows unresorbed primary spongiosa from deficient osteoclast action. Additionally, there is remarkable progressive flattening of all vertebrae and, by adolescence, paradoxical metaphyseal osteopenia with thin cortical bone. Reports of consanguinity indicate autosomal recessive inheritance, yet more affected males than females suggest X-linked recessive inheritance. We investigated a nonconsanguineous girl with DSS. Osteosclerosis was discovered at age 7 months. Our studies, spanning ages 11 to 44 months, showed weight at approximately 50th percentile, and length diminishing from approximately 30th percentile to –2.3 SD. Head circumference was +4 SD. The patient had frontal bossing, blue sclera, normal teeth, genu valgum, and unremarkable joints. Radiographs showed orbital and facial sclerosis, basilar thickening, bone-in-bone appearance of the pelvis, sclerotic long bone ends, and fractures of ribs and extremities. Progressive metaphyseal widening occurred as vertebrae changed from ovoid to flattened and became beaked anteriorly. A hemogram was normal. Consistent with OPT, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations reflected dietary calcium levels. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and TRACP-5b were subnormal. The iliac crest contained excessive primary spongiosa and no osteoclasts. No mutations were identified in the splice sites or exons for the genes encoding chloride channel 7, T-cell immune regulator 1, OPT-associated transmembrane protein 1, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor C-FMS, ANKH, OPG, RANK, and RANKL. Genomic copy-number microarray was unrevealing. Hence, DSS is a distinctive OPT of unknown etiology featuring

  13. Bilateral Atypical Granular Corneal Dystrophy Associated with Unilateral Keratoconus in a Male Child

    PubMed Central

    Dangra, Kavita Lohiya; Das, Manoranjan; Periasamy, Sundersan; Prajna, N. Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old male presented with decreased vision. Slit lamp examination indicated multiple anterior corneal stromal opacities with clear intervening spaces accompanied with superficial subepithelial lines arranged in a quasi-whorl-like fashion bilateral with greater prominence in the right eye. Corneal steepening associated with thinning was noted only in the right eye. Genetic analysis confirmed a mutation suggestive of granular corneal dystrophy. Here, we describe a rare case of an atypical granular dystrophy associated with unilateral keratoconus in a male child. PMID:27555713

  14. Multimethod prediction of child abuse risk in an at-risk sample of male intimate partner violence offenders.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol

    2016-10-01

    The vast majority of research on child abuse potential has concentrated on women demonstrating varying levels of risk of perpetrating physical child abuse. In contrast, the current study considered factors predictive of physical child abuse potential in a group of 70 male intimate partner violence offenders, a group that would represent a likely high risk group. Elements of Social Information Processing theory were evaluated, including pre-existing schemas of empathy, anger, and attitudes approving of parent-child aggression considered as potential moderators of negative attributions of child behavior. To lend methodological rigor, the study also utilized multiple measures and multiple methods, including analog tasks, to predict child abuse risk. Contrary to expectations, findings did not support the role of anger independently predicting child abuse risk in this sample of men. However, preexisting beliefs approving of parent-child aggression, lower empathy, and more negative child behavior attributions independently predicted abuse potential; in addition, greater anger, poorer empathy, and more favorable attitudes toward parent-child aggression also exacerbated men's negative child attributions to further elevate their child abuse risk. Future work is encouraged to consider how factors commonly considered in women parallel or diverge from those observed to elevate child abuse risk in men of varying levels of risk.

  15. Child abuse and neglect profiles and their psychosocial consequences in a large sample of incarcerated males.

    PubMed

    Debowska, Agata; Boduszek, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Research examining child abuse and neglect (CAN) profiles among adult offender populations is lacking. Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to address this limitation by using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify meaningful classes of individuals who have experienced physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, as well as neglect. Another aim was to estimate the association between CAN class membership and external criteria (psychopathy factors, self-esteem, attitudes towards male sexual violence in dating relationships, child sexual abuse myth acceptance, violent offending, and age). Data were collected among a large systematically selected sample of adult male inmates (N=1261). Based on LCA, three unique classes of CAN were distinguished, including a 'low abuse' group (43.4% of the sample), a 'high physical and emotional abuse' group (51.3%), and a 'poly-victimized' group (5.3%). The analysis revealed that the CAN classes were differentially associated with affective responsiveness, cognitive responsiveness, personal self-esteem, prison self-esteem, attitudes towards male sexual violence in dating relationships, and violent offending. Findings highlight the unique nature of CAN constellations among criminal justice involved participants. The significance of the present results is discussed in relation to past and future research. Potential contributions to treatment strategies are also presented.

  16. Urinary amino acid alterations in 3-year-old children with neurodevelopmental effects due to perinatal dioxin exposure in Vietnam: a nested case-control study for neurobiomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  17. Urinary Amino Acid Alterations in 3-Year-Old Children with Neurodevelopmental Effects due to Perinatal Dioxin Exposure in Vietnam: A Nested Case-Control Study for Neurobiomarker Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Morikawa, Yuko; Waseda, Tomoo; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study of 3-year-old children in a dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam, the high total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ-PCDDs/Fs)-exposed group during the perinatal period displayed lower Bayley III neurodevelopmental scores, whereas the high 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-exposed group displayed increased autistic traits. In autistic children, urinary amino acid profiles have revealed metabolic alterations in the amino acids that serve as neurotransmitters in the developing brain. Therefore, our present study aimed to investigate the use of alterations in urinary amino acid excretion as biomarkers of dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits in highly exposed 3-year-old children in Vietnam. A nested case-control study of urinary analyses was performed for 26 children who were selected from 111 3-year-old children whose perinatal dioxin exposure levels and neurodevelopmental status were examined in follow-up surveys conducted in a dioxin contaminated hot spot. We compared urinary amino acid levels between the following 4 groups: (1) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD-exposed group; (2) a high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD-exposed group; (3) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and poorly developed group; and (4) a low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs exposed and well-developed group. Urinary levels of histidine and tryptophan were significantly decreased in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group, as well as in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs but low TCDD group, compared with the low TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and well-developed group. However, the ratio of histidine to glycine was significantly lower only in the high TEQ-PCDDs/Fs and high TCDD group. Furthermore, urinary histidine levels and the ratio of histidine to glycine were significantly correlated with neurodevelopmental scores, particularly for language and fine motor skills. These results indicate that urinary histidine is specifically associated with dioxin exposure-induced neurodevelopmental deficits, suggesting that

  18. Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on the Parenting of Male Survivors.

    PubMed

    Wark, Joe; Vis, Jo-Ann

    2016-10-21

    Research shows that child sexual abuse (CSA) can have detrimental effects on adult functioning. While much research regarding the effects of CSA on parenting of mothers is available, there is a dearth of information on how CSA impacts fatherhood. This literature review finds that the parenting experiences of male survivors are characterized by self-perceptions as adequate parents, deficient parenting as measured by standardized instruments, conceptualization of parenting as an intergenerational legacy and potential healing experience, fear of becoming an abuser, and physical and emotional distance from their children. These themes are strongly related to social discourses on intergenerational cycle of violence theories. Fatherhood is not exclusively problematic for male survivors and can be a healing experience and a source of strength for some survivors. Based on literature concerning male survivors who are parents, narrative therapy is recommended as a therapeutic model to explore how fathers who are survivors challenge dominant discourses around legacies of family violence, intergenerational parenting deficiencies, and victimization. Restorying fatherhood as a healing opportunity is essential when working with fathers who are male survivors and their families.

  19. Modeling environmental influences on child growth in the MAL-ED cohort study: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Richard, Stephanie A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Miller, Mark A; Caulfield, Laura E; Checkley, William

    2014-11-01

    Although genetics, maternal undernutrition and low birth weight status certainly play a role in child growth, dietary insufficiency and infectious diseases are key risk factors for linear growth faltering during early childhood. A primary goal of the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is to identify specific risk factors associated with growth faltering during the first 2 years of life; however, growth in early childhood is challenging to characterize because growth may be inherently nonlinear with age. In this manuscript, we describe some methods for analyzing longitudinal growth to evaluate both short- and long-term associations between risk factors and growth trajectories over the first 2 years of life across 8 resource-limited settings using harmonized protocols. We expect there will be enough variability within and between sites in the prevalence of risk factors and burden of linear growth faltering to allow us to distinguish some of the key pathways to linear growth faltering in the MAL-ED study.

  20. Bone properties in child and adolescent male hockey and soccer players.

    PubMed

    Falk, Bareket; Braid, Sarah; Moore, Michael; Yao, Matthew; Sullivan, Phil; Klentrou, Nota

    2010-07-01

    Children and adolescents who train extensively in high-impact, weight-bearing activities have enhanced bone mineral density. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone strength, as reflected by quantitative ultrasound (QUS, Sunlight Omniscence), of child (10-12 yrs old) and adolescent (14-16 yrs old) male soccer and hockey players in comparison with age-matched controls. The groups included 30 child (CH) and 31 adolescent (AH) hockey players, 26 child (CS) and 30 adolescent (AS) soccer players, as well as 34 child (CC) and 31 adolescent (AC) healthy, non-athletic, age-matched controls. All athletes trained at an elite level year-round, with no difference in training volume between groups. Ultrasound speed of sound (SOS) was measured at the distal-radius and mid-tibia. In both age groups, hockey players were the heaviest and had the highest fat-free mass. No differences were found among groups in total energy intake, calcium or vitamin D intake. Radial and tibial SOS increased with age. Hockey players had higher radial SOS in both age groups (children: CH:3763+/-74, CS:3736+/-77, CC:3721+/-88 m/s; adolescents: AH:3809+/-105, AS:3767+/-85, AC:3760+/-94 m/s). Tibial SOS was higher in soccer players compared with controls. In spite of the higher body mass and fat-free mass in hockey players, their tibial SOS was similar to the non-athletes in both age groups. These findings support previous suggestions of sport-specific effects on bone strength. However, they need to be corroborated with longitudinal or prospective intervention studies.

  1. Virilizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma Invading the Right Atrium with Histological High-Grade Malignancy and p53 Mutation in a 3-Year-Old Child: Indication of Post Operative Adjuvant Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Keisuke; Horikawa, Reiko; Nagaishi, Jun-Ichi; Honna, Toshiro; Sekiguchi, Akihiko; Tsunematsu, Yukiko; Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2004-01-01

    We present a 3-yr-old girl with a virilizing adrenocortical carcinoma invading into the right atrium with histological high-grade malignancy and p53 mutation. Development of facial acne and pubic hair were noted at 3 yr and 2 mo. The levels of androgens were high. Diurnal variation in ACTH and cortisol were absent. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large right suprarenal mass, with extension into the inferior vena cava and right atrium. Based on the diagnosis of a right virilizing adrenocortical tumor with Cushing syndrome, surgery was performed by a combined thoracoabdominal approach with the patient on cardiopulmonary bypass. The tumor was 7 × 5.5 × 3.5 cm in size, and weighed 95 g. The histological diagnosis was adrenocartical carcinoma with high-grade malignancy according to the category of Weiss. A heterozygous mutation of the p53 tumor-suppressor gene (codon 248 CGC→TGG) was found. We did not perform adjuvant chemotherapy because of radical resection on macroscopic observation and no metastasis in radiological findings. Five months after the surgery, her chest X ray and computed tomography revealed multiple lung metastases and a single liver metastasis. In this type of patient with histological high-grade malignancy and p53 mutations, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated even if macroscopic total surgical removal had been performed.

  2. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    PubMed Central

    Machisa, Mercilene T.; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. Methods We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Results Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective

  3. Anxious Attachment, Social Isolation, and Indicators of Sex Drive and Compulsivity: Predictors of Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration in Adolescent Males?

    PubMed

    Miner, Michael H; Swinburne Romine, Rebecca; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Berg, Dianne; Knight, Raymond A

    2016-03-01

    It has been suggested that child sexual abuse is related to poor attachment to parents, which is associated with an inability to form intimate relationships. Seto and Lalumière indicated that there were too few studies of adolescent males to determine whether poor attachment was associated with perpetration. This study was designed to follow up on a previous study and further explored the association between insecure attachment to parents, social isolation, and interpersonal adequacy to child sexual abuse perpetration in adolescents. We compared two samples of adolescent males who had committed sexual offenses, those who committed offenses against children (n = 140) and those who committed offenses against peer or adults (n = 92), with a sample of similarly aged males in treatment for mental health or substance use issues (n = 93). Data were collected using a semi-structured interview and computer-administered questionnaire. We found an indirect association between anxious attachment and sexual offenses against child victims, which was accounted for by measures of social involvement and social isolation. These involvement and isolation measures also did not have a direct association with sexual offenses against child victims, in that their contribution was accounted for by a measure of Masculine Adequacy. This Masculine Adequacy, combined with decreased levels of Sexual Preoccupation and Hypersexuality and increased Sexual Compulsivity, was associated with commission of child sexual abuse. The interpersonal variables did not enter a model predicting sexual offending against peers/adults, which seemed solely associated with the interaction between Sexual Compulsivity and Hypersexuality.

  4. The Effect of Child Sexual Abuse on Men: Toward a Male Sensitive Measure.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Patrick; Easton, Scott D; Gould, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a trauma that affects males in substantial numbers, sometimes in ways that are gender-specific (e.g., compromised masculine identity, confusion regarding sexuality). Much of the identification of the male-specific outcomes has been derived from practitioner experience and small qualitative studies. The current study explores gender-specific outcomes and describes the development of a scale to measure the effects of CSA on men. First, qualitative interviews with 20 men who were sexually abused in childhood were thematically analyzed. The emergent themes of sexuality, self-concept, psychological and emotional well-being, and social functioning were used to construct a 30-item instrument which was later completed by 147 men with histories of CSA. The dimensionality of the 30 items was then assessed for suitability as scales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The final instrument, the Male Sexual Abuse Effects Scale (MSAES), combines three subscales: Negative Identity, Guilt and Self-Blame, and Psychological and Emotional Well-Being. Items concerning masculine identity were shown to be valid in the scale. MSAES scores were compared with the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and found to be significantly correlated. GHQ-28 clinical thresholds were applied to differentiate clinical from nonclinical cases; an independent-samples t test showed that the clinical cases from the GHQ-28 had high scores on the MSAES. The new scale has the potential to help clinicians and researchers identify men who have been severely affected by CSA and who should be of clinical concern.

  5. Correlates of male cohabiting partner's involvement in child-rearing tasks in low-income urban Black stepfamilies.

    PubMed

    Forehand, Rex; Parent, Justin; Golub, Andrew; Reid, Megan

    2014-06-01

    Cohabitation is a family structure experienced by many Black children. This study examines the link between family relationships (child relationship with mother and the cohabiting partner; parent and cohabiting partner relationship) and involvement of biologically unrelated male cohabiting partners (MCP) in child rearing. The participants were 121 low-income urban Black families consisting of a single mother, MCP, and an adolescent (56% female, M age = 13.7). Assessments were conducted individually with mothers, MCPs, and adolescents via measures administered by interview. MCPs were involved in both domains of child rearing assessed (daily child-related tasks and setting limits) and those identified as coparents by the mother were more involved in child-rearing tasks than those not identified as coparents. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), the mother-MCP relationship (both support and conflict) and the adolescent-MCP relationship were related to MCP's involvement in both domains of child rearing. The findings indicate that MCPs are actively involved in child rearing and family relationship variables are associated with their involvement in these tasks.

  6. Setting Limits: The Child Who Always Seeks Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Polly

    2006-01-01

    It is important to remember that a young child never thinks she gets enough attention. Even children who have a parent with them 24/7 will sometimes use attention-seeking behaviors. In this article, the author responds to a teacher's request for advice on how to help one 3-year-old child in her class who seeks attention through one annoying…

  7. Childhood sexual abuse, sexual motives, and adolescent sexual risk-taking among males and females receiving child welfare services.

    PubMed

    Wekerle, Christine; Goldstein, Abby L; Tanaka, Masako; Tonmyr, Lil

    2017-01-27

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with multiple negative outcomes, including increased risky sexual behavior. To date, the majority of research on the relationship between CSA and risky sex in adolescence has been limited, with a lack of focus on males and youth receiving child welfare services. Participants in the current study were 297 youth (mean age=15.98; SD=1.01, 57.6% female) from the child welfare system who reported being sexually active at the time of the survey. CSA was associated with severity of other types of maltreatment for both genders, and exposure to intimate partner violence for females only. In general, males engaged in more sexual risk behaviors than females. Males with CSA had stronger motives to have sex for: (1) coping, (2) peer approval and (3) partner approval, as compared to non-CSA males; as well as (4) greater motives for partner and peer approval compared to females with CSA. Males with no CSA had stronger sexual motives for enhancement (e.g., feeling pleasure) compared to females with no CSA. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect for coping motives for males: CSA was associated with increased motives to use sex for coping which was associated with increased sexual risk-taking. These findings provide important information regarding the relationship between CSA and sexual risk-taking for child welfare sample and highlight coping with negative affect as a potential mechanism that underlies the CSA-risky sex relationship. It also encourages further consideration of motives for risk and resilience behaviors among youth.

  8. Male Victims of Sexual Abuse: A Case Review within a Child Protective Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roane, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective review of 77 cases of sexual abuse of boys who were assessed by a multidisciplinary child protection team in Florida provided data on age at time of referral, findings of medical examinations, the relationship of offender to child, and type of abuse. (BB)

  9. A Study in Child Care (Case Study from Volume II-A): "They Understand." Day Care Programs Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Brigid

    This day care center, operated by Syracuse University and serving 100 children (birth to 3-year-old), admits only one child per family. The child must be the first or second child in a family where both parents have high school education or less and earn less than $5,000 per year. The program philosophy maintains that quality day care must carry…

  10. Comparing Male and Female Juveniles Charged with Homicide: Child Maltreatment, Substance Abuse, and Crime Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders,…

  11. Child maltreatment, alcohol use and drinking consequences among male and female college students: An examination of drinking motives as mediators.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Abby L; Flett, Gordon L; Wekerle, Christine

    2010-06-01

    Although the relationship between child maltreatment and alcohol use and drinking problems is well established, the mechanisms involved in this relationship remain largely unknown and research has focused primarily on women. Using the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M-DMQ-R; Grant, Stewart, O'Connor, Blackwell & Conrod, 2007), drinking motives were examined as mediators in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol consumption and consequences among male and female college student drinkers (N = 218, 60.6% women). Participants completed questionnaires assessing child maltreatment, drinking motives, alcohol consumption and alcohol consequences. Enhancement motives in particular mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and alcohol consequences for men, whereas coping-depression motives mediated this relationship for women. Implications of these findings for alcohol interventions and future research are discussed, along with limitations of the present study.

  12. Time till death study: how soon after "first contact" is a non-biologically related male likely to kill his partners child?

    PubMed

    Obenson, Ken; England, Carrie

    2015-05-01

    Non-biologically related males who are intimate partners of women with young children are the most likely perpetrators of homicidal violence against these children. The primary objective of this study is to determine the usual time interval between first child/unrelated adult male contact and the child's death. The secondary objective is to examine possible predisposing factors. First contact is defined as the time when the child initially interacted or met with the unrelated adult male, whether or not they lived together and for the purposes of this study is based on the length of the mothers relationship with her partner before the child was killed. The coroners office database in Indianapolis, Indiana was examined for records of child homicides from which victim data (age, sex, race and cause of death) was recovered. The associated child protective services (CPS) reports were examined to create a forensic epidemiologic profile including in particular, the length of time the unrelated adult male had known or lived with the child and when the child was killed. Over a period of 14 years, 79 cases of homicides were recovered in children aged 5 years and younger. Of these, there were 15 cases in which all relevant data was recorded. The time interval from first contact to death ranged from 14 to 240 days with a median of 75 days. Approximately 80% of all victims were killed within 90 days. The victims included 12 males and 3 females with an age range of 2-61 months. The median age was 22 months. There were 10 white, 4 black, and 1 Hispanic victim. Blunt force trauma to the head was the cause of death in 13 of 15 deaths. Forty percent (6/15) had prior CPS contact. Young children are most likely to be killed within 90 days of first unsupervised contact with a non-biologically related male. Most victims were male and blunt force trauma to the head was the leading cause of death.

  13. Comparing male and female juveniles charged with homicide: child maltreatment, substance abuse, and crime details.

    PubMed

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve

    2009-04-01

    This study examines a sample of 136 male and female juveniles charged with attempted homicide or homicide. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences between nondirect file male and female juvenile homicide offenders regarding individual, family, and crime circumstances. Findings suggest that compared to male juvenile offenders, female juvenile homicide offenders have higher rates of reported childhood abuse, more serious substance abuse, and mental health problems including suicidal ideations, depression, anxiety, anger, and irritability. Male juvenile homicide offenders reported higher rates of substance use than their female counterparts but the females had more serious substance abuse problems. Female juveniles were found to more often kill a person known to them and male homicide offenders were found to more often kill a stranger. These findings suggest strongly that male and female juvenile homicide offenders are dissimilar and require unique assessment and treatment.

  14. The Sexually Abused Child: A Comparison of Male and Female Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Robert; Pierce, Lois Hauck

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-five substantiated cases of sexual abuse involving male children were compared with 180 substantiated cases involving female children. Significant differences between female and male victims were observed in family composition, perpetrator of the abuse, variables contributing to continuation of the abusive situation, and type of services…

  15. Parent-Child Relationship and Sexual Identity in Male and Female Homosexuals and Heterosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jr., Norman L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Striking features of the studies of male and female homosexuality reported here are (a) the prominent role played by weak and/or hostile fathers in the etiology of homosexuality for both women and men; (b) the lack of a clear role of mothers in female homosexual etiology but the striking role of mothers in the etiology of male homosexuals; (c) the…

  16. Intrapersonal and Familial Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on Female Partners of Male Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Christine M. Anderson; Veach, Patricia McCarthy

    2005-01-01

    Intrapersonal and familial effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were investigated by interviewing 10 female partners of male survivors. Consensual qualitative research analysis (C. Hill, B. Thompson, & E. Nutt Williams, 1997) yielded 13 domains describing male partner, female partner, couple, and family functioning. Findings concerning…

  17. Building Bridges between Physical and Behavioral Health: The Child Development Specialist in Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Claire; Hamburger, Ellie

    2007-01-01

    This article uses the case study of 3-year-old Anna and her parents to illustrate how a child development specialist can be integrated into a private pediatric practice. First, pediatrician Hamburger describes how she and other members of her practice integrated a child development specialist into their pediatric practice. Second, Anna's parents…

  18. Parent-Child Mutuality in Early Childhood: Two Behavioral Genetic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; O'Connor, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    Used quantitative genetic design to examine between- and within-family variations and gene-environment processes in parent-child mutuality among 3-year-old identical and same-sex fraternal twins. Found that greater mutuality was associated with higher socioeconomic status. Moderate sibling similarity in parent-child mutuality was accounted for by…

  19. Genetic risk, parent-child relations, and antisocial phenotypes in a sample of African-American males.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Sak, Ashley; Vaske, Jamie; Nilsson, Jessica

    2010-01-30

    Gene x environment interactions have been found to be associated with the development of antisocial behaviors. The extant gene x environment research, however, has failed to measure directly the ways in which global measures of genetic risk may interact with a putative environmental risk factor. The current study addresses this gap in the literature and examines the interrelationships among a global measure of genetic risk based on five genetic polymorphisms, a measure of parent-child relations, and eight antisocial phenotypes. Analysis of African-American males (N = 145 to 159) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) revealed two broad findings. First, the genetic risk and parent-child relations scales were inconsistently related to the outcome variables. Second, genetic risk and parent-child relations interacted to predict variation in all of the eight antisocial phenotype measures. These findings point to the possibility that measures of genetic risk that are based on multiple polymorphisms can be employed to examine the gene x environmental basis to antisocial behavioral phenotypes.

