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Sample records for 30-15 intermittent fitness

  1. The 30-15 intermittent fitness test: accuracy for individualizing interval training of young intermittent sport players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study was to gather evidence supporting the accuracy of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) for individualizing interval training of young intermittent sport players. In 59 young intermittent sport players (age, 16.2 +/- 2.3 years), we observed the relationships between the maximal running speed (MRS) reached at the end of the 30-15IFT (MRS30-15IFT) and physiological variables elicited by shuttle intermittent runs, including maximal oxygen uptake, explosive power of lower limbs, and the ability to repeat intense exercise bouts through cardiorespiratory recovery kinetics during exercise. To observe the capacity of the 30-15IFT to prescribe suitable running intensities for interval training sessions, we compared heart rates (HRs) reached during 3 series of intermittent runs, where distances were set according to the MRS30-15IFT and to MRS reached with 2 popular continuous field tests: the University of Montreal track test and the 20-m shuttle run test. The results show that the MRS30-15IFT is significantly correlated with all physiological variables elicited by shuttle intermittent runs (P < 0.05). Although mean HR were not different among the 3 series of intermittent runs, HR recorded during the runs based on MRS30-15IFT presented significantly less interindividual variation than when the continuously determined MRS were used as reference speeds. In conclusion, we can say that the 30-15IFT leads to an MRS that simultaneously takes into account various physiological qualities elicited when performing shuttle intermittent runs. For scheduling interval training sessions, the MRS30-15IFT appears to be an accurate reference speed for getting players with different physiological profiles to a similar level of cardiorespiratory demand and thus for standardizing training content.

  2. Validity of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test in sub-elite female athletes.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Lyndell; Moule, Simon

    2016-12-20

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the suitability of the 30-15 IFT as a test in netball using female athletes. 26 female sub-elite netballers (mean age = 19.7 ± 4.6 years, mean height = 176.0 ± 6.1 cm, mean body mass = 69.7 ± 9.3 kg) completed the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (yo-yo IRT1) and the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15 IFT). Participants performed both assessments one week apart prior to the intervention and both tests one week apart following the training intervention (for a total of four testing sessions). A six-week training intervention occurred between the test occasions. Pearson's correlations revealed significant very large relationships between the 30-15 IFT and yo-yo IRT on both test occasions (test occasion 1: r = 0.71, p = 0.003 (95% CI 0.35 - 0.89), magnitude of effect, most likely; test occasion 2: r = 0.72, p = 0.001 (95% CI 0.42 - 0.88), magnitude of effect, most likely). Repeated measures ANOVAs examining the effect of position on performance changes revealed main effects for test occasion and a position x test occasion interaction for both the 30-15 IFT and the yo-yo IRT1 (30-15 IFT: test occasion (F(1,14) = 28.68, p = 0.001, ηp = .67), position x test occasion interaction (F(2,14) = 9.38, p = 0.003, ηp = .57; yo-yo IRT1: test occasion (F(1,15) = 11.72, p = 0.004, ηp = .44), position x test occasion interaction (F(2,15) = 9.96, p = 0.002, ηp = .57). Results show that the 30-15 IFT is a suitable test for female netballers as it was able to detect improvements in performance after a training intervention, in addition to having a very large significant relationship with the yo-yo IRT1.

  3. Assessing Inter-Effort Recovery and Change of Direction Ability with the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test

    PubMed Central

    Haydar, Bachar; Haddad, Hani Al; Ahmaidi, Said; Buchheit, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to propose a new and simple field assessment of inter-effort recovery and change of direction (COD) ability based on performance during the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT, an intermittent, incremental shuttle-run test) using three different protocols. Forty team-sport players (22 ± 2 years) performed either (group A; n = 16) the original 30-15IFT and two modified versions, one without a rest period (i.e. continuous run, 30-15IFT-CONT) and one without COD (30-15IFT-LINE), or (group B; n = 24) the original 30-15IFT and a modified version with more COD (28-m shuttle instead of 40-m, 30- 15IFT-28m). Heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration ([La]b), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and maximal running speed were recorded for all tests. There was no statistical difference in either maximal HR (A: p = 0.07 and B: p = 0.94) or RPE (A: p = 0.10 and B: p = 0.97) between tests. Compared with the 30-15IFT (12.3 ± 2.5, p < 0.01) and 30-15IFT-LINE (11.3 ± 2.6, p = 0.07, ES = 0.61), [La]b was lower for 30-15IFT-CONT (9.6 ± 3.3 mmol.L-1). Compared with 30-15IFT, maximal running speed was higher for 30-15IFT-LINE (103.1 ± 1.7%, p < 0.001) and lower for 30-15IFT-CONT (93.2 ± 1.4%, p < 0.001), while it was similar for 30-15IFT-28m (99.7 ± 3.6%, p = 0.62). Maximal speeds reached after the four tests were significantly but not perfectly correlated (r = 0.74 to 95, all p < 0.001). Present results show that differences in the maximal running speed reached following different versions of the 30-15IFT can be used by coaches to isolate and evaluate inter- effort recovery (i.e. 30-15IFT vs. 30-15IFT-CONT) and COD (i.e., 30-15IFT vs. 30-15IFT-LINE) abilities in the field. Additionally, COD ability as evaluated here appears to be independent of shuttle-length. Key points The comparison of the maximal running speed reached at the original 30-15IFT with these reached at two modified protocols (i.e., 30-15IFT-CONT and 30-15IFT

  4. Comparison Between 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and Multistage Field Test on Physiological Responses in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Weissland, Thierry; Faupin, Arnaud; Borel, Benoit; Leprêtre, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The intermittent nature of wheelchair court sports suggests using a similar protocol to assess repeated shuttles and recovery abilities. This study aimed to compare performances, physiological responses and perceived rating exertion obtained from the continuous multistage field test (MFT) and the 30-15 intermittent field test (30-15IFT). Eighteen trained wheelchair basketball players (WBP) (WBP: 32.0 ± 5.7 y, IWBF classification: 2.9 ± 1.1 points) performed both incremental field tests in randomized order. Time to exhaustion, maximal rolling velocity (MRV), VO2peak and the peak values of minute ventilation (VEpeak), respiratory frequency (RF) and heart rate (HRpeak) were measured throughout both tests; peak and net blood lactate (Δ[Lact−] = peak–rest values) and perceived rating exertion (RPE) values at the end of each exercise. No significant difference in VO2peak, VEpeak, and RF was found between both tests. 30-15IFT was shorter (12.4 ± 2.4 vs. 14.9 ± 5.1 min, P < 0.05) but induced higher values of MRV and Δ[Lact−] compared to MFT (14.2 ± 1.8 vs. 11.1 ± 1.9 km·h−1 and 8.3 ± 4.2 vs. 6.9 ± 3.3 mmol·L−1, P < 0.05). However, HRpeak and RPE values were higher during MFT than 30-15IFT(172.8 ± 14.0 vs. 166.8 ± 13.8 bpm and 15.3 ± 3.8 vs.13.8 ± 3.5, respectively, P < 0.05). The intermittent shuttles intercepted with rest period occurred during the 30-15IFT could explain a greater anaerobic solicitation. The higher HR and overall RPE values measured at the end of MFT could be explained by its longer duration and a continuous load stress compared to 30-15IFT. In conclusion, 30-15IFT has some advantages over MFT for assess in addition physical fitness and technical performance in WBP. PMID:26733875

  5. The 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test: can it predict outcomes in field tests of anaerobic performance?

    PubMed

    Scott, Brendan R; Hodson, Jacob A; Govus, Andrew D; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-07-16

    This study determined whether a composite assessment of intermittent fitness could be used to quantify performance in several anaerobic tasks. Fifty-two male recreational athletes (age: 24.3 ± 4.4 yr; body mass: 85.1 ± 12.2 kg; height: 180.5 ± 7.0 cm) were recruited from various team sports. Participants completed a battery of field tests to assess sprinting speed (40 m sprint), acceleration ability (10 m sprint), change of direction speed (505 test), anaerobic capacity (300 m shuttle), lower body power (vertical jump) and repeated sprint ability, as well as the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test to determine the velocity of intermittent fitness (VIFT). Relationships between anaerobic tests and VIFT were quantified via Pearson product moment correlations, and a two-predictor model multiple linear regression estimated the predictive relationships between the exercise tests and the VIFT. Multiple linear regression showed VIFT significantly predicted 56%, 51%, 44%, 36%, 12% and 1% of the variance in the 300 m shuttle, repeated sprint, 505, 40 m sprint, vertical jump and 10 m sprint tests, respectively. The two-predictor model determined 300 m shuttle and repeated sprint performance accounted for 67% of the variance in VIFT. These findings highlight that various anaerobic characteristics contribute to the intermittent fitness qualities that are quantified through VIFT. More specifically, these data indicate that VIFT is useful for tracking performance in tasks largely determined by anaerobic capacity, but may not be a good predictor of brief all-out sprinting and jumping efforts.

  6. The 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test versus the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1: relationship and sensitivity to training.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Rabbani, Alireza

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between performance of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) and the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15IFT) and to compare the sensitivity of both tests to training. Fourteen young soccer players performed both tests before and after an 8-wk training intervention, which included 6 sessions/wk: 2 resistance training sessions, 2 high-intensity interval training sessions after technical training (4 sets of 3:30 min of generic running and small-sided games [4v4] during the first and second 4-wk periods, respectively [90-95% maximal HR], interspersed with 3 min at 60-70% maximal HR), and 2 tactical-only training sessions. There was a large correlation between 30-15IFT and Yo-YoIR1 (r = .75, 90% confidence limits [CL] 0.57;0.86). While within-test percentage changes suggested a greater sensitivity to training for the Yo-YoIR1 (+35%, 90%CL 24;45) than for the 30-15IFT (+7%; 4;10), these changes were similarly rated as almost certain (with chances for greater/similar/lower values after training of 100/0/0 for both tests) and moderate, ie, standardized difference, ES = +1.2 90%CL (0.9;1.5) for Yo-YoIR1 and ES = +1.1 (0.7;1.5) for 30-15IFT. The difference in the change between the 2 tests was clearly trivial (0/100/0, ES = -0.1, 90%CL -0.1;-0.1). Both tests might evaluate slightly different physical capacities, but their sensitivity to training is almost certainly similar. These results also highlight the importance of using standardized differences instead of percentage changes in performance to assess the actual training effect of an intervention.

  7. Reliability, usefulness, and validity of the 30-15 Intermittent Ice Test in young elite ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Lefebvre, Benjamin; Laursen, Paul B; Ahmaidi, Said

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, usefulness, and validity of the 30-15 Intermittent Ice Test (30-15(IIT)) in 17 young elite ice hockey players. For the reliability and usefulness study, players performed the 30-15(IIT) 7 days apart. For the validity study, data derived from the first 30-15(IIT) were compared with those obtained from the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (30-15(IFT), the running version of this test used as a reference marker for its ability to assess cardiovascular fitness in the field, that is, VO₂peak). Maximal speed, heart rate at exhaustion (HR(peak)) and postexercise blood-lactate levels ([La](b)) were collected for all tests, whereas submaximal HR was taken at stages 4 and 8 (HR(stage4) and HR(stage8)) during the 30-15(IIT). All intra-class correlation coefficients were >0.94. Coefficients of variation were 1.6% (90% CI, 1.3-2.3), 1.7% (1.3-2.8), 1.4% (1.0-2.2), and 0.7% (0.5-1.1) for maximal skating speed, HR(stage4), HR(stage8), and HR(peak), respectively. Correlations between maximal velocities and HR(peak) obtained for the 30-15(IIT) vs. 30-15(IFT) were very large (r = 0.72) and large (r = 0.61), respectively. Maximal skating speed was also largely correlated to estimated VO₂peak (r = 0.71). There was however no correlation for [La](b) values between both tests (r = 0.42). These results highlight the specificity of the on-ice 30-15(IIT) and show it to be a reliable and valid test for assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in young elite players. Coaches could interpret a change in performance of at least 2 stages, or a change in submaximal HR of more than 8% (≈8 b·min⁻¹) during the eighth stage to be a meaningful change in skating fitness.

  8. 46 CFR 58.30-15 - Pipe, tubing, valves, fittings, pumps, and motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pipe, tubing, valves, fittings, pumps, and motors. 58.30..., tubing, valves, fittings, pumps, and motors. (a) The requirements of this section are applicable to those... subchapter. (f) Fluid power motors and pumps installed on vessels subject to inspection shall be certified...

  9. 46 CFR 58.30-15 - Pipe, tubing, valves, fittings, pumps, and motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  10. 46 CFR 58.30-15 - Pipe, tubing, valves, fittings, pumps, and motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  11. 46 CFR 58.30-15 - Pipe, tubing, valves, fittings, pumps, and motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe, tubing, valves, fittings, pumps, and motors. 58.30..., tubing, valves, fittings, pumps, and motors. (a) The requirements of this section are applicable to those... subchapter. (f) Fluid power motors and pumps installed on vessels subject to inspection shall be certified...

  12. 46 CFR 58.30-15 - Pipe, tubing, valves, fittings, pumps, and motors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pipe, tubing, valves, fittings, pumps, and motors. 58.30..., tubing, valves, fittings, pumps, and motors. (a) The requirements of this section are applicable to those... subchapter. (f) Fluid power motors and pumps installed on vessels subject to inspection shall be certified...

  13. Reliability, Validity and Usefulness of 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test in Female Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Čović, Nedim; Jelešković, Eldin; Alić, Haris; Rađo, Izet; Kafedžić, Erduan; Sporiš, Goran; McMaster, Daniel T.; Milanović, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the reliability, validity and usefulness of the 30–15IFT in competitive female soccer players. METHODS: Seventeen elite female soccer players participated in the study. A within subject test-retest study design was utilized to assess the reliability of the 30–15 intermittent fitness test (IFT). Seven days prior to 30–15IFT, subjects performed a continuous aerobic running test (CT) under laboratory conditions to assess the criterion validity of the 30–15IFT. End running velocity (VCT and VIFT), peak heart rate (HRpeak) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were collected and/or estimated for both tests. RESULTS: VIFT (ICC = 0.91; CV = 1.8%), HRpeak (ICC = 0.94; CV = 1.2%), and VO2max (ICC = 0.94; CV = 1.6%) obtained from the 30–15IFT were all deemed highly reliable (p > 0.05). Pearson product moment correlations between the CT and 30–15IFT for VO2max, HRpeak and end running velocity were large (r = 0.67, p = 0.013), very large (r = 0.77, p = 0.02) and large (r = 0.57, p = 0.042), respectively. CONCLUSION: Current findings suggest that the 30–15IFT is a valid and reliable intermittent aerobic fitness test of elite female soccer players. The findings have also provided practitioners with evidence to support the accurate detection of meaningful individual changes in VIFT of 0.5 km/h (1 stage) and HRpeak of 2 bpm. This information may assist coaches in monitoring “real” aerobic fitness changes to better inform training of female intermittent team sport athletes. Lastly, coaches could use the 30–15IFT as a practical alternative to laboratory based assessments to assess and monitor intermittent aerobic fitness changes in their athletes. PMID:27909408

  14. Short-Term Heart Rate Recovery is Related to Aerobic Fitness in Elite Intermittent Sport Athletes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew M; Brickson, Stacey L; Prawda, Evan R; Sanfilippo, Jenifer L

    2017-04-01

    Watson, AM, Brickson, SL, Prawda, ER, and Sanfilippo, JL. Short-term heart rate recovery is related to aerobic fitness in elite intermittent sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1055-1061, 2017-Although heart rate recovery (HRR) has been suggested as a measure of fitness, minimal data exist among athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine if HRR is related to aerobic fitness in elite athletes and whether this relationship is influenced by sex or body composition. Eighty-four collegiate athletes (45 male athletes) underwent body fat percentage (BF%) determination by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and maximal treadmill testing followed by 5 minutes of recovery. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and heart rate (HRmax) were determined, and HRR was calculated as a percentage of HRmax at 10 seconds, 30 seconds, and 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 minutes after test completion. After stratifying by sex, participants were grouped as high fit or low fit based on V[Combining Dot Above]O2max median split. Heart rate recovery was compared between sexes and fitness level at each time point. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of HRR using V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, BF%, and sex as covariates. Heart rate recovery did not differ significantly between sexes and was faster among high-fit participants at 10 and 30 seconds, but at no other time. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was significantly correlated with HRR at 10 and 30 seconds (r = -0.34, p < 0.001 and r = -0.28, p = 0.008) only. After controlling for BF% and sex, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max remained significantly associated with HRR at 10 seconds (p = 0.007) but not at 30 seconds (p = 0.067) or any time thereafter. Aerobic capacity is related to faster HRR during the first 30 seconds only, suggesting that only very short term HRR should be used as a measure of aerobic fitness in intermittent sport athletes.

  15. Improving fitness of elite handball players: small-sided games vs. high-intensity intermittent training.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Antonio Dello; Eliakim, Alon; Meckel, Yoav

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) and small-sided games (SSGs) training on fitness variables of elite handball players. Eighteen highly trained players (mean age ± SD: 25.6 ± 0.5 years) were assigned to either HIIT or SSGs group training protocols twice per week for 8 weeks. The HIIT consisted of 12-24 × 15 seconds of high-intensity runs interspersed by 15 seconds of recovery. The SSGs training consisted of 3 against 3 small-sided handball games. Both training methods were matched for exercise duration and recovery at each training session. Before and after 8-week training, the following fitness variables were assessed-speed: 10- and 20-m sprint time, agility: handball agility specific test (HAST), upper arm strength: 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test, lower limb power: counter-movement jump tests with (CMJarm) and without (CMJ) arm movement, and aerobic fitness (yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 [YYIRTL1]). Significant improvement was found in the YYIRTL1 (23.3 and 26.3%, respectively), 10-m sprint (2.3 and 4.1%, respectively) and 20-m sprint (2.1 and 4%, respectively), HAST (1.1 and 2.2%, respectively), 1RM bench press (6.8 and 12.3%, respectively), CMJ (7.4 and 10.8%, respectively), and CMJarm (6.4 and 8.9%, respectively) following training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05 for all). There was a significantly greater improvement in 10- and 20-m sprint, HAST, 1RM, CMJ, and CMJarm following the SSGs training compared with the HIIT (p ≤ 0.05 for all). These results indicated that both HIIT and SSGs are effective training methods for fitness development among elite adult handball players. However, SSGs training may be considered as the preferred training regimen for improving handball-specific fitness variables during the in-season period.

  16. Effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on selective fitness profile parameters in young untrained Muslim men

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Anindita Singha; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of sleep deprivation and dietary irregularities during Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on selective fitness profile parameters in young untrained male Muslim individuals. Methods 77 untrained Muslim men were recruited in the study. They were divided into the experimental group (EG; n=37, age: 22.62±1.77 years) and the control group (CG; n=40, age: 23.00±1.48 years). EG was undergoing RIF while CG abstained. Aerobic fitness, anaerobic capacity or high-intensity efforts (HIEs), agility, flexibility, vertical jump height and handgrip strength were measured on 8 separate occasions—15 days before RIF, 7 days before RIF, 1st day of RIF, 7th day of RIF, 15th day of RIF, 21st day of RIF, last day of RIF and 15 days after RIF. Results Aerobic fitness and HIE showed a significant difference (p<0.05) during RIF in EG. Agility and flexibility score showed a significant decrease in EG during RIF, whereas changes in the vertical jump score (VJT) and handgrip strength were statistically insignificant. Studied parameters showed an insignificant variation in CG during RIF. Aerobic fitness, HIEs, agility and flexibility showed a significant intergroup variation during different experimental trials. Conclusions The present investigation revealed that RIF had adverse effects on aerobic fitness, HIEs, agility and flexibility of young untrained Muslims of Kolkata, India. VJT, waist-hip ratio and handgrip strength were not affected by RIF in the studied population. Mild but statistically insignificant reduction in body mass was also reflected after the mid-Ramadan week. PMID:27900122

  17. The effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on athletic performance: recommendations for the maintenance of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Leiper, John B; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Chamari, Karim

    2012-01-01

    The behavioural modifications that accompany Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) are usually associated with some alterations in the metabolic, physiological, and psychological responses of athletes that may affect sport performance. Muslim athletes who are required to train and/or compete during the month-long, diurnal fast must adopt coping strategies that allow them to maintain physical fitness and motivation if they are to perform at the highest level. This updated review aims to present the current state of knowledge of the effects of RIF on training and performance, focusing on key-factors that contribute to the effects of Ramadan on exercise performance: energy restriction, sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm perturbation, dehydration, and alterations in the training load. The available literature contain few studies that have examined the effects of RIF on physical performance in athletes and, to date, the results are inconclusive, so the effects of RIF on competition outcomes are not at present wholly understood. The diverse findings probably indicate individual differences in the adaptability and self-generated coping strategies of athletes during fasting and training. However, the results of the small number of well-controlled studies that have examined the effects of Ramadan on athletic performance suggest that few aspects of physical fitness are negatively affected, and where decrements are observed these are usually modest. Subjective feelings of fatigue and other mood indicators are often cited as implying additional stress on the athlete throughout Ramadan, but most studies show that these factors may not result in decreases in performance and that perceived exercise intensity is unlikely to increase to any significant degree. Current evidence from good, well-controlled research supports the conclusion that athletes who maintain their total energy and macronutrient intake, training load, body composition, and sleep length and quality are unlikely to

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cigar binder. 30.15 Section 30.15 Agriculture... Cigar binder. A portion of a tobacco leaf rolled around the filler of a cigar to bind or hold it together and form the first covering. Cigar-binder tobacco is tobacco of the kind and quality commonly...

  19. 46 CFR 78.30-15 - Watchmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  20. 46 CFR 78.30-15 - Watchmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  1. 46 CFR 78.30-15 - Watchmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  2. 46 CFR 78.30-15 - Watchmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watchmen. 78.30-15 Section 78.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Lookouts, Pilothouse Watch... duties while on watch. (d) The uniform of the night watchman shall be conspicuously different from...

  3. 46 CFR 78.30-15 - Watchmen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

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  4. 15 CFR 30.15 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

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  5. 46 CFR 111.30-15 - Nameplates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

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  6. 46 CFR 111.30-15 - Nameplates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nameplates. 111.30-15 Section 111.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... function. (b) Each nameplate for a circuit breaker must show the electrical load served and the setting...

  7. 46 CFR 111.30-15 - Nameplates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nameplates. 111.30-15 Section 111.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... function. (b) Each nameplate for a circuit breaker must show the electrical load served and the setting...

