Science.gov

Sample records for 30 km s-1

  1. The Case for a Hubble Constant of 30 km s-1 Mpc-1.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G; Blanchard, A; Silk, J; Turner, M S

    1995-02-17

    Although recent determinations of the distance to the Virgo cluster based on Cepheid variable stars represent an important step in pinning down the Hubble constant, after 65 years a definitive determination of the Hubble constant still eludes cosmologists. At present, most of the observational determinations place the Hubble constant between 40 and 90 kilometers per second per megaparsec (km s(-1) Mpc(-1)). The case is made here for a Hubble constant that is even smaller than the lower bound of the accepted range on the basis of the great advantages, all theoretical in nature, of a Hubble constant of around 30 kilometers per second per megaparsec. Such a value for the Hubble cures all of the ills of the current theoretical orthodoxy, that is, a spatially flat universe composed predominantly of cold dark matter. PMID:17811436

  2. Survival of the Tardigrade Hypsibius Dujardini during Hypervelocity Impact Events up to 5.49 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasini, D.

    2014-04-01

    Studies have previously been conducted to verify the survivability of living cells during hypervelocity impact events to test the panspermia and lithopanspermia hypotheses [1, 2]. It has been demonstrated that bacteria survive impacts up to 5.4 km s-1 (approx. shock pressure 30 GPa) - albeit with a low probability of survival [1], whilst larger, more complex, objects (such as seeds) break up at ~1 km s-1 [2]. The survivability of yeast spores in impacts up to 7.4 km s-1 has also recently been shown [3]. Previous work by the authors demonstrated the survivability of Nannochloropsis Oculata Phytoplankton, a eukaryotic photosynthesizing autotroph found in the 'euphotic zone' (sunlit surface layers of oceans [4]), at impact velocities up to 6.07 km s-1 [5]. Other groups have also reported that lichens are able to survive shocks in similar pressure ranges [6]. However, whilst many simple single celled organisms have now been shown to survive such impacts (and the associated pressures) as those encountered during the migration of material from one planet to another [1, 3, 5], complex multicellular organisms have either largely not been tested or, those that have been, have not survived the process [2]. Hypsibius dujardini, like most species of tardigrade, are complex organisms composed of approximately 40,000 cells [7]. When humidity decreases they enter a highly dehydrated state known as a 'tun' and can survive extreme temperatures (as low as - 253°C or as high as 151°C), as well as exposure to Xrays and the vacuum of space [7]. Here we test the shock survivability of Hypsibius dujardini by firing a nylon projectile onto a frozen sample of water containing frozen tardigrades using a light gas gun (LGG) [8]. The recovered ice and water were then analysed under an optical microscope to check the viability of any remnant organisms that may have survived impact, and the pressures generated.

  3. First observation of mesospheric wind shear as high as 330 m s-1 km-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yong-Fu; Widdel, H.-U.; Offermann, D.

    1995-09-01

    Mesospheric wind profiles with an altitude resolution of 25 m have been obtained by means of radar tracking of foil chaff clouds. Such experiments were performed during winter 1990 at Biscarrosse, France (44°N, 1°W). On one flight, a wind shear as high as 330 m s-1 km-1 at 87.4 km and a region of dynamical instability between 86 and 88 km was measured. This wind shear is believed to be the largest value ever measured in the mesosphere. The region of dynamical instability results from a superposition of two wave motions, and is found to link well with enhanced turbulence and small-scale wave activity. Acknowledgements. I thank D. R. McDiarmid of the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Canada, for important ideas and discussions during the development of this work. I thank the referees for useful comments which have improved the paper. I also thank E.M. Poulter of NIWA for helpful suggestions, and for reading the manuscript and making useful comments. The work was supported by contract CO1309 of the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Topical Editor C.-G. Fälthammar thanks K. Mursula and W. J. Hughes for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: W. Allan-->

  4. Capture of Cometary Dust Grains in Impacts at 6.1 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchell, M. J.; Foster, N.; Kearsley, A.; Wozniakiewicz, P.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Stardust mission to comet 81P/Wild 2 collected grains of cometary dust freshly ejected from the comet during a fly-by at a speed of 6.1 km s-1. These were captured on aluminum foils and in blocks of silica aerogel. The dust underwent a severe shock during capture. The nature of the shock process depends on the properties of the dust and the collecting media. On the aluminium, the shock process and impact damage is typical of that between high-density (or hard materials) at high velocity, resulting in craters lined with impactor residues. The peak shock pressures are estimated at 60-80 GPa. Two main crater types are seen, simple bowl shaped and multiple pit craters: these reflect the degree of consolidation of the original dust grain. Capture in the low density aerogel was via a more gradual slowing of the dust grains accompanied by a variety of effects on the grains (complete break up of weak grains vs. ablation of well consolidated grains). The relation between the structure of the dust grains and the resulting impact features in both collector materials is discussed.

  5. Survival of yeast spores in hypervelocity impact events up to velocities of 7.4 km s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, M. C.; Solscheid, C.; Burchell, M. J.; Josse, L.; Adamek, N.; Cole, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the survivability in hypervelocity impacts of yeast in spore form, and as mature cultures, at impact velocities from 1 to 7.4 km s-1, corresponding to an estimated peak shock pressure of ˜43 GPa. Spores from a yeast strain (BY4743), deficient in an enzyme required for uracil production, were fired into water (to simulate oceanic impact from space) using a light gas gun. The water was then retrieved and filtered and the resulting retentate and filtrate cultured to determine viability and survival rates of remnant spores. Yeast growth (confirmed as coming from the original sample as it had the same enzyme deficiency) was found in recovered samples at all impact speeds, albeit in smaller quantities at the higher speeds. The survival probabilities were measured as ˜50% at 1 km s-1, falling to ˜10-3% at 7.4 km s-1. This follows the pattern observed in previous work on survival of microbial life and spores exposed to extreme shock loading, where there is reasonable survival at low peak shock pressures with more severe lethality above a critical shock pressure at the GPa scale (here between 2 and 10 GPa). These results are explained in the context of a general model for survival against extreme shock and are relevant to the hypotheses of panspermia and litho-panspermia, showing that extreme shocks during transfer across space are not necessarily sterilising.

  6. Direct solar radiation up to 30 km and stratification of attenuation components in the stratosphere.

    PubMed

    Kondratiev, K Y; Nicolsky, G A; Badinov, I Y; Andreev, S D

    1967-02-01

    The balloon apparatus and some of the results of the direct solar radiation investigations up to 30 km in the middle belt of the Soviet Union in 1961-1965 are briefly described. Measurements of total direct solar radiation showed that the aerosol extinction properties in the free atmosphere are rather considerable, not only up to 30 km but also at the higher levels. The layered character of the stratospheric optical structure is demonstrated. The dynamics of layers and the possible influence of volcanic activity is discussed. Spectral investigations in the 0.35-13 micro region demonstrated that the stratospheric humidity is small, approximating 10(-6)-10(-5) g/g. The measurements in the visible spectrum confirmed that stratospheric aerosol component is essential, the stratospheric optical density being about 10(-4)-10(-3) km(-1). Comparison of the results of spectral and integral investigations indicates that the aerosol ext nction is also dominant above 30 km. PMID:20057727

  7. 500 km unrepeatered 200 Gbit·s-1 transmission over a G.652-compliant ultra-low loss fiber only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainov, V. V.; Gurkin, N. V.; Lukinih, S. N.; Shikhaliev, I. I.; Skvortsov, P. I.; Makovejs, S.; Akopov, S. G.; Ten, S. Y.; Nanii, O. E.; Treshchikov, V. N.

    2015-06-01

    In this work we experimentally demonstrate 200 Gb·s-1 (2  ×  100 G) unrepeatered transmission over 502.1 km using a dual polarization quadrature phase-shift-keyed (DP-QPSK) format and real-time processing. Such ultra-long distance is enabled by the use of high-performance 100 G DP-QPSK transponders (the required optical signal-to-noise ratio is 12 dB), Corning® SMF-28® ULL fiber (the average attenuation of the spools used in this experiment ~0.160 dB km-1), and optimization of remotely pumped optical amplifiers, bidirectional Raman amplifiers, and dispersion precompensation.

  8. Herschel HIFI observations of the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud. Deep searches for O2 in emission and foreground absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandqvist, Aa.; Larsson, B.; Hjalmarson, Å.; Encrenaz, P.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lis, D. C.; Liseau, R.; Pagani, L.; Roueff, E.; Viti, S.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The Herschel Oxygen Project (HOP) is an open time key program, awarded 140 h of observing time to search for molecular oxygen (O2) in a number of interstellar sources. To date O2 has definitely been detected in only two sources, namely ρ Oph A and Orion, reflecting the extremely low abundance of O2 in the interstellar medium. Aims: One of the sources in the HOP program is the +50 km s-1 Cloud in the Sgr A Complex in the centre of the Milky Way. Its environment is unique in the Galaxy and this property is investigated to see if it is conducive to the presence of O2. Methods: The Herschel Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) is used to search for the 487 and 774 GHz emission lines of O2. Results: No O2 emission is detected towards the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud, but a number of strong emission lines of methanol (CH3OH) and absorption lines of chloronium (H2Cl+) are observed. Conclusions: A 3σ upper limit for the fractional abundance ratio of [O2]/[H2] in the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud is found to be X(O2) ≤ 5 × 10-8. However, since we can find no other realistic molecular candidate than O2 itself, we very tentatively suggest that two weak absorption lines at 487.261 and 487.302 GHz may be caused by the 487 GHz line of O2 in two foreground spiral arm clouds. By considering that the absorption may only be apparent, the estimated upper limit to the O2 abundance of ≤ (10-20) × 10-6 in these foreground clouds is very high, as opposed to the upper limit in the Sgr A +50 km s-1 Cloud itself, but similar to what has been reached in recent chemical shock models for Orion. This abundance limit was determined also using Odin non-detection limits, and assumes that O2 fills the beam. If the absorption is due to a differential Herschel OFF-ON emission, the O2 fractional abundance may be of the order of ≈ (5-10) × 10-6. With the assumption of pure absorption by foreground clouds, the unreasonably high abundance of (1.4-2.8) × 10-4 was obtained. The

  9. The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers after a 30km race.

    PubMed

    Santos, R V T; Bassit, R A; Caperuto, E C; Costa Rosa, L F B P

    2004-09-01

    We have evaluated the effect of a creatine supplementation protocol upon inflammatory and muscle soreness markers: creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), prostaglandin E2) (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) after running 30km. Runners with previously experience in running marathons, with their personal best between 2.5-3h were supplemented for 5 days prior to the 30km race with 4 doses of 5g of creatine and 15g of maltodextrine per day while the control group received the same amount of maltodextrine. Pre-race blood samples were collected immediately before running the 30km, and 24h after the end of the test (the post-race samples). After the test, athletes from the control group presented an increase in plasma CK (4.4-fold), LDH (43%), PGE2 6.6-fold) and TNF-alpha (2.34-fold) concentrations, indicating a high level of cell injury and inflammation. Creatine supplementation attenuated the changes observed for CK (by 19%), PGE2 and TNF-alpha (by 60.9% and 33.7%, respectively, p<0.05) and abolished the increase in LDH plasma concentration observed after running 30km, The athletes did not present any side effects such as cramping, dehydration or diarrhea, neither during the period of supplementation, nor during the 30km race. All the athletes finished the race in a time equivalent to their personal best +/- 5.8%. These results indicate that creatine supplementation reduced cell damage and inflammation after an exhaustive intense race. PMID:15306159

  10. Risks from radionuclide migration to groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km zone.

    PubMed

    Bugai, D A; Waters, R D; Dzhepo, S P; Skal'skij, A S

    1996-07-01

    Remediation of contaminated groundwater in the Chernobyl 30-km evacuation zone is frequently identified as a priority by technical experts and Chernobyl site officials in Ukraine. In order to evaluate the health risk basis for this groundwater remediation, we have estimated both on-site and off-site health risks caused by radionuclide migration to the groundwater and compared these risks with those from exposure to radioactive contamination on the ground surface. A simple and conservative analytical model was developed to assess radionuclide transport to the groundwater from the soil surface contaminated by radioactive fallout. 90Sr, the primary radioactive contaminant of concern for the groundwater-migration exposure pathway, was evaluated in the analysis. The estimated health risk to hypothetical, self-sufficient residents in the 30-km zone is dominated by external and internal irradiation (due primarily to ingestion of agricultural products) from 137Cs, which is present in soils of the 30-km zone in roughly equal proportion with 90Sr. The estimated risk from contaminated groundwater is approximately an order of magnitude lower. Analysis of 90Sr migration via groundwater to surface water and down-river population centers shows that, despite generally unfavorable environmental conditions in the 30-km exclusion zone, radionuclide transport via the groundwater pathway has potential to contribute only marginally to the off-site radiological risk, which is governed by wash-out of radionuclides from the contaminated river flood plain and catchment areas by surface water during spring snowmelt and rains. Health risks due to off-site radionuclide migration via groundwater are below the level requiring application of counter-measures. This analysis implies that, relative to other exposure pathways, there is little current or future health risk basis for the proposed complex and costly groundwater remediation measures in the 30-km zone. Therefore, these activities should

  11. The isolated 678-km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Lay, T.; Zhan, Z.; Kanamori, H.; Hao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Deep-focus earthquakes, located 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. Seismic radiation from deep events is essentially indistinguishable from that for shallow stick-slip frictional-sliding earthquakes, but the confining pressure and temperature are so high for deep-focus events that a distinct process is likely needed to account for their abrupt energy release. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only 2 small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (678 km) major (MW > 7) earthquake in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and progressive steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ~40 km with variable expansion rate (~5 km/s down-dip initially, ~3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s rupture duration the radiated energy was ~3.3 x 1016 J and the stress drop was ~38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 earthquakes, indicating a continuum of processes. The isolated occurrence of the event suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab likely played a role in generating this major earthquake.

  12. Effect of intermittent hypoxic training on 20 km time trial and 30 s anaerobic performance.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, M J; Marshall, H C; Hellemans, J; Ainslie, P N; Anglem, N

    2010-08-01

    This study aimed to verify whether the "live low, train high" approach is beneficial for endurance and/or anaerobic cycling performance. Sixteen well-trained athletes completed 90 min of endurance training (60-70% of heart rate reserve), followed by two 30-s all-out sprints (Wingate test), daily, for 10 consecutive days. Nine subjects [intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) group] trained with an F(I)O(2) set to produce arterial oxygen saturations of approximately 88-82%, while seven subjects (placebo group) trained while breathing a normal gas mixture (F(I)O(2)=0.21). Four performance tests were conducted at sea level including a familiarization and baseline trial, followed by repeat trials at 2 and 9 days post-intervention. Relative to the placebo group, the mean power during the 30-s Wingate test increased by 3.0% (95% confidence limits, CL +/- 3.5%) 2 days, and 1.7% (+/- 3.8%) 9 days post-IHT. Changes in other performance variables (30 s peak power, 20 km mean power and 20 km oxygen cost) were unclear. During the time trial, the IHT participants' blood lactate concentration, respiratory exchange ratio, and SpO(2), relative to the placebo group, was substantially increased at 2 days post-intervention. The addition of IHT to the normal training program of well-trained athletes produced worthwhile gains in 30 s sprint performance possibly through enhanced glycolysis. PMID:19793215

  13. Optimum design of 30-km long-distance distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Liu, Honglin; Wang, Jianfeng; Yu, Xiangdong; Jin, Yongxing; Kim, Insoo S.; Wu, Xiaobiao

    2005-02-01

    A 30km long distance distributed optical fiber Raman temperature sensor (DOFRTS) system has been made, it use new measuring temperature principle of optical fiber amplified anti-Stokes Raman spontaneous scattering. In the system, 1550nm erbium-doped optical fiber laser, a highness speed data acquisition card and signal processing technique are used. By using these technique, the problem of weak signal detection is resolved and signal to noise ratio is increased. All components of system are put into an intellectualized constant temperature box and work in constant temperature condition. Stability and environment adaptability are improved. By appraisal, performance of the system is listed as follows: length of single mode fiber: 31km, temperature rang:0-100°C (can be expanded), temperature measuring uncertainty:+/-2°C, temperature resolution:0.1°C, measurement time:432s, spatial resolution :3m.

  14. El Chichon and 'mystery cloud' aerosols between 30 and 55 km Global observations from the SME visible spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    Visible limb radiances measured by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) are used to obtain volume scattering ratios for aerosol loading in the 30-55 km altitude range of the stratosphere. Global maps of these ratios are presented for the period January 1982 to August 1984. Significant aerosol scattering from the 'mystery cloud' and El Chichon aerosol layers are found above 30 km. A timescale of approximately 2 months between the appearance of the aerosol at 30.5 km and at 37.5 km is consistent with vertical transport of aerosol or vapor by eddy diffusion above 30 km. An anticorrelation exists between aerosol scattering and stratospheric temperatures. Periods of lower stratospheric temperatures may account for the formation of aerosol between 40 and 55 km altitude.

  15. Clouds in ECMWF's 30 KM Resolution Global Atmospheric Forecast Model (TL639)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Morcrette, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    Global models of the general circulation of the atmosphere resolve a wide range of length scales, and in particular cloud structures extend from planetary scales to the smallest scales resolvable, now down to 30 km in state-of-the-art models. Even the highest resolution models do not resolve small-scale cloud phenomena seen, for example, in Landsat and other high-resolution satellite images of clouds. Unresolved small-scale disturbances often grow into larger ones through non-linear processes that transfer energy upscale. Understanding upscale cascades is of crucial importance in predicting current weather, and in parameterizing cloud-radiative processes that control long term climate. Several movie animations provide examples of the temporal and spatial variation of cloud fields produced in 4-day runs of the forecast model at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in Reading, England, at particular times and locations of simultaneous measurement field campaigns. model resolution is approximately 30 km horizontally (triangular truncation TL639) with 31 vertical levels from surface to stratosphere. Timestep of the model is about 10 minutes, but animation frames are 3 hours apart, at timesteps when the radiation is computed. The animations were prepared from an archive of several 4-day runs at the highest available model resolution, and archived at ECMWF. Cloud, wind and temperature fields in an approximately 1000 km X 1000 km box were retrieved from the archive, then approximately 60 Mb Vis5d files were prepared with the help of Graeme Kelly of ECMWF, and were compressed into MPEG files each less than 3 Mb. We discuss the interaction of clouds and radiation in the model, and compare the variability of cloud liquid as a function of scale to that seen in cloud observations made in intensive field campaigns. Comparison of high-resolution global runs to cloud-resolving models, and to lower resolution climate models is leading to better

  16. Communication between earthquake clusters separated by over 30 km supports simple volcano plumbing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsdottir, K.; Jonasson, K.; Gudmundsson, M. T.; Hensch, M.; Hooper, A. J.; Holohan, E. P.; Sigmundsson, F.; Halldorsson, S. A.; Hognadottir, T.; Magnússon, E.; Pálsson, F.; Walter, T. R.; Ofeigsson, B.; Parks, M.; Roberts, M. J.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Cesca, S.; Guðmundsson, G.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Jarosch, A. H.; Dumont, S.; Fridriksdóttir, H. M.; Barsotti, S.; Einarsson, P.

    2015-12-01

    The subglacial Bárðarbunga volcano is composed of a large oval caldera (7x11 km) and fissures extending tens of kilometers away from the caldera along the rift zone, which marks the divergent plate boundary across Iceland. On August 16th, 2014 an intense seismic swarm started below the Bárðarbunga caldera and in the two weeks that followed a dyke migrated some 47 km laterally in the uppermost 6-10 km of the crust along the rift. The dyke propagation terminated in lava fields just north of Vatnajökull glacier, where a major (1.5 km3) six months long eruption took place. Intense earthquake activity in the caldera started in the period August 21-24 with over 70 M5 earthquakes accompanying slow caldera collapse, as verified by various geodetic measurements. The subsidence is likely due to magma withdrawal from a reservoir at depth beneath the caldera. During a five months period, October-February, the seismic activity was separated by over 30 km in two clusters; one along the caldera rims (due to piecewise caldera subsidence) and the other at the far end of the dyke (as a result of small shear movements). Here we present statistical analysis comparing the temporal behaviour of seismicity recorded in the two clusters. By comparing the earthquake rate in the dyke in temporal bins before and after caldera subsidence earthquakes to the rate away from these bins (background rate), we show that the number of dyke earthquakes was significantly higher (p <0.05) in the period 0-3 hours before a large earthquake (>M4.6) in the caldera. Increased dyke seismicity was also observed 0-3 hours following a large caldera earthquake. Elevated seismicity in the dyke before a large caldera earthquake may occur when a constriction in the dyke was reduced, followed by pressure drop in the chamber. Assuming that the large caldera earthquakes occurred when chamber pressure was lowest, the subsiding caldera piston may have caused temporary higher pressure in the dyke and thereby increased

  17. GPS-aided gravimetry at 30 km altitude from a balloon-borne platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarewicz, Andrew R.; Evans, Alan G.

    1989-01-01

    A balloon-borne experiment, flown at 30 km altitude over New Mexico, was used to test dynamic differential Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking in support of gravimetry at high-altitudes. The experiment package contained a gravimeter (Vibrating String Accelerometer), a full complement of inertial instruments, a TI-4100 GPS receiver and a radar transponder. The flight was supported by two GPS receivers on the ground near the flight path. From the 8 hour flight, about a forty minute period was selected for analysis. Differential GPS phase measurements were used to estimate changes in position over the sample time interval, or average velocity. In addition to average velocity, differential positions and numerical averages of acceleration were obtained in three components. Gravitational acceleration was estimated by correcting for accelerations due to translational motion, ignoring all rotational effects.

  18. Cardiac Troponin T and I Release After a 30-km Run.

    PubMed

    Klinkenberg, Lieke J J; Luyten, Peter; van der Linden, Noreen; Urgel, Kim; Snijders, Daniëlle P C; Knackstedt, Christian; Dennert, Robert; Kietselaer, Bastiaan L J H; Mingels, Alma M A; Cardinaels, Eline P M; Peeters, Frederique E C M; van Suijlen, Jeroen D E; Ten Kate, Joop; Marsch, Elke; Theelen, Thomas L; Sluimer, Judith C; Wouters, Kristiaan; Bekers, Otto; Bekkers, Sebastiaan C A M; van Loon, Luc J C; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P; Meex, Steven J R

    2016-07-15

    Prolonged endurance-type exercise is associated with elevated cardiac troponin (cTn) levels in asymptomatic recreational athletes. It is unclear whether exercise-induced cTn release mirrors a physiological or pathological underlying process. The aim of this study was to provide a direct comparison of the release kinetics of high-sensitivity cTnI (hs-cTnI) and T (hs-cTnT) after endurance-type exercise. In addition, the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), a cardioprotective strategy that limits ischemia-reperfusion injury, was investigated in a randomized controlled crossover manner. Twenty-five healthy volunteers completed an outdoor 30-km running trial preceded by RIPC (4 × 5 min 220 mm Hg unilateral occlusion) or control intervention. hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI, and sensitive cTnI (s-cTnI) concentrations were examined before, immediately after, 2 and 5 hours after the trial. The completion of a 30-km run resulted in a significant increase in circulating cTn (time: all p <0.001), with maximum hs-cTnT, hs-cTnI, and s-cTnI levels of 47 ± 27, 69 ± 62, and 82 ± 64 ng/L (mean ± SD), respectively. Maximum hs-cTnT concentrations were measured in 60% of the participants at 2 hours after exercise, compared with maximum hs-cTnI and s-cTnI concentrations at 5 hours in 84% and 80% of the participants. Application of an RIPC stimulus did not reduce exercise-induced cTn release (time × trial: all p >0.5). In conclusion, in contrast to acute myocardial infarction, maximum hs-cTnT levels after exercise precede maximum hs-cTnI levels. Distinct release kinetics of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI and the absence of an effect of RIPC favors the concept that exercise-induced cTn release may be mechanistically distinct from cTn release in acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27282835

  19. Gravity waves from 30 to 160 km observed by an Fe lidar at McMurdo, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; Chen, C.; Yu, Z.; Fong, W.; Roberts, B. R.; Lu, X.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Vadas, S. L.; McDonald, A.; Gardner, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of gravity waves in the neutral atmosphere were usually limited to ~105 km where lidars can have appreciable signals. The first discovery of neutral Fe layers with gravity wave signatures in the thermosphere up to 160 km by an Fe Boltzmann lidar campaign at McMurdo, Antarctica has significantly pushed the limit to ~160 km. Two channels of Fe signals allow us to derive the Fe density from ~75 to 160 km and Fe temperature from ~80 to 150 km using the Fe Boltzmann technique. Furthermore, operating at UV 372 and 374 nm, this Alexandrite-laser-based Fe Boltzmann lidar produces strong Rayleigh scattering signals from air molecules. High-resolution measurements of temperatures are thus achieved from 30 to ~70 km utilizing the Rayleigh integration technique. As a consequence, the McMurdo Fe lidar data provide the first opportunity to trace gravity waves from ~30 km all the way up to ~160 km with a single ground-based instrument, which is the main focus of the current study. McMurdo (77.83S, 166.66E) is in the gap region between the South Pole and the Antarctic Circle. Located on the Ross Island, McMurdo is next to the most southerly active volcano Mt. Erebus, also to the east of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains, and by the poleward edge of the aurora oval as its geomagnetic latitude is near 80 deg. McMurdo turns out to be a 'hot spot' for waves, and large amplitude waves are frequently observed from the stratosphere to the thermosphere. All these factors may have contributed to, or influence, the very rich wave activities, the formation of converged Fe layers in the thermosphere, and the elevated thermospheric temperatures revealed by the lidar data of temperature and Fe density. Starting from late December 2010, the University of Colorado lidar group has collected over 1900 hours of data in the first 19 months at McMurdo, establishing a database for gravity wave studies. In this paper we will characterize gravity wave parameters from ~30 km up to 160 km for the

  20. Proton-air inelastic cross section at S(1/2) = 30 TeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrusaitis, R. M.; Cassiday, G. L.; Cooper, R.; Elbert, J. W.; Gerhardy, P. R.; Ko, S.; Loh, E. C.; Mizumoto, Y.; Sokolsky, P.; Steck, D.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of the maxima of high energy cosmic ray induced extensive air showers in the atmosphere was measured as a function of atmospheric depth. From the exponential tail of this distribution, it was determined that the proton-air inelastic cross section at 30 TeV center-of-mass energy to be 540 + or - 40mb.

  1. The isolated ˜680 km deep 30 May 2015 MW 7.9 Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Zhan, Zhongwen; Kanamori, Hiroo; Hao, Jin-Lai

    2016-01-01

    Deep-focus earthquakes, located in very high-pressure conditions 300 to 700 km below the Earth's surface within sinking slabs of relatively cold oceanic lithosphere, are mysterious phenomena. The largest recorded deep-focus earthquake (MW 7.9) in the Izu-Bonin slab struck on 30 May 2015 beneath the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, isolated from prior seismicity by over 100 km in depth, and followed by only a few small aftershocks. Globally, this is the deepest (680 km centroid depth) event with MW ≥ 7.8 in the seismological record. Seismicity indicates along-strike contortion of the Izu-Bonin slab, with horizontal flattening near a depth of 550 km in the Izu region and rapid steepening to near-vertical toward the south above the location of the 2015 event. This event was exceptionally well-recorded by seismic stations around the world, allowing detailed constraints to be placed on the source process. Analyses of a large global data set of P, SH and pP seismic phases using short-period back-projection, subevent directivity, and broadband finite-fault inversion indicate that the mainshock ruptured a shallowly-dipping fault plane with patchy slip that spread over a distance of ˜40 km with a multi-stage expansion rate (˜ 5 + km /s down-dip initially, ˜3 km/s up-dip later). During the 17 s total rupture duration the radiated energy was ˜ 3.3 ×1016 J and the stress drop was ˜38 MPa. The radiation efficiency is moderate (0.34), intermediate to that of the 1994 Bolivia and 2013 Sea of Okhotsk MW 8.3 deep earthquakes, indicating that source processes of very large deep earthquakes sample a wide range of behavior from dissipative, more viscous failure to very brittle failure. The isolated occurrence of the event, much deeper than the apparently thermally-bounded distribution of Bonin-slab seismicity above 600 km depth, suggests that localized stress concentration associated with the pronounced deformation of the Izu-Bonin slab and proximity to the 660-km phase transition

  2. Kinetics of fuel particle weathering and {sup 90}Sr mobility in the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone

    SciTech Connect

    Kashparov, V.A.; Zvarich, S.I.; Protsak, V.P.; Levchuk, S.E.; Oughton, D.H.

    1999-03-01

    Weathering of fuel particles and the subsequent leaching of radionuclides causes {sup 90}Sr mobility in Chernobyl soils to increase with time after disposition. Studies of {sup 90}Sr speciation in soils collected in 1995 and 1996 from the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone have been used to calculate rates of fuel particles dissolution under natural environmental conditions. Results show that the velocity of fuel particle dissolution is primarily dependent on the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles and partially dependent on soil acidity. Compared to other areas, the fuel particle dissolution rate is significantly lower in the contaminated areas to the west of the Chernobyl reactor where deposited particles were presumably not oxidized prior to release. The data have been used to derive mathematical models that describe the rate of radionuclide leaching from fuel particles in the exclusion zone and changes in soil-to-plant transfer as a function of particle type and soil pH.

  3. Herschel and IRAM-30 m observations of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) at 4.5 AU from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, L.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Altieri, B.; Teyssier, D.; Jorda, L.; Debout, V.; Snodgrass, C.; Küppers, M.; A'Hearn, M.; Müller, T. G.; Farnham, T.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The sungrazer comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) (perihelion at rh = 0.0125 AU from the Sun) was bright and active when discovered in September 2012 at 6.3 AU from the Sun. Aims: Our goal was to characterize the distant gaseous and dust activity of this comet, inbound, from observations of H2O, CO and the dust coma in the far-infrared and submillimeter domains. Methods: We report observations undertaken with the Herschel space observatory on 8 and 13 March 2013 (rh = 4.54-4.47AU) and with the 30 m telescope of Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) in March and April 2013 (rh = 4.45-4.18 AU). The HIFI instrument aboard Herschel was used to observe the H2O 110 - 101 line at 557 GHz, whereas images of the dust coma at 70 μm and 160 μm were acquired with the PACS instrument. Spectra acquired at the IRAM 30 m telescope cover the CO J(2-1) line at 230.5 GHz. The spectral observations were analysed with excitation and radiative transfer models. A model of dust thermal emission taking into account a range of dust sizes is used to analyse the PACS maps. Results: While H2O was not detected in our 8 March 2013 observation, we derive a sensitive 3σ upper limit of QH2O < 3.5 × 1026 molecules s-1 for this date. A marginal 3.2σ detection of CO is found, corresponding to a CO production rate of QCO = 3.5 × 1027 molecules s-1. The Herschel PACS measurements show a clear detection of the coma and tail in both the 70 μm and 160 μm maps. Under the assumption of a 2-km radius nucleus, we infer dust production rates in the range 10-13 kg s-1 or 40-70 kg s-1, depending on whether a low or high gaseous activity from the nucleus surface is assumed. We constrain the size distribution of the emitted dust by comparing PACS 70 and 160 μm data, and considering optical data. Size indices between -4 and -3.6 are suggested. The morphology of the tail observed on 70 μm images can be explained by the presence of grains with ages older than 60 days. Herschel is an ESA space

  4. [Long-term follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry in persons evacuated from 30-km Chernobyl NPP zone].

    PubMed

    Maznik, N A

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the follow-up cytogenetic survey and biological dosimetry carried out in inhabitants of Pripiat' town and nearby villages, who were departured from the Chernobyl NPP 30-km exclusive zone during first days after the Chernobyl catastrophe. The unstable chromosome aberration level in inhabitants were significantly increased above control in terms up to 1 year after evacuation and declined gardually during next 14 years. In early period the cytogenetic damage frequency in evacuees showed no dependence on gender. The chromosome type aberration level appeared to be lower in young persons comparing with adults. The dicentrics plus centric rings yield had a positive correlation with duration of staying at Chernobyl zone. The average doses of protracted exposure were calculated from the dicentrics and centric rings yields; the dose estimations appeared to be 1.4 times higher in persons evacuated 3-11 days after the accident than that of in persons with shorter departure time. Uing the Bayesian analysis the probabilistic distribution of biological doses was constructed for the studied evacuees group. This distribution was characterized by a mean dose of 360 mGy, the modal doses of 200-450 mGy and 80% of probability density within the dose range 0-1000 mGy, that seems to be sufficient for considering the increased risk of late somatic radiation effects for this cohort. PMID:15571047

  5. Reduction of crop contamination by soil resuspension within the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Sauras-Yera, Teresa; Tent, Joana; Ivanov, Yuri; Hinton, T G; Rauret, Gemma; Vallejo, Ramon

    2003-10-15

    A field experiment was conducted within the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to analyze whether the application of mulching reduced resuspension of 137Cs contaminated soil in oat (Avena sativa) crops. In 1993, we applied a mulch treatment at a dose of 200 g m(-2), and soil resuspension was measured by estimating soil loadings onto plant surfaces from Ti concentrations in plants. In 1994, two mulch doses were applied, 200 and 50 g m(-2), and we estimated the contribution of soil resuspension by using artificial resuspension collection devices (ARC). In the 1993 experiment between 4.6 and 34.4% of the plant's total 137Cs contamination was attributed to external soil contamination. The mean amount of soil-derived 137Cs attached to vegetation was 124.7 Bq kg(-1)(plant) in control plots and 53.7 Bq kg(-1)(plant) in mulched plots. In the 1994 experiment, covering the soil with a mulch layer decreased the radiocesium content in ARC by about 70%. Results obtained in these experiments suggest that soil resuspension was a significant mechanism for plant contamination and that mulching was effective in reducing that contamination. PMID:14594366

  6. Expedition to the 30-km Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and the Utilization of its Experience in Education and Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Aszodi, Attila; Yamaji, Bogdan; Silye, Judit; Pazmandi, Tamas

    2006-07-01

    Between May 28 - June 4, 2005, under the organization of the Hungarian Nuclear Society (HNS) and the Hungarian Young Generation Network (HYGN) - which operates within the framework of the HNS - a scientific expedition visited the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the surrounding exclusion zone. The participants were young Hungarian nuclear professionals supervised by more experienced experts. The main scientific goals of the expedition were the followings: Get personal experiences in a direct way about the current status of the Chernobyl Power Plant and its surroundings, the contamination of the environment and about the doses. Gather information about the state of the shut down power plant and the shelter built above the damaged 4. unit. Training of young nuclear experts by performing on site measurements. The Hungarian expedition successfully achieved its objectives by performing wide-range of environmental and dosimetric measurements and collecting numerous biological and soil samples. Within the 30-km exclusion zone the influence of the accident occurred 20 years ago still could be measured clearly; however the level of the radioactivity is manageable in most places. The dosimetric measurements showed that no considerable exposure occurred among the members of the expedition. The analysis of samples has been started at the International Chernobyl Center in Slavutich. During the expedition not only environmental sampling and in-situ measurements were carried out but it was also well documented with photos and video recordings for educational, training and PR purposes. A documentary TV film was recorded during the expedition. The first-hand knowledge acquired during the expedition helps the authentic communication of the accident and its present-day consequences, which is especially important in 2006, 20 years after the Chernobyl accident. Since Ukraine and Hungary are neighbor countries the media constantly discuss the accident, the consequences and the risks of

  7. Can Pacing Be Regulated by Post-Activation Potentiation? Insights from a Self-Paced 30 km Trial in Half-Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Del Rosso, Sebastián; Barros, Edilberto; Tonello, Laís; Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Behm, David G.; Foster, Carl; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Given the co-existence of post-activation potentiation (PAP) and fatigue within muscle, it is not known whether PAP could influence performance and pacing during distance running by moderating fatigue. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of PAP on pacing, jumping and other physiological measures during a self-paced 30 km trial. Methods Eleven male endurance-trained runners (half-marathon runners) volunteered to participate in this study. Runners participated in a multi-stage 30 km trial. Before the trial started, determination of baseline blood lactate (bLa) and countermovement jump (CMJ) height was performed. The self-paced 30 km trial consisted of 6 × 5 km splits. At the end of each 5 km split (60 s break), data on time to complete the split, CMJ height, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and blood lactate were collected while heart rate was continuously monitored. Results There was a significant decrease in speed (e.g. positive pacing strategy after the 4th split, p<0.05) with a progressive increase in RPE throughout the trial. Compared with baseline, CMJ height was significantly (p<0.05) greater than baseline and was maintained until the end of the trial with an increase after the 5th split, concomitant with a significant reduction in speed and an increase in RPE. Significant correlations were found between ΔCMJ and ΔSPEED (r = 0.77 to 0.87, p<0.05) at different time points as well as between RPE and speed (r = -0.61 to -0.82, p<0.05). Conclusion Our results indicates that fatigue and potentiation co-exist during long lasting endurance events, and that the observed increase in jump performance towards the end of the trial could be reflecting a greater potentiation potentially perhaps counteracting the effects of fatigue and preventing further reductions in speed. PMID:26934357

  8. A thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (time-GCM): Equinox solar cycle minimum simulations (30-500 km)

    SciTech Connect

    Roble, R.G.; Ridley, E.C.

    1994-03-15

    A new simulation model of the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere with coupled electrodynamics has been developed and used to calculate the global circulation, temperature and compositional structure between 30-500 km for equinox, solar cycle minimum, geomagnetic quiet conditions. The model incorporates all of the features of the NCAR thermosphere-ionosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIE-GCM) but the lower boundary has been extended downward from 97 to 30 km (10 mb) and it includes the physical and chemical processes appropriate for the mesosphere and upper stratosphere. The first simulation used Rayleigh friction to represent gravity wave drag in the middle atmosphere and although it was able to close the mesospheric jets it severely damped the diurnal tide. Reduced Rayleigh friction allowed the tide to penetrate to thermospheric heights but did not close the jets. A gravity wave parameterization developed by Fritts and Lu allows both features to exist simultaneously with the structure of tides and mean flow dependent upon the strength of the gravity wave source. The model calculates a changing dynamic structure with the mean flow and diurnal tide dominant in the mesosphere, the in-situ generated semi-diurnal tide dominating the lower thermosphere and an in-situ generated diurnal tide in the upper thermosphere. The results also show considerable interaction between dynamics and composition, especially atomic oxygen between 85 and 120 km. 31 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Critical Evaluation of 0-30 km Profile Information in Ground-Based Zenith-Sky and Satellite-Measured Backscattered UV Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Deluishi, John; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We now have several decades of experience in deriving vertical ozone profiles from the measurements of diffuse ultraviolet radiation by both ground and satellite-based instruments using Umkehr and BUV techniques. Continuing technological advances are pushing the state-of-the-art of these measurements to high spectral resolution and broader wavelength coverage. These modern instruments include the ground-based Brewer and satellite-based Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) instruments, as well as advanced instruments being developed by ESA(SCIAMACHY), Netherlands(OMI) and Japan(ODUS). However, one of the issues that remains unresolved is the 0-30 km ozone profile information retrievable from these measurements. Though it is commonly believed that both the Umkehr and the satellite-based BUV techniques have very limited profile information below 30 km, there are those who argue that the data from these instruments should continue to be reported in this altitude range for they compare well with ozonesondes and hence there is useful scientific information. Others claim that the limitations of the Umkehr and BUV techniques are largely due to their low spectral resolution, and that the profile information below 30 km can be greatly improved by going to high spectral resolution instruments, such as Brewer and GOME. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical evaluation of the 0-30 km ozone profile information in the various UV remote sensing techniques. We use a database of individual ozone profiles created using ozonesondes and SAGE and 4D ozone fields generated by data assimilation techniques to simulate radiances measured by the various techniques. We then apply a common inversion approach to all the methods to systematically examine how much profile information is available simply from the knowledge of total ozone, how much additional profile information is added by the traditional Dobson Umkehr and satellite buv techniques, and how much better one can do

  10. 5:30 pm PDT Photographer : JPL Range : 1,550,000 km ( 961,000 miles ) These high resolution pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    5:30 pm PDT Photographer : JPL Range : 1,550,000 km ( 961,000 miles ) These high resolution pictures of Jupiter's ring were obtained by Voyager 2 some 26 hrs. past the planet, 2 degrees below the ring plane. The forward scattering of sunlight reveals a radial distribution and density gradient of very small particles extending inward from the ring toward Jupiter. There is an indication of structure within the ring, but unfortunatly the spacecrafts motion during these long exposures blurred out the highest resolution detail, particularly in the frame at right.

  11. Penetration Experiments with 6061-T6511 Aluminum Targets and Spherical-Nose Steel Projectiles at Striking Velocities Between 0.5 and 3.0 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, M.J.; Piekutowski, A.J.

    1999-02-04

    We conducted depth of penetration experiments with 7.11-mm-diameter, 74.7-mm-long, spherical-nose, 4340 steel projectiles launched into 250-mm-diameter, 6061-T6511 aluminum targets. To show the effect of projectile strength, we used projectiles that had average Rockwell harnesses of R{sub c} = 36.6, 39.5, and 46.2. A powder gun and two-stage, light-gas guns launched the 0.023 kg projectiles at striking velocities between 0.5 and 3.0 km/s. Post-test radiographs of the targets showed three response regions as striking velocities increased: (1) the projectiles remained visibly undeformed, (2) the projectiles permanently deformed without erosion, and (3) the projectiles eroded and lost mass. To show the effect of projectile strength, we compared depth-of-penetration data as a function of striking velocity for spherical-nose rods with three Rockwell harnesses at striking velocities ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 km/s. To show the effect of nose shape, we compared penetration data for the spherical-nose projectiles with previously published data for ogive-nose projectiles.

  12. Formation of continental crust in a temporally linked arc magma system from 5 to 30 km depth: ~ 90 Ma plutonism in the Cascades Crystalline Core composite arc section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratschbacher, B. C.; Miller, J. S.; Kent, A. J.; Miller, R. B.; Anderson, J. L.; Paterson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Continental crust has an andesitic bulk composition with a mafic lower crust and a granodioritic upper crust. The formation of stratified continental crust in general and the vertical extent of processes active in arc crustal columns leading to the differentiation of primitive, mantle-derived melts entering the lower crust are highly debated. To investigate where in the crustal column magma mixing, fractionation, assimilation and crystal growth occur and to what extent, we study the ~ 90 Ma magmatic flare-up event of the Cascades arc, a magma plumbing system from ~ 5 to 30 km depth. We focus on three intrusive complexes, emplaced at different depths during major regional shortening in an exceptionally thick crust (≥ 55 km1) but which are temporally related: the upper crustal Black Peak intrusion (1-3 kbar at 3.7 to 11 km; ~ 86.8 to 91.7 Ma2), the mid-crustal Mt. Stuart intrusion (3.5-4.0 kbar at 13 to 15 km; 90.8 and 96.3 Ma3) and the deep crustal Tenpeak intrusion (7 to 10 kbar at 25 to 37 km; 89.7 to 92.3 Ma4). These intrusive complexes are well characterized by geochronology showing that they have been constructed incrementally by multiple magma batches over their lifespans and thus allow the monitoring and comparison of geochemical parameters over time at different depths. We use a combination of whole rock major and trace element data and isotopes combined with detailed investigation of amphibole, which has been recognized to be important in the generation of calc-alkaline rocks in arcs to test the following hypotheses: (a) compositional bimodality is produced in the lower crust, whereas upper crustal levels are dominated by mixing to form intermediate compositions, or (b) differentiation occurs throughout the crustal column with different crystallizing phases and their compositions controlling the bulk chemistry. 1. Miller et al. 2009: GSA Special Paper 456, p. 125-149 2. Shea 2014: PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 3. Anderson et al. 2012

  13. Variations in soil carbonate formation and seasonal bias over >4 km of relief in the western Andes (30°S) revealed by clumped isotope thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgener, Landon; Huntington, Katharine W.; Hoke, Gregory D.; Schauer, Andrew; Ringham, Mallory C.; Latorre, Claudio; Díaz, Francisca P.

    2016-05-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry provides a new method for investigating long-standing questions regarding seasonal biases in soil carbonate formation and the relationship between soil carbonate formation temperatures recorded by clumped isotopes (T (Δ47)) and surface temperatures. We address these questions by comparing C, O, and clumped isotope data from Holocene soil carbonates to meteorological and in situ soil monitoring data along a 170 km transect with >4 km of relief in Chile (30°S). This arid transect experiences a winter wet season, and a >20 °C range in mean annual air temperature. We test the hypothesis that, regardless of soil moisture conditions, soil carbonates from arid regions record warm season biases and form in isotopic equilibrium with soil water and soil CO2. Below 3200 m, precipitation falls as rain and soil carbonate T (Δ47) values at depths >40 cm resemble summer soil temperatures. Above 3200 m, precipitation falls as snow and T (Δ47) values resemble mean annual soil temperatures. Soil carbonates from the highest site yield anomalous δ18 O, δ13 C, and T (Δ47) values indicative of kinetic isotope effects consistent with cryogenic carbonate formation. Our findings (1) demonstrate that soil carbonate T (Δ47) values from shallow (<40 cm) depths can be affected by short-term temperature changes following precipitation events; (2) suggest that only the largest precipitation events affect soil moisture at depths >40 cm; (3) highlight the role of the soil moisture regime in modulating the timing of soil carbonate formation, which affects the resulting carbonate T (Δ47) values; and (4) show that soil carbonates from high elevation or high latitude sites may form under non-equilibrium conditions. These findings underscore the importance of understanding past soil moisture conditions when attempting to reconstruct paleotemperatures using carbonate clumped isotope thermometry.

  14. Determination of (129)I and (127)I concentration in soil samples from the Chernobyl 30-km zone by AMS and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Satoshi; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Rühm, Werner

    2009-07-01

    A large amount of radioiodine isotopes (mainly (131)I, t(1/2) = 8 days) was released from the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) in April-May 1986. An increase in childhood-thyroid cancer in the contaminated areas in Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine was demonstrated to be caused by radioiodine released at the time of the accident. However, there is a lack of quantitative data on the (131)I levels in the local environment (e.g. air, plant, soil). At this point, a long-lived iodine isotope, (129)I (t(1/2) = 15.7 million years), also released with a certain ratio to (131)I from CNPP, could be used for estimating the (131)I levels in the environment. In this paper we present analytical results of the (129)I concentrations and (129)I/(127)I atom ratios in soil samples collected from the CNPP exclusion zone (30-km zone), with the aim of assessing current contamination levels and distribution patterns. For the analysis of the iodine fraction in the investigated soil samples, the pyrohydrolysis method was utilized for separation of (127)I and (129)I nuclides, and subsequently their concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), respectively. The concentration of (129)I and the (129)I/(127)I atom ratio in the surface soil samples in the 30 km-zone of CNPP ranged from 4.6 to 170 mBq/kg, and from 1.4 x 10(-6) to 13 x 10(-6), respectively. These values are significantly higher than those from global (129)I fallout, indicating that most of the measured (129)I was due to the deposition of the accident. Stable iodine concentrations in this area were found to be very low (below 1 ppm) for most of the samples, suggesting the environmental iodine levels in this area to be potentially low. The (129)I/(137)Cs activity ratio in surface and sub-surface soils was not so constant, i.e., in the range (7.3-20.2) x 10(-7). This might be due to the different behavior of deposition and/or migration

  15. Herschel and IRAM-30m Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) at 4.5 AU from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Laurence; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Biver, Nicolas; Altieri, Bruno; Teyssier, David; Jorda, Laurent; Debout, Vincent; Snodgrass, Colin; Küppers, Michael; A'Hearn, Michael; Müller, Thomas; Farnham, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    The sungrazer comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) (perihelion at rh = 0.0125 AU from the Sun) was bright and active when discovered in September 2012 at 6.3 AU from the Sun. Our goal was to characterize the distant gaseous and dust activity of this comet, inbound, from observations of H2O, CO and the dust coma in the far-infrared and submillimeter domains. We report observations undertaken with the Herschel Space Observatory (Pilbratt et al, 2010) on 8 & 13 March 2013 (rh = 4.54--4.47AU) and with the 30m telescope of Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) in March and April 2013 (rh = 4.45--4.18 AU). The HIFI instrument aboard Herschel was used to observe the H2O 110-101 line at 557 GHz, whereas images of the dust coma at 70~μm and 160~μm were acquired with the PACS instrument. Spectra acquired at the IRAM 30m telescope cover the CO J(2--1) line at 230.5 GHz. The spectral observations were analysed with excitation and radiative transfer models (Biver et al., 2007). A model of dust thermal emission taking into account a range of dust sizes is used to analyse the PACS maps, equivalent to that used in Bockelée-Morvan et al., 2010. While H2O was not detected in our 8 March 2013 observation, we derive a sensitive 3σ upper limit of Q_H_2O

  16. In situ stratospheric measurements of HNO3 and HCl near 30 km using the balloon-borne laser in situ sensor tunable diode laser spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, R. D.; Webster, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    In situ stratospheric measurements of the concentrations of the reservoir species HNO3 and HCl made during two flights of the high-resolution (0.0005/cm) balloon-borne laser in situ sensor instrument from Palestine, Texas, are reported. A measured HNO3 volume mixing ratio of 4.3 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at 31 km altitude is about 1 ppbv larger than previously reported measurements at 32 deg N. An HCl mixing ratio of 1.6 ppbv at 29 km is in agreement with values obtained from earlier remote sensing techniques within the experimental uncertainties. Upper limits at 31 km of 0.4 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.2 ppbv for HOCl are also derived from analyses of spectra recorded near 1252/cm.

  17. Case study of polar scintillation modeling using DE (Dynamics Explorer) 2 irregularity measurements at 800 km. Scientific report No. 2, 5 October 1987-30 September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, S.; Basu, S.; Weber, E.J.; Coley, W.R.

    1988-08-01

    Although a satellite-borne irregularity sensor obviously cannot measure scintillations, the question of what contribution such a sensor can make to model or predict scintillations is addressed. To pursue the problem, the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) ionospheric electron density irregularity data obtained at approximately 800-km altitude in the winter polar cap during sunspot maximum conditions were utilized. During this period an all-sky imaging photometer located at Thule, Greenland, within the polar cap, detected the presence of convecting ionization patches, and polar beacon satellite measurements detected several discrete, intense scintillation structures associated with these patches (E. J. Weber et al., 1984). The electron-density deviation (delta N) obtained by combining irregularity amplitudes (delta N/N)rms processed over 8-s intervals and the in-situ density (N) data acquired by the DE 2 satellite also showed the presence of spatially discrete structures. These irregularity structures, both in N and delta N, had spatial extents of approx. 1000 km in the N-S direction. The density associated with these structures, even at 800 km, showed a twofold to threefold to increase in comparison to the background, and irregularity amplitudes (delta N/N)rms as large as 20% were observed at the edges of the patches.

  18. Establishing a Long-term 30 Year Global Solar Resource at 10 km Resolution: Preliminary Results From Test Processing and Continuing Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, P. W.; Mikovitz, J. C.; Cox, S. J.; Zhang, T.; Perez, R.; Schlemmer, J.; Sengupta, M.; Knapp, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    As renewable energy system become more prevalent, improved global long-term, up-to-date records are needed to better understand and quantify the solar resource and variability. Toward this end, a project involving NASA, DOE NREL, SUNY-Albany and the NOAA National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) was initiated to provide NREL with a solar resource mapping production system for improved depiction of global long-term solar resources that provides the capacity for continual updates. This new production system is made possible by the efforts of NOAA and NASA to completely reprocess the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data set that provides satellite visible and infrared radiances together with retrieved cloud and surface properties on a 3-hourly basis beginning from July 1983 at an effective 10 km resolution. Thus, working with SUNY and NCDC, NASA will develop and test an improved production system that will yield an operational production system for NREL to continually update the Earth's solar resource. In this presentation, we provide a general overview of this project together with samples of the new solar irradiance mapped data products and comparisons to surface measurements at various locations across the world. Here, a three-year prototype of the anticipated ISCCP data set called GridSat is used to assess the algorithms and demonstrate the production system. GridSat maps together cross-calibrated visible and IR reflectances from all the world's geosynchronous satellites at 10 km and 3-hourly respectively. The results are shown and discussed in comparison to existing solar data products. Additionally, the solar irradiance values are compared to various Baseline Surface Radiation Network surface site measurements and other high quality surface measurements. The statistics of the agreement between the measurements and new satellite estimates are also reviewed. The team is now testing a beta release of the revised ISCCP data set through the NOAA

  19. Restricting 32-128 km horizontal scales hardly affects the MJO in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model v.3.0 but the number of cloud-resolving grid columns constrains vertical mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Michael S.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; DeMott, Charlotte A.

    2014-09-01

    The effects of artificially restricting the 32-128 km horizontal scale regime on MJO dynamics in the Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model v.3.0 have been explored through reducing the extent of its embedded cloud resolving model (CRM) arrays. Two and four-fold reductions in CRM extent (from 128 to 64 km and 32 km) produce statistical composite MJO signatures with spatial scale, zonal phase speed, and intrinsic wind-convection anomaly structure that are all remarkably similar to the standard SPCAM's MJO. This suggests that the physics of mesoscale convective organization on 32-128 km scales are not critical to MJO dynamics in SPCAM and that reducing CRM extent may be a viable strategy for 400% more computationally efficient analysis of superparameterized MJO dynamics. However several unexpected basic state responses caution that extreme CRM domain reduction can lead to systematic mean state issues in superparameterized models. We hypothesize that an artificial limit on the efficiency of vertical updraft mixing is set by the number of grid columns available for compensating subsidence in the embedded CRM arrays. This can lead to reduced moisture ventilation supporting too much liquid cloud and thus an overly strong cloud shortwave radiative forcing, particularly in regions of deep convection.

  20. A 80 OBS and 30 Land 3-component seismometers array encompassing the 280 km segment of the Lesser Antilles subduction megathrust seismogenic zone: view of current seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laigle, Mireille; Sapin, Martine; Ruiz, Mario; Diaz, Jordi; Kissling, Edi; Charvis, Philippe; Flueh, Ernst; Hirn, Alfred

    2010-05-01

    An extensive onshore and offshore seismic station array in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone allows to monitor microearthquake activity for a period of 4 months in a region previously outside of reach for detailed observation. Such a network has been possible thanks to a cluster of 3 seismic surveys (TRAIL - F/S Merian, SISMANTILLESII - N/O Atalante, and OBSANTILLES - N/O Antea) for deploying and recovering the instruments from several pools (Geoazur, INSU-IPGP, IFM-GEOMAR, AWI ). It has been followed by an additional deployment of the 28 GeoAzur OBSs (OBSANTILLES - N/O Antea) during 5 months in the south-western half. These operations have been carried out for the seismic investigation of the Antilles megathrust seismogenic zone in the framework of the THALES WAS RIGHT european project, and with also the financial support of the french ANR Catastrophes Telluriques et Tsunamis (SUBSISMANTI) and by the EU SALVADOR Programme of IFM-GEOMAR. Onshore, 30 3-components land stations (CSIC Barcelone, IPG Paris, INSU-RLBM and -LITHOSCOPE) have been temporarily deployed. The deep seismic structure of the whole area has been investigated during these seismic surveys by wide-angle reflection and refraction seismics recorded by these instruments as well as multi-channel reflection seismic imaging (MCS) along a dense grid of crossing profiles at the OBS positions providing excellent velocity information for the upper plate. Both the location and the interpretation of the recorded earthquake activity require constraints on the deep seismic structure, which will be discussed with respect to the 3D geometry of the interplate boundary and oceanic Moho, as well as those of the forearc basement and Moho. Preliminary locations have been obtained within a simple 1D velocity model by taking into account corrections for the variable thickness of the mud- and sediments layers beneath each OBS. The latter are estimated for both P- and S-waves to compensate for the huge structural

  1. The Development of a Stochastic Model of the Atmosphere Between 30 and 90 Km to Be Used in Determining the Effect of Atmospheric Variability on Space Shuttle Entry Parameters. Ph.D. Thesis - Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    A stochasitc model of the atmosphere between 30 and 90 km was developed for use in Monte Carlo space shuttle entry studies. The model is actually a family of models, one for each latitude-season category as defined in the 1966 U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supplements. Each latitude-season model generates a pseudo-random temperature profile whose mean is the appropriate temperature profile from the Standard Atmosphere Supplements. The standard deviation of temperature at each altitude for a given latitude-season model was estimated from sounding-rocket data. Departures from the mean temperature at each altitude were produced by assuming a linear regression of temperature on the solar heating rate of ozone. A profile of random ozone concentrations was first generated using an auxiliary stochastic ozone model, also developed as part of this study, and then solar heating rates were computed for the random ozone concentrations.

  2. Individual, social and physical environmental correlates of ‘never’ and ‘always’ cycling to school among 10 to 12 year old children living within a 3.0 km distance from school

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cycling to school has been identified as an important target for increasing physical activity levels in children. However, knowledge about correlates of cycling to school is scarce as many studies did not make a distinction between walking and cycling to school. Moreover, correlates of cycling to school for those who live within a distance, that in theory would allow cycling to school, stay undiscovered. Therefore, this study examined individual, social and physical environmental correlates of never and always cycling to/from school among 10 to 12 year old Belgian children living within a 3.0 km distance from school. Methods 850 parents completed a questionnaire to assess personal, family, behavioral, cognitive, social and physical environmental factors related to the cycling behavior of their children. Parents indicated on a question matrix how many days a week their child (1) walked, (2) cycled, was (3) driven by car or (4) public transport to and from school during fall, winter and spring. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the correlates. Results Overall, 39.3% of children never cycled to school and 16.5% of children always cycled to school. Children with high levels of independent mobility and good cycling skills perceived by their parents were more likely to always cycle to school (resp. OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.04-1.15 and OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.16) and less likely to never cycle to school (resp. OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.78-0.91 and OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.7-0.84). Children with friends who encourage them to cycle to school were more likely to always cycle to school (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.15) and less likely to never cycle to school (OR 0.9; 95% CI 0.83-1.0). In addition, children with parents who encourage them to cycle to school were less likely to never cycle to school (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.7-0.87). Regarding the physical environmental factors, only neighborhood traffic safety was significantly associated with cycling: i.e., children

  3. KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  4. KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, M. de; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-07-15

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  5. Survival of Nannochloropsis Phytoplankton in Hypervelocity Impact Events up to Velocities of 6.07 km/s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasini, D. L. S.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2013-09-01

    Studies have previously been conducted to verify the survivability of living cells during hypervelocity impact events to test the panspermia and lithopanspermia hypothesis [1], [2]. It has been demonstrated that bacteria survive impacts up to 5.4 km s-1 (approx. shock pressure 30 GPa) - albeit with a low probability of survival [1] whilst larger more complex objects (such as seeds) break up at ~1 km s-1 [2]. The survivability of yeast spores in impacts up to 7.4 km s-1 has also recently been shown [3]. We demonstrate here the survivability of Nannochloropsis Phytoplankton, a eukaryotic photosynthesizing autotroph found in the 'euphotic zone'(sunlit surface layers of oceans) [4] at impact velocities up to 6.07 km s-1. Phytoplankton from a culture sample was frozen and then fired into water (to simulate oceanic impacts, as described in [5]) using a light gas gun (LGG) [6]. The water was then retrieved and placed into a sealed culture vessel and left under a constant light source to check the viability of any remnant organisms.

  6. Imaging Resolution of the 410-km and 660-km Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, K.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Structure of seismic discontinuities at depths of about 410 km and 660 km provides important constraints on mantle convection as the associated phase transformations in the transition zone are sensitive to thermal perturbations. Teleseismic P-to-S receiver functions have been widely used to map the depths of the two discontinuities. In this study, we investigate the resolution of receiver functions in imaging topographic variations of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities based on wave propagation simulations using the Spectral Element Method (SEM). We investigate finite-frequency effects of direct P waves as well as P-to-S converted waves by varying the length scale of discontinuity topography in the transition zone. We show that wavefront healing effects are significant in broadband receiver functions. For example, at a period of 10 to 20 seconds, the arrival anomaly in P-to-S converted waves is about 50% of what predicted by ray theory when the topography length scale is in the order of 400 km. The observed arrival anomaly further reduces to 10-20% when the topography length scale reduces to about 200 km. We calculate 2-D boundary sensitivity kernels for direct P waves as well as receiver functions based on surface wave mode summation and confirm that finite frequency-effects can be properly accounted for. Three-dimensional wavespeed structure beneath seismic stations can also introduce significant artifacts in transition zone discontinuity topography if time corrections are not applied, and, the effects are dependent on frequency.

  7. Knob manager (KM) operators guide

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-08

    KM, Knob Manager, is a tool which enables the user to use the SUNDIALS knob box to adjust the settings of the control system. The followings are some features of KM: dynamic knob assignments with the user friendly interface; user-defined gain for individual knob; graphical displays for operating range and status of each process variable is assigned; backup and restore one or multiple process variable; save current settings to a file and recall the settings from that file in future.

  8. Newly Installed S-1 Truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. This is a view of the newly installed S1 Truss as photographed during the mission's first scheduled EVA. The Station's Canadarm2 is in the foreground. Visible are astronauts Piers J. Sellers (lower left) and David A. Wolf (upper right), both STS-112 mission specialists.

  9. Global modeling with GEOS-5 from 50-km to 1-km with a single unified GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, William; Suarez, Max; Molod, Andrea; Barahona, Donifan

    2015-04-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is uniquely designed to adapt to increasing resolution. This supports application of GEOS-5 for decadal scale climate simulation and reanalysis with a horizontal resolution of 50-kilometers (km), high-resolution numerical weather prediction at 25- to 14-km, and global mesoscale modeling at resolutions of 7- to 1.5-km. Resolution-aware parameterizations and dynamics support this diverse portfolio of applications within a single unified GEOS-5 GCM code-base. We will discuss the adaptation of physics parameterizations with increasing resolution. This includes the role of deep convective parameterization, the move to an improved two-moment microphysics scheme, the need for shallow convective parameterization, and the role of non-hydrostatic dynamics and implicit/explicit damping. Parameterization and dynamics evaluation are explored not only in global integrations with GEOS-5 but with radiative convective equilibrium tests that permit the rapid exploration of high-resolution simulations in a smaller doubly periodic Cartesian domain. Simulation results will highlight intercomparisons of model biases in cloud forcing and precipitation from the 30-year 50-km MERRA-2 reanalysis, 50- to 25-km free-running AMIP simulations, a 2-year 7-km global mesoscale simulation, and monthly global simulations at 3.5-km. A global 1.5-km simulation with GEOS-5 highlights our pursuit of truly convection permitting global simulations with GEOS-5. The tuning evaluation for this simulation using doubly periodic radiative convective equilibrium experiments will be discussed.

  10. The temperature gradient between 100 and 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.; Carignan, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    Oxygen density profiles inferred from Ogo 6 green nightglow emission vary too sharply between 100 and 120 km to be consistent with temperature gradients in standard model atmospheres, and the eddy diffusion coefficient K determined from these observations reaches its maximum below 115 km. For three atomic oxygen profiles obtained at geographic latitudes of -27.69, +48.89, and +59.10 the temperature profiles required to create a downward flux that varies with altitude as the integrated photolytic production rate above that altitude are calculated, assuming K to be invariant with altitude and latitude. The oxygen distribution can be reconciled with a constant eddy coefficient above 100 km if the temperature gradient reaches a value between 10 and 20 deg K/km for low values of the eddy coefficient (about 500,000 sq cm/sec) or between 30 and 50 deg K/km for a higher eddy coefficient (about 1.6 million sq cm/sec). The maximum gradient for the Jacchia (1971) model is about 10 deg K/km. These temperature profiles predict Ar/N ratios consistent with those measured by sounding rockets. The low K profiles are large enough to remove a large part of the solar energy deposited below 120 km by thermal conduction.

  11. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-01

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of 0 + CO2 yields CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively.

  12. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  13. CYP2S1: a short review.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Rivera, Steven P; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation. PMID:16054184

  14. Safety assessment for the S-1 Spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R. Jr.; Stencel, J.R.

    1984-02-01

    The S-1 machine is part of the Magnetic Fusion Program. The goal of the Magnetic Fusion Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion. S-1 is an experimental device which will provide an essential link in the research effort aiming at the realization of fusion power.