  20. Child-Parent Psychotherapy and Traumatic Exposure to Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Vilma; Lieberman, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates the multidimensional impact of violence during infancy and the effectiveness of a relationship-focused treatment, child-parent psychotherapy (CPP), in addressing the traumatic consequences of exposure to violence. The authors describe the treatment of a 3-year-old boy and his mother and highlight three key points: (a)…

  1. The Role of Sports in the Development of the Superego of the Male Latency Child.

    PubMed

    Shopper, Moisy

    2014-01-01

    Psychoanalytic literature has often overlooked the child's participation in organized sports, which often can facilitate or impede not only expression of aggression and narcissism, but enhance or skew the growth of the child's superego and ego ideal. Specific outcomes are largely determined by the experience and knowledge of the parents, the coaches, and sports organizations for latency-aged youth. Sports participation facilitates a major step forward in psychic development, that is, an agreed-upon adherence to a set of rules and regulations, monitored by an official embodying the final word regarding rules and their infractions. This paper is an attempt to delineate the role of sports in the life of the latency child, the parents who become involved, the coaches who teach and supervise, and the social and individual milieu within which sports take place. All these contribute to common goals: the engendering of good sportsmanship and the encouragement of psychic growth, particularly regarding how aggression and narcissism contribute to the development of superego and ego ideals. The fate of aggression and narcissism in superego and ego ideal development is influenced to a large degree by the nature, orientation, and motivations of all involved in sports for the latency-aged.

  2. Solid pseudopapillary tumor of pancreas in a male child: a diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Nasit, Jitendra Gordhanbhai; Jetly, Dhaval; Shah, Manoj

    2013-07-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) is an uncommon pancreatic neoplasm with low malignant potential. It occurs predominantly in young women. It is very rare in males and nonrelated pediatrics. In children, SPT commonly present as abdominal mass and pain. A 10-year-old male presented with progressively growing palpable tumor in upper abdomen. SPT of pancreas is diagnosed on preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology. This was subsequently confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Due to rarity, SPT is not the first option to rule out, especially in children. Preoperative cytological diagnosis of SPT helps in management of this surgically curable neoplasm with good prognosis.

  3. Is No Child Left Behind "Wise Schooling" for African American Male Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillian, M. Monique

    2004-01-01

    To improve achievement among African American students, education professionals must pay special attention to African American male achievement and reframe the academic achievement gap as a treatment gap. Engagement studies suggest that African American students, and African American boys in particular, are susceptible to academic disengagement.…

  4. The long-term effects of child sexual abuse by female perpetrators: a qualitative study of male and female victims.

    PubMed

    Denov, Myriam S

    2004-10-01

    Although the long-term effects of sexual abuse by men have been studied extensively, minimal research has explored the effects of sexual abuse by women. This qualitative study explores the experience and long-term impact of sexual abuse by women. The data were derived from in-depth interviews with 14 adult victims (7 men, 7 women) of child sexual abuse by females. Most respondents reported severe sexual abuse by their mothers. The vast majority of participants reported that the experience of female-perpetrated sexual abuse was harmful and damaging. As a result of the sexual abuse, male and female respondents reported long-term difficulties with substance abuse, self-injury, suicide, depression, rage, strained relationships with women, self-concept and identity issues, and a discomfort with sex. In light of the popular and professional perceptions that sexual abuse by women is relatively harmless as compared to sexual abuse by men, the implications of these long-term effects are discussed, particularly in relation to professionals working in the area of child sexual abuse.

  5. Exploring the relevance of male involvement in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV services in Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Male involvement (MI) in Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) services remains low despite the progress registered in the implementation of the PMTCT program. Male involvement in PMTCT is a fairly new concept in Malawi that has not been fully implemented within PMTCT service provision despite its inclusion in the PMTCT guidelines. One of the reasons for the limited MI is the lack of knowledge on both its relevance and the role of men in the program. Currently, men have been encouraged to participate in PMTCT services without prior research on their understanding of the relevance and their role in PMTCT. This information is vital to the development of programs that will require MI in PMTCT. The objective of this study was to explore the views of men, pregnant women and health care providers on the importance and roles of MI in PMTCT services in Blantyre Malawi. Methods An exploratory descriptive qualitative study was conducted from December 2012 to January 2013 at South Lunzu Health Centre (SLHC) and its catchment area in Blantyre, Malawi. We conducted 6 key informant interviews (KIIs) with health care workers and 4 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 18 men and 17 pregnant women. Interviews and discussions were digitally recorded and simultaneously transcribed and translated into English. Data were analyzed using framework analysis approach. Results The major themes that emerged on the relevance of MI in PMTCT were a) uptake of interventions along the PMTCT cascade b) support mechanism and c) education strategy. Lack of MI in PMTCT was reported to result into non-disclosure of HIV test results and non-compliance with PMTCT interventions. Conclusions Male involvement is paramount for the uptake of interventions at the different cascades of PMTCT. The absence of male involvement may compromise compliance with PMTCT interventions. PMID:25359447

  6. Effects of multisensory yoga on behavior in a male child with Apert and Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scroggins, Michaela L; Litchke, Lyn G; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child.

  7. Child maltreatment, personality pathology, and stalking victimization among male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Kim S; Pincus, Aaron L

    2014-01-01

    Self-report college student surveys on childhood maltreatment, and borderline and narcissistic personality features are examined to determine their influence on stalking victimization vulnerability. Stalking victimization was measured using Spitzberg and Cupach's (2008) Obsessive Relational Intrusion scale. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models were run separately for men (N = 677) and women (N = 1,017). Results indicated childhood sexual maltreatment and borderline traits were associated with stalking victimization among both men and women. These were the only significant relationships for men (R2 = .10). For women, stalking victimization was also associated with narcissistic grandiosity and vulnerability and with a child sexual abuse by borderline features interaction (R2 = .13), demonstrating women reporting prior sexual abuse and borderline personality pathology are especially vulnerable. Methodological and policy implications are discussed.

  8. Effects of multisensory yoga on behavior in a male child with Apert and Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scroggins, Michaela L; Litchke, Lyn G; Liu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This case focused on a 7-year-old boy with Apert and Asperger's syndrome who attended 8, 45 min multisensory yoga sessions, twice a week, during 4-week camp. Results from the pre- and post-tests on Treatment and Research Institute for Autism Social Skills Assessment showed improvements in the total score changes from 19 to 7 for disruptive behaviors. Sparks Target Behavior Checklist scores changed from eight to one showing progression in ability to stay on task. Yoga Pose Rating Scale displayed the transformation in total scores from 80 = emerging to 115 = consistency in pose performance. The field notes revealed the positive development in expressive emotions, social engagement, and decline in looking around. Outside class parent and school behavioral specialist reported the improved ability to self-regulate stress using lion's breath and super brain. These findings indicate an improvement in behaviors that influenced the physical performance, emotional expression, and social interaction after yoga training for this child. PMID:26865777

  9. Male Partners Involvement in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV Services in Southern Central Ethiopia: In Case of Lemo District, Hadiya Zone

    PubMed Central

    Mekiso, Abera Beyamo

    2017-01-01

    Male partners' involvement is a vital issue to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from mother to child; because it is much expectable that women were more vulnerable and high risk group of population portion. Therefore, to save lives of mothers and their newborn from acquiring HIV, male partners should do their maximum endeavor regardless of any determinant factors as our results revealed its status in our study context and elsewhere at past time too.

  10. Do motives matter in male circumcision? 'Conscientious objection' against the circumcision of a Muslim child with a blood disorder.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ayesha

    2014-02-01

    Whilst there have been serious attempts to locate the practice of male circumcision for religious motives in the context of the (respective) religion's narrative and community, the debate, when referring to a clinical context, is often more nuanced. This article will contribute further to the debate by contextualising the Islamic practice of male circumcision within the clinical setting typical of a contemporary hospital. It specifically develops an additional complication; namely, the child has a pre-existing blood disorder. As an approach to contributing to the circumcision debate further, the ethics of a conscientious objection for secular motives towards a religiously-motivated clinical intervention will be explored. Overall, the discussion will provide relevance for such debates within the value-systems of a multi-cultural society. This article replicates several approaches to deconstructing a request for conscientious refusal of non-therapeutic circumcision by a Clinical Ethics Committee (CEC), bringing to light certain contradictions that occur in normatively categorizing motives for performing the circumcision.

  11. Stakeholders’ perceptions on factors influencing male involvement in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV services in Blantyre, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Male Involvement (MI) in the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) services is essential in a patriarchal society where men are decision makers of the household. Male partners have a role in the woman’s risk of acquiring HIV, uptake of HIV testing and participation in Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) prevention programmes. Although MI is important for uptake of PMTCT interventions, it remains low in Africa. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that promote and hinder MI in PMTCT services in antenatal care (ANC) services in Blantyre, Malawi. Understanding of the factors that influence MI will assist in developing strategies that will involve men more in the programme thereby improving the uptake of PMTCT and HIV testing and counselling services by women and men respectively. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was conducted from December 2012 to January 2013 at South Lunzu Health Centre (SLHC) in Blantyre, Malawi. It consisted of six face to face Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with health care workers and four Focus Group discussions (FGDs) with 18 men and 17 pregnant women attending antenatal care at the clinic. The FGDs were divided according to sex and age. All FGDs and KIIs were digitally recorded and simultaneously transcribed and translated verbatim into English. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results Participants in both FGDs and KIIs identified the following barriers: lack of knowledge of MI in PMTCT, socioeconomic factors, relationship issues, timidity to be seen in a woman’s domain, unplanned and or extramarital pregnancies, fear of knowing one's HIV status, unwillingness to be associated with the service, health facility based factors, peer influence and cultural factors. The factors that would potentially promote male involvement were categorized into community, health facility and personal or family level factors. Conclusions The factors that may

  12. Household food access and child malnutrition: results from the eight-country MAL-ED study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stunting results from decreased food intake, poor diet quality, and a high burden of early childhood infections, and contributes to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although food insecurity is an important determinant of child nutrition, including stunting, development of universal measures has been challenging due to cumbersome nutritional questionnaires and concerns about lack of comparability across populations. We investigate the relationship between household food access, one component of food security, and indicators of nutritional status in early childhood across eight country sites. Methods We administered a socioeconomic survey to 800 households in research sites in eight countries, including a recently validated nine-item food access insecurity questionnaire, and obtained anthropometric measurements from children aged 24 to 60 months. We used multivariable regression models to assess the relationship between household food access insecurity and anthropometry in children, and we assessed the invariance of that relationship across country sites. Results Average age of study children was 41 months. Mean food access insecurity score (range: 0–27) was 5.8, and varied from 2.4 in Nepal to 8.3 in Pakistan. Across sites, the prevalence of stunting (42%) was much higher than the prevalence of wasting (6%). In pooled regression analyses, a 10-point increase in food access insecurity score was associated with a 0.20 SD decrease in height-for-age Z score (95% CI 0.05 to 0.34 SD; p = 0.008). A likelihood ratio test for heterogeneity revealed that this relationship was consistent across countries (p = 0.17). Conclusions Our study provides evidence of the validity of using a simple household food access insecurity score to investigate the etiology of childhood growth faltering across diverse geographic settings. Such a measure could be used to direct interventions by identifying children at risk of illness and death related to

  13. Comparison of Hybrid III child test dummies to pediatric PMHS in blunt thoracic impact response.

    PubMed

    Parent, D P; Crandall, J R; Bolton, J R; Bass, C R; Ouyang, J; Lau, S H

    2010-08-01

    The limited availability of pediatric biomechanical impact response data presents a significant challenge to the development of child dummies. In the absence of these data, the development of the current generation of child dummies has been driven by scaling of the biomechanical response requirements of the existing adult test dummies. Recently published pediatric blunt thoracic impact response data provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the efficacy of these scaling methodologies. However, the published data include several processing anomalies and nonphysical features. These features are corrected by minimizing instrumentation and processing error to improve the fidelity of the individual force-deflection responses. Using these data, biomechanical impact response corridors are calculated for a 3-year-old child and a 6-year-old child. These calculated corridors differ from both the originally published postmortem human subject (PMHS) corridors and the impact response requirements of the current child dummies. Furthermore, the response of the Hybrid III 3-year-old test dummy in the same impact condition shows a similar deflection but a significantly higher force than the 3-year-old corridor. The response of the Hybrid III 6-year-old dummy, on the other hand, correlates well with the calculated 6-year-old corridor. The newly developed 3-year-old and 6-year-old blunt thoracic impact response corridors can be used to define data-driven impact response requirements as an alternative to scaling-driven requirements.

  14. Growth and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective in significantly increasing their final adult height. Constitutional growth delay (delayed puberty). Although they are usually ... about age 2 or 3 years, kids with constitutional growth delay will grow at a normal childhood ...

  15. Spontaneous analog number representations in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Cantlon, Jessica F; Safford, Kelley E; Brannon, Elizabeth M

    2010-03-01

    When enumerating small sets of elements nonverbally, human infants often show a set-size limitation whereby they are unable to represent sets larger than three elements. This finding has been interpreted as evidence that infants spontaneously represent small numbers with an object-file system instead of an analog magnitude system (Feigenson, Dehaene & Spelke, 2004). In contrast, non-human animals and adult humans have been shown to rely on analog magnitudes for representing both small and large numbers (Brannon & Terrace, 1998; Cantlon & Brannon, 2007; Cordes, Gelman, Gallistel & Whalen, 2001). Here we demonstrate that, like adults and non-human animals, children as young as 3 years of age spontaneously employ analog magnitude representations to enumerate both small and large sets. Moreover, we show that children spontaneously attend to numerical value in lieu of cumulative surface area. These findings provide evidence of young children's greater sensitivity to number relative to other quantities and demonstrate continuity in the process they spontaneously recruit to judge small and large values.

  16. Spontaneous Analog Number Representations in 3-year-old Children

    PubMed Central

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Safford, Kelley E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    When enumerating small sets of elements nonverbally, human infants often show a set-size limitation whereby they are unable to represent sets larger than three elements. This finding has been interpreted as evidence that infants spontaneously represent small numbers with an object-file system instead of an analog magnitude system (Feigenson, Spelke, and Dehaene, 2004). In contrast, non-human animals and adult humans have been shown to rely on analog magnitudes for representing both small and large numbers (Brannon & Terrace, 1998; Cantlon & Brannon, 2007; Cordes et al., 2001). Here we demonstrate that, like adults and non-human animals, children as young as three years of age spontaneously employ analog magnitude representations to enumerate both small and large sets. Moreover, we show that children spontaneously attend to numerical value in lieu of cumulative surface area. These findings provide evidence of young children’s greater sensitivity to number relative to other quantities and demonstrate continuity in the process they spontaneously recruit to judge small and large values. PMID:20136925

  17. Medical Care and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection Common Medical Problems Young children have an average of 6 to 8 colds a year, and also may have several bouts of diarrhea and vomiting, as well as ear infections. Sleep problems and behavior or discipline concerns are very ...

  18. Spontaneous Analog Number Representations in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantlon, Jessica F.; Safford, Kelley E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    When enumerating small sets of elements nonverbally, human infants often show a set-size limitation whereby they are unable to represent sets larger than three elements. This finding has been interpreted as evidence that infants spontaneously represent small numbers with an object-file system instead of an analog magnitude system (Feigenson,…

  19. Fitness and Your 2- to 3-Year-Old

    MedlinePlus

    ... the rosy," and other similar games. Listen to music and dance together. The possibilities are endless — come ... Learning by Playing Playground Safety Introducing Toddlers to Music Safe Exploring for Toddlers Kids and Exercise Childproofing ...

  20. Prenatal anxiety associated with male child preference among expectant mothers at 10–20 weeks of pregnancy in Xiangyun County, China

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Kek Khee; Li, Yan; Tan, Ying; Luo, Xiying; Presson, Angela; Shih, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between male child preference and maternal prenatal psychological distress among expectant mothers from Xiangyun County, Yunnan Province, China. Methods Child gender preference, state-trait anxiety and depression, relationships with the husband and mother-in-law, and self-esteem were measured in a sample of 198 women between 10 and 20 weeks of pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for prenatal anxiety. Results Prenatal anxiety was correlated with male child preference (r = 0.15, P<0.05), maternal age (r = −0.17, P<0.05), level of education (r = −0.23, P<0.01), self-esteem (r = −0.36, P<0.01), relationship with mother-in-law (r = −0.34, P<0.01), and relationship with husband (r = −0.35, P<0.01). Significant relationships were maintained in multivariate analysis that included gender preference, maternal education, pregnancy anxiety, self-esteem, number of people in the household, and relationship with husband as predictors (adjusted r2 = 0.28, P<0.001). Conclusion Male child preference was associated with prenatal anxiety in this sample. Younger maternal age, lower self-esteem, lower level of education, worse relationship with husband, and less family cohesiveness were also related to prenatal anxiety. Expectant mothers experienced prenatal anxiety when there was strong family preference for sons. PMID:20817176

  1. Are Sex Drive and Hypersexuality Associated with Pedophilic Interest and Child Sexual Abuse in a Male Community Sample?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Verena; Schmidt, Alexander F.; Turner, Daniel; Briken, Peer

    2015-01-01

    Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior) among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets (TSO) and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and antisociality. There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and antisociality. Nevertheless, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered as particularly antisociality and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual offending against prepubescent children. PMID:26147099

  2. Are Sex Drive and Hypersexuality Associated with Pedophilic Interest and Child Sexual Abuse in a Male Community Sample?

    PubMed

    Klein, Verena; Schmidt, Alexander F; Turner, Daniel; Briken, Peer

    2015-01-01

    Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior) among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established.The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets(TSO) and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and anti sociality.There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and anti sociality. Nevertheless, in convicted sexual offenders anti sociality, sexual preoccupation (like hypersexuality), and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual reoffending against prepubescent children.Therefore, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered [corrected].

  3. Investing in Our Children: A Plan to Expand Access to Preschool and Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia G.; Cooper, Donna; Herman, Juliana; Lazarín, Melissa; Linden, Michael; Post, Sasha; Tanden, Neera

    2013-01-01

    This issue brief presents a plan to expand educational opportunities and care for children ages 0-5 years old by investing significant federal dollars to: (1) Make high-quality preschool universally accessible to all 3- and 4-year-old children; and (2) Enable more lower-income families to afford child care for children ages 0-3 years old. These…

  4. Using an Antecedent Art Intervention to Improve the Behavior of a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Nai-Cheng; Plavnick, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an antecedent art intervention on reduction of off-task behavior for a 3-year-old child with autism. A single-case reversal design was used to show that one-on-one art task instruction occurring prior to large group instructional sessions produced decreased levels of off-task behavior when compared to…

  5. Fostering Environmental Control in a Young Child with Rett Syndrome: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The performance of a 3-year-old with Rett Syndrome in a Contingency Intervention Program using head and hand switches and adapted toys was assessed over 18 months. Learning contingent control of the stimuli positively motivated the child, promoted attention to toys and objects, and generalized to the classroom. (SW)

  6. Increases in Parental Investment and Child Health as a Result of an Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Beaulieu, David A.; Silbert-Geiger, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    Parental investment (involving time or money invested in 3-year-olds) and child health were assessed as an outcome of (a) children's risk status (preterm vs. full-term birth) and (b) maternal resources (defined here in terms of their problem-solving skills in resolving caregiving challenges). Resources were varied systematically as a function of…

  7. Male involvement for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission: A brief review of initiatives in East, West, and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Julie; Foderingham, Nia; Bussell, Scottie; Wester, C William; Audet, Carolyn M; Aliyu, Muktar H

    2014-06-01

    Current trends in HIV/AIDS research in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) highlight socially and culturally sensitive interventions that mobilize community members and resources for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. These factors are particularly important when addressing the complex social and cultural nature of implementing services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Across the globe approximately 34 % fewer children were infected with HIV through the perinatal or breastfeeding route in 2011 (est. 330,000) than in 2001 (est. 500,000), but ongoing mother-to-child HIV transmission is concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa, where fully 90 % of 2011 cases are estimated to have occurred. Recent literature suggests that PMTCT in Africa is optimized when interventions engage and empower community members, including male partners, to support program implementation and confront the social, cultural and economic barriers that facilitate continued vertical transmission of HIV. In resource-limited settings the feasibility and sustainability of PMTCT programs require innovative approaches to strengthening male engagement by leveraging lessons learned from successful initiatives in SSA. This review presents an overview of studies assessing barriers and facilitators of male participation in PMTCT and new interventions designed to increase male engagement in East, West, and Central Africa from 2000-2013, and examines the inclusion of men in PMTCT programs through the lens of community and facility activities that promote the engagement and involvement of both men and women in transformative PMTCT initiatives.

  8. Talking about Internal States in Mother-Child Reminiscing Influences Children's Self-Representations: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Doan, Stacey N.; Song, Qingfang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation of mother-child discussions of internal states during reminiscing to the development of trait and evaluative self-representations in 131 European American and Chinese immigrant 3-year olds. Mothers and children discussed one positive and one negative event, and children were interviewed for self-descriptions.…

  9. Emotion Talk in Mother-Child Conversations of the Shared Past: The Effects of Culture, Gender, and Event Valence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivush, Robyn; Wang, Qi

    2005-01-01

    We examined how mother-child emotional reminiscing is affected by culture, gender, and the valence of the event. Thirty-one Euro-American and 30 Chinese middle-class mothers and their 3-year-old children discussed 1 highly positive and 1 highly negative experience. Mothers and children in both cultures used a greater variety of negative emotion…

  10. Using Class-Specific Compound Consequences to Teach Dictated and Printed Letter Relations to a Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varella, André A. B.; de Souza, Deisy G.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of class-specific compound consequences embedded in an identity-matching task to establish arbitrary emergent relations were evaluated. A 3-year-old child with autism was taught identity relations between lowercase letters (Set 1) and uppercase letters (Set 2). A compound stimulus that consisted of an auditory component (dictated…

  11. Effects of Different Social Partners on the Discriminated Requesting of a Young Child with Autism and Severe Language Delays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drasgow, Erik; Halle, James W.; Phillips, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    A study examined effects of two adults on the requesting repertoire of a 3-year-old child with autism and language delays. Reinforcement contingencies associated with each adult were reversed after the participant reached a preestablished criterion of discriminated responding. The participant learned to request in a discriminated manner with each…

  12. The Young Male Adolescent's Perception of Early Child-Rearing Behavior: The Differential Effects of Socioeconomic Status and Family Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheck, Dennis C.; Emerick, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Of all variables studied, education is the best predictor of variation in perceived differences in child rearing practices. The lower the socioeconomic status, the lower the amount of perceived parental support, control, and consistency. (Author/DEP)

  13. Soft tissue infection caused by Kingella kingae in a child.

    PubMed

    Rolle, U; Schille, R; Hörmann, D; Friedrich, T; Handrick, W

    2001-06-01

    During the last years an increasing number of reports concerning Kingella kingae infections in children has been published. Most cases were osteoarticular infections. The authors report the clinical and laboratory findings from a 3-year-old child with a presternal soft tissue infection due to K kingae. After surgical excochleation and antibiotic treatment there was an uneventful recovery. J Pediatr Surg 36:946-947.

  14. Central Neurogenic Hyperventilation Related to Post-Hypoxic Thalamic Lesion in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Gençpinar, Pinar; Karaali, Kamil; Haspolat, Şenay; Dursun, Oğuz

    2016-01-01

    Central neurogenic hyperventilation (CNH) is a rare clinical condition, whose mechanism is still unclear. Here, we report a 3-year-old male patient, who had bilateral thalamic, putaminal and globus pallideal infarction resulted in CNH without brainstem involvement. This case may illustrate a possible role for the thalamus in regulating ventilation. PMID:27127601

  15. The Long-Term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse by Female Perpetrators: A Qualitative Study of Male and Female Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denov, Myriam S.