  8. 46 CFR 111.30-15 - Nameplates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nameplates. 111.30-15 Section 111.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... function. (b) Each nameplate for a circuit breaker must show the electrical load served and the setting...

  9. 46 CFR 111.30-15 - Nameplates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nameplates. 111.30-15 Section 111.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL... function. (b) Each nameplate for a circuit breaker must show the electrical load served and the setting...

  10. Anaerobic fitness in children with asthma: adaptation to maximal intermittent short exercise.

    PubMed

    Counil, F P; Karila, C; Varray, A; Guillaumont, S; Voisin, M; Préfaut, C

    2001-03-01

    Nineteen asthmatic boys (aged 13.4 years, 25-75 percentile: 11.5-15.1 years) performed short bouts of maximal exercise (force-velocity test) to test their anaerobic fitness and tolerance of maximal anaerobic exercise. Fourteen healthy boys (aged 13.9 years, 25-75 percentile: 11.6-15.7 years) matched for anthropometric characteristics including lean body mass (LBM), pubertal stage, and weekly physical activity formed a control group. The maximal anaerobic power (W(ana)) was measured during the force-velocity test. The maximal oxygen uptake (V'(O2max)) was assessed during a standard graded exercise test. Pre- and post-exercise pulmonary function was measured by body plethysmography. The asthmatic children exhibited lower W(ana) than the control group (8.2 watt.kg(-1) LBM, 25-75 percentile: 7.55-10.6 vs. 11.3 watt.kg(-1) LBM, 25-75 percentile: 9.46-14.1; P = 0.01). V'(O2max) was also diminished in the asthmatic group (P = 0.01). Multiple stepwise regression models revealed that Tanner's score (P < 0.001) and the diagnosis of asthma (P < 0.01) were the best predictors of W(ana). In conclusion, a diminished anaerobic fitness could contribute to the overall exercise limitation in asthmatic children.

  11. Aerobic fitness and yo-yo continuous and intermittent tests performances in soccer players: a correlation study.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chamari, Karim; Carlomagno, Domenico; Rampinini, Ermanno

    2006-05-01

    Yo-yo tests are very popular in soccer; however, no study has addressed details of their relation to canonical aspects of aerobic fitness. Furthermore, no information is available on the effect of the individual levels of lower limbs' explosive strength on yo-yo tests in soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological determinants of Yo-yo Endurance Test Level 2 (YYETL2) and Yo-yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (YYIRTL1) in soccer players. Twenty-four soccer players (body mass, 74.6 +/- 8.5 kg; height, 178.1 +/- 4.5 cm; age, 25.6 +/- 5.1 years) were tested for VO2max and ventilatory threshold (VT) on a motorized treadmill. Lower-limb explosive strength was assessed using vertical countermovement jumps (CMJ) performed on a force platform. Results showed that YYETL2 and YYIRTL1 performances (m) were significantly related (r = 0.75, p = 0.00002). YYETL2 results were significantly related to VO2max, VTVO2, and speed at VT (r = 0.75, 0.76, and 0.83, respectively; p < 0.00002). Peak treadmill speed results were significantly related to YYETL2 and YYIRTL1 (r = 0.87 and 0.71, respectively; p < 0.0003). YYIRTL1 was related to CMJ peak power (r = 0.57; p = 0.003). These findings show that YYETL2 and YYIRTL1, although adopting similar starting and progression speeds, are influenced by different physiological variables. From these results, YYETL2 can be considered an aerobic fitness-related field test, whereas YYIRTL1 can be regarded as an aerobic-anaerobic, soccer-specific field test.

  12. Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Luís; Krustrup, Peter; Silva, Gustavo; Rebelo, Antonio; Oliveira, José; Brito, João

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the performance and heart rate responses during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1) in children under the age of 10. One hundred and seven male children (7-9 years) performed the Yo-Yo IE1 at the beginning (M1), middle (M2) and end (M3) of the school year. Data from individual heart rate curves of the Yo-Yo IE1 were analysed in order to detect the inflection point between an initial phase of fast rise in heart rate values and a second phase in which the rise of the heart rate values is much smaller. The distance covered in the Yo-Yo IE1 improved from M1 to M3 (884 ± 496 vs. 1032 ± 596 m; p < 0.05; d = 0.27), with intermediate values for M2 (962 ± 528 m). Peak heart rate (HRpeak) decreased from M1 to M2 and M3 (204 ± 9, 202 ± 9 and 200 ± 9 bpm, respectively; p < 0.05; d = 0.25-0.42). The 7th shuttle of the test (280 m), corresponding to 2.5 min, was identified as the inflection point between the two phases. Also, absolute heart rate at the 7th shuttle decreased progressively throughout the year (185 ± 9, 183 ± 10, and 179 ± 10 bpm; p < 0.05; d = 0.31-0.61). The present study provides evidence of the usefulness of a maximal as well as a submaximal version of Yo-Yo IE1 as a tool to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal children.

  13. 46 CFR 98.30-15 - Ground connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ground connection. 98.30-15 Section 98.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL... Intermediate Bulk Containers § 98.30-15 Ground connection. No person may transfer an inflammable or...

  14. 46 CFR 61.30-15 - Visual inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visual inspection. 61.30-15 Section 61.30-15 Shipping... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Fired Thermal Fluid Heaters § 61.30-15 Visual inspection. Thermal fluid... safe and satisfactory condition. The visual examination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  15. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  16. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  17. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  18. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  19. 46 CFR 50.30-15 - Class II pressure vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class II pressure vessels. 50.30-15 Section 50.30-15... Fabrication Inspection § 50.30-15 Class II pressure vessels. (a) Class II pressure vessels shall be subject to... pressure vessels shall be performed during the welding of the longitudinal joint. At this time the...

  20. 40 CFR 30.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 30.15 Section 30.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.15 Metric system...

  1. 46 CFR 56.30-15 - Expanded or rolled joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Expanded or rolled joints. 56.30-15 Section 56.30-15... APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-15 Expanded or rolled joints. (a) Expanded or rolled joints may be used where experience or test has demonstrated that the joint is suitable for...

  2. 46 CFR 56.30-15 - Expanded or rolled joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Expanded or rolled joints. 56.30-15 Section 56.30-15... APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-15 Expanded or rolled joints. (a) Expanded or rolled joints may be used where experience or test has demonstrated that the joint is suitable for...

  3. 46 CFR 56.30-15 - Expanded or rolled joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expanded or rolled joints. 56.30-15 Section 56.30-15... APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-15 Expanded or rolled joints. (a) Expanded or rolled joints may be used where experience or test has demonstrated that the joint is suitable for...

  4. 46 CFR 56.30-15 - Expanded or rolled joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Expanded or rolled joints. 56.30-15 Section 56.30-15... APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-15 Expanded or rolled joints. (a) Expanded or rolled joints may be used where experience or test has demonstrated that the joint is suitable for...

  5. 46 CFR 56.30-15 - Expanded or rolled joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Expanded or rolled joints. 56.30-15 Section 56.30-15... APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-15 Expanded or rolled joints. (a) Expanded or rolled joints may be used where experience or test has demonstrated that the joint is suitable for...

  6. 46 CFR 77.30-15 - Spare charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spare charges. 77.30-15 Section 77.30-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS... carried for each gas mask and self-contained breathing apparatus. The spare charge shall be stowed in...

  7. 40 CFR 30.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 30.15... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205), declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  8. 40 CFR 30.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 30.15... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205), declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  9. 40 CFR 30.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 30.15... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205), declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  10. 40 CFR 30.15 - Metric system of measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Metric system of measurement. 30.15... measurement. The Metric Conversion Act, as amended by the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act (15 U.S.C. 205), declares that the metric system is the preferred measurement system for U.S. trade and commerce. The...

  11. X-ray continuum variability of MCG-6-30-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, S.; Fabian, A. C.; Nandra, K.

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive examination of the X-ray continuum variability of the bright Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15. The source clearly shows the strong, linear correlation between rms variability amplitude and flux first seen in Galactic X-ray binaries. The high-frequency power spectral density (PSD) of MCG-6-30-15 is examined in detail using a Monte Carlo fitting procedure and is found to be well represented by a steep power law at high frequencies (with a power-law index α~ 2.5), breaking to a flatter slope (α~ 1) below fbr~ 0.6-2.0 × 10-4 Hz, consistent with the previous results of Uttley, McHardy & Papadakis. The slope of the power spectrum above the break is energy dependent, with the higher energies showing a flatter PSD. At low frequencies the variations between different energy bands are highly coherent, while at high frequencies the coherence is significantly reduced. Time lags are detected between energy bands, with the soft variations leading the hard ones. The magnitude of the lag is small (<~200 s for the frequencies observed) and is most likely frequency dependent. These properties are remarkably similar to the temporal properties of the Galactic black hole candidate Cygnus X-1. The characteristic time-scales in these two types of source differ by ~105 assuming that these time-scales scale linearly with black hole mass then suggests a black hole mass ~106 Msolar for MCG-6-30-15. We speculate that the timing properties of MCG-6-30-15 may be analogous to those of Cyg X-1 in its high/soft state and discuss a simple phenomenological model, originally developed to explain the timing properties of Cyg X-1, which can explain many of the observed properties of MCG-6-30-15.

  12. Influence of the aerobic fitness on time spent at high percentage of maximal oxygen uptake during a high-intensity intermittent running.

    PubMed

    Panissa, V L; Julio, U F; Pinto-E-Silva, C M; Andreato, L V; Schwartz, J; Franchini, E

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate absolute and relative (%V.O2max) oxygen uptake (total, during effort and pause), and time spent above 90% of V.O2max during high-intensity intermittent running in subjects with different training status. Fourteen males were evaluated and divided (moderate and high aerobic power) according to their V.O2max obtained in an incremental treadmill test to volitional exhaustion. They were then submitted to high-intensity intermittent aerobic exercise (1 min:1 min at maximum velocity attained during the treadmill test, totalling 4 km). A Student's t test for independent data was conducted to identify differences between groups. The moderate aerobic power group spent more time above 90% V.O2max compared to the high aerobic power group (30.2 ±9.1%; 7.3±6%, respectively, P=0.001). Moreover, the moderate aerobic power group presented lower V.O2total (P=0.011), V.O2effort (P=0.007), higher V.O2total (%V.O2), V.O2effort (P<0.001), V.O2pause (V.O2max%) (P=0.006) compared with the high aerobic power group. There was no difference in V.O2pause between groups (P=0.091), the difference between V.O2 effort and pause was greater for the high aerobic power group compared with the moderate group (4.4±2.1; 7.8±2 mL.kg-1.min-1; P=0.009) and the difference between V.O2 effort and pause (%V.O2max) was not different between groups. To conclude, these results demonstrated that individuals with better aerobic fitness spent less time above 90% of the V.O2max and that this response can be due to better capacity to recover during the pause.

  13. Probing MCG-6-30-15 with the Chandra HETGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. C.; Canizares, C. R.; Fang, T.; Morales, R.; Fabian, A. C.; Marshall, H. L.; Schulz, N. S.

    The Chandra HETGS spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15 show numerous narrow, unresolved (FWHM ≈ < 200 m s-1) absorption lines from a wide range of ionization states of N, O, Mg, Ne, Si, S, Ar, and Fe. The initial analysis of these data, presented in Lee et al. (2001), shows that a dusty warm absorber is reasonable for explaining the soft X-ray spectral features ≈> 0.48 keV (≈< 26 Å ). The implied Hydrogen column density needed to explain the Fe I L edge feature at ~0.707 keV agrees with that obtained from earlier reddening studies. Both results point to dust embedded in the ionized absorber of MCG-6-30-15 (given the relatively lower observed X-ray absorption by cold gas). This conclusion is contrary to the results reported from XMM which call for relativistically broadened soft X-ray emission line. We also report on preliminary results from Lee et al. (in preparation) based on a full treatment of the warm absorber in MCG-6-30-15 in the Chandra spectral bandpass, which shows a distribution of v and NH which depend on ξ and may point to an outflow in the warm absorber of MCG-6-30-15. The results of the in-depth analysis are consistent with those previously published. This proceeding is intended as a review of the findings for the soft 0.5-1 keV X-ray spectrum of MCG-6-30-15 presented by Lee et al. (2001a,b) for the ~67 ks subset of the Chandra HETGS (Lee et al. 2001a,b) AO1 observation corresponding to the period with high continuum flux. Preliminary results (as presented during this meeting) for the full length of the 120 ks integration are reported as highlights from Lee et al., in preparation. Details from the initial papers can be found in Lee et al., 2001, ApJ., 554, L13, and the conference proceeding from ``X-ray emission from Accretion onto Black Holes''

  14. Negative Binomial Fits to Multiplicity Distributions from Central Collisions of (16)O+Cu at 14.6A GeV/c and Intermittency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannenbaum, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of "Intermittency" was introduced by Bialas and Peschanski to try to explain the "large" fluctuations of multiplicity in restricted intervals of rapidity or pseudorapidity. A formalism was proposed to to study non-statistical (more precisely, non-Poisson) fluctuations as a function of the size of rapidity interval, and it was further suggested that the "spikes" in the rapidity fluctuations were evidence of fractal or intermittent behavior, in analogy to turbulence in fluid dynamics which is characterized by self-similar fluctuations at all scales-the absence of well defined scale of length.

  15. Principal component analysis of MCG-06-30-15 with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, M. L.; Marinucci, A.; Brenneman, L.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Matt, G.; Walton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse the spectral variability of MCG-06-30-15 with 600 k s of XMM-Newton data, including 300 k s of new data from the joint XMM-Newton and NuSTAR 2013 observational campaign. We use principal component analysis to find high-resolution, model-independent spectra of the different variable components of the spectrum. We find that over 99 per cent of the variability can be described by just three components, which are consistent with variations in the normalization of the power-law continuum (˜97 per cent), the photon index (˜2 per cent) and the normalization of a relativistically blurred reflection spectrum (˜0.5 per cent). We also find a fourth significant component but this is heavily diluted by noise, and we can attribute all the remaining spectral variability to noise. All three components are found to be variable on time-scales from 20 down to 1 k s, which corresponds to a distance from the central black hole of less than 70 gravitational radii. We compare these results with those derived from spectral fitting, and find them to be in very good agreement with our interpretation of the principal components. We conclude that the observed relatively weak variability in the reflected component of the spectrum of MCG-06-30-15 is due to the effects of light-bending close to the event horizon of the black hole, and demonstrate that principal component analysis is an effective tool for analysing spectral variability in this regime.

  16. The use of Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 and Andersen testing for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of 6- to 10-year-old school children.

    PubMed

    Bendiksen, Mads; Ahler, Thomas; Clausen, Helle; Wedderkopp, Niels; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated a submaximal and maximal version of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's (YYIR1C) test and the Andersen test for fitness and maximal heart rate assessments of children aged 6-10 years. Two repetitions of the YYIR1C and Andersen tests were carried out within 1 week by 6- to 7-year-olds and 8- to 9-year-olds (grade 0, n = 17; grade 2, n = 16) and 6 weeks apart by 9- to 10-year-olds (grade 3, n = 49). Grade 0-2 pupils also performed an incremental treadmill test (ITT). Grade 2 pupils had a better (p < 0.05) YYIR1C (84%; 994 ± 399 m (±SD) vs. 536 ± 218 m) and Andersen test performance (10%; 1,050 ± 71 m vs. 955 ± 56 m) than grade 0 pupils. For grade 0-2 pupils, YYIR1C, Andersen, and ITT peak heart rates were 205 ± 11, 207 ± 9, and 203 ± 7 b·min(-1), respectively (Andersen > ITT, p < 0.05), and for grade 3 pupils, YYIR1C and Andersen peak heart rates were 208 ± 9 and 204 ± 9 b·min(-1), respectively (YYIR1C > Andersen, p < 0.05). Submaximal YYIR1C heart rate (HR) was inversely correlated (p < 0.05) with YYIR1C test performance (r = -0.54 to -0.67) and VO2peak (r = -0.42). The 6-week change in submaximal HR correlated with the change in YYIR1C test performance (r = -0.42 to -0.53, p < 0.05). In conclusion, YYIR1C and Andersen tests are simple and inexpensive intermittent field tests that can detect differences in fitness levels and determine maximal HR of 6- to 10-year-old children. Additionally, submaximal YYIR1C testing can be used for frequent nonexhaustive fitness assessments.

  17. 41 CFR 60-30.15 - Authority and responsibilities of Administrative Law Judges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority and responsibilities of Administrative Law Judges. 60-30.15 Section 60-30.15 Public Contracts and Property Management... record documentary or other evidence; (h) Receive, rule on, exclude, or limit evidence and limit lines...

  18. 46 CFR 35.30-15 - Combustible gas indicator-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible gas indicator-TB/ALL. 35.30-15 Section 35.30... § 35.30-15 Combustible gas indicator—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this section shall apply only to... combustible gas indicator suitable for determining the presence of explosive concentrations of the...

  19. 46 CFR 35.30-15 - Combustible gas indicator-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible gas indicator-TB/ALL. 35.30-15 Section 35.30... § 35.30-15 Combustible gas indicator—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this section shall apply only to... combustible gas indicator suitable for determining the presence of explosive concentrations of the...

  20. 46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Protection From Refrigerants § 195.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus...

  1. 46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section 96... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Protection From Refrigerants § 96.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus...

  2. 46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section 96... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Protection From Refrigerants § 96.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus...

  3. 46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Protection From Refrigerants § 195.30-15 Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus...

  4. 46 CFR 35.30-15 - Combustible gas indicator-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible gas indicator-TB/ALL. 35.30-15 Section 35.30... § 35.30-15 Combustible gas indicator—TB/ALL. (a) The provisions of this section shall apply only to... combustible gas indicator suitable for determining the presence of explosive concentrations of the...

  5. Small-sided games versus interval training in amateur soccer players: effects on the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with changes of direction.

    PubMed

    Dellal, Alexandre; Varliette, Christophe; Owen, Adam; Chirico, Erica N; Pialoux, Vincent

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of small-sided games (SSGs) in soccer versus high-intensity intermittent training (HIT) on a continuous aerobic test (Vameval) and the performance in an intermittent test with changes of direction (CODs; 30-15 intermittent fitness test [30-15(IFT)]). Twenty-two amateur soccer players (mean age ± SD: 26.3 ± 4.7 years) were assigned to 3 different groups for 6 weeks: SSG group (n = 8), HIT group (n = 8), and control group (CG; n = 6). In addition to the usual technical and tactical sessions and competitive games, the SSG group performed 9 sessions of 2 versus 2 and 1 versus 1 SSGs, whereas the HIT group performed 9 sessions of intermittent runs in the form of 30 seconds of effort interspersed with 30 seconds of passive recovery (30s-30s), 15s-15s, and 10s-10s. The HIT and SSG groups showed performance improvements in the Vameval test (5.1 and 6.6%, respectively) and the 30-15(IFT) intermittent test with CODs (5.1 and 5.8%, respectively), whereas there was no change in the performance of the CG. Players from HIT and SSG groups showed similar increase in their performance in the 30-15(IFT) and the Vameval tests during the 6-week training period, especially with an increase significantly different to that in a traditional training as in the CG (p < 0.05). This investigation demonstrates that both SSG and HIT interventions are equally effective in developing the aerobic capacity and the ability to perform intermittent exercises with CODs in male amateur soccer players. Furthermore, these 2 methods of training applied during the 6 weeks induce similar effect on the recovery capacity and on the ability to repeat directional changes of 180°. Coaches will now be able to choose between these two methods according to the objective of the training and to optimize the training.

  6. 31 CFR 30.15 - Q-15: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with certification requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a TARP recipient to comply with certification requirements of section 111(b)(4) of EESA? 30.15 Section 30.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.15 Q-15: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to...

  7. 31 CFR 30.15 - Q-15: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with certification requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a TARP recipient to comply with certification requirements of section 111(b)(4) of EESA? 30.15 Section 30.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.15 Q-15: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to...

  8. 31 CFR 30.15 - Q-15: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with certification requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... a TARP recipient to comply with certification requirements of section 111(b)(4) of EESA? 30.15 Section 30.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.15 Q-15: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to...

  9. 46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section 96... Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit. (b) The self-contained...

  10. 46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit. (b) The self-contained...

  11. 46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit. (b) The self-contained...

  12. 46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section 96... Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit. (b) The self-contained...

  13. 46 CFR 96.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 96.30-15 Section 96... Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit. (b) The self-contained...

  14. 46 CFR 195.30-15 - Self-contained breathing apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Self-contained breathing apparatus. 195.30-15 Section... Self-contained breathing apparatus. (a) Each vessel must have a self-contained breathing apparatus for use as protection against gas leaking from a refrigeration unit. (b) The self-contained...

  15. 17 CFR 200.30-15 - Delegation of authority to Chief Operating Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... principles and standards of the National Performance Review and the strategic and quality management approaches described by the Federal Quality Institute's “Presidential Award for Quality” or its successor... Management General Organization § 200.30-15 Delegation of authority to Chief Operating Officer. Under Pub....

  16. 17 CFR 200.30-15 - Delegation of authority to Chief Operating Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... principles and standards of the National Performance Review and the strategic and quality management approaches described by the Federal Quality Institute's “Presidential Award for Quality” or its successor... Management General Organization § 200.30-15 Delegation of authority to Chief Operating Officer. Under Pub....

  17. 17 CFR 200.30-15 - Delegation of authority to Chief Operating Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... principles and standards of the National Performance Review and the strategic and quality management approaches described by the Federal Quality Institute's “Presidential Award for Quality” or its successor... Management General Organization § 200.30-15 Delegation of authority to Chief Operating Officer. Under Pub....

  18. Fractal interpretation of intermittency

    SciTech Connect

    Hwa, R.C.

    1991-12-01

    Implication of intermittency in high-energy collisions is first discussed. Then follows a description of the fractal interpretation of intermittency. A basic quantity with asymptotic fractal behavior is introduced. It is then shown how the factorial moments and the G moments can be expressed in terms of it. The relationship between the intermittency indices and the fractal indices is made explicit.

  19. Intermittent search strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénichou, O.; Loverdo, C.; Moreau, M.; Voituriez, R.

    2011-01-01

    This review examines intermittent target search strategies, which combine phases of slow motion, allowing the searcher to detect the target, and phases of fast motion during which targets cannot be detected. It is first shown that intermittent search strategies are actually widely observed at various scales. At the macroscopic scale, this is, for example, the case of animals looking for food; at the microscopic scale, intermittent transport patterns are involved in a reaction pathway of DNA-binding proteins as well as in intracellular transport. Second, generic stochastic models are introduced, which show that intermittent strategies are efficient strategies that enable the minimization of search time. This suggests that the intrinsic efficiency of intermittent search strategies could justify their frequent observation in nature. Last, beyond these modeling aspects, it is proposed that intermittent strategies could also be used in a broader context to design and accelerate search processes.