  15. Similarities and Differences in Pacing Patterns in a 161-km and 101-km Ultra-Distance Road Race.

    PubMed

    Tan, Philip L S; Tan, Frankie H Y; Bosch, Andrew N

    2016-08-01

    Tan, PLS, Tan, FHY, and Bosch, AN. Similarities and differences in pacing patterns in a 161-km and 101-km ultra-distance road race. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2145-2155, 2016-The purpose of this study was to establish and compare the pacing patterns of fast and slow finishers in a tropical ultra-marathon. Data were collected from the Craze Ultra-marathon held on the 22nd and 21st of September in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Finishers of the 161-km (N = 47) and 101-km (N = 120) categories of the race were divided into thirds (groups A-C) by merit of finishing time. Altogether, 17 and 11 split times were recorded for the 161-km and 101-km finishers, respectively, and used to calculate the mean running speed for each distance segment. Running speed for the first segment was normalized to 100, with all subsequent splits adjusted accordingly. Running speed during the last 5 km was calculated against the mean race pace to establish the existence of an end spurt. A reverse J-shaped pacing profile was demonstrated in all groups for both distance categories and only 38% of the finishers executed an end spurt. In the 101-km category, in comparison with groups B and C, group A maintained a significantly more even pace (p = 0.013 and 0.001, respectively) and completed the race at a significantly higher percent of initial starting speed (p = 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Descriptive data also revealed that the top 5 finishers displayed a "herd-behavior" by staying close to the lead runner in the initial portion of the race. These findings demonstrate that to achieve a more even pace, recreational ultra-runners should adopt a patient sustainable starting speed, with less competitive runners setting realistic performance goals whereas competitive runners with a specific time goal to consider running in packs of similar pace. PMID:26808845

  16. Analysis of sex differences in open-water ultra-distance swimming performances in the FINA World Cup races in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km from 2000 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for elite male and female swimmers competing in 5 km, 10 km and 25 km open-water FINA World Cup races held between 2000 and 2012. Methods The changes in swimming speeds and sex differences across years were analysed using linear, non-linear, and multi-level regression analyses for the annual fastest and the annual ten fastest competitors. Results For the annual fastest, swimming speed remained stable for men and women in 5 km (5.50 ± 0.21 and 5.08 ± 0.19 km/h, respectively), in 10 km (5.38 ± 0.21 and 5.05 ± 0.26 km/h, respectively) and in 25 km (5.03 ± 0.32 and 4.58 ± 0.27 km/h, respectively). In the annual ten fastest, swimming speed remained constant in 5 km in women (5.02 ± 0.19 km/h) but decreased significantly and linearly in men from 5.42 ± 0.03 km/h to 5.39 ± 0.02 km/h. In 10 km, swimming speed increased significantly and linearly in women from 4.75 ± 0.01 km/h to 5.74 ± 0.01 km/h but remained stable in men at 5.36 ± 0.21 km/h. In 25 km, swimming speed decreased significantly and linearly in women from 4.60 ± 0.06 km/h to 4.44 ± 0.08 km/h but remained unchanged at 4.93 ± 0.34 km/h in men. For the annual fastest, the sex difference in swimming speed remained unchanged in 5 km (7.6 ± 3.0%), 10 km (6.1 ± 2.5%) and 25 km (9.0 ± 3.7%). For the annual ten fastest, the sex difference remained stable in 5 km at 7.6 ± 0.6%, decreased significantly and linearly in 10 km from 7.7 ± 0.7% to 1.2 ± 0.3% and increased significantly and linearly from 4.7 ± 1.4% to 9.6 ± 1.5% in 25 km. Conclusions To summarize, elite female open-water ultra-distance swimmers improved in 10 km but impaired in 25 km leading to a linear decrease in sex difference in 10 km and a linear increase in sex difference in 25 km. The linear changes in sex differences

  17. Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Abe, T.; Habu, H.; Kakinami, Y.; Larsen, M. F.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Yamamoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    Neutral Wind Observations below 200 km altitudesS. Watanabe1, T. Abe2, H. Habu2, Y. Kakinami3, M. Larsen4, R. Pfaff5, M. Yamamoto6, M-Y. Yamamoto31Hokkaido University/Hokkaido Information University, 2JAXA/ISAS, 3Kochi University of Technology, 4Clemson University, 5NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Kyoto University, Neutral wind in the thermosphere is one of the key parameters to understand the ionosphere-thermosphere coupling process. JAXA/ISAS successfully launched sounding rockets from Uchinoura Space Center (USC) on September 2, 2007, January 12, 2012, and July 20, 2013, and NASA launched sounding rockets from Kwajalein on May 7, 2013 and from Wallops on July 4, 2013. The rockets installed Lithium and/or TMA canisters as well as instruments for plasma and electric and magnetic fields. The atomic Lithium gases were released at altitudes between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on September 2, 2007, at altitude of ~100 km in the morning on January 12, 2012, at altitude of ~120km in the midnight on July 20, 2013, at altitude between 150 km and 300 km in the evening on May 7, 2013 and at altitude of ~150 km in the noon on July 4, 2013. The Lithium atoms were scattering sunlight by resonance scattering with wavelength of 670nm. However, the Lithium atoms scattered moon light on July 20, 2013. The moon light scattering is the first time to use for thermospheric wind measurement in the midnight. The Lithium clouds/trails and TMA trails showed clearly the neutral wind shears and atmospheric waves at ~150 km altitude in the lower thermosphere for all local time.

  18. News from KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Ulrich F.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea, hosting a multi-cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope and nodes for Earth and Sea sciences. In this report we shortly summarise the genesis of the KM3NeT project and present key elements of its technical design. The physics objectives of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope and some selected sensitivity estimates are discussed. Finally, some first results from prototype operations and the next steps towards implementation – in particular the first construction phase in 2014/15 – are described.

  19. Status of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.

    2016-07-01

    The recent observation of cosmic neutrinos by IceCube has pushed the quest towards the identification of cosmic sources of high-energy particles. The KM3NeT Collaboration is now ready to launch the massive construction of detection units to be installed in deep sea to build a km-cubic size neutrino telescope. The main elements of the detector, the status of the project and the expected perfomances are briefly reported.

  20. Origins of the 520-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The 520-km discontinuity is often explained by the phase transition from wadsleyite to ringwoodite, although the theoretical impedance of this transition is so small that the related converted and reflected seismic phases could hardly be seen in the seismograms. At the same time there are numerous reports on observations of a large discontinuity at this depth, especially in the data on SS precursors and P-wave wide-angle reflections. Revenaugh and Jordan (1991) argued that this discontinuity is related to the garnet/post-garnet transformation. Gu et al. (1998) preferred very deep continental roots extending into the transition zone. Deuss and Woodhouse proposed splitting of the 520-km discontinuity into two discontinuities, whilst Bock (1994) denied evidence of the 520-km discontinuity in the SS precursors. Our approach to this problem is based on the analysis of S and P receiver functions. Most of our data are related to hot-spots in and around the Atlantic where the appropriate converted phases are often comparable in amplitude with P410s and S410p. Both S and P receiver functions provide strong evidence of a low S velocity in a depth range from 450 km to 510 km at some locations. The 520-km discontinuity appears to be the base of this low-velocity layer. Our observations of the low S velocity in the upper transition zone are very consistent with the indications of a drop in the solidus temperature of carbonated peridotite in the same pressure range (Keshav et al. 2011), and this phenomenon provides a viable alternative to the other explanations of the 520-km discontinuity.

  1. Hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1 axis controls energy homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vagner R R; Micheletti, Thayana O; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Morari, Joseane; Mendes, Maria Carolina S; Razolli, Daniela S; Rocha, Guilherme Z; de Souza, Claudio T; Ryu, Dongryeol; Prada, Patrícia O; Velloso, Lício A; Carvalheira, José B C; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Cintra, Dennys E; Ropelle, Eduardo R

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) that has a role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here we show that the S1P/S1PR1 signalling pathway in hypothalamic neurons regulates energy homeostasis in rodents. We demonstrate that S1PR1 protein is highly enriched in hypothalamic POMC neurons of rats. Intracerebroventricular injections of the bioactive lipid, S1P, reduce food consumption and increase rat energy expenditure through persistent activation of STAT3 and the melanocortin system. Similarly, the selective disruption of hypothalamic S1PR1 increases food intake and reduces the respiratory exchange ratio. We further show that STAT3 controls S1PR1 expression in neurons via a positive feedback mechanism. Interestingly, several models of obesity and cancer anorexia display an imbalance of hypothalamic S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 axis, whereas pharmacological intervention ameliorates these phenotypes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the neuronal S1P/S1PR1/STAT3 signalling axis plays a critical role in the control of energy homeostasis in rats. PMID:25255053

  2. Pure Rotational Raman Lidar for Temperature Measurements from 5-40 Km Over Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yajuan; Song, Shalei; Yang, Yong; Li, Faquan; Cheng, Xuewu; Chen, Zhenwei; Liu, Linmei; McCormick, M. Patrick; Gong, Shunsheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper a pure rotational Raman lidar (PRR) was established for the atmospheric temperature measurements from 5 km to 40 km over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E). To extract the expected PRR signals and simultaneously suppress the elastically backscattered light, a high-spectral resolution polychromator for light splitting and filtering was designed. Observational results revealed that the temperature difference measured by PRR lidar and the local radiosonde below 30 km was less than 3.0 K. The good agreement validated the reliability of the PRR lidar. With the 1-h integration and 150-m spatial resolution, the statistical temperature error for PRR lidar increases from 0.4 K at 10 km up to 4 K at altitudes of about 30 km. In addition, the whole night temperature profiles were obtained for study of the long-term observation of atmospheric fluctuations.

  3. The Global S$_1$ Ocean Tide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Egbert, G. D.

    2003-01-01

    The small S$_1$ ocean tide is caused primarily by diurnal atmospheric pressure loading. Its excitation is therefore unlike any other diurnal tide. The global character of $S-1$ is here determined by numerical modeling and by analysis of Topex/Poseidon satellite altimeter data. The two approaches yield reasonably consistent results, and large ( $ greater than $l\\cm) amplitudes in several regions are further confirmed by comparison with coastal tide gauges. Notwithstanding their excitation differences, S$-1$ and other diurnal tides are found to share several common features, such as relatively large amplitudes in the Arabian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, and the Gulf of Alaska. The most noticeable difference is the lack of an S$-1$ Antarctic Kelvin wave. These similarities and differences can be explained in terms of the coherences between near-diurnal oceanic normal modes and the underlying tidal forcings. While gravitational diurnal tidal forces excite primarily a 28-hour Antarctic-Pacific mode, the S$_1$ air tide excites several other near-diurnal modes, none of which has large amplitudes near Antarctica.

  4. Gravity wave vertical energy flux at 95 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, P. G.; Jacka, F.

    1985-01-01

    A three-field photometer (3FP) located at Mt. Torrens near Adelaide, is capable of monitoring different airglow emissions from three spaced fields in the sky. A wheel containing up to six different narrow bandpass interference filters can be rotated, allowing each of the filters to be sequentially placed into each of the three fields. The airglow emission of interest is the 557.7 nm line which has an intensity maximum at 95 km. Each circular field of view is located at the apexes of an equilateral triangle centered on zenith with diameters of 5 km and field separations of 13 km when projected to the 95-km level. The sampling period was 30 seconds and typical data lengths were between 7 and 8 hours. The analysis and results from the interaction of gravity waves on the 557.7 nm emission layer are derived using an atmospheric model similar to that proposed by Hines (1960) where the atmosphere is assumed isothermal and perturbations caused by gravity waves are small and adiabatic, therefore, resulting in linearized equations of motion. In the absence of waves, the atmosphere is also considered stationary. Thirteen nights of quality data from January 1983 to October 1984, covering all seasons, are used in this analysis.

  5. Cape Canaveral, Florida range reference atmosphere 0-70 km altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingle, A. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The RRA contains tabulations for monthly and annual means, standard deviations, skewness coefficients for wind speed, pressure temperature, density, water vapor pressure, virtual temperature, dew-point temperature, and the means and standard deviations for the zonal and meridional wind components and the linear (product moment) correlation coefficient between the wind components. These statistical parameters are tabulated at the station elevation and at 1 km intervals from sea level to 30 km and at 2 km intervals from 30 to 90 km altitude. The wind statistics are given at approximately 10 m above the station elevations and at altitudes with respect to mean sea level thereafter. For those range sites without rocketsonde measurements, the RRAs terminate at 30 km altitude or they are extended, if required, when rocketsonde data from a nearby launch site are available. There are four sets of tables for each of the 12 monthly reference periods and the annual reference period.

  6. Km3Net Italy - Seafloor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaleo, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. INFN and KM3NeT collaboration, thanks to a dedicated funding of 21.000.000 € (PON 2007-2013), are committed to build and deploy the Phase 1 of the telescope, composed of a network of detection units: 8 towers, equipped with single photomultiplier optical modules, and 24 strings, equipped with multi-photomultipliers optical modules. All the towers and strings are connected to the main electro optical cable by means of a network of junction boxes and electro optical interlink cables. Each junction box is an active node able to provide all the necessary power to the detection units and to guarantee the data transmission between the detector and the on-shore control station. The KM3NeT Italia project foresees the realization and the installation of the first part of the deep sea network, composed of three junction boxes, one for the towers and two for the strings. In July 2015, two junction boxes have been deployed and connected to the new cable termination frame installed during the same sea campaign. The third and last one will be installed in November 2015. The status of the deep sea network is presented together with technical details of the project.

  7. Large Circular Basin - 1300-km diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Close-up view of one-half of a 1300-km diameter circular basin the largest observed on Mercury. The other half is hidden beyond the terminator to the left. Hills and valleys extend in a radial fashion outward from the main ring. Interior of the large basin is completely flooded by plains materials; adjacent lowlands are also partially flooded and superimposed on the plains are bowl shaped craters. Wrinkle ridges are abundant on the plains materials. The area shown is 1008 miles (1600 km) from the top to the bottom of the picture. Sun's illumination is from the right. Blurred linear lines extending across the picture near bottom are missing data lines that have been filled in by the computer. Mariner 10 encountered Mercury on Friday, March 29th, 1974, passing the planet on the darkside 431 miles (690-km) from the surface.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    NOTE: This image was scanned from physical media.

  8. Acceleration of barium ions near 8000 km above an aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T. J.; Wescott, E. M.; Foeppl, H.

    1984-01-01

    A barium shaped charge, named Limerick, was released from a rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, on March 30, 1982, at 1033 UT. The release took place in a small auroral breakup. The jet of ionized barium reached an altitude of 8100 km 14.5 min after release, indicating that there were no parallel electric fields below this altitude. At 8100 km the jet appeared to stop. Analysis shows that the barium at this altitude was effectively removed from the tip. It is concluded that the barium was actually accelerated upward, resulting in a large decrease in the line-of-sight density and hence the optical intensity. The parallel electric potential in the acceleration region must have been greater than 1 kV over an altitude interval of less than 200 km. The acceleration region, although presumably auroral in origin, did not seem to be related to individual auroral structures, but appeared to be a large-scale horizontal structure. The perpendicular electric field below, as deduced from the drift of the barium, was temporally and spatially very uniform and showed no variation related to individual auroral structures passing through.

  9. The Global S_1 Tide in Earth's Nutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Einšpigel, David; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-05-01

    Diurnal S_1 tidal oscillations in the coupled atmosphere-ocean system induce small perturbations of Earth's prograde annual nutation, but matching geophysical model estimates of this Sun-synchronous rotation signal with the observed effect in geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data has thus far been elusive. The present study assesses the problem from a geophysical model perspective, using four modern-day atmospheric assimilation systems and a consistently forced barotropic ocean model that dissipates its energy excess in the global abyssal ocean through a parameterized tidal conversion scheme. The use of contemporary meteorological data does, however, not guarantee accurate nutation estimates per se; two of the probed datasets produce atmosphere-ocean-driven S_1 terms that deviate by more than 30 μ as (microarcseconds) from the VLBI-observed harmonic of -16.2+i113.4 μ as. Partial deficiencies of these models in the diurnal band are also borne out by a validation of the air pressure tide against barometric in situ estimates as well as comparisons of simulated sea surface elevations with a global network of S_1 tide gauge determinations. Credence is lent to the global S_1 tide derived from the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the operational model of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). When averaged over a temporal range of 2004 to 2013, their nutation contributions are estimated to be -8.0+i106.0 μ as (MERRA) and -9.4+i121.8 μ as (ECMWF operational), thus being virtually equivalent with the VLBI estimate. This remarkably close agreement will likely aid forthcoming nutation theories in their unambiguous a priori account of Earth's prograde annual celestial motion.

  10. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Because km-scale shear zones play a first-order role in lithospheric kinematics, accurate conceptual and numerical models of orogenic development require predicting when and where they form. Although a strain-based algorithm in the upper crust for weakening due to faulting appears to succeed (e.g., Koons et al., 2010, doi:10.1029/2009TC002463), a comparable general rule for the viscous crust remains unestablished. Here we consider two aspects of the geological argument for a similar algorithm in the viscous regime, namely (1) whether predicting km-scale shear zone development based on a single parameter (such as strain or shear heating) is reasonable; and (2) whether lithologic variability inherent in most orogenic systems precludes a simple predictive rule. A review of tectonically significant shear zones worldwide and more detailed investigations in the Central Gneiss belt of the Ontario segment of the Grenville Province reveals that most km-scale shear zones occur at lithological boundaries and involve mass transfer, but have fairly little else in common. As examples, the relatively flat-lying Twelve Mile Bay shear zone in the western Central Gneiss belt bounds the Parry Sound domain and is likely the product of both localized anatexis and later retrograde hydration with attendant metamorphism. Moderately dipping shear zones in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone apparently resulted from cooperation among several complementary microstructural processes, such as grain size reduction, enhanced diffusion, and a small degree of metamorphic reaction. Localization into shear zones requires the operation of some spatially restricted processes such as stress concentration, metamorphism/fluid access, textural evolution, and thermal perturbation. All of these could be due in part to strain, but not necessarily linearly related to strain. Stress concentrations, such as those that form at rheological boundaries, may be sufficient to nucleate high strain

  11. 45 Km Horizontal Path Optical Link Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, A.; Ceniceros, J.; Novak, M.; Jeganathan, M.; Portillo, A.; Erickson, D.; Depew, J.; Sanii, B.; Lesh, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-top to mountain-top optical link experiments have been initiated at JPL, in order to perform a systems level evaluation of optical communications. Progress made so far is reported. ne NASA, JPL developed optical communications demonstrator (OCD) is used to transmit a laser signal from Strawberry Peak (SP), located in the San Bernadino mountains of California. This laser beam is received by a 0.6 m aperture telescope at JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), located in Wrightwood, California. The optical link is bi-directional with the TMF telescope transmitting a continuous 4-wave (cw) 780 run beacon and the OCD sending back a 840 nm, 100 - 500 Mbps pseudo noise (PN) modulated, laser beam. The optical link path is at an average altitude of 2 km above sea level, covers a range of 46.8 km and provides an atmospheric channel equivalent to approx. 4 air masses. Average received power measured at either end fall well within the uncertainties predicted by link analysis. The reduction in normalized intensity variance (sigma(sup 2, sub I)) for the 4-beam beacon, compared to each individual beam, at SP, was from approx. 0.68 to 0.22. With some allowance for intra-beam mis-alignment, this is consistent with incoherent averaging. The sigma(sup2, sub I) measured at TMF approx. 0.43 +/- 0.22 exceeded the expected aperture averaged value of less than 0.1, probably because of beam wander. The focused spot sizes of approx. 162 +/- 6 microns at the TMF Coude and approx. 64 +/- 3 microns on the OCD compare to the predicted size range of 52 - 172 microns and 57 - 93 microns, respectively. This is consistent with 4 - 5 arcsec of atmospheric "seeing". The preliminary evaluation of OCD's fine tracking indicates that the uncompensated tracking error is approx. 3.3 micro rad compared to approx. 1.7 micro rad observed in the laboratory. Fine tracking performance was intermittent, primarily due to beacon fades on the OCD tracking sensor. The best bit error rates observed while

  12. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-11-17

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel. PMID:26578764

  13. Teleportation of entanglement over 143 km

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Fink, Matthias; Handsteiner, Johannes; Wittmann, Bernhard; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2015-01-01

    As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for unknown quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g., for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e., entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 SDs beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Because our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our research to lay the ground for a fully fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel. PMID:26578764

  14. Peregrine 100-km Sounding Rocket Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The Peregrine Sounding Rocket Program is a joint basic research program of NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Wallops, Stanford University, and the Space Propulsion Group, Inc. (SPG). The goal is to determine the applicability of this technology to a small launch system. The approach is to design, build, and fly a stable, efficient liquefying fuel hybrid rocket vehicle to an altitude of 100 km. The program was kicked off in October of 2006 and has seen considerable progress in the subsequent 18 months. This research group began studying liquifying hybrid rocket fuel technology more than a decade ago. The overall goal of the research was to gain a better understanding of the fundamental physics of the liquid layer entrainment process responsible for the large increase in regression rate observed in these fuels, and to demonstrate the effect of increased regression rate on hybrid rocket motor performance. At the time of this reporting, more than 400 motor tests were conducted with a variety of oxidizers (N2O, GOx, LOx) at ever increasing scales with thrust levels from 5 to over 15,000 pounds (22 N to over 66 kN) in order to move this technology from the laboratory to practical applications. The Peregrine program is the natural next step in this development. A number of small sounding rockets with diameters of 3, 4, and 6 in. (7.6, 10.2, and 15.2 cm) have been flown, but Peregrine at a diameter of 15 in. (38.1 cm) and 14,000-lb (62.3-kN) thrust is by far the largest system ever attempted and will be one of the largest hybrids ever flown. Successful Peregrine flights will set the stage for a wide range of applications of this technology.

  15. Growth of rhodococcus S1 on anthracene.

    PubMed

    Tongpim, S; Pickard, M A

    1996-03-01

    Three slow-growing bacteria were isolated from a mixed culture enriched for growth on anthracene, using creosote-contaminated soil as the inoculum. Organisms were shown to use anthracene by the production of a clear zone around the colony after a mineral salts agar plate was sprayed with anthracene. All three bacteria were nonmotile, nonsporulating, gram-positive rods and stained acid-fast. Physiological and biochemical tests, GC content, and cell wall lipid patterns of whole cell methanolysates indicated that they belonged to the Nocardia-Mycobacterium-Rhodococcus group. On the basis of these characteristics and pyrolysis gas chromatography, they were assigned to the genus Rhodococcus. Growth of the isolates was slow on crystalline anthracene, giving a doubling time of 1.5-3 days, and they grew mainly on the crystal surface. When anthracene was supplied by precipitation from a solvent, doubling time was reduced to 1 day. All three isolates mineralized anthracene but not phenanthrene or naphthalene, nor could they grow on naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, fluoranthene, acenaphthene, pyrene, chrysene, or naphthacene as sole carbon source. One isolate, Rhodococcus S1, was able to use 2-methylanthracene or 2-chloroanthracene as carbon source but not 1- or 9-substituted analogs. These results suggest that the initial enzyme attacking anthracene in these isolates has a narrow substrate specificity. PMID:8868237

  16. FUSE Observations of K--M Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ake, T. B.; Dupree, A. K.; Linsky, J. L.; Harper, G. M.; Young, P. R.

    2000-12-01

    As part of the FUSE PI program, a representative sample of cool stars is being surveyed in the LWRS (30 x 30 arcsec) aperture. We report on recent observations of three late-type stars, AU Mic (HD 197481, M0 Ve), β Gem (HD 62509, K0 IIIb), and α Ori (HD 39801, M1-2 Ia--Iab). AU Mic and β Gem show strong emission lines of O VI 1032/1037 and C III 977/1176 and weaker lines of C II, N II, N III, S IV, Si III, Si IV, and perhaps Fe III. AU Mic has evidence of He II and S III emission, and β Gem shows S I emission. Differences are seen in line ratios and line profiles between these stars. In α Ori, these features are very weak or non-existent, and Fe II fluorescent lines in the 1100-1150 Å region, pumped by H I Lyman α , are present. Several emission lines are still unidentified in all spectra. Prospects for future cool star observations will be discussed. This work is based on data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by the Johns Hopkins University. Financial support to U. S. participants has been provided by NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  17. Triple structure in the 8 km/s water maser source in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas Boas, J. W. S.; Abraham, Z.

    1988-10-01

    The authors report the observations of a triple structure in the 8 km s-1 water maser in Orion. Two of the components are clearly separated in the line profile by about 35 kHz (0.4 km s-1). Differences in the degree of polarization and position angle of the polarization plane across the line profile were detected when the frequency resolution of the measurements were 15 kHz. The authors interpreted the data as a result of the superposition of several components, centered at different velocities and having different values of antenna temperature, degree of polarization and position angle of the polarization plane. Three components were necessary to fit the data. The time behaviour of the flaring source since its detection in 1979 is also described in terms of a multicomponent model.

  18. The Clinically-tested S1P Receptor Agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, Demonstrate Subtype-Specific Bradycardia (S1P1) and Hypertension (S1P3) in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Ryan M.; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Harrison, Paul C.; Nodop Mazurek, Suzanne; Chen, Rong Rhonda; Harrington, Kyle E.; Dinallo, Roger M.; Horan, Joshua C.; Patnaude, Lori; Modis, Louise K.; Reinhart, Glenn A.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1PX receptor agonist) produces modest hypertension in patients (2–3 mmHg in 1-yr trial) as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension), and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P1,5 agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min) or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min) elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P1 mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d) elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls), BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d) had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P3 receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P1 receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P3 receptor activation. PMID:23285242

  19. The clinically-tested S1P receptor agonists, FTY720 and BAF312, demonstrate subtype-specific bradycardia (S1P₁) and hypertension (S1P₃) in rat.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Ryan M; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Harrison, Paul C; Nodop Mazurek, Suzanne; Chen, Rong Rhonda; Harrington, Kyle E; Dinallo, Roger M; Horan, Joshua C; Patnaude, Lori; Modis, Louise K; Reinhart, Glenn A

    2012-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phospate (S1P) and S1P receptor agonists elicit mechanism-based effects on cardiovascular function in vivo. Indeed, FTY720 (non-selective S1P(X) receptor agonist) produces modest hypertension in patients (2-3 mmHg in 1-yr trial) as well as acute bradycardia independent of changes in blood pressure. However, the precise receptor subtypes responsible is controversial, likely dependent upon the cardiovascular response in question (e.g. bradycardia, hypertension), and perhaps even species-dependent since functional differences in rodent, rabbit, and human have been suggested. Thus, we characterized the S1P receptor subtype specificity for each compound in vitro and, in vivo, the cardiovascular effects of FTY720 and the more selective S1P₁,₅ agonist, BAF312, were tested during acute i.v. infusion in anesthetized rats and after oral administration for 10 days in telemetry-instrumented conscious rats. Acute i.v. infusion of FTY720 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0 mg/kg/20 min) or BAF312 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/20 min) elicited acute bradycardia in anesthetized rats demonstrating an S1P₁ mediated mechanism-of-action. However, while FTY720 (0.5, 1.5, 5.0 mg/kg/d) elicited dose-dependent hypertension after multiple days of oral administration in rat at clinically relevant plasma concentrations (24-hr mean blood pressure = 8.4, 12.8, 16.2 mmHg above baseline vs. 3 mmHg in vehicle controls), BAF312 (0.3, 3.0, 30.0 mg/kg/d) had no significant effect on blood pressure at any dose tested suggesting that hypertension produced by FTY720 is mediated S1P₃ receptors. In summary, in vitro selectivity results in combination with studies performed in anesthetized and conscious rats administered two clinically tested S1P agonists, FTY720 or BAF312, suggest that S1P₁ receptors mediate bradycardia while hypertension is mediated by S1P₃ receptor activation. PMID:23285242

  20. Photolabelling of mutant forms of the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin with NAD+.

    PubMed Central

    Cieplak, W; Locht, C; Mar, V L; Burnette, W N; Keith, J M

    1990-01-01

    The S1 subunit of pertussis toxin catalyses the hydrolysis of NAD+ (NAD+ glycohydrolysis) and the NAD(+)-dependent ADP-ribosylation of guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins. Recently, the S1 subunit of pertussis toxin was shown to be photolabelled by using radiolabelled NAD+ and u.v.; the primary labelled residue was Glu-129, thereby implicating this residue in the binding of NAD+. Studies from various laboratories have shown that the N-terminal portion of the S1 subunit, which shows sequence similarity to cholera toxin and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, is important to the maintenance of both glycohydrolase and transferase activity. In the present study the photolabelling technique was applied to the analysis of a series of recombinant-derived S1 molecules that possessed deletions or substitutions near the N-terminus of the S1 molecule. The results revealed a positive correlation between the extent of photolabelling with NAD+ and the magnitude of specific NAD+ glycohydrolase activity exhibited by the mutants. Enzyme kinetic analyses of the N-terminal mutants also identified a mutant with substantially reduced activity, a depressed photolabelling efficiency and a markedly increased Km for NAD+. The results support a direct role for the N-terminal region of the S1 subunit in the binding of NAD+, thereby providing a rationale for the effect of mutations in this region on enzymic activity. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2363691

  1. Intersystem crossing rates of S1 state keto-amino cytosine at low excess energy.

    PubMed

    Lobsiger, Simon; Etinski, Mihajlo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Marian, Christel; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-12-21

    The amino-keto tautomer of supersonic jet-cooled cytosine undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) from the v = 0 and low-lying vibronic levels of its S1((1)ππ(∗)) state. We investigate these ISC rates experimentally and theoretically as a function of S1 state vibrational excess energy Eexc. The S1 vibronic levels are pumped with a ∼5 ns UV laser, the S1 and triplet state ion signals are separated by prompt or delayed ionization with a second UV laser pulse. After correcting the raw ISC yields for the relative S1 and T1 ionization cross sections, we obtain energy dependent ISC quantum yields QISC (corr)=1%-5%. These are combined with previously measured vibronic state-specific decay rates, giving ISC rates kISC = 0.4-1.5 ⋅ 10(9) s(-1), the corresponding S1⇝S0 internal conversion (IC) rates are 30-100 times larger. Theoretical ISC rates are computed using SCS-CC2 methods, which predict rapid ISC from the S1; v = 0 state with kISC = 3 ⋅ 10(9) s(-1) to the T1((3)ππ(∗)) triplet state. The surprisingly high rate of this El Sayed-forbidden transition is caused by a substantial admixture of (1)nOπ(∗) character into the S1((1)ππ(∗)) wave function at its non-planar minimum geometry. The combination of experiment and theory implies that (1) below Eexc = 550 cm(-1) in the S1 state, S1⇝S0 internal conversion dominates the nonradiative decay with kIC ≥ 2 ⋅ 10(10) s(-1), (2) the calculated S1⇝T1 ((1)ππ(∗)⇝(3)ππ(∗)) ISC rate is in good agreement with experiment, (3) being El-Sayed forbidden, the S1⇝T1 ISC is moderately fast (kISC = 3 ⋅ 10(9) s(-1)), and not ultrafast, as claimed by other calculations, and (4) at Eexc ∼ 550 cm(-1) the IC rate increases by ∼50 times, probably by accessing the lowest conical intersection (the C5-twist CI) and thereby effectively switching off the ISC decay channels. PMID:26696056

  2. Intersystem crossing rates of S1 state keto-amino cytosine at low excess energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobsiger, Simon; Etinski, Mihajlo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Marian, Christel; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    The amino-keto tautomer of supersonic jet-cooled cytosine undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) from the v = 0 and low-lying vibronic levels of its S1(1ππ∗) state. We investigate these ISC rates experimentally and theoretically as a function of S1 state vibrational excess energy Eexc. The S1 vibronic levels are pumped with a ˜5 ns UV laser, the S1 and triplet state ion signals are separated by prompt or delayed ionization with a second UV laser pulse. After correcting the raw ISC yields for the relative S1 and T1 ionization cross sections, we obtain energy dependent ISC quantum yields QISC corr = 1 % -5%. These are combined with previously measured vibronic state-specific decay rates, giving ISC rates kISC = 0.4-1.5 ṡ 109 s-1, the corresponding S1⇝S0 internal conversion (IC) rates are 30-100 times larger. Theoretical ISC rates are computed using SCS-CC2 methods, which predict rapid ISC from the S1; v = 0 state with kISC = 3 ṡ 109 s-1 to the T1(3ππ∗) triplet state. The surprisingly high rate of this El Sayed-forbidden transition is caused by a substantial admixture of 1nOπ∗ character into the S1(1ππ∗) wave function at its non-planar minimum geometry. The combination of experiment and theory implies that (1) below Eexc = 550 cm-1 in the S1 state, S1⇝S0 internal conversion dominates the nonradiative decay with kIC ≥ 2 ṡ 1010 s-1, (2) the calculated S1⇝T1 (1ππ∗⇝3ππ∗) ISC rate is in good agreement with experiment, (3) being El-Sayed forbidden, the S1⇝T1 ISC is moderately fast (kISC = 3 ṡ 109 s-1), and not ultrafast, as claimed by other calculations, and (4) at Eexc ˜ 550 cm-1 the IC rate increases by ˜50 times, probably by accessing the lowest conical intersection (the C5-twist CI) and thereby effectively switching off the ISC decay channels.

  3. Exogenous S1P Exposure Potentiates Ischemic Stroke Damage That Is Reduced Possibly by Inhibiting S1P Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunjung; Han, Jeong Eun; Jeon, Sejin; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Initial and recurrent stroke produces central nervous system (CNS) damage, involving neuroinflammation. Receptor-mediated S1P signaling can influence neuroinflammation and has been implicated in cerebral ischemia through effects on the immune system. However, S1P-mediated events also occur within the brain itself where its roles during stroke have been less well studied. Here we investigated the involvement of S1P signaling in initial and recurrent stroke by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (M/R) model combined with analyses of S1P signaling. Gene expression for S1P receptors and involved enzymes was altered during M/R, supporting changes in S1P signaling. Direct S1P microinjection into the normal CNS induced neuroglial activation, implicating S1P-initiated neuroinflammatory responses that resembled CNS changes seen during initial M/R challenge. Moreover, S1P microinjection combined with M/R potentiated brain damage, approximating a model for recurrent stroke dependent on S1P and suggesting that reduction in S1P signaling could ameliorate stroke damage. Delivery of FTY720 that removes S1P signaling with chronic exposure reduced damage in both initial and S1P-potentiated M/R-challenged brain, while reducing stroke markers like TNF-α. These results implicate direct S1P CNS signaling in the etiology of initial and recurrent stroke that can be therapeutically accessed by S1P modulators acting within the brain. PMID:26576074

  4. Blocking S1P interaction with S1P{sub 1} receptor by a novel competitive S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist inhibits angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yasuji; Ohtake, Hidenori; Ono, Naoya; Takayama, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Goitsuka, Ryo

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of a newly developed S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist on angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vitro activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist showed in vivo activity to inhibit angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficacy of S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist for anti-cancer therapies. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P{sub 1}) was shown to be essential for vascular maturation during embryonic development and it has been demonstrated that substantial crosstalk exists between S1P{sub 1} and other pro-angiogenic growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor. We developed a novel S1P{sub 1}-selective antagonist, TASP0277308, which is structurally unrelated to S1P as well as previously described S1P{sub 1} antagonists. TASP0277308 inhibited S1P- as well as VEGF-induced cellular responses, including migration and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Furthermore, TASP0277308 effectively blocked a VEGF-induced tube formation in vitro and significantly suppressed tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. These findings revealed that S1P{sub 1} is a critical component of VEGF-related angiogenic responses and also provide evidence for the efficacy of TASP0277308 for anti-cancer therapies.

  5. A 700 km long crustal transect across northern Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Gallart, Josep; Díaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Harnafi, Mimoun; Ouraini, Fadila; Ayarza, Puy; Teixell, Antonio; Arboleya, Maria Luisa; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Two controlled-source wide angle seismic reflection experiments have been acquired recently (2010 and 2011) in northern Africa across Morocco. A lithospheric scale transect can be constructed by joining both data sets. Hence, an approximately 700 km-long seismic velocity cross section can be derived. From south-to-north the transect goes from the Sahara Platform, south of Merzouga, to Tanger in the north. The first experiment, SIMA, aimed to constrain the crustal structure across the Atlas Mountains. The Rif, the orogenic belt located just south of the coast of Alboran Sea, was the target of the second experiment, RIFSIS. In both cases 900 recording instruments (TEXANS) from the IRIS-PASSCAL instrument center were used to record the acoustic energy generated by explosion shots. In both experiments the shots consisted of 1 TM of explosives fired in ~30 m deep boreholes. Although the data quality varies from shot to shot, key seismic phases as Pg, PmP, Pn, and a few intra-crustal arrivals have been identified to constrain the velocity-depth structure along the whole transect. Forward modelling of the seismic reflection/refraction phases reveals a crust consisting of 3 layers in average. The Moho topography shows from south to north a relatively moderate crustal root beneath the High Atlas, which can reach 40-42 km depth. The crust is thicker beneath the Rif where the Moho is imaged as an asymmetric feature that locally defines a crustal root reaching depths of 50 km and suggesting a crustal imbrication. P wave velocities are rather low in the crust and upper mantle. First arrivals/reflections tomography supports the forward modelling results. Low fold wide-angle stacks obtained by using hyperbolic move-out reveals the geometry of the Moho along the entire transect. Beneath the Atlas, the moderate crustal root inferred is not isostatically consistent with the high surface elevations, hence supporting the idea of a 'mantle plume' as main contributor to the Atlas

  6. Conformationally Constrained, Stable, Triplet Ground State (S = 1) Nitroxide Diradicals. Antiferromagnetic Chains of S = 1 Diradicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rajca, Andrzej; Takahashi, Masahiro; Pink, Maren; Spagnol, Gaelle; Rajca, Suchada

    2008-06-30

    Nitroxide diradicals, in which nitroxides are annelated to m-phenylene forming tricyclic benzobisoxazine-like structures, have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, magnetic resonance (EPR and {sup 1}H NMR) spectroscopy, as well as magnetic studies in solution and in solid state. For the octamethyl derivative of benzobisoxazine nitroxide diradical, the conformationally constrained nitroxide moieties are coplanar with the m-phenylene, leading to large values of 2J (2J/k > 200 K in solution and 2J/k >> 300 K in the solid state). For the diradical, in which all ortho and para positions of the m-phenylene are sterically shielded, distortion of the nitroxide moieties from coplanarity is moderate, such that the singlet-triplet gaps remain large in both solution (2J/k > 200 K) and the solid state (2J/k {approx} 400-800 K), though an onset of thermal depopulation of the triplet ground state is detectable near room temperature. These diradicals have robust triplet ground states with strong ferromagnetic coupling and good stability at ambient conditions. Magnetic behavior of the nitroxide diradicals at low temperature is best fit to the model of one-dimensional S = 1 Heisenberg chains with intrachain antiferromagnetic coupling. The antiferromagnetic coupling between the S = 1 diradicals may be associated with the methyl nitroxide C-H {hor_ellipsis} O contacts, including nonclassical hydrogen bonds. These unprecedented organic S = 1 antiferromagnetic chains are highly isotropic, compared to those of the extensively studied Ni(II)-based chains.

  7. Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation in endothelial cells by S1P1 and S1P3.

    PubMed

    Tölle, M; Klöckl, L; Wiedon, A; Zidek, W; van der Giet, M; Schuchardt, M

    2016-08-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a crucial role in vascular homeostasis. Lysophospholipid interaction with sphingosine 1-phosphat (S1P) receptors results in eNOS activation in different cells. In endothelial cells, eNOS activation via S1P1 or S1P3 was shown controversially. The aim of this study is to investigate the meaning of both S1P receptors for eNOS activation in human endothelial cells. Therefore, several S1P1 and S1P3 agonists in combination with antagonists and specific RNAi approach were used. eNOS activation was measured in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) via DAF2-DA-based fluorescence microscopy. For investigation of the signaling pathway, agonists/antagonist studies, RNAi approach, Luminex™ multiplex, and Western Blot were used. In HUVEC, both the S1P1 agonist AUY954 as well as the S1P1,3 agonist FTY720P induced eNOS activation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Other S1P1 agonists activated eNOS to a lesser extent. The AUY954-induced eNOS activation was blocked by the S1P1 antagonist W146, the combination of W146 and the S1P3 antagonist CAY10444 and the S1P1,3 antagonist VPC23019, but not by CAY10444 indicating the meaning of S1P1 for the AUY954-induced eNOS activation. The FTY720P-induced eNOS activation was blocked only by the combination of W146 and CAY10444 and the combined S1P1,3 antagonist VPC23019, but not by W146 or CAY10444 indicating the importance of both S1P1 and S1P3 for FTY720-induced eNOS activation. These results were confirmed using specific siRNA against S1P1 and S1P3. The S1P1,3 activation results in Akt phosphorylation and subsequent activation of eNOS via phosphorylation at serine(1177) and dephosphorylation at threonine(495). Beside former investigations with rather unspecific S1P receptor activation these data show potent selective S1P1 activation by using AUY954 and with selective S1P receptor inhibition evidence was provided that both S1P1 and S1P3 lead to downstream activation of eNOS in

  8. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Bolli, P.; Brucato, J.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2014-07-01

    Comets are pristine bodies of the Solar System and their studies can give precious hints on the formation of the Solar System itself. New comets, coming form the Oort Colud at their first passage close to the Sun, are particularly important, because they are not differentiated by the Solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH_3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz in comet C/2012 S1 ISON using a new dual-feed K-band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet once close to its perihelion, from 2013 Nov. 25 to Nov. 28, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 au to 0.03 au. We integrated about 6 hrs per day, obtaining high-spectral-resolution (1 km/s) spectra with a typical rms noise of 10 mK. Such sensitivity allowed us to derive an upper limit of Q(NH_3) of about 2.5 ×10^{29} mol/s on November 26. This upper limit would correspond to a Q(H_2O) of about 2.5 ×10^{31} mol/s, assuming the typical Q(H_2O)/Q(NH_3) ratio of 100. These findings confirm that no significant Q(H_2O) enhancement happened near the perihelion, consistent with a definitive decrease of molecules production rate.

  9. MODIS 3km Aerosol Product: Algorithm and Global Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remer, L. A.; Mattoo, S.; Levy, R. C.; Munchak, L.

    2013-01-01

    After more than a decade of producing a nominal 10 km aerosol product based on the dark target method, the MODIS aerosol team will be releasing a nominal 3 km product as part of their Collection 6 release. The new product differs from the original 10 km product only in the manner in which reflectance pixels are ingested, organized and selected by the aerosol algorithm. Overall, the 3 km product closely mirrors the 10 km product. However, the finer resolution product is able to retrieve over ocean closer to islands and coastlines, and is better able to resolve fine aerosol features such as smoke plumes over both ocean and land. In some situations, it provides retrievals over entire regions that the 10 km product barely samples. In situations traditionally difficult for the dark target algorithm, such as over bright or urban surfaces the 3 km product introduces isolated spikes of artificially high aerosol optical depth (AOD) that the 10 km algorithm avoids. Over land, globally, the 3 km product appears to be 0.01 to 0.02 higher than the 10 km product, while over ocean, the 3 km algorithm is retrieving a proportionally greater number of very low aerosol loading situations. Based on collocations with ground-based observations for only six months, expected errors associated with the 3 km land product are determined to be greater than for the 10 km product: 0.05 0.25 AOD. Over ocean, the suggestion is for expected errors to be the same as the 10 km product: 0.03 0.05 AOD. The advantage of the product is on the local scale, which will require continued evaluation not addressed here. Nevertheless, the new 3 km product is expected to provide important information complementary to existing satellite-derived products and become an important tool for the aerosol community.

  10. Dependence of the bit error rate on the signal power and length of a single-channel coherent single-span communication line (100 Gbit s-1) with polarisation division multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurkin, N. V.; Konyshev, V. A.; Nanii, O. E.; Novikov, A. G.; Treshchikov, V. N.; Ubaydullaev, R. R.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied experimentally and using numerical simulations and a phenomenological analytical model the dependences of the bit error rate (BER) on the signal power and length of a coherent single-span communication line with transponders employing polarisation division multiplexing and four-level phase modulation (100 Gbit s-1 DP-QPSK format). In comparing the data of the experiment, numerical simulations and theoretical analysis, we have found two optimal powers: the power at which the BER is minimal and the power at which the fade margin in the line is maximal. We have derived and analysed the dependences of the BER on the optical signal power at the fibre line input and the dependence of the admissible input signal power range for implementation of the communication lines with a length from 30 - 50 km up to a maximum length of 250 km.

  11. Roles for lysophospholipid S1P receptors in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kyoko; Chun, Jerold

    2011-02-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been highlighted by the efficacy of FTY720 (fingolimod), which upon phosphorylation can modulate S1P receptor activities. FTY720 has become the first oral treatment for relapsing MS that was approved by the FDA in September 2010. Phosphorylated FTY720 modulates four of the five known S1P receptors (S1P(1), S1P(3), S1P(4), and S1P(5)) at high affinity. Studies in human MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have revealed that FTY720 exposure alters lymphocyte trafficking via sequestration of auto-aggressive lymphocytes within lymphoid organs, representing the current understanding of its mechanism of action. These effects primarily involve S1P(1), which is thought to attenuate inflammatory insults in the central nervous system (CNS). In addition, FTY720's actions may involve direct effects on S1P receptor-mediated signaling in CNS cells, based upon the known expression of S1P receptors in CNS cell types relevant to MS, access to the CNS through the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and in vitro studies. These data implicate lysophospholipid signaling--via S1P(1) and perhaps other lysophospholipid receptors--in therapeutic approaches to MS and potentially other diseases with immunological and/or neurological components. PMID:20979571

  12. CHARACTERIZING THE DUST COMA OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON) AT 4.15 AU FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jian-Yang; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Knight, Matthew M.; Weaver, Harold A.; Mutchler, Max J.; Lamy, Philippe; Toth, Imre E-mail: msk@astro.umd.edu E-mail: ma@astro.umd.edu E-mail: knight@lowell.edu E-mail: mutchler@stsci.edu E-mail: tothi@konkoly.hu

    2013-12-10

    We report results from broadband visible images of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 on 2013 April 10. C/ISON's coma brightness follows a 1/ρ (where ρ is the projected distance from the nucleus) profile out to 5000 km, consistent with a constant speed dust outflow model. The turnaround distance in the sunward direction suggests that the dust coma is composed of sub-micron-sized particles emitted at speeds of tens of m s{sup –1}. A(θ)fρ, which is commonly used to characterize the dust production rate, was 1340 and 1240 cm in the F606W and F438W filters, respectively, in apertures <1.''6 in radius. The dust colors are slightly redder than solar, with a slope of 5.0% ± 0.2% per 100 nm, increasing to >10% per 100 nm 10,000 km down the tail. The colors are similar to those of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) and other long-period comets, but somewhat bluer than typical values for short-period comets. The spatial color variations are also reminiscent of C/Hale-Bopp. A sunward jet is visible in enhanced images, curving to the north and then tailward in the outer coma. The 1.''6 long jet is centered at a position angle of 291°, with an opening angle of ∼45°. The jet morphology remains unchanged over 19 hr of our observations, suggesting that it is near the rotational pole of the nucleus, and implying that the pole points to within 30° of (R.A., decl.) = (330°, 0°). This pole orientation indicates a high obliquity of 50°-80°.

  13. Microphysical Model of the Venus clouds between 40km and 80km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGouldrick, Kevin

    2013-10-01

    I am continuing to adapt the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA) to successfully simulate the multi-layered clouds of Venus. The present version of the one-dimensional model now includes a simple parameterization of the photochemicial production of sulfuric acid around altitudes of 62km, and its thermochemical destruction below cloud base. Photochemical production in the model is limited by the availability of water vapor and insolation. Upper cloud particles are introduced into the model via binary homogeneous nucleation, while the lower and middle cloud particles are created via activation of involatile cloud condensation nuclei. Growth by condensation and coagulation and coalescence are also treated. Mass loadings and particle sizes compare favorably with the in situ observations by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe Particle Size Spectrometer, and mixing ratios of volatiles compare favorably with remotely sensed observations of water vapor and sulfuric acid vapor. This work was supported by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program, grant number NNX11AD79G.

  14. Resonating Valence Bond states for low dimensional S=1 antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai

    2014-03-01

    We study S = 1 spin liquid states in low dimensions. We show that the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) picture of S = 1 / 2 spin liquid state can be generalized to S = 1 case. For S = 1 system, a many-body singlet (with even site number) can be decomposed into superposition of products of two-body singlets. In other words, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are over complete to span the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. Furthermore, we generalized fermionic representation and the corresponding mean field theory and Gutzwiller projected stats to S = 1 models. We applied our theory to study 1D anti-ferromagnetic bilinear-biquadratic model and show that both the ground states (including the phase transition point) and the excited states can be understood excellently well within the framework. Our method can be applied to 2D S = 1 antiferromagnets.

  15. 26 CFR 1.414(s)-1 - Definition of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prior regulation provisions of § 1.414(s)-1T. (See § 1.414(s)-1T as contained in the CFR edition revised... to the extent necessary to satisfy the requirements of 29 CFR 2530.204-2(d) (regarding double... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of compensation. 1.414(s)-1 Section...

  16. Estimation and Attribution of the Temperature Variances in Height Range 60~140 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zeyu

    The SABER/TIMED temperatures collected during 2002 2006 are used to estimate for height range 60 120 km the variances of temperature (Temp-VARs) that are contributed from nonstationary perturbations. The estimation results disclose that the height range 60 140 km can be separated into two regions that are characterized by significant differences of the attributions of the Temp-VARs. In the region below 100 km height, the Temp-VARs generally increase with height, the corresponding standard deviations of temperature (Temp-SDEVs) ranges from 4 K at 60 km and 18 K at 100 km. The regions exhibiting intense Temp-VARs appear at the equator and the extra-tropics of both hemispheres. Moreover, these non-stationary temperature disturbances can be accounted primarily by the tidal variances that are derived independently by using the same data-set, in particular by the migrating diurnal, semidiurnal, and terdiurnal tide. It is also found that the region above 100 km is characterized by surprisingly large Temp-VARs with the corresponding Temp-SDEVs greater than 30 K. In a height-latitude cross-section, a stagnant maximum of Temp-SDEVs embraced by the 30-K contour remains over the course of a year at the Equator in a narrow height range 110 125 km. At the same height in Southern hemisphere, the same kind maxima appears at latitudes from the extra-tropics to polar region except during the June solstice. In contrast, the maxima appearing in Northern hemisphere high latitudes exhibits intra-seasonal variations, there such maximum are seen during the course of a year. Further investigation results confirm that the large Temp-VARs have no relevance to the tidal variances, implying the control from other processes, e.g., non-stationary planetary waves. The details will be introduced in the presentation.

  17. The time behaviour of the 8 km/s water maser source in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Z.; Vilas Boas, J. W. S.; del Ciampo, L. F.

    1986-10-01

    The authors report the time behaviour of the 8 km s-1 water maser source in Orion during the period of August 1979 - November 1985. Four flares were detected, with rise times of the order of a month and decay times of the order of several months to a year. The source presented a high degree of linear polarization (40% - 60%), independent of the value of the intensity. The polarization angle varied between -3° and -36°, imposing constraints on possible models of the emitting region.

  18. The two stellar occultations of November 14, 2003: revealing Titan's stratosphere at sub-km resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicardy, B.; Colas, F.; Widemann, T.; Fienga, A.; Lacour, S.; Lecacheux, J.; Lellouch, E.; Pau, S.; Renner, S.; Roques, F.; Glass, I.; Baba, D.; Nagata, T.; Ferri, F.; Martinez, C.; Beisker, W.; Enke, S.; Bath, K.-L.; Bode, F.; Bode, H.-J.; Fiel, D.; Kretlow, M.; Hernandez, M.; Horns, D.; Luedemann, J.; Luedemann, H.; Tegtmeier, A.; deWitt, C.; Fraser, B.; Jones, T.; Shonau, P.; Turk, C.; Meintjies, P.; Howell, R. R.; Kidger, M.; Ortiz, J. L.; Rosenzweig, P.; Naranjo, O.; Rapaport, M.

    2004-11-01

    On November 14, 2003, Titan occulted two bright Tycho stars (V= 8.4 and V= 10.3). The first event was observed in the Indian Ocean and southern Africa, while the second one was followed from western Europe, northern and central Americas. Data were gathered by both professional and amateur astronomers, using fixed and portable telescopes at wavelengths ranging from visible to near IR (K band). Inversion of the light curves provide sub-km resolution density and temperature profiles of Titan's upper stratosphere (altitude range ˜ 250-550 km, pressure ˜ 1-250 μ bar). A well confined inversion layer, with a temperature increase of more than 15 K in about 6 km, is ubiquitous in the data near 510 km altitude (1 μ bar). This global feature is either due to a localized heating source or to dynamical processes yet to be determined. A central flash is visible in five of the light curves taken from the first event. We model the flash shape and intensity, using ray tracing with a prescribed limb shape (linked to a given zonal wind regime) and opacity. Observations are consistent with a strong jet at northern latitudes ( ˜ 200 m s-1 at latitude 55N), decreasing to ˜ 140m s-1 at equator, and tapering off to zero in the sourthern hemisphere. We do not detect the northern polar hood predicted by some GCM models, up to latitude 67N. Thus, the polar hood is either non-existent, or is present at latitudes north of 67N.

  19. File Specification for the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run, Ganymed Release Non-Hydrostatic 7-km Global Mesoscale Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Putman, William; Nattala, J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the gridded output files produced by a two-year global, non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulation for the period 2005-2006 produced with the non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5 Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM). In addition to standard meteorological parameters (wind, temperature, moisture, surface pressure), this simulation includes 15 aerosol tracers (dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. This model simulation is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperature and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. A description of the GEOS-5 model configuration used for this simulation can be found in Putman et al. (2014). The simulation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 7 km using a cubed-sphere horizontal grid with 72 vertical levels, extending up to to 0.01 hPa (approximately 80 km). For user convenience, all data products are generated on two logically rectangular longitude-latitude grids: a full-resolution 0.0625 deg grid that approximately matches the native cubed-sphere resolution, and another 0.5 deg reduced-resolution grid. The majority of the full-resolution data products are instantaneous with some fields being time-averaged. The reduced-resolution datasets are mostly time-averaged, with some fields being instantaneous. Hourly data intervals are used for the reduced-resolution datasets, while 30-minute intervals are used for the full-resolution products. All full-resolution output is on the model's native 72-layer hybrid sigma-pressure vertical grid, while the reduced-resolution output is given on native vertical levels and on 48 pressure surfaces extending up to 0.02 hPa. Section 4 presents additional details on horizontal and vertical grids. Information of the model surface representation can be found in Appendix B. The GEOS-5 product is organized into file collections that are described in detail in Appendix C. Additional

  20. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  1. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  2. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  3. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  4. 7 CFR 29.1035 - Mixed color (KM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mixed color (KM). 29.1035 Section 29.1035 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1035 Mixed color (KM). Distinctly different colors of the type mingled together....

  5. Exploring KM Features of High-Performance Companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei-Wen

    2007-12-01

    For reacting to an increasingly rival business environment, many companies emphasize the importance of knowledge management (KM). It is a favorable way to explore and learn KM features of high-performance companies. However, finding out the critical KM features of high-performance companies is a qualitative analysis problem. To handle this kind of problem, the rough set approach is suitable because it is based on data-mining techniques to discover knowledge without rigorous statistical assumptions. Thus, this paper explored KM features of high-performance companies by using the rough set approach. The results show that high-performance companies stress the importance on both tacit and explicit knowledge, and consider that incentives and evaluations are the essentials to implementing KM.

  6. Precision polarizability measurements of atomic cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; Kortyna, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We report hyperfine-resolved scalar polarizabilities for cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states using resonant two-photon spectroscopy. Two single-mode, external-cavity diode lasers drive the 6 s 2S1 / 2 --> 6 p 2P1 / 2 --> ns 2S1 / 2 transition (n = 8 or 9). Both laser beams are split and counter-propagate through an effusive beam and a vapor cell. An electric field applied across two parallel plates imposes Stark shifts on the ns 2S1 / 2 levels in the effusive beam. Electric-field strengths are measured in situ. The laser frequency is calibrated in the vapor cell using a phase modulation technique, with the modulation frequency referenced to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of atomic rubidium. Our measured 8 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 38370 +/- 380 a03, agrees with previous theory and experiments. Our measured 9 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 150700 +/- 1100 a03, agrees within two sigma of theory, but we are unaware of previous measurements. We also verify that these polarizabilities are independent of the hyperfine levels, placing upper limits on the differential polarizabilities of 200 +/- 260 a03 for the 8 s 2S1 / 2 state and 490 +/- 450 a03 for the 9 s 2S1 / 2 state. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0653107.

  7. Eddy diffusion coefficients and the variance of the atmosphere 30-60 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Belmont, A. D.; Brown, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The results of numerical models or of new observational programs are checked by comparing them with past observations. In view of the differing analysis techniques or differing data samples, the eddy diffusivities presented here agree remarkably well with past estimates. However, in the application of K-values to two-dimensional models, the actual magnitude of the diffusivities is no more important than their spatial patterns, i.e., their gradients with height and latitude. It should thus be noted that the present patterns are often much different from those of past results.

  8. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) KM Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnadoe, Tom; McCarter, Mike

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center s Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities with in the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center Of Excellence (AISCE), Intergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KM implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to support the planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have been performed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural/KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  9. Equatorial composition in the 137- to 225-km region from the San Marco 3 mass spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, G. P.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Pelz, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    The neutral atmospheric composition experiment (Nace) carried by the San Marco 3 (SM 3) satellite measured the equatorial atmospheric composition during the reentry period of Nov. 21-28, 1971. The mass density and molecular nitrogen density measured by the Nace are in agreement with values measured by rocket experiments and inferred from satellite experiments. The average total oxygen content measured by Nace is 30% below the value suggested by von Zahn at 150-km altitude. When it is assumed that his value for the molecular oxygen density at 150 km represents averaged rocket results applicable to the equatorial thermosphere, the Nace total oxygen content results in an atomic oxygen concentration comparable to the mean value of Cira (1965). The Nace helium measurements interpreted in terms of an altitude profile have an altitude distribution similar to that of molecular nitrogen below 165 km.

  10. The KM phase in semi-realistic heterotic orbifold models

    SciTech Connect

    Giedt, Joel

    2000-07-05

    In string-inspired semi-realistic heterotic orbifolds models with an anomalous U(1){sub X},a nonzero Kobayashi-Masakawa (KM) phase is shown to arise generically from the expectation values of complex scalar fields, which appear in nonrenormalizable quark mass couplings. Modular covariant nonrenormalizable superpotential couplings are constructed. A toy Z{sub 3} orbifold model is analyzed in some detail. Modular symmetries and orbifold selection rules are taken into account and do not lead to a cancellation of the KM phase. We also discuss attempts to obtain the KM phase solely from renormalizable interactions.

  11. Pre-perihelion characterization of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Kelley, M. S.; Farnham, T. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Knight, M. M.; Weaver, H. A.; Mutchler, M.; Lamy, P. L.; Toth, I.

    2013-12-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) is a dynamically new comet on a sungrazing orbit. As such, C/ISON represents a unique opportunity to study both the cosmic-ray-irradiated surface, produced during the comet's long residence in the Oort cloud, and much deeper layers in the nucleus, exposed when the comet passes within 2 solar radii of the Sun at perihelion. During the first phase of our investigation, we collected broadband images of C/ISON on April 10, 2012 at a heliocentric distance of 4.15 AU, using the Hubble Space Telescope WFC3/UVIS. We used the F606W and F438W filters in three HST orbits covering a total span of ~19 hrs. The comet shows a well delineated coma in the sunward direction extending about 2" from the nucleus, and a dust tail at least 25" long. The coma has an average red color of 5%/0.1 micron within 1.6" from the nucleus, becoming redder towards the tail. Both the color and the size of the coma in the sunward direction are consistent with outflow of micron sized dust. Broadband photometry yielded Afρ of 1376 cm at 589 nm, and 1281 cm at 433 nm, measured with a 1.6" radius aperture. The total brightness of the comet within a 0.12" radius aperture remained unchanged within 0.03 mag for the entire duration of the observations. A well defined sunward jet is visible after removing the 1/ρ brightness distribution. The jet is centered at position angle 290 deg (E of Celestial N), with a cone angle of 45 deg, a projected length of 1.6", and a slight curvature towards the north near the end. No temporal change in the morphology is observed, suggesting the jet is circumpolar. Under this assumption, the jet's apparent position constrains the rotational pole to lie within 30 deg of (RA, Dec) = (330, 0), and an obliquity of 50-80 deg. Preliminary analysis using a coma-nucleus separation technique suggests a nuclear radius less than 2 km. The survival of such a small nucleus during its perihelion at 2.7 solar radii is certainly questionable.

  12. L-leucine transport systems in Saccharomyces cerevisiae participation of GAP1, S1 and S2 transport systems.

    PubMed

    Kotliar, N; Stella, C A; Ramos, E H; Mattoon, J R

    1994-09-01

    L-leucine uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by three different transport systems, S1, S2 and GAP1. Their activities are dependent on the nitrogen source of the culture media. Wild type cells grown in L-proline exhibit a single transport system with high affinity and high Vmax that is partially inhibited by L-citrulline. A gap1 mutant shows two transport systems with Km and Vmax values similar to those previously described as S1 and S2, this transport activity is not inhibited by D-leucine, D-isoleucine or D-valine. Two systems can be also determined in wild type cells grown in rich medium containing a mixed nitrogen source where decreased GAP1 function is observed. In either wild type or gap1 cells grown in medium containing ammonium ions as sole nitrogen source, L-leucine uptake kinetics shows two systems with lower Vmax and similar Km values to those of the S1 and S2 systems. These results show that in S. cerevisiae GAP1, S1 and S2 participate in L-leucine entrance in cells grown in a poor nitrogen source, and that S1 and S2 are two ammonia-sensitive permeases that mediate the uptake in cells grown in a rich nitrogen source. PMID:7812191

  13. Degenerative Sacrolisthesis of S1-S2: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rajendra, Thakre Kunwar; Issac, Thomas; Swamy, B Mallikarjuna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is usually seen at L4-L5 level and less frequently at L5-S1 level. This is a rare case report of spondylolisthesis of S1 over S2 with lumbarization of S1. Lumbarization of S1 is seen in just 1-2% of the population and to have spondylolisthesis in this segment is even rarer. The purpose is to report a rare case of DS at S1-S2 level. Case Report: This is a single case report of a 66-year-old gentleman who presented with complains of lower backache for 2 years and acute retention of urine to the emergency department. Detailed clinical and radiological evaluation of the spine was done which revealed lumbarization of S1 with spondylolisthesis at S1-S2 and facetal hypertrophy at L5, S1, and S2. He underwent decompression and stabilization at L5, S1, and S2 along with placement of autologous bone graft. The bladder symptoms disappeared after 3 weeks. At 1-year follow-up, patient’s clinical symptoms were relieved, and he improved clinically. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is probably the first case of DS of sacral vertebrae to be reported in English literature. The prevalence of complete lumbarization is around 1.8% and to get spondylolisthesis in this segment is even rarer, hence the lack of literature in this regard. Since this is the first of its kind of case, further case series or longitudinal studies of such cases may help understand better the pathomechanics related to spondylolisthesis at this level. PMID:27299082

  14. 4-km body(ies?) embedded in Saturn's Huygens Ringlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitale, Joseph N.; Hahn, Joseph M.; Tamayo, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Saturn's 20-km-wide Huygens ringlet, located ~250 km exterior to the B ring, displays unusual kinematics, as evidenced by a time variable width-relation. The cause of this behavior is not clear, but may be related to the presence of large embedded bodies (Spitale and Hahn 2016). The largest such bodies produce half-propeller-shaped disturbances originating at the inner edge of the ringlet, whose radial widths imply a size of ~4 km, based on simple scaling from A-ring propellers. Here, we show that a numerical N-body model of the ringlet with a 4-km body embedded near the inner edge produces features that are consistent with the observed half propellers.

  15. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  16. Akeno 20 km (2) air shower array (Akeno Branch)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teshima, M.; Ohoka, H.; Matsubara, Y.; Hara, T.; Hatano, Y.; Hayashida, N.; He, C. X.; Honda, M.; Ishikawa, F.; Kamata, K.

    1985-01-01

    As the first stage of the future huge array, the Akeno air shower array was expanded to about 20 sq. km. by adding 19 scintillation detectors of 2.25 sq m area outside the present 1 sq. km. Akeno array with a new data collection system. These detectors are spaced about 1km from each other and connected by two optical fiber cables. This array has been in partial operation from 8th, Sep. 1984 and full operation from 20th, Dec. 1984. 20 sq m muon stations are planned to be set with 2km separation and one of them is now under construction. The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays is studied.

  17. How does music aid 5 km of running?

    PubMed

    Bigliassi, Marcelo; León-Domínguez, Umberto; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Barreto-Silva, Vinícius; Altimari, Leandro R

    2015-02-01

    This research investigated the effects of music and its time of application on a 5-km run. Fifteen well-trained male long-distance runners (24.87 ± 2.47 years; 78.87 ± 10.57 kg; 178 ± 07 cm) participated in this study. Five randomized experimental conditions during a 5-km run on an official track were tested (PM: motivational songs, applied before 5 km of running; SM: slow motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; FM: fast and motivational songs, applied during 5 km of running; CS: calm songs, applied after 5 km of running; CO: control condition). Psychophysiological assessments were performed before (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, heart rate variability [HRV], valence, and arousal), during (performance time, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion [RPE]), and after (mood, RPE, and HRV) tests. The chosen songs were considered pleasurable and capable of activating. Furthermore, they activated the 3 assessed prefrontal cortex (PFC) areas (medial, right dorsolateral, and left dorsolateral) similarly, generating positive emotional consequences by autonomous system analysis. The first 800 m was accomplished faster for SM and FM compared with other conditions (p ≤ 0.05); moreover, there was a high probability of improving running performance when music was applied (SM: 89%; FM: 85%; PM: 39%). Finally, music was capable of accelerating vagal tonus after 5 km of running with CS (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, music was able to activate the PFC area, minimize perceptions, improve performance, and accelerate recovery during 5 km of running. PMID:25029009

  18. Evolution of the Proposed International Tropical Reference Atmosphere up to 2000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananthasayanam, M.

    There is a compelling need in many aerospace, remote sensing, and other applications to propose a global reference atmosphere encompassing the whole of the tropics, due to the following reasons among others. The tropics cover a large area and the atmospheric conditions there are quite different from those in the midlatitudes represented by the International Standard Atmosphere. Though the dictionary definition of the tropics is between 230 28' N and 230 28' S, there can be no sharp dividing line between the tropics and extra tropics, and dynamical considerations suggest 30 0 N and 300 S as more appropriate approximate boundaries. (During summer tropical conditions prevail up to about 350 N). The early work of Ramanathan in 1929 pointed out that a break in the temperature distribution occurs around 16 km at low latitudes, whereas it occurs at much lower altitudes (around 11 km) in the temperate zone. He also showed that the coldest air over the earth (temperature about 1850 K) is in the form of a flat ring at a height of some 17 km over the equator; thus while mean temperatures are higher at sea level in the tropics, they are lower at altitudes around 15 km. Pisharoty suggested in 1959 two standard atmospheres one for the Asiatic tropics and another called Universal up to 20 km. The slight differences between these two turned out to be not valid from later measurements. Based on the presently available data showing weak longitudinal variations, it indeed turns out to be possible to provide an International Tropical Reference Atmosphere (ITRA) representative of the whole of the tropical region in both the northern and southern hemispheres (Ananthasayanam and Narasimha 1990). This proposal is also consistent with the mean monthly reference atmospheres for the northern hemisphere by Cole and Kantor (1978) and for the southern hemisphere by Koshelkov (1985) and also the Nimbus satellite data of Barnett and Corney (1985) from sea level up to 80 km. For ITRA, either the

  19. Status of the KM3NeT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margiotta, A.

    2014-04-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will be installed at three sites: KM3NeT-Fr, offshore Toulon, France, KM3NeT-It, offshore Portopalo di Capo Passero, Sicily (Italy) and KM3NeT-Gr, offshore Pylos, Peloponnese, Greece. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will search for Galactic and extra-Galactic sources of neutrinos, complementing IceCube in its field of view. The detector will have a modular structure and consists of six building blocks, each including about one hundred Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in France near Toulon and in Italy, near Capo Passero in Sicily. The technological solutions for KM3NeT and the expected performance of the detector are presented and discussed.