    2004-01-01

    Although the long-term effects of sexual abuse by men have been studied extensively, minimal research has explored the effects of sexual abuse by women. This qualitative study explores the experience and long-term impact of sexual abuse by women. The data were derived from in-depth interviews with 14 adult victims (7 men, 7 women) of child sexual…

  16. The etiology, risk factors, and interactions of enteric infections and malnutrition and the consequences for child health and development study (MAL-ED): description of the Tanzanian site.

    PubMed

    Mduma, Estomih R; Gratz, Jean; Patil, Crystal; Matson, Kristine; Dakay, Mary; Liu, Sarah; Pascal, John; McQuillin, Lauren; Mighay, Emmanuel; Hinken, Elizabeth; Ernst, Alexandra; Amour, Caroline; Mvungi, Regisiana; Bayyo, Eliwaza; Zakaria, Yeconia; Kivuyo, Sokoine; Houpt, Eric R; Svensen, Erling

    2014-11-01

    The Haydom, Tanzania, site (TZH) of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) Study is in north-central Tanzania, 300 km from the nearest urban center. TZH is in a remote rural district where most of the population are agropastoralists and grow maize as the staple food. The average household size is 7. The average woman achieves a parity of 6 and has 1 child death. Socioeconomic indicators are poor, with essentially no household having access to electricity, piped water, or improved sanitary facilities (compared with 14%, 7%, and 12%, respectively, reported nationally). The Demographic Health Survey Tanzania 2004 indicated that the region had high rates of stunting and underweight (40% and 31% of children aged <5 years had a height-for-age z score and weight-for-age z score, respectively, of <-2 ) and an under-5 child mortality rate of 5.8%. Human immunodeficiency virus prevalence among 18-month-old children is <0.5%. TZH represents a remote rural African population with profound poverty and malnutrition, but a strong community-based research infrastructure.

  17. Perceptions of Community Members and Healthcare Workers on Male Involvement in Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission Services in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ladur, Alice Norah; Colvin, Christopher J.; Stinson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Involving male partners of pregnant women accessing PMTCT programs has the potential to improve health outcomes for women and children. This study explored community members’ (men and women) and healthcare workers’ perceptions of male involvement in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Khayelitsha, South Africa. Two focus group discussions were held with 25 men of unknown HIV status and one focus group discussion held with 12 HIV-positive women in the community. In depth interviews were conducted with four HIV-positive couples and five service providers purposely sampled from the community and a health facility, respectively. Both men and women interviewed in this study were receptive towards male involvement in PMTCT. However, men were reluctant to engage with health services due to stigma and negative attitudes from nurses. This study also found HIV testing, disclosure and direct health worker engagement with men increases male involvement in PMTCT. Using men in the media and community to reach out to fellow men with prevention messages tailored to suit specific audiences may reduce perceptions of antenatal care as being a woman`s domain. PMID:26218065

  18. Mother-Child Conversations of Emotionally Salient Events: Exploring the Functions of Emotional Reminiscing in European-American and Chinese Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Fivush, Robyn

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the functional variations in mother-child conversations of emotionally salient events in European-American and Chinese families. Thirty Chinese and 31 European-American 3-year-old children and their mothers participated. Mothers were asked to discuss with their children at home two specific one-point-in-time events in which…

  19. Does warmth moderate longitudinal associations between maternal spanking and child aggression in early childhood?

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Altschul, Inna; Gershoff, Elizabeth T

    2013-11-01

    This study examines whether maternal warmth moderates the association between maternal use of spanking and increased child aggression between ages 1 and 5. Participants were 3,279 pairs of mothers and their children from a cohort study of urban families from 20 U.S. cities. Maternal spanking was assessed when the child was 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years of age. Maternal warmth and child aggressive behavior were measured at 3 years and 5 years of age. Models controlled for demographic characteristics (measured at the child's birth), child emotionality (measured at age 1), and maternal psychosocial risk factors (measured when children were 3 years old). Cross-lagged path models examined the within-time and longitudinal associations between spanking and child aggression. Results indicated that maternal spanking at age 1 was associated with higher levels of child aggression at age 3; similarly, maternal spanking at age 3 predicted increases in child aggression by age 5. Maternal warmth when children were 3 years old did not predict changes in child aggression between 3 and 5 years old. Furthermore, maternal warmth did not moderate the association between spanking and increased child aggression over time. Beginning as early as age 1, maternal spanking is predictive of child behavior problems, and maternal warmth does not counteract the negative consequences of the use of spanking.

  20. A Child's Mind in the Adult Body: An Investigation of Perceptual Differences between Males and Females towards Emotional Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandhu, Daya Singh

    1992-01-01

    Examined potential gender differences in emotional immaturity. Forty graduate students completed personal data sheets and Peter Pan Syndrome Test. Findings suggest widespread perceptions between females and males about prevalence of emotional immaturity among their significant others. Females seem to consider emotional immaturity special problem…

  1. Risk for Intimate Partner Violence and Child Physical Abuse: Psychosocial Characteristics of Multirisk Male and Female Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    consisted of 775 female and 592 male Navy recruits. The psychosocial variables assessed included symptoms of dysphoria , posttraumatic stress, self...Munroe et al., 1995). The psychosocial characteristics examined in the present study included symptoms of dysphoria , posttraumatic stress, self...the present study, all psychosocial functioning variables (i.e., dysphoria , posttraumatic stress, self- dysfunction, alcohol abuse, and drug use

  2. Canadian Female and Male Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Child Aggression and Rough-and-Tumble Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra; Woods, Heather; Coplan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated female and male early childhood educators' (ECEs) perceptions of young children's aggression and rough-and-tumble play in the Canadian early childhood classroom. Participants were drawn from a larger sample of ECEs who completed an online questionnaire regarding their perceptions of young children's behaviours in the…

  3. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  4. Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Low-Income Males with Child Care Responsibilities Support Inclusion as a Target Audience in SNAP-Ed.

    PubMed

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Wamboldt, Patricia; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Federally funded nutrition programs mostly target females. Changes in family dynamics suggest low-income men have an important role in food management responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to inform nutrition education program planning to meet needs of lower-income males. Cross-sectional telephone and face-to-face interviews. Stratified random sample of men (n = 101), 18-59 years of age, with child care responsibilities, living in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and a convenience sample of adult males (n = 25) recruited from lower income venues. (1) Scripted telephone interviews about health status, eating behaviors, eating competence, food security, technology usage and topics and strategies for nutrition education. (2) In-person cognitive interviews during review of selected online nutrition education lessons. Nutrition education topics of interest, preferred educational strategies, influences on and barriers to intake, eating competence, critiques of online program content, graphics, format. Bivariate correlations, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance or Chi square, as appropriate. Thematic analyses of cognitive interviews. Of telephone interviewees, 92.1% prepared meals/snacks for children and 54.5% made major household food decisions. Taste was the greatest influence on food selection and the greatest barrier to eating healthful foods. Topics of highest interest were "which foods are best for kids" and "how to eat more healthy foods." Preferred nutrition education strategies included online delivery. Online lessons were highly rated. Interactive components were recognized as particularly appealing; enhanced male centricity of lessons was supported. Findings provided compelling evidence for including needs specific to low-income males when planning, designing, and funding nutrition education programs.

  5. Predictions for sex of first born child reflect masculine and feminine characteristics in male and female undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Palmer-Hague, Jaime L; Zilioli, Samuele; Watson, Neil V

    2013-08-13

    Previous research has identified physical and behavioral differences between parents who produce sons and those who produce daughters. However, the possibility that men and women have predictions about the sexes of their offspring based on these differences, or any other interoceptive cues, has not been investigated. We compared the dominance, sociosexual orientation, estradiol, testosterone, and 2D:4D ratios of men and women who predicted they would conceive a boy as their first child with those who predicted a girl. Women who predicted they would have a boy were more dominant and less sociosexually restricted than those who predicted they would have a girl. Men who predicted they would have a girl had higher salivary estradiol and higher (more feminine) 2D:4D ratios than those who predicted they would have a boy. Possible implications of these results are discussed in the context of evolutionary theory.

  6. Mother-Child Conversations about Pictures and Objects: Referring to Categories and Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Chesnick, Robert J.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2005-01-01

    The distinction between individuals (e.g., Rin-Tin-Tin) and categories (e.g., dogs) is fundamental in human thought. Two studies examined factors that influence when 2- to 3-year-old children and adults focus on individuals versus categories. Mother-child dyads were presented with pictures and toys (e.g., a picture of a boat or a toy boat).…

  7. Secondary absorbed doses from light ion irradiation in anthropomorphic phantoms representing an adult male and a 10 year old child

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultqvist, Martha; Gudowska, Irena

    2010-11-01

    Secondary organ absorbed doses were calculated by Monte Carlo simulations with the SHIELD-HIT07 code coupled with the mathematical anthropomorphic phantoms CHILD-HIT and ADAM-HIT. The simulated irradiations were performed with primary 1H, 4He, 7Li, 12C and 16O ion beams in the energy range 100-400 MeV/u which were directly impinging on the phantoms, i.e. approximating scanned beams, and with a simplified beamline for 12C irradiation. The evaluated absorbed doses to the out-of-field organs were in the range 10-6 to 10-1 mGy per target Gy and with standard deviations 0.5-20%. While the contribution to the organ absorbed doses from secondary neutrons dominated in the ion beams of low atomic number Z, the produced charged fragments and their subsequent charged secondaries of higher generations became increasingly important for the secondary dose delivery as Z of the primary ions increased. As compared to the simulated scanned 12C ion beam, the implementation of a simplified beamline for prostate irradiation with 12C ions resulted in an increase of 2-50 times in the organ absorbed doses depending on the distance from the target volume. Comparison of secondary organ absorbed doses delivered by 1H and 12C beams showed smaller differences when the RBE for local tumor control of the ions was considered and normalization to the RBE-weighted dose to the target was performed.

  8. Religious Factors Associated with Alcohol Involvement: Results from the Mauritian Joint Child Health Project

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Susan E.; Prescott, Carol A.; Dalais, Cyril; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine religious factors associated with alcohol involvement in Mauritius. The three main religions on the island, Hinduism, Catholicism, and Islam, promote different views of the appropriate use of alcohol. Based on reference group theory, we hypothesized that both the content of a religion’s alcohol norms and an individual’s religious commitment would relate to alcohol use behavior. Methods Participants were from the Joint Child Health Project, a longitudinal study that has followed a birth cohort of 1,795 individuals since 1972 when they were 3 years old. All available participants (67%; 55% male) were assessed in mid-adulthood on religious variables, lifetime drinking, and lifetime alcohol use disorders. Results Across religions, individuals who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence were less likely to be drinkers. Religious commitment was associated with reduced probability of drinking only in those who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence. Among drinkers, abstention norms and religious commitment were not associated with lower likelihood of alcohol use disorders. In Catholics who viewed their religion as promoting abstinence and still were drinkers, high religious commitment was associated with increased risk for alcohol use disorders. Conclusions Predictions based on reference group theory were largely supported, with religious norms and commitment differentially related to alcohol use and problems both across religions and among individuals within religions. Findings highlight the importance of examining multiple aspects of religion to better understand the relationship of religion with alcohol behaviors. PMID:24332801

  9. Metastatic Primary Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma of Rectum: A Case Report of 10-Year-old Male Child

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kumkum; Singh, Amit; Bhutra, Shyam; Pachori, Geeta; Jangir, Mahesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Signet ring cell carcinomas of the colon and rectum are well documented in the adult population, but the incidence is very low in the paediatric population. Signet ring cell carcinoma has more malignant potential, mostly present as advanced stage and carries very poor prognosis. We are describing a 10-year-old male patient who presented with acute intestinal obstruction; radiology revealed large bowel obstruction and was diagnosed metastatic primary signet ring cell carcinoma of rectum on biopsy. We have discussed the diagnostic work-up and the management of this rare entity. Due to the high mortality that can be caused by a delay in making the correct diagnosis, signet ring cell carcinoma of colorectum represents a special diagnostic and surgical challenge. PMID:24701526

  10. Dyadic flexibility and positive affect in parent-child coregulation and the development of child behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S; Olson, Sheryl L; Hollenstein, Tom; Sameroff, Arnold J; Winter, Charlotte

    2011-05-01

    Parent-child dyadic rigidity and negative affect contribute to children's higher levels of externalizing problems. The present longitudinal study examined whether the opposite constructs of dyadic flexibility and positive affect predicted lower levels of externalizing behavior problems across the early childhood period. Mother-child (N = 163) and father-child (n = 94) dyads engaged in a challenging block design task at home when children were 3 years old. Dynamic systems methods were used to derive dyadic positive affect and three indicators of dyadic flexibility (range, dispersion, and transitions) from observational coding. We hypothesized that the interaction between dyadic flexibility and positive affect would predict lower levels of externalizing problems at age 5.5 years as rated by mothers and teachers, controlling for stability in externalizing problems, task time, child gender, and the child's effortful control. The hypothesis was supported in predicting teacher ratings of child externalizing from both mother-child and father-child interactions. There were also differential main effects for mothers and fathers: mother-child flexibility was detrimental and father-child flexibility was beneficial for child outcomes. Results support the inclusion of adaptive and dynamic parent-child coregulation processes in the study of children's early disruptive behavior.

  11. Paralytic poliomyelitis caused by a vaccine-derived polio virus in an antibody-deficient Argentinean child.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Solange; García Erro, Marcela; Cisterna, Daniel; Freire, M Cecilia

    2003-06-01

    We describe a case of poliomyelitis in a 3-year-old Argentinean boy with X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia. The child had no history of polio vaccination, but a poliovirus isolated from a stool sample had 97.2% genetic similarity to the Sabin 1 vaccine strain. According to the WHO definition, this is the first case reported of a vaccine-derived poliovirus infection recorded in continental Latin America.

  12. The MAL-ED cohort study: methods and lessons learned when assessing early child development and caregiving mediators in infants and young children in 8 low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Rasmussen, Zeba A; Scharf, Rebecca J; Rasheed, Muneera A; Svensen, Erling; Seidman, Jessica C; Tofail, Fahmida; Koshy, Beena; Shrestha, Rita; Maphula, Angelina; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; da Costa, Hilda P; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Oria, Reinaldo B; Roshan, Reeba; Bayyo, Eliwasa B; Kosek, Margaret; Shrestha, Sanjaya; Schaefer, Barbara A; Bessong, Pascal; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lang, Dennis

    2014-11-01

    More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we assessed child development in a harmonious manner across 8 sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. From birth to 24 months, development and language acquisition were assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and a modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Other measures were infant temperament, the child's environment, maternal psychological adjustment, and maternal reasoning abilities. We developed standard operating procedures and used multiple techniques to ensure appropriate adaptation and quality assurance across the sites. Test adaptation required significant time and human resources but is essential for data quality; funders should support this step in future studies. At the end of this study, we will have a portfolio of culturally adapted instruments for child development studies with examination of psychometric properties of each tool used.

  13. Family affection as a protective factor against the negative effects of perceived Asian values gap on the parent-child relationship for Asian American male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong S; Vo, Leyna P; Tsong, Yuying

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether family affection (i.e., affective responsiveness, affectionate communication, and affective orientation) protected against the negative effects of perceived parent-child Asian values gap on the quality of their parent relationships for 259 female and 77 male Asian American college students. Asian values gap was higher for women than men, and inversely related to a perceived healthy parent-child relationship for both genders. Participants rated the relationship with their mothers as more positive and affectionate than with their fathers. Both parents were reported to communicate more supportive affection than verbal and nonverbal affection. Affective responsiveness was identified as a protective factor in the father-son relationship whereas verbal affection protected the mother-daughter relationship. The study also revealed that daughters' affective orientation had beneficial effects on the father-daughter relationship at lower levels of Asian values gap. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Dietary intakes at child-care centers in central Texas fail to meet Food Guide Pyramid recommendations.

    PubMed

    Padget, Alison; Briley, Margaret E

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dietary intakes of children who attend child-care centers with the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children. Three-day dietary records were obtained for 50 children ages 3 to 5 years old who attended nine child-care centers in central Texas. Dietary intakes during child care were measured by a researcher, and dietary intakes at home were recorded by a parent. During child care, the 3-year-old children consumed sufficient fruits and meat/alternates, but not sufficient grains, vegetables, or dairy to meet two thirds of Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children recommendations. The 4- and 5-year-old children only consumed sufficient dairy. Ninety-one percent (20 of 22) of the 3-year-old children met two thirds of their estimated energy requirements during child care, compared with 5% (1 of 20) of 4-year-old children and 25% (2 of 8) of 5-year-old children. Intakes at home did not compensate for lack of grain and vegetable consumption during child care.

  15. Cutaneous paraganglioma of the vertex in a child.

    PubMed

    Kim; Lee, Il Jae; Park, Myong Chul; Kim, Joo Hyoung; Lim, Hyoseob

    2012-07-01

    Paraganglioma is a neuroendocrine neoplasm that may develop at various body sites, including the head, neck, thorax, and abdomen. Approximately 85% of paragangliomas develop on the abdomen, 12% develop on the chest, and only 3% develop on the head and neck. These tumors are found in locations that parallel the sympathetic chain ganglion in the thoracolumbar regions and parasympathetic nervous system in craniosacral regions, and all head and neck paragangliomas arise from the parasympathetic nervous system. Although the skin has a rich neural network, it is devoid of ganglia. There has been only 1 report of a paraganglioma on the scalp of a child. We describe a 3-year-old child with a primary cutaneous paraganglioma of the vertex scalp and review the literature on paragangliomas.

  16. A Rare Case of Foreign Body Causing Recurrent Vaginal Discharge in Prepubertal Child

    PubMed Central

    Gobbur, Raghavendra.H.; Patil, Ashwini.G; Endigeri, Preetish

    2015-01-01

    Vaginal discharge in prepubertal children is mainly due to hypoestrogenic state of vaginal mucosa making it thin and alkaline leading to mucosal invasion by pathogen. In a paediatric case with persistent foul smelling , blood stained vaginal discharge not responding to medical therapy, vaginal foreign body should always be ruled out. Here, we report a 3 -year -old girl with complaint of recurrent vaginal discharge occasionally blood stained not relieved despite few antibiotics courses. On X -ray pelvis, a radioopaque foreign body hair clip was seen. Under sedation foreign body was removed by forceps following which child became asymptomatic. PMID:25738041

  17. A terminal Pleistocene child cremation and residential structure from eastern Beringia.

    PubMed

    Potter, Ben A; Irish, Joel D; Reuther, Joshua D; Gelvin-Reymiller, Carol; Holliday, Vance T

    2011-02-25

    The dearth of human remains and residential sites has constrained inquiry into Beringian lifeways at the transition of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene. We report on human skeletal remains and a residential structure from central Alaska dated to ~11,500 calendar years ago. The remains are from a ~3-year-old child who was cremated in a pit within a semisubterranean house. The burial-cremation and house have exceptional integrity and preservation and exhibit similarities and differences to both Siberian Upper Paleolithic and North American Paleoindian features.

  18. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene as a Biomarker of PAH Exposure in 3-Year-Old Ukrainian Children

    PubMed Central

    Mucha, Amy Pelka; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Serdyuk, Andrij; Nakonechny, Joseph; Zvinchuk, Alexander; Erdal, Serap; Caudill, Motria; Scheff, Peter; Lukyanova, Elena; Shkiryak-Nyzhnyk, Zoreslava; Chislovska, Natalia

    2006-01-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure. We measured urinary 1-OHP in 48 children 3 years of age in Mariupol, Ukraine, who lived near a steel mill and coking facility and compared these with 1-OHP concentrations measured in 42 children of the same age living in the capital city of Kiev, Ukraine. Children living in Mariupol had significantly higher urinary 1-OHP and creatinine-adjusted urinary 1-OHP than did children living in Kiev (adjusted: 0.69 vs. 0.34 μmol/mol creatinine, p < 0.001; unadjusted: 0.42 vs. 0.30 ng/mL, p = 0.002). Combined, children in both cities exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes had higher 1-OHP than did children not exposed (0.61 vs. 0.42 μmol/mol creatinine; p = 0.04; p = 0.07 after adjusting for city). In addition, no significant differences were seen with sex of the children. Our sample of children in Mariupol has the highest reported mean urinary 1-OHP concentrations in children studied to date, most likely due to their proximity to a large industrial point source of PAHs. PMID:16581553

  19. POSNA Quality, Safety, Value Initiative 3 Years Old and Growing Strong. POSNA Precourse 2014.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, James J; Alessandrini, Evaline A; Schoettker, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America (POSNA) quality, safety, and value initiative (QSVI). Specifically, it will outline the history of the program, describe typical quality improvement techniques, and how they differ from traditional research techniques, and, finally, describe some of the many projects completed, currently underway, or in planning for POSNA QSVI.

  20. Soil ingestion rates for children under 3 years old in Taiwan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil and dust ingestion rates by children are among the most critical exposure factors in determining risks to children from exposures to environmental contaminants in soil and dust. This is the first published soil ingestion study for children in Taiwan using tracer element meth...

  1. Relations between Temperament, Sensory Processing, and Motor Coordination in 3-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sukigara, Masune; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakai, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys) were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), the Sensory Profile (SP-J), and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ), this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control) through covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J.

  2. Mycotic encephalitis, sinus osteomyelitis, and guttural pouch mycosis in a 3-year-old Arabian colt.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Barbara; Nation, Patrick N

    2011-12-01

    Mycotic encephalitis caused severe ataxia and other neurologic deficits in a horse. The finding of a single, large focus of cerebral malacia, with histopathologic evidence of fungal elements, suggested infection was a result of direct transfer from the frontal sinuses, rather than hematogenous spread from the guttural pouch.

  3. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y. C.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their…

  4. When Kids Know Better: Paternalistic Helping in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Alia; Olson, Kristina R.

    2013-01-01

    Helping others is often more complicated than fulfilling their requests, for instance, when an individual requests something that is not suited to achieving her or his ultimate goal. Are children indiscriminate helpers, responding to any object-directed action or request, or do their helping actions prioritize ultimate goals over specific…

  5. BE, DO, and Modal Auxiliaries of 3-Year-Old African American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Oetting, Janna B.; Stockman, Ida J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined African American English--speaking children's use of BE, DO, and modal auxiliaries. Method: The data were based on language samples obtained from 48 three-year-olds. Analyses examined rates of marking by auxiliary type, auxiliary surface form, succeeding element, and syntactic construction and by a number of child…

  6. Pragmatic Inference, Not Semantic Competence, Guides 3-Year-Olds' Interpretation of Unknown Number Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Neon; Audet, Jennifer; Barner, David

    2013-01-01

    Before children learn the specific meanings of numerals like six, do they know that they represent precise quantities? Previous studies have reported conflicting evidence and have found that children expect numerals to label precise quantities in some tasks but not in others (Condry & Spelke, 2008; Sarnecka & Gelman, 2004). In this…

  7. Heritability and repeatability of speed for 2- and 3-year-old standardbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Tolley, E A; Notter, D R; Marlowe, T J

    1983-06-01

    Repeatabilities (t) and heritabilities (h2) of racing time were estimated from data on 7,206 2- and 3-yr-old Standardbred pacers and trotters competing in 1-mile (1.6 km) charted races at six tracks between 1975 and 1978. A total of 38,487 records representing 2,387 sire progeny groups were divided into subsets by gait, age and track. Initially, the designation "class of race" was recognized as a subjective categorization that reflected nonrandom assignments of horses to races. After extensive investigation, we concluded that racing times should be adjusted by linear regression for the time of the winning horse (defined at the "pace" of the race). Residual regression coefficients of time on pace ranged from .61 +/- .08 to .79 +/- .05 s/s and appeared to adequately account for the environmental effects of class. Repeatabilities of adjusted times ranged from .32 +/- .08 to .55 +/- .04 and heritabilities ranged from -.25 +/- .22 to .66 +/- .16. Overall estimates of t and h2 (pooled over gaits, ages and tracks) were .44 +/- .01 and .29 +/- .03, respectively. When data were not adjusted for pace, the sire, horse and error variance component estimates were inflated by environmental effects (pooled t = .62; pooled h2 = .36). Racing time adjusted for pace is recommended for use as a selection criterion in Standardbred horses.