  20. Supramaximal intermittent running performance in relation to age and locomotor profile in highly-trained young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine supramaximal intermittent running performance in highly-trained young soccer players, with regard to age and locomotor profile. Twenty-seven Under 14, 19 U16 and 16 U18 highly-trained soccer players performed an incremental intermittent running test (30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test) to assess supramaximal intermittent running performance (VIFT), an incremental running test to estimate maximal aerobic speed (VVam-Eval) and a 40-m sprint to estimate maximal sprinting speed (MSS). U16 and U18 presented very likely greater VIFT (19.2 ± 0.9, 19.7 ± 1.0 vs. 17.4 ± 0.9 km · h(-1)) and VVam-Eval (16.2 ± 0.9, 16.7 ± 1.0 vs. 14.6 ± 0.9 km · h(-1)) than U14, while there was no clear difference between U16 and U18. MSS (25.1 ± 1.6, 29.3 ± 1.6 and 31.0 ± 1.1 km · h(-1) for U14, U16 and U18) was very likely different between all groups. When data were pooled together, VIFT was very largely correlated with VVam-Eval and MSS (overall r =0.89, partial r = 0.74 and 0.29, respectively). Within-age group correlations showed that the older the players, the greater the magnitude of the correlations between VIFT and VVam-Eval (r = 0.67, 0.73 and 0.87). In conclusion, the major predictors of VIFT were, in order of importance, VVam-Eval and MSS; however, the older the players, the greater the correlations with VVam-Eval.

  1. Intermittent Control Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Thomas L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The technique of intermittent control systems for air quality control as developed and used by the Tennessee Valley Authority is investigated. Although controversial, all Tennessee Valley Authority sulfur dioxide elimination programs are scheduled to be operational this year. Existing or anticipated intermittent control systems are identified. (BT)

  2. INTERMITTENT DEGRADATION AND SCHIZOTYPY.

    PubMed

    Roché, Matthew W; Silverstein, Steven M; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2015-06-01

    Intermittent degradation refers to transient detrimental disruptions in task performance. This phenomenon has been repeatedly observed in the performance data of patients with schizophrenia. Whether intermittent degradation is a feature of the liability for schizophrenia (i.e., schizotypy) is an open question. Further, the specificity of intermittent degradation to schizotypy has yet to be investigated. To address these questions, 92 undergraduate participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing schizotypy and psychological state variables (e.g., anxiety, depression), and their reaction times were recorded as they did so. Intermittent degradation was defined as the number of times a subject's reaction time for questionnaire items met or exceeded three standard deviations from his or her mean reaction time after controlling for each item's information processing load. Intermittent degradation scores were correlated with questionnaire scores. Our results indicate that intermittent degradation is associated with total scores on measures of positive and disorganized schizotypy, but unrelated to total scores on measures of negative schizotypy and psychological state variables. Intermittent degradation is interpreted as potentially derivative of schizotypy and a candidate endophenotypic marker worthy of continued research.

  3. Evaluating Light Source Color Rendition using the IES TM-30-15 Method

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, Kevin W.; Royer, Michael P.; David, Aurelien

    2015-11-30

    A system for evaluating the color rendition of light sources was recently published as IES TM-30-15 IES Method for Evaluating Light Source Color Rendition. The system includes a fidelity index (Rf) to quantify similarity to a reference illuminant, a relative-gamut index (Rg) to quantify saturation relative to a reference illuminant, and a color vector icon that visually presents information about color rendition. The calculation employs CAM02-UCS and uses a newly-developed set of reflectance functions, comprising 99 color evaluation samples (CES). The CES were down-selected from 105,000 real object samples and are uniformly distributed in color space (fairly representing different colors) and wavelength space (avoiding artificial increase of color rendition values by selective optimization).

  4. Tracing the origin of the AGN fuelling reservoir in MCG-6-30-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimundo, S. I.; Davies, R. I.; Canning, R. E. A.; Celotti, A.; Fabian, A. C.; Gandhi, P.

    2017-02-01

    The active galaxy MCG-6-30-15 has a 400 pc diameter stellar kinematically distinct core, counter-rotating with respect to the main body of the galaxy. Our previous high spatial resolution (0.1 arcsec) H-band observations of this galaxy mapped the stellar kinematics and [Fe II] 1.64 μm gas dynamics though mainly restricted to the spatial region of the counter-rotating core. In this work, we probe the stellar kinematics on a larger field of view and determine the ionized and molecular gas dynamics to study the formation of the counter-rotating core and the implications for active galactic nucleus (AGN) fuelling. We present integral field spectroscopy observations with SINFONI in the H and K bands in the central 1.2 kpc and with VIMOS HR-blue in the central 4 kpc of the galaxy. Ionized gas outflows of vout ˜ 100 km s-1 are traced by the [Ca VIII] 2.32 μm coronal line and extend out to at least a radius of r ˜ 140 pc. The molecular gas, traced by the H2 2.12 μm emission, is also counter-rotating with respect to the main body of the galaxy, indicating that the formation of the distinct core was associated with inflow of external gas into the centre of MCG-6-30-15. The molecular gas traces the available gas reservoir for AGN fuelling and is detected as close as r ˜ 50-100 pc. External gas accretion is able to significantly replenish the fuelling reservoir suggesting that the event which formed the counter-rotating core was also the main mechanism providing gas for AGN fuelling.

  5. On the deep minimum state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.; Wilms, Jörn; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Staubert, Rüdiger; Kendziorra, Eckhard

    2004-04-01

    We present a detailed spectral analysis of the first observation of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15 by the European Photon Imaging Camera on board the XMM-Newton observatory, together with contemporaneous data from the Proportional Counter Array on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Confirming our previously published result, we find that the presence of extremely broadened reflection features from an ionized relativistic accretion disc is required even when one employs the latest X-ray reflection models and includes the effect of complex absorption. The extremely broadened reflection features are also present if the primary continuum is modelled with a thermal Comptonization spectrum rather than a simple power-law continuum. With this fact established, we examine these data using a relativistic smearing function corresponding to a `generalized thin accretion disc' model. We find strong evidence for torquing of the central parts of the accretion disc (presumably through magnetic interactions with the plunging region of the disc and/or the rotating black hole itself). Indeed, within the context of these torqued disc models, this system appears to be in a torque-dominated (or `infinite-efficiency') state at the time of this observation. In addition, we find marginal evidence that the X-ray emitting corona radiates a greater fraction of the total dissipated energy in the inner portions of the disc. We also perform a study of spectral variability within our observation. We find that the disc reflection features maintain roughly a constant equivalent width with respect to the observed continuum, as predicted by simple reflection models. Taken together with other studies of MCG-6-30-15 that find disc features to possess constant intensity at higher flux states, we suggest that the flux of disc features undergoes a saturation once the source emerges from a deep minimum state. We discuss the implications of these results for the physics of the deep minimum `state

  6. Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... can lead to relationship problems, divorce and family stress. Trouble at work, home or school. Other complications of intermittent explosive disorder may include job loss, school suspension, car accidents, financial problems or trouble with the law. Problems with ...

  7. A Reverberation-based Black Hole Mass for MCG-06-30-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Cackett, Edward M.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Horne, Keith; Street, Rachel; Ou-Yang, Benjamin

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of a reverberation campaign targeting MGC-06-30-15. Spectrophotometric monitoring and broad-band photometric monitoring over the course of four months in spring 2012 allowed a determination of a time delay in the broad Hβ emission line of τ = 5.3 ± 1.8 days in the rest frame of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Combined with the width of the variable portion of the emission line, we determine a black hole mass of M BH = (1.6 ± 0.4) × 106 M ⊙. Both the Hβ time delay and the black hole mass are in good agreement with expectations from the R BLR-L and M BH-σ ⋆ relationships for other reverberation-mapped AGNs. The Hβ time delay is also in good agreement with the relationship between Hβ and broad-band near-IR delays, in which the effective size of the broad-line region is ˜4-5 times smaller than the inner edge of the dust torus. Additionally, the reverberation-based mass is in good agreement with estimates from the scaling relationship of the break in the X-ray power spectral density, and with constraints based on stellar kinematics derived from integral field spectroscopy of the inner ˜0.5 kpc of the galaxy.

  8. The changing X-ray time lag in MCG-6-30-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, E.; Fabian, A. C.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Parker, M. L.; Alston, W.; Brenneman, L. W.; Cackett, E. M.; Miniutti, G.

    2014-11-01

    MCG-6-30-15 is one of the most observed narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies in the X-ray band. In this paper, we examine the X-ray time lags in this source using a total of 600 ks in observations (440 ks exposure) taken with the XMM-Newton telescope (300 ks in 2001 and 300 ks in 2013). Both the old and new observations show the usual hard lag that increases with energy; however, the hard lag turns over to a soft lag at frequencies below ˜10-4 Hz. The highest frequencies (˜10-3 Hz) in this source show a clear soft lag, as previously presented for the first 300 ks observation, but no clear iron K lag is detected in either the old or new observation. The soft lag is more significant in the old observation than the new. The observations are consistent with a reverberation interpretation, where the soft, reflected emission is delayed with respect to the hard power-law component. These spectral timing results suggest that two distinct variability mechanisms are important in this source: intrinsic coronal variations (which lead to correlated variability in the reprocessed emission) and geometrical changes in the corona. Variability due to geometrical changes does not result in correlated variability in the reflection, and therefore inhibits the clear detection of an iron K lag.

  9. 31 CFR 30.15 - Q-15: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with certification requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.15 Q-15: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply... compensation committee has reviewed, at least every six months during the applicable period, the terms of each... most recently completed fiscal year that was a TARP period, the terms of each employee...

  10. Identification of intermittent control in man and machine

    PubMed Central

    Loram, Ian D.; van de Kamp, Cornelis; Gollee, Henrik; Gawthrop, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation by negative feedback is fundamental to engineering and biological processes. Biological regulation is usually explained using continuous feedback models from both classical and modern control theory. An alternative control paradigm, intermittent control, has also been suggested as a model for biological control systems, particularly those involving the central nervous system. However, at present, there is no identification method explicitly formulated to distinguish intermittent from continuous control; here, we present such a method. The identification experiment uses a special paired-step set-point sequence. The corresponding data analysis use a conventional ARMA model to relate a theoretically derived equivalent set-point to control signal; the novelty lies in sequentially and iteratively adjusting the timing of the steps of this equivalent set-point to optimize the linear time-invariant fit. The method was verified using realistic simulation data and was found to robustly distinguish not only between continuous and intermittent control but also between event-driven intermittent and clock-driven intermittent control. When applied to human pursuit tracking, event-driven intermittent control was identified, with an intermittent interval of 260–310 ms (n = 6, p < 0.05). This new identification method is applicable for machine and biological applications. PMID:22491973

  11. The specificity of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test for recreational soccer players is independent of their intermittent running ability.

    PubMed

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Schena, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether or not recreational soccer players (SP) and non-soccer players (non-SP) with similar intermittent-running ability had similar physiological responses to a soccer match-simulation protocol. Twenty-two recreational SP and 19 fitness-matched non-SP participated. Yo-Yo level 1 assessed intermittent-running ability, while the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test served as soccer match-simulation protocol. Heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [La(-)] and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after each bout (1-5, plus an exhaustive task). SP had lower HR after the third, fourth and fifth bout, compared to non-SP. Similarly, SP had lower [La(-)] after the third, fourth and the fifth bout. SP also had lower RPE after the third, fourth and fifth bout. The appropriateness of intermittent-running ability as the main determinant of physical performance in SP was questioned.

  12. Intermittent hypoxia and neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J.; Lee, Kun-Ze; Dale, Erica A.; Reier, Paul J.; Mitchell, Gordon S.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it has become clear that brief, repeated presentations of hypoxia [i.e., acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH)] can boost the efficacy of more traditional therapeutic strategies in certain cases of neurologic dysfunction. This hypothesis derives from a series of studies in animal models and human subjects performed over the past 35 yr. In 1980, Millhorn et al. (Millhorn DE, Eldridge FL, Waldrop TG. Respir Physiol 41: 87-103, 1980) showed that electrical stimulation of carotid chemoafferent neurons produced a persistent, serotonin-dependent increase in phrenic motor output that outlasts the stimulus for more than 90 min (i.e., a “respiratory memory”). AIH elicits similar phrenic “long-term facilitation” (LTF) by a mechanism that requires cervical spinal serotonin receptor activation and de novo protein synthesis. From 2003 to present, a series of studies demonstrated that AIH can induce neuroplasticity in the injured spinal cord, causing functional recovery of breathing capacity after cervical spinal injury. Subsequently, it was demonstrated that repeated AIH (rAIH) can induce recovery of limb function, and the functional benefits of rAIH are greatest when paired with task-specific training. Since uncontrolled and/or prolonged intermittent hypoxia can elicit pathophysiology, a challenge of intermittent hypoxia research is to ensure that therapeutic protocols are well below the threshold for pathogenesis. This is possible since many low dose rAIH protocols have induced functional benefits without evidence of pathology. We propose that carefully controlled rAIH is a safe and noninvasive modality that can be paired with other neurorehabilitative strategies including traditional activity-based physical therapy or cell-based therapies such as intraspinal transplantation of neural progenitors. PMID:25997947

  13. Fluctuations, Intermittency and Predictivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Paul

    This chapter considers the various mechanisms capable of producing amplitude and duration variations in the various dynamo models introduced in Chap. 3 (10.1007/978-3-642-32093-4_3). After a survey of observed and inferred fluctuation patterns of the solar cycle, the effects on the basic cycle of stochastic forcing, dynamical nonlinearities and time delay are considered in turn. The occurrence of intermittency in a subset of these models is then investigated, with an eye on explaining Grand Minima observed in the solar activity record. The chapter closes with a brief discussion of solar cycle prediction schemes based on dynamo models.

  14. Multidimensional intermittency in hadronic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jicai; Hwa, Rudolph C.

    1992-12-01

    The study of intermittency in high-energy hadronic collisions by the Monte Carlo code ecco is extended to three-dimensional phase space. Strong intermittency is found in agreement with the data. Fluctuation in the impact parameter is responsible for the intermittency in lnpT, and the transverse-momentum conservation leads to negative intermittency slopes in the azimuthal angle φ. The Ochs-Wosiek plots are linear in all dimensions having universal slopes. An exponent ν=1.448 emerges to characterize multiparticle production in pp collisions. The properties of G moments are also examined, and the fractal dimensions determined.

  15. Multidimensional intermittency in hadronic collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Hwa, R. C.

    1992-06-01

    The study of intermittency in high-energy hadronic collisions by the Monte Carlo code ECCO is extended to 3-dimensional phase space. Strong intermittency is found in agreement with the data. Fluctuation in the impact parameter is responsible for the intermittency in 1np(sub T), and the transverse-momentum conservation leads to negative intermittency slopes in the azimuthal angle (phi). The Ochs-Wosiek plots are linear in all dimensions having universal slopes. An exponent nu = 1.448 emerges to characterize multiparticle production in pp collisions. The properties of G moments are also examined, and the fractal dimensions determined.

  16. Comment on "Intermittent plate tectonics?".

    PubMed

    Korenaga, Jun

    2008-06-06

    Silver and Behn (Reports, 4 January 2008, p. 85) proposed that intermittent plate tectonics may resolve a long-standing paradox in Earth's thermal evolution. However, their analysis misses one important term, which subsequently brings their main conclusion into question. In addition, the Phanerozoic eustasy record indicates that the claimed effect of intermittency is probably weak.

  17. Modeling Wind Erosion Intermittency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, S.

    2015-12-01

    To improve dust emission schemes in large scale transport models, we developed the first physically-based model simulating the full erosion process in a turbulent flow by resolving explicitly saltating particle trajectories and dust suspension, in presence of vegetation. The large-eddy simulation technic is used here to simulate the turbulent flow, allowing to solve explicitly the main wind gusts near the surface and so the intermittency of the erosion process. The model appeared able to reproduce the saltation intermittency as visualized through the presence of blowing sand structures near the surface, known as aeolian streamers observed on beaches during windy days. In presence of vegetation, the model further allowed us to investigate the sensitivity of sand erosion to the arrangement and morphology of plants (shrubs versus trees). More recently, we further used the model to reanalyze the dependence of the size distribution of the dust flux to the wind speed for idealized erosion events starting from an air free of dust. We found that the suspension of small dust (around 1 μm) can be a long nonstationary process (several hours depending on the wind intensity) due to the low deposition velocity of this particle size range. This leads to a continuous enrichment of the near-surface dust flux in small particles, enrichment that is enhanced with wind intensity, independently of the possible role of saltators. The model also showed that the size distribution and magnitude of dust fluxes at a few meters height differ from those of the emitted flux at the surface as particles start to be sorted through the deposition process within the saltation layer. This last result should be considered when evaluating or calibrating "physically based" dust emission schemes against measured near-surface turbulent diffusive dust fluxes.

  18. Soft X-Ray Emission Lines from a Relativistic Accretion Disk in MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Sako, M.; Kahn, S. M.; Brinkman, A. C.; Kaastra, J. S.; Page, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectra of the Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxies MCG -6-30-15 and Mrk 766 are physically and spectroscopically inconsistent with standard models comprising a power-law continuum absorbed by either cold or ionized matter. We propose that the remarkably similar features detected in both objects in the 5 - 35 A band are H-like oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon emission lines, gravitation- ally redshifted and broadened by relativistic effects in the vicinity of a Kerr black hole. We discuss the implications of our interpretation, and demonstrate that the derived parameters can be physically self-consistent.

  19. Probing Supermassive Black Hole Spins in MCG--6-30-15 and NGC 1365 with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenneman, Laura; Walton, Dom; Marinucci, Andrea; Matt, Giorgio; Risaliti, Guido; Harrison, Fiona; Stern, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    We report on detailed spectral modeling of the Seyfert 1 AGNs NGC 1365 and MCG--6-30-15 using simultaneous, broadband X-ray spectra from XMM-Newton and NuSTAR. Both of these galaxies show evidence for relativistic reflection from the inner accretion disk in addition to complex, variable absorption. The high signal-to-noise across the 0.3-79 keV energy band enabled by these observations allows us to definitively disentangle the spectral signatures of the continuum, warm and cold absorption, and reflection from the torus and the inner disk in both sources. These deep pointings also enable the use of time-resolved spectral fitting in order to assess the role of each component in driving the spectral and temporal variability of the AGNs. This type of analysis allows us to isolate the relativistic reflection signatures in each object, facilitating the most accurate, precise constrains ever obtained on the spins of their supermassive black holes. We present our spin measurements, as well as a discussion of sources of systematic error. Finally, we place our results in the context of relativistic light-bending models in an effort to characterize the structure of the innermost regions of these AGNs.

  20. Measuring Supermassive Black Hole Spins in NGC 1365 and MCG--6-30-15 Using XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenneman, Laura; Marinucci, Andrea; Walton, Dom; Risaliti, Guido; Matt, Giorgio; Harrison, Fiona; Stern, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    We report on detailed spectral modeling of the Seyfert 1 AGN NGC 1365 and MCG--6-30-15 using simultaneous, broadband X-ray spectra from XMM-Newton and NuSTAR. Both of these galaxies show evidence for relativistic reflection from the inner accretion disk in addition to complex, variable absorption. The high signal-to-noise across the 0.2-79 keV energy band enabled by these observations allows us to definitively disentangle the spectral signatures of the continuum, warm and cold absorption, and reflection from the torus and the inner disk in both sources. These deep pointings also enable the use of time-resolved spectral fitting in order to assess the role of each component in driving the spectral and temporal variability of the AGN. This type of analysis allows us to isolate the relativistic reflection signatures in each object, facilitating the most accurate, precise constrains ever obtained on the spins of their supermassive black holes.

  1. On the Theory of Intermittency in 1D Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio, Ezequiel; Elaskar, Sergio

    2016-12-01

    The classical theory of intermittency developed for return maps assumes uniform density of points reinjected from the chaotic to laminar region. Recently, we reported how the reinjection probability density (RPD) can be generalized. Estimation of the universal RPD is based on fitting a linear function to experimental or numerical data. Here we present an analytical approach to estimate the RPD. After this, we can get an analytic evaluation of the characteristic exponent traditionally used to characterize the intermittency type. The proposed theoretical method is general and very simple to use. It is compared with numerical computation, showing a good agreement between both. Our analytical results are compared with some celebrated classical numerical results on intermittency theory.

  2. Intermittent Activity in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janiuk, A.; Czerny, B.; Siemiginowska, A.

    2004-10-01

    There is a growing evidence that the AGN activity could be intermittent. It remains an open question if this behavior is caused by changes in the fuel sup- ply to the supermassive black hole from the large distances, or rather by a processes intrinsic to the active nucleus. We consider the possibility that ac- cretion onto a supermassive black hole is controlled by an accretion disk which is subject to the hydro- gen ionization instability. This drives the observed on-off activity cycle, since periodically the accretion flow becomes inefficient and the disk goes to quies- cence. We consider effects of the MHD turbulence on the viscosity during the evolution of a standard α - disk. We perform a self-consistency check of the α de- scription of the angular momentum transfer. Hav- ing shown that the viscosity parameter is constant throughout the whole instability cycle, as implied by the strength of the MHD turbulence, we calcu- late the time evolution of the disk under the influ- ence of the ionization instability. We demonstrate that if the accretion onto a supermassive black hole proceeds through an outer standard accretion disk and inner, radiatively inefficient and advection dom- inated flow, the modelled amplitudes of disk lumi- nosity variations are sufficiently high to account for the observations. Key words: accretion disks; galaxies: active.

  3. Nulling and intermittent pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Neil

    2011-07-01

    Pulsars are extremely magnetised, rapidly rotating neutron stars which produce beams of electromagnetic radiation that sweep across the Earth. They exhibit a variety of interesting phenomena which allow us to gain insight into the physics of the emission process in these extreme magnetic fields. Intermittent pulsars are instrumental in this study due to their meta-stable configurations which result in abrupt cessation or re-activation of their radio emission. Their behaviour is believed to be tied to transient particle flow in the radio emission region. In the case of PSR B1931+24, the long-term modulation in the radio emission has been linked with the spin-down rate of the pulsar. Thus, offering a unique opportunity to study how magnetospheric changes can affect the magnetic braking of pulsars. Since the discovery of this behaviour in B1931+24, several other sources have been found to show similar radio emission modulation. Results from the analysis of the radio emission behaviour of these sources are presented, along with an update of the work carried out on observations of PSR B1931+24.