  20. 7S(1/2) ? 9S(1/2) two-photon spectroscopy of trapped francium.

    PubMed

    Simsarian, J E; Shi, W; Orozco, L A; Sprouse, G D; Zhao, W Z

    1996-12-01

    We report on the spectroscopic measurement of the (210)Fr 9S(1/2) energy obtained by two-photon excitation of atoms confined and cooled in a magneto-optic trap. The resonant intermediate level 7P(3/2) is the upper state of the trapping transition. We have measured the energy difference between the 9S(1/2) state and the 7S(1/2) ground state to be 25 671.021 +/- 0.006 cm(-1). PMID:19881852

  1. Detection of the structure near the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities in Japan subduction zone from the waveform triplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Slab subduction plays an important role in the mantle material circulation [Stern, 2002], and can also affect the feature of the 410 km and 660 km seismic discontinuities (410 and 660) [Lebedev et al., 2002]. Japan subduction zone is a natural laboratory for studying the mantle composition and velocity structure associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific plate. In this study, triplicated waveforms of an intermediate-depth earthquake at the Hokkaido of Japan (2011/10/21, 08:02:37.62, 142.5315°E, 43.8729°N, Mb6.0, relocated depth: 188 km) are retrieved from the dense Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). P and S waveforms are filtered with the band of 0.05-1.0 Hz and 0.02-0.5 Hz, respectively, and then integrated into the displacement data. The relative traveltime and synthetic waveform fitting is applied to mapping the deep structure. The best fitting models are obtained through the trial and error tests. We find a 15 km uplift of the 410 and a 25 km depression of the 660, indicating the cold environment caused by the subduction slab; both the 410 and 660 show the sharp discontinuity, but a smaller velocity contrast than the IASP91 model [Kennett and Engdahl, 1991]. Atop the 410 and 660, there are high-velocity layers associated with the subduction (or stagnant) slab. We also find a low-velocity anomaly with the thickness of ~65 km below the 660, which may relate to the slab dehydration or the hot upwelling at the top of the lower mantle. The seismic velocity ratio (VP/VS) shows a lower zone at the depth of ~210-395 km, showing the consistency with the low Poisson's ratio signature of the oceanic plate; a higher zone at the depth of ~560-685 km, implying the hydrous mantle transition zone.

  2. Local fluctuations of ozone from 16 km to 45 km deduced from in situ vertical ozone profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreau, G.; Robert, C.

    1994-01-01

    A vertical ozone profile obtained by an in situ ozone sonde from 16 km to 45 km, has allowed to observe local ozone concentration variations. These variations can be observed, thanks to a fast measurement system based on a UV absorption KrF excimer laser beam in a multipass cell. Ozone standard deviation versus altitude calculated from the mean is derived. Ozone variations or fluctuations are correlated with the different dynamic zones of the stratosphere.

  3. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P.; Chen, Y. T.; Lacerda, P.; Holman, M.; Protopapas, P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} – r {sub P1} = 0.5 ± 0.02, r {sub P1} – i {sub P1} = 0.12 ± 0.02, and i {sub P1} – z {sub P1} = 0.46 ± 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ∼100 kg s{sup –1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ∼40 kg s{sup –1} to 150 kg s{sup –1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  4. Ubiquitous Low-Velocity Layer Atop the 410-km Discontinuity in the Northern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasbinsek, J. J.; Dueker, K. G.

    2006-12-01

    Receiver functions (RF) from three 30-station IRIS-PASSCAL small aperture arrays (2-15 km station spacing) operated for ten months each in the northern Rocky Mountains show a ubiquitous negative polarity P to S arrival (NPA) just preceding the 410-km discontinuity arrival. Data from the arrays was divided into NW, SE and SW backazimuths and stacked to form nine quadrant stacks (QS). Remarkably, the NPA is apparent in 8 of the 9 QS, with 7 of the 8 displaying a similar dipole shape (paired negative and positive swings). Each QS contains clear P to S arrivals from the 410- and 660-km discontinuities and display the correct moveout. To model the NPA, a "double gradient slab" model consisting of five parameters is used: top gradient thickness and shear wave velocity drop; a constant velocity layer; bottom gradient thickness and shear wave velocity increase. Model misfit is assessed via a grid search over the model space using a reflectivity code to calculate synthetic seismograms. Assessment of model likelihood is done by calculating 1- and 2-D marginal probability density functions (PDF). Model parameters for each QS are well resolved and uncorrelated, with the exception of the anti-correlation of the top and bottom gradients. To define an average model, the probability distributions of each QS for each parameter are multiplied to form summary 1-D marginal PDF from which 90% probability bounds are calculated. These probability bounds are: the top gradient is < 8 km with a velocity decrement of 0.3-0.5 km/s; the constant velocity layer thickness is < 5 km; and, the bottom gradient is 29-37 km with a velocity increase of 0.4-0.6 km/s. The effective width of the low velocity layer atop the 410 (herein called the 410-LVL) is characterized as the layer thickness plus half the two gradient widths. Thus, the 410-LVL is found to have a mean thickness of 26 km and a mean shear wave velocity decrement of 8.3%. These results contrast with 410-LVL widths of 25-90 km and shear

  5. Observations of sodium in the coma of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) during outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Carl A.; Johnson, Robert E.; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Prior to disintegration near its 2.7 R⊙ perihelion, the dynamically new Comet C/2012 S1(ISON) briefly exhibited resonantly scattered sodium emission at the 5890 Å and 5896 Å D lines. In this work, we report a rapid increase in sodium production of >3× between observations made only one day apart and the first observations of cometary sodium during an outburst. Mean Na production is estimated at 1.6 ± 0.3 × 1023 atoms s-1 on UT 19.5 Nov 2013 and 5.8 ± 1 × 1023 atoms s-1 on UT 20.5. At a heliocentric distance of 0.44 AU, the anti-sunward Na tail was detected >106 km from the nucleus. Surprisingly, these production rates are well below those of any previously determined when Na is seen from a comet. Accurately reproducing the emission in the Na tail on UT 20.5 Nov 2013 requires a source near the nucleus that varies with time due to the outburst. Data prior to outburst one day earlier can be reproduced if nearly half of total sodium production is attributed to an extended source such as dust grains. This suggests sources of sodium vapor in cometary coma are sensitive to the dust to gas ratio.

  6. Gravity Waves Near 300 km Over the Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hodges, R. R.; Coley, W. R.; Carignan, G. R.; Spencer, N. W.

    1995-01-01

    Distinctive wave forms in the distributions of vertical velocity and temperature of both neutral particles and ions are frequently observed from Dynamics Explorer 2 at altitudes above 250 km over the polar caps. These are interpreted as being due to internal gravity waves propagating in the neutral atmosphere. The disturbances characterized by vertical velocity perturbations of the order of 100 m/s and horizontal wave lengths along the satellite path of about 500 km. They often extend across the entire polar cap. The associated temperature perturbations indicate that the horizontal phase progression is from the nightside to the dayside. Vertical displacements are inferred to be of the order of 10 km and the periods to be of the order of 10(exp 3) s. The waves must propagate in the neutral atmosphere, but they usually are most clearly recognizable in the observations of ion vertical velocity and ion temperature. By combining the neutral pressure calculated from the observed neutral concentration and temperature with the vertical component of the neutral velocity, an upward energy flux of the order of 0.04 erg/sq cm-s at 250 km has been calculated, which is about equal to the maximum total solar ultraviolet heat input above that altitude. Upward energy fluxes calculated from observations on orbital passes at altitudes from 250 to 560 km indicate relatively little attenuation with altitude.

  7. The KM3NeT Digital Optical Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivolo, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a European deep-sea multidisciplinary research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host a km3-scale neutrino telescope and dedicated instruments for long-term and continuous measurements for Earth and Sea sciences. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope is a 3-dimensional array of Digital Optical Modules, suspended in the sea by means of vertical string structures, called Detection Units, supported by two pre-stretched Dyneema ropes, anchored to the seabed and kept taut with a system of buoys. The Digital Optical Module represents the active part of the neutrino telescope. It is composed by a 17-inch, 14 mm thick borosilicate glass (Vitrovex) spheric vessel housing 31 photomultiplier tubes with 3-inch photocathode diameter and the associated front-end and readout electronics. The technical solution adopted for the KM3NeT optical modules is characterized by an innovative design, considering that existing neutrino telescopes, Baikal, IceCube and ANTARES, all use large photomultipliers, typically with a diameter of 8″ or 10″. It offers several advantages: higher sensitive surface (1260 cm2), weaker sensitivity to Earth's magnetic field, better distinction between single-photon and multi-photon events (photon counting) and directional information with an almost isotropic field of view. In this contribution the design and the performance of the KM3NeT Digital Optical Modules are discussed, with a particular focus on enabling technologies and integration procedure.

  8. Variation of the lunar highland surface roughness at baseline 0.15-100 km and the relationship to relative age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Y.; Gwinner, K.; Oberst, J.; Haruyama, J.; Matsunaga, T.; Morota, T.; Noda, H.; Araki, H.; Ohtake, M.; Yamamoto, S.; Gläser, P.; Ishihara, Y.; Honda, C.; Hirata, N.; Demura, H.

    2014-03-01

    We report the surface roughness analysis of the lunar highlands for the baseline range 0.15-100 km. We use the Median Differential Slope αm to investigate the scale dependency of the roughness and derive the global αm distribution from SELENE Laser Altimeter and Terrain Camera data. While αm(l) versus baseline l (km) plots vary among different highland types, all highlands commonly show a peak at 3-30 km. The Pre-Nectarian surface shows a relatively large αm(20-30 km). Our analysis is supported by the simulation of synthetic surface cratering models and crater statistics. In our simulation, a peak of αm(30 km) is successfully reproduced. The actual crater density shows good correlation with an empirical roughness indicator. However, a large part of the Nectarian surface shows a peak at 6-9 km baseline. This peak may be caused by secondary craters and ejecta deposit textures from the Nectarian system basins.

  9. The -145 km/S Absorption System of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vieira, G.; Gull, T. R.; Danks, A.; Johansson, S.

    2002-01-01

    With the STIS E230H mode (R-118,000) , we have identified about twenty absorption components in line of sight from Eta Carinae. Two components, one at -513 km/s and another at -145 W s , are quite different in character from the others, mostly at intermediate velocities. The -145 km/s component is significantly wider in fwhm, is seen in many more species, and the lower level can be above 20,000/cm, well above the 2000/cm noted in the -513 km/s component. In the spectral region from 2400 to 3160A, approximately 500 absorption lines have been identified. In this poster, we will present line identifications and atomic parameters of the measured lines, hopefully providing insight as to what levels are being excited and by what processes.

  10. Whipple bumper shield tests at over 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Hertel, E.S. ); Hill, S.A. . George C. Marshall Space Flight Center)

    1991-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL) to evaluate the effectiveness of a thin Whipple bumper shield at impact velocities up to 10.5 km/s by orbital space debris. Upon impact by an 0.67gm (0.87 mm thick) flier plate the thin aluminum bumper shield completely disintegrates into a debris cloud. The debris cloud front propagates axially at velocities in excess of 14 km/s and expands radially at a velocity of {approximately}7 km/s. Subsequent loading on a 3.2 mm thick aluminum substructure by the debris cloud penetrates the substructure completely. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  11. The Relationship of Foot Strike Pattern, Shoe Type, and Performance in a 50-km Trail Race.

    PubMed

    Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M

    2016-06-01

    Kasmer, ME, Liu, X-c, Roberts, KG, and Valadao, JM. Relationship of foot strike pattern, shoe type, and performance in a 50-km trail race. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1633-1637, 2016-Recent "in-race" studies have observed the foot strike patterns of runners in traditional road marathon races. However, similar studies have not been conducted for trail runners, which have been estimated to account for 11% of all runners. The purpose of this study was to (a) determine the rear-foot strike (RFS) prevalence in a 50-km trail race and compare with traditional road marathon races; (b) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike and sex in a 50-km trail race; and (c) determine if there is a relationship between foot strike, shoe type, and performance in a 50-km trail race. One hundred sixty-five runners were videotaped at the 8.1-km mark of the 2012 Ice Age Trail 50-km race. Foot strike analysis revealed RFS prevalence of 85.1%, less than previously reported in traditional road marathon races. There was no relationship found between sex and foot strike (p = 0.60). A significant effect of shoe type on foot strike (RFS was less common among runners in minimalist shoes, p < 0.01) and performance (faster runners were more likely to be wearing minimalist shoes, p < 0.01) was observed; however, no association between foot strike and performance was observed (p = 0.83). This study suggests that most trail runners, albeit less than road runners, prefer an RFS pattern, which is accompanied by biomechanical consequences unique from a non-RFS pattern and, therefore, likely carries a unique injury profile. In addition, the findings in this study suggest that minimalist shoes may represent a reasonable training modification to improve performance. PMID:23860289

  12. Evaluation of triggering schemes for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, T.; Herold, B.; Shanidze, R.

    2013-10-01

    The future neutrino telescope KM3NeT, to be built in the Mediterranean Sea, will be the largest of its kind. It will include nearly two hundred thousand photomultiplier tubes (PMT) mounted in multi-PMT digital optical modules (DOM). The dominant source of the PMT signals is decays of 40K and marine fauna bioluminescence. Selection of neutrino and muon events from this continuous optical background signals requires the implementation of fast and efficient triggers. Various schemes for the filtering of background data and the selection of neutrino and muon events were evaluated for the KM3NeT telescope using Monte Carlo simulations.

  13. Cascade sensitivity studies for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT is a future research infrastructure in the deep seas of the Mediterranean housing a large scale neutrino telescope. The first phase of construction of the telescope has started. Next step is an intermediate phase realising a detector volume of about one-third of the final detector volume. We report on calculations of the sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to showering neutrino events, the strategy to optimise the detector to a cosmic neutrino flux analogous to the one reported by the IceCube Collaboration and the results of this strategy applied to the intermediate phase detector.

  14. Ad-libitum drinking and performance during a 40-km cycling time trial in the heat.

    PubMed

    Berkulo, Meriam A R; Bol, Susan; Levels, Koen; Lamberts, Robert P; Daanen, Hein A M; Noakes, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if drinking ad-libitum can counteract potential negative effects of a hypohydrated start caused by fluid restriction during a 40-km time trial (TT) in the heat. Twelve trained males performed one 40-km cycling TT euhydrated (EU: no water during the TT) and two 40-km cycling TTs hypohydrated. During one hypohydrated trial no fluid was ingested (HYPO), during the other trial ad-libitum water ingestion was allowed (FLUID). Ambient temperature was 35.2 ± 0.2 °C, relative humidity 51 ± 3% and airflow 7 m·s(-1). Body mass (BM) was determined at the start of the test, and before and after the TT. During the TT, power output, heart rate (HR), gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal sensation, thermal comfort and thirst sensation were measured. Prior to the start of the TT, BM was 1.2% lower in HYPO and FLUID compared to EU. During the TT, BM loss in FLUID was lower compared to EU and HYPO (1.0 ± 0.8%, 2.7 ± 0.2% and 2.6 ± 0.3%, respectively). Hydration status had no effect on power output (EU: 223 ± 32 W, HYPO: 217 ± 39 W, FLUID: 224 ± 35 W), HR, gastrointestinal temperature, mean skin temperature, RPE, thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Thirst sensation was higher in HYPO than in EU and FLUID. It was concluded that hypohydration did not adversely affect performance during a 40-km cycling TT in the heat. Therefore, whether or not participants consumed fluid during exercise did not influence their TT performance. PMID:25675355

  15. Structural biology of the S1P1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Michael A; Peach, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor family has been studied widely since the initial discovery of its first member, endothelium differentiation gene 1. Since this initial discovery, the family has been renamed and the primary member of the family, the S1P1 receptor, has been targeted for a variety of disease indications and successfully drugged for the treatment of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of the S1P1 receptor has been determined by X-ray crystallography and the specifics of the sphingosine 1 phosphate ligand binding pocket mapped. Key structural features for the S1P1 receptor will be reviewed and the potential binding modes of additional pharmacologically active agents against the receptor will be analyzed in an effort to better understand the structural basis of important receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:24728592

  16. S1-hypersensitive sites in eukaryotic promoter regions.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, T; Schon, E; Gora-Maslak, G; Patterson, J; Efstratiadis, A

    1984-01-01

    We have examined by fine mapping the S1 nuclease-hypersensitivity of the 5' flanking regions of the human beta-globin and rat preproinsulin II genes and of the SV40 origin/enhancer region. In all cases S1-hypersensitive sites are located in known or presumed promoter/regulatory regions. Though a consensus DNA sequence is not evident, all of these sites reside in predominantly homopurine-homopyrimidine stretches. The alternate (non-B) DNA structure which is revealed by the enzymatic probe is a sequence-dependent feature of a short stretch of DNA, which is retained upon transplantation into a foreign environment. The alternate structure exhibits S1-nicking patterns uniquely different from those associated with the presence of Z-DNA. Images PMID:6095186

  17. S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Zhou, Yan; Min, Ke; Yao, Qiang; Xu, Chun-Ni

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of S-1-based vs non-S-1-based chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). METHODS: We extracted reported endpoints, including overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), time-to-treatment failure (TTF), objective response rate (ORR) and adverse effects, from randomized controlled trials identified in PubMed, the Cochrane library, Science Direct, EMBASE and American Society of Clinical Oncology meetings. Stata software was used to calculate the pooled values. RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials involving 2176 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to non-S-1-based regimens, the use of S-1-based regimens were associated with an increase in ORR (RR = 1.300; 95%CI: 1.028-1.645); OS (HR = 0.89; 95%CI: 0.81-0.99; P = 0.025), TTF (HR = 0.83; 95%CI: 0.75-0.92; P = 0.000), and a lower risk of febrile neutropenia (RR = 0.225; P = 0.000) and stomatitis (RR = 0.230; P = 0.032). OS, PFS and TTF were prolonged, especially in the Asian population. In subgroup analysis, statistically significant increases in ORR (RR = 1.454; P = 0.029), OS (HR = 0.895; P = 0.041) and TTF (HR = 0.832; P = 0.000) were found when S-1-based chemotherapy was compared to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. The incidence of leukopenia (RR = 0.584; P = 0.002) and stomatitis (RR = 0.230; P = 0.032) was higher in the 5-FU-based arm. S-1-based regimens had no advantage in ORR, OS, PFS, TTF and grade 3 or 4 adverse events over capecitabine-based regimens. CONCLUSION: S-1-based chemotherapy may be a good choice for AGC because of longer survival times, better tolerance and more convenient use. PMID:25206296

  18. The S=1 Underscreened Anderson Lattice model for Uranium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Simões, A. S. R.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic properties of uranium and neptunium compounds showing coexistence of the Kondo effect and ferromagnetic order are investigated within the degenerate Anderson Lattice Hamiltonian, describing a 5f2 electronic configuration with S = 1 spins. Through the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, both an exchange Kondo interaction for the S = 1 f-spins and an effective f-band term are obtained, allowing to describe the coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetic ordering and a weak delocalization of the 5f-electrons. We calculate the Kondo and Curie temperatures and we can account for the pressure dependence of the Curie temperature of UTe.

  19. Winding Hopfions on R2×S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Michikazu; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-11-01

    We study Hopfions in the Faddeev-Skyrme model with potential terms on R2×S1. Apart from the conventional Hopfions, there exist winding Hopfions, that is, the lump (baby Skyrmion) strings with the lump charge Q with the U(1) modulus twisted P times along S1, having the Hopf charge PQ. We consider two kinds of potential terms, that is, the potential linear in the field and the ferromagnetic potential with two easy axes, and present stable solutions numerically. We also point out that a Q-lump carries the unit Hopf charge per the period in d=2+1.

  20. Multiplicity of the 660-km discontinuity beneath the Izu-Bonin area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuan-Ze; Yu, Xiang-Wei; Yang, Hui; Zang, Shao-Xian

    2012-05-01

    The relatively simple subducting slab geometry in the Izu-Bonin region provides a valuable opportunity to study the multiplicity of the 660-km discontinuity and the related response of the subducting slab on the discontinuity. Vertical short-period recordings of deep events with simple direct P phases beneath the Izu-Bonin region were retrieved from two seismic networks in the western USA and were used to study the structure of the 660-km discontinuity. After careful selection and pre-processing, 23 events from the networks, forming 32 pairs of event-network records, were processed. Related vespagrams were produced using the N-th root slant stack method for detecting weak down-going SdP phases that were inverted to the related conversion points. From depth histograms and the spatial distribution of the conversion points, there were three clear interfaces at depths of 670, 710 and 730 km. These interfaces were depressed approximately 20-30 km in the northern region. In the southern region, only two layers were identified in the depth histograms, and no obvious layered structure could be observed from the distribution of the conversion points.

  1. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT-Italia towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favaro, M.; Chiarusi, T.; Giacomini, F.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT-Italia is an INFN project supported with Italian PON fundings for building the core of the Italian node of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope. The detector, made of 700 10'' Optical Modules (OMs) lodged along 8 vertical structures called towers, will be deployed starting from fall 2015 at the KM3NeT-Italy site, about 80 km off Capo Passero, Italy, 3500 m deep. The all data to shore approach is used to reduce the complexity of the submarine detector, demanding for an on-line trigger integrated in the data acquisition system running in the shore station, called TriDAS. Due to the large optical background in the sea from 40K decays and bioluminescence, the throughput from the underwater detector can range up to 30 Gbps. This puts strong constraints on the design and performances of the TriDAS and of the related network infrastructure. In this contribution the technology behind the implementation of the TriDAS infrastructure is reviewed, focusing on the relationship between the various components and their performances. The modular design of the TriDAS, which allows for its scalability up to a larger detector than the 8-tower configuration is also discussed.

  2. Equatorial 150 km echoes and daytime F region vertical plasma drifts in the Brazilian longitude sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, F. S.; Shume, E. B.; de Paula, E. R.; Milla, M.

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies showed that conventional coherent backscatter radar measurements of the Doppler velocity of the so-called 150 km echoes can provide an alternative way of estimating ionospheric vertical plasma drifts during daytime hours (Kudeki and Fawcett, 1993; Chau and Woodman, 2004). Using observations made by a small, low-power 30 MHz coherent backscatter radar located in the equatorial site of São Luís (2.59° S, 44.21° W; -2.35° dip lat), we were able to detect and monitor the occurrence of 150 km echoes in the Brazilian sector. Using these measurements we estimated the local time variation of daytime vertical ionospheric drifts in the eastern American sector. Here, we present a few interesting cases of 150 km-echoes observations made by the São Luís radar and estimates of the diurnal variation of vertical drifts. These cases exemplify the variability of the vertical drifts in the Brazilian sector. Using same-day 150 km-echoes measurements made at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in Peru, we also demonstrate the variability of the equatorial vertical drifts across the American sector. In addition to first estimates of the absolute vertical plasma drifts in the eastern American (Brazilian) sector, we also present observations of abnormal drifts detected by the São Luís radar associated with the 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming event.

  3. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2010-11-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure to be constructed in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a neutrino telescope with a volume of at least one cubic kilometre. The scientific case for a neutrino telescope of a cubic kilometre scale is overwhelming. The infrastructure it requires will be shared by a host of other sciences, making continuous and long-term measurements in the fields of oceanography, geophysics, and marine biological sciences possible. The feasibility of neutrino astronomy with a detector in the deep sea was proven by the successful deployment and operation of the ANTARES prototype detector. The potential of the detection technique, based on the reconstruction of the tracks of muons, the possible reaction products of the sought after neutrinos, has been demonstrated. With two other pilot projects, NEMO and NESTOR, different detector configurations and techniques were explored. The three projects have provided a wealth of information on the technologies required for a large deep-sea neutrino telescope. KM3NeT will reap the benefits. It is planned to make KM3NeT a CO2-neutral facility, using wind or solar energy to supply the required power for the underwater system as well as the shore station. The proposed infrastructure will be built by a European consortium (KM3NeT). The total cost is estimated at 220-250 M€.

  4. The -145 km/s Absorption System of Eta Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, G. L.; Gull, T. R.; Danks, A. C.; Johansson, S.

    2002-12-01

    With the STIS E230H mode (R 118,000), we have identified about twenty absorption components in line of sight from Eta Carinae. Two components, one at -513 km/s and another at -145 km/s, are quite different in character from the others, mostly at intermediate velocities (See adjacent posters by T. Gull and A. Danks). The -145 km/s component is significantly wider in fwhm, is seen in many more species, and the lower level can be above 20,000 cm-1, well above the 2000 cm-1 noted in the -513 km/s component. In the spectral region from 2400 to 3160A, approximately 500 absorption lines have been identified. In this poster, we will present line identifications and atomic parameters of the measured lines, hopefully providing insight as to what levels are being excited and by what processes. Observations were accomplished through STScI under proposal 9242 (Danks, P.I.). Funding is through the STIS GTO resources.

  5. Models of earth's atmosphere (90 to 2500 km)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This monograph replaces a monograph on the upper atmosphere which was a computerized version of Jacchia's model. The current model has a range from 90 to 2500 km. In addition to the computerized model, a quick-look prediction method is given that may be used to estimate the density for any time and spatial location without using a computer.

  6. Body Composition Measurements of 161-km Ultramarathon Participants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compares body composition characteristics with performance among participants in a 161-km trail ultramarathon. Height, mass, and percent body fat from bioimpedence spectroscopy were measured on 72 starters. Correlation analyses were used to compare body characteristics with finish time, ...

  7. Ensemble flood simulation for a small dam catchment in Japan using 10 and 2 km resolution nonhydrostatic model rainfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kenichiro; Otsuka, Shigenori; Apip; Saito, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a study on short-term ensemble flood forecasting specifically for small dam catchments in Japan. Numerical ensemble simulations of rainfall from the Japan Meteorological Agency nonhydrostatic model (JMA-NHM) are used as the input data to a rainfall-runoff model for predicting river discharge into a dam. The ensemble weather simulations use a conventional 10 km and a high-resolution 2 km spatial resolutions. A distributed rainfall-runoff model is constructed for the Kasahori dam catchment (approx. 70 km2) and applied with the ensemble rainfalls. The results show that the hourly maximum and cumulative catchment-average rainfalls of the 2 km resolution JMA-NHM ensemble simulation are more appropriate than the 10 km resolution rainfalls. All the simulated inflows based on the 2 and 10 km rainfalls become larger than the flood discharge of 140 m3 s-1, a threshold value for flood control. The inflows with the 10 km resolution ensemble rainfall are all considerably smaller than the observations, while at least one simulated discharge out of 11 ensemble members with the 2 km resolution rainfalls reproduces the first peak of the inflow at the Kasahori dam with similar amplitude to observations, although there are spatiotemporal lags between simulation and observation. To take positional lags into account of the ensemble discharge simulation, the rainfall distribution in each ensemble member is shifted so that the catchment-averaged cumulative rainfall of the Kasahori dam maximizes. The runoff simulation with the position-shifted rainfalls shows much better results than the original ensemble discharge simulations.

  8. Bacterial versus human sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) in the design of potential S1PL inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sanllehí, Pol; Abad, José-Luis; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Delgado, Antonio

    2016-09-15

    A series of potential active-site sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) inhibitors have been designed from scaffolds 1 and 2, arising from virtual screening using the X-ray structures of the bacterial (StS1PL) and the human (hS1PL) enzymes. Both enzymes are very similar at the active site, as confirmed by the similar experimental kinetic constants shown by the fluorogenic substrate RBM13 in both cases. However, the docking scoring functions used probably overestimated the weight of electrostatic interactions between the ligands and key active-site residues in the protein environment, which may account for the modest activity found for the designed inhibitors. In addition, the possibility that the inhibitors do not reach the enzyme active site should not be overlooked. Finally, since both enzymes show remarkable structural differences at the access channel and in the proximity to the active site cavity, caution should be taken when designing inhibitors acting around that area, as evidenced by the much lower activity found in StS1PL for the potent hS1PL inhibitor D. PMID:27475537

  9. Structure of the S1S2 Glutamate Binding Domain of GluR3

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed H.; Wang, Qi; Sondermann, Holger; Oswald, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Glutamate receptors are the most prevalent excitatory neurotransmitter receptors in the vertebrate central nervous system. Determining the structural differences between the binding sites of different subtypes is crucial to our understanding of neuronal circuits and to the development of subtype specific drugs. The structures of the binding domain (S1S2) of the GluR3 (flip) AMPA receptor subunit bound to glutamate and AMPA and the GluR2 (flop) subunit bound to glutamate were determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.9, 2.1, and 1.55 Å, respectively. Overall, the structure of GluR3 (flip) S1S2 is very similar to GluR2 (flop) S1S2 (backbone RMSD of 0.30 ± 0.05 for glutamate-bound and 0.26 ± 0.01 for AMPA-bound). The differences in the flip and flop isoforms are subtle and largely arise from one hydrogen bond across the dimer interface and associated water molecules. Comparison of the binding affinity for various agonists and partial agonists suggest that the S1S2 domains of GluR2 and GluR3 show only small differences in affinity, unlike what is found for the intact receptors (with the exception of one ligand, Cl-HIBO, which has a ten-fold difference in affinity for GluR2 vs GluR3). PMID:19003990

  10. Alpha S1-casein polymorphisms in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and descriptions of biological active peptides and allergenic epitopes.

    PubMed

    Erhardt, Georg; Shuiep, El Tahir Salih; Lisson, Maria; Weimann, Christina; Wang, Zhaoxin; El Zubeir, Ibtisam El Yas Mohamed; Pauciullo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Milk samples of 193 camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different regions of Sudan were screened for casein variability by isoelectric focusing. Kappa-casein and beta-casein were monomorphic, whereas three protein patterns named αs1-casein A, C, and D were identified. The major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.79 (Lahaoi), 0.75 (Shanbali), 0.90 (Arabi Khali), and 0.88 (Arabi Gharbawi) in the different ecotypes. CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in the exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30) in comparison to CSN1S1*A and D. At cDNA level, no further single nucleotide polymorphisms could be identified in CSN1S1* A, C, and D, whereas the variants CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are characterized by missing of exon 18 compared to the already described CSN1S1*B, as consequence of DNA insertion of 11 bp at intron 17 which alter the pre-mRNA spliceosome machinery. A polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was established to type for G > T nucleotide substitution at genomic DNA level. The occurrence and differences of IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides between αs1-casein A, C, and D after digestion were analyzed in silico. The amino acid substitutions and deletion affected the arising peptide pattern and thus modifications between IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides of the variants were found. The allergenic potential of these different peptides will be investigated by microarray immunoassay using sera from milk-sensitized individuals, as it was already demonstrated for bovine αs1-casein variants. PMID:26922739

  11. Formation, Redox-Controled Preservation, and Interruption of Organic-rich Sapropel S1 sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Hennekam, Rick; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Filippidi, Amalia

    2015-04-01

    Distinct, organic-rich units (sapropels) occur in Mediterraneran sediments in a repetitive, climate-controled way. Their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1 determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation of the deep-water at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation in the Aegean or Adriatic due to a period of

  12. Redox-Controled Preservation of Mediterranean Sapropel S1 deposits during Formation and Interruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lange, Gert J.; Filippidi, Amalia; Goudeau, Marie-Louise; Hennekam, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Organic-rich units (sapropels) occur in Mediterraneran sediments in a repetitive, climate-controled way. Their deposition is thought to be precession-related and to be associated with humid climate conditions. The last humid period from 11 - 5 kyr 14C ago, occurred simultaneous with a sustained circum-Mediterranean wet period and vegetated Sahara. Within that period, the most recent sapropel (S1) formed synchronously between 9.8 and 5.7 14C ky BP at all water depths greater than a few hundred metres. As a consequence of increased fresh water (monsoon) input, surface waters had a reduced salinity and concomitantly the deep (> 1.8 km) eastern Mediterranean Sea was devoid of oxygen during 4,000 years of S1 formation. This has resulted in a differential basin-wide preservation of S1sediments determined by water depth, as a result of different ventilation/climate-related redox conditions above and below 1.8 km. The end of this period is marked by a basin-wide high sedimentary manganese-oxide peak that represents an abrupt re-ventilation of the deep-water at 5.7 kyr. The sustaining oxic conditions thereafter have resulted in a downward progressing oxidation-front that is not only characterized by the degradation of most organic matter over its active pathway, but also by the built-up of manganese oxide. The latter has resulted in a secondary diagenetic Mn-peak below the first, upper, ventilation Mn-peak. Apart from the major re-ventilation event at the end of sapropel S1 formation, also other, short-term ventilation events appear to have occurred during its formation, notably during the 8.2 ka event. This potentially basin-wide event is particularly noticeable at relatively shallow near-coastal sites of high sedimentation rates. It marks a brief episode of not only re-oxygenated deep water thus reduced preservation, but also decreased primary productivity thus nutrient supply. This 8.2 cal ka BP interruption event is thought to be related to enhanced deep water formation

  13. Human alpha s1-casein: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, L K; Due, H A; Petersen, T E

    1995-05-01

    The human counterpart of alpha s1-casein has been purified by a combination of gel-filtration and ion-exchange chromatography under denaturing conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed the presence of a diffuse ladder with a high molecular mass which upon reduction was replaced by several closely spaced bands of lower molecular masses and a broad diffuse band corresponding to kappa-casein. Amino acid sequence analysis of the closely spaced bands all resulted in the same N-terminal sequence which was found to be homologous with alpha s1-casein from other species. Sequence analysis of a major radiolabelled tryptic peptide from purified 14C-carboxymethylated alpha s1-casein demonstrated that the protein contains at least two cysteine residues. As judged by SDS-PAGE in the presence or absence of a reducing agent, the molecular structure of the polymers constituting the ladder is composed of heteropolymers of alpha s1- and kappa-casein cross-linked by disulfide bonds. PMID:7749638

  14. Late-stage optimization of a tercyclic class of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Horan, Joshua C; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; DiSalvo, Darren; Lord, John; Mao, Can; Hopkins, Tamara D; Yu, Hui; Harcken, Christian; Betageri, Raj; Hill-Drzewi, Melissa; Patenaude, Lori; Patel, Monica; Fletcher, Kimberly; Terenzzio, Donna; Linehan, Brian; Xia, Heather; Patel, Mita; Studwell, Debbie; Miller, Craig; Hickey, Eugene; Levin, Jeremy I; Smith, Dustin; Kemper, Raymond A; Modis, Louise K; Bannen, Lynne C; Chan, Diva S; Mac, Morrison B; Ng, Stephanie; Wang, Yong; Xu, Wei; Lemieux, René M

    2016-01-15

    Poor solubility and cationic amphiphilic drug-likeness were liabilities identified for a lead series of S1P3-sparing, S1P1 agonists originally developed from a high-throughput screening campaign. This work describes the subsequent optimization of these leads by balancing potency, selectivity, solubility and overall molecular charge. Focused SAR studies revealed favorable structural modifications that, when combined, produced compounds with overall balanced profiles. The low brain exposure observed in rat suggests that these compounds would be best suited for the potential treatment of peripheral autoimmune disorders. PMID:26687487

  15. Evaluation of Whipple Bumper shields at 7 and 10 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ang, J. A.; Chhabildas, L. C.; Cour-Palais, B. G.; Christiansen, E. L.; Crews, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed on the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher to determine the performance limits of conventional Whipple shields against representative 0.8 g aluminum orbital debris plate-like fragments with velocities of 7 and 10 km/s. Supporting diagnostics include flash X-rays, high speed photography and transient digitizers for timing correlation. Two Whipple shield designs were tested with either a 0.030 cm or a 0.127 cm thick front sheet and a 0.407 cm thick backsheet separated by 30.5 cm. These two designs bracket the ballistic penetration limit curve for protection against these debris simulants for 7 km/s impacts.

  16. Simulation of CO2 release at 800 km altitude. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Setayesh, A.

    1993-08-31

    The SOCRATES contamination-interaction code has been used to simulate the reactions of O + CO2 --> CO2(v) + O, O + CO2 - CO(v) + O2, and CO2 + H - CO + OH(v) at an altitude of 800 km in both ram and wake directions of the spacecraft. These simulations show that the radiation from these reactions can be measurable for the parameters which have been used in these calculations. The investigation carries out the simulations as much as 30 km from the spacecraft. The radiative intensity of CO(v) and OH(v) show the highest and lowest, respectively. Gas plume, CO2, CO, and OH Emissions, Monte Carlo method, Rarefied flows.

  17. Correlation of the 410 km Discontinuity Low Velocity Layer with Tomographic Wavespeed Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Dueker, K. G.

    2010-12-01

    The transition zone water-filter model predicts that a hydrous melt layer at the 410-km discontinuity is only actively produced in upwelling region, and does not exist in downwelling region (Bercovici and Karato, 2003). This prediction has been tested by stacking of P-S receiver functions using the RISTRA linear array which crosses west-Texas, New Mexico and Utah. The receiver functions are binned into the NW, SE, SW azimuthal quadrants and stacked to produce well-resolved images of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities. The three receiver function quadrant stack images find a correlation between the occurrence of negative polarity 410-km low velocity layer arrival and the teleseismic body wave velocity tomogram of Schmandt and Humphreys (2010); the 410 low velocity layer arrival is absent where the velocities about the 410 km discontinuity are relatively high and present where the velocities are low. Our finding is consistent with a simple interpretation of the transition zone water filter model which predicts the production of a hydrous melt layer where upflow of sufficiently hydrated transition zone mantle occurs and destruction of a hydrous melt layer where there is downflow. We test this prediction by analyzing the Colorado Rockies Experiment and Seismic Transects (CREST) seismic data which was collected in 2008-2009. This 15 month deployment of 59 CREST stations in tandem with 31 Transportable Array stations yields a total of 161 Mb>5.5 events at 30°-95° distances. The P-S receiver functions are calculated using a multi-channel deconvolution methodology and filtered with a 30-3 s post-deconvolution filter. The receiver function dataset contains about 1800 SV components after RMS, cross-correlation, and visual data quality culling. Common conversion point images are constructed using Pds timing correction from a 3-D upper mantle tomography model (McCarthy and Aster, pers. com.) to account for lateral P/S velocity heterogeneity.

  18. KM3NeT-ARCA project status and plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coniglione, R.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration aims at building a research infrastructure in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea hosting a cubic kilometre neutrino telescope. The KM3NeT/ARCA detector is the ideal instrument to look for high-energy neutrino sources thanks to the latitude of the detector and to the optical characteristics of the sea water. The detector latitude allows for a wide coverage of the observable sky including the region of the Galactic centre and the optical sea water properties allow for the measure of the neutrino direction with excellent angular resolution also for cascade events. The technologically innovative components of the detector and the status of construction will be presented as well as the capability it offers to discover neutrinos.

  19. Neutral winds above 200 km at high latitudes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meriwether, J. W.; Heppner, J. P.; Stolarik, J. D.; Wescott, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    Electrically neutral, luminous clouds are a by-product of chemical releases conducted to create barium ion clouds for the measurement of electric fields. Wind measurements provided by the motions of these clouds are particularly valuable in that the motions can be directly compared with convective ion drift motions to test the importance of ion drag forces. Motion from multiple releases between 200 and 300 km from 15 rockets launched from four high-latitude locations is analyzed in this paper. The observations in the evening and midnight hours at magnetic latitudes above 65 deg strongly suggest that in these regions ion drag is the dominant force in driving neutral winds between 200 and 300 km. In the morning sector, it is evident that neutral wind observations cannot be directly interpreted in terms of ion drag; other factors must be considered.

  20. Fact Sheet for KM200 Front-end Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov; Iliev, Metodi; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas

    2015-07-08

    The KM200 device is a versatile, configurable front-end electronics boards that can be used as a functional replacement for Canberra’s JAB-01 boards based on the Amptek A-111 hybrid chip, which continues to be the preferred choice of electronics for large number of the boards in junction boxes of multiplicity counters that process the signal from an array of 3He detectors. Unlike the A-111 chip’s fixed time constants and sensitivity range, the shaping time and sensitivity of the new KM200 can be optimized for demanding applications such as spent fuel, and thus could improve the safeguards measurements of existing systems where the A-111 or PDT electronics does not perform well.

  1. Remote (250 km) Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Rota-Rodrigo, Sergio; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system. PMID:22164101

  2. Real Km-synthesis via generalized Popov multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, R. Y.; Safonov, M. G.

    1992-01-01

    The authors refine their H-infinity control designs presented at the 1990 and 1991 American Control Conference by introducing a new real Km-synthesis technique involving the use of generalized Popov multipliers. This multiplier technique substantially reduces, and in some cases may even eliminate altogether, the conservativeness associated with traditional Km-synthesis solutions in which all uncertainties are treated as complex, even when they arise from real parameters such as the masses and spring constants in the benchmark problem. The design results demonstrate how this approach permits a very precise analysis of the intrinsic tradeoffs between robustness, performance, and control energy requirements. Also included is an open-loop H-infinity prefilter design that makes it possible to address the command response shaping issue. The design concept has been applied to the benchmark problem no. 4 and successfully removes the initial undesired transient and cuts down the percent overshoot.

  3. Quantum Cryptography Over 24 km of Underground Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Richard; Luther, Gabriel; Morgan, George; Peterson, Charles; Simmons, Charles

    1997-04-01

    The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as ''key'' material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions: Heisenberg's uncertainty principle ensures that an adversary can neither successfully tap the key transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We are performing quantum cryptography over 24-km of underground optical fiber using non-orthogonal single-photon interference states. Key material is built up by transmitting a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. Our experiment demonstrates that secure, real-time key generation over "open" multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is feasible.

  4. Towards a 1km resolution global flood risk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Paul; Neal, Jeff; Sampson, Chris; Smith, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Recent advances in computationally efficient numerical algorithms and new High Performance Computing architectures now make high (1-2km) resolution global hydrodynamic models a realistic proposition. However in many areas of the world the data sets and tools necessary to undertake such modelling do not currently exist. In particular, five major problems need to be resolved: (1) the best globally available terrain data (SRTM) was generated from X-band interferometric radar data which does not penetrate vegetation canopies and which has significant problems in determining ground elevations in urban areas; (2) a global river bathymetry data set does not currently exist; (3) most river channels globally are less than the smallest currently resolvable grid scale (1km) and therefore require a sub-grid treatment; (4) a means to estimate the magnitude of the T year flood at any point along the global river network does not currently exist; and (5) a large proportion of flood losses are generated by off-floodplain surface water flows which are not well represented in current hydrodynamic modelling systems. In this paper we propose solutions to each of these five issues as part of a concerted effort to develop a 1km (or better) resolution global flood hazard model. We describe the new numerical algorithms, computer architectures and computational resources used, and demonstrate solutions to the five previously intractable problems identified above. We conduct a validation study of the modelling against satellite imagery of major flooding on the Mississippi-Missouri confluence plain in the central USA before outlining a proof-of-concept regional study for SE Asia as a step towards a global scale model. For SE Asia we simulate flood hazard for ten different flood return periods over the entire Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia and Laos region at 1km resolution and show that the modelling produces coherent, consistent and sensible simulations of extent and water depth.

  5. Organizations, Paradigms, and People: The Challenge of KM Interventions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Teresa; Burton, Yvette

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on Knowledge Management (KM) and how these interventions are put into practice by organizations and society. The topics include: 1) The Multiple Paradigm Tool; 2) Four Paradigms: tool for the Analyzing Organizations; 3) Assumptions About the Nature of Social Science; 4) Assumptions About the Nature of Society; 5) Schools of Sociological and Organizational Theory; 6) Meaning and Metaphors in the Four Paradigms; and 7) Possibilities and Conclusions.

  6. Kinematic characteristics of elite men's 50 km race walking.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Brian; Bissas, Athanassios; Drake, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Race walking is an endurance event which also requires great technical ability, particularly with respect to its two distinguishing rules. The 50 km race walk is the longest event in the athletics programme at the Olympic Games. The aims of this observational study were to identify the important kinematic variables in elite men's 50 km race walking, and to measure variation in those variables at different distances. Thirty men were analysed from video data recorded during a World Race Walking Cup competition. Video data were also recorded at four distances during the European Cup Race Walking and 12 men analysed from these data. Two camcorders (50 Hz) recorded at each race for 3D analysis. The results of this study showed that walking speed was associated with both step length (r=0.54,P=0.002) and cadence (r=0.58,P=0.001). While placing the foot further ahead of the body at heel strike was associated with greater step lengths (r=0.45,P=0.013), it was also negatively associated with cadence (r= -0.62,P<0.001). In the World Cup, knee angles ranged between 175 and 186° at initial contact and between 180 and 195° at midstance. During the European Cup, walking speed decreased significantly (F=9.35,P=0.002), mostly due to a decrease in step length between 38.5 and 48.5 km (t=8.59,P=0.014). From this study, it would appear that the key areas a 50 km race walker must develop and coordinate are step length and cadence, although it is also important to ensure legal walking technique is maintained with the onset of fatigue. PMID:23679143

  7. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35'N, 38°42'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {101¯3}, and less frequently along {101¯1} and {101¯4}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {101¯1}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  8. Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface Topography at 1 KM Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, L. L.; Rodriguez, E.

    2006-07-01

    We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolu tion approaching 1 km . The measurement w ill have wide ranging applications in oceanography , hydrology , and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic application s, the in strument must be flown in an orbit w ith proper samp ling of ocean tides.

  9. Towards Mapping the Ocean Surface Topography at 1 km Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Lee-Lueng; Rodriquez, Ernesto

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply the technique of synthetic aperture radar interferometry to the measurement of ocean surface topography at spatial resolution approaching 1 km. The measurement will have wide ranging applications in oceanography, hydrology, and marine geophysics. The oceanographic and related societal applications are briefly discussed in the paper. To meet the requirements for oceanographic applications, the instrument must be flown in an orbit with proper sampling of ocean tides.

  10. Is the addition of cisplatin to S-1 better than S-1 alone for patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer?

    PubMed

    Ajani, Jaffer A

    2008-09-01

    The investigators of the recent phase III SPIRITS trial found that the addition of cisplatin to S-1 (a fourth generation oral fluoropyrimidine) provided a significant overall survival advantage (P = 0.04) over treatment with S-1 alone among previously untreated patients with advanced gastric cancer. In addition, the combination had an acceptable safety profile. This trial establishes a new first-line standard treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer in Japan. Level 1 evidence for prolonged survival of patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer has been established for docetaxel (V-325 trial) and cisplatin (SPIRITS trial) but not for S-1. Fluoropyrimidines (S-1 included) have been considered part of standard front-line therapy without the establishment of level 1 evidence for prolonging survival. The future lies in the rapid incorporation of biologic agents in combination with cytotoxics, with a continued focus on safety and convenience, and efforts to individualize therapy for each patient. Individualized therapy may be defined as the selection of optimum treatment for a specific patient on the basis of knowledge of the cancer's genetic and epigenetic alterations and the patient's genotype. PMID:18628737

  11. Calcium accumulation during sporulation of Bacillus megaterium KM.

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, C; Ellar, D J

    1978-01-01

    Accumulation of Ca2+ in Bacilli occurs during stages IV to VI of sporulation. Ca2+ uptake into the sporangium was investigated in Bacillus megaterium KM in protoplasts prepared in stage III of sporulation and cultured to continue sporulation. These protoplasts and whole cells exhibit essentially identical Ca2+ uptake, which is compared with that of forespores isolated in stage V of sporulation. Ca2+, uptake into both sporangial protoplasts and isolated forespores occurs by Ca2+-specific carrier-mediated processes. However, protoplasts exhibit a Km value of 31 micrometer, and forespores have a Km value of 2.1 mM. Sporangial protoplasts accumulate Ca2+ against a concentration gradient. In contrast, Ca2+ uptake into isolated forespores is consistent with downhill transfer in which both rate and extent of uptake are affected by the external Ca2+ concontration. Dipicolinic acid has no effect on Ca2+ uptake by isolated forespores, apart from decreasing the external Ca2+ concentration by chelation. A model for sporulation-specific Ca2+ accumulation is proposed, in which Ca2+ is transported into the sporangium, resulting in a concentration of 3--9 mM in the mother-cell cytoplasm. This high concentration of Ca2+ enables carrier-mediated transfer down a concentration gradient into the forespore compartment, where a low free Ca2+ concentration is maintained by complexing with dipicolinic acid. PMID:103543

  12. Observations of magnetoconvection in Sunspots with 100 km resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.; Löfdahl, M. G.; Scharmer, G.; Title, A. M.

    2003-05-01

    We present new observations from the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST) on La Palma with ˜0.1 arcsecond ( ˜100 km) resolution: the highest resolution yet achieved in solar observations. We focus on sunspot and active region magnetoconvective phenomena using G-band 4305 Å, 4877 Å continuum, 7507 Å TiO bandhead, and Ca II 3968 Å H-line filtergram movies. The G-band data are post-processed using Joint Phase Diverse Speckle wavefront restoration to create a full diffraction limited time series. Sunspot light-bridges are shown to have dark lanes less than 300 km in width that are coherent along the entire length of the bridge. Similarly, we find elongated dark ``canals'' in plage regions, particularly near pores, that appear to be highly modified intergranular downflow lanes. The canals are less than 200 km in width and are much more coherent than intergranular lanes in non-magnetic regions, often retaining their basic structure for more than one granular turn-over time. Both the light-bridge central lane and the canals appear to be the result of highly constrained flow structure in strong magnetic field regions -- an aspect of solar magnetoconvection that has not previously been observed. This reseach was supported by funding from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, a SOHO Guest Investigator subcontract to California State University Northridge, and the NASA TRACE contract NAS5-38099 at Lockheed Martin.

  13. Mesoscale (50-km) Boundary Layer Eddies in CASES-97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeMone, M. A.; Grossman, R. L.; Yates, D.; Chen, F.; Ikeda, K.

    2001-05-01

    Boundery-layer eddies 50 km across are documented for the morning of 10 May 1997 during the Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97). CASES-97 was held from 21 April to 21 May 1997, in the lower Walnut River Watershed in south central Kansas, to study the role of the heterogeneous surface in boundary-layer evolution. The eddies appear to be tied to terrain, with warm, upwelling air over the relatively high terrain that forms the eastern edge of the watershed, and downwelling air over the watershed. The winds on this day were 5 m/s out of the south, and there were strong horizontal contrasts in vegetation and surface fluxes, suggesting that surfact fluxes could also play a role. For comparison, we examine two other days for the presence of mesoscale eddies, 29 April (characterized by high horizontal heterogeneity of vegetation and 10 m/s southerlies), and 20 May (characterized by a uniformly green and moist surface with winds ENE at 7 m/s). 29 April had significant but rapidly-changing horizontal variability at scales greater than 10 km, but variability on 20 May was on scales less than 5 km. Estimates of the sensible heat budgets for the three days revealed a large residual for 10 May, the day with the mesoscale eddies. Calculation of the expected errors and reasonable corrections for bias errors and radiative heating did not account for the residual, leading to the hypothesis that the residual is associated with the mesoscale eddies.

  14. Discovery of a 450 km diameter, multi-ring basin on Mars through analysis of MOLA topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Herbert; Sakimoto, Susan E. H.; Roark, James H.

    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data have revealed a previously unknown, 450 km wide, 2 km deep basin centered at 30N, 312W near the Phison Rupes. This basin, as large as and deeper than the obvious Cassini impact basin located 1000 km to the SW, is not apparent in the existing but good quality Viking imagery. Gridded MOLA data show the feature as a closed depression. Based on analysis of slope breaks readily visible in two MOLA profiles, we suggest this Phison Rupes Basin has three topographic rings with diameters approximately 350, 455 and 670 km. These rings outline a region of lower impact crater density and smoother inter-crater plains. Similar previously unknown features may exist elsewhere on Mars, and MOLA topographic data may be able to locate them.

  15. Faraday laser using 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xiaogang; Pan, Duo; Chen, Mo; Zhu, Chuanwen; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate a Faraday laser using a 1.2 km fiber as an extended cavity, which provides optical feedback and obtains small free spectrum range (FSR) of 83 kHz, and have succeeded in limiting the laser frequency to a crossover transition {5}2{S}1/2,F=2\\to {5}2{P}3/2,F\\prime =1,3 of the natural 87Rb at 780 nm. The Faraday laser is based on a Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) with an ultra-narrow bandwidth and the long fiber extended cavity of 1.2 km. The peak transmission assigned to the crossover transition F=2\\to F\\prime =1,3 in the FADOF is 20.5% with an ultra-narrow bandwidth of 29.1 MHz. The Allan deviation of the Faraday laser is around 6.0× {10}-11 in 0.06 to 1 s sampling time. Laser frequency is always kept in the center of the transmitted peak assigned to F=2\\to F\\prime =1,3. The Faraday laser realized here can provide light exactly resonant with an atomic transition used for atom–photon interaction experiments and is insensitive to diode temperature and injection current fluctuations.

  16. Depressed mantle discontinuities beneath Iceland: Evidence of a garnet controlled 660 km discontinuity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J.; Cottaar, S.; White, R. S.; Deuss, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a mantle plume beneath Iceland has long been hypothesised to explain its high volumes of crustal volcanism. Practical constraints in seismic tomography mean that thin, slow velocity anomalies representative of a mantle plume signature are difficult to image. However it is possible to infer the presence of temperature anomalies at depth from the effect they have on phase transitions in surrounding mantle material. Phase changes in the olivine component of mantle rocks are thought to be responsible for global mantle seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth, though exact depths are dependent on surrounding temperature conditions. This study uses P to S seismic wave conversions at mantle discontinuities to investigate variation in topography allowing inference of temperature anomalies within the transition zone. We employ a large data set from a wide range of seismic stations across the North Atlantic region and a dense network in Iceland, including over 100 stations run by the University of Cambridge. Data are used to create over 6000 receiver functions. These are converted from time to depth including 3D corrections for variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle velocity heterogeneities, and then stacked based on common conversion points. We find that both the 410 and 660 km discontinuities are depressed under Iceland compared to normal depths in the surrounding region. The depression of 30 km observed on the 410 km discontinuity could be artificially deepened by un-modelled slow anomalies in the correcting velocity model. Adding a slow velocity conduit of -1.44% reduces the depression to 18 km; in this scenario both the velocity reduction and discontinuity topography reflect a temperature anomaly of 210 K. We find that much larger velocity reductions would be required to remove all depression on the 660 km discontinuity, and therefore correlated discontinuity depressions appear to be a robust feature of the data. While it is not possible

  17. Molecular structure of Si_xS_(1-x) glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Boolchand, P.

    2000-03-01

    Bulk Si_xS_1-x glasses in the 0.15S_1/2)4 tetrahedra, S_8-ring and Sn chains. The observed lineshapes change systematically with x, in a manner qualitatively similar to the case of corresponding Selenide glasses( D. Selvanathan, W. J. Bresser, P. Boolchand, B. Goodman Solid State Comm. 111, 619(1999)). Glass transition temperatures established by T-modulated DSC show an increase with x. Results of Raman and MDSC will be correlated, and discussed in relation to the nature of stiffness transitions anticipated in this binary glass system near x ~0.20.

  18. Angular momentum budget of the radiational S1 ocean tide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Dobslaw, Henryk; Poropat, Lea; Salstein, David; Böhm, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The balance of diurnal S1 oceanic angular momentum (OAM) variations through torques at the sea surface and the bottom topography is validated using both a barotropic and a baroclinic numerical tide model. This analysis discloses the extent to which atmosphere-driven S1 forward simulations are reliable for use in studies of high-frequency polar motion and changes in length-of-day. Viscous and dissipative torques associated with wind stress, bottom friction, as well as internal tidal energy conversion are shown to be small, and they are overshadowed by gravitational and pressure-related interaction forces. In particular, the zonal OAM variability of S1 is almost completely balanced by the water pressure torque on the local bathymetry, whereas in the prograde equatorial case also the air pressure torque on the seafloor as well as ellipsoidal contributions from the non-spherical atmosphere and solid Earth must be taken into account. Overall, the OAM budget is well closed in both the axial and the equatorial directions, thus allowing for an identification of the main diurnal angular momentum sinks in the ocean. The physical interaction forces are found to be largest at shelf breaks and continental slopes in low latitudes, with the most dominant contribution coming from the Indonesian archipelago.

  19. S1P metabolism in cancer and other pathological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Weng In

    2010-01-01

    Nearly two decades ago, the sphingolipid metabolite sphingosine 1-phosphate was discovered to function as a lipid mediator and regulator of cell proliferation. Since that time, sphingosine 1-phosphate has been shown to mediate a diverse array of fundamental biological processes including cell proliferation, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, vascular maturation and lymphocyte trafficking. Sphingosine 1-phosphate acts primarily via signaling through five ubiquitously expressed G protein-coupled receptors. Intracellular sphingosine 1-phosphate molecules are transported extracellularly and gain access to its cognate receptors for autocrine and paracrine fashion and for signaling at distant sites reached through blood and lymphatic circulation systems. Intracellular pools of sphingosine 1-phosphate available for signaling are tightly regulated by three enzymes that include sphinosine kinase, S1P lyase and S1P phosphatase. Alterations in S1P levels as well as the enzymes involved in its synthesis and catabolism have been observed in many types of malignancy. These enzymes are being evaluated for their role in mediating cancer formation and progression, as well as their potential to serve as targets of anti-cancer therapeutics. In this review, the impact of sphingosine 1-phosphate, its cognate receptors, and the enzymes of sphingosine 1-phosphate metabolism on cell survival, apoptosis, autophagy, cellular transformation, invasion, angiogenesis and hypoxia in relation to cancer biology and treatment are discussed. PMID:20167244

  20. Search for ammonia in comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggi, S.; Codella, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Comoretto, G.; Crovisier, J.; Nesti, R.; Panella, D.; Boissier, J.; Brucato, J. R.; Bolli, P.; Massi, F.; Tofani, G.

    2015-12-01

    Comets are uniquely pristine bodies providing unique insights about the formation of our Solar System. In this work, we focus on a dynamically new comet as it enters the inner Solar System for the first time after residing for billion of years in the Oort Cloud. Such comets are particularly important because they are thought to be not differentiated by solar radiation and they are supposed to have a large quantity of organic matter close to the surface. Here we report the results of a search for NH3(1,1) emission at 23.7 GHz towards comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) using a new dual-feed K band receiver mounted on the Medicina 32-m antenna. We observed the comet close to its perihelion, from 25 to 29 November 2013, when its heliocentric distance changed from 0.25 AU to 0.03 AU. We derive an upper limit of Q(NH3) of about 2.5×1029 mol s-1 on 26 November, that is consistent with the last peak of water production rate of ∼2×1030 mol s-1 within the last few days before the perihelion.

  1. Far-ultraviolet Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from FORTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2016-09-01

    We have used the unique far-UV imaging capability offered by a sounding-rocket-borne instrument to acquire observations of C/2012 S1 (ISON) when its angular separation with respect to the Sun was 26.°3 on 2013 November 20.49. At the time of observation, the comet’s heliocentric distance and velocity relative to the Sun were r h = 0.43 au and {\\dot{r}}h = ‑62.7 km s‑1. Images dominated by C i λ1657 and H i λ1216 were acquired over a 106 × 106 km2 region. The water production rate implied by the Lyα observations is constrained to be {Q}{{{H}}2{{O}}}≈ 8 × 1029 s‑1 while the neutral carbon production rate was {Q}C ≈ 4 ×1028 s‑1. The radial profile of C i was consistent with it being a dissociation product of a parent molecule with a lifetime τ ∼ 5 × 104 s, favoring a parent other than CO. We constrain the Q CO production rate to {5}-7.5+1.5 × 1028 s‑1 with 1σ errors derived from photon statistics. The upper limit on the Q CO/{Q}{{{H}}2{{O}}} is ≲6%.

  2. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE NUCLEUS OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    SciTech Connect

    Lamy, Philippe L.; Toth, Imre; Weaver, Harold A.

    2014-10-10

    We report on the analysis of several sequences of broadband visible images of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 of the Hubble Space Telescope on 2013 April 10, May 8, October 9, and November 1 in an attempt to detect and characterize its nucleus. Whereas the overwhelming coma precluded the detection of the nucleus in the first two sequences, the contrast was sufficient in early October to unambiguously retrieve the signal from the nucleus. Two images taken within a few minutes led to similar V magnitudes for the nucleus of 21.97 and 22.0 with a 1σ uncertainty of 0.065. Assuming a standard value for the geometric albedo (0.04) and a linear phase function with a coefficient of 0.04 mag deg{sup –1}, these V values imply that the nucleus radius is 0.68 ± 0.02 km. Although this result does depend on these two assumptions, we argue that the radius most likely lies in the range 0.6-0.9 km. This result is consistent with the constraints derived from the water production rates reported by Combi et al. The last sequence of images in 2013 November revealed temporal variation of the innermost coma. If attributed to a single rotating jet, this coma brightness variation suggests the rotational period of the nucleus may be close to ∼10.4 hr.

  3. Far-ultraviolet Observations of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from FORTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2016-09-01

    We have used the unique far-UV imaging capability offered by a sounding-rocket-borne instrument to acquire observations of C/2012 S1 (ISON) when its angular separation with respect to the Sun was 26.°3 on 2013 November 20.49. At the time of observation, the comet’s heliocentric distance and velocity relative to the Sun were r h = 0.43 au and {\\dot{r}}h = ‑62.7 km s‑1. Images dominated by C i λ1657 and H i λ1216 were acquired over a 106 × 106 km2 region. The water production rate implied by the Lyα observations is constrained to be {Q}{{{H}}2{{O}}}≈ 8 × 1029 s‑1 while the neutral carbon production rate was {Q}C ≈ 4 ×1028 s‑1. The radial profile of C i was consistent with it being a dissociation product of a parent molecule with a lifetime τ ˜ 5 × 104 s, favoring a parent other than CO. We constrain the Q CO production rate to {5}-7.5+1.5 × 1028 s‑1 with 1σ errors derived from photon statistics. The upper limit on the Q CO/{Q}{{{H}}2{{O}}} is ≲6%.

  4. Comparison of broadband mode arrivals at ranges of 3515 km and 5171 km in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wage, Kathleen E.

    2003-04-01

    The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) provided an opportunity to observe signals propagating in the low-order modes of the ocean waveguide. Understanding the fluctuations of these mode signals is an important prerequisite to using them for tomography or other applications. In previous work, we characterized the cross-mode coherence and temporal variability of the low-order mode arrivals at 3515 km range [Wage et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (in press)]. This study compares the mode arrivals for two different ranges : 3515 km and 5171 km, using data from the ATOC vertical line arrays at Hawaii and Kiritimati. We discuss the mode intensity and coherence statistics for each of the arrays and examine mean arrival time trends over the year-long deployment. Experimental results are compared to PE simulations of propagation through a realistic background environment perturbed by internal waves of varying strengths. The dependence of mode statistics on the path-dependent changes in the background sound speed and the parameters of the internal wave field is explored. [Work supported by an ONR Ocean Acoustics Young Faculty Award.] a)A. B. Baggeroer, T. G. Birdsall, C. Clark, J. A. Colosi, B. D. Cornuelle, D. Costa, B. D. Dushaw, M. A. Dzieciuch, A. M. G. Forbes, B. M. Howe, D. Menemenlis, J. A. Mercer, K. Metzger, W. H. Munk, R. C. Spindel, P. F. Worcester, and C. Wunsch.

  5. Exhumation of an unusually large, ~3000 km3 coherent block of oceanic crust from >40 km depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, Wendy; Metcalf, Rodney; Fairhurst, Robert

    2010-05-01

    The Central Metamorphic terrane (CMt) is an unusually large (~3000 km3) coherent block of mid-ocean ridge (MOR) metabasites; the first one of this scale reported with eclogite facies relicts, decompression assemblages, and thermobarometry indicating exhumation of the entire block from >40 km depth. The CMt is exposed in the eastern Klamath Mountains of northern California and is dominantly an amphibolite facies metabasite which represents remnant oceanic crust subducted in a mid-Paleozoic Pacific-type margin. Thermochronology indicates that the CMt was subsequently exhumed along the Trinity fault during an early Permian extensional event. Newly discovered relict textures with new thermobarometry results suggest the CMt metabasites record the retrograde segment of the P-T-deformation-time path during exhumation from hornblende eclogite facies P-T conditions. A decompression and cooling sequence consisting of rutile cores within ilmenite crystals mantled by titanite is observed in CMt amphibolite samples. Zr-in-rutile thermometry combined with experimental data for rutile stability in metabasites suggests that relict rutile crystals preserve early P-T conditions of ~600° C and >1.3 GPa. Transition from eclogite facies is further supported by ilmenite-plagioclase-amphibole symplectites suggesting replacement of garnet or omphacite during decompression. The dominant mineral assemblages and metamorphic fabrics indicate dynamic recrystallization of metabasites during declining P-T conditions through amphibolite - epidote amphibolite facies. Exhumation via extension along the Trinity fault is suggested by the coplanar relationship between metabasite decompression-related deformation fabrics and the Trinity fault. We propose that subducted oceanic crust (CMt) was subsequently exhumed as a large coherent block from depths >40 km. This is significant because the conversion of mafic oceanic crust to eclogite produces the negative buoyancy (relative to mantle peridotite) that

  6. Inclusive jet cross section at radical s = 1. 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Hessing, T.L. . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-05-01

    The inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV has been measured at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. This measurement spans approximately 7 orders of magnitude in cross section and contains jets ranging from 30 GeV to over 400 GeV in transverse energy (E{sub t}). Comparisons have been made to QCD at both order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2} and {alpha}{sub s}{sup 3}. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lauer, D.T.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific requirements for mapping the global land surface using 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data have been set forth by the U.S. Global Change Research Program; the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP); The United Nations; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to planet Earth (MTPE) program. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data is an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of AVHRR receiving stations, along with data recorded by NOAA, has been acquiring daily global land coverage since April 1, 1992. A data set of over 70,000 AVHRR images is archived and distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center, and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the IGBP, processing standards have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are for the study of surface vegetation condition, mapping land cover, and deriving biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems. A time-series of 54 10-day global vegetation index composites for the period of April 1, 1992 through September 1993 has been produced. The production of a time-series of 33 10-day global vegetation index composites using NOAA-14 data for the period of February 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995 is underway. The data products are available from the USGS, in cooperation with NASA's MTPE program and other international organizations.