  8. Relations between Temperament, Sensory Processing, and Motor Coordination in 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Atsuko; Sukigara, Masune; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakai, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills and differences in sensory processing have been noted as behavioral markers of common neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 171 healthy children (81 girls, 90 boys) were investigated at age 3 to examine relations between temperament, sensory processing, and motor coordination. Using the Japanese versions of the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ), the Sensory Profile (SP-J), and the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ), this study examines an expanded model based on Rothbart's three-factor temperamental theory (surgency, negative affect, effortful control) through covariance structure analysis. The results indicate that effortful control affects both sensory processing and motor coordination. The subscale of the LDCDQ, control during movement, is also influenced by surgency, while temperamental negative affect and surgency each have an effect on subscales of the SP-J. PMID:27199852

  9. Source Monitoring and Executive Function in 2.5- to 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hala, Suzanne; McKay, Lee-Ann; Brown, Alisha M. B.; San Juan, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Hala, Brown, McKay, and San Juan (2013) found that children as young as 2.5 years of age demonstrated high levels of accuracy when asked to recall whether they or the experimenter had carried out a particular action. In the research reported here, we examined the relation of early-emerging source monitoring to executive function abilities.…

  10. When 2-Year-Olds and 3-Year-Olds Think Like Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, George E.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, which includes three video clips, the author argues that the small experiments, inventions, strategies, and pauses in young children's play seen in the clips reveal a legitimate form of scientific thinking. He notes that science and play both represent a frame of mind, an attitude toward the events one observes. (Contains 3…

  11. The Facilitative Effect of Positive Stimuli on 3-Year-Olds' Flexible Rule Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qu, Li; Zelazo, Philip David

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of emotional stimuli on 3- to 4-year old children's flexible rule use, as measured by the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS). In Experiment 1, children in two countries (Canada and China) were given 2 versions of the DCCS. The Standard version required children to sort red and blue boats and rabbits first by shape…

  12. 3-Year-Olds' Comprehension, Production, and Generalization of Sesotho Passives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine; Moloi, Francina; Machobane, Malillo

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have long been puzzled by the challenge English passive constructions present for language learners, with adult-like comprehension and production emerging only around the age of 5. It has therefore been of significant interest that researchers of other languages, including the Bantu language Sesotho, have reported acquisition of the…

  13. Language Development in a 3-Year-Old Boy with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2007-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which has widespread developmental consequences including motor, cognitive and language delay. Previous research on PWS children has focused primarily on phonological development and dysfluency. In the present study, the lexical development of a boy with PWS was investigated in a series of 18 play…

  14. Categorization and abstraction abilities in 3-year-old children: a comparison with monkey data.

    PubMed

    Bovet, Dalila; Vauclair, Jacques; Blaye, Agnès

    2005-01-01

    Three-year-old children were tested on three categorization tasks of increasing levels of abstraction (used with adult baboons in an earlier study): the first was a conceptual categorization task (food vs toys), the second a perceptual matching task (same vs different objects), and the third a relational matching task in which the children had to sort pairs according to whether or not the two items belonged to the same or different categories. The children were tested using two different procedures, the first a replication of the procedure used with the baboons (pulling one rope for a category or a relationship between two objects, and another rope for the other category or relationship), the second a task based upon children's prior experiences with sorting objects (putting in the same box objects belonging to the same category or a pair of objects exemplifying the same relation). The children were able to solve the first task (conceptual categorization) when tested with the sorting into boxes procedure, and the second task (perceptual matching) when tested with both procedures. The children were able to master the third task (relational matching) only when the rules were clearly explained to them, but not when they could only watch sorting examples. In fact, the relational matching task without explanation requires analogy abilities that do not seem to be fully developed at 3 years of age. The discrepancies in performances between children tested with the two procedures, with the task explained or not, and the discrepancies observed between children and baboons are discussed in relation to differences between species and/or problem-solving strategies.

  15. Relationship between rank and plasma testosterone and cortisol in red deer males (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Bartoš, Luděk; Schams, Dieter; Bubenik, George A; Kotrba, Radim; Tománek, Milan

    2010-12-02

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a change in the social composition in a group of red deer males on the relationship between their rank and testosterone. A group of twelve adult red deer males (Cervus elaphus) was tested in two social settings. From April 15 to June 9 (Period 1) this group was kept separately in an enclosure. On June 10, nine 3-year-old males were added to that group of adult males. They were kept together until August 31. We performed 10 observations of the group when the agonistic interactions of the males were recorded and we took 9 blood samples per male in Period 1; 11 observations were made and 10 samples were taken in Period 2. Concentrations of testosterone and cortisol were later determined in plasma. Adding much younger and smaller sparring partners into the experimental group of adult males in Period 2 altered the agonistic behaviour of the adults even though this did not trigger any change in rank position of the experimental males except one. Adult males targeted preferentially their attacks on individuals much lower in the hierarchy. Experimental male deer with higher social rank had lower levels of testosterone in Period 1; in Period 2 it was just the opposite. In Period 1 the animals had higher cortisol levels than in Period 2. As controls we used four adult (5years old) males sharing the enclosure with four 3-year-old males. No changes in hormone concentrations were observed in the control group. Thus, changing the social environment of adult red deer males resulted in change of the relationship between rank and testosterone and cortisol concentrations.

  16. Aquatic therapy for a child with type III spinal muscular atrophy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Salem, Yasser; Gropack, Stacy Jaffee

    2010-11-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of alpha motor neurons. This case report describes an aquatic therapy program and the outcomes for a 3-year-old girl with type III SMA. Motor skills were examined using the 88-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (PDMS-2), and the GAITRite system. The child received aquatic therapy twice per week for 45-min sessions, for 14 weeks. The intervention included aquatic activities designed to improve gross motor skills and age-appropriate functional mobility. The GMFM total score improved by 11% following the intervention. The Standing Dimension score improved by 28% and the Walking, Running, and Jumping Dimension score improved by 18%. The gross motor quotient for the PDMS-2 improved from 66 to 74. The child's gait showed improvement in walking velocity, stride length, and single-limb support time as a percentage of the gait cycle. The outcomes of this case report demonstrate the successful improvement of gross motor function and gait in a 3-year-old child with SMA. This study provides clinical information for therapists utilizing aquatic therapy as a modality for children with neuromuscular disorders.

  17. Male circumcision.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    , nonbiased information about circumcision and should receive this information from clinicians before conception or early in pregnancy, which is when parents typically make circumcision decisions. Parents should determine what is in the best interest of their child. Physicians who counsel families about this decision should provide assistance by explaining the potential benefits and risks and ensuring that parents understand that circumcision is an elective procedure. The Task Force strongly recommends the creation, revision, and enhancement of educational materials to assist parents of male infants with the care of circumcised and uncircumcised penises. The Task Force also strongly recommends the development of educational materials for providers to enhance practitioners' competency in discussing circumcision's benefits and risks with parents. The Task Force made the following recommendations:Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks, and the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for those families who choose it. Parents are entitled to factually correct, nonbiased information about circumcision that should be provided before conception and early in pregnancy, when parents are most likely to be weighing the option of circumcision of a male child. Physicians counseling families about elective male circumcision should assist parents by explaining, in a nonbiased manner, the potential benefits and risks and by ensuring that they understand the elective nature of the procedure. Parents should weigh the health benefits and risks in light of their own religious, cultural, and personal preferences, as the medical benefits alone may not outweigh these other considerations for individual families. Parents of newborn boys should be instructed in the care of the penis, regardless of whether the newborn has been circumcised or not. Elective circumcision should be performed only if

  18. From Recess to Lockdown: Targeting Adult and Child School-Based Practices and Behaviors That Impact Black Male Entry into the School to Prison Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Lance Montieth

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies establish that Black males follow a disproportionate trajectory from school to prison when compared to other groups. This same research has documented that multiple risk factors operating within schools may contribute to this phenomenon, commonly known as the "school to prison pipeline." The specific focus of the present…

  19. Prosthetic Oral Rehabilitation of a Child With S-ECC: A Case Report with Histopathologic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tannure, P N; Moraes, G G; Borba, McU; Abrahão, A; Andrade, Mtrc; Fidalgo, Tks

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment planning of a young child with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) as well as the prosthetic rehabilitation technique. A 3-year-old female child was referred to the pediatric dentistry clinic with the chief complaint of tooth pain, difficulty in eating and recurrent hospitalizations caused by dental infections. The mother reported intermittent episodes of fever and recurrent swelling of child's face. The girl presented angular cheilitis and was referred to a dietitian. The treatment plain consisted on a behavior changes in oral hygiene habits, exodontias of all primary teeth and oral rehabilitation with a prosthesis. The extracted teeth with periapical lesions were submitted to histopathologic analysis (hematoxilin and eosin staining) and revealed an inflammatory infiltrate. The aesthetic requirement of children with S-ECC has been a challenge to pediatric dentists. In the present case, the oral rehabilitation provided for the children better aesthetic, nutrition, phonation, and functional conditions.

  20. Gender Differences in Child Aggression: Relations With Gender-Differentiated Parenting and Parents' Gender-Role Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression.

  1. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  2. Phenotype, hormonal profile and genotype of subjects with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome: report of a family with four adult males and one child with disorder of sexual differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, B; Philibert, P; Eunice, M; Audran, F; Paris, F; Khurana, M L; Ammini, A C; Charles, S

    2009-08-01

    There is little information on the molecular basis of intrafamilial and inter-familial phenotypic heterogeneity with the same androgen receptor (AR) mutation in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. A genetic analysis was performed in a large kindred with ambiguous genitalia and the genotype-phenotype correlations were analysed. The index case was brought for sex assignment. Family history revealed four other affected members who had hypospadias and varying degrees of virilisation. All the affected males had hemizygous mutations in the third exon of the AR gene (A596T). One was also found to have a heterozygous mutation in the fourth exon of the 5 alpha reductase type 2 gene (G196S). This affected male with double mutations was better virilised compared with the other affected members with a single mutation. The degree of virilisation correlated with serum testosterone levels. Gynaecomastia was not present in any of these subjects. It is concluded that the subject with dual gene defects also had higher levels of testosterone and pubertal virilsation. Testosterone levels possibly govern the degree of pubertal virilisation in subjects with A596T gene defects. It is not clear whether the better pubertal virilsation and higher testosterone are in any way causally related to the SRD5A2 gene defect.

  3. The impact of social and cultural capital variables on parental rating of child health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Dunt, David; Hage, Bridget; Kelaher, Margaret

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the effects of factors broadly captured under the rubric of parental social and cultural capital on child health. The setting was 11 disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia during the conduct and evaluation of Best Start, an early childhood initiative of the Victorian State Government. Questionnaires were sent to parents of 3-year-old children in 2004 and 2006. The principal dependent variable was parental global rating of their child's health. Social capital variables focussed, for example, on community support for parent's child rearing practices. Cultural capital variables focussed, for example, on parent's reading to their child. Socio-economic status and other potential confounding variables were also measured. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression was used. There were consistent independent effects for the cultural capital variables-'Age started reading to the child' and 'Confident being a good parent', and only one of a number of social capital variables-'Community support for childrearing' as well as for some other variables particularly that 'Child had a chronic health/medical condition'. Dichotomizing parent's global ratings of their child's health differently had some effects on results. Cultural capital and, to a lesser extent, social capital variables were associated with parent's rating of the child's health. It is now timely to conduct and evaluate programs aimed at improving parents' cultural capital. Better measures or inventories of parent's cultural capital will be essential for this.

  4. Mediators and Moderators of the Relation between Parental ADHD Symptomatology and the Early Development of Child ADHD and ODD Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Brown, Hallie R; Harvey, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined mediators and moderators of the relation between parental ADHD symptomatology and the development of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms across the preschool years. Participants included 258 (138 boys) 3-year-old children (M = 44.13 months, SD = 3.39) with and without behavior problems and their parents who took part in a 3-year longitudinal study. Maternal ADHD symptoms predicted later ADHD symptoms in children, controlling for early child symptomatology. Both family history of ADHD and paternal comorbid psychopathology predicted later child ADHD and ODD symptoms, but they did not account for the association between maternal and child ADHD symptoms. Although paternal ADHD symptoms were associated with age 3 child ADHD symptoms, they did not significantly predict later child ADHD symptoms controlling for early symptomatology. Family adversity moderated the relation between maternal ADHD and child ADHD symptoms, such that the relation between maternal and child ADHD symptoms was stronger for families with less adversity. Maternal overreactive parenting mediated the relation between maternal ADHD symptoms and later child ADHD and ODD symptoms. Our findings suggest that targeting paternal comorbid psychopathology and maternal parenting holds promise for attenuating the effects of parental ADHD on children's ADHD.

  5. Substantiated Reports of Child Maltreatment From the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2008: Examining Child and Household Characteristics and Child Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Tracie O; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Katz, Laurence Y; Tonmyr, Lil; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identifying child and household characteristics that are associated with specific child maltreatment types and child functional impairment are important for informing prevention and intervention efforts. Our objectives were to examine the distribution of several child and household characteristics among substantiated child maltreatment types in Canada; to determine if a specific child maltreatment type relative to all other types was associated with increased odds of child functional impairment; and to determine which child and household characteristics were associated with child functional impairment. Method: Data were from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (collection 2008) from 112 child welfare sites across Canada (n = 6163 children). Results: Physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment were highly prevalent among children aged 10 to 15 years. For single types of child maltreatment, the highest prevalence of single-parent homes (50.6%), social assistance (43.0%), running out of money regularly (30.7%), and unsafe housing (30.9%) were reported for substantiated cases of neglect. Being male, older age, living in a single-parent home, household running out of money, moving 2 or more times in the past year, and household overcrowding were associated with increased odds of child functional impairment. Conclusions: More work is warranted to determine if providing particular resources for single-parent families, financial counselling, and facilitating adequate and stable housing for families with child maltreatment histories or at risk for child maltreatment could be effective for improving child functional outcomes. PMID:26175390

  6. The traits of the great calls in the juvenile and adolescent gibbon males Nomascus gabriellae

    PubMed Central

    Bolechová, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about vocal ontogeny and vocal plasticity during ontogeny in primate species is central to understanding the evolution of human speech. Vocalizations in gibbons (Hominoidea) are very interesting and contain complex species- and sex-specific patterns. However, ontogeny of gibbon songs is little studied. Here, we document regular production and ontogenetic changes of female-specific “great call” in 4 immature (2 juvenile—c.a. 3 years old; and 2 adolescent—c.a. 5 years old) males of southern yellow-cheeked gibbon (N. gabriellae) over nine months. None of the males produced fully developed adult-like “great call” and little ontogenetic changes to “great calls” occurred. “Great calls” of sons were shorter, started higher and ended lower than those of their mothers. Regular production of twitter part of great call likely appears around 4th year as it was observed in adolescent but not in juvenile males. PMID:28296969

  7. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in a Female Child With Polydactyly and a Pelvic Mass: Consider the McKusick-Kaufman Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adam, Ahmed; Hellig, Julian; Mahomed, Nasreen; Lambie, Lindsay

    2017-01-30

    A 3-year-old female child presented with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections. On general examination, polydactyly and a pelvic mass were present. An imperforate hymen was also documented on vaginal inspection. Further inquiry, revealed a positive history of parental consanguinity. A magnetic resonance imaging study defined a hydrometrocolpos responsible for an obstructive cause of the recurrent urinary tract infections. In view of the above, a diagnosis of McKusick-Kaufman syndrome was made. Formal surgical repair of the imperforate hymen with hydrometrocolpos drainage resulted in complete symptom resolution. McKusick-Kaufman syndrome, its presentation, symptoms, differential diagnosis, and underlying genetics were further expanded.

  8. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children™ study. Multimedia & Tools Videos, podcasts and widgets. Child Development: What's New Article: Differences in health care, family, ... and share it with the child’s doctor. More Child Development Basics Developmental Screening Screening for Professionals Positive Parenting ...

  9. The effects of parental depressive symptoms, appraisals, and physical punishment on later child externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Callender, Kevin A; Olson, Sheryl L; Choe, Daniel E; Sameroff, Arnold J

    2012-04-01

    Examined a cognitive-behavioral pathway by which depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers increase risk for later child externalizing problem behavior via parents' appraisals of child behavior and physical discipline. Participants were 245 children (118 girls) at risk for school-age conduct problems, and their parents and teachers. Children were approximately 3 years old at Time 1 (T1) and 5 ½ years old at Time 2 (T2). At T1, mothers and fathers reported their depressive symptoms, perceptions of their child's reciprocal affection and responsiveness, frequency of physical punishment, and child externalizing problems. Mothers, fathers, and teachers provided ratings of externalizing behavior at T2. Structural equation modeling revealed that parents' negative attributions mediated positive relations between their depressive symptoms and frequency of physical punishment for both fathers and mothers. More frequent physical punishment, in turn, predicted increased child externalizing behavior at T2. In future research, transactional mechanisms underlying effects of clinical depression on child conduct problems should be explored at multiple stages of development. For parents showing depressive symptoms, restructuring distorted perceptions about their children's behavior may be an important component of intervention programs.

  10. Heimlich maneuver on conscious child (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... most commonly in children less than 3 years old and in senior citizens, but can occur at any age. The Heimlich maneuver has been valuable in saving lives and can be administered by anyone who has learned the technique.

  11. Counseling Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Murray, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 16 articles about counseling males including: (1) gender role conflict; (2) sex-role development; (3) counseling adolescent, adult, and gay males; (4) teenage fathers; (5) female therapists and male clients; (6) career development; (7) hypermasculinity; (8) counseling physically abusive men, uncoupling men; (9) group therapy, men's…

  12. CHILD syndrome in a boy

    SciTech Connect

    Happle, R.; Effendy, I., Megahed, M.; Orlow, S.J.; Kuester, W. |

    1996-03-15

    CHILD syndrome (congential hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) occurs, as a rule, exclusively in girls because of the underlying X-linked gene exerts a lethal effect on male embryos. In this report the characteristic manifestations of CHILD syndrome are described in a 2-year-old boy with a normal chromosome constitution 46,XY. This exceptional case is best explained by the assumption of an early somatic mutation and thus compatible with the concept of X-linked dominant male-lethal inheritance of this trait. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  13. [Anesthetic management of a child with dilated cardiomyopathy associated with congenital fiber-type disproportion].

    PubMed

    Kawaraguchi, Yoshitaka; Taniguchi, Akihiro; Fukumitsu, Kazuo; Kinouchi, Keiko; Miyamoto, Yoshikazu; Hirao, Osamu; Kitamura, Seiji

    2002-04-01

    A 3-year-old girl, who presented with dilated cardiomyopathy in conjunction with congenital fiber-type disproportion, underwent open reduction for congenital dislocation of the hip. Preoperative echocardiography demonstrated left ventricular dilatation with an ejection fraction (EF) of 0.33. Anesthesia was induced with intravenous ketamine and fentanyl, and maintained with fentanyl administered incrementally to a total dose of 10 micrograms.kg-1 and 1-1.5% isoflurane. During operation, we continuously monitored left ventricular wall motion and measured left ventricular diastolic dimension (LVDd), systolic dimension (LVDs), cardiac output (CO), EF, and fractional shortening (FS) with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). At the end of surgery, preload (LVDd) and LV contractility (CO, EF, FS) decreased, but LV wall motion remained almost stable throughout the procedure. In conclusion, TEE was useful for intraoperative management of a child with dilated cardiomyopathy.

  14. Gastric heterotopia of rectum in a child: a mimicker of solitary rectal ulcer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Lone, Khurram; Al-Sofyani, Medhat; El Bagir, Asim

    2014-01-01

    Bleeding per rectum is an uncommon presentation in pediatric patients. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the rectum is a rare cause of rectal bleeding. Here, we report a 3-year-old child with a bleeding rectal ulcer that was initially diagnosed and managed as a solitary rectal ulcer syndrome. After 1 month, the patient persisted to have intermittent rectal bleed and severe anal pain. Repeat colonoscopy showed the worsening of the rectal ulcer in size. Pediatric surgeon excised the ulcer, and histopathological examination revealed a gastric fundic-type mucosa consistent with the diagnosis of gastric heterotopia of the rectum. Over the following 18 months, our patient had experienced no rectal bleeding and remained entirely asymptomatic. In conclusion, heterotopic gastric mucosa of the rectum should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a bleeding rectal ulcer.

  15. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  16. Recruiting and Retaining Male Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Craig J.; Goessling, Deborah Peters

    2005-01-01

    The percentage of male students who complete an undergraduate degree in the field of special education continues to be much lower than that of female graduates. Low status, low salaries, the perception of teaching as women's work, potential complaints of child abuse and sexual harassment, and a lack of male peer groups factor into this low…

  17. Dairy and plant based food intakes are associated with altered faecal microbiota in 2 to 3 year old Australian children

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Brown, P.; Morrison, M.; Krause, L.; Davies, P. S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The first 1000 days (conception to 24 months) is when gut microbiota composition and eating patterns are established, and a critical period influencing lifelong health. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between food intakes and microbiota composition at the end of this period. Diet was quantified for 37 well-nourished Australian children aged between 2 to 3 years by using a food frequency questionnaire and 24 hr recalls. Both dairy and plant-based (fruit, vegetables, soy, pulses and nuts) food intakes were associated with distinct microbiota profiles. Dairy intake was positively associated with the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio, and in particular Erysipelatoclostridium spp., but negatively associated with species richness and diversity. Vegetable intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of the Lachnospira genus, while soy, pulse and nut intake was positively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides xylanisolvens. Fruit intake, especially apples and pears, were negatively associated with the relative abundance of bacteria related to Ruminococcus gnavus. In this cohort of young children dairy and plant based food intakes were found to be associated with altered microbiota composition. Further exploration is needed to elucidate the effect of these dietary and microbial differences on host phenotype. PMID:27694811

  18. A Strategy to Increase the Social Interactions of 3-Year-Old Children with Disabilities in an Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Brown, Tiara S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the play behaviors of children with disabilities (e.g., developmental delays, specific language impairment) who participated in a social communication intervention targeting skills such as initiations, responses, name use, proximity, and turn-taking. Three children who were enrolled in an inclusive classroom met the…

  19. Children's Representation and Imitation of Events: How Goal Organization Influences 3-Year-Old Children's Memory for Action Sequences.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Jeff; Mutschler, Christina; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2016-11-24

    Children's imitation of adults plays a prominent role in human cognitive development. However, few studies have investigated how children represent the complex structure of observed actions which underlies their imitation. We integrate theories of action segmentation, memory, and imitation to investigate whether children's event representation is organized according to veridical serial order or a higher level goal structure. Children were randomly assigned to learn novel event sequences either through interactive hands-on experience (Study 1) or via storybook (Study 2). Results demonstrate that children's representation of observed actions is organized according to higher level goals, even at the cost of representing the veridical temporal ordering of the sequence. We argue that prioritizing goal structure enhances event memory, and that this mental organization is a key mechanism of social-cognitive development in real-world, dynamic environments. It supports cultural learning and imitation in ecologically valid settings when social agents are multitasking and not demonstrating one isolated goal at a time.