  4. Diagnosable systems for intermittent faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallela, S.; Masson, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    The fault diagnosis capabilities of systems composed of interconnected units capable of testing each other are studied for the case of systems with intermittent faults. A central role is played by the concept of t(i)-fault diagnosability. A system is said to be t(i)-fault diagnosable when it is such that if no more than t(i) units are intermittently faulty then a fault-free unit will never be diagnosed as faulty and the diagnosis at any time is at worst incomplete. Necessary and sufficient conditions for t(i)-fault diagnosability are proved, and bounds for t(i) are established. The conditions are in general more restrictive than those for permanent-fault diagnosability. For intermittent faults there is only one testing strategy (repetitive testing), and consequently only one type of intermittent-fault diagnosable system.

  5. Predicting changes in high-intensity intermittent running performance with acute responses to short jump rope workouts in children.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Martin; Rabbani, Alireza; Beigi, Hamid Taghi

    2014-09-01

    The aims of the present study were to 1) examine whether individual HR and RPE responses to a jump rope workout could be used to predict changes in high-intensity intermittent running performance in young athletes, and 2) examine the effect of using different methods to determine a smallest worthwhile change (SWC) on the interpretation of group-average and individual changes in the variables. Before and after an 8-week high-intensity training program, 13 children athletes (10.6 ± 0.9 yr) performed a high-intensity running test (30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test, VIFT) and three jump rope workouts, where HR and RPE were collected. The SWC was defined as either 1/5(th) of the between-subjects standard deviation or the variable typical error (CV). After training, the large ~9% improvement in VIFT was very likely, irrespective of the SWC. Standardized changes were greater for RPE (very likely-to-almost certain, ~30-60% changes, ~4-16 times >SWC) than for HR (likely-to-very likely, ~2-6% changes, ~1-6 times >SWC) responses. Using the CV as the SWC lead to the smallest and greatest changes for HR and RPE, respectively. The predictive value for individual performance changes tended to be better for HR (74-92%) than RPE (69%), and greater when using the CV as the SWC. The predictive value for no-performance change was low for both measures (<26%). Substantial decreases in HR and RPE responses to short jump rope workouts can predict substantial improvements in high-intensity running performance at the individual level. Using the CV of test measures as the SWC might be the better option. Key pointsDecreased HR and RPE responses to short jump rope workouts can be confidently used to track improvements in high-intensity intermittent running performance in children familiarized with this exercise mode. Rope jumping is a particularly convenient exercise, since it can be performed in a restricted space and allows the testing of a large number of athletes simultaneously

  6. Challenging Oneself Intermittently to Improve Health

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Humans and their predecessors evolved in environments where they were challenged intermittently with: 1) food scarcity; 2) the need for aerobic fitness to catch/kill prey and avoid or repel attackers; and 3) exposure to biological toxins present in foodstuffs. Accordingly, cells and organ systems acquired and retained molecular signaling and metabolic pathways through which the environmental challenges enhanced the functionality and resilience of the cells and organisms. Within the past 60 years there has been a precipitous diminution of such challenges in modern societies because of the development of technologies that provide a continuous supply of energy-dense processed foods and that largely eliminate the need for physical exertion. As a consequence of the modern ‘couch potato’ lifestyle, signaling pathways that mediate beneficial effects of environmental challenges on health and disease resistance are disengaged, thereby rendering people vulnerable to obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Reversal of the epidemic of diseases caused by unchallenging lifestyles will require a society-wide effort to re-introduce intermittent fasting, exercise and consumption of plants containing hormetic phytochemicals into daily and weekly routines. PMID:25552960

  7. Scale Dependence of Spatiotemporal Intermittence of Rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, Prasun K.; Siddani, Ravi K.

    2011-01-01

    It is a common experience that rainfall is intermittent in space and time. This is reflected by the fact that the statistics of area- and/or time-averaged rain rate is described by a mixed distribution with a nonzero probability of having a sharp value zero. In this paper we have explored the dependence of the probability of zero rain on the averaging space and time scales in large multiyear data sets based on radar and rain gauge observations. A stretched exponential fannula fits the observed scale dependence of the zero-rain probability. The proposed formula makes it apparent that the space-time support of the rain field is not quite a set of measure zero as is sometimes supposed. We also give an ex.planation of the observed behavior in tenus of a simple probabilistic model based on the premise that rainfall process has an intrinsic memory.

  8. Probing the Dusty Warm Absorbers in MCG-6-30-15 & Mrk 766 with the Chandra HETG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canizares, Claude R.; Lee, Julia C.; Marshall, Herman L.; Schulz, Norbert S.

    2001-09-01

    HETG spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15 show numerous narrow, unresolved (FWHM < 200 km s-1) absorption lines from a wide range of ionization states of N, O, Mg, Ne, Si, S, Ar, and Fe. The initial analysis of these data, presented in Lee et al. (2001), shows that a dusty warm absorber model adequately explains the spectral features > 0.48 keV (< 26 Å ). We attribute previous reports of an apparently highly redshifted O VII edge to the 1s2-1snp (n > 5) O VII resonance lines, and a neutral Fe L absorption complex. The implied dust column density needed to explain the Fe L feature agrees with that obtained from earlier reddening studies, which had already concluded that the dust should be associated with the ionized absorber (given the relatively lower observed absorption by cold gas). Our findings contradict the interpretation of Branduardi-Raymont et al. (2001), based on XMM-Newton RGS spectra, that this spectral region is dominated by highly relativistic soft X-ray line emission originating near the central black hole. Here we review these issues and present more detailed measurements of the absorption lines, constrain the implied range of ionization in the warm absorber, and present the HETG spectrum of the Fe K line region. In addition, we present preliminary results on the HETG spectrum of another reddened Seyfert galaxy, Mrk 766, which Branduardi-Raymont et al. also reported as containing relativistic soft X-ray lines.

  9. The Broadband Spectral Variability of MCG-6-30-15 Observed by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Miniutti, G.; Guainazzi, M.; Parker, M. L.; Brenneman, L.; Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Cappi, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Reynolds, C. S.; Risaliti, G.; Stern, D. K.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W.

    2014-05-01

    MCG-6-30-15, at a distance of 37 Mpc (z = 0.008), is the archetypical Seyfert 1 galaxy showing very broad Fe Kα emission. We present results from a joint NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observational campaign that, for the first time, allows a sensitive, time-resolved spectral analysis from 0.35 keV up to 80 keV. The strong variability of the source is best explained in terms of intrinsic X-ray flux variations and in the context of the light-bending model: the primary, variable emission is reprocessed by the accretion disk, which produces secondary, less variable, reflected emission. The broad Fe Kα profile is, as usual for this source, well explained by relativistic effects occurring in the innermost regions of the accretion disk around a rapidly rotating black hole. We also discuss the alternative model in which the broadening of the Fe Kα is due to the complex nature of the circumnuclear absorbing structure. Even if this model cannot be ruled out, it is disfavored on statistical grounds. We also detected an occultation event likely caused by broad-line region clouds crossing the line of sight.

  10. Intermittent Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, P. G.; Behn, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    Intermittent Plate Tectonics A basic premise of Earth Science is that plate tectonics has been continuously operating since it began early in Earth's history. Yet, plate-tectonic theory itself, specifically the collisional phase of the Wilson Cycle, constitutes a process that is capable of stopping all plate motion. The plausibility of a plate-tectonic hiatus is most easily illustrated by considering the expected future of the present-day plate-tectonic configuration. Since the opening of the Atlantic at ~200 ma, the area of the Atlantic basin has been growing at the expense of the Pacific. If this trend continues, relative plate motion models predict that in ~350 my, the Pacific Ocean basin will effectively close leading to widespread continent-continent collisions. Since a continent-continent collision represents the termination of subduction locally, the accumulated effect of all collisions is to stop subduction globally. In this scenario, ridges would then stop spreading and young oceanic lithosphere would cool, reaching a steady-state thickness of 100 km in about 80 my, based on the properties of oceanic lithosphere today. This would constitute the stoppage of plate tectonics. The presumption that plate tectonics never stops in the face of continental collisions is equivalent to requiring that subduction flux is approximately constant through time, such that subduction initiation roughly balances subduction termination. Such a balance then raises several questions about the subduction initiation process. When and how does subduction initiate? Is there a detectible relationship between subduction cessation and subduction initiation? We can gain some guidance into these questions by examining the plate motion history over the last 200 my. Subduction initiation has occurred over the last 80 my in three intra- oceanic subduction zones: Aleutians, Marianas-Izu-Bonin and Tonga-Kermadec in the Pacific basin. In these cases, however, subduction initiation would not

  11. Revealing the Dusty Warm Absorber in MCG -6-30-15 with the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Julia C.; Ogle, Patrick M.; Canizares, Claude R.; Marshall, Herman L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Morales, Raquel; Fabian, Andrew C.; Iwasawa, Kazushi

    2001-06-01

    We present detailed evidence for a warm absorber in the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG -6-30-15 and dispute earlier claims for relativistic O line emission. The High-Energy Transmission Grating spectra show numerous narrow, unresolved (FWHM<~200 km s-1) absorption lines from a wide range of ionization states of N, O, Mg, Ne, Si, S, Ar, and Fe. The O VII edge and the 1s2-1snp resonance line series to n=9 are clearly detected at rest in the active galactic nucleus frame. We attribute previous reports of an apparently highly redshifted O VII edge to the 1s2-1snp (n>5) O VII resonance lines and a neutral Fe L absorption complex. The shape of the Fe L feature is nearly identical to that seen in the spectra of several X-ray binaries and in laboratory data. The implied dust column density agrees with that obtained from reddening studies and gives the first direct X-ray evidence for dust embedded in a warm absorber. The O VIII resonance lines and the weak edge are also detected, and the spectral rollover below ~2 keV is explained by the superposition of numerous absorption lines and edges. We identify, for the first time, a KLL resonance in the O VI photoabsorption cross section, giving a measure of the O VI column density. The O VII (f) emission detected at the systemic velocity implies a covering fraction of ~5% (depending on the observed vs. time-averaged ionizing flux). Our observations show that a dusty warm absorber model is not only adequate to explain all the spectral features >~0.48 keV (<~26 Å) but that the data require it. This contradicts the interpretation of Branduardi-Raymont and coworkers that this spectral region is dominated by highly relativistic line emission from the vicinity of the black hole.

  12. 5 CFR 340.403 - Intermittent employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 340.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OTHER THAN FULL-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT (PART-TIME, SEASONAL, ON-CALL, AND INTERMITTENT) Seasonal and intermittent... has an obligation to document the change in work schedule from intermittent to part-time or...

  13. 5 CFR 340.403 - Intermittent employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 340.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OTHER THAN FULL-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT (PART-TIME, SEASONAL, ON-CALL, AND INTERMITTENT) Seasonal and intermittent... has an obligation to document the change in work schedule from intermittent to part-time or...

  14. Intermittent search process and teleportation.

    PubMed

    Bénichou, O; Moreau, M; Suet, P-H; Voituriez, R

    2007-06-21

    The authors study an intermittent search process combining diffusion and "teleportation" phases in a d-dimensional spherical continuous system and in a regular lattice. The searcher alternates diffusive phases, during which targets can be discovered, and fast phases (teleportation) which randomly relocate the searcher, but do not allow for target detection. The authors show that this alternation can be favorable for minimizing the time of first discovery, and that this time can be optimized by a convenient choice of the mean waiting times of each motion phase. The optimal search strategy is explicitly derived in the continuous case and in the lattice case. Arguments are given to show that much more general intermittent motions do provide optimal search strategies in d dimensions. These results can be useful in the context of heterogeneous catalysis or in various biological examples of transport through membrane pores.

  15. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain.

  16. Intermittent exotropia: Surgical treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kelkar, Jai Aditya; Gopal, Santhan; Shah, Rachana B; Kelkar, Aditya S

    2015-01-01

    Surgical management of intermittent exotropias (IXTs) is ambiguous, with techniques of management varying widely between institutions. This review aims to examine available literature on the surgical management of IXT. A literature search was performed using PubMed, Web of Knowledge, LILACS, and the University of Liverpool Orthoptic Journals and Conference Transactions Database. All English-language papers published between 1958 and the present day were considered. PMID:26458472

  17. Intermittent cyclophosphamide treatment of autoimmune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Weinerman, Brian; Maxwell, Ian; Hryniuk, William

    1974-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide was given intermittently rather than daily to 14 patients with autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. Eight patients responded and six did not. In those who responded the rise in platelet count was rapid, and in all patients the lack of toxicity was striking. Intermittent cyclophosphamide seems effective in some cases of autoimmune thrombocytopenia and is safe, at least in the short term. Controlled trials would be required to prove that intermittent is better than daily administration. PMID:4473260

  18. Intermittent redesign of continuous controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawthrop, Peter J.; Wang, Liuping

    2010-08-01

    The reverse-engineering idea developed by Maciejowski in the context of model-based predictive control is applied to the redesign of continuous-time compensators as intermittent controllers. Not only does this give a way of designing constrained input and state versions of continuous-time compensators but also provides a method for turning continuous-time compensators into event-driven versions. The procedure is illustrated by three examples: an event-driven PID controller relevant to the human balance control problem, a constrained version of the classical mechanical vibration absorber of den Hartog and an event driven and constrained vibration absorber.

  19. Darwinian fitness.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd; Ziehe, Martin

    2007-11-01

    The term Darwinian fitness refers to the capacity of a variant type to invade and displace the resident population in competition for available resources. Classical models of this dynamical process claim that competitive outcome is a deterministic event which is regulated by the population growth rate, called the Malthusian parameter. Recent analytic studies of the dynamics of competition in terms of diffusion processes show that growth rate predicts invasion success only in populations of infinite size. In populations of finite size, competitive outcome is a stochastic process--contingent on resource constraints--which is determined by the rate at which a population returns to its steady state condition after a random perturbation in the individual birth and death rates. This return rate, a measure of robustness or population stability, is analytically characterized by the demographic parameter, evolutionary entropy, a measure of the uncertainty in the age of the mother of a randomly chosen newborn. This article appeals to computational and numerical methods to contrast the predictive power of the Malthusian and the entropic principles. The computational analysis rejects the Malthusian model and is consistent with of the entropic principle. These studies thus provide support for the general claim that entropy is the appropriate measure of Darwinian fitness and constitutes an evolutionary parameter with broad predictive and explanatory powers.

  20. Specificity of high-intensity intermittent action remains important to MMA athletes' physical conditioning: response to Paillard (2011).

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-02-01

    This response to Paillard (2011) focuses on the intermittent nature of mixed martial arts (MMA). It also emphasizes that the main goal of MMA athletes is to win by knockout or submission and that these actions normally are high-intensity actions or preceded by high-intensity actions. Additionally, there is evidence that high-intensity intermittent exercise protocols are able to improve aerobic fitness. It is important only to adjust physical training to the athletes' techniques and tactics.

  1. Measuring Your Fitness Level

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Ready to start a fitness program? Measure your fitness level with a few simple tests. ... 14, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/fitness/art-20046433 . Mayo Clinic ...

  2. Research Report: Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and hyperbaric oxygen on GAP-43 in the rat carotid body.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhengwu; Fan, Juan; Liu, Ling; Kuang, Fang; Xue, Fen; Wang, Bairen

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive changes in the carotid body (CB) including the expression of the growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) have been studied in response to low, but not high, oxygen exposure. Expression of GAP-43 in the CB of rats under different atmospheric pressures and oxygen partial pressure (PO2) conditions was investigated. Mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH, 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks), intermittent hyperbaric oxygen (IHBO2, 0, 1, 5 and 10 days, sacrificed six hours or 24 hours after the last HBO2 exposure), and intermittent hyperbaric normoxia (IHN, same treatment pattern as IHBO2). GAP-43 was highly expressed (mainly in type I cells) in the CB of normal rats. IHH u-regulated GAP-43 expression in the CB with significant differences (immunohistochemical staining [IHC]: F(3,15)=40.64, P < 0.01; western blot [WB]: F(3,16) = 53.52, P < 0.01) across the subgroups. GAP-43 expression in the CB was inhibited by IHBO2 (controls vs. IHBO2 groups, IHC: F(6,30) = 15.85, P < 0.01; WB: F(6,29) = 15.95, P < 0.01). No detectable changes in GAP-43 expression were found for IHN. These findings indicated that different PO2 conditions, but not air pressures, played an important role in the plasticity of the CB, and that GAP-43 might be a viable factor for the plasticity of the CB.

  3. COHO SALMON DEPENDENCE ON INTERMITTENT STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February 2006, the US Supreme Court heard cases that may affect whether intermittent streams are jurisdictional waters under the Clean Water Act. In June 2006, however, the cases were remanded to the circuit court, leaving the status of intermittent streams uncertain once agai...

  4. Acute intermittent porphyria: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Anyaegbu, Elizabeth; Goodman, Michael; Ahn, Sun-Young; Thangarajh, Mathula; Wong, Michael; Shinawi, Marwan

    2012-07-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria is a metabolic disorder rarely seen in prepubertal children. A delay in diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria is common because of variable and nonspecific symptoms. We report an 8-year-old boy with right hemimegalencephaly and intractable seizures, who presented with dark-colored urine, hypertension, increasing lethargy, fluctuating seizures, and poor oral intake. He subsequently developed hyponatremia secondary to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. His urinalysis was negative for red blood cells, and a random urine porphobilinogen level was elevated. Further biochemical and molecular testing confirmed the diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria. His antiepileptic medications were discontinued and hemin administered, with dramatic clinical improvement. The diagnosis of acute intermittent porphyria was challenging because of his underlying neurologic condition. This case highlights the variable presentation of acute intermittent porphyria and emphasizes the importance of considering the diagnosis even in young patients with underlying neurologic conditions when they present with nonspecific neurovisceral symptoms or with unexplained neurologic deterioration.

  5. ANISOTROPIC INTERMITTENCY OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, K. T.; Kiyani, K. H.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2014-03-10

    A higher-order multiscale analysis of spatial anisotropy in inertial range magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented using measurements from the STEREO spacecraft in fast ambient solar wind. We show for the first time that, when measuring parallel to the local magnetic field direction, the full statistical signature of the magnetic and Elsässer field fluctuations is that of a non-Gaussian globally scale-invariant process. This is distinct from the classic multiexponent statistics observed when the local magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow direction. These observations are interpreted as evidence for the weakness, or absence, of a parallel magnetofluid turbulence energy cascade. As such, these results present strong observational constraints on the statistical nature of intermittency in turbulent plasmas.

  6. Cooperative controls with intermittent communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Cruz, Jose B., Jr.; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Lynch, Robert

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a solution to the cooperative path planning with limited communication problem in two phases. In the first (offline) phase, a Pareto-optimal path problem is formulated to find a reference path and the graph cuts minimization method is used to speedily calculate the optimal solution. In the second (online) phase, a foraging algorithm is used to dynamically refine the reference path to meet the dynamic constraints of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAVs), during which an open-loop feedback optimal (OLFO) controller is used to estimate the states which may be unavailable due to infrequent battlefield information updates. Furthermore, an adaptive Markov decision process is proposed to deal with intermittent asynchronous information flow. The method is demonstrated in a simulation for a swarm of Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) teams with various communication ranges.

  7. Recovery after an intermittent test.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, M; Wisloff, U; McCall, A; Berthoin, S; Dupont, G

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the impact of an intermittent test reproducing the soccer running activity profile on physical performance, subjective ratings and biochemical parameters throughout 72 h recovery. 8 professional soccer players performed the intermittent test on a non-motorised treadmill and data was collected before, immediately after, 24, 48 and 72 h after the test. Squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), peak isometric force (IFpeak), 6-s sprint, repeated sprints test (RS), perceptual ratings (fatigue, muscle soreness, stress), creatine kinase ([CK]) and uric acid ([UA]) were analyzed. After the test, a mean reduction in countermovement jump performance of -8.2% (CI: -12.9 to -3.4, p<0.01) was observed, while perceived fatigue (+2.1±1.7 a.u.; p<0.05), perceived muscle soreness (+1.8±1.5 a.u.; p<0.05), perceived stress (+1.6±1.5 a.u.; p<0.05), creatine kinase (+171±77 IU x l(-1); p<0.01) and uric acid (+168±89 Umol x l(-1); p<0.01) concentrations were significantly increased relative to baseline. No significant effect was found for SJ, IFpeak, 6-s sprint, RS immediately after and throughout the 72 h following the test. In conclusion, soccer running performance does not appear to be the main cause of post soccer match-induced fatigue. Physical data provided by video match analysis systems is insufficient to accurately estimate the level of match fatigue.

  8. Intermittent versus continuous operation of biosand filters.

    PubMed

    Young-Rojanschi, Candice; Madramootoo, Chandra

    2014-02-01

    The biosand filter is a household-scale point-of-use water filtration system based on slow sand filtration, but modified for intermittent operation. Studies on slow sand filters show that intermittent operation reduces filter effectiveness. However, continuous versus intermittent operation of biosand filters has never been compared. Eight 10-cm diameter columns were constructed to represent field biosand filters. Five were operated intermittently with a 24-h residence period, while the remaining three were operated continuously. Continuous operation of the filters resulted in significantly better reduction of Escherichia coli (3.71 log10 versus 1.67 log10), bacteriophage MS2 (2.25 log10 versus 0.85 log10), and turbidity (96% versus 87%). Dissolved oxygen levels at 5 and 10 cm of media depth in intermittent filters reached an average of 0 mg/L by 24 h of residence time on day 60 of the experiment. A simple numerical model was developed to describe E. coli removal during ripening from days 0-58 for continuously operated versus intermittent filters. This research confirms that although biosand filters were developed for intermittent operation, the filters perform significantly better when operated continuously. However, both operational modes resulted in a significant reduction of microbial indicators.

  9. fits2hdf: FITS to HDFITS conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, D. C.; Barsdell, B. R.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2015-05-01

    fits2hdf ports FITS files to Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) files in the HDFITS format. HDFITS allows faster reading of data, higher compression ratios, and higher throughput. HDFITS formatted data can be presented transparently as an in-memory FITS equivalent by changing the import lines in Python-based FITS utilities. fits2hdf includes a utility to port MeasurementSets (MS) to HDF5 files.