  8. An evaluation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Teillet, P.M.; El Saleous, N.; Hansen, M.C.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Justice, C.O.; Townshend, J.R.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes the steps taken in the generation of the global 1-km AVHRR land dataset, and it documents an evaluation of the data product with respect to the original specifications and its usefulness in research and applications to date. The evaluation addresses data characterization, processing, compositing and handling issues. Examples of the main scientific outputs are presented and options for improved processing are outlined and prioritized. The dataset has made a significant contribution, and a strong recommendation is made for its reprocessing and continuation to produce a long-term record for global change research.

  9. Microorganisms cultured from stratospheric air samples obtained at 41 km.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, M; Wickramasinghe, N C; Narlikar, J V; Rajaratnam, P

    2003-01-21

    Samples of air removed from the stratosphere, at an altitude of 41 km, were previously found to contain viable, but non-cultureable bacteria (cocci and rods). Here, we describe experiments aimed at growing these, together with any other organisms, present in these samples. Two bacteria (Bacillus simplex and Staphylococcus pasteuri) and a single fungus, Engyodontium album (Limber) de Hoog were isolated from the samples. Although the possibility of contamination can never be ruled out when space-derived samples are studied on earth, we are confident that the organisms originated from the stratosphere. Possible mechanisms by which these organisms could have attained such a height are discussed. PMID:12583913

  10. A Proposed International Tropical Reference Atmosphere up to 80 Km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ananthasayanam, M. R.; Narasimha, R.

    1985-01-01

    Based upon previous standard reference atmosphere, which are usually inspired by temperature regions, a proposal is made for an International Tropical Reference Atmosphere (ITRA). It is a modification of the Indian Standard Tropical Atmosphere (ISIA). The data at the available longitudinal stations in the tropics was considered in formulating the present proposal. Balloonsonde, rocketsonde, and grenade and falling sphere data was used in developing the temperature data bse fromt he stratosphere, troposphere and mesosphere. Temperature distribution and mean sea level pressures up to 80 km altitudes is discussed.

  11. PMT characterisation for the KM3NeT project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, B.; Kalekin, O.; Reubelt, J.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-05-01

    The KM3NeT project aims to design and to construct at least a cubic kilometre scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main task is to instrument this deep-sea water volume with optical modules, each housing one or several photomultiplier tubes. Three-, 8- and 10-in. PMTs from ET Enterprises, Hamamatsu and MELZ-FEU have been investigated as candidates for the telescope's optical modules. Various parameters of these photomultiplier tubes have been measured in a test bench at the Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics. These results are presented.

  12. EVLA/NMA: Within and Beyond the 21-km Radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Steve; Romney, Jonathan D.

    NRAO's Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) project is being implemented in two phases. Each involves extremely wide- bandwidth data transmission over optical fibers, but the two phases necessarily involve quite different approaches to the required fiber infrastructure, which make for an interesting contrast. Phase 1, formally called the "Ultrasensitive Array", involves replacing almost all of the existing electronics, leaving only the mechanical and track infrastructure of the VLA. The data transmission system being implemented for Phase 1 uses dedicated optical fibers, currently being buried at the VLA site. Twelve standard single-mode fibers will run from each of 72 antenna pads to the central building. One of these fibers will support the wideband data transmission system, using a dense wavelength division multiplexing technique to carry a bandwidth of 96 Gbps (120 Gbps formatted) per antenna. Fibers from the 27 active antenna pads will carry a total bandwidth of 2.6 Tbps. The longest of these fibers will extend the full 21- km length of each arm. Phase 2 will add the "New Mexico Array". Eight new stations will be built, and the electronics of the VLBA Pie Town and Los Alamos stations will be upgraded, to create a medium-resolution array, with sensitivity even higher than Phase 1. All ten NMA stations will lie within the State of New Mexico. The new antennas will range as far as 265 km from the VLA site, and will be located so as to facilitate access to existing fiber trunks installed, primarily, by rural telephone companies. These trunks include numerous unused fibers which, it is anticipated, can be leased economically. The longest fiber run from the VLA is 480 km. The same 96-Gbps total bandwidth per station will be supported, with the same underlying sub-band structure. Signals from up to three NMA stations will be multiplexed onto a single fiber in the existing trunks. This will limit the total length of fiber which must be leased or acquired to about 1240 km.

  13. The 10 km/s, 10 kg railgun

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, R.A. ); Barber, J.P. )

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the system design for a railgun powered by capacitor-based energy stores distributed along its length is presented. It is assumed that it is required to accelerate a mass of 10kg to a velocity of 10 km/s. Parameters for the railgun and its energy stores are derived and the performance of the system is computed with particular attention being paid to the efficiency with which store energy is converted to launch package kinetic energy. It is shown that efficiencies of 90 percent can be expected from a properly designed system.

  14. The relational database system of KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Arnauld; Bozza, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration is building a new generation of neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. For these telescopes, a relational database is designed and implemented for several purposes, such as the centralised management of accounts, the storage of all documentation about components and the status of the detector and information about slow control and calibration data. It also contains information useful during the construction and the data acquisition phases. Highlights in the database schema, storage and management are discussed along with design choices that have impact on performances. In most cases, the database is not accessed directly by applications, but via a custom designed Web application server.

  15. 157km BOTDA with pulse coding and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xianyang; Wang, Zinan; Wang, Song; Xue, Naitian; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Bin; Rao, Yunjiang

    2016-05-01

    A repeater-less Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA) with 157.68km sensing range is demonstrated, using the combination of random fiber laser Raman pumping and low-noise laser-diode-Raman pumping. With optical pulse coding (OPC) and Non Local Means (NLM) image processing, temperature sensing with +/-0.70°C uncertainty and 8m spatial resolution is experimentally demonstrated. The image processing approach has been proved to be compatible with OPC, and it further increases the figure-of-merit (FoM) of the system by 57%.

  16. Far-UV observations of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with FORTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold A.; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Far-UV imagery and objective grating spectroscopy of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) were acquired from NASA sounding rocket 36.296 UG, launched on 20 November 2013 at 04:40 MST (20.48 Nov 2013 UT), 8.32 days pre-perihelion, from the White Sands Missile Range, NM. The comet was 0.1° below ground horizon, 0.44 AU from the Sun, 0.86 AU from the Earth, and at a solar elongation of 26.3°. The payload reached an apogee of 279 km and the total time pointed at the comet was 353 s. At the time of launch ISON was undergoing a factor of 5 increase in water production rate, going from 3.5e29 to 19.6e29 molecules s-1between 19.6 and 21.6 Nov (Combi et al. 2014), marking what is thought to be a final fragmentation event (Sekanina & Kracht 2014). Our instrument, a wide-field multi-object spectro-telescope called FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy), observed Lyα emissions in an objective grating mode through an open microshutter array, developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center, over a (1/2°)2 field-of-view. After accounting for slit losses and deadtime corrections we find a preliminary lower limit to the Lyα surface brightness of ~ 400 kilorayleighs, yielding a hydrogen production rate of QH ~ 5e29 atoms s-1, in reasonable agreement with the Combi result. We also acquired a broadband image of the comet in the 1280 to 1900 Å bandpass. This image shows a drop in count rate proportional to altitude caused by increased absorption of cometary emissions by terrestrial O2 located in the lower thermosphere. O2 absorption acts as a selective time dependent filter that attenuates cometary emissions from different atomic and molecular species at different rates during descent. Preliminary analysis suggests that the dominant species in a (1e5 km)2 nuclear region is neutral carbon. The radial profile in comparison to a Haser model suggests that the C parent molecule had a lifetime (at 1 AU) ~ 105 s; much shorter than the expected lifetime of CO. We

  17. Infrared emission from the atmosphere above 200 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The infrared radiation over the range from 4 to 1000 microns from atoms and molecules in the earth's atmosphere, between 200 and 400 km, was calculated. Only zenith lines of sight were considered. The excitation of the atoms and molecules is due to collisions with other molecules and to absorption of radiation from the earth and sun. In some cases, the abundances of the molecules had to be estimated. The most important lines are the forbidden lines from atomic oxygen at 63.1 and 147 micron, and the vibration-rotation band of nitric oxide at 5.3 micron. These lines can have intensities as high as a few times 0.001 ergs/sq cm/sec/steradian at 200 km altitude. In addition, the vibration-rotation bands of NO(+) at 4.3 micron and CO at 4.7 micron and the pure rotation lines of NO and NO(+) could be detected by infrared telescopes in space.

  18. Km typing with PCR: application to population screening.

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, J H; Bowcock, A M; Erlich, H A; Nevo, S; Cavalli-Sforza, L L

    1991-01-01

    The immunoglobulin kappa light chain (IgK) locus may play a significant role in the pathology of both infectious and autoimmune diseases. Most of the work on IgK genetics has been conducted using immunological techniques for allelic typing and sequence analysis. This is restricted by availability of reagents and can be both expensive and time-consuming. PCR primers were designed to amplify the kappa constant gene (Ck), and four allele-specific oligonucleotides (ASOs) were used to distinguish the alleles in the amplified PCR products. Direct sequencing of PCR products was performed to confirm that the primers specifically amplified the Ck region and the ASOs differentiated the Km alleles. Sequencing of an average of 209 nucleotides of DNA from 50 individuals revealed no variation except at codon 191, which is known to be involved in a frequent polymorphism. An analysis of 347 different individual DNAs from 10 human populations was conducted to determine Km allelic frequencies within these populations and to apply this type of data collection to population studies. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1900145

  19. KM3NeT/ORCA status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samtleben, Dorothea F. E.

    2016-04-01

    Neutrinos created in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere can serve as a powerful tool to unveil the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH). At low energies, around a few GeV, matter effects from the transition through the Earth are expected to imprint a distinct but also subtle signature on the oscillation pattern, specific to the ordering of the neutrino masses. KM3NeT/ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss), a densely instrumented building block of the upcoming KM3NeT neutrino telescope, will be designated to measuring this signature in the Mediterranean Sea. Using detailed simulations the sensitivity towards this signature has been evaluated. The multi-PMT detectors allow in the water for an accurate reconstruction of GeV neutrino event signatures and distinction of neutrino flavours. For the determination of the mass hierarchy a median significance of 2-6σ has been estimated for three years of data taking, depending on the actual hierarchy and the oscillation parameters. At the same time the values of several oscillation parameters like θ23 will be determined to unprecedented precision.

  20. Quantum crytography over 14km of installed optical fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Luther, G.G.; Morgan, G.L.; Simmons, C.

    1995-09-01

    We have made the first demonstration that low error rate quantum cryptography over long distances (14km) of installed optical fiber in a real-world environment, subject to uncontrolled temperature and mechanical influences, representing an important new step towards incorporation of quantum cryptography into existing information security systems. We also point out that the high visibility single-photon interference in our experiment allows us to infer a test of the superposition principle of quantum mechanics: a photon reaching the detector has traveled over 14km of optical fiber in a wavepacket comprising a coherent superposition of two components that are spatially separated by about 2m. In principle, there are decoherence processes (or even possible modifications of quantum mechanics) that could cause the photon`s wavefunction to collapse into one component or the other during propagation, leading to a reduction in visibility. However, our results are consistent with no such loss of quantum coherence during the 67-{mu}s propagation time.

  1. Observing Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) With Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.; Vervack, R. J.; Weaver, H. A.; Bauer, J. M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Kelley, M. S.; Knight, M. M.; Hines, D. C.; Li, J.; Reach, W. T.; Sitko, M. L.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Meech, K. J.; Rayner, J. T.

    2013-10-01

    In this talk we discuss the design, implementation, and reduction of observations of Comet ISON from space using the Spitzer Space Telescope on 13.00 - 13.96 Jun UT and from the ground at Lowell Observatory on Jun 11.16 UT and from APO on 14.13 Jun UT. The comet was at distance rh = 3.34 AU from the Sun, distance ΔSpitzer = 3.29 AU and 17.4o phase from SST, and distance ΔEarth = 4.25 AU and 6.8 - 7.3o phase at the time of observation. Preliminary analyses show ISON's Spitzer coma morphology was relatively compact and simple, with a linear anti-solar dust tail > 3x105 km in length and a 1/p profile gas coma extending > 105 km from the nucleus. Afp values in an 18,200 km radius aperture of 840, 890, and 840 ± 80 cm were found at VRI, and 650 ± 100 cm were found at 3.6 micron. Together, the ground-based and Spitzer photometry imply near-neutral dust scattering from the visual through the infrared. An excess at 4.5 µm due to emission from a neutral gas coma is clearly found both morphologically and photometrically. The gas coma total flux and spatial profile and ISON’s discovery distance imply a coma dominated by the stronger CO_2 line emission at 4.67 μm, but we cannot rule out a preponderance of CO emission at 4.26 μm. No variability in our Spitzer photometry at the 0.03 mag level over 24 hrs was seen. We present our imagery, spectrophotometry, and lightcurves, and discuss the physical implications of these measurements of the comet made well outside the ice line.

  2. Upper-crustal velocity structure along 150 km of the Mendeleev Ridge from tomographic inversion of long-offset refraction data collected during HLY0602

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, P. M.; van Avendonk, H. J.; Lawver, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    In the summer of 2006 we acquired a unique seismic refraction data set on the Chukchi Borderlands and Mendeleev Ridge utilizing USCGC Healy and two helicopters. The array on the Mendeleev Ridge consisted of 14 instrument sites with 12 km spacing between instruments. On every site we deployed a Sea-Ice Seismometer (S- IS) especially designed for this experiment in the ice-covered part of the Arctic Ocean. Each S-IS contained a vertical component geophone that was buried in the ice and a hydrophone that was hanging from the ice edge in the water. From the 14 instrument sites, 10 contained useful data with refracted crustal arrivals up to offsets of 40 km. Because of extensive drifting of the receivers (40 km in 5 days and containing numerous loops), and because of the irregular geometry of airgun shots due to the problems of sailing through ice-covered seas, a 3D ray-shooting code was developed to calculate ray paths within a 3D velocity model that extends along 150 km in the X- direction and along 35 km in the Y-direction. Using the velocity model proposed by Lebedeva-Ivanova et al. (2006) we observe that the maximum depth of our calculated ray paths is 11 km below sealevel. Using all the available data, the Root Mean Square (RMS) difference between observed and calculated travel-times is of the order of 500 ms. Initially a simple 1D travel-time inversion was developed to constrain the velocity structure of the basement underneath a layer of water (3D) and a layer of sediment (1D). This inversion was carried out on 2 pairs of receivers: one pair in the NNE and one more towards the SSW part of the line. Inversion of S-IS 45N-42 (NNE) results in a model with a velocity of 5.5 km s-1 at the top of the basement, slowly increasing to a velocity of 5.7 km s-1 at 3 km below the top of the basement (RMS = 117 ms). Inversion of S-IS 49-45S (SSW) results in a model with a velocity of 4.8 km s-1 at the top of the basement, increasing to a velocity of 5.9 km s-1 at 3 km below

  3. The mean ozone distribution from several series of rocket sounding to 52 km at latitudes from 58 deg S to 64 deg N

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The results of 21 rocket flights of Arcas optical ozonesondes were combined to produce estimates of the mean ozone distribution and its variability; these estimates apply to a broad range of latitudes. The flights were launched from sites near the equator to 58 S and to 64 N, in the years from 1965 to 1971. The local-noon mean ozone densities in molecules/cubic centimeter are 7.0 to the 10th power at 50 km, 6.7 x 10 to the 11th power at 40 km, 3.1 x 10 to the 12th power at 30 km, and 3.1 x 10 to the 12th power at 20 km. The range of observed densities is about + or - 30 percent of the mean value at 50 km; + or 40 percent at 40 km; + or - 40 percent at 30 km; and +200 percent, -66 percent at 20 km. The variabilities in this set of observations are much smaller than those indicated by previous measurements.

  4. Hybrid fine scale climatology and microphysics of in-cloud icing: From 32 km reanalysis to 5 km mesoscale modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamraoui, Fayçal; Benoit, Robert; Perron, Jean; Fortin, Guy; Masson, Christian

    2015-03-01

    In-cloud icing can impose safety concerns and economic challenges for various industries. Icing climate representations proved beneficial for optimal designs and careful planning. The current study investigates in-cloud icing, its related cloud microphysics and introduces a 15-year time period climatology of icing events. The model was initially driven by reanalysis data from North American Regional Reanalysis and downscaled through a two-level nesting of 10 km and 5 km, using a limited-area version of the Global Environment Multiscale Model of the Canadian Meteorological Center. In addition, a hybrid approach is used to reduce time consuming calculations. The simulation realized exclusively on significant icing days, was combined with non-significant icing days as represented by data from NARR. A proof of concept is presented here for a 1000 km area around Gaspé during January for those 15 years. An increase in the number and intensity of icing events has been identified during the last 15 years. From GEM-LAM simulations and within the atmospheric layer between 10 m and 200 m AGL, supercooled liquid water contents indicated a maximum of 0.4 g m- 3, and 50% of the values are less than 0.05 g m- 3. All values of median volume diameters (MVD) are approximately capped by 70 μm and the typical values are around 15 μm. Supercooled Large Droplets represent approximately 5%. The vertical profile of icing climatology demonstrates a steady duration of icing events until the level of 60 m. The altitudes of 60 m and 100 m indicate substantial icing intensification toward higher elevations. GEM-LAM demonstrated a substantial improvement in the calculation of in-cloud icing, reducing significantly the challenge posed by complex terrains.

  5. An Instrument Suite for the Vertical Characterization of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere System from 100 km to 700km Altitude.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, F.; Nicholas, A.

    2008-05-01

    We describe an instrument suite that includes WTS (the Wind-Temperature Spectrometer developed for the ANDE mission of the Naval Research Laboratory), a new Ion-Drift-Temperature Spectrometer (IDTS) and one each of our new Neutral (NMS) and Ion (IMS) Mass Spectrometers. The WTS and IDTS both implement Small- Deflection Energy Analyzers (SDEAs) developed at NASA Goddard; thus, they are capable of measuring the differential energy and angular distributions of neutrals and ions with the capability of detecting and characterizing non-Maxwellian ion and neutral distributions in the upper atmosphere. The mass spectrometers have a mass resolution of approximately 1/60. The suite is designed for sounding rocket investigations to obtain the vertical distribution of the neutral wind, ion drift, respective temperatures, and relative densities of the major species, e.g., O/N2; in addition it will provide ion and neutral composition, to include metals. The sensitivity of each instrument is sufficient to provide data over altitudes ranging from about 100 to about 700 km. The vertical spatial resolution in the neutral wind/temperature gradually increases from a few meters between 100 and 150 km to 100's of meters above 400 km. The ion drift measurements will have spatial resolution less than 1 m at the peak of the F- region and larger above and below. The wind and ion-drift measurements require large vehicle velocity in the sampled region. We will discuss this and other performance requirements. The capability offered in this instrument suite will make it possible to add new data in our pursuit of two long standing questions: a) the transition from Maxwellian to non-Maxwellian as the thermosphere becomes the exosphere and b) the true O/O2 and O/N2 ratio without instrument contamination due to O recombination in the ion source.

  6. Argyres-Douglas theories, S 1 reductions, and topological symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew; Nishinaka, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, we proposed closed-form expressions for the superconformal indices of the ({A}1,{A}2n-3) and ({A}1,{D}2n) Argyres-Douglas (AD) superconformal field theories (SCFTs) in the Schur limit. Following up on our results, we turn our attention to the small S 1 regime of these indices. As expected on general grounds, our study reproduces the S 3 partition functions of the resulting dimensionally reduced theories. However, we show that in all cases—with the exception of the reduction of the ({A}1,{D}4) SCFT—certain imaginary partners of real mass terms are turned on in the corresponding mirror theories. We interpret these deformations as R symmetry mixing with the topological symmetries of the direct S 1 reductions. Moreover, we argue that these shifts occur in any of our theories whose four-dimensional { N }=2 superconformal U{(1)}R symmetry does not obey an SU(2) quantization condition. We then use our R symmetry map to find the four-dimensional ancestors of certain three-dimensional operators. Somewhat surprisingly, this picture turns out to imply that the scaling dimensions of many of the chiral operators of the four-dimensional theory are encoded in accidental symmetries of the three-dimensional theory. We also comment on the implications of our work on the space of general { N }=2 SCFTs.

  7. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, Harunori; Kitano, Masayasu; Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi; Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto; Miyazawa, Keiji; Hla, Timothy; Sano, Hajime

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  8. The ion population between 1300 km and 230000 km in the coma of comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.; Goldstein, R.; Ip, W. -H.; Meier, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Shelley, E.

    1993-01-01

    During the encounter of the spacecraft Giotto with Comet Halley the two sensors of the ion mass spectrometer (IMS), high energy range spectrometer (HERS) and high intensity spectrometer (HIS), measured the mass and the three-dimensional velocity distributions of cometary ions. HIS looked mainly at the cold, slow part of the distribution close to the nucleus, HERS at the more energetic pick-up ions further out. After a thorough recalibration of the HIS flight spare unit and an extensive data analysis we present here continuous ion density-, composition-, velocity-, and temperature profiles for the water group ion (mass range 16-19 amu/e) along Giotto's inbound trajectory from 230,000 to 1300 km from the comet nucleus. The two sensors are in very good agreement in the region where their measurements overlap thus giving an excellent data base for the discussion of theoretical comet models. The most prominent feature where models and observations disagree is the so called pile up region between 8000 and 15,000 km from the nucleus.

  9. 2540 km: bimagic baseline for neutrino oscillation parameters.

    PubMed

    Dighe, Amol; Goswami, Srubabati; Ray, Shamayita

    2010-12-31

    We show that a source-to-detector distance of 2540 km, motivated recently [S. K. Raut, R. S. Singh, and S. U. Sankar, arXiv:0908.3741] for a narrow band superbeam, offers multiple advantages for a low energy neutrino factory with a detector that can identify muon charge. At this baseline, for any neutrino hierarchy, the wrong-sign muon signal is almost independent of CP violation and θ(13) in certain energy ranges. This allows the identification of the hierarchy in a clean way. In addition, part of the muon spectrum is also sensitive to the CP violating phase and θ(13), so that the same setup can be used to probe these parameters as well. PMID:21231644

  10. Transport System for Delivery Tourists At Altitude 140 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    The author offers a new method and installation for flight in space. This method uses the centrifugal force of a rotating circular cable that provides a means for the launch of a payload into outer space, to keep the fixed space stations at high altitudes (up to 200 km). The method may also be useful for landing to space bodies, for launching of the space ships (crafts), and for moving and accelerating other artificial apparatuses. The offered installation may be used as a propulsion system for space ships and/or probes. This system uses the material of any space body (i.e. stones) for acceleration and change of the space vehicle trajectory. The suggested system may be also used as a high capacity energy accumulator.

  11. Readout and data acquisition for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belias, Anastasios; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos

    2013-05-01

    In the KM3NeT neutrino telescope design the readout concept is based on a point-to-point network connecting tenthousands of optical modules in the deep sea through a photonic network with the shore station. The time-over-threshold data from each Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT) of each optical module will be send to shore over fibres using dedicated wavelengths. Nanosecond timing accuracy will be schieved using a clock signal embedded in the data stream and measuring the roundtrip time from the shore to each optical module individually. The DAQ software architecture based on the Internet Communications Engine (ICE) will provide a common and uniform software framework for the control of each optical module and the data acquisition of the whole neutrino telescope.

  12. Fatal truck-bicycle accident involving dragging for 45 km.

    PubMed

    Klintschar, M; Darok, M; Roll, P

    2003-08-01

    Vehicle-bicycle accidents with subsequent dragging of the rider over long distances are extremely rare. The case reported here is that of a 16-year-old mentally retarded bike rider who was run over by a truck whose driver failed to notice the accident. The legs of the victim became trapped by the rear axle of the trailer and the body was dragged over 45 km before being discovered under the parked truck. The autopsy revealed that the boy had died from the initial impact and not from the dragging injuries which had caused extensive mutilation. The reports of the technical expert and the forensic pathologist led the prosecutor to drop the case against the truck driver for manslaughter. PMID:12748865

  13. Calibration methods and tools for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikovskiy, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT detectors, ARCA and ORCA, composed of several thousands digital optical modules, are in the process of their realization in the Mediterranean Sea. Each optical module contains 31 3-inch photomultipliers. Readout of the optical modules and other detector components is synchronized at the level of sub-nanoseconds. The position of the module is measured by acoustic piezo detectors inside the module and external acoustic emitters installed on the bottom of the sea. The orientation of the module is obtained with an internal attitude and heading reference system chip. Detector calibration, i.e. timing, positioning and sea-water properties, is overviewed in this talk and discussed in detail in this conference. Results of the procedure applied to the first detector unit ready for installation in the deep sea will be shown.

  14. Estimating worldwide solar radiation resources on a 40km grid

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, E.L.; George, R.L.; Brady, E.H.

    1996-11-01

    During 1995, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), initiated the Data Grid Task under the auspices of DOE`s Resource Assessment Program. A data grid is a framework of uniformly spaced locations (grid points) for which data are available. Estimates of monthly averages of direct normal, diffuse horizontal, and global horizontal daily-total solar radiation energy (kWh/m{sup 2}) are being made for each point on a grid covering the US, Mexico, the Caribbean, and southern Canada. The grid points are separated by approximately 40 km. Using interpolation methods, the digital data grid can be used to estimate solar resources at any location. The most encouraging result to date has been the location of sources providing worldwide data for most of the input parameters required for modeling daily total solar radiation. This is a multiyear task expected to continue through the rest of this century.

  15. Constraining density and velocity jumps across the 410 km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saki, Morvarid; Thomas, Christine; Cobden, Laura; Abreu, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the velocity and density structure of the olivine-to-wadsleyite transition using polarities of precursor arrivals to PP seismic waves that reflect off the 410 km discontinuity beneath the Northern Atlantic. Numerous source-receiver combinations have been used in order to collect a dataset of reflection points beneath our investigation area. We analyzed over 1700 seismograms from Mw > 5.8 using array seismology methods to enhance the signal to noise ratio. For each event the polarity of the PP phase is compared to polarity of the precursor signal and we find several events where the polarity of the precursors are opposite to that of PP. There does not seem to be any dependency of the observed polarities on the propagation direction of the seismic waves but interestingly there seems to be a dependency on the distance between source and receiver. The events with epicentral distances greater than 119 degrees mostly show opposite polarities, while for those with smaller epicentral distances the same polarity of the main phase and precursor signal is dominant. Using Zeoppritz equations, we analyzed more than 64 million combinations of density, compressional and shear wave velocities for both layers, above and below the 410 km discontinuity in order to find the best combination of those parameters that can explain the observations. The results are indicating combinations of density, P and S wave velocity exhibiting a smaller contrast compared to those from the pyrolite model (the density jump, however is still positive to provide physically meaningful results). The calculated reductions in both compressional and shear wave velocities go up to 13% but mostly fall within the range of less than 7- 8%. We interpret this reduction in elastic properties and seismic velocity of minerals as the effect of a higher than normal content of water of wadsleyite in this region, while we can exclude a reduction in iron.

  16. Changes in single skinfold thickness in 100 km ultramarathoners

    PubMed Central

    Knechtle, Beat; Baumgartner, Sabrina; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Bescós, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in single skinfold thickness and body fat have been investigated in ultraswimmers and ultracyclists, but not in ultrarunners. The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon. Methods Firstly, we investigated associations between prerace preparation and prerace body composition and, secondly, changes in single skinfold thickness during a 100 km ultramarathon in 219 male ultramarathoners. Changes in fat mass and skeletal muscle were estimated using anthropometric methods. Results Kilometers run weekly prerace and running speed during training were negatively associated with all skinfold thicknesses (P < 0.05) except for the front thigh skinfold. During the race, skinfold thickness at the pectoral (−0.1%), suprailiac (−1.8%), and calf (−0.8%) sites decreased (P < 0.05). The subjects lost 1.9 ± 1.4 kg of body mass (P < 0.001), 0.7 ± 1.0 kg of estimated skeletal muscle mass (P < 0.001), and 0.2 ± 1.3 kg of estimated fat mass (P < 0.05). The decrease in body mass was positively related to the decrease in both estimated skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.21, P = 0.0017) and estimated fat mass (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001). Conclusion Firstly, prerace fat mass and prerace skinfold thickness were associated with both volume and speed in running training. Secondly, during the ultramarathon, skinfold thickness decreased at the pectoral, suprailiac, and calf sites, but not at the thigh site. Percent decreases in skinfold thickness for ultrarunners was lower than the percent decreases in skinfold thickness reported for ultraswimmers and ultracyclists. PMID:24198597

  17. P/2008 CL94 (Lemmon) and P/2011 S1 (Gibbs): comet-like activity at large heliocentric distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyk, I.; Korsun, P.; Rousselot, P.; Afanasiev, V.; Ivanova, O.

    2016-06-01

    Based on spectroscopic and photometric observations we analyzed the dust environment of two minor distant objects, P/2008 CL94 (Lemmon) and P/2011 S1 (Gibbs). Both targets demonstrated the comet-like activity beyond the "zone of water-ice sublimation". Meanwhile the spectrum of P/2008 CL94 (Lemmon) did not reveal molecular emission features above reflected continuum in a spectral region of 4100-6800Å. Reddening of the continuum is linear along the dispersion with the mean normalized reflectivity gradient equals to 2.0% ± 0.4%. The normalized reflectivity of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) derived from the V-R and R-I color indices equals 11% ± 9% and 26% ± 6% respectively. Both objects have likely small nuclei (about 2 and 4 km in the radii for P/2008 CL94 and P/2011 S1 respectively), which are consistent with nucleus sizes of 'Jupiter-family' comets. The level of physical activity of P/2008 CL94 and S/2011 S1 is characterized by R-Afρ quantity of 106 ± 3 cm and 76 ± 8 cm respectively. The Afρ values are resulted in dust production rates of about 1-2 kg/s, assuming the average geometric albedo of grains of 0.1 and the dust outflow velocities between 1 and 10 m/s.

  18. Improvements in Cycling but Not Handcycling 10 km Time Trial Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users.

    PubMed

    Graham-Paulson, Terri; Perret, Claudio; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine supplementation during whole-/lower-body exercise is well-researched, yet evidence of its effect during upper-body exercise is equivocal. The current study explored the effects of caffeine on cycling/handcycling 10 km time trial (TT) performance in habitual caffeine users. Eleven recreationally trained males (mean (SD) age 24 (4) years, body mass 85.1 (14.6) kg, cycling/handcycling peak oxygen uptake ( V · peak) 42.9 (7.3)/27.6 (5.1) mL∙kg∙min(-1), 160 (168) mg/day caffeine consumption) completed two maximal incremental tests and two familiarization sessions. During four subsequent visits, participants cycled/handcycled for 30 min at 65% mode-specific V · peak (preload) followed by a 10 km TT following the ingestion of 4 mg∙kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Caffeine significantly improved cycling (2.0 (2.0)%; 16:35 vs. 16:56 min; p = 0.033) but not handcycling (1.8 (3.0)%; 24:10 vs. 24:36 min; p = 0.153) TT performance compared to PLA. The improvement during cycling can be attributed to the increased power output during the first and last 2 km during CAF. Higher blood lactate concentration (Bla) was reported during CAF compared to PLA (p < 0.007) and was evident 5 min post-TT during cycling (11.2 ± 2.6 and 8.8 ± 3.2 mmol/L; p = 0.001) and handcycling (10.6 ± 2.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 mmol/L; p = 0.006). Lower overall ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were seen following CAF during the preload (p < 0.05) but not post-TT. Lower peripheral RPE were reported at 20 min during cycling and at 30 min during handcycling, and lower central RPE was seen at 30 min during cycling (p < 0.05). Caffeine improved cycling but not handcycling TT performance. The lack of improvement during handcycling may be due to the smaller active muscle mass, elevated (Bla) and/or participants' training status. PMID:27348000

  19. Improvements in Cycling but Not Handcycling 10 km Time Trial Performance in Habitual Caffeine Users

    PubMed Central

    Graham-Paulson, Terri; Perret, Claudio; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine supplementation during whole-/lower-body exercise is well-researched, yet evidence of its effect during upper-body exercise is equivocal. The current study explored the effects of caffeine on cycling/handcycling 10 km time trial (TT) performance in habitual caffeine users. Eleven recreationally trained males (mean (SD) age 24 (4) years, body mass 85.1 (14.6) kg, cycling/handcycling peak oxygen uptake (V·peak) 42.9 (7.3)/27.6 (5.1) mL∙kg∙min−1, 160 (168) mg/day caffeine consumption) completed two maximal incremental tests and two familiarization sessions. During four subsequent visits, participants cycled/handcycled for 30 min at 65% mode-specific V·peak (preload) followed by a 10 km TT following the ingestion of 4 mg∙kg−1 caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA). Caffeine significantly improved cycling (2.0 (2.0)%; 16:35 vs. 16:56 min; p = 0.033) but not handcycling (1.8 (3.0)%; 24:10 vs. 24:36 min; p = 0.153) TT performance compared to PLA. The improvement during cycling can be attributed to the increased power output during the first and last 2 km during CAF. Higher blood lactate concentration (Bla) was reported during CAF compared to PLA (p < 0.007) and was evident 5 min post-TT during cycling (11.2 ± 2.6 and 8.8 ± 3.2 mmol/L; p = 0.001) and handcycling (10.6 ± 2.5 and 9.2 ± 2.9 mmol/L; p = 0.006). Lower overall ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were seen following CAF during the preload (p < 0.05) but not post-TT. Lower peripheral RPE were reported at 20 min during cycling and at 30 min during handcycling, and lower central RPE was seen at 30 min during cycling (p < 0.05). Caffeine improved cycling but not handcycling TT performance. The lack of improvement during handcycling may be due to the smaller active muscle mass, elevated (Bla) and/or participants’ training status. PMID:27348000

  20. Dynamical instability in the S =1 Bose-Hubbard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaoka, Rui; Tsuchiura, Hiroki; Yamashita, Makoto; Toga, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We study the dynamical instabilities of superfluid flows in the S =1 Bose-Hubbard model. The time evolution of each spin component in a condensate is calculated based on the dynamical Gutzwiller approximation for a wide range of interactions, from a weakly correlated regime to a strongly correlated regime near the Mott-insulator transition. Owing to the spin-dependent interactions, the superfluid flow of the spin-1 condensate decays at a different critical momentum from a spinless case when the interaction strength is the same. We furthermore calculate the dynamical phase diagram of this model and clarify that the obtained phase boundary has very different features depending on whether the average number of particles per site is even or odd. Finally, we analyze the density and spin modulations that appear in association with the dynamical instability. We find that spin modulations are highly sensitive to the presence of a uniform magnetic field.

  1. Effect of anisotropy in the S=1 underscreened Kondo lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Lacroix, Claudine; Iglesias, José Roberto; Coqblin, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    We study the effect of crystal field anisotropy in the underscreened S=1 Kondo lattice model. Starting from the two orbital Anderson lattice model and including a local anisotropy term, we show, through Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, that local anisotropy is equivalent to an anisotropic Kondo interaction (J∥≠J⊥). The competition and coexistence between ferromagnetism and Kondo effect in this effective model is studied within a generalized mean-field approximation. Several regimes are obtained, depending on the parameters, exhibiting or not coexistence of magnetic order and Kondo effect. Particularly, we show that a re-entrant Kondo phase at low temperature can be obtained. We are also able to describe phases where the Kondo temperature is smaller than the Curie temperature (TK

  2. Confinement and power balance in the S-1 spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Levinton, F.M.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Mayo, R.M.; Janos, A.C.; Ono, Y.; Ueda, Y.; Yamada, M.

    1989-07-01

    The confinement and scaling features of the S-1 spheromak have been investigated using magnetic, spectroscopic, and Thomson scattering data in conjunction with numerical modeling. Results from the multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic shows that the central beta remains constant (/beta//sub to/ /approximately/ 5%) as the plasma current density increases from 0.68--2.1 MA/m/sup 2/. The density is observed to increase slowly over this range, while the central electron temperature increases much more rapidly. Analysis of the global plasma parameters shows a decrease in the volume average beta and energy confinement as the total current is increased. The power balance has been modeled numerically with a 0-D non-equilibrium time-dependent coronal model and is consistent with the experimental observations. 20 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Properties of the Old Open Cluster Czernik 30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Christian R.; Friel, Eileen D.; Slack, Taleah J.; Boberg, Owen M.

    2015-12-01

    We present new photometric and spectroscopic data of the old open cluster Czernik 30. Wide field BVI photometry allows us to correct for the high field contamination by statistical subtraction to produce a color-magnitude diagram (CMD) that clearly reveals the cluster sequence. From spectra of stars in the cluster field obtained with the Hydra spectrograph on the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO 3.5 m telescope we determine a mean cluster velocity of +79.9 ± 1.5 km s-1 and provide membership information that helps further define the cluster giant branch and red clump. Stellar abundances for the brighter giants in the cluster indicate a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.2 ± 0.15. Fitting theoretical isochrones to the CMD we determine the following properties of Czernik 30: age = 2.8 ± 0.3 Gyr, (m - M)v = 14.8 ± 0.1, E(B - V) = 0.24 ± 0.06, and E(V - I) = 0.36 ± 0.04. Czernik 30 is an old, sub-solar metallicity cluster located at a Galactocentric radius of Rgc ˜ 13.3 kpc. Given its age and position just beyond the transition to a flat abundance gradient seen in the open cluster population, Czernik 30 provides an interesting target for future observations.

  4. Regulation of human cerebro-microvascular endothelial baso-lateral adhesion and barrier function by S1P through dual involvement of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wiltshire, Rachael; Nelson, Vicky; Kho, Dan Ting; Angel, Catherine E.; O’Carroll, Simon J.; Graham, E. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Herein we show that S1P rapidly and acutely reduces the focal adhesion strength and barrier tightness of brain endothelial cells. xCELLigence biosensor technology was used to measure focal adhesion, which was reduced by S1P acutely and this response was mediated through both S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. S1P increased secretion of several pro-inflammatory mediators from brain endothelial cells. However, the magnitude of this response was small in comparison to that mediated by TNFα or IL-1β. Furthermore, S1P did not significantly increase cell-surface expression of any key cell adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte recruitment, included ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Finally, we reveal that S1P acutely and dynamically regulates microvascular endothelial barrier tightness in a manner consistent with regulated rapid opening followed by closing and strengthening of the barrier. We hypothesise that the role of the S1P receptors in this process is not to cause barrier dysfunction, but is related to controlled opening of the endothelial junctions. This was revealed using real-time measurement of barrier integrity using ECIS ZΘ TEER technology and endothelial viability using xCELLigence technology. Finally, we show that these responses do not occur simply though the pharmacology of a single S1P receptor but involves coordinated action of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors. PMID:26813587

  5. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of comet ISON (2012 S1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, H.; A'Hearn, M.; Feldman, P.; Bodewits, D.; Combi, M.; Dello Russo, N.; McCandliss, S.

    2014-07-01

    We performed ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to monitor the evolution of CO production with heliocentric distance, search for compositional changes associated with the intense heating episode near perihelion, and measure the D/H ratio. We observed C/ISON with Hubble at four different epochs: May 2.5 (r=3.8 au, Δ=4.3 au), Oct 8.8 (r=1.5 au, Δ= 1.9 au), Oct 21.9 (r=1.23 au, Δ = 1.53 au), and Nov 1.5 (r=1.0 au, Δ =1.2 au). No molecular or atomic emissions were detected in May, but a stringent upper limit on the CO production rate was obtained (Q[CO] ≤ 1.0 × 10^{27} molecules s^{-1}, 3 σ). OH emission was detected during all the later observations and showed strong temporal variations on Nov 1. CO was clearly detected on Oct 21.9 and Nov 1.5, from which we derive CO/H_{2}O ˜0.015. Both atomic carbon and sulfur emissions were detected on Nov 1. No atomic deuterium emission was detected during the attempts to measure it on Nov 1, as the comet's gas production rates were significantly smaller than some early predictions suggested. A lightcurve derived from HST optical imaging observations on Nov 1, contemporaneous with the UV spectroscopy, suggests a nucleus rotational period of ˜10.4 hr, but the range of plausible values is fairly broad.

  6. Multi-method determination of continuous 2D velocity profiles from the surface to 1 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterie, S.; Miller, R. D.; Ivanov, J.; Schwenk, J.; Bailey, B. L.; Schwarzer, J.; Markiewicz, R.

    2012-12-01

    Compressional and shear reflection data provide critical measurements of velocity and attenuation that are necessary for numerical simulations of site response from earthquake energy and seismic investigations to lithologic and pore characterizations. Imperative for accurate site response models is a seismic velocity model extending from the surface to the depth of interest that is representative of the true subsurface. In general, no seismic method can be used to characterize the shallowest (< 30 m) and deepest (30 m to 1 km) portions of the subsurface in a single pass with a consistent set of equipment and acquisition parameters. With four unique seismic surveys targeting different portions of the subsurface and different components of the seismic wavefield, we were able to build a comprehensive dataset that facilitated continuous 2D velocity profiles. The upper kilometer underlying our study site consists of Lake Bonneville lucustrine sediments and post-Bonneville alluvium and colluvium from the nearby Wasatch Front in north central Utah (Eardley, 1938; Hintze, 2005). Four unique seismic surveys were acquired along each of two 1.5 km lines located approximately 3 km apart. Data for tomography and multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) were acquired with a bungee accelerated weight drop and 4.5 Hz compressional geophones. P-wave and S-wave reflection data were acquired with an IVI minivib 1 and 28 Hz compressional and 14 Hz SH geophones, respectively. P-wave and S-wave velocities from the surface to 30 m were determined using tomography and MASW, respectively. Stacking velocities of reflections on common midpoint gathers from the vibroseis data were used to determine Vp and Vs from approximately 30 m to nearly 1 km below ground surface. Each Vp and Vs dataset were merged to generate continuous interval and average velocity profiles. The sutured velocity cross-sections were produced for both P- and S-waves in a fashion not previously described in the

  7. Evaluation of the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelaro, Ronald; Putman, William M.; Pawson, Steven; Draper, Clara; Molod, Andrea; Norris, Peter M.; Ott, Lesley; Prive, Nikki; Reale, Oreste; Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Bosilovich, Michael; Buchard, Virginie; Chao, Winston; Coy, Lawrence; Cullather, Richard; da Silva, Arlindo; Darmenov, Anton; Koster, Randal; McCarty, Will; Schubert, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    This report documents an evaluation by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) of a two-year 7-km-resolution non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation produced with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model. The simulation was produced as a Nature Run for conducting observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). Generation of the GEOS-5 Nature Run (G5NR) was motivated in part by the desire of the OSSE community for an improved high-resolution sequel to an existing Nature Run produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which has served the community for several years. The intended use of the G5NR in this context is for generating simulated observations to test proposed observing system designs regarding new instruments and their deployments. Because NASA's interest in OSSEs extends beyond traditional weather forecasting applications, the G5NR includes, in addition to standard meteorological components, a suite of aerosol types and several trace gas concentrations, with emissions downscaled to 10 km using ancillary information such as power plant location, population density and night-light information. The evaluation exercise described here involved more than twenty-five GMAO scientists investigating various aspects of the G5NR performance, including time mean temperature and wind fields, energy spectra, precipitation and the hydrological cycle, the representation of waves, tropical cyclones and midlatitude storms, land and ocean surface characteristics, the representation and forcing effects of clouds and radiation, dynamics of the stratosphere and mesosphere, and the representation of aerosols and trace gases. Comparisons are made with observational data sets when possible, as well as with reanalyses and other long model simulations. The evaluation is broad in scope, as it is meant to assess the overall realism of basic aspects of the G5NR deemed relevant to the conduct of OSSEs

  8. Measurement of the condensation nuclei profile to 31 km in the Arctic in January 1989 and comparisons with Antarctic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, D.J. )

    1990-03-01

    The first measurement of the condensation nuclei (CN) profile in the Arctic during winter was made to 31 km on 30 January 1989 from Kiruna Sweden (68{degree}N). Enhanced levels of CN were observed in the colder regions above 18 km suggesting homogeneous or ion nucleation of CN as observed previously in Antarctica. A CN layer reaching a concentration of about 40 cm{sup {minus}3} was observed between 22.5 and 26 km. Comparison with data obtained in Antarctica in 1987 and 1988 indicate that this layer is similar to those observed at the same altitude in Antarctica under similar solar illumination conditions. The latter are believed to be of photochemical origin as suggested by measurements before and after stratospheric sunrise. This CN layer may thus serve as a measure of the amount of time an air parcel has spent in sunlight, an important parameter during the early stages of spring ozone depletion.

  9. Thermal emission from large solid particles in the coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) around perihelion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, J.; Milam, S.; Coulson, I.; Gicquel, A.; Meech, K.; Yang, B.; Riesen, T.; Remijan, A.; Villanueva, G.; Corrinder, M.; Charnley, S.; Mumma, M.

    2014-07-01

    We report submillimeter dust-continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained during the time period immediately before perihelion on 2013 November 28 (r = 0.0125 au). The variability and time resolution obtained in these images has revealed significant dust outbursts and have likely captured the onset of the final disruption event of comet ISON. The measured 450-μ m and 850-μ m submillimeter continuua are the strongest yet detected from a comet. Data were obtained with the SCUBA-2 submillimetre camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) located at the 4000-m level of Mauna Kea, Hawaii during a week of scheduled day-time observing. Imaging is achieved simultaneously at wavelengths of 850 μ m and 450 μ m. Conditions necessary to obtain valuable results at 450 μ m occur relatively infrequently, and while atmospheric zenith opacities on the days involved were good (low), ranging between 0.08 (nepers at 225 GHz on the first day) and 0.05 (on the day of perihelion), the relatively low elevations of the observations (30--45 degrees), and consequent high line-of-sight opacities, limit the impact of the 450-μ m data. Each of the focal planes of SCUBA-2 is populated with 5000 bolometers, and provides an instantaneous Field of View of almost 10 arc minutes. In order to account effectively for the rapidly varying sky transmissions, the observational strategies adopted at JCMT involve scanning the telescope rapidly around the target in a daisy pattern, which produces fairly uniform coverage in exposure time of an area of diameter 3 arc minutes around the target centre. When comet ISON was first detected at 850 μ m, the 1-mm-sized dust particles were tightly bound to the comet nucleus until at least November 23. Three days later the dust was less tightly bound and became elongated and diffuse, spread out over as much as 120 arc seconds (80,000 km) in the anti-solar direction. Preliminary analyses of these observations suggest the detection of either a

  10. ASIC design in the KM3NeT detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajanana, D.; Gromov, V.; Timmer, P.

    2013-02-01

    In the KM3NeT project [1], Cherenkov light from the muon interactions with transparent matter around the detector, is used to detect neutrinos. Photo multiplier tubes (PMT) used as photon sensor, are housed in a glass sphere (aka Optical Module) to detect single photons from the Cherenkov light. The PMT needs high operational voltage ( ~ 1.5 kV) and is generated by a Cockroft-Walton (CW) multiplier circuit. The electronics required to control the PMT's and collect the signals is integrated in two ASIC's namely: 1) a front-end mixed signal ASIC (PROMiS) for the readout of the PMT and 2) an analog ASIC (CoCo) to generate pulses for charging the CW circuit and to control the feedback of the CW circuit. In this article, we discuss the two integrated circuits and test results of the complete setup. PROMiS amplifies the input charge, converts it to a pulse width and delivers the information via LVDS signals. These LVDS signals carry accurate information on the Time of arrival ( < 2 ns) and Time over Threshold. A PROM block provides unique identification to the chip. The chip communicates with the control electronics via an I2C bus. This unique combination of the ASIC's results in a very cost and power efficient PMT base design.

  11. Nausea is associated with endotoxemia during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin J; Valentino, Taylor; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Hecht, Frederick M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2016-09-01

    This study explored possible contributing factors to gastrointestinal distress, including endotoxemia, hyperthermia, dehydration and nutrition, during a 161-km ultramarathon. Thirty runners participated in the study and 20 finished the race. At three checkpoints and the finish, runners were interviewed to assess the incidence and severity of 12 gastrointestinal symptoms and to determine dietary intake. Core temperature was measured at the same locations. Runners were weighed pre-race, at the three checkpoints and the finish to monitor hydration status. Blood markers for endotoxemia (sCD14) and inflammation (interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein) were measured pre- and post-race. Gastrointestinal symptoms were experienced by most runners (80%), with nausea being the most common complaint (60%). Runners with nausea experienced significantly greater (P = 0.02) endotoxemia than those without nausea (sCD14 mean increase 0.7 versus 0.5 µg · mL(-1)). There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.652, P = 0.005) between nausea severity and endotoxemia level. Inflammatory response, core temperature, hydration level and race diet were similar between runners with and without nausea. This study links endotoxemia to nausea in ultramarathon runners. Other possible contributing factors to nausea such as hyperthermia, dehydration and nutrition did not appear to play a role in the symptomatic runners in this study. PMID:26707127

  12. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-01

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e+e-, pp, and μ+μ- collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e+e- colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e+e- collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p source, exploits high cross sections for pp production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  13. KM3NeT Digital Optical Module electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration is currently building of a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometres at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope consists of a matrix of Digital Optical Modules that will detect the Cherenkov light originated by the interaction of the neutrinos in the proximity of the detector. This contribution describes the main components of the read-out electronics of the Digital Optical Module: the Power Board, which delivers all the power supply required by the Digital Optical Molule electronics; the Central Logic Board, the main core of the read-out system, hosting 31 Time to Digital Converters with 1 ns resolution and the White Rabbit protocol embedded in the Central Logic Board Field Programmable Gate Array; the Octopus boards, that transfer the Low Voltage Digital Signals from the PMT bases to the Central Logic Board and finally the PMT bases, in charge of converting the analogue signal produced in the 31 3" PMTs into a Low Voltage Digital Signal.

  14. A 233 km tunnel for lepton and hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, D. J.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Datta, A.; Duraisamy, M.; Luo, T.; Lyons, G. T.

    2012-12-21

    A decade ago, a cost analysis was conducted to bore a 233 km circumference Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC) tunnel passing through Fermilab. Here we outline implementations of e{sup +}e{sup -}, pp-bar , and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} collider rings in this tunnel using recent technological innovations. The 240 and 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders employ Crab Waist Crossings, ultra low emittance damped bunches, short vertical IP focal lengths, superconducting RF, and low coercivity, grain oriented silicon steel/concrete dipoles. Some details are also provided for a high luminosity 240 GeV e{sup +}e{sup -} collider and 1.75 TeV muon accelerator in a Fermilab site filler tunnel. The 40 TeV pp-bar collider uses the high intensity Fermilab p-bar source, exploits high cross sections for pp-bar production of high mass states, and uses 2 Tesla ultra low carbon steel/YBCO superconducting magnets run with liquid neon. The 35 TeV muon ring ramps the 2 Tesla superconducting magnets at 9 Hz every 0.4 seconds, uses 250 GV of superconducting RF to accelerate muons from 1.75 to 17.5 TeV in 63 orbits with 71% survival, and mitigates neutrino radiation with phase shifting, roller coaster motion in a FODO lattice.

  15. Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) coma composition at ~4 au from HST observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Videen, Gorden; Hines, Dean C.; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Kaydash, Vadym; Muinonen, Karri; Knight, Matthew M.; Sitko, Michael L.; Lisse, Carey M.; Mutchler, Max; Wooden, Diane H.; Li, Jian-Yang; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    We analyze the first color and polarization images of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) taken during two measurement campaigns of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on UTC 2013 April 10 and May 8, when the phase angles of Comet ISON were α≈13.7° and 12.2°, respectively. We model the particles in the coma using highly irregular agglomerated debris particles. Even though the observations were made over a small range of phase angle, the data still place significant constraints on the material properties of the cometary coma. The different photo-polarimetric responses are indicative of spatial chemical heterogeneity of coma in Comet ISON. For instance, at small projected distances to the nucleus (<500 km), our modeling suggests the cometary particles are composed predominantly of small, highly absorbing particles, such as amorphous carbon and/or organics material heavily irradiated with UV radiation; whereas, at longer projected distances (>1000 km), the refractive index of the particles is consistent with organic matter slightly processed with UV radiation, tholins, Mg-Fe silicates, and/or Mg-rich silicates contaminated with ~10% (by volume) amorphous carbon. The modeling suggests low relative abundances of particles with low material absorption in the visible, i.e., Im(m)≤0.02. Such particles were detected unambiguously in other comets in the vicinity of nucleus through very strong negative polarization near backscattering (P≈-6%) and very low positive polarization (P≈3-5%) at side scattering. These materials were previously attributed to Mg-rich silicates forming a refractory surface layer on the surface of cometary nuclei (Zubko et al., 2012). The absence of such particles in Comet ISON could imply an absence of such a layer on its nucleus.

  16. A faster running speed is associated with a greater body weight loss in 100-km ultra-marathoners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Wirth, Andrea; Alexander Rüst, Christoph; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In 219 recreational male runners, we investigated changes in body mass, total body water, haematocrit, plasma sodium concentration ([Na(+)]), and urine specific gravity as well as fluid intake during a 100-km ultra-marathon. The athletes lost 1.9 kg (s = 1.4) of body mass, equal to 2.5% (s = 1.8) of body mass (P < 0.001), 0.7 kg (s = 1.0) of predicted skeletal muscle mass (P < 0.001), 0.2 kg (s = 1.3) of predicted fat mass (P < 0.05), and 0.9 L (s = 1.6) of predicted total body water (P < 0.001). Haematocrit decreased (P < 0.001), urine specific gravity (P < 0.001), plasma volume (P < 0.05), and plasma [Na(+)] (P < 0.05) all increased. Change in body mass was related to running speed (r = -0.16, P < 0.05), change in plasma volume was associated with change in plasma [Na(+)] (r = -0.28, P < 0.0001), and change in body mass was related to both change in plasma [Na(+)] (r = -0.36) and change in plasma volume (r = 0.31) (P < 0.0001). The athletes consumed 0.65 L (s = 0.27) fluid per hour. Fluid intake was related to both running speed (r = 0.42, P < 0.0001) and change in body mass (r = 0.23, P = 0.0006), but not post-race plasma [Na(+)] or change in plasma [Na(+)] (P > 0.05). In conclusion, faster runners lost more body mass, runners lost more body mass when they drank less fluid, and faster runners drank more fluid than slower runners. PMID:22668199

  17. Functional Characterization of Human Cytochrome P450 2S1 Using a Synthetic Gene-Expressed Protein in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Peter H.

    2009-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 2S1 was recently identified and shown to be inducible by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and hypoxia. It is highly expressed in epithelial cells of tissues that are exposed to the environment and in many tumors of epithelial origin. The biological function of CYP2S1 has not yet been determined, although its possible role in carcinogen metabolism has been suggested. In this report, we investigated its ability to metabolize carcinogens. To obtain a large quantity of active enzyme for substrate screening, we overexpressed CYP2S1 in Escherichia coli (200 nM culture), using a synthetic gene approach. High-level expression allowed us to achieve purification of CYP2S1 with high specific content and purity (16 nmol/mg). Despite high-level expression, we found that CYP2S1 was not readily reduced by cytochrome P450 reductase, and thus no activity was found using NADPH. However, the oxidative activity of CYP2S1 was supported by cumene hydroperoxide or H2O2, such that CYP2S1 oxidized many important environmental carcinogens, including benzo[a]pyrene, 9,10-dihydro-benzo[a]pyrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol, aflatoxin B1, naphthalene, and styrene, with high turnover. Most substrates tested were converted to detoxification products, except in the case of benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol, which was converted into the very potent carcinogenic metabolite 7,8-dihydrodiol-trans-9,10-epoxide at a relatively efficient rate (Km = 12.4 ± 2 μM, turnover = 2.3 min−1). This metabolite formation was also supported both in vitro and in vivo by fatty acid hydroperoxides described in the accompanying report (p. 1044). Together, these data indicate that CYP2S1 contributes to the metabolism of environmental carcinogens via an NADPH independent activity. PMID:19713358

  18. Possible Dust Models for C/2012 S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) provided a great opportunity to study a dynamically new Oort-cloud comet on its initial and only passage through the inner solar system. Contrary to expectations, the comet's activity fluctuated from high through a quiescent phase, and a major outburst days before its perihelion passage, ending in a dramatic race to complete disintegration on perihelion day, 28 November 2013. Amateur observations to professional ground-based, sub-orbital telescopes indicate the various changes of visible factors such as Afrho, a proxy for dust activity, and the measured production rates for water, consistent with the disintegration of the nucleus. Hines et al. (2013; ApJ Lett. 780) detected positive polarization in the inner coma and negative polarization in the outer coma, indicative of a jet, independently confirmed by Li et al. (2013, ApJ Lett., 779). Thermal emission observations of the comet pre-perihelion from NAOJ/Subaru/COMICS, a mid-infrared spectrometer, indicated a body with an equivalent brightness temperature of 265K (Ootsubo et al., 2013, ACM, Helsinki,FI); thermal observations acquired at the NASA/Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) with The Aerospace Corporation spectrometer (BASS, PI. R. Russell), before and after the November 12, 2013 outburst observed by the CIOC_ISON amateur network, indicates a brightness temperature of 330K and the presence, albeit weak, of the 11.3-micron crystalline silicate feature (Sitko et al., 2014, LPI abstract 1537). A Monte Carlo comet dust tail model, applied to extract the dust environment parameters of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) from both Earth-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) calibrated observations, performed from about 6 AU (inbound), to right after perihelion passage, when just a small portion of the original comet nucleus survived in the form of a cloud of tiny particles, indicates that particles underwent disintegration and fragmentation (Moreno et al., 2014, ApJ Lett., 791). Ongoing work

  19. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3–4 compared to those with 0–2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target. PMID:27562371

  20. Sphingosine kinase-1, S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 and S1P2 mRNA expressions are increased in liver with advanced fibrosis in human.

    PubMed

    Sato, Masaya; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Uranbileg, Baasanjav; Kurano, Makoto; Saigusa, Daisuke; Aoki, Junken; Maki, Harufumi; Kudo, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    The role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) in liver fibrosis or inflammation was not fully examined in human. Controversy exists which S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3 vs S1P2, would be importantly involved in its mechanism. To clarify these matters, 80 patients who received liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma and 9 patients for metastatic liver tumor were enrolled. S1P metabolism was analyzed in background, non-tumorous liver tissue. mRNA levels of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) but not SK2 were increased in livers with fibrosis stages 3-4 compared to those with 0-2 and to normal liver. However, S1P was not increased in advanced fibrotic liver, where mRNA levels of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (SPNS2) but not S1P-degrading enzymes were enhanced. Furthermore, mRNA levels of S1P2 but not S1P1 or S1P3 were increased in advanced fibrotic liver. These increased mRNA levels of SK1, SPNS2 and S1P2 in fibrotic liver were correlated with α-smooth muscle actin mRNA levels in liver, and with serum ALT levels. In conclusion, S1P may be actively generated, transported to outside the cells, and bind to its specific receptor in human liver to play a role in fibrosis or inflammation. Altered S1P metabolism in fibrotic liver may be their therapeutic target. PMID:27562371

  1. Inverse approach to estimating larval dispersal reveals limited population connectivity along 700 km of wave-swept open coast.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Sarah O; White, J Wilson; Miller, Seth H; Nickols, Kerry J; Morgan, Steven G

    2016-06-29

    Demographic connectivity is fundamental to the persistence and resilience of metapopulations, but our understanding of the link between reproduction and recruitment is notoriously poor in open-coast marine populations. We provide the first evidence of high local retention and limited connectivity among populations spanning 700 km along an open coast in an upwelling system. Using extensive field measurements of fecundity, population size and settlement in concert with a Bayesian inverse modelling approach, we estimated that, on average, Petrolisthes cinctipes larvae disperse only 6.9 km (±25.0 km s.d.) from natal populations, despite spending approximately six weeks in an open-coast system that was once assumed to be broadly dispersive. This estimate differed substantially from our prior dispersal estimate (153.9 km) based on currents and larval duration and behaviour, revealing the importance of employing demographic data in larval dispersal estimates. Based on this estimate, we predict that demographic connectivity occurs predominantly among neighbouring populations less than 30 km apart. Comprehensive studies of larval production, settlement and connectivity are needed to advance an understanding of the ecology and evolution of life in the sea as well as to conserve ecosystems. Our novel approach provides a tractable framework for addressing these questions for species occurring in discrete coastal populations. PMID:27358362

  2. Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: Relative motion by GPS across networks of 1000 km and 50 km spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meertens, Charles M.; Rocken, Christian; Perin, Barbara; Walcott, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/DOSE 'Kinematics of the New Zealand Plate Boundary' experiment is a four-year cooperative Global Positioning System (GPS) experiment involving 6 universities and institutions in New Zealand and the United States. The investigation covers two scales, the first on the scale of plates (approximately 1000 km) and the second is on the scale of the plate boundary zone (approximately 50 km). In the first portion of the experiment, phase A, the objective is to make direct measurements of tectonic plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates using GPS in order to determine the Euler vector of this plate pair. The phase A portion of this experiment was initiated in December 1992 with the first-epoch baseline measurements on the large scale network. The network will be resurveyed two years later to obtain velocities. The stations which were observed for phase A are shown and listed. Additional regional stations which will be used for this study are listed and are part of either CIGNET or other global tracking networks. The phase A portion of the experiment is primarily the responsibility of the UNAVCO investigators. Therefore, this report concentrates on phase A. The first year of NASA funding for phase A included only support for the field work. Processing and analysis will take place with the second year of funding. The second part of the experiemnt measured relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates across the pate boundary zone between Hokitika and Christchurch on the South Island of New Zealand. The extent and rate of deformation will be determined by comparisons with historical, conventional surveys and by repeated GPS measurements to be made in two years. This activity was the emphasis of the LDGO portion of the study. An ancillary experiment, phase C, concentrated on plate boundary deformation in the vicinity of Wellington and was done as part of training during the early portion of the field campaign. Details of the objectives of the

  3. Photometry of distant active comet C/2010 S1 (LINEAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, O.; Kulyk, I.; Korsun, P.; Romanjuk, Ya.

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of photometric observations of a dynamically new comet C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), conducted on June 18, 2012. The comet demonstrated a considerable level of physical activity at a heliocentric distance of 6.3 AU. The brightness, measured under a phase angle of 8.9 degrees, was equal to 14.55^{m}±0.06^{m} and 14.21^{m}±0.04^{m} in V- and R-bands, respectively. The brightness distribution over the coma was found to be inversely proportional to the projected onto the sky plane nucleocentric distance, with a slope of approximately -1. Therefore, the calculated Afρ parameter, approximately 8400 cm and 8200 cm for V and R filters, respectively, was used to estimate the dust production rate. Assuming a steady outflow of dust particles from the nucleus, the dust production rate was estimated to be between 20 and 60 kg/s, depending on the assumed value of the grain's albedo. The V-R colour index obtained from the near-nucleus region of the coma is in agreement with the solar V-R colour index, and does not indicate significant reddening of the reflected solar radiation in the spectral region of 540-683 nm.

  4. Outgassing and chemical evolution of C/2012 S1 (ISON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dello Russo, Neil; Vervack, Ronald J.; Kawakita, Hideyo; Cochran, Anita; McKay, Adam J.; Harris, Walter M.; Weaver, Harold A.; Lisse, Carey M.; DiSanti, Michael A.; Kobayashi, Hitomi; Biver, Nicolas; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Crovisier, Jacques; Opitom, Cyrielle; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ~ 25,000) infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign. Spectra were obtained on UT 2013 October 26 and 28 with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory, and UT 2013 November 19 and 20 with CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. H2O was detected on all dates, with production rates increasing by about a factor of 40 between October 26 (Rh = 1.12 AU) and November 20 (Rh = 0.43 AU). Short-term variability of H2O was also seen as the production rate increased by nearly a factor of two during observations obtained over a period of about six hours on November 19. C2H6, CH3OH and CH4 abundances were slightly depleted relative to H2O in ISON compared to mean values for comets measured at infrared wavelengths. On the November dates, C2H2, HCN and OCS abundances relative to H2O appear to be close to the range of mean values, whereas H2CO and NH3 were significantly enhanced. We will compare derived chemical abundances in ISON to other comets measured with infrared spectroscopy.