  20. The role of utterance length and position in 3-year-olds' production of third person singular -s.

    PubMed

    Mealings, Kiri T; Demuth, Katherine

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE Evidence from children's spontaneous speech suggests that utterance length and utterance position may help explain why children omit grammatical morphemes in some contexts but not others. This study investigated whether increased utterance length (hence, increased grammatical complexity) adversely affects children's third person singular -s production in more controlled experimental conditions. METHOD An elicited imitation task with 12 Australian English-speaking children ages 2;9 (years;months) to 3;2 (Mage = 2;11) was conducted comparing third person singular -s production in 3-word and 5-word utterances, both utterance medially (e.g., He sits back; He sits back and swings) and utterance finally (e.g., There he sits; That's the way he sits) using a within-subjects design. Children were shown pictorial representations of each utterance on a computer and were invited to repeat 16 pseudorandomized prerecorded utterances. Acoustic analysis determined the presence/absence and duration of the third person singular morpheme. RESULTS Third person singular production was significantly lower utterance medially compared to utterance finally for the 5-word utterances and significantly lower utterance medially in the 5-word compared to 3-word utterances. CONCLUSION These results suggest that increased utterance length results in significantly lower third person singular production, but only in the more articulatorily challenging utterance-medial position. Thus, morpheme omission is greatest at the intersection of grammatical and phonological complexity.

  1. The First Year Inventory: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of 12-Month-Old to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Baranek, Grace T.; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory--regulatory and social--communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of…

  2. Analogue Mental Transformations in 3-Year-Olds: Introducing a New Mental Rotation Paradigm Suitable for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krüger, Markus; Kaiser, Marlen; Mahler, Kristin; Bartels, Wolfgang; Krist, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Until now, a successful application of the mental rotation paradigm was restricted to children 5?years or older. By contrast, recent findings suggest that even infants can perform mental rotation. Unlike the methods used in infant studies (looking time), our new research paradigm allows for the measurement and interpretation of reaction times.…

  3. Relationship of feed efficiency of replacement beef heifers to subsequent feed efficiency as 3-year old suckled beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the correlaton between Residual Feed Intake (RFI) measured as post-weaned growing heifers (phase 1) and RFI measured as lactating beef cows (phase 2) in the same cohort. Individual performance and daily DMI were evaluated in 74 yearling heifers, and were subsequently reevaluated upon t...

  4. Effectiveness of Video Self-Modeling to Promote Social Initiations by 3-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buggey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Video Self-Modeling (VSM) provides individuals the opportunity to view themselves performing a task beyond their present functioning level through the careful editing of videos. In this study, a single-case multiple-baseline design was used to determine whether VSM would facilitate social initiations across three young children (M = 3 years 10…

  5. Seeing the World Anew: A Case Study of Ideas, Engagement, and Transfer in a 3 Year Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kevin

    According to the philosophy of John Dewey, the goal of education is to provide students with an increased capacity for having worthwhile experiences. This paper draws on Dewey's writings to develop a theory of worthwhile experience, termed "idea-based experience." A model is proposed of how individuals are apprenticed into having an…

  6. Brief Report: Lack of Processing Bias for the Objects Other People Attend to in 3-Year-Olds with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falck-Ytter, Terje; Thorup, Emilia; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Whether gaze following--a key component of joint attention--is impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently debated. Functional gaze following involves saccading towards the attended rather than unattended targets (accuracy) as well as a subsequent processing bias for attended objects. Using non-invasive eye tracking…

  7. Rational Action Selection in 1 1/2- to 3-Year-Olds Following an Extended Training Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klossek, Ulrike M. H.; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1 1/2 and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen…

  8. Factors Affecting Psychosocial and Motor Development in 3-Year-Old Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown an association between children's development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing…

  9. The Role of Utterance Length and Position in 3-Year-Olds' Production of Third Person Singular -s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mealings, Kiri T.; Demuth, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence from children's spontaneous speech suggests that utterance length and utterance position may help explain why children omit grammatical morphemes in some contexts but not others. This study investigated whether increased utterance length (hence, increased grammatical complexity) adversely affects children's third person singular…

  10. Concurrent Validity of the Cognitive Abilities Scale and Binet IV for Nonvocal 2- and 3-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Richard; Bradley-Johnson, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    Examined concurrent validity of Nonvocal Cognitive Quotient (NVCQ) of Cognitive Abilities Scale (CAS) and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (Binet IV) for two and three year olds. Found adequate concurrent validity for CAS NVCQ and Binet IV Verbal Comprehension at both age levels as well as for Nonverbal Reasoning/Visualization…

  11. Child Abuse in Setswana Folktales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malimabe-Ramagoshi, Refilwe M.; Maree, Jacobus G.; Alexander, Daleen; Molepo, Maisha M.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the possible role played by African folk literature, taking Setswana folktales as a case in point, in justifying and perpetuating the abusive behaviour so often witnessed and decried in postmodern society. We found some evidence that certain folktales may depict real-life child abuse by adults (male and female), and, indeed,…

  12. Disobedient Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... of growing up and testing adult guidelines and expectations. It is one way for children to learn ... At times, it is due to unreasonable parental expectations. Or it might be related to the child's ...

  13. [Child abuse].

    PubMed

    V Essen, H; Schlickewei, W; Dietz, H-G

    2005-02-01

    Child abuse is most often diagnosed by an emergency doctor on call who sometimes "feels" more than knows what he is confronted with. He should nevertheless always take a medical history and make a physical and radiological examination. X-ray imaging and an ophthalmologic retinal examination are the most important diagnostic steps. Typical findings are multiple and/or dorsal rib fractures, complex skull fractures, physeal fractures, all fractures within the first 12 months, multiple fractures in different localisations and stages of healing, all injuries with uncommon distributions, all patterned bruises, immersion burns, intramural hematoma and every unexplained loss of consciousness. The first step towards victim protection is always the removal of the abused child from its caregivers by admitting it to hospital, as 95% of all cases of reported child abuse take place within the child's family.

  14. [Child labour].

    PubMed

    Marsella, L T; Savastano, L; Saracino, V; Del Vecchio, R

    2005-01-01

    The authors emphasize the violation of children's and adolescents' rights as a result of the exploitation of child labour. Besides the legal aspect, they pointed out the medical features related to the delicate growing process of the child in the phases of development and adaptation of the main organs to hard work. Currently the problem is being supervised by those states that recognize the right for minors to be protected against any kind of physical, mental, spiritual and moral risk.

  15. Child versus Parent Reports of Parenting Practices: Implications for the Conceptualization of Child Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Christopher T.; Frick, Paul J.; Grafeman, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined parent and child reports of parenting practices separately to predict child and parent reports of child externalizing and internalizing features, as well as delinquent activity. Participants included 98 children (51 male, 47 female) from a community sample, aged 9-15 at the beginning of the study. Results revealed that child…

  16. Parental Spanking and Subsequent Risk for Child Aggression in Father-Involved Families of Young Children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shawna J; Taylor, Catherine A; Altschul, Inna; Rice, Janet C

    2013-08-01

    This study examined separate and combined maternal and paternal use of spanking with children at age 3 and children's subsequent aggressive behavior at age 5. The sample was derived from a birth cohort study and included families (n = 923) in which both parents lived with the child at age 3. In this sample, 44% of 3-year-olds were spanked 2 times or more in the past month by either parent or both parents. In separate analyses, being spanked more than twice in the prior month at age 3, by either mother or father, was associated with increased child aggression at 5 years. In combined analyses, there was a dose-response association; the greatest risk for child aggression was reported when both parents spanked more than twice in the prior month (adjusted odds ratio: 2.01; [confidence interval: 1.03-3.94]). Violence prevention initiatives should target and engage mothers and fathers in anticipatory guidance efforts aimed at increasing the use of effective and non-aggressive child discipline techniques and reducing the use of spanking.

  17. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not permanent. They can ...

  18. Cueing, demand fading, and positive reinforcement to establish self-feeding and oral consumption in a child with chronic food refusal.

    PubMed

    Luiselli, J K

    2000-07-01

    A 3-year-old child with multiple medical disorders and chronic food refusal was treated successfully using a program that incorporated antecedent control procedures combined with positive reinforcement. The antecedent manipulations included visual cueing of a criterion number of self-feeding responses that were required during meals to receive reinforcement and a gradual increase in the imposed criterion (demand fading) that was based on improved frequency of oral consumption. As evaluated in a changing criterion design, the child learned to feed himself as an outcome of treatment. One year following intervention, he was consuming a variety of foods and had gained weight. Advantages of antecedent control methods for the treatment of chronic food refusal are discussed.

  19. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S

    2002-04-01

    Currently approved male-directed contraceptive methods include condoms and vas occlusion. Vas occlusion is very effective but is intended to be non-reversible. Condoms have a relatively high failure rate, at least partially due to compliance problems and are not accepted by many couples. The only other male-oriented methods in clinical trials utilize the administration of testosterone alone or its combination with another gonadotropin-suppressing agent such as a progestin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. Studies published in the 1990s demonstrated that a testosterone-containing hormonal contraceptive method suppressed spermatogenesis to azoospermia in most men and severe oligozoospermia in the remaining. The contraceptive efficacy after treatment with testosterone alone was comparable to that of female hormonal methods. Having proven that reversible male contraception is a reality, present trials are attempting to identify the best androgen delivery system and the most effective androgen plus progestin preparation. It is likely that the first marketed male hormonal contraceptive method will be a long-acting (injectable or implant) combination of an androgen plus a progestin. Research is continuing to identify other target areas for male contraceptive development, including agents with post-testicular and epididymal sites of action.

  20. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  1. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  2. My Child Is Stealing

    MedlinePlus

    ... a habit with your child or teen, consider speaking with a doctor or therapist to get to ... Can Be Done About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood ...

  3. Office of Child Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Early Head Start-Child Care Partnerships. Review the profiles. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child Care supports low-income working families through child care financial assistance and ...

  4. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...

  5. Improving Educational Outcomes for Minority Males in Our Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Ralph, III; Rizzi, Gleides Lopes; Council, Morris, III

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the academic underachievement and disproportionate special education placement of minority males. Causes and consequences for poor academic performance by minority males are reviewed. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and No Child Left Behind Act are discussed in relation to minority male academic achievement.…

  6. The need for mechanical ventilation in a child exposed to a laundry detergent pod.

    PubMed

    Kamit-Can, Fulya; Alparslan, Caner; Anıl, Ayşe Berna; Anıl, Murat; Zengin, Neslihan; Can, Ender

    2016-01-01

    Laundry detergent pods (LDPs) are a new, concentrated form of detergent covered by a membrane of polyvinyl alcohol or other water-soluble material. In contrast to traditional laundry detergents, the spectrum of responses to exposure to LDPs ranges from mild to life-threatening events. This is a case report of a 3-year-old male who ingested part of an LDP, leading to a depressed level of consciousness, upper airway obstruction, and severe respiratory distress. The patient required intubation and mechanical ventilation for 2 days before being discharged. This rare, severe clinical pattern demonstrates the potential toxicity of these laundry detergents. In the literature, few cases that required intubation and ventilation have been reported. To our knowledge, this is also the first case of LDP exposure reported from Turkey.

  7. [Heterophyiasis and diarrhea after travel: a case report of a child returning from a trip to Egypt].

    PubMed

    Bastien, P; Basset, D; Dedet, J P

    1995-01-01

    The most frequently reported parasite-related diarrheal diseases in tropical travellers are amibiaisis, giardiasis, and certain types of nematoodiasis. Intestinal distomiasis is uncommon because the parasite is strictly limited to certain areas of the world. However observation is possible as is demonstrated by this case report involving a 3-year-old child who presented diarrhea two weeks after returning from a six-week stay Egypt. Heterophyes heterophyes eggs were identified. This small fluke has only exceptionally been reported in France where no indigenous case has ever been described. The present report provides an opportunity to review the clinical symptoms and epidemiology of this rare distomiasis, found only in south-east Asia and Egypt. Comparison of egg morphology allowed diagnosis of hysterophiasis by differentiation from smaller fluke species (Clonorchis and Opistorchis). The authors of this report emphasize that this is a rare but possible cause of diarrhea in travellers.

  8. Project CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Helen F.; And Others

    This document described Project CHILD, a program of educational change and curriculum development for disadvantaged prekindergarten and kindergarten children. The historical part of this report indicates that the project began in 1966 with a small-scale study of teacher behavior and children's responses in a few classrooms in a Harlem school…

  9. Child Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... same sex. Peer approval becomes very important. Your child may try new behaviors to be part of "the group." This can also be the time that parents or teachers recognize learning disabilities or ... can get worse as time goes on, so it is important to get help early.

  10. Cohort Profile Update: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Magnus, Per; Birke, Charlotte; Vejrup, Kristine; Haugan, Anita; Alsaker, Elin; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Handal, Marte; Haugen, Margaretha; Høiseth, Gudrun; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Paltiel, Liv; Schreuder, Patricia; Tambs, Kristian; Vold, Line; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2016-04-01

    This is an update of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) cohort profile which was published in 2006. Pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination were initially invited. The first child was born in October 1999 and the last in July 2009. The participation rate was 41%. The cohort includes more than 114 000 children, 95 000 mothers and 75 000 fathers. About 1900 pairs of twins have been born. There are approximately 16 400 women who participate with more than one pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from both parents during pregnancy and from mothers and children (umbilical cord) after birth. Samples of DNA, RNA, whole blood, plasma and urine are stored in a biobank. During pregnancy, the mother responded to three questionnaires and the father to one. After birth, questionnaires were sent out when the child was 6 months, 18 months and 3 years old. Several sub-projects have selected participants for in-depth clinical assessment and exposure measures. The purpose of this update is to explain and describe new additions to the data collection, including questionnaires at 5, 7, 8 and 13 years as well as linkages to health registries, and to point to some findings and new areas of research. Further information can be found at [www.fhi.no/moba-en]. Researchers interested in collaboration and access to the data can complete an electronic application available on the MoBa website above.

  11. Age-specific survival and reproductive probabilities: evidence for senescence in male fallow deer (Dama dama).

    PubMed Central

    McElligott, Alan G; Altwegg, Res; Hayden, Thomas J

    2002-01-01

    Survival and reproduction are key features in the evolution of life-history strategies. In this study, we use capture-mark-resighting and multi-state models to examine survival senescence and reproductive senescence in six successive cohorts of fallow bucks that were studied for 16 years. We found that the overall age-specific survival probabilities of males were highly variable and the best-fitting model revealed that fallow bucks have four life-history stages: yearling, pre-reproductive, prime-age and senescent. Pre-reproductive males (2 and 3 years old) had the highest survival. Survival declined sharply after the age of 9 years, indicating that senescence had begun. When we considered reproducing and non-reproducing males separately, there was no evidence of senescence in the former, and steadily decreasing survival after the onset of social maturity in the latter. Reproduction probability also declined in older males, and thus we provide very strong evidence of senescence. Reproducers had a greater chance of reproducing again in the following year than non-reproducers. Furthermore, there were differences in the survival probabilities, with reproducers consistently surviving better than non-reproducers. In our study population, reproducers allocate more to the effort to reproduce than non-reproducers. Therefore our results indicate the generally higher phenotypic quality of reproducing males. These results, along with earlier studies on the same population, could indicate positive relationships between fitness correlates. PMID:12061956

  12. The influence of parental education and other socio-economic factors on child car seat use

    PubMed Central

    Korošec, Aleš; Bilban, Marjan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The behaviour of parents in ensuring car passenger safety for their children is associated with socio-economic (SE) status of the family; however, the influence of parental education has rarely been researched and the findings are contradictory. The aim of the study was to clarify whether parental education influences the use of a child car seat during short rides. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in outpatient clinics for children’s healthcare across Slovenia. 904 parents of 3-year-old children participated in the study; the response rate was 95.9%. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A binary multiple logistic regression was applied to assess the association between parental unsafe behaviour as dependent variable, and education and other SE factors as independent variables. Results 14.6% of parents did not use a child car seat during short rides. Families where mother had low or college education had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat than families where mother had a university education. Single-parent families and those who lived in areas with low or medium SE status also had higher odds of the non-use of a child car seat. Conclusions Low educational attainment influences parents’ behaviour regarding the non-use of a child car seat. Low parental education is not the only risk factor since some highly educated parents also have high odds of unsafe behaviour. All parents should therefore be included in individually tailored safety counselling programmes. SE inequalities could be further reduced with provision of free child car seats for eligible families. PMID:28289464

  13. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demery, A

    1987-05-01

    Except for condoms, male contraception is very slightly utilized in France. Several male experimental methods are under study. A synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog has been used successfully in women and offers promise in men of blocking LHRH and thus blocking spermatogenesis. Several nonsteroid substances such an hypertensives and adrenaline would suppress follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone release, but are too toxic for use. The combination of 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 20 mg of methyltestosterone inhibits gonadotropin release and produces azoospermia in men, but at the risk of loss of libido, constant gynecomastia, and testicular atrophy. Several combinations of androgens and progestins have been evaluated. Percutaneous testosterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate appears to be the most effective, with good metabolic tolerance and maintenance of libido and sexual performance. Injections of inhibine, a testicular factor that controls secretion of follicle stimulating hormone by feedback, offer promise of suppressing spermatogenesis without affecting other systems. Numerous substances are known to inhibit spermatogenesis but are to toxic for use or entail an unacceptable loss of libido. Gossypol has been employed as a contraceptive by the Chinese for its action in inhibiting protein synthesis, but it is known to have serious secondary effects. Among male methods currently in use, the condom had a Pearl index of .4-1.6 in the most recent British studies. Coitus interruptus can seriously interfere with sexual pleasure and has a failure rate of 25-30%. Vasectomy is safe, effective, and easy to perform, but is not a reversible method. The combination of 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate in 2 daily doses and 100 mg of testosterone applied in an abdominal spray has given very promising results in 2 small studies in France and merits further development and diffusion.

  14. Study: ED providers could be doing more to prevent injuries, deaths related to improperly restrained child passengers.

    PubMed

    2013-07-01

    Researchers from the University of Michigan's CS Mott Children's Hospital in Ann Arbor, MI, report that both general and pediatric-trained emergency providers are missing opportunities to get critical information about the proper use of child restraints out to the families of children when they are brought to the ED following motor vehicle crashes. In a survey sent to a random sample of 1200 emergency physicians across the country, fewer than one-half of the responding physicians indicated that the parents of a 2-year-old being discharged from their ED following a motor vehicle crash would be supplied with discharge instructions that include advice about the proper use of car seats. The study notes that 20% of 1 to 3-year-olds and about one-half of 4 to 7-year-olds are typically not restrained in the recommended restraint for their age. Child passenger injuries in crashes are the leading cause of death for children who are older than age 3 years in the United States, and they are the second leading cause of death among children aged 1 to 4. Researchers recommend that resources on child passenger safety be highlighted in discharge instructions, and that emergency providers tap into their own experiences when speaking with families about the importance of properly restraining child passengers.

  15. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse Victims According to Perpetrator Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudin, Margaret M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of 87 child abuse victims of lone female perpetrators with 93 victims of lone male perpetrators found that female perpetrators abused children 3.3 years younger than male perpetrators. Both female and male perpetrators abused more girls than boys and did not differ in severity of abuse. (Author/DB)

  16. Male catheterization.

    PubMed

    Hadfield-Law, L

    2001-10-01

    The insertion of catheters into male emergency patients is fairly common practice and is associated with a worryingly high rate of infection. Everyday pressures within the department, along with the added stress of resuscitation can result in inappropriately trained or skilled staff undertaking this procedure. The issue of gender and whether female nurses should catheterize male patients may also affect this vulnerable group of patients. Acquiring the psychomotor skills of inserting a urethral catheter is only one part of preparation for practice. Emergency nurses must know when and when not to resort to catheterization. Choosing the type and size of catheter requires careful judgment. What will you do if insertion proves difficult? Prevention of infection is of paramount importance and there are an increasing number of evidence-based sources of information, which are crucial to formulating procedures and informing every day practice. In the pressured surroundings of A&E departments, it is easy to ignore the vulnerability of men requiring catheterization, both from a physical and psychological point of view. Making the effort to explain the procedure, listen to questions and concerns and record relevant details in the notes, will take only a few extra moments. There is no doubt that urinary catheterization is not without complications. It is associated with significant morbidity and occasionally, mortality.

  17. Unilateral Pulmonary Hypoplasia in a Child.

    PubMed

    Dewan, G

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypoplasia is an uncommon congenital anomaly. A case reported in a six year old male child from Bangladesh who presented with chronic dry cough, episodic fever and occasional haemoptysis causing confusion with tuberculosis. X-ray suggested lung collapse. Final diagnosis reached by combined bronchoscopy, computed tomogram scan of chest and pulmonary angiogram. In a child with complete radiological lung collapse possibility of pulmonary hypoplasia should be kept in mind.

  18. Impact of approaches in improving male partner involvement in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV on the uptake of PMTCT services in sub-Saharan Africa: a protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Takah, Noah F; Kennedy, Iain T R; Johnman, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have reported approaches used in improving the delivery of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services through the involvement of male partners, but evidence from a systematic review is limited. We aim at determining the impact of male partner involvement on PMTCT in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and analysis This will be a systematic review of published literature. Interventional and observational studies on male involvement in PMTCT carried out in sub-Saharan Africa will be included irrespective of the year and language of publication. OVID Medline, Embase, PschINFO, and Cochrane database of controlled trials will be searched. After manual searching of articles, authors shall be contacted for further information. 2 authors (NFT and CJ) will independently screen potential articles for eligibility using defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools, Jadad scale and the STROBE checklist will be used for critical appraisal, and the 2 authors will independently assess the quality of articles. Authors will independently extract data from studies using a pre-established data collection form, and any discrepancies will be sorted by a third author (TRK). Outcomes will be analysed using STATA V.12.0. The random effect model will be used to produce forest plots. The heterogeneity χ2 statistics and I2 will be used to assess for heterogeneity. Publication bias will be assessed using funnel plots. This protocol is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 guidelines. Ethics and dissemination No ethical approval since included studies will be published studies that had already obtained ethical approvals. The findings will guide HIV programmes on the best approaches towards involving male partners in PMTCT with a view to improving PMTCT services in sub-Saharan Africa. PROSPERO registration number 42016032673

  19. Attitudes toward straight, gay male, and transsexual parenting.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Brittany A; Zinner, Leah

    2015-01-01

    This study examined American attitudes toward transsexual and gay male parenting, compared to straight parenting. After reporting levels of transphobia, participants read a vignette regarding a couple seeking child adoption. Individuals high in transphobia perceived nontraditional couples as more emotionally unstable than straight couples and were less willing to grant custody of a child to the nontraditional couples vs. the straight couples. In addition, the transsexual couple faced more prejudice and discrimination than the gay male couple. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Child effortful control as a mediator of parenting practices on externalizing behavior: evidence for a sex-differentiated pathway across the transition from preschool to school.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyein; Olson, Sheryl L; Sameroff, Arnold J; Sexton, Holly R

    2011-01-01

    An explanatory model for children's development of disruptive behavior across the transition from preschool to school was tested. It was hypothesized that child effortful control would mediate the effects of parenting on children's externalizing behavior and that child sex would moderate these relations. Participants were 241 children (123 boys) and their parents and teachers. Three dimensions of parenting, warm responsiveness, induction, and corporal punishment, were assessed via maternal report when children were 3 years old. Child effortful control at age 3 was measured using laboratory tasks and a mother-report questionnaire. Mothers and teachers contributed ratings of child externalizing behavior at age 6. Results showed that the hypothesized model fit the data well and that the pattern of associations between constructs differed for boys and girls. For boys, parental warm responsiveness and corporal punishment had significant indirect effects on children's externalizing behavior three years later, mediated by child effortful control. Such relations were not observed for girls. These findings support a sex-differentiated pathway to externalizing behavior across the transition from preschool to school.