  10. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  11. Sky dancer: an intermittent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, Anne; Rodríguez Romero, Jesse Alexander; Damián Díaz Andrade, Oscar

    2009-11-01

    Sky dancers attract people sight to make advertising. What is the origin of those large vertical tubes fluctuations above an air blower? This study complements the previous one [1] about the system analysis from a dynamical system point of view. As a difference from the ``garden hose-instability'' [2], the tube shape has got ``break points''. Those ``break points'' separate the air-filled bottom tube portion from its deflated top portion. We record the tube dynamics with a high-speed videocamera simultaneously that we measure the pressure at the air blower exit. The intermittent pressure evolution displays picks when the tube fluctuates. We compare those overpressure values with the ones that appears in a rigid tube whose exit is partially obstructed. [1] F. Castillo Flores & A. Cros ``Transition to chaos of a vertical collapsible tube conveying air flow'' J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 166, 012017 (2009). [2] A. S. Greenwald & J. Dungundji ``Static and dynamic instabilities of a propellant line'' MIT Aeroelastic and Structures Research Lab, AFOSR Sci. Report: AFOSR 67-1395 (1967).

  12. Lacunarity and intermittency in fluid turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. A.; Fournier, J.-D.; Spiegel, E. A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that oscillations in the high-order moments of turbulent velocity fields are inherent to the fractal character of intermittent turbulence and are a feature of the lacunarity of fractal sets. Oscillations in simple Cantor sets are described, and a single parameter to measure lacunarity is identified. The connection between oscillations in fractals and in the turbulent velocity correlations is discussed using the phenomenological beta model of intermittent turbulence (Frisch et al., 1978).

  13. Empirical modelling of the dynamic response of fatigue during intermittent submaximal contractions of human forearm and calf muscles.

    PubMed

    Green, Simon; Stefanovic, Brad; Warman, Joel; Askew, Christopher D

    2015-02-01

    Maximum force (Fmax) declines during intermittent submaximal contractions, but the linearity of this fatigue response and number of underlying phases is not clear. Healthy men were studied during two experiments (n=10 each). Experiment 1 involved single bouts of intermittent forearm contractions (50% Fmax) to failure using both limbs assigned as Armcontrol or Armtraining. Experiment 2 involved five bouts of intermittent calf contractions (60% Fmax) to failure using the same limb where data from the longest single trial (Calfsingle) or averaged across five bouts (Calfaveraged) were analysed. Fmax was assessed at 25-30s intervals during exercise and fitted to ten mono- and biphasic functions consisting of linear and/or nonlinear terms. For each fatigue response, the function which provided the best fit was determined on statistical grounds. Biphasic functions provided the majority of best fits during Armcontrol (9/10), Armtraining (10/10), Calfsingle (7/10) and Calfaveraged (9/10). For each condition, linear functions provided the best fit in 4-5 out of 10 responses. Two biphasic functions differentiated only by their first term (linear versus exponential) provided the best fit for 29/40 fatigue responses. These outcomes suggest that fatigue during intermittent contractions exhibits a biphasic response characterised by nonlinear and linear behaviour.

  14. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness: a fitter fitness concept

    PubMed Central

    Costa, James T.

    2013-01-01

    In 1963–1964 W. D. Hamilton introduced the concept of inclusive fitness, the only significant elaboration of Darwinian fitness since the nineteenth century. I discuss the origin of the modern fitness concept, providing context for Hamilton's discovery of inclusive fitness in relation to the puzzle of altruism. While fitness conceptually originates with Darwin, the term itself stems from Spencer and crystallized quantitatively in the early twentieth century. Hamiltonian inclusive fitness, with Price's reformulation, provided the solution to Darwin's ‘special difficulty’—the evolution of caste polymorphism and sterility in social insects. Hamilton further explored the roles of inclusive fitness and reciprocation to tackle Darwin's other difficulty, the evolution of human altruism. The heuristically powerful inclusive fitness concept ramified over the past 50 years: the number and diversity of ‘offspring ideas’ that it has engendered render it a fitter fitness concept, one that Darwin would have appreciated. PMID:24132089

  15. Physical Fitness at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Thomas B.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes decline in youth fitness, emphasizing role of camping programs in youth fitness education. Describes Michigan camp's fitness program, consisting of daily workouts, fitness education, and record keeping. Describes fitness consultants' role in program. Discusses program's highlights and problems, suggesting changes for future use. Shows…

  16. Intermittent ephemeral river-breaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reniers, A. J.; MacMahan, J. H.; Gallagher, E. L.; Shanks, A.; Morgan, S.; Jarvis, M.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.; Fujimura, A.

    2012-12-01

    In the summer of 2011 we performed a field experiment in Carmel River State Beach, CA, at a time when the intermittent natural breaching of the ephemeral Carmel River occurred due to an unusually rainy period prior to the experiment associated with El Nino. At this time the river would fill the lagoon over the period of a number of days after which a breach would occur. This allowed us to document a number of breaches with unique pre- and post-breach topographic surveys, accompanying ocean and lagoon water elevations as well as extremely high flow (4m/s) velocities in the river mouth during the breaching event. The topographic surveys were obtained with a GPS-equipped backpack mounted on a walking human and show the evolution of the river breaching with a gradually widening and deepening river channel that cuts through the pre-existing beach and berm. The beach face is qualified as a steep with an average beach slope of 1:10 with significant reflection of the incident waves (MacMahan et al., 2012). The wave directions are generally shore normal as the waves refract over the deep canyon that is located offshore of the beach. The tide is mixed semi-diurnal with a range on the order of one meter. Breaching typically occurred during the low-low tide. Grain size is highly variable along the beach with layers of alternating fine and coarse material that could clearly be observed as the river exit channel was cutting through the beach. Large rocky outcroppings buried under the beach sand are also present along certain stretches of the beach controlling the depth of the breaching channel. The changes in the water level measured within the lagoon and the ocean side allows for an estimate of the volume flux associated with the breach as function of morphology, tidal elevation and wave conditions as well as an assessment of the conditions and mechanisms of breach closure, which occurred on the time scale of O(0.5 days). Exploratory model simulations will be presented at the

  17. Modeling Integrated Water-User Decisions with Intermittent Supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.; Rosenberg, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present an economic-engineering method to estimate urban water use demands with intermittent water supplies. A two-stage, probabilistic optimization formulation includes a wide variety of water supply enhancement and conservation actions that individual households can adopt to meet multiple water quality uses with uncertain water availability. We embed the optimization in Monte-Carlo simulations to show aggregate effects at a utility (citywide) scale for a population of user conditions and decisions. Parametric analysis provides derivations of supply curves to subsidize conservation, demand responses to alternative pricing, and customer willingness-to-pay to avoid shortages. Results show a good empirical fit for the average and distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Additional outputs give likely market penetration rates for household conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies required to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, market, and finance conservation programs and interpret a demand curve with block pricing.

  18. Intermittent versus Continuous Incremental Field Tests: Are Maximal Variables Interchangeable?

    PubMed Central

    Carminatti, Lorival J.; Possamai, Carlos A. P.; de Moraes, Marcelo; da Silva, Juliano F.; de Lucas, Ricardo D.; Dittrich, Naiandra; Guglielmo, Luiz G. A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare physiological responses derived from an incremental progressive field test with a constant speed test i.e. intermittent versus continuous protocol. Two progressive maximum tests (Carminatti`s test (T-CAR) and the Vameval test (T-VAM)), characterized by increasing speed were used. T-CAR is an intermittent incremental test, performed as shuttle runs; while T-VAM is a continuous incremental test performed on an athletic track. Eighteen physically active, healthy young subjects (21.9 ± 2.0 years; 76.5 ± 8.6 kg, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 11.2 ± 5.4% body fat), volunteered for this study. Subjects performed four different maximum test sessions conducted in the field: two incremental tests and two time to exhaustion tests (TTE) at peak test velocities (PV). No significant differences were found for PV (T-CAR = 15.6 ± 1.2; T-VAM = 15.5 ± 1.3 km·h-1) and maximal HR (T-CAR = 195 ± 11; T- VAM = 194 ± 14 bpm). During TTE, there were no significant differences for HR (TTET-CAR and TTET-VAM = 192 ± 12 bpm). However, there was a significant difference in TTE (p = 0.04) (TTET-CAR = 379 ± 84, TTET-VAM = 338 ± 58 s) with a low correlation (r = 0.41). The blood lactate concentration measured at the end of the TTE tests, showed no significant difference (TTET-CAR = 13.2 ± 2.4 vs. TTET-VAM = 12.9 ± 2.4 mmol·l-1). Based on the present findings, it is suggested that the maximal variables derived from T-CAR and T-VAM can be interchangeable in the design of training programs. Key points T-CAR is an intermittent shuttle run test that predicts the maximal aerobic speed with accuracy, hence, test results could be interchangeable with continuous straight-line tests. T-CAR provides valid field data for evaluating aerobic fitness. In comparison with T-VAM, T-CAR may be a more favourable way to prescribe intermittent training using a shuttle-running protocol. PMID:24149741

  19. Fit for purpose: Australia's National Fitness Campaign.

    PubMed

    Collins, Julie A; Lekkas, Peter

    2011-12-19

    During a time of war, the federal government passed the National Fitness Act 1941 to improve the fitness of the youth of Australia and better prepare them for roles in the armed services and industry. Implementation of the National Fitness Act made federal funds available at a local level through state-based national fitness councils, which coordinated promotional campaigns, programs, education and infrastructure for physical fitness, with volunteers undertaking most of the work. Specifically focused on children and youth, national fitness councils supported the provision of children's playgrounds, youth clubs and school camping programs, as well as the development of physical education in schools and its teaching and research in universities. By the time the Act was repealed in 1994, fitness had become associated with leisure and recreation rather than being seen as equipping people for everyday life and work. The emergence of the Australian National Preventive Health Agency Act 2010 offers the opportunity to reflect on synergies with its historic precedent.

  20. [Acute intermittent porphyria presenting as spontaneous hemothorax].

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Juliana; Santa, Sandra Viviana

    2009-09-01

    The porphyrias are inherited disorders of the heme biosynthetic pathway. They are relatively rare and often misdiagnosed; however, acute episodes can be curtailed by early administration of heme arginate. Acute intermittent porphyria is the commonest of acute forms of porphyria. Here, a case is presented of a 23-year-old male with acute intermittent porphyria who came to the emergency clinic with an unexplained abdominal pain. In addition, he exhibited spontaneous hemothorax (two liters of blood accumulated in the chest) as an unusual manifestation of the disease. The most relevant aspects of acute intermittent porphyria are discussed, along with its epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical presentation and treatment. Complexities and diagnostic requirements in making a diagnosis of porphyria are described.

  1. Complexity and Intermittent Turbulence in Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Tom; Tam, Sunny W. Y.; Wu, Cheng-Chin

    2004-01-01

    Sporadic and localized interactions of coherent structures arising from plasma resonances can be the origin of "complexity" of the coexistence of non- propagating spatiotemporal fluctuations and propagating modes in space plasmas. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the intermittent character of the non-propagating fluctuations. The technique of the dynamic renormalization-group is introduced and applied to the study of scale invariance of such type of multiscale fluctuations. We also demonstrate that the particle interactions with the intermittent turbulence can lead to the efficient energization of the plasma populations. An example related to the ion acceleration processes in the auroral zone is provided.

  2. Phase control of intermittency in dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Samuel; Mariño, Inés P; Salvadori, Francesco; Meucci, Riccardo; Sanjuán, Miguel A F; Arecchi, F T

    2006-07-01

    We present a nonfeedback method to tame or enhance crisis-induced intermittency in dynamical systems. By adding a small harmonic perturbation to a parameter of the system, the intermittent behavior can be suppressed or enhanced depending on the value of the phase difference between the main driving and the perturbation. The validity of the method is shown both in the model and in an experiment with a CO2 laser. An analysis of this scheme applied to the quadratic map near crisis illustrates the role of phase control in nonlinear dynamical systems.

  3. ProFit: Bayesian galaxy fitting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, A. S. G.; Taranu, D.; Tobar, R.

    2016-12-01

    ProFit is a Bayesian galaxy fitting tool that uses the fast C++ image generation library libprofit (ascl:1612.003) and a flexible R interface to a large number of likelihood samplers. It offers a fully featured Bayesian interface to galaxy model fitting (also called profiling), using mostly the same standard inputs as other popular codes (e.g. GALFIT ascl:1104.010), but it is also able to use complex priors and a number of likelihoods.

  4. The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer probes the dusty warm absorber in the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. C.; Canizares, C. R.; Marshall, H. L.; Morales, R.; Schulz, N. S.; Iwasawa, K.

    The Chandra HETGS spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG-6-30-15 show numerous narrow, unresolved (FWHM ≈< 200 km s-1) absorption lines from a wide range of ionization states of N, O, Mg, Ne, Si, S, Ar, and Fe. The initial analysis of these data, presented in Lee et al. (2001), shows that a dusty warm absorber model adequately explains the spectral features ≈> 0.48 keV (≈< 26 Å ). We attribute previous reports of an apparently highly redshifted O VII edge to the neutral Fe L absorption complex and the O VII resonance series (by transitions higher than He γ He α,β,γ are also seen at lower energies). The implied dust column density needed to explain the Fe I L edge feature agrees with that obtained from earlier reddening studies, which had already concluded that the dust should be associated with the ionized absorber (given the relatively lower observed X-ray absorption by cold gas). Our findings contradict the interpretation of Branduardi-Raymont et al. (2001), based on XMM RGS spectra, that this spectral region is dominated by highly relativistic soft X-ray line emission originating near the central black hole. Here we review these issues pertaining to the soft X-ray spectral features as addressed by Lee et al., (2001). Details found in Lee et al., 2001, ApJ., 554, L13

  5. Intermittent Swimming with a Flexible Propulsor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoz, Emre; Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith

    2016-11-01

    Some animals propel themselves by using an intermittent swimming gait known as a burst-and-glide or a burst-and-coast motion. These swimmers tend to have a more pronounced pitching of their caudal fins than heaving leading to low non-dimensional heave-to-pitch ratios. Recent work has shown that when this ratio is sufficiently low the efficiency of an intermittently heaving/pitching airfoil can be significantly improved over a continuously oscillating airfoil. However, fish that swim with an intermittent gait, such as cod and saithe, do not have rigid fins, but instead have highly flexible fins. To examine the performance and flow structures of an intermittent swimmer with a flexible propulsor, a fast boundary element method solver strongly coupled with a torsional-spring structural model was developed. A self-propelled virtual body combined with a flexible-hinged pitching airfoil is used to model a free-swimming animal and its flexible caudal fin. The duty cycle of the active to the coasting phase of motion, the torsional spring flexibility and the forcing frequency are all varied. The cost-of-transport and the swimming speed are measured and connected to the observed wake patterns. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533.

  6. Intermittent/transient faults in digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, G. M.; Glazer, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Containment set techniques are applied to 8085 microprocessor controllers so as to transform a typical control system into a slightly modified version, shown to be crashproof: after the departure of the intermittent/transient fault, return to one proper control algorithm is assured, assuming no permanent faults occur.

  7. Clean Intermittent Catheterization in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katrancha, Elizabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is a neural tube defect that causes many physical and mental disabilities. Bowel and bladder incontinence is the disability seen most often in these students that requires the school nurse's attention. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) provides the student with SB a vehicle to reach a satisfactory level of continence,…

  8. 21 CFR 890.1600 - Intermittent pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intermittent pressure measurement system. 890.1600... Intermittent pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. An intermittent pressure measurement system is an evaluative device intended for medical purposes, such as to measure the actual pressure between the...

  9. 21 CFR 890.1600 - Intermittent pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intermittent pressure measurement system. 890.1600... Intermittent pressure measurement system. (a) Identification. An intermittent pressure measurement system is an evaluative device intended for medical purposes, such as to measure the actual pressure between the...

  10. 40 CFR 51.119 - Intermittent control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Intermittent control systems. 51.119... Intermittent control systems. (a) The use of an intermittent control system (ICS) may be taken into account in... of any constant pollution control system which was in use before December 31, 1970, or the...

  11. 40 CFR 51.119 - Intermittent control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermittent control systems. 51.119... Intermittent control systems. (a) The use of an intermittent control system (ICS) may be taken into account in... of any constant pollution control system which was in use before December 31, 1970, or the...

  12. Data analysis considerations in probing single quantum dot fluorescence intermittency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogmeier, Jeffrey R.; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2005-04-01

    The fluorescence intermittency of single, bare, CdSe/ZnS quantum dots was probed using single molecule confocal microscopy and found to demonstrate power law kinetics. Various threshold values and line fitting parameters are employed in the data analysis and their effects on the extracted power law exponents, moff and mon, are presented. The threshold is found to be critical in determining moff while having no significant effect on mon. The mean plus 2σ threshold, calculated from the background noise in the measurement, results in a more negative moff slope in comparison to the mean plus 3σ or mean plus 4σ thresholds. This is likely due to the mean plus 2σ threshold lying within the background noise outliers which mimic short on events. In contrast, the mean plus 4σ threshold is above 99.99% of the background noise while adequately below the fluorescence signal. Additionally, it is found that fitting only the ten most probable data points rather than all the data points in the log-log probability density graphs results in no significant change in moff and mon.

  13. ImOSM: intermittent evolution and robustness of phylogenetic methods.

    PubMed

    Thi Nguyen, Minh Anh; Gesell, Tanja; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-02-01

    Among the criteria to evaluate the performance of a phylogenetic method, robustness to model violation is of particular practical importance as complete a priori knowledge of evolutionary processes is typically unavailable. For studies of robustness in phylogenetic inference, a utility to add well-defined model violations to the simulated data would be helpful. We therefore introduce ImOSM, a tool to imbed intermittent evolution as model violation into an alignment. Intermittent evolution refers to extra substitutions occurring randomly on branches of a tree, thus changing alignment site patterns. This means that the extra substitutions are placed on the tree after the typical process of sequence evolution is completed. We then study the robustness of widely used phylogenetic methods: maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP), and a distance-based method (BIONJ) to various scenarios of model violation. Violation of rates across sites (RaS) heterogeneity and simultaneous violation of RaS and the transition/transversion ratio on two nonadjacent external branches hinder all the methods recovery of the true topology for a four-taxon tree. For an eight-taxon balanced tree, the violations cause each of the three methods to infer a different topology. Both ML and MP fail, whereas BIONJ, which calculates the distances based on the ML estimated parameters, reconstructs the true tree. Finally, we report that a test of model homogeneity and goodness of fit tests have enough power to detect such model violations. The outcome of the tests can help to actually gain confidence in the inferred trees. Therefore, we recommend using these tests in practical phylogenetic analyses.

  14. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  15. Outdoor fitness routine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000891.htm Outdoor fitness routine To use the sharing features on this ... you and is right for your level of fitness. Here are some ideas: Warm up first. Get ...

  16. Quantifying intermittent transport in cell cytoplasm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagache, Thibault; Holcman, David

    2008-03-01

    Active cellular transport is a fundamental mechanism for protein and vesicle delivery, cell cycle, and molecular degradation. Viruses can hijack the transport system and use it to reach the nucleus. Most transport processes consist of intermittent dynamics, where the motion of a particle, such as a virus, alternates between pure Brownian and directed movement along microtubules. In this Rapid Communication, we estimate the mean time for a particle to attach to a microtubule network. This computation leads to a coarse grained equation of the intermittent motion in radial and cylindrical geometries. Finally, by using the degradation activity inside the cytoplasm, we obtain refined asymptotic estimations for the probability and the mean time a virus reaches a small nuclear pore.

  17. Intermittent hypoxia in patients with unexplained polycythaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Moore-Gillon, J C; Treacher, D F; Gaminara, E J; Pearson, T C; Cameron, I R

    1986-01-01

    The aetiology of polycythaemia is unclear in up to 30% of patients. Twenty patients with unexplained polycythaemia were investigated to see whether they had an intermittent hypoxic stimulus to erythropoiesis that was undetected by conventional investigations for hypoxic secondary polycythaemia. Overnight polygraphic sleep studies showed that five patients had prolonged nocturnal hypoxaemia. Their arterial oxygen saturation was below 92%, the level at which appreciable hypoxic stimulation of erythropoiesis occurs, for 26-68% of the time for which they were studied. Considerable evidence is accumulating that intermittent hypoxia is a potent stimulus to erythropoiesis, and clinicians should consider the possibility of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with unexplained polycythaemia. Appropriate investigation will lead to the correct diagnosis of polycythaemia secondary to hypoxia in some cases previously regarded as idiopathic, and treatment may then be planned accordingly. PMID:3092936

  18. Intermittency exponent of the turbulent energy cascade.

    PubMed

    Cleve, Jochen; Greiner, Martin; Pearson, Bruce R; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R

    2004-06-01

    We consider the turbulent energy dissipation from one-dimensional records in experiments using air and gaseous helium at cryogenic temperatures, and obtain the intermittency exponent via the two-point correlation function of the energy dissipation. The air data are obtained in a number of flows in a wind tunnel and the atmospheric boundary layer at a height of about 35 m above the ground. The helium data correspond to the centerline of a jet exhausting into a container. The air data on the intermittency exponent are consistent with each other and with a trend that increases with the Taylor microscale Reynolds number, R(lambda), of up to about 1000 and saturates thereafter. On the other hand, the helium data cluster around a constant value at nearly all R(lambda), this being about half of the asymptotic value for the air data. Some possible explanation is offered for this anomaly.

  19. Intermittent amantadine for fluoxetine-induced anorgasmia.

    PubMed

    Balon, R

    1996-01-01

    Various drugs, including amantadine, have been reported in the successful treatment of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction. Only a regular daily dosing schedule of amantadine has been used for the treatment of sexual dysfunction so far. This case demonstrates that an intermittent dose of amantadine at 100 mg five to six hours prior to coitus could be useful in the treatment of fluoxetine-induced anorgasmia.

  20. Decay of correlation for random intermittent maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahsoun, Wael; Bose, Christopher; Duan, Yuejiao

    2014-07-01

    We study a class of random transformations built over finitely many intermittent maps sharing a common indifferent fixed point. Using a Young-tower technique, we show that the map with the fastest relaxation rate dominates the asymptotics. In particular, we prove that the rate of correlation decay for the annealed dynamics of the random map is the same as the sharp rate of correlation decay for the map with the fastest relaxation rate.

  1. Intermittent chaotic chimeras for coupled rotators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmi, Simona; Martens, Erik A.; Thutupalli, Shashi; Torcini, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Two symmetrically coupled populations of N oscillators with inertia m display chaotic solutions with broken symmetry similar to experimental observations with mechanical pendulums. In particular, we report evidence of intermittent chaotic chimeras, where one population is synchronized and the other jumps erratically between laminar and turbulent phases. These states have finite lifetimes diverging as a power law with N and m . Lyapunov analyses reveal chaotic properties in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for globally coupled dissipative systems.