  5. A high resolution (1 km) groundwater model for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verkaik, Jarno; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Erkens, Gilles; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). We adopted the approaches of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011, 2014a) and de Graaf et al. (2014) in order to make a MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2011; Hartmann & Moorsdorf, 2012; Gleeson et al., 2014). We forced the groundwater model with the recent output of global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0 (Sutanudjaja et al., 2014b; van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term average of groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from channel discharge. Simulation results were promising. The MODFLOW model converged with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produced reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution reflecting the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. In Vienna, we aim to show and demonstrate these

  6. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature from 1-km AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Corinne

    2016-04-01

    In order to re-process DLRs 1km AVHRR data archive to different geophysical and descriptive parameters of the land surface and the atmosphere, a series of scientific data processors are being developed in the framework of the TIMELINE project. The archive of DLR ranges back to the 80ies. One of the data processors is SurfTemp, which processes L2 LST and emissivity datasets from AVHRR L1b data. The development of the data processor included the selection of statistical procedures suitable for time series processing, including four mono-window and six split window algorithms. For almost all of these algorithms, new constants were generated, which better account for different atmospheric and geometric acquisition situations. The selection of optimal algorithms for SurfTemp is based on a round robin approach, in which the selected mono-window and split window algorithms are tested on the basis of a large number of TOA radiance/LST pairs, which were generated using a radiative transfer model and the SeeBorV5 profile database. The original LSTs are thereby compared to the LSTs derived from the TOA radiances using the mono- and split window algorithms. The algorithm comparison includes measures of precision, as well as the sensitivity of a method to the accuracy of its input data. The results of the round robin are presented, as well as the implementation of selected algorithms into SurfTemp. Further, first cross-validation results between the AVHRR LST and MODIS LST are shown.

  7. Gastrointestinal distress is common during a 161-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Stuempfle, Kristin Jean; Hoffman, Martin Dean

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the incidence, severity, and timing of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in finishers and non-finishers of the 161-km Western States Endurance Run. A total of 272 runners (71.0% of starters) completed a post-race questionnaire that assessed the incidence and severity (none = 0, mild = 1, moderate = 2, severe = 3, very severe = 4) of 12 upper (reflux/heartburn, belching, stomach bloating, stomach cramps/pain, nausea, vomiting) and lower (intestinal cramps/pain, flatulence, side ache/stitch, urge to defecate, loose stool/diarrhoea, intestinal bleeding/bloody faeces) GI symptoms experienced during each of four race segments. GI symptoms were experienced by most runners (96.0%). Flatulence (65.9% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), belching (61.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.6 severity), and nausea (60.3% frequency, mean value 1.0, s = 0.7 severity) were the most common symptoms. Among race finishers, 43.9% reported that GI symptoms affected their race performance, with nausea being the most common symptom (86.0%). Among race non-finishers, 35.6% reported that GI symptoms were a reason for dropping out of the race, with nausea being the most common symptom (90.5%). For both finishers and non-finishers, nausea was greatest during the most challenging and hottest part of the race. GI symptoms are very common during ultramarathon running, and in particular, nausea is the most common complaint for finishers and non-finishers. PMID:25716739

  8. Processing techniques for global land 1-km AVHRR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Steinwand, Daniel R.; Wivell, Charles E.; Hollaren, Douglas M.; Meyer, David

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center (EDC) in cooperation with several international science organizations has developed techniques for processing daily Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1-km data of the entire global land surface. These techniques include orbital stitching, geometric rectification, radiometric calibration, and atmospheric correction. An orbital stitching algorithm was developed to combine consecutive observations acquired along an orbit by ground receiving stations into contiguous half-orbital segments. The geometric rectification process uses an AVHRR satellite model that contains modules for forward mapping, forward terrain correction, and inverse mapping with terrain correction. The correction is accomplished by using the hydrologic features coastlines and lakes from the Digital Chart of the World. These features are rasterized into the satellite projection and are matched to the AVHRR imagery using binary edge correlation techniques. The resulting coefficients are related to six attitude correction parameters: roll, roll rate, pitch, pitch rate, yaw, and altitude. The image can then be precision corrected to a variety of map projections and user-selected image frames. Because the AVHRR lacks onboard calibration for the optical wavelengths, a series of time-variant calibration coefficients derived from vicarious calibration methods and are used to model the degradation profile of the instruments. Reducing atmospheric effects on AVHRR data is important. A method has been develop that will remove the effects of molecular scattering and absorption from clear sky observations, using climatological measurements of ozone. Other methods to remove the effects of water vapor and aerosols are being investigated.

  9. Coma in Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) at ~4 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Videen, Gorden; Zubko, Evgenij; Hines, Dean C.; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Kaydash, Vadym; Muinonen, Karri; Knight, Matthew W.; Sitko, Michael L.; Lisse, Carrey M.; Mutchler, Max; Wooden, Diane H.; Li, Jian-Yang; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    We analyze HST observations of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) at heliocentric distance ~4 au and phase angle ~12-14 degree. The inner coma (< 5000 km) reveals two polarimetric features, positive degree of linear polarization P = (2.48 ± 0.45)% at projected distances less than 236 km and negative polarization P = - (1.6 ± 0.45)% at 1000 - 5000 km [Hines et al. 2014: ApJL 780, L32]. At these projected distances, average color slope was found to be ~6% per 100 nm [Li et al. 2013: ApJL 779, L3]. When considered simultaneously, these two features place significant constraint on the physical and chemical properties of dust particles [Zubko et al. 2015: Planet. Space Sci., http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pss.2015.08.002].We model this response with agglomerated debris particles, having highly irregular morphology and density of constituent material being consistent with in situ studies of comets. We consider particles of 28 different refractive indices that correspond to in situ studies of comets and plausible assumptions on chemical composition of cometary dust and ices. What emerges from our analysis is that the ISON coma was chemically heterogeneous at the epoch of observation. The positive polarization at small projected distances suggests a high spatial concentration of highly absorbing materials, such as amorphous carbon and/or organics highly irradiated with UV radiation. At larger distances, the negative polarization P = - (1.6 ± 0.45)% and color slope ~6% per 100 nm appear consistent with organics slightly processed with UV radiation, tholins, Mg-Fe silicates, and Mg-rich silicates contaminated with ~10% (by volume) amorphous carbon. A significant abundance of pure water-ice particles and/or pure Mg-rich silicates must be ruled out in this region. These materials have been found in situ in other comets and also detected with imaging polarimetry in the circumnucleus halo regions. Analyses of polarimetric images suggest that Mg-rich silicates could originate from a

  10. Continuation maintenance therapy with S-1 in chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Seiichiro; Karayama, Masato; Inui, Naoki; Fujisawa, Tomoyuki; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Yutaro; Kuroishi, Shigeki; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Yokomura, Koshi; Koshimizu, Naoki; Toyoshima, Mikio; Imokawa, Shiro; Asada, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Masafumi; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-08-01

    Objectives Maintenance therapy is a standard therapeutic strategy in non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. However, there is no consensus regarding the benefit of maintenance therapy for patients with squamous cell lung cancer. We assessed maintenance therapy with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine agent, following induction therapy with carboplatin and S-1 in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. Methods In this phase II trial, chemotherapy-naïve patients with squamous cell lung cancer were enrolled to induction therapy with four cycles of carboplatin (at an area under the curve of 5 on day 1) and S-1 (80 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-14) in a 28-day cycle. Patients who achieved disease control after induction therapy received maintenance therapy with S-1 in a 21-day cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival after administration of maintenance therapy. Results Fifty-one patients were enrolled in the study. The median progression-free survival from the start of maintenance therapy was 3.0 months (95 % confidence interval, 2.5-3.5). The most common toxicities associated with maintenance therapy were anemia, thrombocytopenia, and fatigue, but they were not severe. Conclusion S-1 maintenance therapy might be a feasible treatment option in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. PMID:27279143

  11. Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber.

    PubMed

    Terra, O; Grosche, G; Schnatz, H

    2010-07-19

    We describe the use of fiber Brillouin amplification (FBA) for the coherent transmission of optical frequencies over a 480 km long optical fiber link. FBA uses the transmission fiber itself for efficient, bi-directional coherent amplification of weak signals with pump powers around 30 mW. In a test setup we measured the gain and the achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of FBA and compared it to that of the widely used uni-directional Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) and to our recently built bi-directional EDFA. We measured also the phase noise introduced by the FBA and used a new and simple technique to stabilize the frequency of the FBA pump laser. We then transferred a stabilized laser frequency over a wide area network with a total fiber length of 480 km using only one intermediate FBA station. After compensating the noise induced by the fiber, the frequency is delivered to the user end with an uncertainty below 2 x 10(-18) and an instability sigma y(tau) = 2 x 10(-14) /(tau/s). PMID:20720995

  12. THE S1 SHELL AND INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD AND GAS NEAR THE HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, Priscilla C.

    2010-05-10

    Many studies of the Loop I magnetic superbubble place the Sun at the edges of the bubble. One recent study models the polarized radio continuum of Loop I as two magnetic shells with the Sun embedded in the rim of the 'S1' shell. If the Sun is in such a shell, it should be apparent in both the local interstellar magnetic field and the distribution of nearby interstellar material. The properties of these subshells are compared to the interstellar magnetic field and the distribution of interstellar Fe{sup +} and Ca{sup +} within {approx}55 pc of the Sun. Although the results are not conclusive, the interstellar magnetic field direction obtained from polarized stars within {approx}30 pc is consistent with the interstellar magnetic field direction of the S1 shell. The distribution of nearby interstellar Fe{sup +} with log N(Fe{sup +}) < 12.5 cm{sup -2} is described equally well by a uniform distribution or an origin in spherical shell-like features. Higher column densities of Fe{sup +} (log N(Fe{sup +})>12.5 cm{sup -2}) tend to be better described by the path length of the sightline through the S1 and S2 subshells. Column densities of the recombinant ion Ca{sup +} are found to increase with the strength of the interstellar radiation field, rather than with star distance or total pathlength through the two magnetic subshells. The ion Ca{sup +} cannot be used to trace the distribution of local interstellar gas unless the spatial variations in the radiation field are included in the calculation of the ionization balance, in addition to possible abundance variations. The result is that a model of Loop I as composed of two spherical magnetic subshells remains a viable description of the distribution of nearby low density interstellar medium, but is not yet proven.

  13. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) Receptor Agonists Mediate Pro-fibrotic Responses in Normal Human Lung Fibroblasts via S1P2 and S1P3 Receptors and Smad-independent Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, Katrin; Menyhart, Katalin; Killer, Nina; Renault, Bérengère; Bauer, Yasmina; Studer, Rolf; Steiner, Beat; Bolli, Martin H.; Nayler, Oliver; Gatfield, John

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulators constitute a new class of drugs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling, however, is also involved in the development of fibrosis. Using normal human lung fibroblasts, we investigated the induction of fibrotic responses by the S1P receptor (S1PR) agonists S1P, FTY720-P, ponesimod, and SEW2871 and compared them with the responses induced by the known fibrotic mediator TGF-β1. In contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not induce expression of the myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin. However, TGF-β1, S1P, and FTY720-P caused robust stimulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis and increased pro-fibrotic marker gene expression including connective tissue growth factor. Ponesimod showed limited and SEW2871 showed no pro-fibrotic potential in these readouts. Analysis of pro-fibrotic signaling pathways showed that in contrast to TGF-β1, S1PR agonists did not activate Smad2/3 signaling but rather activated PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling to induce ECM synthesis. The strong induction of ECM synthesis by the nonselective agonists S1P and FTY720-P was due to the stimulation of S1P2 and S1P3 receptors, whereas the weaker induction of ECM synthesis at high concentrations of ponesimod was due to a low potency activation of S1P3 receptors. Finally, in normal human lung fibroblast-derived myofibroblasts that were generated by TGF-β1 pretreatment, S1P and FTY720-P were effective stimulators of ECM synthesis, whereas ponesimod was inactive, because of the down-regulation of S1P3R expression in myofibroblasts. These data demonstrate that S1PR agonists are pro-fibrotic via S1P2R and S1P3R stimulation using Smad-independent pathways. PMID:23589284

  14. Experimental single-photon exchange along a space link of 7000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dequal, Daniele; Vallone, Giuseppe; Bacco, Davide; Gaiarin, Simone; Luceri, Vincenza; Bianco, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Extending the single-photon transmission distance is a basic requirement for the implementation of quantum communication on a global scale. In this work we report the single-photon exchange from a medium Earth orbit satellite (MEO) at more than 7000 km of slant distance to the ground station at the Matera Laser Ranging Observatory. The single-photon transmitter was realized by exploiting the corner cube retroreflectors mounted on the LAGEOS-2 satellite. Long duration of data collection is possible with such altitude, up to 43 min in a single passage. The mean number of photons per pulse (μsat) has been limited to 1 for 200 s, resulting in an average detection rate of 3.0 counts/s and a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.5. The feasibility of single-photon exchange from MEO satellites paves the way to tests of quantum mechanics in moving frames and to global quantum Information.

  15. Strength contrast between majorite and ringwoodite: Implication for the separation of crustal material from slab near 660 km depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishihara, Y.; Kawazoe, T.; Nishi, M.; Ohuchi, T.; Higo, Y.; Funakoshi, K.; Irifune, T.

    2012-12-01

    Many seismic observations have shown that some of subducting lithospheres penetrates into deeper mantle across 660 km discontinuity. Former oceanic crust, which forms uppermost layer of the slab, consists mainly of majorite-rich garnet (hereafter majorite) near 660 km depth. Majorite is denser than surrounding mantle at shallower depth than 660 km where the ambient mantle consists mostly of ringwoodite, but is less dense at deeper part of the mantle where the Mg-perovskite is the dominant phase. Thus the crustal component may separate from the slab near 660 km depth. Karato (1997) discussed that the separation of crustal component can occur when the crustal component is significantly stronger than surrounding mantle based on dynamic calculation. However, it is unclear whether the separation of the crustal material occurs because plastic strength of related materials at the deep mantle conditions has not been known. In this study, we conducted deformation experiments at pressure and temperature conditions corresponding to the Earth's deep mantle in order to determine strength contrast between majorite and ringwoodite. Deformation experiments at pressure of ~17 GPa and temperature of 1473 and 1673 K were carried out using SPEED-MkII-D installed at BL04B1, SPring-8, Japan. Majorite (Mj) synthesized from a gel with chemistry of the majoritic garnet in oceanic crust and (Mg0.6Fe0.4)2SiO4 ringwoodite synthesized from olivine were placed vertically and deformed uniaxially under same temperature, pressure and stress conditions. Strain measurements were carried out during deformation based on X-ray radiography using synchrotron radiation. Strain rates were 0.7-2.4 x 10-5 s-1 for Mj and 1.2-14.5 x 10-5 s-1 for Rw. Relative strain rate of Rw and Mj (strain rate for Rw divided by that for Mj at same condition) determined at 7 different deformation conditions were 1.2-2.5 (Mj was always stronger in the present experimental conditions). However, an extrapolation of present

  16. Tracking the rupture of the Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake over 1,150 km at teleseismic distance.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Frank; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2005-06-16

    On 26 December 2004, a moment magnitude Mw = 9.3 earthquake occurred along Northern Sumatra, the Nicobar and Andaman islands, resulting in a devastating tsunami in the Indian Ocean region. The rapid and accurate estimation of the rupture length and direction of such tsunami-generating earthquakes is crucial for constraining both tsunami wave-height models as well as the seismic moment of the events. Compressional seismic waves generated at the hypocentre of the Sumatra earthquake arrived after about 12 min at the broadband seismic stations of the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN), located approximately 9,000 km from the event. Here we present a modification of a standard array-seismological approach and show that it is possible to track the propagating rupture front of the Sumatra earthquake over a total rupture length of 1,150 km. We estimate the average rupture speed to be 2.3-2.7 km s(-1) and the total duration of rupture to be at least 430 s, and probably between 480 and 500 s. PMID:15908983

  17. The expanding photosphere method applied to SN 1992am AT cz = 14 600 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Brian P.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Eastman, Ronald G.; Hamuy, Mario; Phillips, Mark M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Maza, Jose; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Ho, Luis C.; Matheson, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of Supernova (SN) 1992am for five months following its discovery by the Calan Cerro-Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) SN search. These data show SN 1992am to be type II-P, displaying hydrogen in its spectrum and the typical shoulder in its light curve. The photometric data and the distance from our own analysis are used to construct the supernova's bolometric light curve. Using the bolometric light curve, we estimate SN 1992am ejected approximately 0.30 solar mass of Ni-56, an amount four times larger than that of other well studied SNe II. SN 1992am's; host galaxy lies at a redshift of cz = 14 600 km s(exp -1), making it one of the most distant SNe II discovered, and an important application of the Expanding Photsphere Method. Since z = 0.05 is large enough for redshift-dependent effects to matter, we develop the technique to derive luminosity distances with the Expanding Photosphere Method at any redshift, and apply this method to SN 1992am. The derived distance, D = 180(sub -25) (sup +30) Mpc, is independent of all other rungs in the extragalactic distance ladder. The redshift of SN 1992am's host galaxy is sufficiently large that uncertainties due to perturbations in the smooth Hubble flow should be smaller than 10%. The Hubble ratio derived from the distance and redshift of this single object is H(sub 0) = 81(sub -15) (sup +17) km s(exp -1) Mpc(exp -1). In the future, with more of these distant objects, we hope to establish an independent and statistically robust estimate of H(sub 0) based solely on type II supernovae.

  18. Ultraviolet Observations Of C/2012 S1 (ISON) By MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crismani, Matteo; Schneider, N.; Stewart, I.; Combi, M.; Fougere, N.

    2013-10-01

    On its journey to Mars, MAVEN has been serendipitously positioned to study the anticipated sungrazing comet C/2012 S1(ISON) and offers important scientific observations. The MAVEN mission is the first to attempt to understand the evolution of the Martian atmosphere by determining the effects of atmospheric loss to space. The IUVS instrument has two large field of regard(55x11 and 24x11 degrees) and observes in the mid and far ultraviolet (115-340 nm). It was designed to be able to map the atmosphere in several neutral and some ionized species. These performance characteristics make IUVS ideal to study ISON, as it can take both two dimensional spatial scans as well as spectral data. Tentative plans indicate the comet can be acquired on Dec 8th, assuming that the comet survives the near sun encounter. If observations prove possible, IUVS will be able to study ISON shortly after perihelion, and from a different vantage point from Earth. Science goals include UV observations of D/H, morphology & time evolution of the hydrogen coma and UV spectroscopy of the inner coma. IUVS can potentially make a major contribution to the international community by measuring D/H, thus contributing to our understanding of the origin of Earth’s water. IUVS will also make MUV and FUV observations of molecular species in the inner coma, valuable for understanding the chemical evolution of cometary molecular gases. The poster will present provisional observation plans as well as simulated spectra and spatial profiles. We welcome input from the community on these plans, in the spirit of maximizing the scientific return of the international campaign. The work has been supported by the MAVEN project and NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX09AB59G.

  19. WILL COMET ISON (C/2012 S1) SURVIVE PERIHELION?

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Walsh, Kevin J.

    2013-10-10

    On 2013 November 28 Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) will pass by the Sun with a perihelion distance of 2.7 solar radii. Understanding the possible outcomes for the comet's response to such a close passage by the Sun is important for planning observational campaigns and for inferring ISON's physical properties. We present new numerical simulations and interpret them in context with the historical track record of comet disruptions and of sungrazing comet behavior. Historical data suggest that sizes below ∼200 m are susceptible to destruction by sublimation driven mass loss, while we find that for ISON's perihelion distance, densities lower than 0.1 g cm{sup –3} are required to tidally disrupt a retrograde or non-spinning body. Such low densities are substantially below the range of the best-determined comet nucleus densities, though dynamically new comets such as ISON have few measurements of physical properties. Disruption may occur for prograde rotation at densities up to 0.7 g cm{sup –3}, with the chances of disruption increasing for lower density, faster prograde rotation, and increasing elongation of the nucleus. Given current constraints on ISON's nucleus properties and the typically determined values for these properties among all comets, we find tidal disruption to be unlikely unless other factors (e.g., spin-up via torquing) affect ISON substantially. Whether or not disruption occurs, the largest remnant must be big enough to survive subsequent mass loss due to sublimation in order for ISON to remain a viable comet well after perihelion.

  20. Gravitational dynamics in s+1+1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Gergely, Laszlo A.; Kovacs, Zoltan

    2005-09-15

    We present the concomitant decomposition of an (s+2)-dimensional space-time both with respect to a timelike and a spacelike direction. The formalism we develop is suited for the study of the initial value problem and for canonical gravitational dynamics in braneworld scenarios. The bulk metric is replaced by two sets of variables. The first set consists of one tensorial (the induced metric g{sub ij}), one vectorial (M{sup i}) and one scalar (M) dynamical quantity, all defined on the s space. Their time evolutions are related to the second fundamental form (the extrinsic curvature K{sub ij}), the normal fundamental form (K{sup i}) and normal fundamental scalar (K), respectively. The nondynamical set of variables is given by the lapse function and the shift vector, which however has one component less. The missing component is due to the externally imposed constraint, which states that physical trajectories are confined to the (s+1)-dimensional brane. The pair of dynamical variables (g{sub ij}, K{sub ij}), well known from the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner decomposition is supplemented by the pairs (M{sup i}, K{sup i}) and (M, K) due to the bulk curvature. We give all projections of the junction condition across the brane and prove that for a perfect fluid brane neither of the dynamical variables has jump across the brane. Finally we complete the set of equations needed for gravitational dynamics by deriving the evolution equations of K{sub ij}, K{sup i} and K on a brane with arbitrary matter.

  1. Minimally Invasive Approach For Extraforaminal Synovial Cyst L5-S1

    PubMed Central

    Torres Campa-Santamarina, Jose; Towne, Sara; Alimi, Marjan; Härtl, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms from synovial cysts are produced by neural compression in the spinal canal or the foramen. Few cases of extraforaminal synovial cyst have been published in the literature. This is a case report of a 65-year-old female who presented with a three-month history of sciatic pain and no relief with conservative treatment. MRI showed a left-sided extraforaminal synovial cyst at L5-S1 with compression of the L5 nerve root at the lateral portion of the foramen. Minimally invasive surgery for resection was performed using an extraforaminal tubular microscopic endoscopy-assisted approach. The patient improved clinically and remained symptom-free for the entire follow-up of 30 months. PMID:26623217

  2. A role of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)–S1P receptor 2 pathway in epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC)

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Sayaka; Yako, Yuta; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Kajita, Mihoko; Kameyama, Takeshi; Kon, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Susumu; Ohba, Yusuke; Ohno, Yusuke; Kihara, Akio; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    At the initial step of carcinogenesis, transformation occurs in single cells within epithelia, where the newly emerging transformed cells are surrounded by normal epithelial cells. A recent study revealed that normal epithelial cells have an ability to sense and actively eliminate the neighboring transformed cells, a process named epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC). However, the molecular mechanism of this tumor-suppressive activity is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated a role for the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P)–S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) pathway in EDAC. First, we show that addition of the S1PR2 inhibitor significantly suppresses apical extrusion of RasV12-transformed cells that are surrounded by normal cells. In addition, knockdown of S1PR2 in normal cells induces the same effect, indicating that S1PR2 in the surrounding normal cells plays a positive role in the apical elimination of the transformed cells. Of importance, not endogenous S1P but exogenous S1P is involved in this process. By using FRET analyses, we demonstrate that S1PR2 mediates Rho activation in normal cells neighboring RasV12-transformed cells, thereby promoting accumulation of filamin, a crucial regulator of EDAC. Collectively these data indicate that S1P is a key extrinsic factor that affects the outcome of cell competition between normal and transformed epithelial cells. PMID:26631556

  3. A photochemical model for the Venus atmosphere at 47-112 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2012-03-01

    The model is intended to respond to the recent findings in the Venus atmosphere from the Venus Express and ground-based submillimeter and infrared observations. It extends down to 47 km for comparison with the kinetic model for the lower atmosphere (Krasnopolsky, V.A. [2007]. Icarus 191, 25-37) and to use its results as the boundary conditions. The model numerical accuracy is significantly improved by reduction of the altitude step from 2 km in the previous models to 0.5 km. Effects of the NUV absorber are approximated using the detailed photometric observations at 365 nm from Venera 14. The H2O profile is not fixed but calculated in the model. The model involves odd nitrogen and OCS chemistries based on the detected NO and OCS abundances. The number of the reactions is significantly reduced by removing of unimportant processes. Column rates for all reactions are given, and balances of production and loss may be analyzed in detail for each species. The calculated vertical profiles of CO, H2O, HCl, SO2, SO, OCS and of the O2 dayglow at 1.27 μm generally agree with the existing observational data; some differences are briefly discussed. The OH dayglow is ∼30 kR, brighter than the OH nightglow by a factor of 4. The H + O3 process dominates in the nightglow excitation and O + HO2 in the dayglow, because of the reduction of ozone by photolysis. A key feature of Venus’ photochemistry is the formation of sulfuric acid in a narrow layer near the cloud tops that greatly reduces abundances of SO2 and H2O above the clouds. Delivery of SO2 and H2O through this bottleneck determines the chemistry and its variations above the clouds. Small variations of eddy diffusion near 60 km result in variations of SO2, SO, and OCS at and above 70 km within a factor of ∼30. Variations of the SO2/H2O ratio at the lower boundary have similar but weaker effect: the variations within a factor of ∼4 are induced by changes of SO2/H2O by ±5%. Therefore the observed variations of the

  4. A Photochemical Model for the Venus Atmosphere at 47-112 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.

    2011-12-01

    The model is intended to respond to the recent findings in the Venus atmosphere from the Venus Express and ground-based submillimeter and infrared observations. It extends down to 47 km for comparison with the kinetic model for the lower atmosphere (Krasnopolsky, V.A., 2007, Icarus 191, 25-37) and to use its data as the boundary conditions. The model numerical accuracy is significantly improved by reduction of the altitude step from 2 km in the previous models to 0.5 km. Effects of the NUV absorber are approximated using the detailed photometric observations at 365 nm from Venera 14. The H2O profile is not fixed but calculated in the model. The model involves odd nitrogen and OCS chemistries based on the detected NO and OCS abundances. The number of the reactions is significantly reduced by removing of unimportant processes. Column rates for all reactions are given, and balances of production and loss may be analyzed in detail for each species. The calculated vertical profiles of CO, H2O, HCl, SO2, SO, OCS and of the O2 dayglow at 1.27 μm generally agree with the existing observational data; some differences are briefly discussed. The OH dayglow is ~30 kR, brighter than the OH nightglow by a factor of 4. The H + O3 process dominates in the nightglow excitation and O + HO2 in the dayglow, because of the reduction of ozone by photolysis. The model is extremely sensitive to small variations of eddy diffusion near 60 km: the calculated variations of SO2, SO, and OCS at and above the cloud tops are within a factor of ~30. Variations of the SO2/H2O ratio at the lower boundary have similar but weaker effect: variations within a factor of ~4 are induced by changes of SO2/H2O by ±5%. Therefore the observed variations of sulfur species originate from minor variations of the atmospheric dynamics near the cloud layer and do not require volcanism. NO cycles are responsible for production of a quarter of O2, SO2, and Cl2 in the atmosphere. A net effect of photochemistry in the

  5. Focusing of relative plate motion at a continental transform fault: Cenozoic dextral displacement >700 km on New Zealand's Alpine Fault, reversing >225 km of Late Cretaceous sinistral motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Simon; Mortimer, Nick; Smith, Euan; Turner, Gillian

    2016-03-01

    The widely accepted ˜450 km Cenozoic dextral strike-slip displacement on New Zealand's Alpine Fault is large for continental strike-slip faults, but it is still less than 60% of the Cenozoic relative plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates through Zealandia, with the remaining motion assumed to be taken up by rotation and displacement on other faults in a zone up to 300 km wide. We show here that the 450 km total displacement across the Alpine Fault is an artifact of assumptions about the geometry of New Zealand's basement terranes in the Eocene, and the actual Cenozoic dextral displacement across the active trace is greater than 665 km, with more than 700 km (and <785 km since 25 Ma) occurring in a narrow zone less than 10 km wide. This way, the Alpine Fault has accommodated almost all (>94%) of the relative plate motion in the last 25 Ma at an average rate in excess of 28 mm/yr. It reverses more than 225 km (and <300 km) of sinistral shear through Zealandia in the Late Cretaceous, when Zealandia lay on the margin of Gondwana, providing a direct constraint on the kinematics of extension between East and West Antarctica at this time.

  6. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student's t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1-S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5-S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1-S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5-S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race. PMID:26937207

  7. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student’s t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1–S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5–S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1–S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5–S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race. PMID:26937207

  8. Measurements of the ambient photoelectron spectrum from Atmosphere Explorer. I - AE-E measurements below 300 km during solar minimum conditions. II - AE-E measurements from 300 to 1000 km during solar minimum conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. S.; Doering, J. P.; Potemra, T. A.; Brace, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    A study is presented of the ambient photoelectron spectrum below 300 km which includes 500 AE-E orbits observed from Dec. 13, 1975 to Feb. 24, 1976. The daytime photoelectron spectrum from 1 to 100 eV was illustrated by several spectra; high resolution 10-32 eV spectra show the widths of the photoelectron lines and the variation of the linewidth and intensity with altitude. The photoelectron flux below 300 km is constant over a period of several months; the photoelectron lines between 20 and 30 eV are very sharp when the total plasma density is low, but broaden at high altitudes as the plasma density builds up during the day. The photo-electron flux above 300 km had an intensity and energy spectrum characteristic of the 250-300 km region only in the presence of low plasma density at the satellite altitude. The flux at high altitudes was extremely variable 3 h after sunrise as a result of attenuation and energy loss to thermal plasma along the path of escaping electrons.

  9. Neutrinos in IceCube/KM3NeT as probes of dark matter substructures in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Basudeb; Laha, Ranjan

    2012-11-01

    Galaxy clusters are one of the most promising candidate sites for dark matter (DM) annihilation. We focus on DM (χ) with mass in the range of 10 GeV-100 TeV, annihilating through the channels χχ→μ+μ-, χχ→νν¯, χχ→tt¯, or χχ→νν¯νν¯, and forecast the expected sensitivity to the annihilation cross section into these channels by observing galaxy clusters at IceCube/KM3NeT. Optimistically, the presence of DM substructures in galaxy clusters is predicted to enhance the signal by 2-3 orders of magnitude over the contribution from the smooth component of the DM distribution. Optimizing for the angular size of the region of interest for galaxy clusters, the sensitivity to the annihilation cross section, ⟨σv⟩, of heavy DM with mass in the range of 300 GeV-100 TeV will be O(10-24cm3s-1) for full IceCube/KM3NeT live time of 10 years, which is about one order of magnitude better than the best limit that can be obtained by observing the Milky Way halo. We find that neutrinos from cosmic ray interactions in the galaxy cluster, in addition to the atmospheric neutrinos, are a source of background. We show that significant improvement in the experimental sensitivity can be achieved for lower DM masses in the range of 10-300 GeV if neutrino-induced cascades can be reconstructed to ≈5° accuracy, as may be possible in KM3NeT. We, therefore, propose that a low-energy extension “KM3NeT-Core,” similar to DeepCore in IceCube, be considered for an extended reach at low DM masses.

  10. Aberrant expression of the S1P regulating enzymes, SPHK1 and SGPL1, contributes to a migratory phenotype in OSCC mediated through S1PR2

    PubMed Central

    Patmanathan, Sathya Narayanan; Johnson, Steven P.; Lai, Sook Ling; Panja Bernam, Suthashini; Lopes, Victor; Wei, Wenbin; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Torta, Federico; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wenk, Markus R.; Herr, Deron R.; Murray, Paul G.; Yap, Lee Fah; Paterson, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a lethal disease with a 5-year mortality rate of around 50%. Molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use and novel therapeutic targets are required. Our previous microarray data indicated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) metabolism and signalling was deregulated in OSCC. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of S1P signalling to the pathogenesis of OSCC. We show that the expression of the two major enzymes that regulate S1P levels were altered in OSCC: SPHK1 was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to normal oral mucosa and low levels of SGPL1 mRNA correlated with a worse overall survival. In in vitro studies, S1P enhanced the migration/invasion of OSCC cells and attenuated cisplatin-induced death. We also demonstrate that S1P receptor expression is deregulated in primary OSCCs and that S1PR2 is over-expressed in a subset of tumours, which in part mediates S1P-induced migration of OSCC cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that FTY720 induced significantly more apoptosis in OSCC cells compared to non-malignant cells and that FTY720 acted synergistically with cisplatin to induce cell death. Taken together, our data show that S1P signalling promotes tumour aggressiveness in OSCC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27160553

  11. Ligand-binding pocket shape differences between S1P1 and S1P3 determine efficiency of chemical probe identification by uHTS

    PubMed Central

    Schürer, Stephan C.; Brown, Steven J.; Cabrera, Pedro Gonzales; Schaeffer, Marie-Therese; Chapman, Jacqueline; Jo, Euijung; Chase, Peter; Spicer, Tim; Hodder, Peter; Rosen, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor system to better understand why certain molecular targets within a closely related family are much more tractable when identifying compelling chemical leads. Five medically important G protein-coupled receptors for S1P regulate heart rate, coronary artery caliber, endothelial barrier integrity, and lymphocyte trafficking. Selective S1P receptor agonist probes would be of great utility to study receptor subtype-specific function. Through systematic screening of the same libraries, we identified novel selective agonists chemotypes for each of the S1P1 and S1P3 receptors. uHTS for S1P1 was more effective than for S1P3, with many selective, low nanomolar hits of proven mechanism emerging for. Receptor structure modeling and ligand docking reveal differences between the receptor binding pockets, which are the basis for sub-type selectivity. Novel selective agonists interact primarily in the hydrophobic pocket of the receptor in the absence of head-group interactions. Chemistry-space and shape-based analysis of the screening libraries in combination with the binding models explain the observed differential hit rates and enhanced efficiency for lead discovery for S1P1 vs. S1P3 in this closely related receptor family. PMID:18590333

  12. [Stable and efficient expression of hepatitis B virus S antigen and preS1 epitope fusion protein (S/preS1) in CHO cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenxi; Li, Shichong; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Miao; Ye, Lingling; Wu, Yanzhuo; Xu, Mingbo; Chen, Zhaolie

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrying preS sequences could be an ideal candidate for a new hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine with higher efficacy. Here we report the success in achieving efficient and stable expression of hepatitis B virus S antigen and preS1 epitope fusion protein (S/preS1) in CHO cells. The HMRCHEF53u/Neo-S/preS1 expression vector carrying S/preS1 gene was constructed and transfected into CHO-S cells. A stable and high-expression CHO cell line, named 10G6, was selected by ELISA and limiting dilution analysis. Western blotting analysis showed S/preS1 expressed from 10G6 cells possessed both S and preS1 antigenicity. 10G6 cells displayed characters of favorable growth and stable S/preS1 expression in repeated batch cultures as evaluated by viable cell density, viability and S/preS1 concentration. And cultivation of 10G6 cells in fed-batch mode resulted in S/preS1 production at 17-20 mg/L with viable cell density at 7 x 10(6)-10 x 10(6) cells/mL. PMID:24660628

  13. Aberrant expression of the S1P regulating enzymes, SPHK1 and SGPL1, contributes to a migratory phenotype in OSCC mediated through S1PR2.

    PubMed

    Patmanathan, Sathya Narayanan; Johnson, Steven P; Lai, Sook Ling; Panja Bernam, Suthashini; Lopes, Victor; Wei, Wenbin; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Torta, Federico; Narayanaswamy, Pradeep; Wenk, Markus R; Herr, Deron R; Murray, Paul G; Yap, Lee Fah; Paterson, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a lethal disease with a 5-year mortality rate of around 50%. Molecular targeted therapies are not in routine use and novel therapeutic targets are required. Our previous microarray data indicated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) metabolism and signalling was deregulated in OSCC. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of S1P signalling to the pathogenesis of OSCC. We show that the expression of the two major enzymes that regulate S1P levels were altered in OSCC: SPHK1 was significantly upregulated in OSCC tissues compared to normal oral mucosa and low levels of SGPL1 mRNA correlated with a worse overall survival. In in vitro studies, S1P enhanced the migration/invasion of OSCC cells and attenuated cisplatin-induced death. We also demonstrate that S1P receptor expression is deregulated in primary OSCCs and that S1PR2 is over-expressed in a subset of tumours, which in part mediates S1P-induced migration of OSCC cells. Lastly, we demonstrate that FTY720 induced significantly more apoptosis in OSCC cells compared to non-malignant cells and that FTY720 acted synergistically with cisplatin to induce cell death. Taken together, our data show that S1P signalling promotes tumour aggressiveness in OSCC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27160553

  14. Genetic characterization of three qnrS1-harbouring multidrug-resistance plasmids and qnrS1-containing transposons circulating in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Le, Vien; Nhu, Nguyen Thi Khanh; Cerdeno-Tarraga, Ana; Campbell, James I.; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Schultsz, Constance; Thwaites, Guy; Thomson, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) refers to a family of closely related genes that confer decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. PMQR genes are generally associated with integrons and/or plasmids that carry additional antimicrobial resistance genes active against a range of antimicrobials. In Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam, we have previously shown a high frequency of PMQR genes within commensal Enterobacteriaceae. However, there are limited available sequence data detailing the genetic context in which the PMQR genes reside, and a lack of understanding of how these genes spread across the Enterobacteriaceae. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic background facilitating the spread and maintenance of qnrS1, the dominant PMQR gene circulating in HCMC. We sequenced three qnrS1-carrying plasmids in their entirety to understand the genetic context of these qnrS1-embedded plasmids and also the association of qnrS1-mediated quinolone resistance with other antimicrobial resistance phenotypes. Annotation of the three qnrS1-containing plasmids revealed a qnrS1-containing transposon with a closely related structure. We screened 112 qnrS1-positive commensal Enterobacteriaceae isolated in the community and in a hospital in HCMC to detect the common transposon structure. We found the same transposon structure to be present in 71.4 % (45/63) of qnrS1-positive hospital isolates and in 36.7 % (18/49) of qnrS1-positive isolates from the community. The resulting sequence analysis of the qnrS1 environment suggested that qnrS1 genes are widely distributed and are mobilized on elements with a common genetic background. Our data add additional insight into mechanisms that facilitate resistance to multiple antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam. PMID:26272054

  15. An innovative rotational Raman lidar to measure the temperature profile from the surface to 30 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Mariscal, Jean-François; d'Almeida, Eric; Dahoo, Pierre-Richard; Porteneuve, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    A concept of innovative rotational Raman lidar with daylight measurement capability is proposed to measure the vertical profile of temperature from the ground to the middle stratosphere. The optical filtering is made using a Fabry-Pérot Interferometer with line spacing equal to the line spacing of the Raman spectrum. The detection is made using a linear PMT array operated in photon counting mode. We plan to build a prototype and to test it at the Haute-Provence Observatory lidar facility. to achieve a time resolution permitting the observation of small-scale atmospheric processes playing a role in the troposphere-stratosphere interaction as gravity waves. If successful, this project will open the possibility to consider a Raman space lidar for the global observation of atmospheric temperature profiles.

  16. Lidar Soundings Between 30 and 100 km Altitude During Day and Night for Observation of Temperatures, Gravity Waves and Tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerding, Michael; Baumgarten, Kathrin; Höffner, Josef; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2016-06-01

    Ground-based temperature measurements by lidar are an important tool for the understanding of long-term temperature changes as well as the propagation of gravity waves and tides. Though, mesospheric soundings are often limited to nighttime conditions due to the low signal-tonoise ratio during the day. We developed a daylight-capable RMR lidar for temperature soundings in the middle atmosphere. The influences of the narrowband detector on the calculated hydrostatic temperatures as well as their correction are described. The RMR lidar is complemented by a co-located resonance lidar. We present an example for tidal analyses and short-term variability of tidal amplitudes.

  17. Ensemble flood forecasting to support dam water release operation using 10 and 2 km-resolution JMA Nonhydrostatic Model ensemble rainfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Otsuka, S.; Apip; Saito, K.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a study on short-term ensemble flood forecasting specifically for small dam catchments in Japan. Numerical ensemble simulations of rainfall from the Japan Meteorological Agency Nonhydrostatic Model are used as the input data to a rainfall-runoff model for predicting river discharge into a dam. The ensemble weather simulations use a conventional 10 km and a high-resolution 2 km spatial resolution. A distributed rainfall-runoff model is constructed for the Kasahori dam catchment (approx. 70 km2) and applied with the ensemble rainfalls. The results show that the hourly maximum and cumulative catchment-average rainfalls of the 2 km-resolution JMA-NHM ensemble simulation are more appropriate than the 10 km-resolution rainfalls. All the simulated inflows based on the 2 and 10 km rainfalls become larger than the flood discharge of 140 m3 s-1; a threshold value for flood control. The inflows with the 10 km-resolution ensemble rainfall are all considerably smaller than the observations, while, at least one simulated discharge out of 11 ensemble members with the 2 km-resolution rainfalls reproduces the first peak of the inflow at the Kasahori dam with similar amplitude to observations, although there are spatiotemporal lags between simulation and observation. To take positional lags into account of the ensemble discharge simulation, the rainfall distribution in each ensemble member is shifted so that the catchment-averaged cumulative rainfall of the Kasahori dam maximizes. The runoff simulation with the position-shifted rainfalls show much better results than the original ensemble discharge simulations.

  18. The S1P/S1PR2 axis regulates early airway T cell infiltration in murine mast cell-dependent acute allergic responses

    PubMed Central

    Oskeritzian, Carole A.; Hait, Nitai C.; Wedman, Piper; Chumanevich, Alena; Kolawole, Elizabeth M.; Price, Megan M.; Falanga, Yves T.; Harikumar, Kuzhuvelil B.; Ryan, John J.; Milstien, Sheldon; Sabbadini, Roger; Spiegel, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid produced by mast cells (MC) upon cross-linking of their high affinity receptors for IgE by antigen (Ag) that can amplify MC responses by binding to its S1P receptors. Acute MC-dependent allergic reaction can lead to systemic shock but the early events of its development in lung tissues have not been investigated, and S1P functions in the onset of allergic processes remain to be examined. Objective We used a highly specific neutralizing anti-S1P antibody (mAb) and an S1P receptor 2 (S1PR2) antagonist, JTE-013, to study S1P and S1PR2 signaling contributions to MC- and IgE-dependent airway allergic responses in mice within minutes after Ag challenge. Methods Allergic reaction was triggered by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of Ag in sensitized mice pre-treated i.p. with anti-S1P or isotype control mAb, or JTE-013 or vehicle prior to Ag challenge. Results Kinetics experiments revealed early pulmonary infiltration of mostly T cells around blood vessels of sensitized mice 20 minutes post-Ag exposure. Pre-treatment with anti-S1P mAb inhibited in vitro MC activation, as well as in vivo development of airway infiltration and MC activation, reducing serum levels of histamine, cytokines and the chemokines MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3 and RANTES/CCL5. S1PR2 antagonism or deficiency, or MC deficiency recapitulated these results. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated MC S1PR2 dependency for chemokine release and the necessity for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) activation. Conclusion Activation of S1PR2 by S1P and downstream Stat3 signaling in MC regulate early T cell recruitment to antigen-challenged lungs by chemokine production. PMID:25512083

  19. Developing Knowledge Management (KM): Contributions by Organizational Learning and Total Quality Management (TQM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge management is an integral business function for many organizations to manage intellectual resources effectively. From a resource-based perspective, organizational learning and TQM are antecedents that are closely related to KM. The purposes of this study were to explain the contents of KM, and explore the relationship between KM-related…

  20. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction. PMID:26539121

  1. 26 CFR 31.3121(s)-1 - Concurrent employment by related corporations with common paymaster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with common paymaster. 31.3121(s)-1 Section 31.3121(s)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(s)-1 Concurrent employment by related corporations with... this section. Section 3121(s) and this section apply only to remuneration disbursed in the form...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6050S-1 - Information reporting for qualified tuition and related expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information reporting for qualified tuition and related expenses. 1.6050S-1 Section 1.6050S-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information Returns § 1.6050S-1 Information reporting for...

  3. Underwater acoustic positioning system for the SMO and KM3NeT - Italia projects

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, S.; Barbagallo, G.; Cacopardo, G.; Calí, C.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amato, V.; D'Amico, A.; De Luca, V.; Del Tevere, F.; Distefano, C.; Ferrera, F.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Imbesi, M.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; and others

    2014-11-18

    In the underwater neutrino telescopes, the positions of the Cherenkov light sensors and their movements must be known with an accuracy of few tens of centimetres. In this work, the activities of the SMO and KM3NeT-Italia teams for the development of an acoustic positioning system for KM3NeT-Italia project are presented. The KM3NeT-Italia project foresees the construction, within two years, of 8 towers in the view of the several km{sup 3}-scale neutrino telescope KM3NeT.

  4. Attenuation of the S+Lg+Surface Wave Group out to 600 km in Northeastern North America: A Baseline Study?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boatwright, J.; Seekins, L. C.

    2009-12-01

    We analyze the S+Lg+surface wave groups radiated out to 600 km by four moderate (4 ≤ M ≤ 5) earthquakes in Quebec, New York, and Maine: the 1997 Cap Rouge, 2002 Ausable Forks, 2005 Rivière du Loup, and 2006 Bar Harbor earthquakes. The raypaths predominately sample the Appalacian Province, and the crustal velocity structure is roughly homogeneous across the study area. We compute spectra using 20-60 s windows of the horizontal broadband components. We restrict our analysis to hard-rock (Vs > 1500 m/s) and soft-rock (Vs > 700 m/s) sites, avoiding resonant sedimentary sites; we model site amplification using average 1D impedance functions (Boore and Joyner, 1997). We use ro = 50 km instead of ro = 100 km for the crossover distance in the Street et al. (1975) function for geometrical spreading: this distance adjusts the corrected spectra at 10 s to the moment tensor estimates. This simple correction scheme allows us to regress for Q directly as a function of frequency: the source spectral shape is entirely unconstrained. Fitting a Qo f q function to the Q estimates from 0.2 to 25 Hz yields Q = 410 f 0.5 for a group velocity of 3.5 km/s. This attenuation is stronger than the Lg attenuation of 650 f 0.36 obtained by Erickson et al. (2004). The Q estimates are consistent for individual events. For f > 20 Hz, the Q estimates increase more rapidly than f 0.5: this deviation from the Qo f q form appears characteristic. To gauge how these Q estimates depend on the distance limit, we will rerun the analysis using broadband data out to 1000 km, adding 30% more recordings to the dataset.

  5. Atmospheric Solar Absorption measurements in the lowest 3-km of the atmosphere with small UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramana, M. V.; Ramanathan, V.; Roberts, G.; Corrigan, C.; Nguyen, H. V.; McFarquhar, G.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports unique measurements of atmospheric solar absorption and heating rates in the visible (0.4- 0.7 Ým) and broadband (0.3-2.8 Ým) spectral regions using vertically stacked multiple light weight autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) during the Maldives autonomous UAV campaign (MAC). The UAVs and ground based remote sensing instruments determined most of the parameters required for calculating the albedo and vertical distribution of solar fluxes. Measured fluxes have been compared with those derived from a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer algorithm which can incorporate both gaseous and aerosol components. The analysis focuses on a cloud-free day when the air was polluted due to long range transport from India, and the mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) was 0.31 and mean single scattering albedo was 0.92. The UAV measured absorption AOD was 0.019 which agreed within 20% of the value of 0.024 reported by a ground based instrument. The observed and simulated solar absorption agreed within 5% above 1.0 km and aerosol absorption accounted for 30% to 50% of the absorption depending upon the altitude and solar zenith angle. Thus there was no need to invoke anomalous or excess absorption or unknown physics in clear skies, provided we account for aerosol black carbon. The diurnal mean absorption values for altitudes between 0.5 and 3.0 km msl were observed to be 41¡Ó3 Wm-2 (1.5 K/day) in the broadband region and 8¡Ó2 Wm-2 (0.3 K/day) in the visible region. Future investigations into the atmospheric absorption in cloudy skies will characterize the spatial and temporal variation of the cloudy atmosphere in sufficient detail to simulate the vertical distribution of net solar fluxes to permit comparison with the collected radiative observations. This next phase will utilize 4 stacked UAVs to observe the extended cloud decks off the coast of California. A combination of observations and models will then be used to assess if the amount of solar absorption

  6. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts.

    PubMed

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions. PMID:27457880

  7. The phylogeny of C/S1 bZIP transcription factors reveals a shared algal ancestry and the pre-angiosperm translational regulation of S1 transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Peviani, Alessia; Lastdrager, Jeroen; Hanson, Johannes; Snel, Berend

    2016-01-01

    Basic leucine zippers (bZIPs) form a large plant transcription factor family. C and S1 bZIP groups can heterodimerize, fulfilling crucial roles in seed development and stress response. S1 sequences also harbor a unique regulatory mechanism, termed Sucrose-Induced Repression of Translation (SIRT). The conservation of both C/S1 bZIP interactions and SIRT remains poorly characterized in non-model species, leaving their evolutionary origin uncertain and limiting crop research. In this work, we explored recently published plant sequencing data to establish a detailed phylogeny of C and S1 bZIPs, investigating their intertwined role in plant evolution, and the origin of SIRT. Our analyses clarified C and S1 bZIP orthology relationships in angiosperms, and identified S1 sequences in gymnosperms. We experimentally showed that the gymnosperm orthologs are regulated by SIRT, tracing back the origin of this unique regulatory mechanism to the ancestor of seed plants. Additionally, we discovered an earlier S ortholog in the charophyte algae Klebsormidium flaccidum, together with a C ortholog. This suggests that C and S groups originated by duplication from a single algal proto-C/S ancestor. Based on our observations, we propose a model wherein the C/S1 bZIP dimer network evolved in seed plants from pre-existing C/S bZIP interactions. PMID:27457880

  8. A randomized phase II study of S-1 plus oral leucovorin versus S-1 monotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced pancreatic cancer†

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, M.; Okusaka, T.; Omuro, Y.; Isayama, H.; Fukutomi, A.; Ikeda, M.; Mizuno, N.; Fukuzawa, K.; Furukawa, M.; Iguchi, H.; Sugimori, K.; Furuse, J.; Shimada, K.; Ioka, T.; Nakamori, S.; Baba, H.; Komatsu, Y.; Takeuchi, M.; Hyodo, I.; Boku, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of adding oral leucovorin (LV) to S-1 when compared with S-1 monotherapy in patients with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic cancer (PC). Patients and methods Gemcitabine-refractory PC patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive S-1 at 40, 50, or 60 mg according to body surface area plus LV 25 mg, both given orally twice daily for 1 week, repeated every 2 weeks (SL group), or S-1 monotherapy at the same dose as the SL group for 4 weeks, repeated every 6 weeks (S-1 group). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Results Among 142 patients enrolled, 140 were eligible for efficacy assessment (SL: n = 69 and S-1: n = 71). PFS was significantly longer in the SL group than in the S-1 group [median PFS, 3.8 versus 2.7 months; hazard ratio (HR), 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37–0.85; P = 0.003]). The disease control rate was significantly higher in the SL group than in the S-1 group (91% versus 72%; P = 0.004). Overall survival (OS) was similar in both groups (median OS, 6.3 versus 6.1 months; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.54–1.22; P = 0.463). After adjusting for patient background factors in a multivariate analysis, OS tended to be better in the SL group (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.47–1.07; P = 0.099). Both treatments were well tolerated, although gastrointestinal toxicities were slightly more severe in the SL group. Conclusion The addition of LV to S-1 significantly improved PFS in patients with gemcitabine-refractory advanced PC, and a phase III trial has been initiated in a similar setting. Clinical trials number Japan Pharmaceutical Information Center: JapicCTI-111554. PMID:26681680

  9. Phase II Study of Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy With S-1 in Patients With T4 Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Tomoko; Murakami, Ryuji; Toya, Ryo; Teshima, Keiko; Nakahara, Aya; Hirai, Toshinori; Hiraki, Akimitsu; Nakayama, Hideki; Yoshitake, Yoshihiro; Ota, Kazutoshi; Obayashi, Takehisa; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Oya, Natsuo; Shinohara, Masanori

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of preoperative concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative, in patients with T4 oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: Only patients with histologically proven T4 oral SCC were included. Radiotherapy (total dose, 30 Gy) was delivered in 2-Gy daily fractions over a period of 3 weeks. Concurrently, S-1 (80 mg/m{sup 2}/day) was administered orally twice daily for 14 consecutive days. Results: We enrolled 46 patients. All underwent radiotherapy as planned; however, oral S-1 was discontinued in 3 patients who manifested acute toxicity. Grade 3 toxicities were mucositis (20%), anorexia (9%), and neutropenia (4%). We encountered no Grade 4 adverse events or serious postoperative morbidity requiring surgical intervention. After CCRT, 32 of the 46 patients underwent radical resection; in 17 (53%) of the operated patients, the pathologic response was complete. During follow-up ranging from 7 to 58 months (median, 22 months), tumor control failed in 5 (16%) of the 32 operated patients; there were 3 local and 2 regional failures. Of the 14 non-operated patients, 8 (57%) manifested local (n = 7) or regional failure (n = 1). The 3-year overall survival rate for all 46 patients was 69%; it was significantly higher for operated than for non-operated patients (82% vs. 48%; p = 0.0288). Conclusion: Preoperative CCRT with S-1 is feasible and effective in patients with T4 oral SCC. Even in inoperable cases, CCRT with S-1 provides adequate tumor control.

  10. Changes in Neuroforaminal Height with 2 Level Axial Presacral Lumbar Interbody Fusion at L4-S1

    PubMed Central

    Marawar, Satyajit; Jung, Jin; Sun, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to examine the changes in neuroforaminal height at L4-L5 and L5-S1 after insertion and graduated foraminal distraction using the 2 level transsacral implant in a cadaveric model. Methods Discectomy and transsacral instrumentation was performed in six fresh human cadavers at L4-S1. The neuroforaminal height was measured at L4-L5 and L5-S1 before and after insertion of the implant and then at each stage of manual distraction. Results Mean L4-5 neuroforaminal height increased from 18.2 ± 3.1mm to 20.3± 2.9mm (11%) on the left and from 18.8±2.8mm to 20.6± 2.3mm (12%) on the right (P<0.05). Mean L5-S1 neuroforaminal height increased from 15.7±3.0mm to 18.4 ±2.8mm (17%) on the left and from 15.6 ±2.1mm to 18.3 ±1.8mm (17%) on the right (P<0.05). When the neuroforaminal height was plotted against amount of rotation of the screw driver it was found that the neuroforaminal height at L5-S1 increased by 1mm on average for every complete revolution of the screw driver. At least 2 full rotations of the screw driver were achieved in all cadavers. Conclusions The transsacral screw construct distracted the disc space and neuroforaminal height in a cadaveric spine model without soft tissue envelope. During the initial process, manual control of disc space distraction predictably correlated with the increase in the neuroforaminal height to a maximum. However, further research is needed to look at variables affecting disc space pliability, implant subsidence, in vivo application, and clinical benefit of this procedure. PMID:25694937

  11. Horizontal wind and temperature in the lower thermosphere (80-140 km) measured by a Na Lidar at Andes Lidar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Alan Z.; Vargas, F.; Guo, Yafang; Swenson, Gary

    2016-07-01

    We report the first measurement of nighttime atmospheric temperature and horizontal wind profiles in the lower thermosphere up to 140 km with the Na lidar at Andes Lidar Observatory in Cerro Pachón, Chile (30.3S, 70.7W), when enhanced thermospheric Na was observed. Temperature and horizontal wind were derived up to 140 km using various resolutions, with the lowest resolution of about 2.7 hr and 15 km above 130 km. Thus the measurements span 60 km in vertical, more than double the traditional 25 km. On the night of 17 April 2015, the horizontal wind magnitude in the thermosphere exceeds 150 m/s, consistent with past rocket measurements. The meridional wind shows a clear transition from the diurnal-tide-dominant mesopause to the semidiurnal-tide-dominant lower thermosphere. A lidar with a 100 times the power-aperture product will be able to measure wind and temperature above 160 km and cover longer time span, providing key measurements for the study of atmosphere-space interactions in this region.

  12. First measurement of horizontal wind and temperature in the lower thermosphere (105-140 km) with a Na Lidar at Andes Lidar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Alan Z.; Guo, Yafang; Vargas, Fabio; Swenson, Gary R.

    2016-03-01

    We report the first measurement of nighttime atmospheric temperature and horizontal wind profiles in the lower thermosphere up to 140 km with the Na lidar at Andes Lidar Observatory in Cerro Pachón, Chile (30.25°S, 70.74°W), when enhanced thermospheric Na was observed. Temperature and horizontal wind were derived up to 140 km using various resolutions, with the lowest resolution of about 2.7 hr and 15 km above 130 km. Thus, the measurements span 60 km in vertical, more than double the traditional 25 km. On the night of 17 April 2015, the horizontal wind magnitude in the thermosphere exceeds 150 ms-1, consistent with past rocket measurements. The meridional wind shows a clear transition from the diurnal-tide-dominant mesopause to the semidiurnal-tide-dominant lower thermosphere. A lidar with a 100 times the power aperture product will be able to measure wind and temperature above 160 km and cover longer time span, providing key measurements for the study of atmosphere-space interactions in this region.

  13. Continuous measurements of water surface height and width along a 6.5km river reach for discharge algorithm development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuozzolo, S.; Durand, M. T.; Pavelsky, T.; Pentecost, J.

    2015-12-01

    The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite will provide measurements of river width and water surface elevation and slope along continuous swaths of world rivers. Understanding water surface slope and width dynamics in river reaches is important for both developing and validating discharge algorithms to be used on future SWOT data. We collected water surface elevation and river width data along a 6.5km stretch of the Olentangy River in Columbus, Ohio from October to December 2014. Continuous measurements of water surface height were supplemented with periodical river width measurements at twenty sites along the study reach. The water surface slope of the entire reach ranged from during 41.58 cm/km at baseflow to 45.31 cm/km after a storm event. The study reach was also broken into sub-reaches roughly 1km in length to study smaller scale slope dynamics. The furthest upstream sub-reaches are characterized by free-flowing riffle-pool sequences, while the furthest downstream sub-reaches were directly affected by two low-head dams. In the sub-reaches immediately upstream of each dam, baseflow slope is as low as 2 cm/km, while the furthest upstream free-flowing sub-reach has a baseflow slope of 100 cm/km. During high flow events the backwater effect of the dams was observed to propagate upstream: sub-reaches impounded by the dams had increased water surface slopes, while free flowing sub-reaches had decreased water surface slopes. During the largest observed flow event, a stage change of 0.40 m affected sub-reach slopes by as much as 30 cm/km. Further analysis will examine height-width relationships within the study reach and relate cross-sectional flow area to river stage. These relationships can be used in conjunction with slope data to estimate discharge using a modified Manning's equation, and are a core component of discharge algorithms being developed for the SWOT mission.

  14. Identification of the peptide derived from S1 domain that inhibits type I and type II feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Doki, Tomoyoshi; Takano, Tomomi; Koyama, Yusuke; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) can cause a lethal disease in cats, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A therapeutic drug that is effective against FIP has not yet been developed. Peptides based on viral protein amino acid sequences have recently been attracting attention as new antiviral drugs. In the present study, we synthesized 30 overlapping peptides based on the amino acid sequence of the S1 domain of the type I FIPV strain KU-2 S protein, and investigated their inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. To evaluate the inhibitory effects on type I FIPV infection of these peptides, we investigated a method to increase the infection efficiency of poorly replicative type I FIPV. The efficiency of type I FIPV infection was increased by diluting the virus with medium containing a polycation. Of the 30 peptides, I-S1-8 (S461-S480), I-S1-9 (S471-S490), I-S1-10 (S481-S500), I-S1-16 (S541-S560), and I-S1-22 (S601-S620) significantly decreased the infectivity of FIPV strain KU-2 while I-S1-9 and I-S1-16 exhibited marked inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. The inhibitory effects on FIPV infection of these 2 peptides on other type I and type II FIPV strains, feline herpesvirus (FHV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) were also examined. These 2 peptides specifically inhibited type I and type II FIPV, but did FHV or FCV infection. In conclusion, the possibility of peptides derived from the S protein of type I FIPV strain KU-2 as anti-FIPV agents effective not only for type I, but also type II FIPV was demonstrated in vitro. PMID:25896976

  15. S1P lyase in skeletal muscle regeneration and satellite cell activation: Exposing the hidden lyase☆

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Julie D.; de la Garza-Rodea, Anabel S.

    2013-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid whose actions are essential for many physiological processes including angiogenesis, lymphocyte trafficking and development. In addition, S1P serves asamuscle trophic factor that enables efficient muscle regeneration. This is due in part to S1P's ability to activate quiescent muscle stem cells called satellite cells (SCs) that are needed for muscle repair. However, the molecular mechanism by which S1P activates SCs has not been well understood. Further, strategies for harnessing S1P signaling to recruit SCs for therapeutic benefit have been lacking. S1P is irreversibly catabolized by S1P lyase (SPL), a highly conserved enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of S1P at carbon bond C2–3, resulting in formation of hexadecenal and ethanolamine-phosphate. SPL enhances apoptosis through substrate- and product-dependent events, thereby regulating cellular responses to chemotherapy, radiation and ischemia. SPL is undetectable in resting murine skeletal muscle. However, we recently found that SPL is dynamically upregulated in skeletal muscle after injury. SPL upregulation occurred in the context of a tightly orchestrated genetic program that resulted in a transient S1P signal in response to muscle injury. S1P activated quiescent SCs via a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1P2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-dependent pathway, thereby facilitating skeletal muscle regeneration. Mdx mice, which serve as a model for muscular dystrophy (MD), exhibited skeletal muscle SPL upregulation and S1P deficiency. Pharmacological SPL inhibition raised skeletal muscle S1P levels, enhanced SC recruitment and improved mdx skeletal muscle regeneration. These findings reveal how S1P can activate SCs and indicate that SPL suppression may provide a therapeutic strategy for myopathies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research. PMID:22750505

  16. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Background Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat), the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. PMID:25995653

  17. The HyperV 8000 μg, 50 km/s Plasma Railgun for PLX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockington, Samuel; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Wu, Linchun; Witherspoon, F. Douglas

    2012-10-01

    HyperV has developed a gas fed, pulsed, plasma railgun which accelerates 8000 μg of argon to 50 km/s meeting the performance requirements originally specified for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX). The present 2.5 cm square-bore plasma railgun forms plasma armatures from high density neutral gas, pre-ionizes it electro-thermally, and accelerates the armature with 30 cm long parallel-plate railgun electrodes driven by a pulse forming network (PFN). A high voltage, high current linear array spark-gap switch and flexible, low-inductance transmission line were designed and constructed to handle the increased current load. We will describe these systems and present initial performance data from high current operation of the plasma rail gun from spectroscopy, interferometry, and imaging systems. Measurements of momentum, pressure, magnetic field, and other optical diagnostics will also be discussed as well as plans for upcoming experimentation to increase performance even further. Work supported by USDOE under DE-FG02-05ER54810 and DE-FG02-08ER85114.

  18. Desulfotomaculum spp.and Methanobacterium spp. Dominate a 4-5 km Deep Fault

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Duane P.; Gihring, Thomas M.; Brockman, Fred J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Balkwill, David L.; Dollhopf, M E.; Lollar, B S.; Pratt, Lisa; Boice, E.; Southam, G; Wanger, Greg; Baker, Brett; Pfiffner, S; Lin, L; Onstott, T C.

    2005-12-01

    Sulfidic, 54-60 C, 3 to 30 million year old meteoric water stably Alkaline, sulfidic, 54 to 60 C, 4 to 53 million-year-old meteoric water emanating from a borehole intersecting quartzite-hosted fractures >3.3 km beneath the surface supported a microbial community dominated by a bacterial species affiliated with Desulfotomaculum spp. and an archaeal species related to Methanobacterium spp. The geochemical homogeneity over the 650-m length of the borehole, the lack of dividing cells, and the absence of these microorganisms in mine service water support an indigenous origin for the microbial community. The coexistence of these two microorganisms is consistent with a limiting flux of inorganic carbon and SO4 2 in the presence of high pH, high concentrations of H2 and CH4, and minimal free energy for autotrophic methanogenesis. Sulfide isotopic compositions were highly enriched, consistent with microbial SO4 2 reduction under hydrologic isolation. An analogous microbial couple and similar abiogenic gas chemistry have been reported recently for hydrothermal carbonate vents of the Lost City near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (D. S. Kelly et al., Science 307:1428-1434, 2005), suggesting that these features may be common to deep subsurface habitats (continental and marine) bearing this geochemical signature. The geochemical setting and microbial communities described here are notably different from microbial ecosystems reported for shallower continental subsurface environments.