  1. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Child Conflict and Child Depression Through Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Samek, Diana R; Wilson, Sylia; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2016-04-04

    Few studies have investigated potential gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on the prospective associations between parent-child conflict and later depression, a notable gap given substantial gender differences in rates of depression and suggestive evidence of differences in the etiology of depression among females and males. To fill this gap, we evaluated whether the prospective relationship between parent-child conflict and major depressive disorder symptoms varied as a function of parent-child gender composition. A combined twin and adoption sample was used (53% female; 85% European ancestry), containing 1,627 adolescent sibling pairs (789 monozygotic twin pairs, 594 dizygotic/full-biological pairs, 244 genetically unrelated pairs) with assessments at two time points in adolescence (approximate ages 15 and 18). Prospective associations between parent-child conflict and subsequent adolescent depression were explained predominately through common genetic influences for mother-daughter and mother-son pairs but less so for father-daughter and father-son pairs. Results support the notion that processes of gene-environment correlation involved in the prospective associations between parent-child conflict, and later adolescent depression appear to be less relevant to father-child relationships in comparison to mother-child relationships. Notably, results did not show that parent-child conflict was more relevant to the etiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) for girls than boys; gender differences in depression do not appear to be due to differences in the associations between parent-child conflict and child depression.

  2. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aware of America Symposium 2016 Looking for child care? Need resources for your child care business? There are more than 500 local Child Care Resource & Referral (CCR&R) agencies across the United ...

  3. Ileostomy and your child

    MedlinePlus

    ... embarrassment. You may see some changes in your child's behavior at first. Sometimes teenagers have a harder time ... You being open and natural will help your child's behavior stay positive. Help your child learn how to ...

  4. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Wendy D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States—so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children’s wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education—a key indicator of both economic and social resources—than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don’t have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation’s effects are tied to a child’s age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family

  5. Childhood Predictors of Young Adult Male Crime.

    PubMed

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2010-08-01

    The study sample was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (93% Black) growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. The study sample included 733 males who were active by age 26. Adult criminal records were collected through administrative records and supplemented with self-reports. Outcome measures included incarceration, conviction, and felony conviction by age 26. Probit regression was used to analyze the data. Findings indicated that common childhood predictors were AFDC participation by child's age 3, negative home environment, maltreatment experience, trouble making behavior, and number of school moves. Unique predictors were mother unemployed by child's age 3 for incarceration or jail, four or more children in household by child's age 3 for felony conviction, and mother did not complete high school by child's age 3 and social competence for both incarceration or jail and felony conviction. Implications on crime prevention were discussed.

  6. Child maltreatment and neglect, or poverty and ignorance: An old case from the museum.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Slobodan; Živković, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    We present an old case, from the year 1928, of a girl who, as an 18-month-old, had ingested a small amount of lye, and over time oesophageal stenosis had developed. However, her parents had not taken her to hospital until 4 months after the event, after an episode of bloody vomiting. She spent the remaining time of her life in the hospital, where she died as a 3-year-old. Her parents did not visit once during that time. After the autopsy, the opinion about the cause and mechanism of death had five steps: the immediate cause of death was purulent pneumonia, which was a complication of small pox and severe undernourishment; the severe undernourishment was the consequence of a narrowed part of the oesophagus; this developed due to the ingestion of the corrosive agent; and it remained uncertain whether the ingestion of the corrosive agent was accidental or homicidal in manner. The presented case could be an example of possible child maltreatment and neglect in rural parts of society, from almost 90 year ago; at the time these cases were not recognized and treated as they would be today. This is also an example of how the forensic pathologist, via the conclusion about the cause of death, highlighted the parents' carelessness and neglect of the child.

  7. Developmental Factors Related to Deviant Sexual Preferences in Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lussier, Patrick; Beauregard, Eric; Proulx, Jean; Nicole, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between developmental factors and deviant sexual preferences in child molesters. In total, 146 adult males having committed a sexual offence against a child were included in the study. Three types of factors were investigated: negative experiences during childhood, behavior problems during…

  8. A Mothers Journey of Healing: When a Child Changes Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Recounts the personal experience of an art therapist whose child, diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder, underwent a female-to-male gender change. Through art therapy, this mother illustrates the confusion, denial, anger, and acceptance she grappled with during her child's gender dysphoria. (LSR)

  9. Child Sexual Abuse in Shelby County, Tennessee: A New Epidemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muram, David; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated child sexual abuse statistics since introduction of a child sexual abuse program in 1985 in Shelby County, Tennessee. Findings suggest a highly fluctuating validation rate, higher validation rates for girls than boys, possible underreporting of male victims, and 78 percent of the perpetrators being known to their victims.…

  10. 20 CFR 222.17 - “Child in care” when child of the employee is living with the claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222... active military service; (b) The child is 18 years old (16 with respect to male spouse, divorced...

  11. 20 CFR 222.17 - “Child in care” when child of the employee is living with the claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222... active military service; (b) The child is 18 years old (16 with respect to male spouse, divorced...

  12. 20 CFR 222.17 - “Child in care” when child of the employee is living with the claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222... active military service; (b) The child is 18 years old (16 with respect to male spouse, divorced...

  13. 20 CFR 222.17 - “Child in care” when child of the employee is living with the claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222... active military service; (b) The child is 18 years old (16 with respect to male spouse, divorced...

  14. 20 CFR 222.17 - “Child in care” when child of the employee is living with the claimant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222... active military service; (b) The child is 18 years old (16 with respect to male spouse, divorced...

  15. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  16. Mother--Child and Father--Child Emotional Expressiveness in Mexican-American Families and Toddlers' Peer Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Rivera, Mitzie

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation explored the association of mother--child and father--child emotional expressiveness during toddlerhood to children's prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers. Data were collected from 62 Mexican-American families with toddlers (29 females, 33 males) during a home visit. Children's peer interactions were also…

  17. Child involvement in interparental conflict and child adjustment problems: a longitudinal study of violent families.

    PubMed

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents' conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children's involvement in their parents' conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children's involvement in their parents' conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families.

  18. The child dream and the child transference.

    PubMed

    De Francisco, D

    1986-01-01

    This paper explores the symbolic meaning of dreams in which children appear with special attention to the way children in dreams symbolize the self, particularly the dependent and developing self. It is suggested that patients' growth in analysis can be monitored by observing what happens to the children in their dreams. This paper also explores the vicissitudes of the child transference, in which the patient treats the analyst as a child. An analysis is described in which the child dream and the child transference played an important role in elucidating the patient's neurotic behaviors. The author contends that the child dream and the child transference are common and clinically useful phenomena, especially important in the analysis of dependency conflicts. An additional thesis of this paper is that the child transference is most likely to be found in instances where a patient played a parental role with one of their parents during childhood.

  19. Child Support Report, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2001 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of…

  20. Child Support Report, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 1999 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Editorials and information on events and conferences of interest and…

  1. Child Support Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document comprises the 12 issues for 2000 of the "Child Support Report," which explores problems related to child support enforcement, reports on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarizes research related to child support. Featured regularly are editorials and information on events of…

  2. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  3. Child Support Report, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Phil, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the twelve issues of "Child Support Report" newsletter published during 1997. Monthly issues typically explore problems related to child support enforcement, report on federal and state government child support enforcement initiatives, and summarize research related to child support. Editorials and information…

  4. Physiological Studies of the Hyperkinetic Child I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, James H.; And Others

    Reported were results of the first year of a 3-year physiological study of the hyperkinetic child. The male subjects were 6 to 9 years of age, attending school, without sensory defects, 80 or above in Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Full Scale, off medication for 3 months prior to testing, and diagnosed as hyperactive.…

  5. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers.

  6. Demand for Child Healthcare in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olaniyan, Olanrewaju; Sunkanmi, Odubunmi Ayoola

    2012-01-01

    Nigeria with an estimated $350 per capital annually still ranks near the bottom 158 out of 177 countries in the UN Human Capital Development Index in terms of per capita income, with more than half of the population living in poverty. Over the past decade U5MR is estimated to be 201 deaths/1000 lives births, the high rates of child mortality especially the 0-5 years shows the total breakdown of social and economic well-being of the country. This paper examined child health care demand in Nigeria using the Nested Multinomial Logit Model estimation technique. The study used parents’ education as a proxy for child education, while the decision to make a choice of the health facilities was also assumed to be that of the House-Hold head. The study found out that female child has a higher probability of seeking health care facility ahead of their male counterpart. Also, the household head educational level was found to be a determinant of health care seeking behavior of the child. Empirical evidence also revealed that that the probability of seeking healthcare increases with household size and that demand for child health care in Nigeria is non linear in nature. Based on this, the paper recommends the need to show greater commitment to child health care and that government should reduce the problems militating against effective performance of the health sector such as, inefficiency, wasteful use of resources, low quality of service and poor enabling environment. PMID:23121749

  7. Parental Incarceration and Child Mortality in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Lee, Hedwig; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We used Danish registry data to examine the association between parental incarceration and child mortality risk. Methods. We used a sample of all Danish children born in 1991 linked with parental information. We conducted discrete-time survival analysis separately for boys (n = 30 146) and girls (n = 28 702) to estimate the association of paternal and maternal incarceration with child mortality, controlling for parental sociodemographic characteristics. We followed the children until age 20 years or death, whichever came first. Results. Results indicated a positive association between paternal and maternal imprisonment and male child mortality. Paternal imprisonment was associated with lower child mortality risks for girls. The relationship between maternal imprisonment and female child mortality changed directions depending on the model, suggesting no clear association. Conclusions. These results indicate that the incarceration of a parent may influence child mortality but that it is important to consider the gender of both the child and the incarcerated parent. PMID:24432916

  8. Burden attributable to child maltreatment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Scott, James G; Ferrari, Alize J; Mills, Ryan; Dunne, Michael P; Erskine, Holly E; Devries, Karen M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Vos, Theo; Whiteford, Harvey A; McCarthy, Molly; Norman, Rosana E

    2015-10-01

    Child maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, with four main types (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect) highly interrelated. All types of maltreatment have been linked to adverse health consequences and exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment increases risk. In Australia to date, only burden attributable to childhood sexual abuse has been estimated. This study synthesized the national evidence and quantified the burden attributable to the four main types of child maltreatment. Meta-analyses, based on quality-effects models, generated pooled prevalence estimates for each maltreatment type. Exposure to child maltreatment was examined as a risk factor for depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made for co-occurrence of multiple forms of child maltreatment. Overall, an estimated 23.5% of self-harm, 20.9% of anxiety disorders and 15.7% of depressive disorders burden in males; and 33.0% of self-harm, 30.6% of anxiety disorders and 22.8% of depressive disorders burden in females was attributable to child maltreatment. Child maltreatment was estimated to cause 1.4% (95% uncertainty interval 0.4-2.3%) of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in males, and 2.4% (0.7-4.1%) of all DALYs in females in Australia in 2010. Child maltreatment contributes to a substantial proportion of burden from depressive and anxiety disorders and intentional self-harm in Australia. This study demonstrates the importance of including all forms of child maltreatment as risk factors in future burden of disease studies.

  9. Child pornography offenses are a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Cantor, James M; Blanchard, Ray

    2006-08-01

    This study investigated whether being charged with a child pornography offense is a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia, as represented by an index of phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to children. The sample of 685 male patients was referred between 1995 and 2004 for a sexological assessment of their sexual interests and behavior. As a group, child pornography offenders showed greater sexual arousal to children than to adults and differed from groups of sex offenders against children, sex offenders against adults, and general sexology patients. The results suggest child pornography offending is a stronger diagnostic indicator of pedophilia than is sexually offending against child victims. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Male to male transmission of supernumerary nipples.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, M; Uchida, M; Uchino, S; Fujisawa, R; Kamei, T; Itoh, T

    1997-03-17

    We report on a father and his son with supernumerary nipples. No male-to-male transmission has previously been described with this trait. This observation confirms that this trait is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion.

  11. Plasma steroid concentrations and male phallus size in juvenile alligators from seven Florida lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillette, L.J.; Woodward, A.R.; Crain, D.A.; Pickford, D.B.; Rooney, A.A.; Percival, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Neonatal and juvenile alligators from contaminated Lake Apopka in central Florida exhibit abnormal plasma sex steroid concentrations as well as morphological abnormalities of the gonad and phallus. This study addresses whether similar abnormalities occur in juvenile alligators inhabiting six other lakes in Florida. For analysis, animals were partitioned into two subsets, animals 40-79 cm total length (1-3 years old) and juveniles 80-130 cm total length (3-7 years old). Plasma testosterone (T) concentrations were lower in small males from lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Jessup than from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Similar differences were observed in the larger juveniles, with males from lakes Jessup, Apopka, and Okeechobee having lower plasma T concentrations than Lake Woodruff males. Plasma estradiol-17?? (E2) concentrations were significantly elevated in larger juvenile males from Lake Apopka compared to Lake Woodruff NWR. When compared to small juvenile females from Lake Woodruff NWR, females from lakes Griffin, Apopka, Orange, and Okeechobee had elevated plasma E2 concentrations. Phallus size was significantly smaller in males from lakes Griffin and Apopka when compared to males from Lake Woodruff NWR. An association existed between body size and phallus size on all lakes except Lake Apopka and between phallus size and plasma T concentration on all lakes except lakes Apopka and Orange. Multiple regression analysis, with body size and plasma T concentration as independent covariables, explained the majority of the variation in phallus size on all lakes. These data suggest that the differences in sex steroids and phallus size observed in alligators from Lake Apopka are not limited to that lake, nor to one with a history of a major pesticide spill. Further work examining the relationship of sex steroids and phallus size with specific biotic and abiotic factors, such as antiandrogenic or estrogenic contaminants, is needed.

  12. Maternal Use of Physical Punishment in Response to Child Misbehavior: Implications for Child Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ateah, C.A.; Durrant, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The objective was to examine the roles of cognition and affect in maternal use of physical punishment. Method:: Through a review of the literature, distal and proximal predictors (cognitive and affective) of physical punishment use were identified. One hundred and ten mothers of 3-year-old children were interviewed regarding two…

  13. A child with Roberts syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Rabia; Waqar, Sahar; Ahmad, Tahir Masood; Irfan Waheed, Khawaja Ahmad; Sultan, Tipu; Qureshi, Ahmad Usaid

    2011-07-01

    Roberts syndrome is a genetically determined rare birth defect causing, skeletal deformities, particularly symmetrical limb reduction and craniofacial anomalies. For any child with limb and craniofacial bony malformations, this syndrome should be considered in the differentials. Although this syndrome represents only a small proportion of the total number of individuals with limb deficiency, it is important to be identified in order to give accurate genetic counselling including recurrence risk in siblings and possible prenatal diagnosis. This is the case report of a 22 days old male infant who presented with defective development of all four extremities and craniofacial abnormalities. The overall clinical and radiological features were suggestive of Roberts syndrome.

  14. Income and Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    We examine how income is associated with the home environments and the cognitive and behavioral development of pre-school children, using data from a birth cohort study of children born at the end of the 20th century. Lower-income 3-year-old children are more likely than wealthier children to live in homes with inadequate physical environments and to have mothers who are more likely to be stressed, depressed, harsh and unresponsive. Additionally, low income children have lower PPVT scores, more mother-reported aggressive, withdrawn, and anxious behavior problems, and also more interviewer-reported problems with behavior, than more affluent children. A key policy question is whether increases in the incomes of poor families would result in improvements in children’s outcomes, at least in part through improvements in the home environment. This question is difficult to answer using observational data. However, we argue that, even under the most generous interpretation of the associations we estimate, large income transfer programs would have relatively small effects on children’s cognitive and behavioral outcomes. PMID:20368763

  15. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity restrictions will depend on: The type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) Your child's age The reason for the operation Ask your doctor about specific activity instructions and ... other pain medicines to use at home if your child needs them.

  16. Cholesterol and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  17. FPG Child Development Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 'alternative facts,' science can reliably inform policy. Child development research advises that a sense of security provided ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ...

  18. Your Child's Growth

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... There's a Problem Some parents worry about their child's growth and development. So it can be reassuring to know that ...

  19. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn ... changed; or goes to sleep ) Movement and Physical Development moves in response to sights and sounds rooting ...

  20. Fussy or irritable child

    MedlinePlus

    ... home Irregular day-to-day schedule Using your parenting skills, you should be able to calm your child and make things better. Getting your child on a regular eating, sleeping, and daily schedule can also help.

  1. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...

  2. Child Dental Health

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  3. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  4. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  5. Child Behavior Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a death in the family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. ... The behavior is also not appropriate for the child's age. Warning signs can include Harming or threatening ...

  6. Child poverty and changes in child poverty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Corak, Miles

    2008-08-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Child poverty rates fell noticeably in only three countries and rose in three others. In no country were demographic factors a force for higher child poverty rates, but these factors were also limited in their ability to cushion children from adverse shocks originating in the labor market or the government sector. Increases in the labor market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers were a force for higher rates. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers intended to increase labor supply may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

  7. Child-to-Child programme in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasim, M S; Abraham, S

    1982-09-01

    Even though Malaysia is a relatively prosperous country amongst the developing nations, it is still be set by problems of a rapidly increasing population. The economic cake is also unevenly distributed and there are pockets of poverty in the slums surrounding the towns as well as in the rural areas. Added to that is the problem of ignorance and superstition especially amongst its adult population. It is due to these problems that the Child-to-Child programme has found special application in Malaysia. The Child-to-Child has been introduced through either the government agencies or the voluntary organizations. Through the Ministry of Education, the concept has found its ways through the schools and the state department of education. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in the media. The voluntary organizations have also introduced the concept of Child-to-Child in their projects. The Sang Kancil project has to some extent used the idea in the running of its activities. The Health and Nutrition Education House have found that by applying the concept and using older children to help in running its activities, its over all objective which is the improvement of the health of the children in the slums could be reached more easily.

  8. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  9. Child Study and Observation: Child Development 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna

    This syllabus outlines the structure, objectives, and lesson plans for Child Development 101, a twelve-week course on child study and observation offered at Chaffey Community College. A statement of the educational philosophy upon which the course was developed precedes a list of course objectives, competencies, and the grading system. The bulk of…

  10. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  11. The Limping Child

    PubMed Central

    Tredwell, Stephen J.

    1979-01-01

    The challenge of the limping child demands that the primary care physician identify those problems which are urgent, when neglect can harm the child, and to provide appropriate supportive care for those which are not. The approach to the limping child should consider the child's age, whether or not the limp is painful, and certain key physical findings. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7aFig. 7b PMID:21297725

  12. Child Care Services Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County School Board, Jacksonville, FL.

    A companion document to the curriculum guide for a secondary level child care services curriculum, this handbook contains a variety of administrative and program resources for the teacher: The vocational curriculum outline for child care services; a calendar of suggested public relations activities; procedures for building child care services…

  13. Child Care Design Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olds, Anita Rui

    This book provides architects, interior designers, developers, and child-care professionals with detailed information on the planning and design of child care centers. Part 1 examines the current state of child care in the United States and offers an overall philosophical concert--the spirit of place--as the framework for all center design. Part 2…

  14. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  15. Your Child's Development: Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Development: Newborn Print A A A en español El ... the sole of the foot Social and Emotional Development soothed by a parent's ... When to Talk to Your Doctor Every child develops at his or her own pace, but ...

  16. Your Child's Checkups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3- ... 2-Year-Old Your Child's Checkups KidsHealth > ... en español Las revisiones médicas de su hijo From your child's birth to young adulthood, you'll be visiting the ...

  17. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  18. Child Care Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Marilyn, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This document is comprised of six issues of the Child Care Bulletin, a bimonthly publication of the National Child Care Information Center. The January-February issue focuses on involving communities in child care planning. Topics discussed in this issue include: community mobilization strategies, assessing needs and establishing goals, and…

  19. Child Labour and Child Schooling in Rural Ethiopia: Nature and Trade-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou

    2012-01-01

    We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with…

  20. Maternal child-centered attributions and harsh discipline: the moderating role of maternal working memory across socioeconomic contexts.

    PubMed

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Suor, Jennifer H; Skibo, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive models of parenting give emphasis to the central role that parental cognitions may play in parental socialization goals. In particular, dual process models suggest that parental attribution styles affect the way parents interpret caregiving situations and enact behaviors, particularly within the realm of discipline. Although research has documented the negative behavioral repercussions of dysfunctional child-centered responsibility biases, there is heterogeneity in the level of these associations. Research has also demonstrated that parental working memory capacity may serve as an individual difference factor in influencing caregiving behaviors. Thus, our first aim was to document how maternal working memory capacity may moderate the association between mother's dysfunctional child-oriented attributions and use of harsh discipline. In addition, from an ecological perspective, a second aim was to examine how socioeconomic risk may further potentiate the impact of maternal working memory. To accomplish these aims, a socioeconomically diverse sample of 185 mothers and their 3-year old children were recruited to participate in a laboratory-based research assessment. Findings revealed that lower maternal working memory capacity may operate as a risk factor for attributional biases and harsh discipline, and higher working memory may serve as a protective factor in this relationship. Socioeconomic risk further moderated these findings. Results suggest that the moderating role of working memory may be particularly pronounced under conditions of socioeconomic risk. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. National study of an early parenting intervention: implementation differences on parent and child outcomes: parenting program implementation.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Jan M; Berthelsen, Donna; Williams, Kate E; Abad, Vicky

    2010-12-01

    Sing & Grow is a 10-week group music therapy intervention to promote positive parenting and child development for marginalized parents of birth to 3-year-old children. This paper examined whether changes from pre to post intervention varied according to implementation site, when the intervention was taken to scale nationally. Outcomes for 850 participants were compared for the site where the program was first established against three new locations; one site where implementation processes were more favorable relative to the other two sites. Overall, the findings provided only limited support for differential outcomes by site of implementation. Participants showed significant improvements in parent-reported parenting and child outcomes from pre to post that were similar across all sites. For clinician-reported outcomes, improvements over time were generally greater in the original site and the well-supported site compared to the sites where there were more implementation difficulties. These differences were partly accounted for by differences in the characteristics of participants receiving programs in different sites and differences in the clinicians' ratings of program quality and the levels of support and training provided. However, confounding by the source of measurement requires cautious interpretation of clinician data. This study further highlights the potential for music therapy as an early parenting intervention, and the need for more rigorous evaluations in this field.