  2. Temporal Intermittency in Solar Coronal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusano, K.

    1998-11-01

    The nonlinear response of the solar coronal plasma against a continuous helicity injection is investigated by magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations. Particularly, we perform a long time simulation to examine a self-consistent dynamics which hardly depends on the initial setting. The model is two-dimensional, and the helicity is supplied by a shearing motion at the feet of magnetic loops. The results show us that an intermittent cyclic process happens even though the helicity is constantly supplied. Each process, which is consist of the storage of helicity, the coronal loop instability, reconnection, and the plasmoid ejection, forms a limit cycle in a parameter space of energy and helicity. The limit cycle locates in a region between two branches of the bifurcated linear force free field. As the magnetic Reynolds number increases, the amplitude as well as the period of the cycle increases, and the temporal evolution indicates the saw-tooth like intermittency. They suggest that, even if there is no trigger, the coronal plasma is able to generates an intermittent dynamics like flares, when the magnetic Reynolds number is much larger than unity.

  3. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy.

  4. Quasispecies on Fitness Landscapes.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Selection-mutation dynamics is studied as adaptation and neutral drift on abstract fitness landscapes. Various models of fitness landscapes are introduced and analyzed with respect to the stationary mutant distributions adopted by populations upon them. The concept of quasispecies is introduced, and the error threshold phenomenon is analyzed. Complex fitness landscapes with large scatter of fitness values are shown to sustain error thresholds. The phenomenological theory of the quasispecies introduced in 1971 by Eigen is compared to approximation-free numerical computations. The concept of strong quasispecies understood as mutant distributions, which are especially stable against changes in mutations rates, is presented. The role of fitness neutral genotypes in quasispecies is discussed.

  5. Improving NEC Fit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    requirements and in managing personnel by tracking sailors who have acquired these skills. NEC Fit is one of two primary metrics that Navy leadership...with a rating. They are used in defining manpower requirements and in personnel management to track sailors who have acquired these skills. NEC Fit...of the new NEC requirements in the Total Force Manpower Management System (TFMMS) for Fit levels to reach their steady state. The primary reason for

  6. Water infiltration and intermittent flow in rough-walled fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Grace

    1995-05-01

    Flow visualization experiments were conducted in transparent replicas of natural rough-walled fractures. The fracture was inclined to observe the interplay between capillary and gravity forces. Water was introduced into the fracture by a capillary siphon. Preferential flow paths were observed, where intermittent flow frequently occurred. The water infiltration experiments suggest that intermittent flow in fractures appears to be the rule rather than the exception. In order to investigate the mechanism causing intermittent flow in fractures, parallel plates with different apertures were assembled using lucite and glass. A medium-coarse-fine pore structure is believed to cause the intermittency in flow. Intermittent flow was successfully produced in the parallel plate experiments using the lucite plates. After several trials, intermittent flow was also produced in the glass plates.

  7. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, P.T.

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  8. Leak test fitting

    DOEpatents

    Pickett, Patrick T.

    1981-01-01

    A hollow fitting for use in gas spectrometry leak testing of conduit joints is divided into two generally symmetrical halves along the axis of the conduit. A clip may quickly and easily fasten and unfasten the halves around the conduit joint under test. Each end of the fitting is sealable with a yieldable material, such as a piece of foam rubber. An orifice is provided in a wall of the fitting for the insertion or detection of helium during testing. One half of the fitting also may be employed to test joints mounted against a surface.

  9. Hovering and intermittent flight in birds.

    PubMed

    Tobalske, Bret W

    2010-12-01

    Two styles of bird locomotion, hovering and intermittent flight, have great potential to inform future development of autonomous flying vehicles. Hummingbirds are the smallest flying vertebrates, and they are the only birds that can sustain hovering. Their ability to hover is due to their small size, high wingbeat frequency, relatively large margin of mass-specific power available for flight and a suite of anatomical features that include proportionally massive major flight muscles (pectoralis and supracoracoideus) and wing anatomy that enables them to leave their wings extended yet turned over (supinated) during upstroke so that they can generate lift to support their weight. Hummingbirds generate three times more lift during downstroke compared with upstroke, with the disparity due to wing twist during upstroke. Much like insects, hummingbirds exploit unsteady mechanisms during hovering including delayed stall during wing translation that is manifest as a leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the wing and rotational circulation at the end of each half stroke. Intermittent flight is common in small- and medium-sized birds and consists of pauses during which the wings are flexed (bound) or extended (glide). Flap-bounding appears to be an energy-saving style when flying relatively fast, with the production of lift by the body and tail critical to this saving. Flap-gliding is thought to be less costly than continuous flapping during flight at most speeds. Some species are known to shift from flap-gliding at slow speeds to flap-bounding at fast speeds, but there is an upper size limit for the ability to bound (~0.3 kg) and small birds with rounded wings do not use intermittent glides.

  10. Intermittent fasting: a "new" historical strategy for controlling seizures?

    PubMed

    Hartman, Adam L; Rubenstein, James E; Kossoff, Eric H

    2013-05-01

    In antiquity, fasting was a treatment for epilepsy and a rationale for the ketogenic diet (KD). Preclinical data indicate the KD and intermittent fasting do not share identical anticonvulsant mechanisms. We implemented an intermittent fasting regimen in six children with an incomplete response to a KD. Three patients adhered to the combined intermittent fasting/KD regimen for 2 months and four had transient improvement in seizure control, albeit with some hunger-related adverse reactions.

  11. Influence of intermittency and synergy on grasping.

    PubMed

    Neilson, P D

    1999-07-01

    The commentary firstly supports Smeets and Brenner in their choice of a kinematic trajectory, submitting that the challenge posed by the rival torque-change formulation is resolved by consideration of intermittency in human movement control. Second, it examines the choice of optimization criterion for trajectory planning, arguing in favor of minimum acceleration rather than minimum jerk. Third, using the notion of optimized trajectories in task-dependent coordinate space together with synergy generation, it suggests a formulation that reduces the processing load entailed in Smeets and Brenner's proposal of individual trajectories for each digit.

  12. Intermittent oral iron supplementation during pregnancy (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia is a frequent condition during pregnancy, particularly among women from developing countries who have insufficient iron intake to meet increased iron needs of both the mother and the fetus. Traditionally, gestational anaemia has been prevented with the provision of daily iron supplements throughout pregnancy, but adherence to this regimen due to side effects, interrupted supply of the supplements, and concerns about safety among women with an adequate iron intake, have limited the use of this intervention. Intermittent (i.e. one, two or three times a week on non-consecutive days) supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals has recently been proposed as an alternative to daily supplementation. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of intermittent supplementation with iron alone or in combination with folic acid or other vitamins and minerals to pregnant women on neonatal and pregnancy outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (23 March 2012). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for ongoing studies and contacted relevant organisations for the identification of ongoing and unpublished studies (23 March 2012). Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We assessed the methodological quality of trials using standard Cochrane criteria. Two review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data and conducted checks for accuracy. Main results This review includes 21 trials from 13 different countries, but only 18 trials (with 4072 women) reported on our outcomes of interest and contributed data to the review. All of these studies compared daily versus intermittent iron supplementation. Three studies provided iron alone, 12 iron+folic acid and three more iron plus multiple vitamins and minerals. Their methodological quality was mixed

  13. Type V intermittency in an optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Yingmei; He, Da-Ren; Hou, Yuqing

    1998-03-01

    In Ref.[1] Marriott and Delisle have reported their discovery on a transition from periodicity to chaos in an optical system. Both numerically and experimentally, they found that a periodic orbit was interrupted by a chaotic motion in the middle of its first period-doubling. We have investigate this transition by computing the bifurcation diagrams, return maps, and scaling properties, and certified that the transition should be a type V intermittency[2]. [1]: C.Marriott and C.Delisle, Physica D 36(1989)198. [2]: D.-R.He et. al., Phys.Lett.A 171(1992)61.

  14. Study of intermittent field hardware failure data in digital electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneill, E. J.; Halverson, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The collection and analysis of data concerning intermittent dailures in digital devices was performed using data from a computer design for shipboard usage. The failure data consisted of actual field failures classified by failure mechanisms and their likelihood of having been intermittent, potentially intermittent, or hard. Each class was studies with respect to computer operation in the ranges of 0 to 2,000 hours, 0 to 5, hours, and 0 to 10,000 hours. The study was done at the computer level as well as the microcircuit level. Results indicate that as age increases, the quasi-intermittent failure rate increases and the mean time to failure descreases.

  15. Diagnosing Intermittent and Persistent Faults using Static Bayesian Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Megshoel, Ole Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Both intermittent and persistent faults may occur in a wide range of systems. We present in this paper the introduction of intermittent fault handling techniques into ProDiagnose, an algorithm that previously only handled persistent faults. We discuss novel algorithmic techniques as well as how our static Bayesian networks help diagnose, in an integrated manner, a range of intermittent and persistent faults. Through experiments with data from the ADAPT electrical power system test bed, generated as part of the Second International Diagnostic Competition (DXC-10), we show that this novel variant of ProDiagnose diagnoses intermittent faults accurately and quickly, while maintaining strong performance on persistent faults.

  16. Parameter estimation and optimal scheduling algorithm for a mathematical model of intermittent androgen suppression therapy for prostate cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qian; Lu, Zhichang; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2013-12-01

    We propose an algorithm based on cross-entropy to determine parameters of a piecewise linear model, which describes intermittent androgen suppression therapy for prostate cancer. By comparing with clinical data, the parameter estimation for the switched system shows good fitting accuracy and efficiency. We further optimize switching time points for the piecewise linear model to obtain a feasible therapeutic schedule. The simulation results of therapeutic effect are superior to those of previous strategy.

  17. Fitness and Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordholm, Catherine R.

    This document makes a number of observations about physical fitness in America. Among them are: (1) the symptoms of aging (fat accumulation, lowered basal metabolic rate, loss of muscular strength, reduction in motor fitness, reduction in work capacity, etc.) are not the result of disease but disuse; (2) society conditions the individual to…

  18. Physical Fitness and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmkamp, Jill M.

    Human beings are a delicate balance of mind, body, and spirit, so an imbalance in one domain affects all others. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects that physical fitness may have on such human characteristics as personality and behavior. A review of the literature reveals that physical fitness is related to, and can affect,…

  19. Fitness in Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Roy J.

    This book examines fitness research among special populations, including research on fitness assessment, programming, and performance for persons with various forms of physical disabilities. The book covers such topics as diseases that complicate life in a wheelchair, disability classifications, physiological responses to training, positive…

  20. Fitness Day. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Jeanne

    This lesson plan introduces students to the concept of supply and demand by appealing to bodily/kinesthetic intelligences. Students participate in a fitness class and then analyze the economic motives behind making an individual feel better after a fitness activity; i.e., analyzing how much an individual would pay for a drink and snack after a…

  1. Outfitting Campus Fitness Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Explains how universities and colleges, both private and public, are including fitness centers as ways of increasing their student enrollment levels. Comments are provided on school experiences in fitness-center design, equipment purchasing, and maintenance and operating-costs issues. (GR)

  2. Fun & Fitness with Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Anne; Faigenbaum, Avery; Radler, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The urgency to improve fitness levels and decrease the rate of childhood obesity has been at the forefront of physical education philosophy and praxis. Few would dispute that school-age youth need to participate regularly in physical activities that enhance and maintain both skill- and health-related physical fitness. Regular physical activity…

  3. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klahr, Gary Peter

    1992-01-01

    Although the 1980's fitness craze is wearing off and adults are again becoming "couch potatoes," this trend does not justify expansion of high school compulsory physical education requirements. To encourage commitment to lifetime physical fitness, the Phoenix (Arizona) Union High School District offers students private showers, relaxed…

  4. Interactions between intermittent gravity waves and infrasounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribstein, Bruno; Millet, Christophe; Lott, Francois; de La Camara, Alvaro

    2016-11-01

    Even though the accuracy of atmospheric specifications is constantly improving, it is well known that the main part of gravity waves is still yet not resolved in the available data. In most infrasound modeling studies, the unresolved gravity wave field is often represented as a deterministic field that is superimposed on a given average background state. Direct observations in the lower stratosphere show, however, that the gravity wave field is very intermittent, and is often dominated by rather well defined wave packets. In this study we sample the gravity wave spectrum by launching few monochromatic waves and choose their properties stochastically to mimic the intermittency. The statistics of acoustic signals are computed by decomposing the original signal into a sum of modal pulses. Owing to the disparity of the gravity and acoustic lengthscales, the interaction can be described using a multiplescale analysis and the appropriate amplitude evolution equation involves certain random terms that are related to the gravity wave sources. More specifically, it is shown how the unpredictable low level small-scale dynamics triggers multiple random stratospheric waveguides in which high frequency infrasound components can propagate efficiently.

  5. Effects of GI meals on intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Hulton, A T; Gregson, W; Maclaren, D; Doran, D A

    2012-09-01

    Pre-exercise meals or single foods containing low glycaemic index (LGI) carbohydrates (CHO) have been shown to enhance performance prior to prolonged steady state exercise compared to high glycaemic index (HGI) CHO. This study investigated the impact of HGI and LGI pre-exercise meals on intermittent high intensity exercise. Nine male recreational football players performed a football specific protocol followed by a 1 km time trial 3.5 h after ingesting 1 of 2 isoenergetic test meals (HGI: 870.3 kcal, LGI: 889.5 kcal), which were either HGI (GI: 80) or LGI (GI: 44). Blood glucose, fatty acids (FA), glycerol, β-hydroxybutyrate, lactate and insulin were assessed before, during, and after the exercise bout, whilst rates of CHO and fat oxidation were determined at 4 time points during the protocol. No significant differences were found for the 1 km time trial (LGI: 210.2 ± 19.1 s: HGI: 215.8 ± 22.6 s) (mean ± SD), nor for any of the other variables measured (P>0.05) apart from a significant condition effect with FA and significant interaction effects observed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate and lactate (P<0.05). These findings suggest that the type of CHO ingested in a pre-match meal has no significant impact on performance or metabolic responses during 90 min of intermittent high intensity exercise.

  6. Intermittent heat instabilities in an air plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Kossobokov, Vladimir G.; Perrier, Frederic; Morat, Pierre

    2016-08-01

    We report the results of heating experiments carried out in an abandoned limestone quarry close to Paris, in an isolated room of a volume of about 400 m3. A heat source made of a metallic resistor of power 100 W was installed on the floor of the room, at distance from the walls. High-quality temperature sensors, with a response time of 20 s, were fixed on a 2 m long bar. In a series of 24 h heating experiments the bar had been set up horizontally at different heights or vertically along the axis of the plume to record changes in temperature distribution with a sampling time varying from 20 to 120 s. When taken in averages over 24 h, the temperatures present the classical shape of steady-state plumes, as described by classical models. On the contrary, the temperature time series show a rich dynamic plume flow with intermittent trains of oscillations, spatially coherent, of large amplitude and a period around 400 s, separated by intervals of relative quiescence whose duration can reach several hours. To our knowledge, no specific theory is available to explain this behavior, which appears to be a chaotic interaction between a turbulent plume and a stratified environment. The observed behavior, with first-order factorization of a smooth spatial function with a global temporal intermittent function, could be a universal feature of some turbulent plumes in geophysical environments.

  7. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a

  8. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  9. Dissipation Intermittency Increases Long-Distance Dispersal of Heavy Particles in the Canopy Sublayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duman, Tomer; Trakhtenbrot, Ana; Poggi, Davide; Cassiani, Massimo; Katul, Gabriel G.

    2016-04-01

    The dispersion of heavy particles such as seeds within canopies is evaluated using Lagrangian stochastic trajectory models, laboratory, and field experiments. Inclusion of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate intermittency is shown to increase long-distance dispersal (LDD) by contributing to the intermittent ejection of particles to regions of high mean velocity outside the canopy volume. Model evaluation against controlled flume experiments, featuring a dense rod canopy, detailed flow measurements, and imaged trajectories of spherical particles, demonstrates that superimposing a terminal velocity on the fluid velocity is insufficient to determine the particle dispersal kernel. Modifying the trajectory model by adding dissipation intermittency is found to be significant for dispersal predictions along with the addition of inertial and crossing trajectories' effects. Comparison with manual seed-release experiments in a forest using wind-dispersed seeds shows that the model captures most of the measured kernels when accepted uncertainties in plant area index and friction velocity are considered. Unlike the flume experiments, the model modifications for several wind-dispersed seeds have minor effects on short-distance dispersal. A large increase was predicted in LDD when including dissipation intermittency for the forest experiment. The main results suggest that fitting or calibrating models to the `main body' of measured kernels may not offer extrapolating foresight to LDD predictions. As inertial effects were found mostly negligible in the field conditions here, the extended trajectory model requires specifying only the seed's terminal velocity and a constant variance of the normalized dissipation rate. Therefore, the proposed modifications can be readily applied to classical trajectory models so as to improve LDD predictions.

  10. AN Fitting Reconditioning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A tool was developed to repair or replace AN fittings on the shuttle external tank (ET). (The AN thread is a type of fitting used to connect flexible hoses and rigid metal tubing that carry fluid. It is a U.S. military-derived specification agreed upon by the Army and Navy, hence AN.) The tool is used on a drill and is guided by a pilot shaft that follows the inside bore. The cutting edge of the tool is a standard-size replaceable insert. In the typical Post Launch Maintenance/Repair process for the AN fittings, the six fittings are removed from the ET's GUCP (ground umbilical carrier plate) for reconditioning. The fittings are inspected for damage to the sealing surface per standard operations maintenance instructions. When damage is found on the sealing surface, the condition is documented. A new AN reconditioning tool is set up to cut and remove the surface damage. It is then inspected to verify the fitting still meets drawing requirements. The tool features a cone-shaped interior at 36.5 , and may be adjusted at a precise angle with go-no-go gauges to insure that the cutting edge could be adjusted as it wore down. One tool, one setting block, and one go-no-go gauge were fabricated. At the time of this reporting, the tool has reconditioned/returned to spec 36 AN fittings with 100-percent success of no leakage. This tool provides a quick solution to repair a leaky AN fitting. The tool could easily be modified with different-sized pilot shafts to different-sized fittings.

  11. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV)...

  12. Intermittent versus Continuous Physiotherapy in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Annette Sandahl; Lange, Christa

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the delivery of the same amount of intermittent versus continuous physiotherapy given to children with cerebral palsy (CP). This was organized either in an intermittent regime four times a week for 4 weeks alternating with a 6-week treatment pause, or a continuous once or twice a week regime, both…

  13. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) attachment... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  14. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) attachment... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  15. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) attachment... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  16. 21 CFR 868.5955 - Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intermittent mandatory ventilation attachment. 868... mandatory ventilation attachment. (a) Identification. An intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) attachment... providing mechanical ventilation at a preset rate. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  17. Stabilization and synchronization of chaotic systems via intermittent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huibin; Cui, Baotong

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the stabilization and synchronization of chaotic systems via intermittent control with time varying control period and control width. Compared to existing results, some less conservative conditions are derived to guarantee the stabilization of nonlinear system. An effective adaptive-intermittent control law is also presented. Two examples are given to verify our proposed results.

  18. Integrating the Levels of Person-Environment Fit: The Roles of Vocational Fit and Group Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Ryan M.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research on fit has largely focused on person-organization (P-O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit. However, little research has examined the interplay of person-vocation (P-V) fit and person-group (P-G) fit with P-O fit and P-J fit in the same study. This article advances the fit literature by examining these relationships with data collected…

  19. Finding Time for Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... exercise strategy to improve health and fitness? Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism. 2014;39:409. Gibala MJ, ... interval training in health and disease. Journal of Physiology. 2012;590:1077. Aug. 06, 2016 Original article: ...

  20. Exponentially fitted symplectic integrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simos, T. E.; Vigo-Aguiar, Jesus

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a procedure for constructing efficient symplectic integrators for Hamiltonian problems is introduced. This procedure is based on the combination of the exponential fitting technique and symplecticness conditions. Based on this procedure, a simple modified Runge-Kutta-Nyström second-order algebraic exponentially fitted method is developed. We give explicitly the symplecticness conditions for the modified Runge-Kutta-Nyström method. We also give the exponential fitting and trigonometric fitting conditions. Numerical results indicate that the present method is much more efficient than the “classical” symplectic Runge-Kutta-Nyström second-order algebraic method introduced by M.P. Calvo and J.M. Sanz-Serna [J. Sci. Comput. (USA) 14, 1237 (1993)]. We note that the present procedure is appropriate for all near-unimodal systems.

  1. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  2. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2011 -- Exercise for Special Populations 2011 -- Behavior Change & Exercise Adherence 2011 -- Nutrition 2011 -- Winter Health 2010 -- Healthy Aging 2010 -- Weight Loss & Weight Management 2010 -- Fitness Assessment & Injury Prevention 2009 -- Strength Training 2009 -- Menopause ...

  3. Proper fitting shoes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Shoes should be comfortable and fit well when you buy them. Never buy shoes that are tight, hoping they will stretch as ... damage, people with diabetes may not feel a shoe rubbing against the skin of their foot. Blisters ...

  4. The Langley Fitness Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA Langley recognizes the importance of healthy employees by committing itself to offering a complete fitness program. The scope of the program focuses on promoting overall health and wellness in an effort to reduce the risks of illness and disease and to increase productivity. This is accomplished through a comprehensive Health and Fitness Program offered to all NASA employees. Various aspects of the program are discussed.

  5. Turbulent flows and intermittency in laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmet, F.; Antonia, R. A.; Danaila, L.

    2001-10-01

    In turbulent flows, the transfer of energy from large to small scales is strongly intermittent, in contradiction with Kolmogorov's (Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 30 (1941) 299; hereafter K41) assumptions. The statistical properties associated with these energy transfer fluctuations at a given scale r have been widely studied theoretically, experimentally and numerically over the last 30 years or so. Such fluctuations are also encountered in various Planetary and Space Science domains. The present paper presents a review of laboratory experiments which clearly display the fractal nature of the (spatial or temporal) energy distribution at scale r, the departures from the K41 predictions being generally quantified through high-order moments of velocity increments.

  6. [Intermittent compression of the subclavian vein].

    PubMed

    Maraval, M

    1980-01-01

    The pathology of the cervico-thoracic channel is now well understood. Intermittent venous compression in the costo-clavicular space by the subclavian muscle can lead to acute occlusion of the venous trunk. It is important to make an early diagnosis of such compression before the stage of occlusive phlebitis. Clinical examination and dynamic phlebography allow the diagnosis to be made. Resection of the first rib is the ideal treatment. The mode of approach to the first rib is debatable since it seems that when venous symptomatology is dominant, the axillary method of Roos is not the best approach. A combined sub- and supra-clavicular approach permits a wide decompression of the vein and a more complete excision of the rib.