  19. Clinicopathological evaluation of pre-operative chemoradiotherapy with S-1 as a treatment for locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    KAWANO, SHINTARO; ZHENG, YANQUN; OOBU, KAZUNARI; MATSUBARA, RYOTA; GOTO, YUICHI; CHIKUI, TORU; YOSHITAKE, TADAMASA; KIYOSHIMA, TAMOTSU; JINNO, TEPPEI; MARUSE, YASUYUKI; MITATE, EIJI; KITAMURA, RYOJI; TANAKA, HIDEAKI; TOYOSHIMA, TAKESHI; SUGIURA, TSUYOSHI; NAKAMURA, SEIJI

    2016-01-01

    The administration of pre-operative chemotherapy with S-1 and concurrent radiotherapy at a total dose of 30 Gy was clinicopathologically evaluated as a treatment for locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the present study. The participants comprised 81 patients with OSCC, consisting of 29 patients with stage II disease, 12 patients with stage III disease and 40 patients with stage IV disease. All patients received a total radiation dose of 30 Gy in daily fractions of 2 Gy, 5 times a week, for 3 weeks, and the patients were concurrently administered S-1 at a dose of 80–120 mg, twice daily, over 4 consecutive weeks. Radical surgery was performed in all cases at 2–6 weeks subsequent to the end of pre-operative chemoradiotherapy. The most common adverse event was oropharyngeal mucositis, but this was transient in all patients. No severe hematological or non-hematological toxicities were observed. The clinical and histopathological response rates were 70.4 and 75.3%, respectively. Post-operatively, local failure developed in 6 patients (7.4%) and neck failure developed in 2 patients (2.5%). Distant metastases were found in 7 patients (8.6%). The overall survival rate, disease-specific survival rate and locoregional control rate at 5 years were 87.7, 89.9 and 90.6%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence occurred more frequently in patients that demonstrated a poor histopathological response compared with patients that demonstrated a good response (P<0.01). These results indicate that pre-operative S-1 chemotherapy with radiotherapy at a total dose of 30 Gy is feasible and effective for patients with locally advanced OSCC, and that little or no histopathological response may be a risk factor for locoregional recurrence in this treatment. PMID:27123119

  20. Variations in Km(CO2) of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase among Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Hock-Hin; Badger, Murray R.; Watson, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    A survey of the Km(CO2) values of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from 60 grass species shows that enzyme from C3 grasses consistently exhibits lower Km(CO2) than does that from C4 grasses. Systematically ordered variation in Km(CO2) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylases from C3 and C4 grasses is also apparent and, among C4 grasses, this shows some correlation with C4 types. PMID:16661586

  1. MODIS 3 Km Aerosol Product: Applications over Land in an Urban/suburban Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided a rich dataset of aerosol information at a 10 km spatial scale. Although originally intended for climate applications, the air quality community quickly became interested in using the MODIS aerosol data. However, 10 km resolution is not sufficient to resolve local scale aerosol features. With this in mind, MODIS Collection 6 is including a global aerosol product with a 3 km resolution. Here, we evaluate the 3 km product over the Baltimore/Washington D.C., USA, corridor during the summer of 2011, by comparing with spatially dense data collected as part of the DISCOVER-AQ campaign these data were measured by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a network of 44 sun photometers (SP) spaced approximately 10 km apart. The HSRL instrument shows that AOD can vary by up to 0.2 within a single 10 km MODIS pixel, meaning that higher resolution satellite retrievals may help to characterize aerosol spatial distributions in this region. Different techniques for validating a high-resolution aerosol product against SP measurements are considered. Although the 10 km product is more statistically reliable than the 3 km product, the 3 km product still performs acceptably, with more than two-thirds of MODIS/SP collocations falling within the expected error envelope with high correlation (R > 0.90). The 3 km product can better resolve aerosol gradients and retrieve closer to clouds and shorelines than the 10 km product, but tends to show more significant noise especially in urban areas. This urban degradation is quantified using ancillary land cover data. Overall, we show that the MODIS 3 km product adds new information to the existing set of satellite derived aerosol products and validates well over the region, but due to noise and problems in urban areas, should be treated with some degree of caution.

  2. Quality assurance and risk assessment in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollima, C.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-01-01

    KM3NeT is an undersea neutrino detector currently under design. This paper summarises the quality management system (QMS) and risk assessment (RA) thought into the KM3NeT project. QMS and RA are set up as an integrated system for the improvement and optimization of components of the KM3NeT neutrino detector as well as its production and operation.

  3. Nemo:. a Project for a KM3 Underwater Detector for Astrophysical Neutrinos in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amore, I.; Aiello, S.; Ambriola, M.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Beverini, N.; Bonori, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Brescia, M.; Cacopardo, G.; Cafagna, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Castorina, E.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; Cuneo, S.; D'Amico, A.; de Bonis, G.; de Marzo, C.; de Rosa, G.; de Vita, R.; Distefano, C.; Falchini, E.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgi, F.; Grimaldi, A.; Habel, R.; Leonora, E.; Lonardo, A.; Longo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Megna, R.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Musumeci, M. S.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Osteria, G.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Riccobene, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spurio, M.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Valente, V.; Vicini, P.

    The status of the project is described: the activity on long term characterization of water optical and oceanographic parameters at the Capo Passero site candidate for the Mediterranean km3 neutrino telescope; the feasibility study; the physics performances and underwater technology for the km3; the activity on NEMO Phase 1, a technological demonstrator that has been deployed at 2000 m depth 25 km offshore Catania; the realization of an underwater infrastructure at 3500 m depth at the candidate site (NEMO Phase 2).

  4. The 5- or 10-km Marikenloop Run: A Prospective Study of the Etiology of Running-Related Injuries in Women.

    PubMed

    van der Worp, Maarten P; de Wijer, Anton; van Cingel, Robert; Verbeek, André L M; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Staal, J Bart

    2016-06-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort. Background The popularity of running events is still growing, particularly among women; however, little is known about the risk factors for running-related injuries in female runners. Objectives The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and characteristics (site and recurrence) of running-related injuries and to identify specific risk factors for running-related injuries among female runners training for a 5- or 10-km race. Methods Four hundred thirty-five women registered for the Marikenloop run of 5 or 10 km were recruited. Follow-up data were collected over 12 weeks using questionnaires, starting 8 weeks before the event and ending 4 weeks after the event. Two orthopaedic tests (navicular drop test and extension of the first metatarsophalangeal joint) were performed in the 8 weeks before the event. Running-related injuries, defined as running-related pain of the lower back and/or the lower extremity that restricted running for at least 1 day, were assessed at 1-, 2-, and 3-month follow-ups. Results Of 417 female runners with follow-up data (96%), 93 runners (22.3%) reported 109 running-related injuries, mainly of the hip/groin, knee, and lower leg. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that a weekly training distance of more than 30 km (hazard ratio = 3.28; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23, 8.75) and a previous running injury longer than 12 months prior (hazard ratio = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.03, 3.45) were associated with the occurrence of running-related injuries. Conclusion Hip/groin, knee, and lower-leg injuries were common among female runners. Only weekly training distance (greater than 30 km) and previous running injury (greater than 12 months prior) were associated with running-related injuries in female runners training for a 5- or 10-km event. Level of Evidence Etiology, 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):462-470. Epub 26 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6402. PMID:27117730

  5. Potential of KM3NeT to observe galactic neutrino point-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trovato, Agata

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT (http://www.km3net.org">http://www.km3net.org) will be the next-generation cubic-kilometre-scale neutrino telescope to be installed in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. This location will allow for surveying the Galactic Centre, most of the Galactic Plane as well as a large part of the sky. We report KM3NeT discovery potential for the SNR RXJ1713.7-3946 and the PWN Vela X and its sensitivity to point-like sources with an E-2 spectrum.

  6. Complete Response Obtained with S-1 Plus CDDP Therapy in a Patient with Multiple Liver Metastases from Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nonoshita, Takashi; Otsuka, Shinya; Inagaki, Masaru; Iwagaki, Hiromi

    2015-12-01

    A 58-year-old woman with advanced gastric cancer underwent total gastrectomy in May 2012. The histological diagnosis was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, cT4a (SE), pN1, cM0; fStage IIIA. Chemotherapy by S-1 was started after surgery. Six months after the operation, two metastatic nodules were noticed on the liver. Therefore, the chemotherapy was switched to S-1 plus cisplatin (CDDP) in November 2012. TS-1 (80 mg/body) was administrated from day 1 to 21 followed by 14 days rest as one course. CDDP (70 mg/body) was infused on day 1. After 3 courses of this combination chemotherapy, remarkable diminution of the metastatic lesions on CT images was observed. Because of the adverse event of Grade 2 nausea, the patient was forced to discontinue chemotherapy. The patient underwent partial resection of the liver (Hr-0: S8, S7) at 1 year after the first operation. The resected specimens showed no sign of malignancy, although uneven fatty deposition was observed more frequently than in the surroundings, and designated as histologically complete response (CR). The patient has been alive 30 months after the second operation without any recurrent sites. Thus, combined use of peroral S-1 and CDDP should be recommended for multiple liver metastases after gastrectomy. PMID:26964156

  7. Synthesis of new ligands for targeting the S1P1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Schilson, Stefanie S; Keul, Petra; Shaikh, Rizwan S; Schäfers, Michael; Levkau, Bodo; Haufe, Günter

    2015-03-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) influences various fundamental biological processes by interacting with a family of five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-5). FTY720, a sphingosine analogue, which was approved for treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, is phosphorylated in vivo and acts as an agonist of four of the five S1P receptor subtypes. Starting from these lead structures we developed new agonists for the S1P1 receptor. The biological activity was tested in vivo and promising ligands were fluorinated at different positions to identify candidates for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging after [(18)F]-labelling. The radioligands shall enable the imaging of S1P1 receptor expression in vivo and thus may serve as novel imaging markers of S1P-related diseases. PMID:25656338

  8. Expanding Molecular Bubble Surrounding Tycho’s Supernova Remnant (SN 1572) Observed with the IRAM 30 m Telescope: Evidence for a Single-degenerate Progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong; Safi-Harb, Samar; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Whether the progenitors of SNe Ia are single-degenerate or double-degenerate white dwarf (WD) systems is a highly debated topic. To address the origin of Tycho’s Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR), SN 1572, we have carried out a 12CO J = 2–1 mapping and a 3 mm line survey toward the remnant using the IRAM 30 m telescope. We show that Tycho is surrounded by a clumpy molecular bubble at a local standard of rest velocity of ˜ 61 {km} {{{s}}}-1, which expands at a speed of ˜ 4.5 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and has a mass of ˜ 220 {M}ȯ (at the distance of 2.5 kpc). Enhanced 12CO J = 2–1 line emission relative to 12CO J = 1–0 emission and possible line broadenings (in velocity range ‑64 to ‑60 km s‑1) are found at the northeastern boundary of the SNR, where the shell is deformed and decelerated. These features, combined with the morphological correspondence between the expanding molecular bubble and Tycho, suggest that the SNR is associated with the bubble at the velocity range ‑66 to ‑57 km s‑1. The most plausible origin for the expanding bubble is the fast outflow (with velocity of hundreds km s‑1) driven from the vicinity of a WD as it accreted matter from a nondegenerate companion star. The SNR has been expanding in the low-density wind-blown bubble, and the shock wave has just reached the molecular cavity wall. This is the first unambiguous detection of an expanding bubble driven by the progenitor of a Type Ia SNR, which constitutes evidence for a single-degenerate progenitor for this SN Ia.

  9. Expanding Molecular Bubble Surrounding Tycho’s Supernova Remnant (SN 1572) Observed with the IRAM 30 m Telescope: Evidence for a Single-degenerate Progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Li, Xiang-Dong; Safi-Harb, Samar; Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Whether the progenitors of SNe Ia are single-degenerate or double-degenerate white dwarf (WD) systems is a highly debated topic. To address the origin of Tycho’s Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR), SN 1572, we have carried out a 12CO J = 2–1 mapping and a 3 mm line survey toward the remnant using the IRAM 30 m telescope. We show that Tycho is surrounded by a clumpy molecular bubble at a local standard of rest velocity of ∼ 61 {km} {{{s}}}-1, which expands at a speed of ∼ 4.5 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and has a mass of ∼ 220 {M}ȯ (at the distance of 2.5 kpc). Enhanced 12CO J = 2–1 line emission relative to 12CO J = 1–0 emission and possible line broadenings (in velocity range ‑64 to ‑60 km s‑1) are found at the northeastern boundary of the SNR, where the shell is deformed and decelerated. These features, combined with the morphological correspondence between the expanding molecular bubble and Tycho, suggest that the SNR is associated with the bubble at the velocity range ‑66 to ‑57 km s‑1. The most plausible origin for the expanding bubble is the fast outflow (with velocity of hundreds km s‑1) driven from the vicinity of a WD as it accreted matter from a nondegenerate companion star. The SNR has been expanding in the low-density wind-blown bubble, and the shock wave has just reached the molecular cavity wall. This is the first unambiguous detection of an expanding bubble driven by the progenitor of a Type Ia SNR, which constitutes evidence for a single-degenerate progenitor for this SN Ia.

  10. S1PR1-mediated IFNAR1 degradation modulates plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon-α autoamplification

    PubMed Central

    Teijaro, John R.; Studer, Sean; Leaf, Nora; Kiosses, William B.; Nguyen, Nhan; Matsuki, Kosuke; Negishi, Hideo; Taniguchi, Tadatsugu; Oldstone, Michael B. A.; Rosen, Hugh

    2016-01-01

    Blunting immunopathology without abolishing host defense is the foundation for safe and effective modulation of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) agonists are effective in treating infectious and multiple autoimmune pathologies; however, mechanisms underlying their clinical efficacy are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we uncover an unexpected mechanism of convergence between S1PR1 and interferon alpha receptor 1 (IFNAR1) signaling pathways. Activation of S1PR1 signaling by pharmacological tools or endogenous ligand sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) inhibits type 1 IFN responses that exacerbate numerous pathogenic conditions. Mechanistically, S1PR1 selectively suppresses the type I IFN autoamplification loop in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a specialized DC subset, for robust type I IFN release. S1PR1 agonist suppression is pertussis toxin-resistant, but inhibited by an S1PR1 C-terminal–derived transactivating transcriptional activator (Tat)-fusion peptide that blocks receptor internalization. S1PR1 agonist treatment accelerates turnover of IFNAR1, suppresses signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation, and down-modulates total STAT1 levels, thereby inactivating the autoamplification loop. Inhibition of S1P-S1PR1 signaling in vivo using the selective antagonist Ex26 significantly elevates IFN-α production in response to CpG-A. Thus, multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that S1PR1 signaling sets the sensitivity of pDC amplification of IFN responses, thereby blunting pathogenic immune responses. These data illustrate a lipid G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-IFNAR1 regulatory loop that balances effective and detrimental immune responses and elevated endogenous S1PR1 signaling. This mechanism will likely be advantageous in individuals subject to a range of inflammatory conditions. PMID:26787880

  11. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An overhead crane lifts the S1 Integrated Truss Structure from its workstand. The S1 will be placed in the payload canister for transport it to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  12. Randomized Phase 2 Trial of S1 and Oxaliplatin-Based Chemoradiotherapy With or Without Induction Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Dok Hyun; Jang, Geundoo; Kim, Jong Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Kim, Ji Youn; Kim, Hyeong Ryul; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Lee, Gin-Hyug; Song, Ho Young; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Kim, Sung-Bae

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To assess, in a randomized, phase 2 trial, the efficacy and safety of chemoradiotherapy with or without induction chemotherapy (ICT) of S1 and oxaliplatin for esophageal cancer. Patients and Methods: Patients with stage II, III, or IVA esophageal cancer were randomly allocated to either 2 cycles of ICT (oxaliplatin 130 mg/m{sup 2} on day 1 and S1 at 40 mg/m{sup 2} twice daily on days 1-14, every 3 weeks) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) (46 Gy, 2 Gy/d with oxaliplatin 130 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1 and 21 and S1 30 mg/m{sup 2} twice daily, 5 days per week during radiation therapy) and esophagectomy (arm A), or the same CCRT followed by esophagectomy without ICT (arm B). The primary endpoint was the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate. Results: A total of 97 patients were randomized (arm A/B, 47/50), 70 of whom underwent esophagectomy (arm A/B, 34/36). The intention-to-treat pCR rate was 23.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.2-35.6%) in arm A and 38% (95% CI 24.5% to 51.5%) in arm B. With a median follow-up duration of 30.3 months, the 2-year progression-free survival rate was 58.4% in arm A and 58.6% in arm B, whereas the 2-year overall survival rate was 60.7% and 63.7%, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia during CCRT was more common in arm A than in arm B (35.4% vs 4.1%). The relative dose intensity of S1 (89.5% ± 20.6% vs 98.3% ± 5.2%, P=.005) and oxaliplatin (91.4% ± 16.8% vs 99.0% ± 4.2%, P=.007) during CCRT was lower in arm A compared with arm B. Three patients in arm A, compared with none in arm B, died within 90 days after surgery. Conclusions: Combination chemotherapy of S1 and oxaliplatin is an effective chemoradiotherapy regimen to treat esophageal cancer. However, we failed to show that the addition of ICT to the regimen can improve the pCR rate.

  13. The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey: Multiplicity and Dynamics of the Massive Stars in 30 Dor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sana, H.; Dunstall, P. R.; Hénault-Brunet, V.; Walborn, N. R.; de Koter, A.; de Mink, S. E.; Dufton, P. L.; Evans, C. J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Taylor, W. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    We present the first results on the multiplicity and dynamics of the OB star population in 30 Dor obtained in the framework of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. Based on their radial velocity (RV) variations, we have identified over 100 O-type and about 160 B-type spectroscopic binaries. The observed spectroscopic binary fraction for the O and B stars in our sample is of the order 30-35%. Preliminary considerations on the binary detection rate suggest a true spectroscopic binary fraction of the order of 50%. The overall RV dispersion (σRV) of the O stars in the complete sample is about 10 km s-1 but we note that the NGC 2060 and NGC 2070 regions show slightly different dynamical properties. We identified 17 O-type runaway candidates that show deviating RVs. One third of these candidates are On/nn/nnn stars, indicating a large rotational velocity. We show that the fast rotators have different RV properties than the average of the sample and are distributed throughout the field. This suggests a link between large rotation rate and peculiar RVs and, ultimately, the runaway phenomenon. Using the O stars observed within 25″(˜ 6 pc) from the core of R136, we obtain a preliminary upper limit of 7.5 km s-1 to σdyn. Given that this value has yet to be corrected down for contributions of non-detected long period binaries, this indicates that R136 is possibly a dynamically stable cluster.

  14. The Anomalous Drift of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) due to Sublimating Volatiles near Perihelion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckloff, J. K.; Keane, J. V.; Milam, S.; Coulson, I.; Knight, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Prior to perihelion passage on 28 November 2013, the observed right ascension (RA) and declination (Dec) coordinates of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) significantly lagged the predicted JPL (# 53) ephemeris. We show that this "braking effect" is due to a dynamic pressure exerted by sublimating gases on the sunward side of the nucleus [1]. Comet ISON was observed November 23 through November 28 using the SCUBA-2 sub-millimeter camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Imaging is achieved simultaneously at wavelengths of 850 μm and 450 μm, with RA and Dec determined from the central peak in the coma brightness [2]. When comet ISON was first detected at 850 μm, the 1-mm-sized dust particles were tightly bound to the comet nucleus until at least November 23. Three days later, the dust was less tightly bound, elongated and diffuse, spread out over as much as 120 arc seconds (80,000 km) in the anti-solar direction, suggesting a fragmentation event. We compute the average braking velocity of the nucleus of comet ISON by first measuring the distance between the central RA position and the predicted JPL ephemeris. We then calculate the change in this distance between subsequent observations, and divide this value by the elapsed time between the two observations to yield an average drift velocity of the nucleus over this time interval. We assume that comet ISON, like a number of Jupiter Family Comets visited by spacecraft [3], has low thermal inertia. Thus, the sublimating gases are emitted predominantly on the sunward side of the nucleus. Additionally, we assume that water ice dominates the sublimating gases [4]. We then calculate the pressure on the surface of the nucleus due to the emitted gases using the procedure described in [1]. We match the average drift velocity of the nucleus due to this sublimation pressure with the observed average drift velocity from the JCMT observations, which is sensitive to the size of the body, allowing us to estimate the size of the

  15. Isolation and Characterization of φkm18p, a Novel Lytic Phage with Therapeutic Potential against Extensively Drug Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Fu-Shyan; Chang, Kai-Ming; Kuo, Chih-Feng; Lin, Chun-Hung; Luo, Huei-Ru; Hung, Chih-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Aims To isolate phages against extensively drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDRAB) and characterize the highest lytic capability phage as a model to evaluate the potential on phage therapy. Methods and Results Eight phages were isolated from hospital sewage and showed narrow host spectrum. Phage φkm18p was able to effectively lyse the most XDRAB. It has a dsDNA genome of 45 kb in size and hexagonal head of about 59 nm in diameter and no tail. Bacterial population decreased quickly from 108 CFU ml−1 to 103 CFU ml−1 in 30 min by φkm18p. The 185 kDa lysis protein encoded by φkm18p genome was detected when the extracted protein did not boil before SDS-PAGE; it showed that the lysis protein is a complex rather than a monomer. Phage φkm18p improved human lung epithelial cells survival rates when they were incubated with A. baumannii. Combination of phages (φkm18p, φTZ1 and φ314) as a cocktail could lyse all genotype-varying XDRAB isolates. Conclusion Infections with XDRAB are extremely difficult to treat and development of a phage cocktails therapy could be a therapeutic alternative in the future. Phage φkm18p is a good candidate for inclusion in phage cocktails. PMID:23071586

  16. Radiocarbon evidence for a possible abyssal front near 3.1 km in the glacial equatorial Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keigwin, L. D.; Lehman, S. J.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the radiocarbon ventilation age in deep equatorial Pacific sediment cores using the difference in conventional 14C age between coexisting benthic and planktonic foraminifera, and integrate those results with similar data from around the North Pacific Ocean in a reconstruction for the last glaciation (15 to 25 conventional 14C ka). Most new data from both the Equatorial Pacific and the Emperor Seamounts in the northwestern Pacific come from maxima in abundance of benthic taxa because this strategy reduces the effect of bioturbation. Although there remains considerable scatter in the ventilation age estimates, on average, ventilation ages in the Equatorial Pacific were significantly greater below 3.2 km (∼ 3080 ± 1125 yrs, n = 15) than in the depth interval 1.9 to 3.0 km (∼ 1610 ± 250 yrs, n = 12). When compared to the average modern seawater Δ14C profile for the North Pacific, the Equatorial Pacific glacial data suggest an abyssal front located somewhere between 3.0 and 3.2 km modern water depth. Above that depth, the data may indicate slightly better ventilation than today, and below that depth, glacial Equatorial Pacific data appear to be as old as last glacial maximum (LGM) deep water ages reported for the deep southern Atlantic. This suggests that a glacial reservoir of aged waters extended throughout the circumpolar Southern Ocean and into the Equatorial Pacific. Renewed ventilation of such a large volume of aged (and, by corollary, carbon-rich) water would help to account for the rise in atmospheric pCO2 and the fall in Δ14C as the glaciation drew to a close.

  17. Synchronizing Progression of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cells from Prophase through Mitosis and into S Phase with nda3-KM311 Arrest Release.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Iain M; Grallert, Agnes; Simanis, Viesturs

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe how the rapid reversibility of the nda3-KM311 cold-sensitive β-tubulin mutation was optimized by Mitsuhiro Yanagida's laboratory to synchronize mitotic progression in an entire cell population. The inability to form microtubules following the loss of β-tubulin function at 20°C triggers the spindle assembly checkpoint, which arrests mitotic progression. Restoration of β-tubulin function by rewarming to 30°C (or higher) releases the arrest, generating a highly synchronous progression through mitosis. The viability of nda3-KM311 strains at 30°C makes it feasible to generate double mutants between nda3-KM311 and any temperature-sensitive mutant that can also grow at 30°C. These double mutants can be used in reciprocal shift analyses, in which cold-induced early mitotic arrest is relieved by a shift to 36°C, which then inactivates the product of the second mutant gene. The addition of microtubule depolymerizing drugs before the return to 36°C will maintain checkpoint signaling at 36°C transiently, permitting analysis of the impact of temperature-sensitive mutations on checkpoint function. Silencing the checkpoint of nda3-KM311-arrested cells at 20°C through chemical inhibition of aurora kinase is a powerful way to study checkpoint recovery pathways and mitotic exit without anaphase. PMID:27480719

  18. The 130-km-long Green Valley Fault Zone of Northern California: Discontinuities Regulate Its Earthquake Recurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienkaemper, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Green Valley fault (GVF), a branch of the dextral strike-slip San Andreas fault system, connects the Northern Calaveras fault (NCF) to the Bartlett Springs fault (BSF) to the north. Although, the GVF may occasionally rupture along its entire length to produce M7 earthquakes, 2-3 km discontinuities in its trace appear to modulate the length and frequency of ruptures. The global historical earthquake record suggests that ruptures tend to stop at such fault discontinuities (1-4 km steps) about half the time (Wesnousky and Biasi, 2011). The GVF has three sections: the 77-km-long southern GVF (SGVF), the 25-km Berryessa (BF), and the 30-km Hunting Creek (HCF). The SGVF itself could produce large (M6.7) events, and the BF and HCF somewhat smaller events (M6.3-6.6). The BF is centered on a compressional pop-up structure. It is separated to the north from the HCF by a ~2.5-3 km extensional stepover and to the south from the SGVF by a ~2.5-3 km extensional bend. At its south end, the GVF is separated from the NCF by the 5-km Alamo stepover, which is likely to stop all ruptures; and at its north end the GVF (HCF section) makes a 2.5 km right step to the BSF at Wilson Valley. The HCF apparently forms a significant transition between the BSF and the GVF. The overall trend of the GVF bends ~17° through the HCF and emerges on the BSF trend. Thus, this bend, along with the Wilson Valley step-over, would tend to inhibit ruptures between BSF and sections of the GVF. Creep rates along most of the GVF (SGVF, HCF) range from 1 to 4 mm/yr. No creep is known for the BF section, but its microseismicity levels are similar to creeping parts of the GVF and BSF, so we assume that the BF may creep too. We estimate slip rate on the GVF is 6±2 mm/yr by interpolating rates on the BSF and the NCF. Lienkaemper and Brown (2009) estimated ~6.5 mm/yr for the average deep loading rate on the BSF using a rigid block model of the USGS-GPS site velocities observed in the central BSF. This rate is

  19. Submillimeter Array Imaging of the Maser Emission from the H30α Radio Recombination Line in MWC 349A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintroub, Jonathan; Moran, James M.; Wilner, David J.; Young, Ken; Rao, Ramprasad; Shinnaga, Hiroko

    2008-04-01

    We used the Submillimeter Array to map the angular distribution of the H30α recombination line (231.9 GHz) in the circumstellar region of the peculiar star MWC 349A. The resolution was 1.2'', but because of high signal-to-noise ratio we measured the positions of all maser components to accuracies better than 0.01'', at a velocity resolution of 1 km s-1. The two strongest maser components (called high-velocity components) at velocities near -14 and 32 km s-1 are separated by 0.048'' +/- 0.001'' (60 AU) along a position angle of 102° +/- 1°. The distribution of maser emission at velocities between and beyond these two strongest components were also provided. The continuum emission lies at the center of the maser distribution to within 10 mas. The masers appear to trace a nearly edge-on rotating disk structure, reminiscent of the water masers in Keplerian rotation in the nuclear accretion disk of the galaxy NGC 4258. However, the maser components in MWC 349A do not follow a simple Keplerian kinematic prescription with v ~ r-1/2, but have a larger power-law index. We explore the possibility that the high-velocity masers trace spiral density or shock waves. We also emphasize caution in the interpretation of relative centroid maser positions where the maser is not clearly resolved in position or velocity, and we present simulations that illustrate the range of applicability of the centroiding method.

  20. Blocking peptides against HBV: PreS1 protein selected from a phage display library

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang; Zu, Xiangyang; Jin, Rui; Xiao, Gengfu

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Successfully selected specific PreS1-interacting peptides by using phage displayed library. {yields} Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a consensus PreS1 binding motif. {yields} A highly enriched peptide named P7 had a strong binding ability for PreS1. {yields} P7 could block PreS1 attachment. -- Abstract: The PreS1 protein is present on the outermost part of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface and has been shown to have a pivotal function in viral infectivity and assembly. The development of reagents with high affinity and specificity for PreS1 is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of HBV infection. A phage display library of dodecapeptide was screened for interactions with purified PreS1 protein. Alignment of the positive phage clones revealed a putative consensus PreS1 binding motif of HX{sub n}HX{sub m}HP/R. Moreover, a peptide named P7 (KHMHWHPPALNT) was highly enriched and occurred with a surprisingly high frequency of 72%. A thermodynamic study revealed that P7 has a higher binding affinity to PreS1 than the other peptides. Furthermore, P7 was able to abrogate the binding of HBV virions to the PreS1 antibody, suggesting that P7 covers key functional sites on the native PreS1 protein. This newly isolated peptide may, therefore, be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of HBV. The consensus motif could be modified to deliver imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic agents to tissues affected by HBV.

  1. Acute prior heavy strength exercise bouts improve the 20-km cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato A S; Silva-Júnior, Fernando L; Pinheiro, Fabiano A; Souza, Patrícia F M; Boullosa, Daniel A; Pires, Flávio O

    2014-09-01

    This study verified if a prior 5 repetition maximum (5RM) strength exercise would improve the cycling performance during a 20-km cycling time trial (TT20km). After determination of the 5RM leg press exercise load, 11 trained cyclists performed a TT20km in a control condition and 10-minute after 4 sets of 5RM strength exercise bouts (potentiation condition). Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and power output data were recorded during the TT20km. Cycling economy index was assessed before the TT20km, and pacing strategy was analyzed assuming a "J-shaped" power output distribution profile. Results were a 6.1% reduction (p ≤ 0.05) in the time to complete the TT20km, a greater cycling economy (p < 0.01), and power output in the first 10% of the TT20km (i.e., trend; p = 0.06) in the potentiation condition. However, no differences were observed in pacing strategy, physiological parameters, and RPE between the conditions. These results suggest that 5RM strength exercise bouts improve the performance in a subsequent TT20km. PMID:24584047

  2. A Co-Creation Blended KM Model for Cultivating Critical-Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-chu

    2012-01-01

    Both critical thinking (CT) and knowledge management (KM) skills are necessary elements for a university student's success. Therefore, this study developed a co-creation blended KM model to cultivate university students' CT skills and to explore the underlying mechanisms for achieving success. Thirty-one university students participated in this…

  3. Quality control considerations for the KM3NeT Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollima, C.

    2013-10-01

    Within the KM3NeT project a quality management system was proposed that included a qualification process and a database to store information on the design. This paper highlights quality control procedures applicable to KM3NeT and describes the database.

  4. New Marker Development for the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-km

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The blast resistance (R) gene Pi-km protects rice against specific races of the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The use of blast R genes remains the most cost-effective method of disease control. To facilitate the breeding process, we developed a Pi-km specific molecular marker. For this purp...

  5. Changes in Body Mass, Hydration and Electrolytes Following a 161-km Endurance Race

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine electrolyte concentrations and changes in body mass and total body water (TBW) during a 161-km ultra-marathon, and relate these to finish time and incidence of hyponatremia. Methods: Subjects were recruited from the 161-km 2008 Rio Del Lago Endurance Race. Body mass, TBW, and s...

  6. Draft genome sequence of the Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica swine isolate KM22 has been used in experimental infections of swine as a model of clinical B. bronchiseptica infections within swine herds and to study host-to-host transmission. Here we report the draft genome sequence of KM22....

  7. Design and mass production of the optical modules for KM3NeT-Italia project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, Emanuele; Aiello, Sebastiano; Giordano, Valentina

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims at constructing a km3 underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. The first phase that is under construction will comprise eight tower-like detection structures (KM3NeT-Italia), which will form the internal core of a km3-scale detector. The detection element of KM3NeT-Italia, the optical module, is made of a 13-inch pressure-resistant glass-vessel that contains a single 10-inch photomultiplier and the relative electronics. The design of the whole optical module, the main results obtained from the massive photomultipliers measurements, and the foremost phases of the mass production procedure performed at the production site of Catania are also presented.

  8. Coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light via an 82-km fiber link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chaoqun; Wu, Lifei; Jiang, Yanyi; Yu, Hongfu; Bi, Zhiyi; Ma, Longsheng

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate optical coherence transfer of subhertz-linewidth laser light through fiber links by actively compensating random fiber phase noise induced by environmental perturbations. The relative linewidth of laser light after transferring through a 32-km urban fiber link is suppressed within 1 mHz (resolution bandwidth limited), and the absolute linewidth of the transferred laser light is less than 0.36 Hz. For an 82-km fiber link, a repeater station is constructed between a 32-km urban fiber and a 50-km spooled fiber to recover the spectral purity. A relative linewidth of 1 mHz is also demonstrated for light transferring through the 82-km cascaded fiber. Such an optical signal distribution network based on repeater stations allows optical coherence and synchronization available over spatially separated places.

  9. Nitrate supplementation's improvement of 10-km time-trial performance in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Naomi M; Gibala, Martin J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2012-02-01

    Six days of dietary nitrate supplementation in the form of beetroot juice (~0.5 L/d) has been reported to reduce pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO₂) during submaximal exercise and increase tolerance of high-intensity work rates, suggesting that nitrate can be a potent ergogenic aid. Limited data are available regarding the effect of nitrate ingestion on athletic performance, and no study has investigated the potential ergogenic effects of a small-volume, concentrated dose of beetroot juice. The authors tested the hypothesis that 6 d of nitrate ingestion would improve time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures crossover design, 12 male cyclists (31±3 yr, VO2peak=58±2 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, maximal power [Wmax]=342±10 W) ingested 140 ml/d of concentrated beetroot (~8 mmol/d nitrate) juice (BEET) or a placebo (nitrate-depleted beetroot juice; PLAC) for 6 d, separated by a 14-d washout. After supplementation on Day 6, subjects performed 60 min of submaximal cycling (2×30 min at 45% and 65% Wmax, respectively), followed by a 10-km time trial. Time-trial performance (953±18 vs. 965±18 s, p<.005) and power output (294±12 vs. 288±12 W, p<.05) improved after BEET compared with PLAC supplementation. Submaximal VO₂ was lower after BEET (45% Wmax=1.92±0.06 vs. 2.02±0.09 L/min, 65% Wmax 2.94±0.12 vs. 3.11±0.12 L/min) than with PLAC (main effect, p<.05). Whole-body fuel selection and plasma lactate, glucose, and insulin concentrations did not differ between treatments. Six days of nitrate supplementation reduced VO₂ during submaximal exercise and improved time-trial performance in trained cyclists. PMID:22248502

  10. Effect of ADP on binding of skeletal S1 to F-actin.

    PubMed

    Andreev, O A; Ushakov, D S; Borejdo, J

    1998-12-22

    The proximity of skeletal myosin subfragment-1 (S1) to actin, and its orientation with respect to thin filaments of single muscle fibers, were compared in the presence and in the absence of ADP. The proximity was assessed by the efficiency of carbodiimide-induced cross-linking and the orientation by polarization of fluorescence of probes attached to the essential light chains. ADP made no difference in proximity or orientation when the molar ratio of S1 to actin was low or high. However, at the intermediate ratios, ADP made a significant difference. Strong dissociating agents, AMP-PNP and PPi, made significant differences at all ratios. To explain this behavior, it is unnecessary to invoke the ADP-induced "swinging" of the tail of S1. Rather, it is simply explained by the "two-state" model which we proposed earlier, in which S1 binds to one or to two actin protomers, depending on the saturation of the filaments with S1s. The dissociation induced by the ADP shifts the equilibrium between the two bound states. At high and low degrees of saturation, ADP is unable to significantly decrease the amount of S1 bound to F-actin. However, at intermediate saturation levels, ADP causes significantly more S1s to bind to two actins. These results suggest that the ADP-induced changes seen at the intermediate molar ratios are due to the dissociation-induced reorientation of S1. PMID:9922150

  11. Calcium alone does not fully activate the thin filament for S1 binding to rigor myofibrils.

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, D R; Moss, R L; Greaser, M L

    1996-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is regulated by calcium via troponin and tropomyosin and appears to involve cooperative activation of cross-bridge binding to actin. We studied the regulation of fluorescent myosin subfragment 1 (fS1) binding to rigor myofibrils over a wide range of fS1 and calcium levels using highly sensitive imaging techniques. At low calcium and low fS1, the fluorescence was restricted to the actin-myosin overlap region. At high calcium and very low fS1, the fluorescence was still predominantly in the overlap region. The ratio of nonoverlap to overlap fluorescence intensity showed that increases in the fS1 level resulted in a shift in maximum fluorescence from the overlap to the nonoverlap region at both low and high calcium; this transition occurred at lower fS1 levels in myofibrils with high calcium. At a fixed fS1 level, increases in calcium also resulted in a shift in maximum fluorescence from the overlap region to the nonoverlap region. These results suggest that calcium alone does not fully activate the thin filament for rigor S1 binding and that, even at high calcium, the thin filament is not activated along its entire length. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 PMID:8889164

  12. Enhanced Raman scattering from cesium suboxides on silver particles and the structure of S-1 photocathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, C. W., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An explanation is given for the results of recent enhanced Raman scattering studies of photomultiplier tubes with S-1 photocathode surfaces which indicated the presence of Cs11O3 but not Cs2O. The reason for the discrepancy between the currently accepted model of the S-1 and this recent result is discussed.

  13. VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE FROM SIDE OF WHARF S1 FROM WEST END OF QUARRY LOCK, FACING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Submarine Base, Berthing Wharf S1, South Waterfront Road along north side of Quarry Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An overhead crane moves the S1 Integrated Truss Structure toward the payload canister, which will transport it to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  15. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The S1 Integrated Truss Structure is lowered into the payload canister for transport to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  16. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An overhead crane moves the S1 Integrated Truss Structure toward the payload canister below, which will transport it to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  17. 46 CFR 30.30-9 - Evaluation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation. 30.30-9 Section 30.30-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Interim Procedures for Evaluating Vessel Personnel Licensing and Certification Programs of Foreign Countries § 30.30-9 Evaluation....

  18. Global investigation of the Mg atom and ion layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat observations between 70 km and 150 km altitude and WACCM-Mg model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langowski, M.; von Savigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, D.; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82°. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm-3 and 2000 cm-3. Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40° and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm-3 to 6000 cm-3. The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However, there are the following

  19. Global Investigation of the Mg Atom and ion Layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat Observations between 70 km and 150 km Altitude and WACCM-MG Model Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langowski, M.; vonSavigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, Diego; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82 deg. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm(exp-3) and 2000 cm(exp-3). Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40 deg and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm(exp-3) to 6000 cm(exp-3). The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However

  20. OUTGASSING BEHAVIOR OF C/2012 S1 (ISON) FROM 2011 SEPTEMBER TO 2013 JUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Meech, Karen J.; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Riesen, Timm; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Reipurth, Bo; Hsieh, Henry H.; Ansdell, Megan; Hainaut, Olivier; Vincent, Jean-Baptiste; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Rector, Travis; Michaud, Peter; Milani, Giannantonio; Bryssinck, Erik; Ligustri, Rolando; Trabatti, Roberto; Tozzi, Gian-Paolo; and others

    2013-10-20

    We report photometric observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained during the time period immediately after discovery (r = 6.28 AU) until it moved into solar conjunction in mid-2013 June using the UH2.2 m, and Gemini North 8 m telescopes on Mauna Kea, the Lowell 1.8 m in Flagstaff, the Calar Alto 1.2 m telescope in Spain, the VYSOS-5 telescopes on Mauna Loa Hawaii and data from the CARA network. Additional pre-discovery data from the Pan STARRS1 survey extends the light curve back to 2011 September 30 (r = 9.4 AU). The images showed a similar tail morphology due to small micron sized particles throughout 2013. Observations at submillimeter wavelengths using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on 15 nights between 2013 March 9 (r = 4.52 AU) and June 16 (r = 3.35 AU) were used to search for CO and HCN rotation lines. No gas was detected, with upper limits for CO ranging between 3.5-4.5 × 10{sup 27} molecules s{sup –1}. Combined with published water production rate estimates we have generated ice sublimation models consistent with the photometric light curve. The inbound light curve is likely controlled by sublimation of CO{sub 2}. At these distances water is not a strong contributor to the outgassing. We also infer that there was a long slow outburst of activity beginning in late 2011 peaking in mid-2013 January (r ∼ 5 AU) at which point the activity decreased again through 2013 June. We suggest that this outburst was driven by CO injecting large water ice grains into the coma. Observations as the comet came out of solar conjunction seem to confirm our models.

  1. UNUSUAL WATER PRODUCTION ACTIVITY OF COMET C/2012 S1 (ISON): OUTBURSTS AND CONTINUOUS FRAGMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Combi, M. R.; Fougere, N.; Mäkinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.

    2014-06-10

    The Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the SOlar and Heliospheric Observer (SOHO) satellite observed the hydrogen coma of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) for most of the last month of its activity from 2013 October 24 to November 24, ending just 4 days before perihelion and its final disruption. The water production rate of the comet was determined from these observations. SOHO has been operating in a halo orbit around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point since its launch in late 1995. Most water vapor produced by comets is ultimately photodissociated into two H atoms and one O atom producing a huge hydrogen coma that is routinely observed in the daily SWAN images in comets of sufficient brightness. Water production rates were calculated from 22 images over most of the last month of the pre-perihelion apparition. The water production rate increased very slowly on average from October 24.9 until November 12.9, staying between 1.8 and 3.4 × 10{sup 28} s{sup –1}, after which it increased dramatically, reaching 1.6 to 2 × 10{sup 30} s{sup –1} from November 21.6 to 23.6. It was not detected after perihelion on December 3.7 when it should have been visible. We examine the active surface area necessary to explain the water production rate and its variation and are able to place constraints on the physical size of the original nucleus necessary to account for the large amount of activity from November 12.9 and until just before perihelion.

  2. Estimates of epistatic and pleiotropic effects of casein alpha s1 (CSN1S1) and thyroglobulin (TG) genetic markers on beef heifer performance traits enhanced by selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC II) was subjected to marker assisted selection for two years to equalize CSN1S1 and TG genetic marker frequencies to evaluate the epista...

  3. Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) Knowledge Management (KM) Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraccioli, Paul; Varnedoe, Tom; Smith, Randy; McCarter, Mike; Wilson, Barry; Porter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department (PSD) is four months into a fifteen month Knowledge Management (KM) initiative to support enhanced engineering decision making and analyses, faster resolution of anomalies (near-term) and effective, efficient knowledge infused engineering processes, reduced knowledge attrition, and reduced anomaly occurrences (long-term). The near-term objective of this initiative is developing a KM Pilot project, within the context of a 3-5 year KM strategy, to introduce and evaluate the use of KM within PSD. An internal NASA/MSFC PSD KM team was established early in project formulation to maintain a practitioner, user-centric focus throughout the conceptual development, planning and deployment of KM technologies and capabilities within the PSD. The PSD internal team is supported by the University of Alabama's Aging Infrastructure Systems Center of Excellence (AISCE), lntergraph Corporation, and The Knowledge Institute. The principle product of the initial four month effort has been strategic planning of PSD KNI implementation by first determining the "as is" state of KM capabilities and developing, planning and documenting the roadmap to achieve the desired "to be" state. Activities undertaken to suppoth e planning phase have included data gathering; cultural surveys, group work-sessions, interviews, documentation review, and independent research. Assessments and analyses have beon pedormed including industry benchmarking, related local and Agency initiatives, specific tools and techniques used and strategies for leveraging existing resources, people and technology to achieve common KM goals. Key findings captured in the PSD KM Strategic Plan include the system vision, purpose, stakeholders, prioritized strategic objectives mapped to the top ten practitioner needs and analysis of current resource usage. Opportunities identified from research, analyses, cultural1KM surveys and practitioner interviews include

  4. Compilation of known and suspected Quaternary faults within 100 km of Yucca Mountain, Nevada and California

    SciTech Connect

    Piety, L.A.

    1996-12-31

    Geologic data have been compiled for known and suspected Quaternary faults in southern Nevada and southeastern California within about 100 km of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain. The data set includes regional studies that attempt to identify and evaluate lineaments, scraps, and other possible tectonic landforms of possible Quaternary age, detailed studies that focus on a single fault, and geologic studies that were completed for purposes other than evaluation of Quaternary fault activity. Studies included in this compilation are those that were available as of December 1993. Faults that have known or suspected Quaternary activity are presented on a topographic base map at a scale of 1:250,000. Data for each fault that are pertinent to the assessment of future faulting and earthquake events are assembled on description sheets and summarized on tables. This compilation identifies ten faults within 50 km of the site but outside the site area and an additional fourteen faults between 50 km and 100 km of the site for which evidence for Holocene or late Pleistocene surface rupture has been reported in the literature. The longest and most continuous of these faults is the northwest-striking, 250-km-long Furnace Creek fault (including its possible extension into Fish Lake Valley), which is located about 50 km west of the site. In addition to identifying known or suspected Quaternary faults within about 100 km of the site, this compilation demonstrates the lack of information for most of these faults.

  5. Statistics of 150-km echoes over Jicamarca based on low-power VHF observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, J. L.; Kudeki, E.

    2006-07-01

    In this work we summarize the statistics of the so-called 150-km echoes obtained with a low-power VHF radar operation at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory (11.97 S, 76.87 W, and 1.3 dip angle at 150-km altitude) in Peru. Our results are based on almost four years of observations between August 2001 and July 2005 (approximately 150 days per year). The majority of the observations have been conducted between 08:00 and 17:00 LT. We present the statistics of occurrence of the echoes for each of the four seasons as a function of time of day and altitude. The occurrence frequency of the echoes is ~75% around noon and start decreasing after 15:00 LT and disappear after 17:00 LT in all seasons. As shown in previous campaign observations, the 150-echoes appear at a higher altitude (>150 km) in narrow layers in the morning, reaching lower altitudes (~135 km) around noon, and disappear at higher altitudes (>150 km) after 17:00 LT. We show that although 150-km echoes are observed all year long, they exhibit a clear seasonal variability on altitudinal coverage and the percentage of occurrence around noon and early in the morning. We also show that there is a strong day-to-day variability, and no correlation with magnetic activity. Although our results do not solve the 150-km riddle, they should be taken into account when a reasonable theory is proposed.

  6. Ribosomal protein S1 induces a conformational change of tmRNA; more than one protein S1 per molecule of tmRNA.

    PubMed

    Bordeau, Valérie; Felden, Brice

    2002-08-01

    tmRNA (10Sa RNA, ssrA) acts to rescue stalled bacterial ribosomes while encoding a peptide tag added trans-translationally to the nascent peptide, targeting it for proteolysis. Ribosomal protein S1 is required for tmRNA binding to isolated and poly U-programmed ribosomes. Mobility assays on native gels indicate that the binding curves of both recombinant and purified proteins S1 from E. coli is biphasic with apparent binding constants of approximately 90 and approximately 300 nM, respectively, suggesting that more than one protein interacts with tmRNA. Structural probing of native tmRNA in the presence and absence of the purified protein suggest that when S1 binds, tmRNA undergoes a significant conformational change. In the presence of the protein, nucleotides from tmRNA with enhanced (H2, H3, PK1, PK2, PK4, in and around the first triplet to be translated), or decreased (H5 and PK2), reactivity towards a probe specific for RNA single-strands are scattered throughout the molecule, with the exception of the tRNA-like domain that may be dispensable for the interaction. Converging experimental evidence suggests that ribosomal protein S1 binds to pseudoknot PK2. Previous structural studies of tmRNA in solution have revealed several discrepancies between the probing data and the phylogeny, and most of these are reconciled when analyzing tmRNA structure in complex with the protein(s). Ribosomal protein(s) S1 is proposed to set tmRNA in the mRNA mode, relieving strains that may develop when translating a looped mRNA. PMID:12457560

  7. The HEX experiment: Determination of the neutral wind field from 120 to 185 km altitude near a stable premidnight auroral arc by triangulating the drift of rocket-deployed chemical trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.; Conde, M.; Larsen, Miguel; Lummerzheim, Dirk

    2006-09-01

    On 25 March 2003, Horizontal E-Region Experiment (HEX) released trimethyl aluminum trails from two rockets launched northward from Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks to map the vertical wind field near a stable premidnight auroral arc system. They deployed three trails of trimethyl aluminum chemical "puffs," whose subsequent motion traced the prevailing wind field. This motion was determined using triangulation from four ground observation sites. Position and speed accuracies were estimated to be ˜1 km and a few meters per second, respectively. The first rocket followed a novel flat trajectory; it released a nearly horizontal trail of length 200 km, at an average altitude of ˜145 km. The second rocket was launched 19 min later and released two trails between 125 and 175 km altitude along a conventional steep trajectory. All puffs between 130 and 175 km altitude drifted geomagnetic westward, almost exactly parallel to the aurora. From prior observations and modeling, we had expected to observe convective upwelling near the arcs. We did not; vertical winds were essentially downward throughout the horizontal trail, with speeds between 0 and 20 m s-1. Although an abatement of downward flow was observed ˜40 km equatorward of the arcs, these data alone do not establish a causal relationship between the abatement and the arcs. Vertical speeds of ≤20 m s-1 are relatively modest. However, because the observed wind field would entrain air parcels in flow parallel to the arc system, even vertical speeds around 15 m s-1 could displace individual air parcels by several scale heights if they occurred all along the arcs.

  8. Land cover mapping, fire regeneration, and scaling studies in the Canadian boreal forest with 1 km AVHRR and Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyaert, L. T.; Hall, F. G.; Loveland, T. R.

    1997-12-01

    A multitemporal 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. The land cover classification was developed by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). Quantitative areal proportions of the major boreal forest components were determined for a 821 km × 619 km region, ranging from the southern grasslands-boreal forest ecotone to the northern boreal transitional forest. The boreal wetlands (mostly lowland black spruce, tamarack, mosses, fens, and bogs) occupied approximately 33% of the region, while lakes accounted for another 13%. Upland mixed coniferous-deciduous forests represented 23% of the ecosystem. A SW-NE productivity gradient across the region is manifested by three levels of tree stand density for both the boreal wetland conifer and the mixed forest classes, which are generally aligned with isopleths of regional growing degree days. Approximately 30% of the region was directly affected by fire disturbance within the preceding 30-35 years, especially in the Canadian Shield Zone where large fire-regeneration patterns contribute to the heterogeneous boreal landscape. Intercomparisons with land cover classifications derived from 30-m Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data provided important insights into the relative accuracy of the 1 km AVHRR land cover classification. Primarily due to the multitemporal NDVI image compositing process, the 1 km AVHRR land cover classes have an effective spatial resolution in the 3-4 km range; therefore fens, bogs, small water bodies, and small patches of dry jack pine cannot be resolved within

  9. Land cover mapping, fire regeneration, and scaling studies in the Canadian boreal forest with 1 km AVHRR and Landsat TM data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.; Loveland, T.R.

    1997-01-01

    A multitemporal 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. The land cover classification was developed by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). Quantitative areal proportions of the major boreal forest components were determined for a 821 km ?? 619 km region, ranging from the southern grasslands-boreal forest ecotone to the northern boreal transitional forest. The boreal wetlands (mostly lowland black spruce, tamarack, mosses, fens, and bogs) occupied approximately 33% of the region, while lakes accounted for another 13%. Upland mixed coniferous-deciduous forests represented 23% of the ecosystem. A SW-NE productivity gradient across the region is manifested by three levels of tree stand density for both the boreal wetland conifer and the mixed forest classes, which are generally aligned with isopleths of regional growing degree days. Approximately 30% of the region was directly affected by fire disturbance within the preceding 30-35 years, especially in the Canadian Shield Zone where large fire-regeneration patterns contribute to the heterogeneous boreal landscape. Intercomparisons with land cover classifications derived from 30-m Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data provided important insights into the relative accuracy of the 1 km AVHRR land cover classification. Primarily due to the multitemporal NDVI image compositing process, the 1 km AVHRR land cover classes have an effective spatial resolution in the 3-4 km range; therefore fens, bogs, small water bodies, and small patches of dry jack pine cannot be resolved within

  10. Hydrologic monitoring in 1-km2 headwater catchments in Sierra Nevada forests for predictive modeling of hydrologic response to forest treatments across 140-km2 firesheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saksa, P. C.; Bales, R. C.; Conklin, M. H.; Martin, S. E.; Rice, R.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project, an eight-year study designed to measure the impacts of forest treatments (thinning, mastication, controlled burns) on multiple forest attributes, four headwater catchments were established to provide data on hydrologic response to treatments. These 1-km2 study catchments are each sited within 40-100 km2 firesheds, which in this case largely follow watershed boundaries, and which are the larger study areas for informing adaptive management of approximately 3,000 km2 of mixed-conifer forest in California’s central and southern Sierra Nevada. The aim of the hydrologic design was to put in place a ground-based monitoring network that would measure hydrologic attributes at representative locations, and when combined with remotely sensed data, provide a basis for predictive modeling of the larger study area. The selected locations employ instrument clusters, or groupings of instruments in a compact arrangement, to maximize the number of measurements possible and accessibility to the monitoring sites. The two study firesheds , located in the Tahoe and Sierra National Forests, cover a total of about 140-km2. Within each fireshed, two meteorological stations were placed near 1650-m and 2150-m, spanning the precipitation gradient from lower-elevation rain-dominated to higher-elevation snow-dominated systems. Two headwater streams draining approximately 1-km2 are monitored for stage, discharge, electrical conductivity, and sediment movement. Additionally, instrument nodes to monitor temperature, snow depth and soil moisture are installed within 0.5-1 km of the outlet and meterological stations. These nodes were placed to monitor end members of aspect, slope, elevation and canopy cover, which set the boundaries for the model outputs. High-resolution LiDAR provides the topographic and distributed vegetation characteristics, which are combined with field surveys and standard soils information to define the modeling

  11. Extreme precipitation events in southestearn France in a high-resolution regional climate model : comparison of a 12 km and a 50 km hindcast with ALADIN-Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Jeanne; Déqué, Michel; Sanchez Gomez, Emilia; Somot, Samuel

    2010-05-01

    We present a comparison of the modelling of intense precipitations over France in two regional climate simulations performed with the Limited Area Model (LAM) ALADIN-Climate, run at a 12 km and a 50 km resolution. In both experiments, the model is forced by the ERA40 re-analysis over the 1958-2000 period. We focus on the representation of the highest precipitation extremes occuring in southeastern France in Autumn. These events involve small-scale processes than can be explicitly resolved only with 2-1 km resolution non-hydrostatic models. However, previous studies have shown that regional climate models are able to simulate heavy rainfalls in this area, although the amounts of rain are much smaller than the ones that are actually observed. Here, we further explore the ability of ALADIN-Climate in reproducing these specific events and the possible added-value of a higher resolution regarding this matter. Indeed, driving the LAM with ERA40 allows the LAM to stick to the real chronology and therefore enables us to analyze its results not only from a statistical point of view but also through day-to-day diagnosis. First, we assess the performances of the model at the 12 km and 50 km resolutions by comparing the simulated daily precipitations with observations over the south east part of France. To do so, we use the high-resolution gridded SAFRAN analysis which provides series of hourly fields over the french territory at a 8 km resolution, from 1958 to 2008. We consider the differences in the upper quantiles of precipitations between the model and the data, as well as the time correlations of heavy rainfalls and the spatial rain patterns for given extreme events. Then we compare the performances of ALADIN-Climate in both simulations to the ones obtained with a statistical downscaling method we apply to the last twenty years of the ERA40 period. This method is based on a weather regime approach and uses the analog methodology (Boé and Terray, 2007) to reconstruct

  12. A hypervelocity launcher for simulated large fragment space debris impacts at 10 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tullos, R. J.; Gray, W. M.; Mullin, S. A.; Cour-Palais, B. G.

    1989-01-01

    The background, design, and testing of two explosive launchers for simulating large fragment space debris impacts are presented. The objective was to develop a launcher capable of launching one gram aluminum fragments at velocities of 10 km/s. The two launchers developed are based on modified versions of an explosive shaped charge, common in many military weapons. One launcher design has yielded a stable fragment launch of approximately one gram of aluminum at 8.93 km/s velocity. The other design yielded velocities in excess of 10 km/s, but failed to produce a cohesive fragment launch. This work is ongoing, and future plans are given.

  13. Characterization of the KM3NeT photomultipliers in the Hellenic Open University

    SciTech Connect

    Bourlis, G.; Avgitas, T.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino research infrastructure will be a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a neutrino telescope. The Physics Laboratory of the Hellenic Open University is involved in the characterization of the KM3NeT neutrino detector. The present work describes measurement techniques for the functional characteristics of the candidate KM3NeT photomultipliers. These characteristics include dark current, transit time spread, gain slope and single photoelectron characteristics, as well as delayed and after pulses.

  14. Measurement of absolute cross sections for excitation of the 2s(2) S-1 -> 2s2p P-1 degrees transition in O+4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. J.; Djuric, N.; Lozano, J. A.; Berrington, K. A.; Chutjian, A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental cross sections are reported for the 1s(2)2s(2) S-1 -> 1s(2)2s2p P-1(o) transition in O+4 located at 19.689 eV. Use is made of the electron energy-loss method, using a merged electron-ion beam geometry. The center-of-mass interaction energies for the measurements in the S-1 -> P-1(o) transition are in the range 18 eV ( below the threshold) to 30 eV. Data are compared with other previous electron energy-loss measurements and with results of a 26 term R-matrix calculation that includes fine structure explicitly via the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Clear resonance enhancement is observed in all experimental and theoretical results near the threshold for this S-1 -> P-1(o) transition.

  15. Comparison of milk oligosaccharides between goats with and without the genetic ability to synthesize αs1-casein.

    PubMed

    Meyrand, M; Dallas, D C; Caillat, H; Bouvier, F; Martin, P; Barile, D

    2013-07-01

    Milk oligosaccharides (OS)-free complex carbohydrates-confer unique health benefits to the nursing neonate. Though human digestive enzymes cannot degrade these sugars, they provide nourishment to specific commensal microbes and act as decoys to prevent the adhesion of pathogenic micro-organisms to gastrointestinal cells. At present, the limited quantities of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) impede research on these molecules and their potential applications in functional food formulations. Considerable progress has been made in the study of OS structures; however, the synthetic pathways leading to their synthesis in the mammary gland are poorly understood. Recent studies show that complex OS with fucose and N-acetyl neuraminic acid (key structural elements of HMO bioactivity) exist in goat milk. Polymorphisms in the CSN1S1 locus, which is responsible for synthesis of αs1-casein, affect lipid and casein micelle structure in goat milk. The present study sought to determine whether CSN1S1 polymorphisms also influence goat milk oligosaccharide (GMO) production and secretion. The GMO compositions of thirty-two goat milk samples, half of which were from genotype A/A (αs1-casein producers) and half from genotype O/O (αs1-casein non-producers), were determined with nanoflow liquid chromatography high-accuracy mass spectrometry. This study represents the most exhaustive characterization of GMO to date. A systematic and comprehensive GMO library was created, consolidating information available in the literature with the new findings. Nearly 30 GMO, 11 of which were novel, were confirmed via tandem mass spectrometric analyses. Six fucosylated OS were identified; 4 of these matched HMO compositions and three were identified for the first time in goat milk. Importantly, multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the OS profiles of the A/A and O/O genotype milks could be discriminated by the fucosylated OS. Quantitative analysis revealed that the goat milk samples

  16. Phase II Study of Chemoradiotherapy With S-1 and Low-Dose Cisplatin for Inoperable Advanced Gastric Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Saikawa, Yoshiro Kubota, Tetsuro; Kumagai, Koshi; Nakamura, Rieko; Kumai, Koichiro; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Kubo, Atsushi; Kitajima, Masaki; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: The results of a pilot study using S-1/low-dose cisplatin/radiotherapy led us to hypothesize that the initial chemoradiotherapy regimen would induce a 70% efficacy rate with a 10% pathologic complete response rate. Patients and Methods: Only patients with unresectable or incurable advanced gastric cancer were eligible. The patients received induction S-1 and cisplatin therapy with radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy alone. Results: Of the 30 patients recruited and assessed, 29 were eligible for clinical evaluation of measurable lesions. The response rate was 65.5%, with 19 with a partial response, 8 with no change, and 2 with progressive disease of 29 patients. Of the 30 patients recruited, 10 (33.3%) underwent stomach resection and D2 LN dissections. The pathologic complete response rate was 13.3% (4 patients), and the R0 resection rate was 100% (10 patients). The survival analysis showed a median survival time of 25 months. Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 66.7% for leukocytopenia, 33.3% for thrombocytopenia, 23.3% for nausea and appetite loss, and 6.7% for anemia, diarrhea, and renal dysfunction. Although all the patients had been hospitalized with a poor performance status with a giant tumor, 97% (29 of 30) could be discharged after the first cycle, resulting in an improvement in quality of life. Conclusion: Chemoradiotherapy could be a powerful regimen for controlling tumor progression in advanced gastric cancer, improving patients' quality of life with tolerable toxicity. A complete histologic response rate of >10% would be expected, even for large tumors with metastatic lesions.

  17. Molecular insights into replication initiation by Qβ replicase using ribosomal protein S1

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Daijiro; Yamashita, Seisuke; Tomita, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal protein S1, consisting of six contiguous OB-folds, is the largest ribosomal protein and is essential for translation initiation in Escherichia coli. S1 is also one of the three essential host-derived subunits of Qβ replicase, together with EF-Tu and EF-Ts, for Qβ RNA replication in E. coli. We analyzed the crystal structure of Qβ replicase, consisting of the virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (β-subunit), EF-Tu, EF-Ts and the N-terminal half of S1, which is capable of initiating Qβ RNA replication. Structural and biochemical studies revealed that the two N-terminal OB-folds of S1 anchor S1 onto the β-subunit, and the third OB-fold is mobile and protrudes beyond the surface of the β-subunit. The third OB-fold mainly interacts with a specific RNA fragment derived from the internal region of Qβ RNA, and its RNA-binding ability is required for replication initiation of Qβ RNA. Thus, the third mobile OB-fold of S1, which is spatially anchored near the surface of the β-subunit, primarily recruits the Qβ RNA toward the β-subunit, leading to the specific and efficient replication initiation of Qβ RNA, and S1 functions as a replication initiation factor, beyond its established function in protein synthesis. PMID:25122749

  18. One-stage surgery through posterior approach-for L5-S1 spondyloptosis

    PubMed Central

    Suslu, Hikmet Turan; Celikoglu, Erhan; Borekcı, Ali; Hıcdonmez, Tufan; Suslu, Hüsnü

    2011-01-01

    Grade 5 spondylolisthesis or spondyloptosis is a rare condition. Generally, the surgical management of spondyloptosis includes multi-staged procedures instead of one-staged procedures. One-stage treatment for spondyloptosis is very rare. A 15-year-old girl with L5-S1 spondyloptosis was admitted with severe low back pain. There was no history of trauma. The patient underwent L5 laminectomy, L5-S1 discectomy, resection of sacral dome, reduction, L3-L4-L5-S1 pedicular screw fixation, and interbody-posterolateral fusion through the posterior approach. The reduction was maintained with bilateral L5-S1 discectomy, resection of the sacral dome, and transpedicular instrumentation from L3 to S1. In this particular case, one-staged approach was adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis. One-staged surgery using the posterior approach may be adequate for the treatment of L5-S1 spondyloptosis while avoiding the risks inherent in anterior approaches. PMID:23125496

  19. [Combination therapy with S-1 and CDDP for head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masato

    2006-06-01

    The combination with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-FU is considered the first choice chemotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). S-1, a modulation of tegafur developed in Japan, is an active agent for HNSCC. Some clinical phase I/II studies about the combination with CDDP and S-1 have been reported. The combination showed a good response rate of 67.6% for advanced and recurrent HNSCC in our clinical phase I/II study. The regimens of S-1 combined with carboplatin or nedaplatin have also been reported. Regimens containing S-1 appear to have been effective for HNSCC. Multi-institutional phase II studies with a large sample size are needed in the future. The compliance for patients is better than a 5-FU injection because S-1 is orally administrated. The adverse effect, especially for bone mallow toxicity, is equal or upgraded compared with a 5-FU injection. The efficacy and adverse effects of CDDP plus S-1 should be studied in carefully designed phase II/III trials. S-1 will be one of the key drugs for HNSCC in the future. PMID:16897992

  20. The vascular S1P gradient—Cellular sources and biological significance

    PubMed Central

    Hla, Timothy; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Michaud, Jason

    2009-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a product of sphingomyelin metabolism, is enriched in the circulatory system whereas it is estimated to be much lower in interstitial fluids of tissues. This concentration gradient, termed the vascular S1P gradient appears to form as a result of substrate availability and the action of metabolic enzymes. S1P levels in blood and lymph are estimated to be in the μM range. In the immune system, the S1P gradient is needed as a spatial cue for lymphocyte and hematopoietic cell trafficking. During inflammatory reactions in which enhanced vascular permeability occurs, a burst of S1P becomes available to its receptors in the extravascular compartment, which likely contributes to the tissue reactions. Thus, the presence of the vascular S1P gradient is thought to contribute to physiological and pathological conditions. From an evolutionary perspective, S1P receptors may have co-evolved with the advent of a closed vascular system and the trafficking paradigms for hematopoietic cells to navigate in and out of the vascular system. PMID:18674637

  1. Autosomal-Recessive Hearing Impairment Due to Rare Missense Variants within S1PR2.

    PubMed

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P; Faridi, Rabia; Rehman, Atteeq U; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Wang, Xin; Morell, Robert J; Isaacson, Rivka; Belyantseva, Inna A; Dai, Hang; Acharya, Anushree; Qaiser, Tanveer A; Muhammad, Dost; Ali, Rana Amjad; Shams, Sulaiman; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Shahzad, Shaheen; Raza, Syed Irfan; Bashir, Zil-E-Huma; Smith, Joshua D; Nickerson, Deborah A; Bamshad, Michael J; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ahmad, Wasim; Friedman, Thomas B; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-02-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are a well-studied class of transmembrane G protein-coupled sphingolipid receptors that mediate multiple cellular processes. However, S1PRs have not been previously reported to be involved in the genetic etiology of human traits. S1PR2 lies within the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) locus DFNB68 on 19p13.2. From exome sequence data we identified two pathogenic S1PR2 variants, c.323G>C (p.Arg108Pro) and c.419A>G (p.Tyr140Cys). Each of these variants co-segregates with congenital profound hearing impairment in consanguineous Pakistani families with maximum LOD scores of 6.4 for family DEM4154 and 3.3 for family PKDF1400. Neither S1PR2 missense variant was reported among ∼120,000 chromosomes in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, in 76 unrelated Pakistani exomes, or in 720 Pakistani control chromosomes. Both DNA variants affect highly conserved residues of S1PR2 and are predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools. Molecular modeling predicts that these variants affect binding of sphingosine-1-phosphate (p.Arg108Pro) and G protein docking (p.Tyr140Cys). In the previously reported S1pr2(-/-) mice, stria vascularis abnormalities, organ of Corti degeneration, and profound hearing loss were observed. Additionally, hair cell defects were seen in both knockout mice and morphant zebrafish. Family PKDF1400 presents with ARNSHI, which is consistent with the lack of gross malformations in S1pr2(-/-) mice, whereas family DEM4154 has lower limb malformations in addition to hearing loss. Our findings suggest the possibility of developing therapies against hair cell damage (e.g., from ototoxic drugs) through targeted stimulation of S1PR2. PMID:26805784

  2. Autosomal-Recessive Hearing Impairment Due to Rare Missense Variants within S1PR2

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Cortez, Regie Lyn P.; Faridi, Rabia; Rehman, Atteeq U.; Lee, Kwanghyuk; Ansar, Muhammad; Wang, Xin; Morell, Robert J.; Isaacson, Rivka; Belyantseva, Inna A.; Dai, Hang; Acharya, Anushree; Qaiser, Tanveer A.; Muhammad, Dost; Ali, Rana Amjad; Shams, Sulaiman; Hassan, Muhammad Jawad; Shahzad, Shaheen; Raza, Syed Irfan; Bashir, Zil-e-Huma; Smith, Joshua D.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ahmad, Wasim; Friedman, Thomas B.; Leal, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are a well-studied class of transmembrane G protein-coupled sphingolipid receptors that mediate multiple cellular processes. However, S1PRs have not been previously reported to be involved in the genetic etiology of human traits. S1PR2 lies within the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) locus DFNB68 on 19p13.2. From exome sequence data we identified two pathogenic S1PR2 variants, c.323G>C (p.Arg108Pro) and c.419A>G (p.Tyr140Cys). Each of these variants co-segregates with congenital profound hearing impairment in consanguineous Pakistani families with maximum LOD scores of 6.4 for family DEM4154 and 3.3 for family PKDF1400. Neither S1PR2 missense variant was reported among ∼120,000 chromosomes in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, in 76 unrelated Pakistani exomes, or in 720 Pakistani control chromosomes. Both DNA variants affect highly conserved residues of S1PR2 and are predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools. Molecular modeling predicts that these variants affect binding of sphingosine-1-phosphate (p.Arg108Pro) and G protein docking (p.Tyr140Cys). In the previously reported S1pr2−/− mice, stria vascularis abnormalities, organ of Corti degeneration, and profound hearing loss were observed. Additionally, hair cell defects were seen in both knockout mice and morphant zebrafish. Family PKDF1400 presents with ARNSHI, which is consistent with the lack of gross malformations in S1pr2−/− mice, whereas family DEM4154 has lower limb malformations in addition to hearing loss. Our findings suggest the possibility of developing therapies against hair cell damage (e.g., from ototoxic drugs) through targeted stimulation of S1PR2. PMID:26805784

  3. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki; Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  4. THE 300 km s{sup -1} STELLAR STREAM NEAR SEGUE 1: INSIGHTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY OF ITS BRIGHTEST STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Frebel, Anna; Casey, Andrew R.; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Norris, John E.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.; Gilmore, Gerard

    2013-07-01

    We present a chemical abundance analysis of 300S-1, the brightest likely member star of the 300 km s{sup -1} stream near the faint satellite galaxy Segue 1. From a high-resolution Magellan/MIKE spectrum, we determine a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.46 {+-} 0.05 {+-} 0.23 (random and systematic uncertainties) for star 300S-1, and find an abundance pattern similar to typical halo stars at this metallicity. Comparing our stellar parameters to theoretical isochrones, we estimate a distance of 18 {+-} 7 kpc. Both the metallicity and distance estimates are in good agreement with what can be inferred from comparing the Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric data of the stream stars to globular cluster sequences. While several other structures overlap with the stream in this part of the sky, the combination of kinematic, chemical, and distance information makes it unlikely that these stars are associated with either the Segue 1 galaxy, the Sagittarius Stream, or the Orphan Stream. Streams with halo-like abundance signatures, such as the 300 km s{sup -1} stream, present another observational piece for understanding the accretion history of the Galactic halo.