  2. Labor migration and child mortality in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Yabiku, Scott T.; Agadjanian, Victor; Cau, Boaventura

    2013-01-01

    Male labor migration is widespread in many parts of the world, yet its consequences for child outcomes and especially childhood mortality remain unclear. Male labor migration could bring benefits, in the form of remittances, to the families that remain behind and thus help child survival. Alternatively, the absence of a male adult could imperil the household's well-being and its ability to care for its members, increasing child mortality risks. In this analysis, we use longitudinal survey data from Mozambique collected in 2006 and 2009 to examine the association between male labor migration and under-five mortality in families that remain behind. Using a simple migrant/non-migrant dichotomy, we find no difference in mortality rates across migrant and non-migrant men's children. When we separated successful from unsuccessful migration based on the wife's perception, however, stark contrasts emerge: children of successful migrants have the lowest mortality, followed by children of non-migrant men, followed by the children of unsuccessful migrants. Our results illustrate the need to account for the diversity of men's labor migration experience in examining the effects of migration on left-behind households. PMID:23121856

  3. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System Print A ... understand your son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  4. Severe holocord syrinx in a child with megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Segal, Devorah; Heary, Robert F; Sabharwal, Sanjeev; Barry, Maureen T; Ming, Xue

    2016-07-01

    The authors present the case of a child with megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome who developed a rapidly progressive holocord syringomyelia that was treated surgically. A 3-year-old boy with megalencephaly-capillary malformation-polymicrogyria (MCAP) syndrome presented with several months of right leg weakness, worsening scoliosis, and increased seizures. An MRI study of the brain demonstrated a Chiari I malformation and massively dilated syringomyelia extending from C-2 to the conus medullaris. The patient underwent an urgent suboccipital craniectomy with C1-3 laminectomies to relieve the CSF outflow obstruction with significant clinical improvement. Surgery was complicated by bleeding from intracranial vascular malformations. This report describes a very rapidly developing, massive holocord syringomyelia related to CSF obstruction due to an unusual congenital brain malformation and associated vascular overgrowth at the site. Serial, premorbid MRI studies demonstrated the very rapid progression from no Chiari malformation, to progressively greater cerebellar tonsillar herniation, to holocord syrinx. This complication has never been reported in MCAP syndrome and should be considered in any affected MCAP patient with a progressive neurological decline, even if previous spine imaging findings were normal. Surgical complications due to hemorrhage also need to be considered in this vascular brain malformation.

  5. Parents' child-directed communication and child language development: a longitudinal study with Italian toddlers.

    PubMed

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-09-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1 ; 3 and 1 ; 9. The characteristics of the maternal and paternal child-directed language (characteristics of communicative functions and lexicon as reported in psycholinguistic norms for Italian language) were coded during free play. Child language development was assessed during free play and at ages 2 ; 6 and 3 ; 0 using the Italian version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (2 ; 6) and the revised Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) (3 ; 0). Data analysis indicated differences between mothers and fathers in the quantitative characteristics of communicative functions and language, such as the mean length of utterances (MLU), and the number of tokens and types. Mothers also produced the more frequent nouns in the child lexicon. There emerged a relation between the characteristics of parental child-directed language and child language development.

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Dosing Schedules for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among College Age Males

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng; Zimmerman, Richard K; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Raviotta, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, for protection against sexually transmitted HPV infection, is licensed for females and males 9–26 years on a 3-dose schedule (0, 2, and 6 months; Standard schedule). Vaccine uptake has been low and catch-up vaccination of older adolescents using an alternate dosing schedule may increase coverage. This study tested the non-inferiority of the immunogenicity of an alternate dosing schedule (0, 2, 12 months) among college age males. Methods 220 18–25 year old males were randomly assigned to Standard or Alternate schedules. Blood samples were drawn immediately before Dose 1 and 2–6 weeks after Dose 3 and analyzed for antibody titers using a Luminex immunoassay. A value <1.5 for the upper 95% confidence interval (CI) bound of the Standard to Alternate schedule geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio was deemed non-inferior. Results Participants averaged 21.3 years old; 19.1% were non-white; completion rate was 93%. The anti-HPV titers for the Alternate schedule group were non-inferior to those of Standard schedule group for all four HPV vaccine virus types. Our results also demonstrated superiority of the Alternate schedule group for all four HPV vaccine virus types. Conclusion A delayed third dose at 12 months is immunologically non-inferior and superior for four HPV virus types. Using an alternate dosing schedule offers more flexibility to receive the 3-dose HPV vaccine and may result in higher vaccination rates among college-age males. PMID:24342252

  7. Microflora analysis of a child with severe combined immune deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Kropp, K. D.; Molina, T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a microflora analysis of a 5-year-old male child with severe combined immune deficiency who was delivered by Caesarean section and continuously maintained in an isolator. Despite precautions, it was found that the child had come in contact with at least 54 different microbial contaminants. While his skin autoflora was similar to that of a reference group of healthy male adults in numbers of different species and the number of viable cells present per square centimeter of surface area, the subject's autoflora differed from the reference group in that significantly fewer anaerobic species were recovered from the patient's mouth and feces. It is suggested that the child's remaining disease free shows that the reported bacteria are noninvasive or that the unaffected components of the child's immune defense mechanisms are important.

  8. Fatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in a child with varicella and necrotizing fasciitis of the face.

    PubMed

    Minodier, Philippe; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Vialet, Renaud; Imbert, Guenièvre; Bidet, Philippe

    2008-08-01

    The report described here presents a fatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to a necrotizing fasciitis of the face in a 3-year-old girl with varicella. Pathogenesis and treatment of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are discussed below.

  9. [A case of immunological complex-related disease in a child with type B viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Mrozińska, M

    1996-04-01

    We present a case of a 3-year-old boy with type B viral hepatitis. Because of an abnormal immunological response to HBV, we observed Gianotti-Crosti syndrome and nephrotic syndrome as a result of glomerulonephritis.

  10. Teacher-Child Relationships: Contribution of Teacher and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ji Young; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates potential predictors of teacher-child relationships (i.e., closeness and conflict) focusing on child gender, teacher-child ethnicity match, and teacher education. Additionally, the study explores the possible moderation effect of teacher education on the associations between teacher-child relationships and child gender or…

  11. Child sexual abuse: who is to blame?

    PubMed

    Broussard, S D; Wagner, W G

    1988-01-01

    This study utilized written descriptions of sexual activity between an adult and a child to examine the impact of victim sex, perpetrator sex, respondent sex, and victim response (i.e., encouraging, passive, resisting) on the attribution of responsibility to the child and the adult perpetrator. A total of 360 college undergraduates (male = 180; female = 180) participated in the study. A main effect for victim response indicated that respondents attributed significantly more responsibility to the child and significantly less responsibility to the perpetrator when the child was described as encouraging the encounter. Children who remained passive were also held significantly more responsible than those who resisted, but there was not a significant difference between resisting and passive conditions in ratings of responsibility to the perpetrator. Several significant interactions affected ratings of responsibility to the perpetrator. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of the need for educational programs to raise public awareness about the helplessness felt by sexual abuse victims and the needs of male victims in particular.

  12. Homosexual behavior and child molestation: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Newton, D E

    1978-01-01

    Male homosexuality and child molestation tend to be associated with each other in the minds of a large percentage of the general public. Designing a research study to test this hypothesis presents a number of methodological problems which are not easily resolved. Existing studies which contain data on this general question provide no reason to believe that anything other than a random connection exists between homosexual behavior and child molestation.

  13. Multiple Granuloma Annulare in a 2-year-old Child

    PubMed Central

    Siddalingappa, Karjigi; Murthy, Sambasiviah Chidambara; Herakal, Kallappa; Kusuma, Marganahalli Ramachandra

    2015-01-01

    Granuloma annulare is a benign, self-limiting, inflammatory and granulomatous disease of unknown etiology occurring in both adults and children. An 18-month-old male child had multiple progressive annular plaques over the lower extremities. Clinical and histopathological features were consistent with granuloma annulare. Localized granuloma annulare is the most common form in children. We report a young child with multiple, progressive granuloma annulare over the lower extremities. PMID:26677301

  14. Child Care and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, David B.; And Others

    The booklet examines child care as a major resource for the prevention of child abuse, and is intended to bring child care and child abuse workers together. An introductory section on child abuse is followed by an update on the family, including historical perspectives and a case study illustrating cooperation of parents and day care staff. A…

  15. Beginning Child Care Fact Sheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Pat

    These six fact sheets from Child Care Aware are designed to help parents ease their children's transition to child care. The first fact sheet, "Before Your Child's First Day," discusses tips such as: (1) "prepare your child"; (2) read and look at picture books about child care; and (3) "prepare yourself." The second fact sheet, "First Day Tips,"…

  16. Early Mother-Child Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Agostino, Micheline

    1986-01-01

    This journal issue presents an overview of mother-child interaction during the first year of the child's life. Contents of the first section, which concern the development of the mother-child relationship, focus on the concept of the maternal instinct, mother and child during intrauterine life, birth of the child, the postnatal period (including…

  17. Parent Praise to 1- to 3-Year-Olds Predicts Children's Motivational Frameworks 5 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Gripshover, Sarah J.; Romero, Carissa; Dweck, Carol S.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    In laboratory studies, praising children's effort encourages them to adopt incremental motivational frameworks--they believe ability is malleable, attribute success to hard work, enjoy challenges, and generate strategies for improvement. In contrast, praising children's inherent abilities encourages them to adopt fixed-ability…

  18. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows.

    PubMed

    Black, T E; Bischoff, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Marquezini, G H L; Dilorenzo, N; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Maddock, T D; Lamb, G C

    2013-05-01

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-yr-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered facility and fed similar forage-based diets, and individual feed intakes, BW, BCS, chute scores (CS), exit velocities (EV), and pen scores (PS) were collected throughout the 70-d feeding trials. In Phase 2, cows were milked on trial d 14 (lactation d 28 ± 3.5) and trial d 70 (lactation d 84 ± 3.5) to determine energy-corrected milk (ECM) production. Ultrasonic backfat thickness (BF), and ribeye area (REA) were evaluated on d 0 and 70 of the trial in Phase 2. Heifers were ranked by RFI and placed into Low (<0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 27), Medium (within ± 0.5 SD; n = 23), and High (>0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 24) RFI groups. Body weight, BCS, and ADG were similar among all RFI groups; however, daily DMI differed for all groups (P < 0.01) and was greater (10.76 ± 0.24 kg/d) for High, intermediate (9.88 ± 0.25 kg/d) for Medium, and less (8.52 ± 0.23 kg/d) for Low RFI heifers. When cow performance was analyzed based on RFI rank as heifers, BW, BCS, ADG, RFI, d 14 and d 70 ECM, BF, and REA were similar among RFI groups; however, cows that were most efficient as heifers (Low) had decreased (P < 0.05) daily DMI values (10.30 ± 0.41 kg/d) compared with cows that ranked Medium (11.60 ± 0.44 kg/d) or High (11.50 ± 0.43 kg/d) as heifers. The Pearson rank correlation between Phase 1 and 2 RFI was r = 0.13 (P = 0.30), and Pearson rank correlations showed no relationship (P > 0.1) between RFI and temperament. Phase 1 CS was negatively associated with ADG in Phase 1 (r = -0.28; P = 0.02) and 2 (r = -0.32; P = 0.01), and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.24; P = 0.04) and 70 (r = 0.25; P = 0.03) ECM. Phase 2 CS was negatively associated with Phase 2 ADG (r = -0.29; P = 0.01) and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.46; P = 0.001) and 70 (r = 0.33; P = 0.004) ECM. Phase 2 PS also tended to be negatively associated with DMI in Phase 1 (r = -0.20; P = 0.096) and 2 (r = -0.20; P = 0.08). In this study, heifers that were most feed efficient subsequently consumed less feed as lactating cows and maintained similar performance. Feed efficiency was not associated with differences in temperament; however, more excitable females had poorer BW gains and tended to have reduced feed intakes but produced more ECM.

  19. Spatial distribution of leaf morphological and physiological characteristics in relation to local radiation regime within the canopies of 3-year-old Populus clones in coppice culture.

    PubMed

    Casella, E; Ceulemans, R

    2002-12-01

    Spatial distributions of leaf characteristics relevant to photosynthesis were compared within high-density coppice canopies of Populus spp. of contrasting genetic origin. We studied three clones representative of the range in growth potential, leaf morphology, coppice and canopy structure: Clone Hoogvorst (Hoo) (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray x Populus deltoides Bartr. & Marsh), Clone Fritzi Pauley (Fri) (Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray) and Clone Wolterson (Wol) (Populus nigra L.). Leaf area index ranged from 2.7 (Fri and Wol) to 3.8 (Hoo). The clones exhibited large vertical variation in leaf area density (0.02-1.42 m2 m-3). Leaf dry mass per unit leaf area (DM(A)) increased with increasing light in Clones Hoo and Fri, from about 56 g m-2 at the bottom of the canopy to 162 g m-2 at the top. In Clone Wol, DM(A) varied only from 65 to 100 g m-2, with no consistent relationship with respect to light. Conversely, nitrogen concentration on a mass basis was nearly constant (around 1.3-2.1%) within the canopies of Clones Hoo and Fri, but increased strongly with light in Clone Wol, from 1.4% at the bottom of the canopy to 4.1% at the top. As a result, nitrogen per unit leaf area (N(A)) increased with light in the canopies of all clones, from 0.9 g m-2 at the bottom to 2.9 g m-2 at the top. Although a single linear relationship described the dependence of maximum carboxylation rate (17-93 micromol CO2 m-2 s-1) or electron transport capacity (45-186 micromol electrons m-2 s-1) on N(A), for all clones, Clone Wol differed from Clones Hoo and Fri by exhibiting a higher dark respiration rate at low N(A) (1.8 versus 0.8 micromol CO2 m-2 s-1).

  20. The Finnish Family Competence Study: the relationship between caries, dental health habits and general health in 3-year-old Finnish children.

    PubMed

    Paunio, P; Rautava, P; Helenius, H; Alanen, P; Sillanpää, M

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how dental health related habits, infectious diseases and long-term illness are associated with dental health at the age of 3 in first-born children resident in a Finnish province. The study was designed as a survey using stratified randomised cluster sampling, confidential questionnaires and clinical dental examinations. The results were analysed using polytomous logistic models. In the stepwise analysis the only statistically significant explanatory factors were the use of juice at night and dental cleanliness. Antibiotic treatment or long-term illness was not significantly associated with dental health.

  1. Can Severely Language Delayed 3-Year-Olds Be Identified at 18 Months? Evaluation of a Screening Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Monica; Berglund, Eva; Eriksson, Marten

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of a screening instrument (the Swedish Communication Screening at 18 months of age; SCS18), derived from the Swedish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory, in identification of 18-month-old children who will be severely language disabled by 3 years of age, the authors (a) analyzed which SCS18's…

  2. Temporal Regulation of Behavior with an External Clock in 3-Year-Old Children: Differences between Waiting and Response Duration Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droit, Sylvie

    1994-01-01

    Investigated the role of an external clock in two temporal conditioning situations involving three-year olds. One situation required the spacing of responses to visual stimuli; the other, producing a response for a set duration. Found that the presence of the clock increased the efficiency of performance. (SW)

  3. Changes in cortisol release and heart rate and heart rate variability during the initial training of 3-year-old sport horses.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Alice; Aurich, Jörg; Möstl, Erich; Müller, Jürgen; Aurich, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Based on cortisol release, a variety of situations to which domestic horses are exposed have been classified as stressors but studies on the stress during equestrian training are limited. In the present study, Warmblood stallions (n=9) and mares (n=7) were followed through a 9 respective 12-week initial training program in order to determine potentially stressful training steps. Salivary cortisol concentrations, beat-to-beat (RR) interval and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined. The HRV variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR), RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR differences) and the geometric means standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2) were calculated. Nearly each training unit was associated with an increase in salivary cortisol concentrations (p<0.01). Cortisol release varied between training units and occasionally was more pronounced in mares than in stallions (p<0.05). The RR interval decreased slightly in response to lunging before mounting of the rider. A pronounced decrease occurred when the rider was mounting, but before the horse showed physical activity (p<0.001). The HRV variables SDRR, RMSSD and SD1 decreased in response to training and lowest values were reached during mounting of a rider (p<0.001). Thereafter RR interval and HRV variables increased again. In contrast, SD2 increased with the beginning of lunging (p<0.05) and no changes in response to mounting were detectable. In conclusion, initial training is a stressor for horses. The most pronounced reaction occurred in response to mounting by a rider, a situation resembling a potentially lethal threat under natural conditions.

  4. Voice Onset Time of Voiceless Bilabial and Velar Stops in 3-Year-Old Bilingual Children and Their Age-Matched Monolingual Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Bunta, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates aspects of voice onset time (VOT) of voiceless bilabial and velar stops in monolingual and bilingual children. VOT poses a special challenge for bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking children because although this VOT distinction exists in both languages, the values differ for the same contrast across Spanish and English.…

  5. The relationship between bifidobacteria and allergic asthma and/or allergic dermatitis: a prospective study of 0-3 years-old children in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akay, Hatice Kubra; Bahar Tokman, Hrisi; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Hatipoglu, Huseyin; Siraneci, Rengin; Demirci, Mehmet; Borsa, Baris Ata; Yuksel, Pelin; Karakullukcu, Asiye; Kangaba, Achille Aime; Sirekbasan, Serhat; Aka, Sibel; Mamal Torun, Muzeyyen; Kocazeybek, Bekir S

    2014-08-01

    Bifidobacteria are beneficial bacteria for humans. These bacteria are particularly effective at protecting against infectious diseases and modulating the immune response. It was shown that in newborns, the fecal distribution of the colonizing Bifidobacterium species influences the prevalence of allergic diseases. This study aimed to compare the faecal Bifidobacterium species of allergic children to those of healthy children to detect species level differences in faecal distribution. Stool samples were obtained from 99 children between 0 and 3 years of age whose clinical symptoms and laboratory reports were compatible with atopic dermatitis and allergic asthma. Samples were also obtained from 102 healthy children who were similar to the case group with respect to age and sex. Bifidobacteria were isolated by culture and identified at the genus level by API 20 A. In addition, 7 unique species-specific primers were used for the molecular characterization of bifidobacteria. The McNemar test was used for statistical analyses, and p < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Bifidobacterium longum was detected in 11 (11.1%) of the allergic children and in 31 (30.3%) of the healthy children. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in the prevalence of B. longum between these two groups (X(2): 11.2, p < 0.001). However, no significant differences in the prevalence of other Bifidobacterium species were found between faecal samples from healthy and allergic children. (p > 0.05). The significant difference in the isolation of B. longum from our study groups suggests that this species favors the host by preventing the development of asthma and allergic dermatitis. Based on these results, we propose that the production of probiotics in accordance with country-specific Bifidobacterium species densities would improve public health. Thus, country-specific prospective case-control studies that collect broad data sets are needed.

  6. A non-humanoid robot in the "uncanny valley": experimental analysis of the reaction to behavioral contingency in 2-3 year old children.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Tanaka, Saori; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Kozima, Hideki; Hashiya, Kazuhide

    2009-09-16

    Infants' sensitivity to social or behavioral contingency has been examined in the field of developmental psychology and behavioral sciences, mainly using a double video paradigm or a still face paradigm. These studies have shown that infants distinguish other individuals' contingent behaviors from non-contingent ones. The present experiment systematically examined if this ability extends to the detection of non-humanoids' contingent actions in a communicative context. We examined two- to three-year-olds' understanding of contingent actions produced by a non-humanoid robot. The robot either responded contingently to the actions of the participants (contingent condition) or programmatically reproduced the same sequence of actions to another participant (non-contingent condition). The results revealed that the participants exhibited different patterns of response depending on whether or not the robot responded contingently. It was also found that the participants did not respond positively to the contingent actions of the robot in the earlier periods of the experimental sessions. This might reflect the conflict between the non-humanlike appearance of the robot and its humanlike contingent actions, which presumably led the children to experience the uncanny valley effect.

  7. Child Development and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C., Ed.

    Previously published articles on child development and learning are collected in this textbook for college students. Topics include cognitive development, achievement behavior, and social development. (SBT)

  8. Women and children at risk: a feminist perspective on child abuse.

    PubMed

    Stark, E; Flitcraft, A H

    1988-01-01

    Viewing child abuse through the prism of woman battering reveals that both problems originate in conflicts over gender identity and male authority. Data indicate that men, not women, typically commit serious child abuse. A study of the mothers of child abuse victims shows that battering is the most common context for child abuse, that the battering male is the typical child abuser, that the battered mothers have no distinctive pathology in their backgrounds, and that clinicians respond punitively to the battered mothers. The child abuse establishment assigns responsibility for abuse to mothers regardless of who assaults the child, and responds punitively to women, withholding vital resources and often removing the child to foster care, if women are battered or otherwise fail to meet expectations of "good mothering." The combination of male control, misleading psychological knowledge about women's propensity for "bonding," and sanctions used to enforce gender stereotypes of motherhood combine to increase the entrapment and inequality from which battering and child abuse originate, a process termed "patriarchal mothering." The best way to prevent child abuse is through "female empowerment."

  9. Fathers' child feeding practices: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Khandpur, Neha; Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Davison, Kirsten K

    2014-07-01

    Despite their expanding role in child rearing, fathers are underrepresented in child feeding research. To address this knowledge gap and encourage father-focused research, this review compiles child feeding research that has included fathers and (i) documents characteristics of studies assessing fathers' feeding practices including study design, setting, recruitment strategies, participant characteristics, theoretical models utilized and measures of child feeding, (ii) outlines general patterns in fathers' feeding practices along with similarities and differences in mothers' and fathers' feeding practices, (iii) summarizes evidence on child and parent correlates of fathers' feeding practices and (iv) generates future research recommendations. A literature review of relevant articles published up to February 2014 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they: (i) included fathers, or primary male caregivers, of children 2-18 years of age, (ii) measured fathers' child feeding practices or perceived role in child feeding through objective (e.g., meal observations) or subjective (i.e., fathers' self-report) methods, (iii) analyzed and presented data on fathers separately from mothers and (iv) were published in a peer reviewed journal in the English language. Twenty studies met eligibility criteria. Few studies included an operational definition of "father". Samples were generally small and focused on white, well-educated fathers, cohabiting with the child's mother. Most studies utilized self-report measures of child feeding practices that have not been validated specifically for use with fathers. Pressuring children to eat was a common feeding strategy adopted by fathers. Some differences were noted in mothers' and fathers' feeding practices; fathers were generally less likely to monitor children's food intake and to limit access to food compared with mothers. Child adiposity and a range of child and parent characteristics were associated with fathers

  10. Cutaneous scar at anterior hair line in mother and child with associated frontal bone defect in child.

    PubMed

    Stratis, J P; Ramer, J C; Manders, E K; Lehman, R A; Ladda, R L

    1992-09-15

    A large frontal bone defect underlying a "V" shaped scar was noted in a newborn male whose mother had an identical "V" shaped scar at the same location in the anterior hairline. Both had hypertelorism and short palpebral fissures. The mother had no radiographic evidence of skull defect and neither mother nor child had other cutaneous or skeletal anomalies. Cranioplasty was performed on the child using the remaining frontal bones with an excellent cosmetic result. Biopsy performed at operation documented scar tissue extending through the dermis and underlain by thickened dura. Mother and child appear to have a variant form of aplasia cutis congenita, an autosomal dominant trait with wide variation in expression.

  11. Talking to Your Child's Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to ... help you monitor your child's health explain your child's growth and development and what you can expect diagnose and treat ...

  12. Loss of a child - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Child death - resources; Resources - loss of a child ... The following organizations are good resources for information on the loss of a child: The Compassionate Friends -- www.compassionatefriends.org Bereaved Parents of the USA -- www.bereavedparentsusa. ...

  13. Adolescent Male Responsibility in African-American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert B.

    Young black males account for almost half of all unwed fathers. The average black adolescent unwed father is 17 years old at the birth of his first child, comes from an unusually large family, began having sex at an earlier age than other black men, and has had slightly positive educational and employment experiences. Most also exhibit a high…

  14. The Child Welfare Cartel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  15. Child Wellness and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  16. Headstart for Every Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Annie L.