  7. Population dynamics in an intermittent refuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, E. H.; Anteneodo, C.

    2016-10-01

    Population dynamics is constrained by the environment, which needs to obey certain conditions to support population growth. We consider a standard model for the evolution of a single species population density, which includes reproduction, competition for resources, and spatial spreading, while subject to an external harmful effect. The habitat is spatially heterogeneous, there existing a refuge where the population can be protected. Temporal variability is introduced by the intermittent character of the refuge. This scenario can apply to a wide range of situations, from a laboratory setting where bacteria can be protected by a blinking mask from ultraviolet radiation, to large-scale ecosystems, like a marine reserve where there can be seasonal fishing prohibitions. Using analytical and numerical tools, we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the total population as a function of the size and characteristic time scales of the refuge. We obtain expressions for the minimal size required for population survival, in the slow and fast time scale limits.

  8. Inclusive fitness in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Kiers, E. Toby; Denison, R. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Trade-offs between individual fitness and the collective performance of crop and below-ground symbiont communities are common in agriculture. Plant competitiveness for light and soil resources is key to individual fitness, but higher investments in stems and roots by a plant community to compete for those resources ultimately reduce crop yields. Similarly, rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi may increase their individual fitness by diverting resources to their own reproduction, even if they could have benefited collectively by providing their shared crop host with more nitrogen and phosphorus, respectively. Past selection for inclusive fitness (benefits to others, weighted by their relatedness) is unlikely to have favoured community performance over individual fitness. The limited evidence for kin recognition in plants and microbes changes this conclusion only slightly. We therefore argue that there is still ample opportunity for human-imposed selection to improve cooperation among crop plants and their symbionts so that they use limited resources more efficiently. This evolutionarily informed approach will require a better understanding of how interactions among crops, and interactions with their symbionts, affected their inclusive fitness in the past and what that implies for current interactions. PMID:24686938

  9. Intermittent Androgen Suppression for Rising PSA Level after Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Juanita M.; O’Callaghan, Christopher J.; Duncan, Graeme; Dearnaley, David P.; Higano, Celestia S.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Frymire, Eliot; Malone, Shawn; Chin, Joseph; Nabid, Abdenour; Warde, Padraig; Corbett, Thomas; Angyalfi, Steve; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Saad, Fred; Logue, John P.; Hall, Emma; Schellhammer, Paul F.; Ding, Keyue; Klotz, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intermittent androgen deprivation for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) elevation after radiotherapy may improve quality of life and delay hormone resistance. We assessed overall survival with intermittent versus continuous androgen deprivation in a noninferiority randomized trial. METHODS We enrolled patients with a PSA level greater than 3 ng per milliliter more than 1 year after primary or salvage radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Intermittent treatment was provided in 8-month cycles, with nontreatment periods determined according to the PSA level. The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points included quality of life, time to castration-resistant disease, and duration of nontreatment intervals. RESULTS Of 1386 enrolled patients, 690 were randomly assigned to intermittent therapy and 696 to continuous therapy. Median follow-up was 6.9 years. There were no significant between-group differences in adverse events. In the intermittent-therapy group, full testosterone recovery occurred in 35% of patients, and testosterone recovery to the trial-entry threshold occurred in 79%. Intermittent therapy provided potential benefits with respect to physical function, fatigue, urinary problems, hot flashes, libido, and erectile function. There were 268 deaths in the intermittent-therapy group and 256 in the continuous-therapy group. Median overall survival was 8.8 years in the intermittent-therapy group versus 9.1 years in the continuous-therapy group (hazard ratio for death, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.21). The estimated 7-year cumulative rates of disease-related death were 18% and 15% in the two groups, respectively (P = 0.24). CONCLUSIONS Intermittent androgen deprivation was noninferior to continuous therapy with respect to overall survival. Some quality-of-life factors improved with intermittent therapy. (Funded by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00003653.) PMID

  10. Intermittent drinking, oxytocin and human health.

    PubMed

    Pruimboom, L; Reheis, D

    2016-07-01

    Looking at a waterhole, it is surprising that so many animals share the same space without visible signs of anxiety or aggression. Although waterholes are the preferred feeding locations of large carnivores, waterholes are shared by all type of herbivores of all sizes and shapes, including elephants. Recent research shows that the homeostatic disturbances leading to the "thirst feeling" not only activate specific substances regulating water and mineral household, but also the "trust and love" hormone oxytocin, while decreasing the production of the typical stress hormone cortisol. People using drugs, seem to be in search for oxytocin, as evidenced in studies with individuals on drugs such as ecstasy and gamma-hydroxybyturate. Hot environment, drought and increased sweating also activate specific oxytocin-producing parts of the hypothalamus, just as breastfeeding does in mother and infant. Water homeostasis is the only allostatic system activating trust neuro-anatomy and we suggest that this is due to the fact that all animals depend on water, whereas food type is species specific. Our hypothesis; regulating drinking behaviour through intermittent bulk drinking could increase oxytocin signalling, recover human trust and increase health by down-regulation of stress axis activity and inflammatory activity of the immune system. Intermittent bulk drinking should be defined as water (including tea and coffee) drinking up to a feeling of satiety and regulated by a mild feeling of thirst. This would mean that people would not drink less quantity but less frequently and that's how all animals, but also human newborns behave. It is the latter group, which is probably the only group of humans with a normal fluid homeostasis.

  11. A clinical data validated mathematical model of prostate cancer growth under intermittent androgen suppression therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portz, Travis; Kuang, Yang; Nagy, John D.

    2012-03-01

    Prostate cancer is commonly treated by a form of hormone therapy called androgen suppression. This form of treatment, while successful at reducing the cancer cell population, adversely affects quality of life and typically leads to a recurrence of the cancer in an androgen-independent form. Intermittent androgen suppression aims to alleviate some of these adverse affects by cycling the patient on and off treatment. Clinical studies have suggested that intermittent therapy is capable of maintaining androgen dependence over multiple treatment cycles while increasing quality of life during off-treatment periods. This paper presents a mathematical model of prostate cancer to study the dynamics of androgen suppression therapy and the production of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a clinical marker for prostate cancer. Preliminary models were based on the assumption of an androgen-independent (AI) cell population with constant net growth rate. These models gave poor accuracy when fitting clinical data during simulation. The final model presented hypothesizes an AI population with increased sensitivity to low levels of androgen. It also hypothesizes that PSA production is heavily dependent on androgen. The high level of accuracy in fitting clinical data with this model appears to confirm these hypotheses, which are also consistent with biological evidence.

  12. Ames Fitness Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Randy

    1993-01-01

    The Ames Fitness Program services 5,000 civil servants and contractors working at Ames Research Center. A 3,000 square foot fitness center, equipped with cardiovascular machines, weight training machines, and free weight equipment is on site. Thirty exercise classes are held each week at the Center. A weight loss program is offered, including individual exercise prescriptions, fitness testing, and organized monthly runs. The Fitness Center is staffed by one full-time program coordinator and 15 hours per week of part-time help. Membership is available to all employees at Ames at no charge, and there are no fees for participation in any of the program activities. Prior to using the Center, employees must obtain a physical examination and complete a membership package. Funding for the Ames Fitness Program was in jeopardy in December 1992; however, the employees circulated a petition in support of the program and collected more than 1500 signatures in only three days. Funding has been approved through October 1993.

  13. On the dynamical-stochastic dualism of rainfall intermittency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molini, Annalisa

    2013-04-01

    Intermittency and its non-universal signature in rainfall scaling functions still impose limitations on the modeling of precipitation across different temporal and spatial scales. Whether rainfall intermittency can be considered (and modeled) as a dynamical phenomenon connected with the precipitation generation mechanism or a predominantly stochastic process remains in fact an open question. Fat-tail probability distributions and red-noise spectra were found characterizing the rainfall process over a wide range of scales and climatic regimes - in analogy with some classical non-linear systems displaying "dynamical" intermittency. However, stochastic processes with infinite degrees of freedom can likewise generate signals with alternating persistent laminar periods and highly bursting phases. This talk explores the dynamical-stochastic dichotomy of precipitation, by presenting some recent advancement in the description of temporal rainfall intermittency. We focus on the connection between intermittency and the rainfall generation process, as well as the dependence of intermittency statistics on different climatic regimes, with particular emphasis on arid and semi-arid climates, where intermittency and convection are the main hallmark of the rainfall regime.

  14. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test in basketball players.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Rampinini, Ermanno; D'Ottavio, Stefano; Manzi, Vincenzo

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological correlates of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) in basketball players. Twenty-two male basketball players (means+/-S.D., body mass 72.4+/-11.4kg, height 181.7+/-6.9cm, age 16.8+/-2.0 years) were tested for maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), ventilatory threshold (VT) and running economy (RE) on a motorized treadmill. Lower limb explosive strength and anaerobic-capacity was assessed using vertical jumps (CMJ), 15m shuttle running sprint (15mSR) and line drill (LD), respectively. The same test battery was replicated after an experimental basketball game in order to assess selective effect of fatigue on physical performance. Pre to post-game CMJ (40.3+/-5.7 versus 39.9+/-5.9cm) and 15mSR (5.80+/-0.25 versus 5.77+/-0.22s) performances were not significantly different (p>0.05). LD performance decreased significantly post-game (from 26.7+/-1.3 to 27.7+/-2.7s, p<0.001). Yo-Yo IR1 performances (m) were significantly related to VO(2max) (r=0.77, p=0.0001), speed at VO(2max) (r=0.71, p=0.0001) and %VO(2max) at VT (r=-0.60, p=0.04). Yo-Yo IR1 performance was significantly correlated to post-game LD decrements (r=-0.52, p=0.02). These findings show that Yo-Yo IR1 may be considered as a valid basketball-specific test for the assessment of aerobic fitness and game-related endurance.

  15. Mixing and diffusion in intermittent overturning turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar L.; Lawry, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The improvements in experimental methods and high resolution image analysis are nowadays able to detect subtle changes in the structure of the turbulence over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales [1], we compare the scaling shown by different mixing fronts driven by buoyancy that form a Rayleigh-Taylor mixing front. We use PIV and density front tracking in several experimental configurations akin to geophysical overturning [2-7]. We parametrize the role of unstable stratification by means of the Atwood number and compare both the scaling and the multifractal and the maximum local fractal structure functions of the different markers used to visualize the front. Both reactive and passive scalar tracers are used to investigate the mixing structure and the intermittency of the flow. Different initial conditions are compared and the mixing efficiency of the overal turbulent process evaluated [6-7]. An interesting approach, relating the Multi-Fractal dimension spectra, the intermittency and the spectral exponent is to find relationships that may be used to parameterise the sub-grid turbulence in terms of generalized diffusivities [4 ] that take into account the topology and the self-similarity of the Mixing RT and RM flows. As an example, a relationship between the diffusivity, the exponent β, the intermittency μ, and D(i), may be found for the volume fraction or the concentration, at the same time other locally measured parameters such as the enstrophy or the gradient alignment as well as their multi-fractal structures may turn out to be physically relevant indicators of the local turbulence and the mixing. Several methods of deriving local eddy diffusivity and local entrainment should give more realistic estimates of the spatial/temporal non-homogeneities (and intermittencies in the Kolmogorov 62 sense obtained as spatial correlations of the turbulent dissipation, or from structure functions) and these values may be used to parameterise turbulence at a variety

  16. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral-line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It converges rapidly and is very flexible in that it can be used with any fitting function. We present examples of cubic-spline and Gaussian fits and give special attention to measurements of blue-red asymmetries of coronal emission lines.

  17. Coloring the FITS Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levay, Z. G.

    2004-12-01

    A new, freely-available accessory for Adobe's widely-used Photoshop image editing software makes it much more convenient to produce presentable images directly from FITS data. It merges a fully-functional FITS reader with an intuitive user interface and includes fully interactive flexibility in scaling data. Techniques for producing attractive images from astronomy data using the FITS plugin will be presented, including the assembly of full-color images. These techniques have been successfully applied to producing colorful images for public outreach with data from the Hubble Space Telescope and other major observatories. Now it is much less cumbersome for students or anyone not experienced with specialized astronomical analysis software, but reasonably familiar with digital photography, to produce useful and attractive images.

  18. Probing turbulence intermittency via autoregressive moving-average models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faranda, Davide; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Daviaud, François; Pons, Flavio Maria Emanuele

    2014-12-01

    We suggest an approach to probing intermittency corrections to the Kolmogorov law in turbulent flows based on the autoregressive moving-average modeling of turbulent time series. We introduce an index Υ that measures the distance from a Kolmogorov-Obukhov model in the autoregressive moving-average model space. Applying our analysis to particle image velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry measurements in a von Kármán swirling flow, we show that Υ is proportional to traditional intermittency corrections computed from structure functions. Therefore, it provides the same information, using much shorter time series. We conclude that Υ is a suitable index to reconstruct intermittency in experimental turbulent fields.

  19. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  20. Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kiliccote, Sila; Homan, Gregory; Anderson, Robert; Hernandez, John

    2015-04-01

    The Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot - Phase 2 (IRM2) was designed to study the feasibility of demand-side resources to participate into the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) wholesale market as proxy demand resources (PDR). The pilot study focused on understanding the issues related with direct participation of third-parties and customers including customer acceptance; market transformation challenges (wholesale market, technology); technical and operational feasibility; and value to the rate payers, DR resource owners and the utility on providing an enabling mechanism for DR resources into the wholesale markets. The customer had the option of committing to either three contiguous hour blocks for 24 days or six contiguous hours for 12 days a month with day-ahead notification that aligned with the CAISO integrated forward market. As a result of their being available, the customer was paid $10/ kilowatt (kW)-month for capacity in addition to CAISO energy settlements. The participants were limited to no more than a 2 megawatt (MW) capacity with a six-month commitment. Four participants successfully engaged in the pilot. In this report, we provide the description of the pilot, participant performance results, costs and value to participants as well as outline some of the issues encountered through the pilot. Results show that participants chose to participate with storage and the value of CAISO settlements were significantly lower than the capacity payments provided by the utility as incentive payments. In addition, this pilot revealed issues both on the participant side and system operations side. These issues are summarized in the report.The Intermittent Renewable Management Pilot - Phase 2 (IRM2) was designed to study the feasibility of demand-side resources to participate into the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) wholesale market as proxy demand resources (PDR). The pilot study focused on understanding the issues related with

  1. Linking the Fits, Fitting the Links: Connecting Different Types of PO Fit to Attitudinal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Aegean; Chaturvedi, Sankalp

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we explore the linkages among various types of person-organization (PO) fit and their effects on employee attitudinal outcomes. We propose and test a conceptual model which links various types of fits--objective fit, perceived fit and subjective fit--in a hierarchical order of cognitive information processing and relate them to…

  2. Finding What Fits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Statistical association between two variables is one of the fundamental statistical ideas in school curricula. Reasoning about statistical association has been deemed one of the most important cognitive activities that humans perform. Students are typically introduced to statistical association through the study of the line of best fit because it…

  3. Mentoring that Fits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Pam; Davis, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Beginning teachers enter the classroom with diverse backgrounds, training, expectations, and needs. Yet too often, write the authors, induction programs resemble a one-size-fits-all poncho rather than a well-tailored coat. Reviewing the research, the authors write that high-quality mentors, a focus on improving instruction, and allocated time are…

  4. Talking Sport and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Watmough, Rebecca; Keogh, Brenda; Naylor, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    For some time the Association for Science Education (ASE) has been aware that it would be useful to have some resources available to get children talking and thinking about issues related to health, sport and fitness. Some of the questions about pulse, breathing rate and so on are pretty obvious to everyone, and there is a risk of these being…

  5. Teaching Aerobic Fitness Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Allan N.; Ratliffe, Tom

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to teach aerobic fitness concepts to elementary students. Some of the K-2 activities include location, size, and purpose of the heart and lungs; the exercise pulse; respiration rate; and activities to measure aerobic endurance. Some of the 3-6 activities include: definition of aerobic endurance; heart disease risk factors;…

  6. Manual for physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  7. Curve Fit Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    Graphic tips for using the Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) are described. The methods to import an image into GSP, define a coordinate system, plot points and curve fit the function using a graphical calculator are demonstrated where the graphic features of GSP allow teachers to expand the use of the technology application beyond the classroom.

  8. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  9. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  10. Directory of Fitness Certifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Janet B.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the need for certification of fitness instructors in the aerobic dance/dance-exercise industry and presents results of a survey of 18 agencies that certify instructors. Survey data has been compiled and published. An excerpt is included which lists organizations, training, certification and renewal procedures, publications,…

  11. Fit for Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Children who hate gym grow into adults who associate physical activity with ridicule and humiliation. Physical education is reinventing itself, stressing enjoyable activities that continue into adulthood: aerobic dance, weight training, fitness walking, mountain biking, hiking, inline skating, karate, rock-climbing, and canoeing. Cooperative,…

  12. Manitoba Schools Fitness 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This manual outlines physical fitness tests that may be used in the schools. The tests are based on criterion standards which indicate the levels of achievement at which health risk factors may be reduced. Test theory, protocols, and criterion charts are presented for: (1) muscle strength and endurance, (2) body composition, (3) flexibility, and…

  13. Optimal Intermittent Reorientation in Insect Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peleg, Orit; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan; Applied Math Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    The process of navigation is often accompanied by several cognitive demanding activities, such as motor control, locomotion planning, and multi-sensory acquisition and integration. Organisms with limited cognitive resources must therefore multitask and develop optimal schemes to dynamically allocate resources to the different tasks. An extreme example of task alternations during navigation is the hallmark of ball rolling dung beetles. The beetles need to roll their dung-ball along a straight path away from the dung pile where intense competition occurs. Before initiating a roll, dung beetles climb on top of the ball and rotate about their vertical axis. This action serves as an orientation mechanism that allows them to set an initial bearing, and to regain this bearing if they experience an unintentional disturbance along the way. We developed a model inspired by the beetle's navigational scheme, where an agent performs a random walk intermittent by reorientation events, in which its heading direction is corrected. We show that the resultant paths are a characteristic of correlated diffusion in short time scale, and biased diffusion in the long time scale. We identify optimal alternation schemes and characterize their robustness upon introducing noisy sensory acquisition and rough environmental conditions.

  14. Mechanisms of intermittent hypoxia induced hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bosc, Laura V González; Resta, Thomas; Walker, Benjimen; Kanagy, Nancy L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Exposing rodents to brief episodes of hypoxia mimics the hypoxemia and the cardiovascular and metabolic effects observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), a condition that affects between 5% and 20% of the population. Apart from daytime sleepiness, OSA is associated with a high incidence of systemic and pulmonary hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, stroke and sudden cardiac death. The development of animal models to study sleep apnoea has provided convincing evidence that recurrent exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) has significant vascular and haemodynamic impact that explain much of the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in patients with sleep apnoea. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of how IH causes these changes is unclear and under investigation. This review focuses on the most recent findings addressing these mechanisms. It includes a discussion of the contribution of the nervous system, circulating and vascular factors, inflammatory mediators and transcription factors to IH-induced cardiovascular disease. It also highlights the importance of reactive oxygen species as a primary mediator of the systemic and pulmonary hypertension that develops in response to exposure to IH. PMID:19818095

  15. Acute intermittent porphyria in Argentina: an update.

    PubMed

    Cerbino, Gabriela Nora; Gerez, Esther Noemí; Varela, Laura Sabina; Melito, Viviana Alicia; Parera, Victoria Estela; Batlle, Alcira; Rossetti, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. A partial deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) produces a hepatic disorder named Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP); the acute porphyria is more frequent in Argentina. In this paper we review the results obtained for 101 Argentinean AIP families and 6 AIP families from foreign neighbour countries studied at molecular level at Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP). Thirty-five different mutations were found, of which 14 were described for the first time in our population. The most prevalent type of mutations was the missense mutations (43%) followed by splice defects (26%) and small deletions (20%). An odd case of a double heterozygous presentation of AIP in a foreign family from Paraguay is discussed. Moreover, it can be noted that 38 new families were found carrying the most frequent mutation in Argentina (p.G111R), increasing to 55.66% the prevalence of this genetic change in our population and adding further support to our previous hypothesis of a founder effect for this mutation in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt AIP is important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis, but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death.

  16. Cutaneous sporotrichosis. Intermittent treatment (pulses) with itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Fierro, Leonel; Saúl, Amado; Ponce, Rosa María

    2008-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous and exceptionally deep mycosis caused by a dimorphic fungus, Sporothrix schenckii. Itraconazole is a triazole derivative leading to good results in the treatment of sporotrichosis. Patients with cutaneous sporotrichosis proven with mycological tests (direct examination and culture) were enrolled. All patients underwent laboratory tests (at baseline and on a monthly basis) and received oral itraconazole 400 mg/day for one week with a 3-week break (pulses); thereafter the drug was administered as pulses until clinical and mycological cure was achieved. Five patients with sporotrichosis were enrolled, 4 with cutaneous lymphangitic form and one with fixed cutaneous form. Clinical and mycological cure was achieved in 4/5 cases (80%), with a mean number of pulses of 3.5. No patient had side effects and no laboratory test abnormalities occurred. Intermittent or pulsed itraconazole was effective in treating cutaneous sporotrichosis. It may be considered as a new treatment choice that entails an important reduction in total medication use.

  17. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups.