  5. S = 1 Excitations in Heat Capacity of the Haldane Compound TMNIN Doped with a Nonmagnetic Impurity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawae, Tatsuya; Ito, Masakazu; Mito, Masaki; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

    1999-03-01

    We have studied the field dependence of the heat capacity of a typicalHaldane antiferromagnet (CH3)4NNi(NO)3 (TMNIN) doped with thenonmagnetic impurity Zn2+, as well as of a pure TMNIN. The overallfeatures of the magnetic heat capacity, including the characteristic broadmaximum, are almost reproduced by the theoretical curve with J/k B =-12 K for both systems in zero field. The field dependence in the impuresystems is described well by assuming the Schottky heat capacity with S =1, not S = 1/2 expected from the VBS model. A possible reason why the S= 1 model is suitable is discussed.

  6. Photoelectron-induced waves: A likely source of 150 km radar echoes and enhanced electron modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, Meers M.; Dimant, Yakov S.

    2016-04-01

    VHF radars near the geomagnetic equator receive coherent reflections from plasma density irregularities between 130 and 160 km in altitude during the daytime. Though researchers first discovered these 150 km echoes over 50 years ago and use them to monitor vertical plasma drifts, the underlying mechanism that creates them remains a mystery. This paper uses large-scale kinetic simulations to show that photoelectrons can drive electron waves, which then enhance ion density irregularities that radars could observe as 150 km echoes. This model explains why 150 km echoes exist only during the day and why they appear at their lowest altitudes near noon. It predicts the spectral structure observed by Chau (2004) and suggests observations that can further evaluate this mechanism. It also shows the types and strength of electron modes that photoelectron-wave interactions generate in a magnetized plasma.

  7. Making sense of KM through users: Information gaps and intellectual property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, Roberto de Miguel; Casado, Esther Monterroso

    2014-10-01

    Despite its lack of definition, in a general sense, knowledge management (KM) is consubstantial to contemporary innovation-driven social systems (IDSSs), allowing individuals, organizations, and entire societies, to cope with their intrinsic technical uncertainties more effectively. Before the advent of IDSSs, most of the results of KM were considered naturally inappropriable as well as fractions of the public domain. In such context, patents litigation was almost anecdotic. This paper summarizes various social scientific and humanistic approaches that nourish the emergence of a new KM model in which innovation will be anchored in the claim for universality. Patentability of ICT and services is also considered on the realm of a commons-based KM.

  8. Mapping Land Cover Types in Amazon Basin Using 1km JERS-1 Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sassan S.; Nelson, Bruce; Podest, Erika; Holt, John

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the 100 meter JERS-1 Amazon mosaic image was used in a new classifier to generate a I km resolution land cover map. The inputs to the classifier were 1 km resolution mean backscatter and seven first order texture measures derived from the 100 m data by using a 10 x 10 independent sampling window. The classification approach included two interdependent stages: 1) a supervised maximum a posteriori Bayesian approach to classify the mean backscatter image into 5 general land cover categories of forest, savannah, inundated, white sand, and anthropogenic vegetation classes, and 2) a texture measure decision rule approach to further discriminate subcategory classes based on taxonomic information and biomass levels. Fourteen classes were successfully separated at 1 km scale. The results were verified by examining the accuracy of the approach by comparison with the IBGE and the AVHRR 1 km resolution land cover maps.

  9. E-health versus KM-based health: a dilemma in researchers' minds.

    PubMed

    Metaxiotis, Kostas

    2005-01-01

    Over the past several years, there have been intensive discussions about the importance of Knowledge Management (KM) within our society. As we are moving into an era of "knowledge capitalism", the management of knowledge is promoted as an important and necessary factor for organisational survival and maintenance of competitive strength. During the last 15 years, KM has changed from one generation to the next through constant improvements and new perspectives. Many researchers have presented methodologies, frameworks, technologies and have discussed various KM theoretical and practical issues in several sectors, including healthcare. E-health and KM-based health are still in an early state of evolution, and it is only recently that researchers decided to intensify their efforts in these fields. In this context, this paper aims to review the current status quo, analyse key issues to which researchers should pay attention and contribute to researchers' dilemma solving about where future research should be focused. PMID:18048212

  10. KM3NeT tower data acquisition and data transport electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolau, C. A.; Ameli, F.; Biagioni, A.; Capone, A.; Frezza, O.; Lonardo, A.; Masullo, R.; Mollo, C. M.; Orlando, A.; Simeone, F.; Vicini, P.

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the KM3Net European project, the production stage of a large volume underwater neutrino telescope has started. The forthcoming installation includes 8 towers and 24 strings, that will be installed 100 km off-shore Capo Passero (Italy) at 3500 m depth. The KM3NeT tower, whose layout is strongly based on the NEMO Phase-2 prototype tower deployed in March 2013, has been re-engineered and partially re-designed in order to optimize production costs, power consumption, and usability. This contribution gives a description of the main electronics, including front-end, data transport and clock distribution system, of the KM3NeT tower detection unit.

  11. 26 km of offset on the Lake Clark fault since late Eocene time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2005-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data over the Lake Clark Fault reveal a north-trending band of magnetic anomalies that are right-laterally offset about 26 km across the fault. The magnetic anomalies correlate spatially with a belt of dated 34-39-Ma granitic plutons. Thus, the Lake Clark Fault has had ~26 km of right-lateral offset in the past 34-39 Ma. The Castle Mountain Fault, which lies along the strike of the Lake Clark Fault to the east-northeast, must have had a similar or, possibly, greater amount of offset. We infer the presence of an additional right-lateral strike-slip fault about 35 km northwest of the Lake Clark Fault, herein named the 'Telequana Fault,' on the basis of 11 km of right-lateral offset of a north-trending band of magnetic anomalies.

  12. Detection of Postseismic Crustal Movement of an Earthquake with Focal Depth Exceeding 650 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, K.; Mitsui, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Although a deep-focus earthquake often causes strong ground shaking due to low attenuation of seismic waves propagating through the subducting slab, it never leaves permanent deformation of the surface detectable with GPS. Here we report that a deep earthquake on August 14, 2012 (Mw 7.7, focal depth 654 km) beneath Sakhalin has been causing postseismic crustal movements in Hokkaido exceeding a centimeter by a hitherto unknown mechanism. Heki and Mitsui (EPSL 2013) found landward movements of GPS stations to have accelerated on segments adjacent to those ruptured in the 2003 Tokachi-Oki (Mw8.0) and the 2011 Tohoku-Oki (Mw9.0) earthquakes in NE Japan. Sea floor GPS measurements by Japan Coast Guard also revealed post-2011 landward movement of MYG1 as fast as ~30 cm per year. From these observations, we inferred that the subduction of the Pacific Plate slab was significantly accelerated (1.5 and 3 times) after the two interplate earthquakes. During interseismic periods, the balance between the up-dip (viscous resistance and interplate coupling) and down-dip (slab pull and ridge push) forces realizes constant subduction rate. A megathrust event reduces interplate coupling, and let down-dip force temporarily exceed the other one, resulting in the accelerated subduction under the new balance attained by increased viscous resistance. Accelerated regime would be temporary and the geological rate will resume as interplate coupling recovers. We newly found that the landward movements of GPS stations in the eastern Hokkaido have undergone small but distinct acceleration of up to 1 cm/year in conjunction with the 2012 August deep-focus earthquake. Within-slab seismicity of down-dip compression mechanisms is activated in the deep part of subducting slabs after megathrust events (Lay et al., PEPI 1989), due possibly to the increased edge resistance caused by the slab acceleration. The 2012 deep earthquake occurred close to the down-dip end of the straight part of the Pacific

  13. Evaluation of medium-range runoff forecasts for a 50 km2 watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneis, David; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Forecasting of medium-range runoff for small mountainous catchments is a particular challenge for a number of reasons: (1) Reaction times are short, thus hydrological forecasts necessarily rely on the uncertain output of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, (2) There is a high sensitivity to positional errors in the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) as well as to errors in quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), (3) Given that rainfall is spatially variable, small catchments are generally more likely to experience extreme areal precipitation than larger river basins, (4) Runoff-coefficients are typically high and flood events originate from both heavy rainfall or/and snow melt. Nevertheless, there is a demand for medium-range hydrological forecasts for small catchments which can be used for the purposes of early warning and the proactive management of multi-purpose reservoirs. We studied the quality of runoff forecasts for the Lehnmühle Reservoir watershed (50 km2) located at the border between Germany and Czech Republic (Weißeritz River). For this catchment, we set up the conceptual, semi-distributed hydrological model LARSIM which is in operational use at many flood forecasting centres. LARSIM is typically run as a continuous model with stream flow assimilation enabled during the simulation period. The usual time step of in- and output is 1 h. We produced medium-range forecasts (actually 'hindcasts') of runoff by driving the calibrated hydrological model with NWP data of the past. For the period 2000-2008, we computed daily forecasts with a maximum lead time of +120 h based on the 51-member ensemble prediction issued by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast). Expanded downscaling, a variant of empirical downscaling, was used to make the spatially coarse ECMWF forecast applicable to the target scale. For the period 2005-2008, we also tried the deterministic COSMO-EU forecast (+78 h maximum lead time, 7×7 km resolution

  14. Role of the transition zone and 660 km discontinuity in mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwood, A. E.

    1994-10-01

    Recent seismic evidence suggests that subducted slabs experience resistance to further descent when they encounter the 660 km seismic discontinuity. Several possible causes of this resistance are evaluated. It is concluded that the chemical composition of the lower mantle is similar to that of the upper mantle, and that compositional change is therefore unlikely to be the cause of resistance to slab penetration. The proposal that a large increase of viscosity at the 660 km discontinuity impedes descending slabs is also rejected. However, three other factors are identified, each of which is capable of causing substantial resistance to descending slabs: (1) the negative slope of the transformation of silicate spinel to Mg-perovskite+magnesiowuestite; (2) differentiation of oceanic lithosphere into basaltic and depleted peridotitic layers, causing the slab to be buoyant compared with surrounding mantle pyrolite between depths of 660-800 km; (3) the accumulation of former oceanic crust to produce a gravitationally stable layer of garnetite (about 50 km thick) on top of the 660 km discontinuity. The combined effects of these sources of resistance provide a filter for subducted slabs. Those slabs with seismic zones extending below 600 km may possess sufficient negative buoyancy and strength to overcome the barriers and penetrate into the lower mantle. However, the resistance causes strong buckling and plastic thickening of these slabs, which accumulate to form huge blobs or 'megaliths' underneath the 660 km discontinuity. In contrast, slabs with seismic zones extending no deeper than 300 km possess much smaller degrees of negative buoyancy and strength and hence are unable to penetrate the 660 km discontinuity. Slabs of this type are recycled within the transition zone and upper mantle. Mixing and petrological homogenization processes are less efficient in the transition zone than in the upper mantle (above 400 km). The transition zone is composed mainly of ancient slabs

  15. Expression of S1P metabolizing enzymes and receptors correlate with survival time and regulate cell migration in glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Bien-Möller, Sandra; Lange, Sandra; Holm, Tobias; Böhm, Andreas; Paland, Heiko; Küpper, Johannes; Herzog, Susann; Weitmann, Kerstin; Havemann, Christoph; Vogelgesang, Silke; Marx, Sascha; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Schroeder, Henry W.S.; Rauch, Bernhard H.

    2016-01-01

    A signaling molecule which is involved in proliferation and migration of malignant cells is the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). There are hints for a potential role of S1P signaling in malignant brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) which is characterized by a poor prognosis. Therefore, a comprehensive expression analysis of S1P receptors (S1P1-S1P5) and S1P metabolizing enzymes in human GBM (n = 117) compared to healthy brain (n = 10) was performed to evaluate their role for patient's survival. Furthermore, influence of S1P receptor inhibition on proliferation and migration were studied in LN18 GBM cells. Compared to control brain, mRNA levels of S1P1, S1P2, S1P3 and S1P generating sphingosine kinase-1 were elevated in GBM. Kaplan-Meier analyses demonstrated an association between S1P1 and S1P2 with patient's survival times. In vitro, an inhibitory effect of the SphK inhibitor SKI-II on viability of LN18 cells was shown. S1P itself had no effect on viability but stimulated LN18 migration which was blocked by inhibition of S1P1 and S1P2. The participation of S1P1 and S1P2 in LN18 migration was further supported by siRNA-mediated silencing of these receptors. Immunoblots and inhibition experiments suggest an involvement of the PI3-kinase/AKT1 pathway in the chemotactic effect of S1P in LN18 cells. In summary, our data argue for a role of S1P signaling in proliferation and migration of GBM cells. Individual components of the S1P pathway represent prognostic factors for patients with GBM. Perspectively, a selective modulation of S1P receptor subtypes could represent a therapeutic approach for GBM patients and requires further evaluation. PMID:26887055

  16. Characterization of Leucocin B-KM432Bz from Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides Isolated from Boza, and Comparison of its Efficiency to Pediocin PA-1

    PubMed Central

    Makhloufi, Kahina Maya; Carré-Mlouka, Alyssa; Peduzzi, Jean; Lombard, Carine; van Reenen, Carol Ann; Dicks, Leon Milner Theodore; Rebuffat, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    A bacteriocin-producing bacterium was isolated from boza and identified as Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides KM432Bz. The antimicrobial peptide was purified and shown to be identical to other class IIa bacteriocins: leucocin A from Leuconostoc gelidum UAL-187 and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides QU15 and leucocin B from Leuconostoc carnosum Ta11a. The bacteriocin was named leucocin B-KM432Bz. Leucocin B-KM432Bz gene cluster encodes the bacteriocin precursor (lcnB), the immunity protein (lcnI) and the dedicated export machinery (lcnD and lcnE). A gene of unknown and non-essential function (lcnC), which is interrupted by an insertion sequence of the IS30 family, is localized between lcnB and lcnD. The activity of leucocin B-KM432Bz requires subunit C of the EIItMan mannose permease, which is the receptor for entry into target cells. The determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations revealed the lowest values for leucocin B-KM432Bz over Listeria strains, with 4 to 32 fold better efficiency than pediocin PA-1. PMID:23936441

  17. Long-term monitoring of local stress changes in 67km installed OPGW cable using BOTDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, L.; Sezerman, O.

    2015-09-01

    The initial results from continuing long-term monitoring of a 67 km of an aerial fiber optic cable installed on a 500 kV power line cable (total fiber length of 134km) using BOTDA are presented. The effects of thunderstorms and rime ice on the cable were identified by monitoring strain on OPGW fibers. Variations of strain between day and night on the OPGW cable were observed and can potentially be exploited.

  18. Hydraulic fracturing in situ stress measurements to 2.1 km depth at Cajon Pass, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, J.H.; Zoback, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Stress measurements to 2.1 km reveal stress changes with depth that cannot be explained by an elastic response to uniform crustal strain. The data at about 1 km depth suggest that the stress is limited by the frictional strength of rock and is perturbed at greater depths by faults which intersect the borehole. The stress data indicate that there is little or no right-lateral shear stress acting on planes parallel to the San Andreas Fault. -Authors

  19. Characterization and molecular cloning of a novel enzyme, inorganic polyphosphate/ATP-glucomannokinase, of Arthrobacter sp. strain KM.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Takako; Kawai, Shigeyuki; Matsukawa, Hirokazu; Matuo, Yuhsi; Murata, Kousaku

    2003-07-01

    A bacterium exhibiting activities of several inorganic polyphosphate [poly(P)]- and ATP-dependent kinases, including glucokinase, NAD kinase, mannokinase, and fructokinase, was isolated, determined to belong to the genus Arthrobacter, and designated Arthrobacter sp. strain KM. Among the kinases, a novel enzyme responsible for the poly(P)- and ATP-dependent mannokinase activities was purified 2,200-fold to homogeneity from a cell extract of the bacterium. The purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 30 kDa. This enzyme phosphorylated glucose and mannose with a high affinity for glucose, utilizing poly(P) as well as ATP, and was designated poly(P)/ATP-glucomannokinase. The K(m) values of the enzyme for glucose, mannose, ATP, and hexametaphosphate were determined to be 0.50, 15, 0.20, and 0.02 mM, respectively. The catalytic sites for poly(P)-dependent phosphorylation and ATP-dependent phosphorylation of the enzyme were found to be shared, and the poly(P)-utilizing mechanism of the enzyme was shown to be nonprocessive. The gene encoding the poly(P)/ATP-glucomannokinase was cloned from Arthrobacter sp. strain KM, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. This gene contained an open reading frame consisting of 804 bp coding for a putative polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 29,480 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of the polypeptide exhibited homology to the amino acid sequences of the poly(P)/ATP-glucokinase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (level of homology, 45%), ATP-dependent glucokinases of Corynebacterium glutamicum (45%), Renibacterium salmoninarum (45%), and Bacillus subtilis (35%), and proteins of bacteria belonging to the order Actinomyces whose functions are not known. Alignment of these homologous proteins revealed seven conserved regions. The mannose and poly(P) binding sites of poly(P)/ATP-glucomannokinase are discussed. PMID:12839753

  20. Daytime zonal drifts in the ionospheric E and 150 km regions estimated using EAR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peddapati, PavanChaitanya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Patra, Amit

    2016-07-01

    The Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR), located at Kototabang (0.2o S, 100.32o E, mag. lat. 10.36o S), Indonesia, is capable of detecting both E region and 150 km echoes during daytime. We have conducted multi-beam observations using the EAR during daytime covering all seasons to study seasonal variations of these echoes and their dynamics. Given the facts that drifts at the 150 km region are governed primarily by electric field, drifts at the E region are governed by both electric field and neutral wind, simultaneous observations of drifts in both E and 150 km regions would help understand their variations. In this paper we present local time and seasonal variations of zonal drifts in the E and 150 km regions estimated using multi-beam observations. Zonal drifts (positive eastward) in the E and 150 km regions are found to be in the range of -10 to -60 m/s and -40 to 80 m/s, respectively. In the E region, zonal drifts show height reversal and temporal variations having tidal signature and noticeable seasonal variations. Zonal drifts in the 150 km region also show noticeable height and seasonal variations. These results are compared with model drifts and evaluated in terms of electric field and neutral wind.

  1. Four Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves 5-km Run Performance.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; Feros, Simon A; OʼBrien, Brendan J

    2015-08-01

    Sprint interval training (SIT) rapidly improves cardiorespiratory fitness but demands less training time and volume than traditional endurance training. Although the health and fitness benefits caused by SIT have received considerable research focus, the effect of short-term SIT on 5-km run performance is unknown. Thirty healthy untrained participants (aged 18-25 years) were allocated to a control (n = 10) or a SIT (n = 20) group. Sprint interval training involved 3-8 sprints at maximal intensity, 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Sprints were progressed to 8 by the 12th session. All participants completed a 5-km time trial on a public running track and an incremental treadmill test in an exercise physiology laboratory to determine 5-km run performance and maximum oxygen uptake, respectively, before and after the 4-week intervention. Relative to the controls, sprint interval-trained participants improved 5-km run performance by 4.5% (p < 0.001), and this was accompanied by improvements in absolute and relative maximum oxygen uptake (4.9%, p = 0.04 and 4.5%, p = 0.045, respectively). Therefore, short-term SIT significantly improves 5-km run performance in untrained young men. We believe that SIT is a time-efficient means of improving cardiorespiratory fitness and 5-km endurance performance. PMID:25647646

  2. Emissions from an International Airport Increase Particle Number Concentrations 4-fold at 10 km Downwind

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km2 that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8–10 km (5–6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm3, more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280–790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated. PMID:24871496

  3. Mapping of the 410- and 660-km discontinuities beneath the Japanese islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tono, Yoko; Kunugi, Takashi; Fukao, Yoshio; Tsuboi, Seiji; Kanjo, Kenji; Kasahara, Keiji

    2005-03-01

    A family of core-reflected shear waves generated by the 28 June 2002 Vladivostok deep earthquake, including near vertical reflections from the 410- and 660-km discontinuities, were recorded by ˜500 tiltmeters of the Hi-net and ˜60 broadband seismometers of the F-net in Japan. The observed upper mantle reflections were cross-correlated with synthetics calculated on the basis of the spectral element method for a fully three-dimensional Earth model using the Earth Simulator supercomputer to accurately determine the depths of the reflection points. The mapped upper mantle discontinuities were compared with a high-resolution P wave tomographic image. The 660-km discontinuity is depressed at a constant level of ˜15 km along the bottom of the horizontally extending aseismic slab under southwestern Japan. The transition from the normal to the depressed level occurs within a lateral distance of less than ˜200 km. Observations suggest that the reflections from the 410-km discontinuity interfere with those from slab-related structures on top of this discontinuity, leading to a spuriously large elevation of the 410-km discontinuity in and near the subducted slab. Records at stations relatively free from such interference effects, however, still imply elevation of this discontinuity within the slab.

  4. Emissions from an international airport increase particle number concentrations 4-fold at 10 km downwind.

    PubMed

    Hudda, Neelakshi; Gould, Tim; Hartin, Kris; Larson, Timothy V; Fruin, Scott A

    2014-06-17

    We measured the spatial pattern of particle number (PN) concentrations downwind from the Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) with an instrumented vehicle that enabled us to cover larger areas than allowed by traditional stationary measurements. LAX emissions adversely impacted air quality much farther than reported in previous airport studies. We measured at least a 2-fold increase in PN concentrations over unimpacted baseline PN concentrations during most hours of the day in an area of about 60 km(2) that extended to 16 km (10 miles) downwind and a 4- to 5-fold increase to 8-10 km (5-6 miles) downwind. Locations of maximum PN concentrations were aligned to eastern, downwind jet trajectories during prevailing westerly winds and to 8 km downwind concentrations exceeded 75 000 particles/cm(3), more than the average freeway PN concentration in Los Angeles. During infrequent northerly winds, the impact area remained large but shifted to south of the airport. The freeway length that would cause an impact equivalent to that measured in this study (i.e., PN concentration increases weighted by the area impacted) was estimated to be 280-790 km. The total freeway length in Los Angeles is 1500 km. These results suggest that airport emissions are a major source of PN in Los Angeles that are of the same general magnitude as the entire urban freeway network. They also indicate that the air quality impact areas of major airports may have been seriously underestimated. PMID:24871496

  5. Plastic flow in shock-loaded silver at strain rates from 104 s-1 to 107 s-1 and temperatures from 296 K to 1233 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaretsky, E. B.; Kanel, G. I.

    2011-10-01

    The evolution of elastic-plastic shock waves in 99.9% purity silver samples of 0.127 to 2.0 mm thickness has been studied in a series of VISAR-instrumented planar impact experiments with initial sample temperature varied from 296 to 1233 K. The decay of elastic precursor wave at 933, 1173, and 1233 K temperatures is approximately inversely proportional to the square root of the propagation distance. The latter corresponds to the cubic dependence of initial plastic strain rate, ranged from 104 s-1 to 106 s-1, on the shear stress. At fixed strain rates, the flow stress grows linearly with the temperature but the dependence becomes stronger near the silver melting point, 1234 K. An analysis of the rise times of the plastic shock waves shows that for the same level of shear stress the plastic strain rate at the shock front is significantly higher than that at the top of the elastic precursor wave.

  6. Components-dependent optical nonlinearity in a series of CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shunlong; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Wang, Qian; Li, Songtao; Cheng, Xiaoman

    2016-08-01

    The different compositions of the ternary alloyed CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS core/shell quantum dots(CSQDs) have been synthesized by the chemical routes. The nonlinear optical properties of these QDs were investigated using Z-scan technique under the excitation of the 1064 nm picosecond laser pulse. The Z-scan results reveal that the nonlinear refractive indices of these QDs can be tuned by changing the ratio of Se and S components. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have been shown to be enhanced in CSQDs as compared to their core semiconductor counterparts. These QDs exhibit the components-tuned nonlinear refraction indices, which lead to a wide application in the photonic field.

  7. PMMA Cementoplasty in Symptomatic Metastatic Lesions of the S1 Vertebral Body

    SciTech Connect

    Dehdashti, Amir R.; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Jean, Beatrix; Ruefenacht, Daniel A.

    2000-03-15

    We describe a lateral transiliac direct puncture approach to the S1 vertebral body for polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cementoplasty of painful metastatic lesions. This approach was performed using a 15-cm-long trocar needle with 3-mm outer diameter, introduced under general anesthesia and fluoroscopic control. A lateral projection was used to center the needle just in front of the spinal canal and subjacent to the superior plate of the S1 vertebral body. Needle progression was controlled using anteroposterior and lateral fluoroscopic projections alternately with a needle course parallel to an axial plane, avoiding conflict with the S1 foramen. After needle tip placement in the center of the S1 vertebral body, diluted PMMA with a setting time of 8 min was delivered. Ipsilateral lesions of the lateral sacral compartment were filled with the same needle by stepwise withdrawal and continuous PMMA injection.

  8. The D{sub s1} and its D*K decays

    SciTech Connect

    Segovia, J.; Entem, D. R.; Fernandez, F.

    2010-08-05

    Recently the Belle Collaboration has measured a new decay channel for the charmed strange meson D{sub s1}(2536){sup +{yields}}D{sup +{pi}-}K{sup +} together with an angular analysis of the D{sub s1}(2536){sup +{yields}}D*{sup +}K{sub S}{sup 0} decay. We study this reaction in a constituent quark model which has been able to reproduce the hadronic phenomenology and the baryon-baryon interaction. The reported branching fraction can be explained through a virtual D*{sup 0} and the properties of the D{sub s1}(2536){sup +} state are nicely reproduced. The influence of other intermediate states in the reaction D{sub s1}(2536){sup +{yields}}D{sup +{pi}-}K{sup +} has been analyzed giving negligible contributions.

  9. Intermediate binding of phycocyanobilin to the lyase, CpeS1, and transfer to apoprotein.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jun-Ming; Kupka, Michaela; Böhm, Stephan; Plöscher, Matthias; Eichacker, Lutz; Zhao, Kai-Hong; Scheer, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    The phycobilin: Cysteine-84-phycobiliprotein lyase, CpeS1, catalyzes phycocyanobilin (PCB) and phycoerythrobilin attachment to nearly all cysteine-84 (consensus sequence) binding sites of phycoerythrin, phycoerythrocyanin, phycocyanin and allophycocyanin (Zhao et al. (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:14300-14305). We now show that CpeS1 can bind PCB, as assayed by Ni(2+) chelating affinity chromatography. Binding is rapid, and the chromophore is bound in an extended conformation similar to that in phycobiliproteins but only poorly fluorescent. Upon addition of apo-biliproteins, the chromophore is transferred to the latter much slower ( approximately 1 h), indicating that chromophorylated CpeS1 is an intermediate in the enzymatic reaction. In addition, imidazole is bound to PCB, as shown by mass spectroscopy of tryptic digests of the intermediate CpeS1-PCB complex. PMID:17912606

  10. Variation of electron and ion density distribution along Earth's magnetic field line deduced from whistler mode (wm) sounding of image/rpi satellite below altitude 5000 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, Susmita

    This thesis provides a detailed survey and analysis of whistler mode (WM) echoes observed by IMAGE/RPI satellite during the years 2000-2005 below the altitude of 5000 km. Approximately 2500 WM echoes have been observed by IMAGE during this period. This includes mostly specularly reflected whistler mode (SRWM) echoes and ~400 magnetospherically reflected whistler mode (MRWM) echoes. Stanford 2D raytracing simulations and the diffusive equilibrium density model have been applied to 82 cases of MRWM echoes, observed during August-December of the year 2005 below 5000 km to determine electron and ion density measurements along Earth's magnetic field line. These are the first results of electron and ion density measurements from WM sounding covering L-shells ~1.6-4, a wide range of geomagnetic conditions (Kp 0+ to 7), and during solar minima (F10.2~70-120) in the altitude range 90 km to 4000 km. The electron and ion density profiles obtained from this analysis were compared with in situ measurements on IMAGE (passive recording; electron density (Ne)), DMSP (~850 km; Ne and ions), CHAMP (~350 km; Ne), Alouette (~500-2000 km; Ne and ions), ISIS-1, 2 (~600-3500 km; Ne, ions), AE (~130-2000 km; ions) satellites, bottom side sounding from nearby ionosonde stations (Ne), and those by GCPM (Global Core Plasma Model), IRI-2012 (International Reference Ionosphere). Based on this analysis it is found that: (1) Ne shows a decreasing trend from L-shell 1.6 to 4 on both the day and night sides of the plasmasphere up to altitude ~1000 km, which is also confirmed by the GCPM and IRI-2012 model. (2) Above ~2000 km altitude, GCPM underestimates Ne by ~30-90% relative to RPI passive measurements, WM sounding results. (3) Below 1500 km, the Ne is higher at day side than night side MLT (Magnetic Local Time). Above this altitude, significant MLT dependence of electron density is not seen. (4) Ion densities from WM sounding measurements are within 10-35% of those from the Alouette, AE, and

  11. Clinical benefits of combined chemotherapy with S-1, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel in advanced gastric cancer patients with palliative surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Feng, Ye; Gao, Yongjian; Hou, Ruizhi

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim Advanced gastric cancer accounts for a substantial portion of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Surgical intervention is the curative therapeutic approach, but patients with advanced gastric cancer are not eligible for the radical resection. The present work aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of palliative surgery combined with S-1, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with advanced gastric cancer. Method A total of 20 patients who underwent palliative resection of gastric cancer in China–Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University from 2010 to 2011 were evaluated. Days 20–30 postoperative, these patients started to receive chemotherapy of S-1 (40 mg/m2, oral intake twice a day) and intravenous infusion of oxaliplatin (135 mg/m2) and docetaxel (75 mg/m2). After three cycles of chemotherapy (21 days/cycle), patients were evaluated, and only those who responded toward the treatment continued to receive six to eight cycles of the treatment and were included in end point evaluation. Patients’ survival time and adverse reactions observed along the treatment were compared with those treated with FOLFOX. Results Out of 20 patients evaluated, there was one case of complete response, nine cases of partial response, six cases of stable disease, and four cases of progressive disease. The total efficacy (complete response + partial response) and clinical benefit rates were 50% and 80%, respectively. Of importance, the treatment achieved a significantly longer survival time compared to FOLFOX, despite the fact that both regimens shared common adverse reactions. The adverse reactions were gastrointestinal reaction, reduction in white blood cells, and peripheral neurotoxicity. All of them were mild, having no impact on the treatment. Conclusion Combination therapy of S-1, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel improves the survival of gastric cancer patients treated with palliative resection, with adverse reactions being

  12. Phylogeny and S1 Gene Variation of Infectious Bronchitis Virus Detected in Broilers and Layers in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Huseyin; Altan, Eda; Cizmecigil, Utku Y; Gurel, Aydin; Ozturk, Gulay Yuzbasioglu; Bamac, Ozge Erdogan; Aydin, Ozge; Britton, Paul; Monne, Isabella; Cetinkaya, Burhan; Morgan, Kenton L; Faburay, Bonto; Richt, Juergen A; Turan, Nuri

    2016-09-01

    The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (AvCoV-IBV) is recognized as an important global pathogen because new variants are a continuous threat to the poultry industry worldwide. This study investigates the genetic origin and diversity of AvCoV-IBV by analysis of the S1 sequence derived from 49 broiler flocks and 14 layer flocks in different regions of Turkey. AvCoV-IBV RNA was detected in 41 (83.6%) broiler flocks and nine (64.2%) of the layer flocks by TaqMan real-time RT-PCR. In addition, AvCoV-IBV RNA was detected in the tracheas 27/30 (90%), lungs 31/49 (62.2%), caecal tonsils 7/22 (31.8%), and kidneys 4/49 (8.1%) of broiler flocks examined. Pathologic lesions, hemorrhages, and mononuclear infiltrations were predominantly observed in tracheas and to a lesser extent in the lungs and a few in kidneys. A phylogenetic tree based on partial S1 sequences of the detected AvCoV-IBVs (including isolates) revealed that 1) viruses detected in five broiler flocks were similar to the IBV vaccines Ma5, H120, M41; 2) viruses detected in 24 broiler flocks were similar to those previously reported from Turkey and to Israel variant-2 strains; 3) viruses detected in seven layer flocks were different from those found in any of the broiler flocks but similar to viruses previously reported from Iran, India, and China (similar to Israel variant-1 and 4/91 serotypes); and 4) that the AVCoV-IBV, Israeli variant-2 strain, found to be circulating in Turkey appears to be undergoing molecular evolution. In conclusion, genetically different AvCoV-IBV strains, including vaccine-like strains, based on their partial S1 sequence, are circulating in broiler and layer chicken flocks in Turkey and the Israeli variant-2 strain is undergoing evolution. PMID:27610718

  13. Investigation on Prototype Superconducting Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM) for 600-km/h Wheel-Type Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Beomyong; Lee, Changhyeong; Kim, Seokho; Lee, Changyoung; Yun, Sangwon

    The existing wheel-type high-speed railway with a rotatable motor has a limit of 600 km/h speed. The normal conducting electromagnet has several disadvantages to realize 600 km/h speed. Several disadvantages are the increased space and weight, and the decreased electric efficiency to generate the required high magnetic field. In order to reduce the volume and weight, superconducting electromagnets can be considered for LSM (Linear Synchronous Motor). Prior to the fabrication of the real system, a prototype demo-coil is designed and fabricated using 2G high temperature superconducting wire. The prototype HTS coil is cooled by the conduction using a GM cryocooler. To reduce the heat penetration, thermal design was performed for the current leads, supporting structure and radiation shield considering the thermal stress. The operating temperature and current are 30∼40 K and 100 A. The coil consists of two double pancake coils (N, S pole, respectively) and it is driven on a test rail, which is installed for the test car. This paper describes the design and test results of the prototype HTS LSM system. Thermal characteristics are investigated with additional dummy thermal mass on the coil after turning off the cryocooler.

  14. Low prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in male 100 km ultra-marathon runners in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) in 145 male ultra-marathoners at the '100-km ultra-run' in Biel, Switzerland. Changes in body mass, urinary specific gravity, haemoglobin, haematocrit, plasma [Na(+)], and plasma volume were determined. Seven runners (4.8%) developed asymptomatic EAH. Body mass, haematocrit and haemoglobin decreased, plasma [Na(+)] remained unchanged and plasma volume increased. Δ body mass correlated with both post race plasma [Na(+)] and Δ plasma [Na(+)]. Δ plasma volume was associated with post race plasma [Na(+)]. The athletes consumed 0.65 (0.30) L/h; fluid intake correlated significantly and negatively (r = -0.50, p < 0.0001) to race time. Fluid intake was neither associated with post race plasma [Na(+)] nor with Δ plasma [Na(+)], but was related to Δ body mass. To conclude, the prevalence of EAH was low at ~5% in these male 100 km ultra-marathoners. EAH was asymptomatic and would not have been detected without the measurement of plasma [Na(+)]. PMID:21082192

  15. Pathway specific modulation of S1P1 receptor signalling in rat and human astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Luke M; Sheridan, Graham K; Pritchard, Adam J; Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Mullershausen, Florian; Dev, Kumlesh K

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 1 (S1P1R) is modulated by phosphorylated FTY720 (pFTY720), which causes S1P1R internalization preventing lymphocyte migration thus limiting autoimmune response. Studies indicate that internalized S1P1Rs continue to signal, maintaining an inhibition of cAMP, thus raising question whether the effects of pFTY720 are due to transient initial agonism, functional antagonism and/or continued signalling. To further investigate this, the current study first determined if continued S1P1R activation is pathway specific. Experimental Approach Using human and rat astrocyte cultures, the effects of S1P1R activation on cAMP, pERK and Ca2+ signalling was investigated. In addition, to examine the role of S1P1R redistribution on these events, a novel biologic (MNP301) that prevented pFTY720-mediated S1P1R redistribution was engineered. Key Results The data showed that pFTY720 induced long-lasting S1P1R redistribution and continued cAMP signalling in rat astrocytes. In contrast, pFTY720 induced a transient increase of Ca2+ in astrocytes and subsequent antagonism of Ca2+ signalling. Notably, while leaving pFTY720-induced cAMP signalling intact, the novel MNP301 peptide attenuated S1P1R-mediated Ca2+ and pERK signalling in cultured rat astrocytes. Conclusions and Implications These findings suggested that pFTY720 causes continued cAMP signalling that is not dependent on S1P1R redistribution and induces functional antagonism of Ca2+ signalling after transient stimulation. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that pFTY720 causes continued signalling in one pathway (cAMP) versus functional antagonism of another pathway (Ca2+) and which also suggests that redistributed S1P1Rs may have differing signalling properties from those expressed at the surface. PMID:23587004

  16. S1P lyase: a novel therapeutic target for ischemia-reperfusion injury of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Bandhuvula, Padmavathi; Honbo, Norman; Wang, Guan-Ying; Jin, Zhu-Qiu; Fyrst, Henrik; Zhang, Meng; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Dillard, Lisa; Karliner, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid that promotes cardiomyocyte survival and contributes to ischemic preconditioning. S1P lyase (SPL) is a stress-activated enzyme responsible for irreversible S1P catabolism. We hypothesized that SPL contributes to oxidative stress by depleting S1P pools available for cardioprotective signaling. Accordingly, we evaluated SPL inhibition as a strategy for reducing cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We measured SPL expression and enzyme activity in murine hearts. Basal SPL activity was low in wild-type cardiac tissue but was activated in response to 50 min of ischemia (n = 5, P < 0.01). Hearts of heterozygous SPL knockout mice exhibited reduced SPL activity, elevated S1P levels, smaller infarct size, and increased functional recovery after I/R compared with littermate controls (n = 5, P < 0.01). The small molecule tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI) is a Federal Drug Administration-approved food additive that inhibits SPL. When given overnight at 25 mg/l in drinking water, THI raised S1P levels and reduced SPL activity (n = 5, P < 0.01). THI reduced infarct size and enhanced hemodynamic recovery in response to 50 min of ischemia and to 40 min of reperfusion in ex vivo hearts (n = 7, P < .01). These data correlated with an increase in MAP kinase-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation levels after I/R, suggesting that SPL inhibition enhances protein translation. Pretreatment with an S1P1 and S1P3 receptor antagonist partially reversed the effects of THI. These results reveal, for the first time, that SPL is an ischemia-induced enzyme that can be targeted as a novel strategy for preventing cardiac I/R injury. PMID:21335477

  17. Characterization of the L4-L5-S1 motion segment using the stepwise reduction method.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Héctor Enrique; Puttlitz, Christian M; McGilvray, Kirk; García, José J

    2016-05-01

    The two aims of this study were to generate data for a more accurate calibration of finite element models including the L5-S1 segment, and to find mechanical differences between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments. Then, the range of motion (ROM) and facet forces for the L4-S1 segment were measured using the stepwise reduction method. This consists of sequentially testing and reducing each segment in nine stages by cutting the ligaments, facet capsules, and removing the nucleus. Five L4-S1 human segments (median: 65 years, range: 53-84 years, SD=11.0 years) were loaded under a maximum pure moment of 8Nm. The ROM was measured using stereo-photogrammetry via tracking of three markers and the facet contact forces (CF) were measured using a Tekscan system. The ROM for the L4-L5 segment and all stages showed good agreement with published data. The major differences in ROM between the L4-L5 and L5-S1 segments were found for lateral bending and all stages, for which the L4-L5 ROM was about 1.5-3 times higher than that of the L5-S1 segment, consistent with L5-S1 facet CF about 1.3 to 4 times higher than those measured for the L4-L5 segment. For the other movements and few stages, the L4-L5 ROM was significantly lower that of the L5-S1 segment. ROM and CF provide important baseline data for more accurate calibration of FE models and to understand the role that their structures play in lower lumbar spine mechanics. PMID:27017302

  18. STS-112 S1 truss in Payload Changeout Room at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The payload canister is ready to be opened in the Payload Changeout Room at the pad. Inside is the S1 Integrated Truss Structure, primary payload on mission STS-112 aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during the mission. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  19. 6S-1 RNA function leads to a delay in sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Amy T; Wassarman, Karen M

    2013-05-01

    We have discovered that 6S-1 RNA (encoded by bsrA) is important for appropriate timing of sporulation in Bacillus subtilis in that cells lacking 6S-1 RNA sporulate earlier than wild-type cells. The time to generate a mature spore once the decision to sporulate has been made is unaffected by 6S-1 RNA, and, therefore, we propose that it is the timing of onset of sporulation that is altered. Interestingly, the presence of cells lacking 6S-1 RNA in coculture leads to all cell types exhibiting an early-sporulation phenotype. We propose that cells lacking 6S-1 RNA modify their environment in a manner that promotes early sporulation. In support of this model, resuspension of wild-type cells in conditioned medium from ΔbsrA cultures also resulted in early sporulation. Use of Escherichia coli growth as a reporter of the nutritional status of conditioned media suggested that B. subtilis cells lacking 6S-1 RNA reduce the nutrient content of their environment earlier than wild-type cells. Several pathways known to impact the timing of sporulation, such as the skf- and sdp-dependent cannibalism pathways, were eliminated as potential targets of 6S-1 RNA-mediated changes, suggesting that 6S-1 RNA activity defines a novel mechanism for altering the timing of onset of sporulation. In addition, 6S-2 RNA does not influence the timing of sporulation, providing further evidence of the independent influences of these two related RNAs on cell physiology. PMID:23457253

  20. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers inside the payload canister watch the S1 Integrated Truss Structure as it is lowered toward them. The canister will transport the truss to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  1. STS-112 S1 Truss is transported to the payload canister

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- An overhead crane moves the S1 Integrated Truss Structure above over other equipment to get to the payload canister for transport to Atlantis. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during mission STS-112. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  2. Ultrafast S1 to S0 internal conversion dynamics for dimethylnitramine through a conical intersection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanqing; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2011-09-01

    Electronically nonadiabatic processes such as ultrafast internal conversion (IC) from an upper electronic state (S(1)) to the ground electronic state (S(0)) though a conical intersection (CI), can play an essential role in the initial steps of the decomposition of energetic materials. Such nonradiative processes following electronic excitation can quench emission and store the excitation energy in the vibrational degrees of freedom of the ground electronic state. This excess vibrational energy in the ground electronic state can dissociate most of the chemical bonds of the molecule and can generate stable, small molecule products. The present study determines ultrafast IC dynamics of a model nitramine energetic material, dimethylnitramine (DMNA). Femtosecond (fs) pump-probe spectroscopy, for which a pump pulse at 271 nm and a probe pulse at 405.6 nm are used, is employed to elucidate the IC dynamics of this molecule from its S(1) excited state. A very short lifetime of the S(1) excited state (∼50 ± 16 fs) is determined for DMNA. Complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations show that an (S(1)/S(0))(CI) CI is responsible for this ultrafast decay from S(1) to S(0). This decay occurs through a reaction coordinate involving an out-of-plane bending mode of the DMNA NO(2) moiety. The 271 nm excitation of DMNA is not sufficient to dissociate the molecule on the S(1) potential energy surface (PES) through an adiabatic NO(2) elimination pathway. PMID:21351779

  3. Hyaluroan-regulated lymphatic permeability through S1P receptors is crucial for cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengsi; He, Pingqing; Liu, Yiwen; He, Yiqing; Du, Yan; Wu, Man; Zhang, Guoliang; Yang, Cuixia; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of cancer lymphatic vessel barrier function occurs has been reported to involve in cancer lymphatic metastasis. Hyaluronan (HA), a major glycosaminoglycan component of the extracellular matrix, is associated with cancer metastasis. We investigated the effect of high/low molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA/LMW-HA) on regulation of barrier function and tight junctions in cancer lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) monolayer. Results showed that LMW-HA increased the permeability of cancer LEC monolayers and induced disruption of Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1)-mediated intercellular tight junction and actin stress fiber formation. HMW-HA treatment decreased permeability in cancer LEC monolayers and cortical actin ring formation. As reported, sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors are involved in vascular integrity. After silencing of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1), upregulation of S1P receptors (S1P1 and S1P3) induced by HMW-HA/LMW-HA were inhibited, respectively. With S1P3 silenced, the disruption of ZO-1 as well as stress fiber formation and the ROCK1/RhoA signaling pathway induced by LMW-HA was not observed in cancer LEC. These results suggested that S1P receptors may play an important role in HMW-HA-/LMW-HA-mediated regulation of cancer lymphatic vessel integrity, which might be the initial step of cancer lymphatic metastasis and a useful intervention of cancer progression. PMID:25428387

  4. A novel role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor S1pr1 in mouse thrombopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Orban, Martin; Lorenz, Michael; Barocke, Verena; Braun, Daniel; Urtz, Nicole; Schulz, Christian; von Brühl, Marie-Luise; Tirniceriu, Anca; Gaertner, Florian; Proia, Richard L.; Graf, Thomas; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian; Montanez, Eloi; Prinz, Marco; Müller, Alexandra; von Baumgarten, Louisa; Billich, Andreas; Sixt, Michael; Fässler, Reinhard; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Junt, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Millions of platelets are produced each hour by bone marrow (BM) megakaryocytes (MKs). MKs extend transendothelial proplatelet (PP) extensions into BM sinusoids and shed new platelets into the blood. The mechanisms that control platelet generation remain incompletely understood. Using conditional mutants and intravital multiphoton microscopy, we show here that the lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) serves as a critical directional cue guiding the elongation of megakaryocytic PP extensions from the interstitium into BM sinusoids and triggering the subsequent shedding of PPs into the blood. Correspondingly, mice lacking the S1P receptor S1pr1 develop severe thrombocytopenia caused by both formation of aberrant extravascular PPs and defective intravascular PP shedding. In contrast, activation of S1pr1 signaling leads to the prompt release of new platelets into the circulating blood. Collectively, our findings uncover a novel function of the S1P–S1pr1 axis as master regulator of efficient thrombopoiesis and might raise new therapeutic options for patients with thrombocytopenia. PMID:23148237

  5. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Ganglioside Hp-s1 Analogues Varying at Glucosyl Moiety.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jung-Tung; Yeh, Chun-Hong; Yang, Shih-An; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Tai, Hung-Ju; Shelke, Ganesh B; Reddy, Daggula Mallikarjuna; Yu, Alice L; Luo, Shun-Yuan

    2016-08-17

    Ganglioside Hp-s1 is isolated from the ovary of sea urchin Diadema setosum. It exhibited better neuritogenic activity than GM1 in pheochromocytoma 12 cells. To explore the roles of glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 in contributing to the neurogenic activity, we developed feasible procedures for synthesis of Hp-s1 analogues (2a-2f). The glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 was replaced with α-glucose, α-galactose, β-galactose, α-mannose, and β-mannose, and their biological activities on SH-SY5Y cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells were evaluated. We found that the orientation of C-2 hydroxyl group at glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 plays an important role to induce neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. Surprisingly, compound 2d could activate NKT cells to produce interleukin 2, although it did not show great activity on neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. In general, the Hp-s1 might be considered as a lead compound for the development of novel drugs aimed at modulating the activity of neuronal cells. PMID:27276519

  6. Phase II trial of S-1 and cisplatin with concurrent radiotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ohyanagi, F; Yamamoto, N; Horiike, A; Harada, H; Kozuka, T; Murakami, H; Gomi, K; Takahashi, T; Morota, M; Nishimura, T; Endo, M; Nakamura, Y; Tsuya, A; Horai, T; Nishio, M

    2009-01-01

    Background: To assess the efficacy and safety of S-1 and cisplatin with concurrent thoracic radiation for unresectable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods: Eligible patients were 20–74 years old and had histologically or cytologically confirmed NSCLC, a performance status of 0–1, and no prior chemotherapy. Patients were treated with cisplatin (60 mg m−2 on day 1) and S-1 (orally at 40 mg m−2 per dose, b.i.d., on days 1–14), with the treatment repeated every 4 weeks for four cycles. Beginning on day 2, a 60-Gy thoracic radiation dose was delivered in 30 fractions. Results: Of 50 patients, 48 were eligible. Partial response was observed in 42 patients (87.5%; 95% CI: 79.1–96.9%). This regimen was well tolerated. Common toxicities included grade 3/4 neutropenia (32%), grade 3/4 leukopenia (32%), grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia (4%), grade 3 febrile neutropenia (6%), grade 3 oesophagitis (10%), and grade 3 pneumonitis (5%). Median progression-free survival was 12.0 months and median overall survival was 33.1 months. The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 89.5 and 56%, respectively. Conclusion: This chemotherapy regimen with concomitant radiotherapy is a promising treatment for locally advanced NSCLC because of its high response rates, good survival rates, and mild toxicities. PMID:19603031

  7. Ab Initio Benchmark Study of Nonadiabatic S1-S2 Photodynamics of cis- and trans-Hexatriene.

    PubMed

    Komainda, A; Lyskov, I; Marian, C M; Köppel, H

    2016-08-25

    The dynamics of the nonadiabatically coupled lowest singlet excited states of cis- and trans-hexatriene are studied theoretically, in a comprehensive electronic structure and quantum dynamical investigation. At the ground state equilibrium geometry the relevant S2 and S1 states carry the A1 (Ag) and B2 (Bu) symmetry labels, for the cis (trans) isomer. Various high-level electronic structure methods are used, including the recently reparametrized DFT/MRCI method, and the results are critically compared. Key parameters of interest are the vertical energy gap and the strength of vibronic coupling between the interacting electronic states. To estimate their influence, suitable comparison calculations are performed. The results are used as the basis for quantum dynamical calculations on the UV absorption spectrum and electronic population transfer involving the S1 and S2 states. Up to nine nonseparable degrees of freedom are included in the calculations. The experimental UV absorption spectrum in the 5-5.2 eV energy range can be very well reproduced. The time-dependent wavepacket propagations reveal a population transfer on the order of 30-50 fs, which becomes increasingly complete with more degrees of freedom included in the calculation. The results are briefly compared with analogous data for the s-trans-butadiene system treated by some of us recently. PMID:27487471

  8. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, Carmelo; Chiarusi, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea that includes a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes. The telescopes consist of vertical detection units carrying optical modules, whose separation is optimised according to the different ranges of neutrino energy that shall be explored. Two building blocks, each one made of 115 detection units, will be deployed at the KM3NeT-IT site, about 80 km from Capo Passero, Italy, to search for high-energy neutrino sources (ARCA); another building block will be installed at the KM3NeT-Fr site, about 40 km from Toulon, France, to study the hierarchy of neutrino masses (ORCA). The modular design of the KM3NeT allows for a progressive implementation and data taking even with an incomplete detector. The same scalable design is used for the Trigger and Data Acquisition Systems (TriDAS). In order to reduce the complexity of the hardware inside the optical modules, the "all data to shore" concept is adopted. This implies that the throughput is dominated by the optical background due to the decay of 40K dissolved in the sea water and to the bursts of bioluminescence, about 3 orders of magnitude larger than the physics signal, ranging from 20 Gbps to several hundreds Gbps, according to the number of detection units. In addition, information from the acoustic positioning system of the detection units must be transmitted. As a consequence of the detector construction, the on-shore DAQ infrastructure must be expanded to handle an increasing data-rate and implement an efficient fast data filtering for both the optical and acoustic channels. In this contribution, the Trigger and Data Acquisition System designed for the Phase 1 of KM3NeT and its future expansion are presented. The network infrastructure, the shore computing resources and the developed applications for handling, filtering and monitoring the optical and acoustic data-streams are described.

  9. Double parton interactions in photon+3 jet events in ppbar collisions sqrt{s}=1.96 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; /Northeastern U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF

    2009-12-01

    We have used a sample of photon+3 jets events collected by the D0 experiment with an integrated luminosity of about 1 fb{sup -1} to determine the fraction of events with double parton scattering (f{sub DP}) in a single ppbar collision at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The DP fraction and effective cross section (sigma{sub eff}), a process-independent scale parameter related to the parton density inside the nucleon, are measured in three intervals of the second (ordered in p{sub T}) jet transverse momentum pT{sub jet2} within the range 15 < pT{sub jet2} < 30 GeV. In this range, f{sub DP} varies between 0.23 < f{sub DP} < 0.47, while sigma{sub eff} has the average value sigma{sub effave} = 16.4 {+-} 0.3(stat) {+-} 2.3(syst) mb.

  10. Towards Monitoring Biodiversity in Amazonian Forests: How Regular Samples Capture Meso-Scale Altitudinal Variation in 25 km2 Plots

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Darren; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Magnusson, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ecological monitoring and sampling optima are context and location specific. Novel applications (e.g. biodiversity monitoring for environmental service payments) call for renewed efforts to establish reliable and robust monitoring in biodiversity rich areas. As there is little information on the distribution of biodiversity across the Amazon basin, we used altitude as a proxy for biological variables to test whether meso-scale variation can be adequately represented by different sample sizes in a standardized, regular-coverage sampling arrangement. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Shuttle-Radar-Topography-Mission digital elevation values to evaluate if the regular sampling arrangement in standard RAPELD (rapid assessments (“RAP”) over the long-term (LTER [“PELD” in Portuguese])) grids captured patters in meso-scale spatial variation. The adequacy of different sample sizes (n = 4 to 120) were examined within 32,325 km2/3,232,500 ha (1293×25 km2 sample areas) distributed across the legal Brazilian Amazon. Kolmogorov-Smirnov-tests, correlation and root-mean-square-error were used to measure sample representativeness, similarity and accuracy respectively. Trends and thresholds of these responses in relation to sample size and standard-deviation were modeled using Generalized-Additive-Models and conditional-inference-trees respectively. We found that a regular arrangement of 30 samples captured the distribution of altitude values within these areas. Sample size was more important than sample standard deviation for representativeness and similarity. In contrast, accuracy was more strongly influenced by sample standard deviation. Additionally, analysis of spatially interpolated data showed that spatial patterns in altitude were also recovered within areas using a regular arrangement of 30 samples. Conclusions/Significance Our findings show that the logistically feasible sample used in the RAPELD system successfully recovers meso

  11. Effects of bicycle frame ergonomics on triathlon 10-km running performance.

    PubMed

    Garside, I; Doran, D A

    2000-10-01

    It is perceived that, during the triathlon or duathlon, cycling with a steep (> 76 degrees) rather than a shallow (< 76 degrees ) frame geometry might attenuate the fatigue associated with progression from the cycle to run disciplines and improve subsequent 10-km running performance. This is based on anecdotal testimony from athletes purporting to have experienced improved performance; no empirical evidence exists. To evaluate this view, eight male triathletes completed a counterbalanced, 40-km cycle ride at two frame geometries (73 degrees and 81 degrees) at approximately 70% VO2peak. Immediately after completion of each 40-km cycle, a self-paced 10-km treadmill time trial was undertaken, during which physiological, kinematic and performance variables were measured. The 10-km run performance (mean +/- s: 42:55 +/- 4:19 vs 46:15 +/- 4:52 min; P< 0.01) and combined cycle and run performance (1:45:49 +/- 5:45 vs 1:50:33 +/- 6:08; P< 0.001) were faster in the 81 degrees than the 73 degrees condition. Improvements in performance were most prominent during the first 5 km of the run (21:41 +/- 2:15 vs 24:15 +/- 2:31 min in the 81 degrees and 73 degrees conditions respectively). These improvements were not evident during the second 5 km of the run. No differences in physiological variables were noted, although heart rate, stride length and stride frequency were increased during the 81 degrees condition (P < 0.05). Modifying frame geometry from a seat tube angle of 73 degrees to 81 degrees improves 10-km running and combined cycle plus run performance. These improvements in performance might relate to alterations during the cycling phase, which minimizes the 'residual effect' of this (i.e. the adverse changes in substrate availability, thermoregulatory, cardiovascular and biomechanical factors felt immediately after transition from cycling to running) and attenuates negative changes in physiological and kinematic responses during the 10-km run. PMID:11055818

  12. The Effects of Spinopelvic Parameters and Paraspinal Muscle Degeneration on S1 Screw Loosening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Bum; Lee, Young-Seok; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Park, Yong-Sook; Kim, Young-Baeg

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate risk factors for S1 screw loosening after lumbosacral fusion, including spinopelvic parameters and paraspinal muscles. Methods We studied with 156 patients with degenerative lumbar disease who underwent lumbosacral interbody fusion and pedicle screw fixation including the level of L5-S1 between 2005 and 2012. The patients were divided into loosening and non-loosening groups. Screw loosening was defined as a halo sign larger than 1 mm around a screw. We checked cross sectional area of paraspinal muscles, mean signal intensity of the muscles on T2 weight MRI as a degree of fatty degeneration, spinopelvic parameters, bone mineral density, number of fusion level, and the characteristic of S1 screw. Results Twenty seven patients showed S1 screw loosening, which is 24.4% of total. The mean duration for S1 screw loosening was 7.3±4.1 months after surgery. Statistically significant risk factors were increased age, poor BMD, 3 or more fusion levels (p<0.05). Among spinopelvic parameters, a high pelvic incidence (p<0.01), a greater difference between pelvic incidence and lumbar lordotic angle preoperatively (p<0.01) and postoperatively (p<0.05). Smaller cross-sectional area and high T2 signal intensity in both multifidus and erector spinae muscles were also significant muscular risk factors (p<0.05). Small converging angle (p<0.001) and short intraosseous length (p<0.05) of S1 screw were significant screw related risk factors (p<0.05). Conclusion In addition to well known risk factors, spinopelvic parameters and the degeneration of paraspinal muscles also showed significant effects on the S1 screw loosening. PMID:26587190

  13. Fluid replacement strategy during a 27-Km trail run in hot and humid conditions.

    PubMed

    Baillot, M; Le Bris, S; Hue, O

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of the fluid replacement strategy on core temperature, heart rate and urine osmolality during a 27-km trail run in tropical climate. 20 well-trained runners completed a 27-km trail race in tropical conditions. They were acclimatized to these conditions. Heart rate was monitored every 5 s, while core temperature and perceived thermal and comfort sensations were recorded before, at the 11(th) km, and just after the end of the race. Water intake, urine osmolality and body mass were measured before and after the race. Core temperature and the scores of perceived thermal and comfort sensations were significantly higher at the 11(th) km and at the end of the race compared to before the race, but not at the 11(th) km compared to the end of the race [corrected]. No participant exhibited dehydration as assessed by urine osmolality. The less the trail runners weighed, the greater the heat retention was. The less hot they felt at the end of the race, the more they lost water, and the better the performance was. The fastest runners were able to tolerate a greater variation in core temperature between the beginning and the end of the trail race with lower water intake. PMID:23868683

  14. M. tuberculosis ferritin (Rv3841): Potential involvement in Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) resistance.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Divakar; Lata, Manju; Faheem, Mohammad; Khan, Asad Ullah; Joshi, Beenu; Venkatesan, Krishnamurthy; Shukla, Sangeeta; Bisht, Deepa

    2016-09-16

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease, caused by one of the most successful human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Aminoglycosides, Amikacin (AK) & Kanamycin (KM) are commonly used to treat drug resistant tuberculosis. They target the protein synthesis machinery by interacting with several steps of translation. Several explanations have been proposed to explain the mechanism of aminoglycoside resistance but still our information is inadequate. Iron storing/interacting proteins were found to be overexpressed in aminoglycosides resistant isolates. Iron assimilation and utilization in M. tuberculosis plays a crucial role in growth, virulence and latency. To establish the relationship of ferritin with AK & KM resistance ferritin (Rv3841/bfrB) was cloned, expressed and antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing (DST) was carried out. Rv3841/bfrB gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 using pQE2 expression vector. Etest results for DST against AK & KM showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ferritin recombinant cells was changed. Recombinants showed two fold changes in MIC with AK and three fold with KM E-strips. Overexpression of ferritin reflect the MIC shift which might be playing a critical role in the survival of mycobacteria by inhibiting/modulating the effects of AK & KM. String analysis also suggests that ferritin interacted with few proteins which are directly and indirectly involved in M. tuberculosis growth, Iron assimilation, virulence, resistance, stresses and latency. PMID:27521892

  15. Operation and results of the prototype KM3NeT detection unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT will be a km3-scale neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The detector will consist of blocks of about one hundred detection units. Each detection unit will host 18 digital optical modules, connected along a 700 m-long vertical structure. Electro-optical cables allow for data transmission and power supply to the optical modules. The optical module comprises 31 photomultiplier tubes of 3'', instruments to monitor environmental variables and electronic boards to communicate onshore and operate the photomultipliers. A prototype detection unit has been deployed in May 2014 at the KM3NeT-It installation site 80 km SE offshore of Capo Passero, Sicily. This prototype allowed to test the deployment procedures, the mechanics and the electronic of the apparatus, the data taking and analysis procedures. A general description of the detector and some results of the prototype are presented. The first detection unit of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be deployed and become operative by the end of 2015.

  16. The Effect of Boron on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Disk Alloy KM4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, Timothy; Gayda, John; Sweeney, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The durability of powder metallurgy nickel base superalloys employed as compressor and turbine disks is often limited by low cycle fatigue (LCF) crack initiation and crack growth from highly stressed surface locations (corners, holes, etc.). Crack growth induced by dwells at high stresses during aerospace engine operation can be particularly severe. Supersolvus solution heat treatments can be used to produce coarse grain sizes approaching ASTM 6 for improved resistance to dwell fatigue crack growth. However, the coarse grain sizes reduce yield strength, which can lower LCF initiation life. These high temperature heat treatments also can encourage pores to form. In the advanced General Electric disk superalloy KM4, such pores can initiate fatigue cracks that limit LCF initiation life. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) during the supersolvus solution heat treatment has been shown to improve LCF initiation life in KM4, as the HIP pressure minimizes formation of the pores. Reduction of boron levels in KM4 has also been shown to increase LCF initiation life after a conventional supersolvus heat treatment, again possibly due to effects on the formation tendencies of these pores. However, the effects of reduced boron levels on microstructure, pore characteristics, and LCF failure modes in KM4 still need to be fully quantified. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of boron level on the microstructure, porosity, LCF behavior, and failure modes of supersolvus heat treated KM4.

  17. 30 CFR 33.30 - Test site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test site. 33.30 Section 33.30 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.30 Test site. Tests shall be conducted at an appropriate location determined by MSHA....

  18. 30 CFR 5.30 - Fee calculation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fee calculation. 5.30 Section 5.30 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS FEES FOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS § 5.30 Fee calculation....

  19. 30 CFR 33.30 - Test site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test site. 33.30 Section 33.30 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.30 Test site. Tests shall be conducted at an appropriate location determined by MSHA....

  20. 30 CFR 33.30 - Test site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test site. 33.30 Section 33.30 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.30 Test site. Tests shall be conducted at an appropriate location determined by MSHA....