    An early learning kit provides a booklet of ten articles on educational head starts for children along with an activity packet for classroom use. The articles deal with: the crucial early school years; emotional preparation of the child; broadening a child's background; selecting toys and games; reading readiness; mathematical skills; learning to…

  17. Bullying and Your Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christy D.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying happens every day in classrooms and on playgrounds all over the world. Parents, when faced with the fact that their child has become the target of a bully, experience a stream of emotions: anger, fear, the need to protect, and the realization that the child must go back to school or out to play and face the bully again the next day. Many…

  18. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  19. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  20. Building the Biocentric Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, David

    2002-01-01

    Advocates an environmentally congruent conception of child development and includes Montessori theory as part of a biocentric view where child development connects to the laws of nature. Explains orientations to the world informing development of a biocentric vision of childhood: mastery, immersion, and engagement. Discusses how mastery and…

  1. Every Child, Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  2. Protecting the Hoosier Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    Presented are proceedings of a conference designed to provide a statewide forum for the exploration of the issues of child abuse and neglect, to maximize interdisciplinary communication as well as communication between the professional and lay communities of Indiana concerned with child protection, and to develop strategies for future coordinated…

  3. Child Development and Playgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Joe L.

    Four major issues are explored in this study of child development research and its implications for children's playgrounds: (1) theories and philosophies of play; (2) the historical evolution of playgrounds; (3) research on child development, play, and playgrounds; and (4) creating playgrounds that meet children's developmental needs. Discussion…

  4. Child Safety Curriculum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Safety Center, Malibu, CA.

    This document presents a set of child safety curriculum guidelines intended to help prevent child victimization and to promote safer living and learning environments for children and adolescents across America. These guidelines were developed to help educators, law enforcement personnel, and members of other youth-serving agencies teach children…

  5. Tutoring Your Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Joanne

    The parents' role as teacher is important to a child's learning process. Parents tutoring their children are advised to remain positive and patient, be aware of the child's feelings, keep the tutoring time short, select a quiet place away from distractions, use games and manipulative objects rather than more abstract experiences, etc. Informal…

  6. Child Care Resource Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Jeanne, Comp.; Pennington, Marnee, Comp.

    "Child Care Resource Materials" is an annotated bibliography of books, films, and filmstrips on various topics related to the education and development of young children. Categories include: learning activities for children; caring for children - infants through adolescents and children with special needs; parent-child relationships; day care -…

  7. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  8. Child Abuse Mimic: Avulsion Injury in a Child With Penoscrotal Webbing.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephanie Anne; Long, Christopher J; Srinivasan, Arun K; Wood, Joanne N

    2017-04-01

    Sexual abuse of children is prevalent in today's society. In 2012, approximately 686,000 children (9.2 per 1000) in the United States were determined to be victims of substantiated child abuse and neglect, according to national data compiled by child protective service agencies; victimization rates were highest for children younger than 1 year. Nearly 9.3% of maltreated children were victims of sexual abuse, this finding was reported by US Department of Health and Human Services (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/research-data-technology/statistics-research/child-maltreatment). Previous research has shown that as many as 1 in 3 girls and 1 in 7 boys will be sexually abused during childhood (Child Abuse Negl. 2003;27:1205-1222). Although sexual abuse seems to be less common in boys than girls, this may be partly due to underdiagnosis and underreporting of sexual abuse in boys (Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:328-331). Clinicians should therefore consider the possibility of sexual abuse when boys present with genital injuries, because failing to recognize and diagnose sexual abuse can pose an ongoing safety risk to a child. However, an erroneous diagnosis of sexual abuse can have equally hazardous repercussions, including removal of a child from their caregivers or prosecution of an innocent individual. A number of medical conditions can mimic child sexual abuse injuries, including anal fissures, failure of midline fusion, perianal streptococcal dermatitis, and straddle injury (J Pediatr Health Care. 2009;23:283-288 and Acta Paediatr. 2011;100:590-593). The following case involves a 5-week-old male infant who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an avulsion injury to his penis concerning for sexual abuse. He was ultimately diagnosed with a relatively rare anatomic variant of the genitalia and determined to have sustained an accidental injury whose appearance mimicked abuse.

  9. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  10. Differential Patterns of Disclosure of Child Abuse among Boys and Girls: Implications for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the differential incidence of male versus female reports of sexual abuse through hotlines and solicited reports. Reports occurred after the institution of a child abuse prevention program for 1,920 children K-12. (RJC)

  11. Child Molesters vs. Rapists as Reflected in Their Self-Figure Drawings: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Witztum, Eliezer

    2006-01-01

    This study explored whether child molesters can be differentiated from rapists in their self-figure drawings. To achieve this aim, the Machover Draw-A-Person test (Machover, 1949) was used. A sample of 41 male adult perpetrators of sexual assault, 19 rapists and 22 child molesters (all incarcerated in jail) participated in the study. Participants…

  12. Sierra Leone's Former Child Soldiers: A Longitudinal Study of Risk, Protective Factors, and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Brennan, Robert T.; Rubin-Smith, Julia; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Gilman, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the longitudinal course of internalizing and externalizing problems and adaptive/prosocial behaviors among Sierra Leonean former child soldiers and whether postconflict factors contribute to adverse or resilient mental health outcomes. Method: Male and female former child soldiers (N = 260, aged 10 to 17 years at…

  13. Associations between Relational Aggression, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Preddy, Teresa M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined relations between relational aggression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in a child clinical population. Participants included 276 children (M age = 9.55 years; 69% Male) who were admitted to a child psychiatric inpatient facility. Findings suggested that relational aggression was associated with depressive…

  14. Direct and Indirect Effects of Parenting and Children's Goals on Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidgerken, Amanda D.; Hughes, Jan N.; Cavell, Timothy A.; Willson, Victor L.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a dual-mediation model of the relations among harsh parenting, hostile social information processing, and level of child aggression in a sample of 239 (150 male, 89 female) 2nd- to 4th-grade children. The theoretical model posited that harsh parenting has both direct and indirect effects on child level of aggression, with the…

  15. Parental Psychopathology and Child-Rearing Practices in Young Alcoholic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, W. Hobart; And Others

    The relationship of parent alcohol involvement, depression, and antisocial behavior to self-reported parenting practices in a sample of 79 intact alcoholic families with male children of 3-6 years of age was studied. Child rearing practices were measured with the Block Child Rearing Practices Report. Psychopathology was measured with the…

  16. Child Development Associate. Child Growth and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is to help the CDA intern understand the factors and principles which affect the total growth and development of children. Early sections of the module stipulate the module's competency-based objectives, define terms, and suggest procedures by which…

  17. Child Advocacy: Implications for Child Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Brenda G.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the many diverse activities going on under the child advocacy label in order to determine if there was anything new or different about this phenomenon and to attempt some conceptual ordering of the field. Interviews were conducted with a number of people knowledgeable in children's service, and an attempt…

  18. Child maltreatment in India.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem.

  19. Does Child Temperament Play a Role in the Association Between Parenting Practices and Child Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed

    Ullsperger, Josie M; Nigg, Joel T; Nikolas, Molly A

    2016-01-01

    Ineffective parenting practices may maintain or exacerbate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and shape subsequent development of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD's) in youth with ADHD. Recent theoretical models have suggested that parenting may exert effects on ADHD via its role in child temperament. The current study aimed to evaluate the indirect effects of parenting dimensions on child ADHD symptoms via child temperament. Youth ages 6-17 years (N = 498; 50.4 % ADHD, 55 % male) completed a multi-stage, multi-informant assessment that included parent, child, and teacher report measures of parenting practices, child temperament, and ADHD symptoms. Statistical models examined the direct and indirect effects of maternal and paternal involvement, poor supervision, and inconsistent discipline on inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity via child temperament and personality traits. Results indicated differential patterns of effect for negative and positive parenting dimensions. First, inconsistent discipline exerted indirect effects on both ADHD symptom dimensions via child conscientiousness, such that higher levels of inconsistency predicted lower levels of conscientiousness, which in turn, predicted greater ADHD symptomatology. Similarly, poor supervision also exerted indirect effects on inattention via child conscientiousness as well as significant indirect effects on hyperactivity-impulsivity via its impact on both child reactive control and conscientiousness. In contrast, primarily direct effects of positive parenting (i.e., involvement) on ADHD emerged. Secondary checks revealed that similar pathways may also emerge for comorbid disruptive behavior disorders. Current findings extend upon past work by examining how parenting practices influence child ADHD via with-in child mechanisms and provide support for multi-pathway models accounting for heterogeneity in the disorder.

  20. Above-the-knee replantation in a child: a case report with a 24-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Durban, Claire Marie C; Lee, Seung-Yup; Lim, Hong-Chul

    2015-11-01

    Replantation of an amputated limb is generally contraindicated in crushing and traction injuries. Injury to muscle tissue and skin also creates difficulties in coverage, and bony fractures may shorten limb length which can impede lower extremity function. Numerous cases have been reported on the successful replantation of the lower limb in children; however, review of previous English literature has documented only very few replantation at the thigh level, and those with severe crushing injury resulted in subsequent amputation. We report a case of successful thigh-level replantation in a 3-year-old child who sustained a crushing-traction type of injury with a follow-up of 24 years. After the replantation, early and late complications developed but these were successfully managed. On her last visit, the patient had pain-free ambulation without assistance, had intact protective sensation distal to the injury, and was very satisfied with the outcome. Replantation of the lower limb in children with crushing or avulsion type of injuries is still a worthwhile procedure. However, both the patient and the family should be aware that multiple surgeries may be needed to accommodate to long-term complications such as joint stiffness, scar contractures, and limb length discrepancies.

  1. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology.

  2. Cyber child sexual exploitation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ann Wolbert; Mahoney, Meghan; Visk, Julie; Morgenbesser, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    A 2-year review of 285 child cyber crime cases reported in the newspaper revealed how the Internet offenders were apprehended, the content of child pornography, and crime classification. A subsample of 100 cases with data on offender occupation revealed 73% of cases involved people in positions of authority. The dynamics of child cyber crime cases direct the implications for nursing practice in terms of evidence-based suspicion for reporting, categorizing the content of Internet images, referral of children for counseling, and treatment of offenders.

  3. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming. Images p452-a PMID:2507011

  4. The sexual victimization of male children: a review of previous research.

    PubMed

    Vander Mey, B J

    1988-01-01

    The evidence available at this time indicates that male children are more likely to be abused by nonfamily rather than family members. Residing in a neglectful home or a mother-headed household and having previous homosexual contact tend to heighten risk for sexual abuse by nonfamily members. Familial sexual abuse appears related to residence in a home where other siblings are being abused, where the father was a victim of sexual abuse as a child, and where parents suffer myriad personal and social adjustment difficulties. Effects of male child sexual abuse appear to be serious and long lasting. The scant writings available at this time imply that the sexually abused male child experiences a range of adjustment and self-esteem problems as an adult and may be at heightened risk to become a child sexual abuser.

  5. A Psychodynamic Child Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    Research showing psychodynamic child therapy to be less effective than other forms of child treatment have used outcome measures focusing on symptomatic and behavioral change rather than on psychodynamic processes. A child therapy assessment procedure than measures the psychological functioning of the child in a psychodynamically meaningful way is…

  6. Child Abuse Amendments of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The booklet presents the report of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor regarding the 1983 Child Abuse Amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978. The Amendment expands the definition of child abuse to include abuse by…

  7. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  8. Sexual preference for child and aggressive stimuli: comparison of rapists and child molesters using auditory and visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Miner, M H; West, M A; Day, D M

    1995-06-01

    154 Ss were tested using penile plethysmography as part of intake into a voluntary inpatient sex offender treatment program. The testing protocol included slide stimuli of nude males and females in four age categories ranging from age 1 to adult; audiotaped descriptions of sexual activity with children of both genders which included fondling, sexual contact with no resistance, coercive sexual contact, sexual assault, nonsexual assault, and consensual sexual contact with an adult; videotaped depictions of rape of an adult woman, nonsexual assault of an adult woman and consensual sexual involvement with an adult woman, and audiotaped descriptions that paralleled the videotapes. The results indicated that child molesters (male victim) show a decidedly more offense related arousal profile than either child molesters (female victim) or rapists, and that the profiles of child molesters (female victim) and rapists are remarkably similar, although statistically significantly different from each other. Rapists respond significantly more to rape and nonsexual assault than either of the two child molester groups, with child molesters with female victims responding more than those with male victims. In all three groups, the highest level of noncoercive adult responding was to women, with differences among offense groups present for visual stimuli, but not in response to auditory stimuli. Overall, the patterns of results are similar whether they are based on composites across stimulus modality or on the individual stimuli.

  9. Increasing Male Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Talbert

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind legislation has brought greater attention to the academic performance of American youth. Its emphasis on student achievement requires a closer analysis of assessment data by school districts. To address the findings, educators must seek strategies to remedy failing results. In a mid-Atlantic district of the Unites States,…

  10. Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; Neil, Debra A.; Taylor, Tamara N.

    2009-01-01

    The component structure of the Child Dissociative Checklist was examined among abused children. A factor described as pathological dissociation emerged that was predicted by participants being male. There also were differences in pathological dissociation between groups of sexually abused and physically abused children. Replication of this factor…

  11. Proactive and Reactive Aggression in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations between proactive and reactive aggression and indicators of antisocial behavior (callous/unemotional traits and behavioral consequences) and negative affect (depression and suicidal behavior) in a sample of 105 children admitted to an acute child psychiatric inpatient unit. The majority of the children were male (69%)…

  12. Parental Psychopathology and Paternal Child Neglect in Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Chris; Mezzich, Ada C.; Day, Bang-Shiuh

    2006-01-01

    We aimed at determining the association of both severity of paternal and maternal substance use disorder (SUD) and psychiatric disorders with paternal child neglect severity during late childhood. The sample comprised 146 intact SUD (n=71) and non SUD (n=75) families with a 10-12 year old female or male biological offspring. The average age of…

  13. Gender, Education and Child Labour: A Sociological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhat, Bilal Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    In all societies, boys and girls are assigned different societal roles and experience different perspectives of life as a result of their being male or female. Such differences have a gigantic impact on their lives. The importance of gender perspective is very important in understanding the convolution of child labour. Gender, as opposed to sex,…

  14. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing anticipatory guidance and child maltreatment risk factor screening will be described. The modalities and strengths and weaknesses of community-based prevention programs will be discussed, and providers will be given tools to identify the effectiveness of available community-based programs. At a broader level, the article will describe ways that pediatricians can advocate at the local, state, and national level for policies and programs that support families and children. PMID:25242703

  15. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... C. §2256(8)) defines child pornography as any visual depiction, including any photograph, film, video, picture or ... sexually explicit conduct, where the: Production of the visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging ...

  16. Concussion - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000125.htm Concussion in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Your child was treated for a concussion . This is a mild brain injury that can ...

  17. Caffeine and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Caffeine and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Caffeine and ... 12-ounce (355-milliliter) can of soda. How Caffeine Affects Kids A stimulant that affects kids and ...

  18. Calcium and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... the nutrients needed, talk to your doctor about changing their diet or using vitamin supplements. continue Good ...

  19. Weaning Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... cup, or maybe even just a cuddle. Try changing your daily routine so that you're otherwise ...

  20. Toilet Teaching Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... when traveling, around the birth of a sibling , changing from the crib to the bed, moving to ...

  1. Child Safety Seats

    MedlinePlus

    ... contacting the manufacturer, or by looking up safety complaints records on your child's safety seat at www. ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  2. Disciplining Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Give your child one warning (unless it is aggression). If it happens again, send her to the ... are less likely to be consistent. Spanking increases aggression and anger instead of teaching responsibility. Parents may ...

  3. Your Child's Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding ... wear glasses and contacts. Keep these tips in mind for kids who wear glasses: Let kids pick ...

  4. Toilet Training Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... sitting on the potty chair, you may begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep ... education, patient information, potty training, stool soiling, timing method, toilet training Family Health, Infants and Toddlers January ...

  5. Child Labour in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The question of child labor in Africa is complicated by the failures of the educational system, family relations, traditional forms of apprenticeship, proliferation of the informal economic sector, and continuing existence of a rural economy. Hazardous working conditions prevail. (SK)

  6. Dental care - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... hygiene. In: Dean JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent . 10th ed. St. ... Updated by: Michael Kapner, DDS, general and aesthetic dentistry, Norwalk Medical Center, Norwalk, CT. Review provided by ...

  7. Your Child's Vision

    MedlinePlus

    ... visual loss and whiteness in the pupil. Infantile cataracts can occur in newborns. A cataract is a clouding of the eye's lens. Congenital ... a child more likely to develop retinoblastoma or cataracts, may require kids to have eye exams at ...

  8. Feeding Your Child Athlete

    MedlinePlus

    ... snacks. The child athlete, however, will have higher energy and fluid requirements. Kids and teens who are ... consume more food to keep up with increased energy demands. Most athletes will naturally eat the right ...

  9. Well-child visits

    MedlinePlus

    ... listening to heart, breath, and stomach sounds) Heart sounds Infantile reflexes and deep tendon reflexes as the child gets older Neonatal jaundice -- first few visits only Palpation Percussion Standard ophthalmic exam Temperature measurement (see also normal body temperature ) Immunization information: ...

  10. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... For all questions please contact the AACAP Communications & Marketing Coordinator, ext. 154. If you need immediate assistance, please dial 911. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  11. Asthma - child - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Pediatric asthma - discharge; Wheezing - discharge; Reactive airway disease - discharge ... Your child has asthma , which causes the airways of the lungs to swell and narrow. In the hospital, the doctors and nurses helped ...

  12. Scoliosis surgery - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... will use steel rods, hooks, screws, or other metal devices to straighten your child's spine and support ... will often be put in to replace them. Metal instruments, such as rods, screws, hooks, or wires ...

  13. "I Keep That Hush-Hush": Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse and the Challenges of Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorsoli, Lynn; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Grossman, Frances K.

    2008-01-01

    Disclosure is a prominent variable in child sexual abuse research, but little research has examined male disclosure experiences. Sixteen male survivors of childhood sexual abuse were interviewed regarding experiences of disclosure. Analytic techniques included a grounded theory approach to coding and the use of conceptually clustered matrices.…

  14. Theoretical Perspectives of Male Sexual Abuse: Conceptualization of a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamanduros, Terry; Cosentino, Clare E.; Tysinger, P. Dawn; Tysinger, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the traumatic impact that sexual abuse can have on a young male's development by addressing mediating dispositions that can render a child vulnerable to the effects of sexual abuse. Consideration is given to three different theoretical perspectives that are not exclusive to male victims but shed light…

  15. [Caring for a stroke victim: the emotional reactions of male and female caregivers].

    PubMed

    Bucki, Barbara; Spitz, Elisabeth; Baumann, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the emotional response to caregiving among stroke caregivers and to assess the social and psychological impact of strokes on households two years after the event. Questionnaires were administered to 62 patient (64.4 years old)/caregiver (59.3 years old) dyads. The survey focused on: 1) residual impairments, based on the American Heart Association Stroke Outcome Classification; 2) the Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA ? 24 items ? 5 dimensions); and 3) changes in the division of household tasks (seven items). Although male and female caregivers care for patients with similar residual impairments, the study found that female caregivers were more likely to be affected by the impact of caregiving on their health and schedule and by lack of family support. Women were more likely to feel "tired all the time" (50% vs. 12.5%), to struggle to "find time to relax" (35.7% vs. 6.3%) and to feel that "others dumped caring onto them" (35.7% vs. 11.8%). Since the onset of stroke, women had also taken on more responsibilities in the household (37.5% vs. 5.9%), while men were more likely to "enjoy caring" for patients (93.8% vs. 67.9%) and to have become more involved in organizing holidays (29% vs. 5.6%) and seeing friends (20.6% vs. 10.5%). Because of the high level of exhaustion, particularly among women, caregivers are a high-risk population for the healthcare system. Interventions such as trialogue and counseling are required to meet the needs of male and female caregivers.

  16. Navy Child Care, 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    34 1. Reenlistment or Retention Intentions and Career Satisfaction --------------------------- 34 2. Number ( Present ...about how best to support those families arise. One family support system is the base child-care center. Does the Navy’s present child-care system...problems and experiences of Navy active-duty women. The results of this survey are presented in Chapter II. The second survey was of primary Navy

  17. Giant velum interpositum meningioma in a child.

    PubMed

    Moiyadi, Aliasgar V; Shetty, Prakash

    2012-07-01

    Intraventricular meningiomas are rare, but are relatively more often seen in children. Large size at presentation often obscures anatomical details. A particular subset of such tumors arising from the velum interpositum pose a significant surgical challenge. Thorough preoperative imaging, especially with respect to the course of the deep venous structures, provides useful evidence as to the origin. Preservation of venous anatomy at surgery is vital. We describe a 3-year-old girl with a giant velum interpositum meningioma that was completely excised with excellent outcome. This is probably the youngest such case reported.

  18. Wormholes and Child Universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guendelman, E. I.

    Evidence to the case that classical gravitation provides the clue to make sense out of quantum gravity is presented. The key observation is the existence in classical gravitation of child universe solutions or "almost" solutions, "almost" because of some singularity problems. The difficulties of these child universe solutions that are due to their generic singularity problems will be very likely be cured by quantum effects, just like for example "almost" instanton solutions are made relevant in gauge theories with the breaking of conformal invariance. Some well-motivated modifcations of general relativity where these singularity problems are absent even at the classical level are discussed. High energy density excitations, responsible for UV divergences in quantum field theories, including quantum gravity, are likely to be the source of child universes which carry them out of the original space-time. This decoupling could prevent these high UV excitations from having any influence on physical amplitudes. Child universe production could therefore be responsible for UV regularization in quantum field theories which take into account semiclassically gravitational effects. Child universe production in the last stages of black hole evaporation, the prediction of absence of trans-Planckian primordial perturbations, connection to the minimum length hypothesis, and in particular the connection to the maximal curvature hypothesis are discussed. Some discussion of superexcited states in the case these states such as Kaluza-Klein excitations are carried out. Finally, the possibility of obtaining "string like" effects from the wormholes associated with the child universes is discussed.

  19. Effect of child labour on growth of children.

    PubMed

    Ambadekar, N N; Wahab, S N; Zodpey, S P; Khandait, D W

    1999-11-01

    This community based group comparison study was undertaken to assess the effect of child labour on the growth of children. The study subjects were 223 child labourers aged between 8-15 y who were matched by age to an equal number of controls and pair matched for gender. The mean weight of the male child labourers and the controls increased from 23.8 (+/-5.9) to 41.2 (+/-9.7) kg and 23.9 (+/-4.8) to 44.4 (+/-10.3) kg respectively, while mean height increased from 121.5 (+/-12.6) to 151.9 (+/-10.6) cm and 122.0 (+/-8.4) to 154.8 (+/-10.8) cm respectively from 8-15 y. At older ages (12 y and above for weight and 14 y and above for height) the difference was statistically significant. The same was not observed for the female study subjects. Similarly standard deviation (s.d.) scores for weight for age and height for age of male comparison subjects was significantly (P<0.01) nearer to National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard than that of the child labourers. Body mass index (BMI) below normal value, that is, 18.5 was observed in significantly (P=0.0261) more child labourers 180 (80.7%) than controls 160 (71.1%). With increasing duration of employment BMI decreased from 18.1 (+/-3.5) to 17.3 (+/-2.2). Genital development was observed to be delayed significantly in male child labourers. Therefore, it can be concluded that labouring at a young age has a deleterious effect on the growth of the child.

  20. The criminal histories and later offending of child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Eke, Angela W

    2005-04-01

    The likelihood that child pornography offenders will later commit a contact sexual offense is unknown. In the present study, we identified a sample of 201 adult male child pornography offenders using police databases and examined their charges or convictions after the index child pornography offense(s). We also examined their criminal records to identify potential predictors of later offenses: 56% of the sample had a prior criminal record, 24% had prior contact sexual offenses, and 15% had prior child pornography offenses. One-third were concurrently charged with other crimes at the time they were charged for child pornography offenses. The average time at risk was 2.5 years; 17% of the sample offended again in some way during this time, and 4% committed a new contact sexual offense. Child pornography offenders with prior criminal records were significantly more likely to offend again in any way during the follow-up period. Child pornography offenders who had committed a prior or concurrent contact sexual offense were the most likely to offend again, either generally or sexually.