  1. 30 CFR 36.30 - Rerailing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rerailing device. 36.30 Section 36.30 Mineral... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.30 Rerailing device. All mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment designed to travel on rails in haulage service shall carry a suitable rerailing device....

  2. 30 CFR 36.30 - Rerailing device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rerailing device. 36.30 Section 36.30 Mineral... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.30 Rerailing device. All mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment designed to travel on rails in haulage service shall carry a suitable rerailing device....

  3. 30 CFR 281.30 - Minimum royalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 281.30 Section 281.30 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.30 Minimum...

  4. A 7-km Non-Hydrostatic Global Mesoscale Simulation with the Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5) for Observing System Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putman, W.; Suarez, M.; Gelaro, R.; daSilva, A.; Molod, A.; Ott, L. E.; Darmenov, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has used the Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) to produce a 2-year non-hydrostatic global mesoscale simulation for the period of June 2005-2007. This 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run (7km-G5NR) product will provide synthetic observations for observing system simulation experiments (OSSE)s at NASA and NOAA through the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation and the NASA Center for Climate Simulation. While GEOS-5 is regularly applied in seasonal-to-decadal climate simulations, and medium range weather prediction and data assimilation, GEOS-5 is also readily adaptable for application as a global mesoscale model in pursuit of global cloud resolving applications. Recent computing advances have permitted experimentation with global atmospheric models at these scales, although production applications like the 7km-G5NR have remained limited. By incorporating a non-hydrostatic finite-volume dynamical core with scale aware physics parameterizations, the 7km-G5NR produces organized convective systems and robust weather systems ideal for producing observations for existing and new remote sensing instruments. In addition to standard meteorological parameters, the 7km-G5NR includes 15 aerosol tracers (including dust, seasalt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. The 7km-G5NR is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperatures and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. We will discuss the technical challenges of producing the 7km-G5NR including the nearly 5 petabytes of full resolution output at 30-minute intervals as required by the OSSE developers, and modifications to the standard GEOS-5 physics to permit convective organization at the 'grey-zone' resolution of 7km. Highlights of the 7km-G5NR validation will focus on the representation of clouds and organized convection including tropical cyclones

  5. Comparison of turbulence-induced scintillations for multi-wavelength laser beacons over tactical (7 km) and long (149 km) atmospheric propagation paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, M.; Gudimetla, V.; Carhart, G.; Weyrauch, T.; Lachinova, S.; Polnau, E.; Reierson, J.; Beresnev, L.; Liu, J.; Riker, J.

    2011-09-01

    We report results of the experimental analysis of atmospheric effects on laser beam propagation over two distinctive propagation paths: a long-range (149 km) propagation path between Mauna Loa (Island of Hawaii) and Haleakala (Island of Maui) mountains, and a tactical-range (7 km) propagation path between the roof of the Dayton Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC) and the Intelligent Optics Laboratory (IOL/UD) located on the 5th floor of the University of Dayton College Park Center building. Both testbeds include three laser beacons operating at wavelengths 532 nm, 1064 nm, and 1550 nm and a set of identical optical receiver systems with fast-framing IR cameras for simultaneous measurements of pupil and focal plane intensity distributions. The results reported here are focused on analysis of intensity scintillations that were simultaneously measured at three wavelengths. Comparison of experimental results shows significant differences in the physics of atmospheric turbulence impact on laser beam propagation over the long- and tactical-range distances.

  6. Comparison of ocean physical and biogeochemical mean state and climate sensitivity across ocean model resolution from 100 km to 10 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    One of the representational aspirations driving current Earth System Model development is to capture the global ocean mesoscale (i.e. ocean weather) in coupled carbon-climate. The present study explores a the role of ocean model resolution (100 km to 10 km) on baseline physical and biogeochemical simulation characteristics and their response to climate change. We find the high resolution model to improve the representation of boundary currents and mesoscale phenomena, and to eliminate fictitious current structures that plague the coarse resolution models. Along with these expected improvements of smaller scales however, we also find a general lack of improvement in many of the large scale biases. With respect to sensitivity, we find the high resolution model to restrict ocean heat uptake towards the surface ocean and to exhibit somewhat less structure at the regional scale than the coarse resolution model. We find similarly more uniform patterns of carbon uptake and biogeochemicel response at high resolution consistent with a greater tendency in the high resolution model to accommodate change in the major current structures, and suggesting that some of the highly regional structure observed among CMIP5 models is due to their inability to represent the role of the mesoscale on the regional scale.

  7. Phase I study of postoperative radiotherapy concurrent with S-1 in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Meng; Peng, Xing-chen; Bi, Feng; Wang, Xin; Li, Qiu; Xu, Feng; Li, Zhi-ping; Shen, Ya-li; Liu, Ji-yan; Zhao, Ya-qing; Cao, Dan; Gou, Hong-feng; Yang, Yu; Chen, Ye; Yi, Cheng

    2015-07-01

    Postoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with concurrent 5-fluorouracil is the standard care for gastric cancer patients after curative surgery. The previous studies revealed that the subgroup of patients with high recurrence risk would benefit most from adjuvant CRT. S-1, a novel oral fluorouracil, has showed very effective in metastatic gastric cancer and became the standard option for gastric cancer with D2 dissection. The safety and dosage of S-1 combined with postoperative radiotherapy have not yet been evaluated. This study is to determine the maximum tolerate dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of S-1 given concurrently with postoperative high-dose radiotherapy in gastric cancer. Patients with more advanced stage (pT4 and/or pN+) after R0 resection were recruited. Eligible patients received one cycle standard SOX (S-1 plus oxaliplatin) chemotherapy, then S-1 monotherapy with concurrent radiotherapy for 6 weeks, followed by additional three cycles of SOX. During the concurrent CRT, S-1 was administered on every radiotherapy treatment day according to a predefined dose-escalation schedule. Radiotherapy (3D-RT or IMRT) was given to a total dose of 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. DLT was defined as grade 3 or 4 hematologic and non-hematologic toxicity. From March 2011 to October 2012, 21 patients were enrolled at five dose levels: 40 (n = 3), 50 (n = 3), 60 (n = 6), 70 (n = 6) and 80 mg/m(2)/day (n = 3). D2-dissection was performed in 18 patients (85.7 %) and 15 patients (71.4 %) had stage III disease. The most common dose-related toxicity was anorexia, nausea and vomiting, fatigue and leucopenia. DLT was occurred in one patient at 60 mg/m(2)/day (grade 3 fatigue), one patient at 70 mg/m(2)/day (grade 3 vomiting and anorexia), two patients at 80 mg/m(2)/day (one with grade 3 vomiting and anorexia; another with grade 3 febrile leucopenia). Four patients did not complete CRT as planned. Overall, this phase I study demonstrated that postoperative CRT with daily S-1

  8. Identification of genetic polymorphisms of CYP2S1 in a Finnish Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Suitiala, Tuula; Holmila, Reetta; Impivaara, Olli; Järvisalo, Jorma; Hirvonen, Ari; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2004-10-01

    CYP2S1 is a recently discovered member of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily. Interestingly, even though the DNA sequence identifies it as the sole member of the new CYP2S family, CYP2S1 exhibits many features typical to CYP1 family members, e.g. dioxin-inducibility mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). In addition, CYP2S1 metabolises some aromatic hydrocarbons as well as cellular substances. These characteristics, together with a wide extrahepatic tissue distribution, suggest that CYP2S1 may have an important role in both exogenous and endogenous metabolism. This is the first study characterising CYP2S1 alleles and naming them with the recommended CYP allele nomenclature. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and direct sequencing to investigate genetic variation of CYP2S1 in 100 male Finnish Caucasians. Those exons in which variation was found were examined in subsequent 100 subjects. The coding region of all of the nine exons, as well as a 449 bp fragment of the proximal promoter region, was analysed. This systematic investigation revealed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which comprise nine different variant alleles (haplotypes), in addition to the wild-type allele. Seven of the SNPs occurred in the protein-coding areas and one in the proximal 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). Two of these sequence variations (10347C > T and 13106C > T) result in non-conservative amino acid substitutions, i.e. Arg380Cys and Pro466Leu, respectively. The respective allelic variants, CYP2S1*2 ([10347C > T]) and CYP2S1*3 (13106C > T; 13255A > G]), occurred in our study population at frequencies of 0.50 and 3.75%, respectively. The most common of the variant alleles was CYP2S1*1H (23.8%), harbouring a 13255A > G substitution located in the 3'UTR. PMID:15450424

  9. Status of the PMT development for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Classen, L.; Kalekin, O.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2013-10-01

    KM3NeT is a future large volume (multi km3) neutrino telescope to be constructed at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The detection volume will be instrumented using multi-PMT optical modules, consisting of an array of small photomultipliers housed in a spheric glass vessel. Three companies are presently developing 3-in. PMTs as candidates for the construction of these modules. Main characteristics of the prototypes, such as quantum efficiency, single electron gain, dark current and transit time spread, are required to meet the specification established by the KM3NeT consortium. We report on the current stage of PMT development and recent results of tests performed at the Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics.

  10. Circulation of the atmosphere from the surface to 100 km. [for Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Limaye, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    A reference model of the atmospheric circulation on Venus based on available observations is presented. The reference atmosphere has the following main features: (1) the entire atmosphere below 85 km moves predominantly from east to west in the planet's reference system (in the same direction as the rotation of the solid planet itself) with the possible exception of the lowest 10 km where velocities are low, (2) a jet is present near the cloud-top level at 45 deg latitude in both hemispheres, with a magnitude of approximately 100 m/s, (3) a weak meridional (north-south component) flow directed towards either pole is superimposed on the zonal (east-west motion at cloud-top level (about 68 km) altitudes, and, (4) eddies or wave motions are present in the atmosphere, with amplitudes of less than 16/ms in the upper atmosphere.

  11. Gravity wave and tidal structures between 60 and 140 km inferred from space shuttle reentry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ding-Yi; Blanchard, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of density measurements made using high-resolution accelerometers aboard several space shuttles at altitudes from 60 to 140 km during reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted in terms of gravity waves and tides and provide evidence of the importance of such motions well into the thermosphere. Height profiles of fractional density variance reveal that wave amplitudes increase at a rate consistent with observations at lower levels up to about 90 km. The rate of amplitude growth decreases at greater heights, however, and appears to cease above about 110 km. Wave amplitudes are nevertheless large at these heights and suggest that gravity waves may play an important role in forcing of the lower thermosphere.

  12. Status of the central logic board (CLB) of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, D.; Real, D.

    2015-12-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultiplier of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers, the acoustics sensor and the rest of the instrumentation. The electronics design includes a multiboot module which allows for the re-configuration of the nodes of the telescope remotely from the shore station. All the modules and subsystems are controlled by two embedded microprocessors, implemented on a Kintetx-7 FPGA, and complex embedded software.

  13. AmeriFlux BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest

    DOE Data Explorer

    Saleska, Scott [University of Arizona

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site BR-Sa1 Santarem-Km67-Primary Forest. Site Description - The LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site is located in the Tapajos National Forest, a 450,000 ha closed-canopy upland forest in Amazonian Brazil. Bounded by the Tapajos River in the west and highway BR-163 to the east, the tower is located on a flat plateau (or planalto) that extends up to 150 km to the north, south, and east. Within the confines of the National Forest, anthropogenic disturbances are limited to a few small hunting trails. The surrounding stand is classified as primary or "old-growth"" predominantly by its uneven age distribution, emergent trees, numerous epiphytes and abundant large logs. In 2007 falling trees hit the tower guy wires rendering all instrumentation in-operational. After a complete restoration tower measurements resumed in August of 2008.

  14. Short-range correlations and the 3 s1 /2 wave function in 206Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, M. R.; Shlomo, S.; Talmi, I.

    2015-09-01

    The charge-density difference between 206Pb and 205Tl , measured by elastic electron scattering, offers a unique opportunity to look for effects of short-range correlations on a shell-model wave function of a single proton. The measured difference is very similar to the charge density due to a proton in a 3 s1 /2 orbit. If there is a potential whose 3 s1 /2 wave function yields the measured difference between the charge distributions, no effect of short-range correlations is evident. To check this point, we look for a potential whose 3 s1 /2 wave function yields the measured data. We developed a novel method to obtain the potential directly from the density and its first and second derivatives. Fits to parametrized potentials were also carried out. The 3 s1 /2 wave functions of the potentials determined here reproduce fairly well the experimental data within the quoted errors. To detect possible effects of two-body correlations on the 3 s1 /2 shell-model wave function, more accurate measurements are required.

  15. Renormalized Traces and Cocycles on the Algebra of S 1-Pseudo-differential Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnot, Jean-Pierre

    2006-02-01

    Using renormalized (or weighted) traces of classical pseudo-differential operators and calculus on formal symbols. We exhibit three cocycles on the Lie algebra of classical pseudo-differential operators Cl(S^1,mathbb{C}^n) acting on L^2(S^1,mathbb{C}^n). We first show that the Schwinger functional c_S^D associated to the Dirac operator is a cocycle on Cl(S^1,mathbb{C}^n), and not only on a restricted algebra Cl(S^1,mathbb{C}^n)^D_res. Then, we investigate two bilinear functionals c+^D and c_{++}^D, which satisfies {1 over 2}c_S^D = c_+^D - c_{++}^D. We show that c+^D and c_{++}^D are two cocycles in Cl(S^1,mathbb{C}^n), and {1 over 2}c_S^D and c_+^D have the same nonvanishing cohomology class. We finaly calculate c+^D on classical pseudo-differential operators of order 1 and on differential operators of order 1, in terms of partial symbols. By this last computation, we recover the Virasoro cocyle and the Kähler form of the loop group.

  16. Novel S1P1 receptor agonists - Part 4: Alkylaminomethyl substituted aryl head groups.

    PubMed

    Lescop, Cyrille; Müller, Claus; Mathys, Boris; Birker, Magdalena; de Kanter, Ruben; Kohl, Christopher; Hess, Patrick; Nayler, Oliver; Rey, Markus; Sieber, Patrick; Steiner, Beat; Weller, Thomas; Bolli, Martin H

    2016-06-30

    In a previous communication we reported on the discovery of alkylamino pyridine derivatives (e.g. 1) as a new class of potent, selective and efficacious S1P1 receptor (S1PR1) agonists. However, more detailed profiling revealed that this compound class is phototoxic in vitro. Here we describe a new class of potent S1PR1 agonists wherein the exocyclic nitrogen was moved away from the pyridine ring (e.g. 11c). Further structural modifications led to the identification of novel alkylaminomethyl substituted phenyl and thienyl derivatives as potent S1PR1 agonists. These new alkylaminomethyl aryl compounds showed no phototoxic potential. Based on their in vivo efficacy and ability to penetrate the brain, the 5-alkyl-aminomethyl thiophenes appeared to be the most interesting class. Potent and selective S1PR1 agonist 20e, for instance, maximally reduced the blood lymphocyte count (LC) for 24 h after oral administration of 10 mg/kg to rat and its brain concentrations reached >500 ng/g over 24 h. PMID:27061986

  17. Efficient Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Infection by a preS1-binding Peptide.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ming; He, Yonggang; Wan, Yanmin; Bai, Weiya; Tao, Shuai; Ren, Yanqin; Zhang, Xinxin; Xu, Jianqing; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Junqi; Hu, Kanghong; Xie, Youhua

    2016-01-01

    Entry inhibitors are promising novel antivirals against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The existing potential entry inhibitors have targeted the cellular receptor(s). In this study, we aim to develop the first entry inhibitor that inhibits HBV infection via targeting viral particles. The preS1 segment of the large envelope glycoprotein of HBV is essential for virion attachment and infection. Previously, we obtained a preS1-binding short peptide B10 by screening a phage display peptide library using the N-terminal half of preS1 (residues 1 to 60, genotype C). We report here that by means of concatenation of B10, we identified a quadruple concatemer 4B10 that displayed a markedly increased preS1-binding activity. The main binding site of 4B10 in preS1 was mapped to the receptor binding enhancing region. 4B10 blocked HBV attachment to hepatic cells and inhibited HBV infection of primary human and tupaia hepatocytes at low nanomolar concentrations. The 4B10-mediated inhibition of HBV infection is specific as it did not inhibit the infection of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus or human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Moreover, 4B10 showed no binding activity to hepatic cells. In conclusion, we have identified 4B10 as a promising candidate for a novel class of HBV entry inhibitors. PMID:27384014

  18. S1 pocket of glutamate carboxypeptidase II: a new binding site for amyloid-β degradation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk Kyung; Kim, Hyunyoung; Cheong, You-Hoon; Kim, Min-Ju; Jo, Sangmee Ahn; Youn, Hyung-Seop; Park, Sang Ick

    2013-09-01

    We recently reported that glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) has a new physiological function degrading amyloid-β (Aβ), distinct from its own hydrolysis activity in N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG); however, its underlying mechanism remains undiscovered. Using site-directed mutagenesis and S1 pocket-specific chemical inhibitor (compound 2), which was developed for the present study based on in sillico computational modeling, we discovered that the Aβ degradation occurs through S1 pocket but not through S1' pocket responsible for NAAG hydrolysis. Treatment with compound 2 prevented GCPII from Aβ degradation without any impairment in NAAG hydrolysis. Likewise, 2-PMPA (specific GCPII inhibitor developed targeting S1' pocket) completely blocked the NAAG hydrolysis without any effect on Aβ degradation. Pre-incubation with NAAG and Aβ did not affect Aβ degradation and NAAG hydrolysis, respectively. These data suggest that GCPII has two distinctive binding sites for two different substrates and that Aβ degradation occurs through binding to S1 pocket of GCPII. PMID:23891752

  19. Efficient Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Infection by a preS1-binding Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ming; He, Yonggang; Wan, Yanmin; Bai, Weiya; Tao, Shuai; Ren, Yanqin; Zhang, Xinxin; Xu, Jianqing; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Junqi; Hu, Kanghong; Xie, Youhua

    2016-01-01

    Entry inhibitors are promising novel antivirals against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The existing potential entry inhibitors have targeted the cellular receptor(s). In this study, we aim to develop the first entry inhibitor that inhibits HBV infection via targeting viral particles. The preS1 segment of the large envelope glycoprotein of HBV is essential for virion attachment and infection. Previously, we obtained a preS1-binding short peptide B10 by screening a phage display peptide library using the N-terminal half of preS1 (residues 1 to 60, genotype C). We report here that by means of concatenation of B10, we identified a quadruple concatemer 4B10 that displayed a markedly increased preS1-binding activity. The main binding site of 4B10 in preS1 was mapped to the receptor binding enhancing region. 4B10 blocked HBV attachment to hepatic cells and inhibited HBV infection of primary human and tupaia hepatocytes at low nanomolar concentrations. The 4B10-mediated inhibition of HBV infection is specific as it did not inhibit the infection of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus or human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Moreover, 4B10 showed no binding activity to hepatic cells. In conclusion, we have identified 4B10 as a promising candidate for a novel class of HBV entry inhibitors. PMID:27384014

  20. Novel S1P(1) receptor agonists--part 3: from thiophenes to pyridines.

    PubMed

    Bolli, Martin H; Abele, Stefan; Birker, Magdalena; Bravo, Roberto; Bur, Daniel; de Kanter, Ruben; Kohl, Christopher; Grimont, Julien; Hess, Patrick; Lescop, Cyrille; Mathys, Boris; Müller, Claus; Nayler, Oliver; Rey, Markus; Scherz, Michael; Schmidt, Gunther; Seifert, Jürgen; Steiner, Beat; Velker, Jörg; Weller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In preceding communications we summarized our medicinal chemistry efforts leading to the identification of potent, selective, and orally active S1P1 agonists such as the thiophene derivative 1. As a continuation of these efforts, we replaced the thiophene in 1 by a 2-, 3-, or 4-pyridine and obtained less lipophilic, potent, and selective S1P1 agonists (e.g., 2) efficiently reducing blood lymphocyte count in the rat. Structural features influencing the compounds' receptor affinity profile and pharmacokinetics are discussed. In addition, the ability to penetrate brain tissue has been studied for several compounds. As a typical example for these pyridine based S1P1 agonists, compound 53 showed EC50 values of 0.6 and 352 nM for the S1P1 and S1P3 receptor, respectively, displayed favorable PK properties, and penetrated well into brain tissue. In the rat, compound 53 maximally reduced the blood lymphocyte count for at least 24 h after oral dosing of 3 mg/kg. PMID:24367923

  1. Novel S1P1 receptor agonists - Part 5: From amino-to alkoxy-pyridines.

    PubMed

    Bolli, Martin H; Lescop, Cyrille; Birker, Magdalena; de Kanter, Ruben; Hess, Patrick; Kohl, Christopher; Nayler, Oliver; Rey, Markus; Sieber, Patrick; Velker, Jörg; Weller, Thomas; Steiner, Beat

    2016-06-10

    In a previous communication we reported on the discovery of aminopyridine 1 as a potent, selective and orally active S1P1 receptor agonist. More detailed studies revealed that this compound is phototoxic in vitro. As a result of efforts aiming at eliminating this undesired property, a series of alkoxy substituted pyridine derivatives was discovered. The photo irritancy factor (PIF) of these alkoxy pyridines was significantly lower than the one of aminopyridine 1 and most compounds were not phototoxic. Focused SAR studies showed, that 2-, 3-, and 4-pyridine derivatives delivered highly potent S1P1 receptor agonists. While the 2-pyridines were clearly more selective against S1PR3, the corresponding 3- or 4-pyridine analogues showed significantly longer oral half-lives and as a consequence longer pharmacological duration of action after oral administration. One of the best compounds, cyclopentoxy-pyridine 45b lacked phototoxicity, showed EC50 values of 0.7 and 140 nM on S1PR1 and S1PR3, respectively, and maximally reduced the blood lymphocyte count for at least 24 h after oral administration of 10 mg/kg to Wistar rats. PMID:27027817

  2. An oral fluoropyrimidine agent S-1 induced interstitial lung disease: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Hiromichi; Kinugawa, Masahide; Umemura, Shigeki; Shiote, Yasuhiro; Kudo, Kenichiro; Suwaki, Toshimitsu; Kamei, Haruhito; Takigawa, Nagio; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2011-01-01

    A 66-year-old Japanese man with pancreatic cancer received eleven courses of gemcitabine monotherapy. The tumor responded to gemcitabine until metastatic liver tumors progressed. Subsequently, he was treated with S-1, an oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent, as salvage chemotherapy. Forty-two days after initiating S-1, he presented with dyspnea and fever. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse interstitial lesions with thickening of the alveolar septa and ground glass opacity. Serum KL-6 level was elevated to 1,230 U/mL and he did not use any other drugs except insulin. Thus, the development of interstitial lung disease (ILD) was considered to be due to S-1. Arterial blood oxygen pressure was 49.6 Torr in spite of oxygen administration (5 L/min). Steroid therapy improved his symptoms and the interstitial shadows on chest radiograph. Although S-1-induced ILD has mostly been reported to be mild, clinicians should be aware that S-1 has the potential to cause fatal ILD. PMID:21773080

  3. Effects of radiant heat exposure on pacing pattern during a 15-km cycling time trial.

    PubMed

    Levels, Koen; de Koning, Jos; Broekhuijzen, Iris; Zwaan, Tamara; Foster, Carl; Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of different durations of skin temperature manipulation on pacing patterns and performance during a 15-km cycling time trial. Nineteen well-trained men completed three 15-km cycling time trials in 18 °C and 50% relative humidity with 4.5-km (short-heat), 9.0-km (long-heat) or without (control) radiant heat exposure applied by infrared heaters after 1.5 km in the time trial. During the time trials, power output, mean skin temperature, rectal temperature, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were assessed. The radiant heat exposure resulted in higher mean skin temperature during the time trial for short-heat (35.0 ± 0.6 °C) and long-heat (35.3 ± 0.5 °C) than for control (32.5 ± 1.0 °C; P < 0.001), whereas rectal temperature was similar (P = 0.55). The mean power output was less for short-heat (273 ± 8 W; P = 0.001) and long-heat (271 ± 9 W; P = 0.02) than for control (287 ± 7 W), but pacing patterns did not differ (P = 0.55). Heart rate was greatest in control (177 ± 9 beats · min(-1); P < 0.001), whereas the rating of perceived exertion remained similar. We concluded that a radiant heat exposure and associated higher skin temperature reduced overall performance, but did not modify pacing pattern during a 15-km cycling time trial, regardless of the duration of the exposure. PMID:24405217

  4. On the origin of 150-km echoes: Recent observational results and current understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Amit

    2012-07-01

    Discovered nearly 45 years ago, the so-called 150-km echoing phenomenon continues to be a puzzle. These are the coherent radar echoes coming from the height region of 140-180 km during daytime and are of special interest to the ionospheric scientists since they are very useful means for estimating the daytime electric fields, a crucial parameter for studying daytime electrodynamics and plasma physics, and can be observed by radar with moderate sensitivity. Although the 150-km echoes are being regularly used for studying low latitude electrodynamics, it is a bit awkward using them in the scientific work without knowing their origin. This paper is meant to present and discuss new results obtained from Gadanki (13.5o N, 79.2o E, mag. lat. 6.5o N), India to elucidate the underlying physical processes, not considered before. Two new findings, one obtained during the passage of a solar eclipse and another linked with the intermediate layer type descending properties of 150-km echoes, clearly indicate the role of electron density gradient in generating the irregularities responsible for the 150-km radar echoes, not envisioned before. Given the fact that Gadanki is located at magnetically low latitude, it is proposed that the descending echoing layers are produced by interchange instability on the gradient of daytime descending ion layer formed by meridional wind shear associated with tidal/gravity waves quite similar to that observed during nighttime. Comparative anatomy of daytime 150-km echoes and nighttime intermediate layer echoes will also be presented and discussed in an effort to have a deeper understanding on the underlying instability processes.

  5. Glacial Lake Vitim, a 3000-km 3 outburst flood from Siberia to the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margold, Martin; Jansson, Krister N.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Jansen, John D.

    2011-11-01

    A prominent lake formed when glaciers descending from the Kodar Range blocked the River Vitim in central Transbaikalia, Siberia. Glacial Lake Vitim, evidenced by palaeoshorelines and deltas, covered 23,500 km 2 and held a volume of ~ 3000 km 3. We infer that a large canyon in the area of the postulated ice dam served as a spillway during an outburst flood that drained through the rivers Vitim and Lena into the Arctic Ocean. The inferred outburst flood, of a magnitude comparable to the largest known floods on Earth, possibly explains a freshwater spike at ~ 13 cal ka BP inferred from Arctic Ocean sediments.

  6. KM3NeT - ORCA: measuring the neutrino mass ordering in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchner, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    ORCA (Oscillations Research with Cosmics in the Abyss) is the low-energy branch of KM3NeT, the underwater Cherenkov neutrino detector in the Mediterranean. Its primary goal is to resolve the long-standing unsolved question of the neutrino mass ordering by measuring matter oscillation effects in atmospheric neutrinos. To be deployed at the French KM3NeT site, ORCA’s multi-PMT optical modules will exploit the excellent optical properties of deep seawater to reconstruct cascade and track events with a few GeV of energy. This contribution reviews the methods and technology, and discusses the current expected performances.

  7. Appraising the reliability of converted wavefield imaging: application to USArray imaging of the 410-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Pavlis, Gary L.

    2013-03-01

    We develop a generic method to appraise the reliability of wavefield imaging methods and use it to validate some novel observations on the 410-km discontinuity. The core concept of the error appraisal method is to produce a simulated data set that replicates the geometry of the real data. Here we implemented two simulation methods: (1) flat layer primary P to S conversions, and (2) a point source scattering model for P to S conversion data based on the Born approximation and ray theory propagators. We show how the approach can be extended for any simulation algorithm. We apply this new approach to appraise recent results using a 3-D, three-component P to S conversion imaging method applied to data collected by the USArray. Multiple metrics show that the amplitude of P to S converted energy scattered from the 410-km discontinuity varies by 18 dB with a systematically lower amplitude in an irregular band running from Idaho through northern Arizona. In addition, we observe strong lateral changes in the ratio of amplitudes recovered on the radial versus the transverse component. We compute point resolution functions and a checkerboard test to demonstrate we can reliably recover relative amplitudes with a lateral scale of the order of 200 km and a vertical scale of approximately 10 km. Irregular coverage locally distorts the amplitudes recovered in the checkerboard, but a 156 km scale checkerboard pattern is recovered. Flat layer simulations show we can recover relative amplitudes to within a range of 1 dB and the reconstructed transverse to radial amplitude is everywhere less than 0.1. A model with north-south oriented ridges with a 3° wavelength and 12.5 km amplitude shows of the order of ±6 dB amplitude variations and small, but clear correlation of the transverse/radial amplitude ratio topography in the model. Finally, we model the 410-km discontinuity as a rough surface characterized by variations in amplitude and depth derived from the USArray data. The rough

  8. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

  9. Bent Mantle Plumes and Channel Flow Under the 660 Km Discontinuity in Western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, D. A.; Tosi, N.

    2011-12-01

    Recent high-resolution seismic imaging by multiply-reflected S waves of the transition zone topography beneath the Hawaiian archipelago gives strong evidence for a 1000 to 2000 km wide hot thermal anomaly ponding beneath the 660 km boundary west of Hawaii islands (Cao et al., Science ,2011). This scenario suggests that Hawaiian volcanism may not be caused by a stationary narrow plume rising from the core-mantle boundary but by hot plume material first held back beneath the 660 km discontinuity and then entrained under the transition zone before coming up to the surface. Using a cylindrical convection model with multiple phase transitions, we investigate the particular dynamical conditions needed for obtaining this peculiar plume morphology. Focusing on the role exerted by pressure-dependent thermodynamic and transport parameters, we show that a strong reduction of the coefficient of thermal expansion in the lower mantle and a viscosity hill at a depth of around 1800 km are needed for plumes to have enough focused buoyancy to reach and pass through the 660 km phase boundary. The lateral spreading of plumes near the top of the lower mantle manifests itself as a channel flow whose length is controlled by the viscosity contrast due to temperature variations . For small amounts of viscosity contrast , broad and highly viscous plumes are generated which tend to pass through the transition zone relatively unscathed. For higher values , between 100 and 1000 ,we obtain horizontal channel flows beneath the 660 km boundary as long as 1500 km within a timescale that resembles that of Hawaiian hotspot history. This finding may account for the origin of the broad hot anomaly observed west of Hawaii. For a normal thermal anomaly of 450 K associated with a lower mantle plume, we obtain activation energies of about 400 kJ/mol and 600 kJ/mol for viscosity contrasts of 100 and 1000, respectively, in good agreement with values based on lower mantle mineral physics. If an increase of

  10. Lunar thermal regime to 300 km. [in crust and upper mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keihm, S. J.; Langseth, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    Coupling of the global heat flow, crustal heat source enrichment, thermal conductivity, and temperature in the crust and upper mantle of the moon is examined. A steady-state moon in which conductive heat transfer dominates is assumed. Heat-flow measurements from the Apollo 15 and 17 missions and gamma-ray mapping of thorium conducted by the Apollo 15 and 16 missions provide data for the study of the lunar thermal regime. Temperatures in the range of 1100 to 1600 K are found for the 300-km depth level. In the upper mantle, temperature gradients are in the range of 1.8 to 3.2 K/km.

  11. A search for the H2 /3, 0/ S1 line in the spectrum of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muench, G.; Trauger, J. T.; Roesler, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for measurements of the quadrupole S1 line of the (3, 0) absorption band of H2 in spectra of Titan, which were performed at an effective resolution of 0.09 A by scanning with a PEPSIOS spectrometer over a range of 0.85 A centered at the expected position of the investigated line and sampling in 80 contiguous channels. No statistically significant H2 (3, 0) S1 feature is found in the spectra, but a three-sigma upper limit of 3 mA is set for the equivalent width of the S1 line that might be present in a co-added spectrum. It is concluded that these measurements do not provide any evidence for the presence of H2 in the atmosphere of Titan.

  12. The 2(2S + 1)-formalism and its connection with other descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoeglazov, Valeriy V.

    2016-02-01

    In the framework of the Joos-Weinberg 2(2S + 1)-theory for massless particles, the dynamical invariants have been derived from the Lagrangian density which is considered to be a 4-vector. A la Majorana interpretation of the 6-component “spinors”, the field operators of S = 1 particles, as the left- and right-circularly polarized radiation, leads us to the conserved quantities which are analogous to those obtained by Lipkin and Sudbery. The scalar Lagrangian of the Joos-Weinberg theory is shown to be equivalent to the Lagrangian of a free massless field, introduced by Hayashi. As a consequence of a new “gauge” invariance this skew-symmetric field describes physical particles with the longitudinal components only. The interaction of the spinor field with the Weinberg’s 2(2S + 1)-component massless field is considered. New interpretation of the Weinberg field function is proposed.

  13. Use of S1 nuclease in deep sequencing for detection of double-stranded RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Saya; Nagai, Makoto; Moriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Koyama, Satoshi; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Furuya, Tetsuya; Shirai, Junsuke; Mizutani, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Metagenomic approach using next-generation DNA sequencing has facilitated the detection of many pathogenic viruses from fecal samples. However, in many cases, majority of the detected sequences originate from the host genome and bacterial flora in the gut. Here, to improve efficiency of the detection of double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses from samples, we evaluated the applicability of S1 nuclease on deep sequencing. Treating total RNA with S1 nuclease resulted in 1.5-28.4- and 10.1-208.9-fold increases in sequence reads of group A rotavirus in fecal and viral culture samples, respectively. Moreover, increasing coverage of mapping to reference sequences allowed for sufficient genotyping using analytical software. These results suggest that library construction using S1 nuclease is useful for deep sequencing in the detection of dsRNA viruses. PMID:25843154

  14. Radiationless deactivation of 6-aminocoumarin from the S1-ICT state in nonspecifically interacting solvents.

    PubMed

    Krystkowiak, Ewa; Dobek, Krzysztof; Burdziński, Gotard; Maciejewski, Andrzej

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the results of a spectral (absorption and emission) and photophysical study of 6-aminocoumarin (6AC) in the solvents with which this molecule interacts only nonspecifically (n-alkanes, tetrachloromethane and 1-chloro-n-alkanes) and in nitriles. The strong effects of the solvents on the emission spectra, fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime of 6AC were observed. The results of the steady-state and time-resolved photophysical study suggest the presence of very fast nonradiative deactivation processes. It is concluded that besides fluorescence, the efficient S(1)-ICT → S(0) internal conversion in nonpolar aprotic solvents arises from vibronic interactions between close-lying S(1)-ICT(π,π*) and S(2)(n,π*) states. Moreover, unexpectedly efficient triplet state formation occurs. In nitriles the intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions with solvent molecules also facilitate the nonradiative decay process involving the S(1)-exciplex. PMID:22622372

  15. Combination chemotherapy with S-1 and docetaxel for cutaneous angiosarcoma resistant to paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Ikko; Kanemaru, Hisashi; Miyake, Taiga; Aoi, Jun; Masuguchi, Shinichi; Fukushima, Satoshi; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2015-02-01

    The prognosis of cutaneous angiosarcoma is very poor compared with that of other skin malignancies. The main reason for this is the limited regimens of chemotherapy available for angiosarcoma, because it is resistant to most common chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new treatment options. Recently, S-1 and docetaxel therapy was reported to be effective for advanced gastric cancer and metastatic extramammary Paget's disease. Therefore, we treated paclitaxel-resistant angiosarcoma patient with S-1/docetaxel chemotherapy. The progression-free survival was 5.0 months although grade 3 adverse events such as diarrhea and neutropenia developed. Our data need to be confirmed in a large number of patients, but S-1/docetaxel chemotherapy as an additional regimen seems to be an effective treatment option for paclitaxel-resistant angiosarcoma. PMID:25788055

  16. Design and Synthesis of 1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile (Citalopram) Analogues as Novel Probes for the Serotonin Transporter S1 and S2 Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Banala, Ashwini K.; Zhang, Peng; Plenge, Per; Cyriac, George; Kopajtic, Theresa; Katz, Jonathan L.; Loland, Claus Juul; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the primary target for antidepressant drugs. The existence of a high affinity primary orthosteric binding site (S1) and a low affinity secondary site (S2) has been described and their relation to antidepressant pharmacology has been debated. Herein, structural modifications to the N-, 4, 5, and 4’-positions of (±)citalopram (1) are reported. All of the analogues were SERT-selective and demonstrated that steric bulk was tolerated at the SERT S1 site, including two dimeric ligands (15 and 51.) In addition, 8 analogues were identified with similar potencies to S-1 for decreasing the dissociation of [3H]S-1 from the S1 site, via allosteric modulation at S2. Both dimeric compounds had similar affinities for the SERT S1 site (Ki=19.7 and 30.2 nM, respectively), whereas only the N-substituted analogue, 51, was as effective as S-1 in allosterically modulating the binding of [3H]S-1 via S2. PMID:24237160

  17. Molecular and immunological characterization of the glycosylated orange allergen Cit s 1.

    PubMed

    Pöltl, Gerald; Ahrazem, Oussama; Paschinger, Katharina; Ibañez, M Dolores; Salcedo, Gabriel; Wilson, Iain B H

    2007-02-01

    The IgE of sera from patients with a history of allergy to oranges (Citrus sinensis) binds a number of proteins in orange extract, including Cit s 1, a germin-like protein. In the present study, we have analyzed its immunological cross-reactivity and its molecular nature. Sera from many of the patients examined recognize a range of glycoproteins and neoglycoconjugates containing beta1,2-xylose and core alpha1,3-fucose on their N-glycans. These reagents also inhibited the interaction of Cit s 1 with patients' sera, thus underlining the critical role of glycosylation in the recognition of this protein by patients' IgE and extending previous data showing that deglycosylated Cit s 1 does not possess IgE epitopes. In parallel, we examined the peptide sequence and glycan structure of Cit s 1, using mass spectrometric techniques. Indeed, we achieved complete sequence coverage of the mature protein compared with the translation of an expressed sequence tag cDNA clone and demonstrated that the single N-glycosylation site of this protein carries oligosaccharides with xylose and fucose residues. Owing to the presumed requirement for multivalency for in vivo allergenicity, our molecular data showing that Cit s 1 is monovalent as regards glycosylation and that the single N-glycan is the target of the IgE response to this protein explain the immunological cross-reactive properties of Cit s 1 as well as its equivocal nature as a clinically relevant allergen. PMID:17095532

  18. The modified dispersion relation for ionacoustic instabilities of ionospheric plasma at 80-200 km altitudes and its usage for interpretation of 150km equatorial radioecho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berngardt, O. I.; Potekhin, A. P.

    2009-04-01

    Ionacoustic instabilities of the ionospheric plasma and corresponding small-scale irregularities of the electron density significantly affect to the HF and UHF radiowaves propagation. Due to this an investigation of their characteristics is the important task staying on the border of the radiowaves propagation theory, geophysics and plasmaphysics. The theory of these instabilities in the E-layer, that are qualitatively divided into the two-stream and gradient-drift ones, is under development for a long time. The most part of the linear theories replaces investigation of the irregularities by analysis of the dispersion relation for the plasma irregularities. This dispersion relation connects oscillation frequency of the irregularities with their wave vector and defines conditions for the growth of the irregularities and their spectral characteristics in terms of plane waves approximation. There are two traditional limitations of such theories, limiting their region of applicability: 1)Magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions requirement; 2)Low oscillation frequency of irregularities in comparison with ion-neutral and electron-neutral collision frequencies. In the paper within the approximation of the two-fluid magnetohydrodynamics and geometrooptical approximation the dispersion relation without noted limitations was obtained. The relation describes ionacoustic instabilities of the ionospheric plasma at 80-200km altitudes in three-dimensional weakly irregular ionosphere. The dispersion relation obtained has a form of the 6-th order polynomial for the oscillation frequency. Within limitations 1,2 the obtained relation has approximate solutions, close to the traditional ones for two-stream and gradient-drift instabilities. The difference between obtained and standard dispersion relation becomes significant at altitudes above 140 km. For this situation, in some special cases this new dispersion relation can be significantly simplified and some analytical solutions of

  19. Optimization of a Potent, Orally Active S1P1 Agonist Containing a Quinolinone Core

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The optimization of a series of S1P1 agonists with limited activity against S1P3 is reported. A polar headgroup was used to improve the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of lead quinolinone 6. When dosed orally at 1 and 3 mg/kg, the azahydroxymethyl analogue 22 achieved statistically significant lowering of circulating blood lymphocytes 24 h postdose. In rats, a dose-proportional increase in exposure was measured when 22 was dosed orally at 2 and 100 mg/kg. PMID:24900374

  20. STS-112 S1 truss in Payload Changeout Room at Launch Pad 39-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Payload Changeout Room at the pad, the payload is moved out of the payload canister for transfer to Space Shuttle Atlantis' payload bay for mission STS-112. The primary payload on the mission is the S1 Integrated Truss Structure. The first starboard truss segment, the S1 will be attached to the Central truss segment, the S0 Truss, on the International Space Station during the mission. Atlantis is scheduled to launch no earlier than Oct. 2.

  1. Negative infrared photoconductivity in CdS1-xSex films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdinov, A. S.; Jafarov, M. A.; Mamedov, H. M.; Nasirov, E. F.

    2003-09-01

    The negative infrared photoconductivity (NPH) has been observed for the first time in CdS1-xSex films, in the wavelength region of 0.700 - 1.23 μm. at values of stimulating light intensity Φ = 100 - 400 Lk. electrical field E = 0.5 - 130 V/cm and temperature T = 265 - 310 Κ. It is established, that basic laws of NPH explains on the basis of two-barrier model and in the considered conditions a charge carriers, overcome a barrier by tunneling. A films of CdS1-xSex can be used in IR engineering and negatronics.

  2. 11-cis retinal torsion: A QTAIM and stress tensor analysis of the S1 excited state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maza, Julio R.; Jenkins, Samantha; Kirk, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate torsion about the C11-C12 bond mid-point for the S1 state of 11-cis retinal, using a QTAIM and stress tensor analysis. The QTAIM and stress tensor responses to a torsion ±α increase at a faster rate for the preferred direction of torsion though the CI seam. A QTAIM and stress tensor vector-based analysis provides an alternative way of characterising the asymmetry of the S1 potential energy surface. In the vicinity of the CI seam the ellipticity ε attained minimum values. The application of this analysis to molecular rotary motors is briefly discussed.

  3. Observation of an exotic S = +1 baryon in exclusive photoproduction from the deuteron.

    PubMed

    Stepanyan, S; Hicks, K; Carman, D S; Pasyuk, E; Schumacher, R A; Smith, E S; Tedeschi, D J; Todor, L; Adams, G; Ambrozewicz, P; Anciant, E; Anghinolfi, M; Asavapibhop, B; Audit, G; Avakian, H; Bagdasaryan, H; Ball, J P; Barrow, S P; Battaglieri, M; Beard, K; Bektasoglu, M; Bellis, M; Berman, B L; Bianchi, N; Biselli, A S; Boiarinov, S; Bouchigny, S; Bradford, R; Branford, D; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Butuceanu, C; Calarco, J R; Carnahan, B; Chen, S; Ciciani, L; Cole, P L; Coleman, A; Cords, D; Corvisiero, P; Crabb, D; Crannell, H; Cummings, J P; De Sanctis, E; Degtyarenko, P V; Denizli, H; Dennis, L; De Vita, R; Dharmawardane, K V; Dhuga, K S; Djalali, C; Dodge, G E; Doughty, D; Dragovitsch, P; Dugger, M; Dytman, S; Dzyubak, O P; Egiyan, H; Egiyan, K S; Elouadrhiri, L; Empl, A; Eugenio, P; Fatemi, R; Feuerbach, R J; Ficenec, J; Forest, T A; Funsten, H; Garçon, M; Gavalian, G; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Gordon, C I O; Gothe, R; Griffioen, K; Guidal, M; Guillo, M; Guo, L; Gyurjyan, V; Hadjidakis, C; Hakobyan, R S; Hardie, J; Heddle, D; Heimberg, P; Hersman, F W; Hicks, R S; Holtrop, M; Hu, J; Hyde-Wright, C E; Ito, M M; Jenkins, D; Joo, K; Juengst, H G; Kellie, J D; Khandaker, M; Kim, K Y; Kim, K; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Klimenko, A V; Klusman, M; Kossov, M; Kramer, L H; Kuang, Y; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuhn, J; Lachniet, J; Lawrence, D; Li, J; Lima, A; Livingston, K; Lukashin, K; Manak, J J; McAleer, S; McNabb, J W C; Mecking, B A; Mehrabyan, S; Melone, J J; Mestayer, M D; Meyer, C A; Mikhailov, K; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Miskimen, R; Mokeev, V; Morand, L; Morrow, S; Muccifora, V; Mueller, J; Murphy, L Y; Mutchler, G S; Napolitano, J; Nasseripour, R; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Niczyporuk, B B; Niyazov, R A; Nozar, M; O'Brien, J; O'Rielly, G V; Opper, A K; Osipenko, M; Park, K; Peterson, G; Philips, S A; Pivnyuk, N; Pocanic, D; Pogorelko, O; Polli, E; Pozdniakov, S; Preedom, B M; Price, J W; Prok, Y; Protopopescu, D; Qin, L M; Raue, B A; Riccardi, G; Ricco, G; Ripani, M; Ritchie, B G; Ronchetti, F; Rossi, P; Rowntree, D; Rubin, P; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Santoro, J; Sapunenko, V; Serov, V S; Sharabian, Y G; Shaw, J; Simionatto, S; Skabelin, A V; Smith, L C; Sober, D I; Strakovsky, I I; Stavinsky, A; Stoler, P; Suleiman, R; Taiuti, M; Taylor, S; Thoma, U; Thompson, R; Tur, C; Ungaro, M; Vineyard, M F; Vlassov, A V; Wang, K; Weinstein, L B; Weller, H; Weygand, D P; Whisnant, C S; Wolin, E; Wood, M H; Yegneswaran, A; Yun, J

    2003-12-19

    In an exclusive measurement of the reaction gammad-->K(+)K(-)pn, a narrow peak that can be attributed to an exotic baryon with strangeness S=+1 is seen in the K(+)n invariant mass spectrum. The peak is at 1.542+/-0.005 GeV/c(2) with a measured width of 0.021 GeV/c(2) FWHM, which is largely determined by experimental mass resolution. The statistical significance of the peak is (5.2+/-0.6)sigma. The mass and width of the observed peak are consistent with recent reports of a narrow S=+1 baryon by other experimental groups. PMID:14754107

  4. Temperature minima in the average thermal structure of the middle mesosphere (70 - 80 km) from analysis of 40- to 92-km SME global temperature profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. Todd; Rusch, David W.; Callan, Michael T.

    1994-01-01

    Global temperatures have been derived for the upper stratosphere and mesosphere from analysis of Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) limb radiance profiles. The SME temperature represent fixed local time observations at 1400 - 1500 LT, with partial zonal coverage of 3 - 5 longitudes per day over the 1982-1986 period. These new SME temperatures are compared to the COSPAR International Ionosphere Reference Atmosphere 86 (CIRA 86) climatology (Fleming et al., 1990) as well as stratospheric and mesospheric sounder (SAMS); Barnett and Corney, 1984), National Meteorological Center (NMC); (Gelman et al., 1986), and individual lidar and rocket observations. Significant areas of disagreement between the SME and CIRA 86 mesospheric temperatures are 10 K warmer SME temperatures at altitudes above 80 km. The 1981-1982 SAMS temperatures are in much closer agreement with the SME temperatures between 40 and 75 km. Although much of the SME-CIRA 86 disagreement probably stems from the poor vertical resolution of the observations comprising the CIRA 86 modelm, some portion of the differences may reflect 5- to 10-year temporal variations in mesospheric temperatures. The CIRA 86 climatology is based on 1973-1978 measurements. Relatively large (1 K/yr) 5- to 10-year trends in temperatures as functions of longitude, latitude, and altitude have been observed for both the upper stratosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989a) and mesosphere (Clancy and Rusch, 1989b; Hauchecorne et al., 1991). The SME temperatures also exhibit enhanced amplitudes for the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of upper mesospheric temperatures at low latitudes, which are not evident in the CIRA 86 climatology. The so-called mesospheric `temperature inversions' at wintertime midlatitudes, which have been observed by ground-based lidar (Hauschecorne et al., 1987) and rocket in situ measurements (Schmidlin, 1976), are shown to be a climatological aspect of the mesosphere, based on the SME observations.

  5. Global 4 km resolution monthly gridded Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) data set derived from FLUXNET2015

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kumar, Jitendra; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Hargrove, William W.; Collier, Nathan

    2016-08-01

    This data set contain global gridded surfaces of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) at 2 arc minute (approximately 4 km) spatial resolution monthly for the period of 2000-2014 derived from FLUXNET2015 (released July 12, 2016) observations using a representativeness based upscaling approach.

  6. Magnetic Anomalies of the Fennoscandian Shield on a 2km resolution grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Juha V.; Aaro, Sven; Reidar Skilbrei, Jan; All, Tarmo

    2010-05-01

    Joint magnetic anomaly grid of the Fennoscandian Shield was released 2002, smoothed and used as data for the WDMAM2007. In comparison with MF5 this grid showed superior characteristics to other sets. The data will be released as a 2 km resolution grid for the WDMAM2011 with eventual updates of anomaly levels.

  7. Enabling Grid Computing resources within the KM3NeT computing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidis, Christos

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a future European deep-sea research infrastructure hosting a new generation neutrino detectors that - located at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea - will open a new window on the universe and answer fundamental questions both in particle physics and astrophysics. International collaborative scientific experiments, like KM3NeT, are generating datasets which are increasing exponentially in both complexity and volume, making their analysis, archival, and sharing one of the grand challenges of the 21st century. These experiments, in their majority, adopt computing models consisting of different Tiers with several computing centres and providing a specific set of services for the different steps of data processing such as detector calibration, simulation and data filtering, reconstruction and analysis. The computing requirements are extremely demanding and, usually, span from serial to multi-parallel or GPU-optimized jobs. The collaborative nature of these experiments demands very frequent WAN data transfers and data sharing among individuals and groups. In order to support the aforementioned demanding computing requirements we enabled Grid Computing resources, operated by EGI, within the KM3NeT computing model. In this study we describe our first advances in this field and the method for the KM3NeT users to utilize the EGI computing resources in a simulation-driven use-case.

  8. REGIONAL SCALE (1000 KM) MODEL OF PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION. PART 1. THEORETICAL FORMULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A theoretical framework for a multi-day 1000 km scale simulation model of photochemical oxidant is developed. It is structured in a highly modular form so that eventually the model can be applied through straightforward modifications to simulations of particulates, visibility and...

  9. Time-resolved wave-profile measurements at impact velocities of 10 km/s

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Furnish, M.D.; Reinhart, W.D.

    1998-06-01

    Development of well-controlled hypervelocity launch capabilities is the first step to understand material behavior at extreme pressures and temperatures not available using conventional gun technology. In this paper, techniques used to extend both the launch capabilities of a two-stage light-gas gun to 10 km/s and their use to determine material properties at pressures and temperature states higher than those ever obtained in the laboratory are summarized. Time-resolved interferometric techniques have been used to determine shock loading and release characteristics of materials impacted by titanium and aluminum fliers launched by the only developed three-stage light-gas gun at 10 km/s. In particular, the Sandia three stage light gas gun, also referred to as the hypervelocity launcher, HVL, which is capable of launching 0.5 mm to 1.0 mm thick by 6 mm to 19 mm diameter plates to velocities approaching 16 km/s has been used to obtain the necessary impact velocities. The VISAR, interferometric particle-velocity techniques has been used to determine shock loading and release profiles in aluminum and titanium at impact velocities of 10 km/s.

  10. Knowledge Management (KM): A Revolution Waiting for IR. AIR 2001 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milam, John H., Jr.

    This paper shares a vision of the future of institutional research (IR) for the 21st century, in which institutional researchers learn to see themselves as the critical knowledge workers in the higher education industry. To take on this role, IR needs to: (1) understand the concepts of knowledge management (KM); (2) use new tools to meet the…

  11. KM Critical Success Factors: A Comparison of Perceived Importance Versus Implementation in Malaysian ICT Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Siong Choy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This research examines the level of perception and implementation of 11 identified knowledge management (KM) success factors and their differences among the information and communication technology (ICT) companies operating in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: The survey data was obtained from a study of 427 middle managers from 194…

  12. An optical MIMO transmission system over 80km of two-mode fiber using DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rongling; Fang, Wuliang; Tang, Chanjuan; Chi, Nan

    2011-12-01

    Simulations confirm stable MIMO transport of two channels over a two-mode fiber. Successful reception is achieved over 80km two-mode fiber at a bit error rate of 10-6 - enabled by a new signal recovery algorithm we proposed.

  13. Effects of a minimalist shoe on running economy and 5-km running performance.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Joel T; Thewlis, Dominic; Tsiros, Margarita D; Brown, Nicholas A T; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if minimalist shoes improve time trial performance of trained distance runners and if changes in running economy, shoe mass, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were related to any difference in performance. Twenty-six trained runners performed three 6-min sub-maximal treadmill runs at 11, 13 and 15 km·h(-1) in minimalist and conventional shoes while running economy, stride length, stride rate and footfall pattern were assessed. They then performed a 5-km time trial. In the minimalist shoe, runners completed the trial in less time (effect size 0.20 ± 0.12), were more economical during sub-maximal running (effect size 0.33 ± 0.14) and decreased stride length (effect size 0.22 ± 0.10) and increased stride rate (effect size 0.22 ± 0.11). All but one runner ran with a rearfoot footfall in the minimalist shoe. Improvements in time trial performance were associated with improvements in running economy at 15 km·h(-1) (r = 0.58), with 79% of the improved economy accounted for by reduced shoe mass (P < 0.05). The results suggest that running in minimalist shoes improves running economy and 5-km running performance. PMID:27328725

  14. Responding to the Challenges of KM Education in the LIS Sector: Some Academic and Professional Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazeri, Afsaneh; Martin, Bill

    2009-01-01

    As a newly emerging field of study, KM education is faced with significant challenges which continue to evolve. Informed by wider organisational perspectives, this paper presents the findings of recent research into this field. The first part of the research was in the form of an online survey canvassing the views of the wider LIS community on the…

  15. Saqqar Impact Structure: A Buried 34 km Crater in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, T.; Afifi, A. M.; Stewart, S. A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Cook, D. J.; Neville, A. S.

    2015-09-01

    We present evidence for an impact origin of a circular structure with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35’N, 38°42’E, which is partially buried under ~400 m of Cretaceous-Paleogene strata in the Nafud basin in NW Saudi Arabia.

  16. Densities inferred from ESA's Venus Express aerobraking campaign at 130 km altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, Sean; Marty, Jean-Charles; Svedhem, Håkan; Williams, Adam; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    In June-July 2014, ESA performed a planned aerobraking campaign with Venus Express to measure neutral densities above 130 km in Venus' atmosphere by means of the engineering accelerometers. To that purpose, the orbit perigee was lowered to approximately 130 km in order to enhance the atmospheric drag effect to the highest tolerable levels for the spacecraft; the accelerometer resolution and precision were not sufficient at higher altitudes. This campaign was requested as part of the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE). A total of 18 orbits (i.e. days) were processed using the attitude quaternions to correctly orient the spacecraft bus and solar arrays in inertial space, which is necessary to accurately compute the exposed surface in the ram direction. The accelerometer data provide good measurements approximately from 130-140 km altitude; the length of the profiles is about 85 seconds, and they are on the early morning side (LST=4.5) at high northern latitude (70°N-82°N). The densities are a factor 2-3 larger than Hedin's VTS-3 thermosphere model, which is consistent with earlier results obtained via classical precise orbit determination at higher altitudes. Wavelike structures with amplitudes of 20% and more are detected, with wavelengths of about 100-500 km. We cannot entirely rule out that these waves are caused by the spacecraft or due to some unknown instrumental effect, but we estimate this probability to be very low.

  17. Molecular oxygen measurements at 200 km from AE-D near winter solstice, 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayser, D. C.; Potter, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    Utilizing the fly-through mode, the open source neutral mass spectrometer on Atmosphere Explorer-D (AE-D) has measured O2 densities, as well as N2 densities and in situ neutral temperatures, at midmorning during winter solstice over the latitude range 90 degrees S to 90 degrees N. The expected seasonal variation in N2 was found at 200 km together with a more complex behavior in molecular oxygen than might be expected from a diffusive equilibrium model with constant lower boundary values. Under geomagnetically quiet conditions the equatorial 200 km value of O2 was about 1.7 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm. A local maximum in the 200 km O2 densities was found near 70 degrees N, where an average quiet time value was 2.5 x 10 to the 8th/cu cm, implying a 120 km density of 8.3 x 10 to the 10th/cu cm. The in situ temperature measurements confirm the presence of higher temperatures near 70 degrees N latitude, even during geomagnetically quiet conditions.

  18. SMOS disaggregated soil moisture product at 1 km resolution: processor overview and first validation results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission provides surface soil moisture (SM) maps at a mean resolution of ~50 km. However, agricultural applications (irrigation, crop monitoring) and some hydrological applications (floods and modeling of small basins) require higher resolution SM...

  19. Tomographic structure of East Asia: II. Stagnant slab above 660 km discontinuity and its geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongshun John; Pei, Shunping

    2010-12-01

    P-wave arrival times of both regional and teleseismic earthquakes were inverted to obtain mantle structures of East Asia. No fast (slab) velocity anomalies was not find beneath the 660-km discontinuity through tomography besides a stagnant slab within the transition zone. Slow P-wave velocity anomalies are present at depths of 100-250 km below the active volcanic arc and East Asia. The western end of the flat stagnant slab is about 1 500 km west to active trench and may also be correlated with prominent surface topographic break in eastern China. We suggested that active mantle convection might be operating within this horizontally expanded "mantle wedge" above both the active subducting slabs and the stagnant flat slabs beneath much of the North China plain. Both the widespread Cenozoic volcanism and associated extensional basins in East Asia could be the manifestation of this vigorous upper mantle convection. Cold or thermal anomalies associated with the stagnant slabs above the 660-km discontinuity have not only caused a broad depression of the boundary due to its negative Clapeyron slope but also effectively shielded the asthenosphere and continental lithosphere above from any possible influence of mantle plumes in the lower mantle.

  20. The possible subduction of continental material to depths greater than 200 km.

    PubMed

    Ye, K; Cong, B; Ye, D

    2000-10-12

    Determining the depth to which continental lithosphere can be subducted into the mantle at convergent plate boundaries is of importance for understanding the long-term growth of supercontinents as well as the dynamic processes that shape such margins. Recent discoveries of coesite and diamond in regional ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks has demonstrated that continental material can be subducted to depths of at least 120 km (ref. 1), and subduction to depths of 150-300 km has been inferred from garnet peridotites in orogenic UHP belts based on several indirect observations. But continental subduction to such depths is difficult to trace directly in natural UHP metamorphic crustal rocks by conventional mineralogical and petrological methods because of extensive late-stage recrystallization and the lack of a suitable pressure indicator. It has been predicted from experimental work, however, that solid-state dissolution of pyroxene should occur in garnet at depths greater than 150 km (refs 6-8). Here we report the observation of high concentrations of clinopyroxene, rutile and apatite exsolutions in garnet within eclogites from Yangkou in the Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, China. We interpret these data as resulting from the high-pressure formation of pyroxene solid solutions in subducted continental material. Appropriate conditions for the Na2O concentrations and octahedral silicon observed in these samples are met at depths greater than 200 km. PMID:11048717

  1. An upper limit to the product of NO and O densities from 105 to 120 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, T. M.

    1974-01-01

    From the Ogo 6 horizon-scanning-photometer data a useful upper limit can be set to the radiance of nightglow in the O-NO afterglow continuum above 105 km. The upper limit is a factor of about 5 less than the product of observed NO densities and Jacchia (1971) O model densities.

  2. Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, David [IFIC. Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price calibration device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.

  3. MISR 17.6 KM Gridded Cloud Motion Vectors: Overview and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Kevin; Garay, Michael; Moroney, Catherine; Jovanovic, Veljko

    2012-01-01

    The MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer) instrument on the Terra satellite has been retrieving cloud motion vectors (CMVs) globally and almost continuously since early in 2000. In February 2012 the new MISR Level 2 Cloud product was publicly released, providing cloud motion vectors at 17.6 km resolution with improved accuracy and roughly threefold increased coverage relative to the 70.4 km resolution vectors of the current MISR Level 2 Stereo product (which remains available). MISR retrieves both horizontal cloud motion and height from the apparent displacement due to parallax and movement of cloud features across three visible channel (670nm) camera views over a span of 200 seconds. The retrieval has comparable accuracy to operational atmospheric motion vectors from other current sensors, but holds the additional advantage of global coverage and finer precision height retrieval that is insensitive to radiometric calibration. The MISR mission is expected to continue operation for many more years, possibly until 2019, and Level 2 Cloud has the possibility of being produced with a sensing-to-availability lag of 5 hours. This report compares MISR CMV with collocated motion vectors from arctic rawinsonde sites, and from the GOES and MODISTerra instruments. CMV at heights below 3 km exhibit the smallest differences, as small as 3.3 m/s for MISR and GOES. Clouds above 3 km exhibit larger differences, as large as 8.9 m/s for MISR and MODIS. Typical differences are on the order of 6 m/s.

  4. Gm and Km immunoglobulin allotypes in Reindeer Chukchi and Siberian Eskimos.

    PubMed

    Sukernik, R I; Osipova, L P

    1982-01-01

    Blood samples from 403 Reindeer Chukchi of inland Chukotka, and 100 samples from Chaplin Eskimos of the Chukot Peninsula were tested for G 1 m (z,a,x,f), G2m (n), G3m (g,b0,b1,b3,b5,s,t), and Km (1) allotypic determinants. An apparent affinity between the Chukchi and the Eskimos could be inferred from similar frequencies of the two common haplotypes, Gmza;g and Gmza;bst, and from very similar frequencies of the Km1 allele. However, none of the Eskimos had Gmzax;g, though it occurred at a low or moderate frequency in the five Chukchi populations studied. It is assumed that Chukchi can be distinguished from adjoining Eskimos by the same G1m (x) outlier, that has been considered as a taxonomic marker useful in differentiating between Eskimos and American Indians. Comparison of North Asian and North American populations with respect to the array and frequencies of Gm haplotypes and the Km1 allele, supports the hypothesis of a nonrandom distribution of the Gmza;bst and Km1 on both sides of the Bering Strait. PMID:6957376

  5. Performance of Whipple Shields at Impact Velocities above 9 km/s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Piekutowski, Andrew J.; Poormon, Kevin L.

    2009-01-01

    Whipple shields were first proposed as a means of protecting spacecraft from the impact of micrometeoroids in 1947 [1] and are currently in use as micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields on modern spacecraft. In the intervening years, the function of the thin bumper used to shatter or melt threatening particles has been augmented and enhanced by the use of various types and configurations of intermediate layers of various materials. All shield designs serve to minimize the threat of a spall failure or perforation of the main wall of the spacecraft as a result of the impact of the fragments. With increasing use of Whipple shields, various ballistic limit equations (BLEs) for guiding the design and estimating the performance of shield systems have been developed. Perhaps the best known and most used are the "new" modified Cour-Palais (Christiansen) equations [2]. These equations address the three phases of impact: (1) ballistic (<3 km/s), where the projectile is moving too slowly to fragment and essentially penetrates as an intact projectile; (2) shatter (3 to 7 km/s), where the projectile fragments at impact and forms an expanding cloud of debris fragments; and (3) melt/vaporization (>7 km/s), where the projectile melts or vaporizes at impact. The performance of Whipple shields and the adequacy of the BLEs have been examined for the first two phases using the results of impact tests obtained from two-stage, light-gas gun test firings. Shield performance and the adequacy of the BLEs has not been evaluated in the melt/vaporization phase until now because of the limitations of launchers used to accelerate projectiles with controlled properties to velocities above 7.5 km/s. A three-stage, light-gas gun, developed at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) [3], is capable of launching small, aluminum spheres to velocities above 9 km/s. This launcher was used to evaluate the ballistic performance of two Whipple shield systems, various thermal protection

  6. S1P3 receptor influences key physiological properties of fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    PubMed

    Germinario, Elena; Bondì, Michela; Cencetti, Francesca; Donati, Chiara; Nocella, Marta; Colombini, Barbara; Betto, Romeo; Bruni, Paola; Bagni, Maria Angela; Danieli-Betto, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    To examine the role of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 3 (S1P3) in modulating muscle properties, we utilized transgenic mice depleted of the receptor. Morphological analyses of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle did not show evident differences between wild-type and S1P3-null mice. The body weight of 3-mo-old S1P3-null mice and the mean cross-sectional area of transgenic EDL muscle fibers were similar to those of wild-type. S1P3 deficiency enhanced the expression level of S1P1 and S1P2 receptors mRNA in S1P3-null EDL muscle. The contractile properties of S1P3-null EDL diverge from those of wild-type, largely more fatigable and less able to recover. The absence of S1P3 appears responsible for a lower availability of calcium during fatigue. S1P supplementation, expected to stimulate residual S1P receptors and signaling, reduced fatigue development of S1P3-null muscle. Moreover, in the absence of S1P3, denervated EDL atrophies less than wild-type. The analysis of atrophy-related proteins in S1P3-null EDL evidences high levels of the endogenous regulator of mitochondria biogenesis peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α); preserving mitochondria could protect the muscle from disuse atrophy. In conclusion, the absence of S1P3 makes the muscle more sensitive to fatigue and slows down atrophy development after denervation, indicating that S1P3 is involved in the modulation of key physiological properties of the fast-twitch EDL muscle. PMID:26718782

  7. SinoProbe-02:Deep Seismic Reflection Profile (480km) experiment in North China:Acquisition and the Preliminary Processing result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H.; Gao, R.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Kuang, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhang, J.; Guan, Y.; Keller, G.; Liu, M.; Cox, C.