  18. Challenges, developments and perspectives in intermittent ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Although more than half the world's river networks comprise channels that periodically cease to flow and dry [intermittent rivers (IRs)], river ecology was largely developed from and for perennial systems. Ecological knowledge of IRs is rapidly increasing, so there is a need to synthesise this knowledge and deepen ecological understanding.In this Special Issue, we bring together 13 papers spanning observational case studies, field and laboratory experiments and reviews to guide research and management in this productive field of freshwater science. We summarise new developments in IR ecology, identify research gaps and needs, and address how the study of IRs as highly dynamic ecosystems informs ecological understanding more broadly.This series of articles reveals that contemporary IR ecology is a multifaceted and maturing field of research at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial ecology. This research contributes to fresh water and general ecology by testing concepts across a range of topics, including disturbance ecology, metacommunity ecology and coupled aquatic-terrestrial ecosystems.Drying affects flow continuity through time and flow connectivity across longitudinal, lateral and vertical dimensions of space, which aligns well with the recent emphasis of mainstream ecology on meta-system perspectives. Although most articles here focus on the wet phase, there is growing interest in dry phases, and in the terrestrial vegetation and invertebrate assemb

  19. Acute Intermittent Porphyria in Argentina: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Cerbino, Gabriela Nora; Gerez, Esther Noemí; Varela, Laura Sabina; Melito, Viviana Alicia; Parera, Victoria Estela; Rossetti, María Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. A partial deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) produces a hepatic disorder named Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP); the acute porphyria is more frequent in Argentina. In this paper we review the results obtained for 101 Argentinean AIP families and 6 AIP families from foreign neighbour countries studied at molecular level at Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP). Thirty-five different mutations were found, of which 14 were described for the first time in our population. The most prevalent type of mutations was the missense mutations (43%) followed by splice defects (26%) and small deletions (20%). An odd case of a double heterozygous presentation of AIP in a foreign family from Paraguay is discussed. Moreover, it can be noted that 38 new families were found carrying the most frequent mutation in Argentina (p.G111R), increasing to 55.66% the prevalence of this genetic change in our population and adding further support to our previous hypothesis of a founder effect for this mutation in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt AIP is important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis, but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death. PMID:26075277

  20. Corotation of an intermittent solar wind source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croft, T. A.

    1972-01-01

    The measured electron content of the solar wind in mid-1970 exhibited a region of relatively high electron density that reappeared at intervals of about 27.8 days. It is shown that the repeating event cannot be reconciled with the concept of a long-enduring steady flow, even though the recurrence period is close to the rotation period of the sun. This evidence of transients is inferred from the short duration of each appearance of the interval of higher density; each should last for roughly one corotation interval if it is caused by a steady stream. The radio path was approximately 0.8 AU long, and the corotation interval exceeded 3 days. Other aspects of the content data patterns support the view that such transient events are common in the solar wind. The mid-1970 repeating event is an unusually good example of the intermittent character of flow regions in the solar wind that fluctuate on a time scale of days but endure as identifiable regions for many months. A sputtering corotating source of thin solar plasma streams could explain this series of events; it could also be explained in terms of a stream that is steady in density and speed but undulating north-south so that it passes into and out of the 0.8 AU radio path in a matter of a day or less.

  1. Intermittent reinforcement of a continuous response

    PubMed Central

    Rider, David P.; Kametani, Nora N.

    1987-01-01

    Six rats were trained with food deliveries contingent upon their pressing a lever and holding it down for either fixed or variable cumulative durations. Fixed-hold requirements ranged from 15 s to 90 s over experimental conditions; variable-hold requirements ranged from 15 s to 120 s. At most long and intermediate values, variable-hold requirements maintained more lever holding than fixed requirements. At the longest hold requirements studied, more lever holding was maintained by variable requirements than by fixed requirements of equivalent mean length for each rat. Postreinforcement-pause duration increased with lever-holding time for both fixed- and variable-hold requirements. At comparable lever-holding times per reinforcer, longer pauses typically were produced by fixed requirements than by variable requirements. Data from this study on the maintenance of responding, temporal response patterns, and postreinforcement pausing are comparable to those obtained with intermittent reinforcement of discrete responses. These findings suggest that the response–reinforcer relation specified by a reinforcement schedule is a fundamental determinant of responding, whether responding consists of discrete units or of continuous activity. PMID:16812472

  2. Intermittent treatment of febrile convulsions with nitrazepam.

    PubMed

    Vanasse, M; Masson, P; Geoffroy, G; Larbrisseau, A; David, P C

    1984-08-01

    Intermittent oral or rectal administration of diazepam for the prophylactic treatment of febrile convulsions has given results comparable to the continuous use of phenobarbital while limiting side effects and risks of toxicity. Since we believe that nitrazepam is a better anticonvulsant than diazepam, we performed a study to evaluate the effectiveness of this medication in the prophylactic treatment of febrile convulsions. Nitrazepam was given only when the children had fever and almost exclusively in children with a high risk of recurrence (less than 12 months of age at first convulsion; atypical convulsion; one or several previous convulsions). Thirty one children with a high risk of recurrence received nitrazepam. The rate of recurrence in this group was 19.3% after a follow-up of 16 months, compared to 45.8% in 24 children who also had a high risk of recurrence but in whom the parents refused the medication or gave it inadequately (p less than 0.05). Fifty one children with a low risk of recurrence also were evaluated and followed for at least 12 months (mean 15.4 months). Six were treated with nitrazepam, mostly because of parental anxiety, and none had a recurrence; of the 45 untreated children in this group, 6 (13.6%) had another convulsion. These results show the efficiency of nitrazepam in the prophylactic treatment of febrile convulsions.

  3. Factors relevant to utility integration of intermittent renewable technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Yih-huei; Parsons, B.K.

    1993-08-01

    This study assesses factors that utilities must address when they integrate intermittent renewable technologies into their power-supply systems; it also reviews the literature in this area and has a bibliography containing more than 350 listings. Three topics are covered: (1) interface (hardware and design-related interconnection), (2) operability/stability, and (3) planning. This study finds that several commonly held perceptions regarding integration of intermittent renewable energy technologies are not valid. Among findings of the study are the following: (1) hardware and system design advances have eliminated most concerns about interface; (2) cost penalties have not occurred at low to moderate penetration levels (and high levels are feasible); and (3) intermittent renewable energy technologies can have capacity values. Obstacles still interfering with intermittent renewable technologies are also identified.

  4. Intermittent/transient fault phenomena in digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the intermittent/transient (IT) fault study is presented. An interval survivability evaluation of digital systems for IT faults is discussed along with a method for detecting and diagnosing IT faults in digital systems.

  5. HARSHNESS: CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERMITTENT STREAM HABITAT OVER SPACE AND TIME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Frequently disturbed environments, such as intermittent streams, are ecologically useful for studying how disturbance characteristics (e.g., frequency, magnitude) affect community structure and succession. A harshness index summarizing spatial and temporal characteristics of pra...

  6. Characterizing and comparing young adult intermittent and daily smokers.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Chen, Vincent; Bernat, Debra H; Forster, Jean L; Rode, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    We interviewed 732 smokers (from five US upper Midwestern states) via telephone in 2006 to examine young adult smoking patterns. We first defined two groups of intermittent smokers-low (who smoked for 1-14 days in the past 30 days) and high (who smoked for 15-29 days in the past 30 days), and then analyzed differences between these two groups and daily smokers. Low intermittent smokers were much less likely to consider themselves smokers, feel addicted, or smoke with friends than high intermittent smokers. Daily smokers were more likely to feel addicted and have trouble quitting smoking than high intermittent smokers. Implications, limitations, and ideas for future studies will be discussed.

  7. Experimental and numerical study of the intermittency exponent mu

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Praskovsky, Alexander

    1994-01-01

    After publication of the Kolmogorov refined similarity hypotheses, the small-scale intermittency of the energy dissipation field became a central problem in fully developed turbulence (FDT). This phenomenon has been studied in many different ways, e.g. by searching for corrections to scaling exponents in the inertial range velocity structure functions. A direct measure of this intermittency is, however, available by studying the local rate of energy dissipation, and it may be quantitatively characterized by the intermittency exponent mu. As far as we know, nobody has posed an obvious question: Is the intermittency exponent mu a unique constant, i.e., are the values mu(sub kappa), mu(sub epsilon), mu(sub r), mu(sub b), and mu(sub e) the same at high Reynolds numbers, or do they create a set of different (and perhaps independent) exponents? This paper addresses the above question using the high Reynolds number experiments.

  8. Characterization of intermittency in renewal processes: Application to earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Akimoto, Takuma; Hasumi, Tomohiro; Aizawa, Yoji

    2010-03-15

    We construct a one-dimensional piecewise linear intermittent map from the interevent time distribution for a given renewal process. Then, we characterize intermittency by the asymptotic behavior near the indifferent fixed point in the piecewise linear intermittent map. Thus, we provide a framework to understand a unified characterization of intermittency and also present the Lyapunov exponent for renewal processes. This method is applied to the occurrence of earthquakes using the Japan Meteorological Agency and the National Earthquake Information Center catalog. By analyzing the return map of interevent times, we find that interevent times are not independent and identically distributed random variables but that the conditional probability distribution functions in the tail obey the Weibull distribution.

  9. The minimum transition hypothesis for intermittent hierarchical motor control.

    PubMed

    Karniel, Amir

    2013-01-01

    In intermittent control, instead of continuously calculating the control signal, the controller occasionally changes this signal at certain sparse points in time. The control law may include feedback, adaptation, optimization, or any other control strategies. When, where, and how does the brain employ intermittency as it controls movement? These are open questions in motor neuroscience. Evidence for intermittency in human motor control has been repeatedly observed in the neural control of movement literature. Moreover, some researchers have provided theoretical models to address intermittency. Even so, the vast majority of current models, and I would dare to say the dogma in most of the current motor neuroscience literature involves continuous control. In this paper, I focus on an area in which intermittent control has not yet been thoroughly considered, the structure of muscle synergies. A synergy in the muscle space is a group of muscles activated together by a single neural command. Under the assumption that the motor control is intermittent, I present the minimum transition hypothesis (MTH) and its predictions with regards to the structure of muscle synergies. The MTH asserts that the purpose of synergies is to minimize the effort of the higher level in the hierarchy by minimizing the number of transitions in an intermittent control signal. The implications of the MTH are not only for the structure of the muscle synergies but also to the intermittent and hierarchical nature of the motor system, with various predictions as to the process of skill learning, and important implications to the design of brain machine interfaces and human robot interaction.

  10. The minimum transition hypothesis for intermittent hierarchical motor control

    PubMed Central

    Karniel, Amir

    2013-01-01

    In intermittent control, instead of continuously calculating the control signal, the controller occasionally changes this signal at certain sparse points in time. The control law may include feedback, adaptation, optimization, or any other control strategies. When, where, and how does the brain employ intermittency as it controls movement? These are open questions in motor neuroscience. Evidence for intermittency in human motor control has been repeatedly observed in the neural control of movement literature. Moreover, some researchers have provided theoretical models to address intermittency. Even so, the vast majority of current models, and I would dare to say the dogma in most of the current motor neuroscience literature involves continuous control. In this paper, I focus on an area in which intermittent control has not yet been thoroughly considered, the structure of muscle synergies. A synergy in the muscle space is a group of muscles activated together by a single neural command. Under the assumption that the motor control is intermittent, I present the minimum transition hypothesis (MTH) and its predictions with regards to the structure of muscle synergies. The MTH asserts that the purpose of synergies is to minimize the effort of the higher level in the hierarchy by minimizing the number of transitions in an intermittent control signal. The implications of the MTH are not only for the structure of the muscle synergies but also to the intermittent and hierarchical nature of the motor system, with various predictions as to the process of skill learning, and important implications to the design of brain machine interfaces and human robot interaction. PMID:23450266

  11. Uncoupling of Vascular Nitric Oxide Synthase Caused by Intermittent Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ayas, Najib

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is often present in diabetic (DB) patients. Both conditions are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that diabetic endothelial dysfunction is further compromised by CIH. Methods. Adult male diabetic (BKS.Cg-Dock7m +/+ Leprdb/J) (db/db) mice (10 weeks old) and their heterozygote littermates were subjected to CIH or intermittent air (IA) for 8 weeks. Mice were separated into 4 groups: IA (intermittent air nondiabetic), IH (intermittent hypoxia nondiabetic), IADB (intermittent air diabetic), and IHDB (intermittent hypoxia diabetic) groups. Endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxation and modulation by basal nitric oxide (NO) were analyzed using wire myograph. Plasma 8-isoprostane, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were measured using ELISA. Uncoupling of eNOS was measured using dihydroethidium (DHE) staining. Results. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation and basal NO production were significantly impaired in the IH and IADB group compared to IA group but was more pronounced in IHDB group. Levels of 8-isoprostane, IL-6, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were ≈2-fold higher in IH and IADB groups and were further increased in the IHDB group. Conclusion. Endothelial dysfunction is more pronounced in diabetic mice subjected to CIH compared to diabetic or CIH mice alone. Oxidative stress, ADMA, and eNOS uncoupling were exacerbated by CIH in diabetic mice. PMID:27840666

  12. SOLAR WIND MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS TURBULENCE: ANOMALOUS SCALING AND ROLE OF INTERMITTENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, C.; Bale, S. D.; Mangeney, A.; Veltri, P.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we present a study of the scaling properties and intermittency of solar wind MHD turbulence based on the use of wavelet transforms. More specifically, we use the Haar Wavelet transform on simultaneous 3 s resolution particle and magnetic field data from the Wind spacecraft, to investigate anomalous scaling and intermittency effects of both magnetic field and solar wind velocity fluctuations in the inertial range. For this purpose, we calculated spectra, structure functions, and probability distribution functions. We show that this powerful wavelet technique allows for a systematic elimination of intermittency effects on spectra and structure functions and thus for a clear determination of the actual scaling properties in the inertial range. The scaling of the magnetic field and the velocity fluctuations are found to be fundamentally different. Moreover, when the most intermittent structures superposed to the standard fluctuations are removed, simple statistics are recovered. The magnetic field and the velocity fluctuations exhibit a well-defined, although different, monofractal behavior, following a Kolmogorov -5/3 scaling and a Iroshnikov-Kraichnan -3/2 scaling, respectively. The multifractal properties of solar wind turbulence appear to be determined by the presence of those most intermittent structures. Finally, our wavelet technique also allows for a direct and systematic identification of the most active, singular structures responsible for the intermittency in the solar wind.

  13. Quantifying the Intermittency of Fractal Processes with Biological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickel, David

    2001-03-01

    A number of biological phenomena tend to have intermittent departures from their typical dynamics. The extent to which a fractal is intermittent can be qualified and quantified by differential intermittency (DI) or finite-difference intermittency (FI), the degree to which the generalized Hurst exponents differ. The generalized codimensions of a singular measure are a special case of the FI of the corresponding devil's staircase. Intermittency has uses in data-model and data-data comparisons, e.g., an FI of the heart rate distinguishes healthy subjects from those with heart failure. An FI of the S&P 500 index implies that the stock market is also more intermittent than most previously proposed models. In addition, an FI of human activity quantifies restfulness at night. Viral DNA composition, on the other hand, has an FI of zero, reflecting its unifractal nature. DNA evolution has been modeled as a point process with a positive FI, consistent with mammalian sequence data, under the assumption of a common ancestor. Selected References: D. R. Bickel, Phys. Lett. A 262 (1999) 251; D. R. Bickel, Physica A 265 (1999) 634; D. R. Bickel, Fractals 8 (2000) 1; D. R. Bickel and B. J. West, J. Mol. Evol. 47 (1998) 551; abstracts on http://sonser4.uth.tmc.edu/research/db.htm.

  14. Suppression of methanogenesis in hydrogen fermentation by intermittent feeding.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jeonghee; Kim, Tae Gwan; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether intermittent feeding by using a concentrated carbon source is an appropriate method for selective enrichment of hydrogenesis by means of methanogen suppression. In a conventional reactor fed continuously for 10 d, methanogens increased from 2.8 × 10(7) to 1.1 × 10(9) gene copy number (GCN)/mg-cell dry weight, and methane concentration in the resulting biogas was 5.8%. However, when a carbon source was intermittently supplied for 10 d to the reactor, the number of methanogens was reduced 98.9% from 2.77 × 10(7) to 1.2 × 10(3) GCN/mg-cell dry weight, and methane was not detected during this period of intermittent feeding. Intermittent feeding shifted the dominants in the reactor from Clostridiaceae (70.5%) and Lactobacillaceae (11.0%) to Acetobacteraceae (62.0%) and Clostridiaceae (38.0%). In the reactor operated in continuous feeding mode after intermittent feeding, methane concentration was below 0.3% and the portion of methanogens in the bacterial community was maintained below 0.2%. These results suggest that the intermittent feeding of a carbon source during hydrogen production processes is a suitable method to suppress the activity of methanogens.

  15. Modeling of Flow Transition Using an Intermittency Transport Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzen, Y. B.; Huang, P. G.

    1999-01-01

    A new transport equation for intermittency factor is proposed to model transitional flows. The intermittent behavior of the transitional flows is incorporated into the computations by modifying the eddy viscosity, mu(sub t), obtainable from a turbulence model, with the intermittency factor, gamma: mu(sub t, sup *) = gamma.mu(sub t). In this paper, Menter's SST model (Menter, 1994) is employed to compute mu(sub t) and other turbulent quantities. The proposed intermittency transport equation can be considered as a blending of two models - Steelant and Dick (1996) and Cho and Chung (1992). The former was proposed for near-wall flows and was designed to reproduce the streamwise variation of the intermittency factor in the transition zone following Dhawan and Narasimha correlation (Dhawan and Narasimha, 1958) and the latter was proposed for free shear flows and was used to provide a realistic cross-stream variation of the intermittency profile. The new model was used to predict the T3 series experiments assembled by Savill (1993a, 1993b) including flows with different freestream turbulence intensities and two pressure-gradient cases. For all test cases good agreements between the computed results and the experimental data are observed.

  16. Evaluation of the Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire Using Rasch Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leske, David A.; Holmes, Jonathan M.; Melia, B. Michele

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire (IXTQ) is a patient, proxy, and parental report of quality of life specific to children with intermittent exotropia. We refine the IXTQ using Rasch analysis to improve reliability and validity. OBSERVATION Rasch analysis was performed on responses of 575 patients with intermittent exotropia enrolled from May 15, 2008, through July 24, 2013, and their parents from each of the 4 IXTQ health-related quality-of-life questionnaires (child 5 through 7 years of age and child 8 through 17 years of age, proxy, and parent questionnaires). Questionnaire performance and structure were confirmed in a separate cohort of 379 patients with intermittent exotropia. One item was removed from the 12-item child and proxy questionnaires, and response options in the 8- to 17-year-old child IXTQ and proxy IXTQ were combined into 3 response options for both questionnaires. Targeting was relatively poor for the child and proxy questionnaires. For the parent questionnaire, 3 subscales (psychosocial, function, and surgery) were evident. One item was removed from the psychosocial subscale. Resulting subscales had appropriate targeting. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The Rasch-revised IXTQ may be a useful instrument for determining how intermittent exotropia affects health-related quality of life of children with intermittent exotropia and their parents, particularly for cohort studies. PMID:25634146

  17. Return to fitness.

    PubMed

    Dinubile, Nicholas A

    2008-12-01

    The cornerstone of personal health is prevention. The concept of exercise as medicine is a lesson I have preached throughout my career, both with my patients in my private practice as well as through my years working with athletes at all levels including the Philadelphia 76ers basketball team and the Pennsylvania Ballet. It is also a message I relayed as a Special Advisor to the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (PCPFS) during the first Bush administration, working closely with my old friend-and fitness advocate and visionary himself-Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger, who served as Chairman to the PCPFS. Arnold's impact on our nation's health was an extremely positive one that was felt in communities from coast-to-coast. Exercise, activity, and prevention were key components of his prescription for change and improved health for our country. He has also always personally inspired me to see my role as a physician and "healer" in a much broader context.

  18. Health/Fitness Instructor's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Edward T.; Franks, B. Don

    This book identifies the components of physical fitness that are related to positive health as distinct from the simple performance of specific motor tasks. The positive health concept is expanded to further clarify the relationship of physical fitness to total fitness. The disciplinary knowledge base that is essential for fitness professionals is…

  19. Agriculture increases individual fitness.

    PubMed

    Kovaka, Karen; Santana, Carlos; Patel, Raj; Akçay, Erol; Weisberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We question the need to explain the onset of agriculture by appealing to the second type of multilevel selection (MLS2). Unlike eusocial insect colonies, human societies do not exhibit key features of evolutionary individuals. If we avoid the mistake of equating Darwinian fitness with health and quality of life, the adoption of agriculture is almost certainly explicable in terms of individual-level selection and individual rationality.

  20. Social Fitness and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    McGene, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study is one of a series designed to support Air Force leadership in promoting resilience among Airmen, its civilian employees, and Air Force family members. One key component to resilience is social fitness, or the combined resources a person gets from his or her social world. This concept encompasses the availability and maintenance of social relationships, and the ability to utilize those ties to manage stressors and successfully perform tasks. Social fitness resources are the aspects of those relationships that strengthen a person's ability to withstand and rebound from challenges and even grow from them. U.S. Airmen and their families face several unique challenges that can strain the strength and accessibility of these resources, particularly geographic movement. This study identifies several scales and indexes used in social science research to measure three primary social fitness resources, emotional support, instrumental support, and informational support, and proposes that interventions aimed at increasing the quantity and quality of social support should focus on (1) sociodemographic characteristics and dispositional traits; (2) dynamics that strengthen social groups, support networks, and teams; (3) practices that improve social skills and promote more frequent and constructive interactions; and (4) activities that reduce conflict and group division. Particular attention is given to interventions that utilize cyber or virtual communities as an effective means of increasing social connectedness and social support among U.S. Airmen and their families. PMID:28083312

  1. Drought drives DOM biodegradability in intermittent streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harjung, Astrid; Butturini, Andrea; Sabater-Comas, Francesc

    2015-04-01

    In lotic ecosystems drought periods strongly influence the availability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in terms of quantity and quality. It is essential to investigate the link between DOM properties and ecosystem functioning under this hydrologic condition. Within this context, the study explores the relationship between DOM availability and Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) in a pool which is disconnected from the river continuum during drought episode. It is expected that the increase of water residence time, as a consequence of drought, will enhance the transformation of DOM and the contribution of autochthonous relative to allochthonous DOM. An intensive sampling program of surface and hyporheic waters coupled to continuous measurements of dissolved oxygen (DO) and DOM was performed in a pristine Mediterranean intermittent stream in order to prove this hypothesis. The field site is characterized by a permeable streambed and impermeable bedrock, which interrupts the surface-hyporheic connectivity during drought periods. Due to the impermeability of the bedrock there is still surface water captured in small pools, even when the rest of the stream is dry. The samples were analysed for nutrients and DOM. With respect to DOM quality this study focuses on its fluorescent properties. The data of continuous measurements taken over two months inside the pool indicates that DOM is becoming more recalcitrant as the pool gets disconnected and residence times increase. During drought the NEP seems to uncouple from DOM concentrations and in some moments of severe drought they even show an inverse relationship. A decrease of terrestrial input, shifting the DOM source to autochthonous production and chemical transformation of DOM could cause this change in DOM availability. Drought in geomorphological diverse streams is not just causing a loss of water and hence source of DOM, but also enhancing other factors of production and transformation. Consequently, it is important to

  2. Intermittency and Topology of Shock Induced Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellez, Jackson; Redondo, Jose M.; Ben Mahjoub, Otman; Malik, Nadeem; Vila, Teresa

    2016-04-01

    The advance of a Rayleigh-Taylor front is described in Linden & Redondo (1991),[1-3] and may be shown to follow a quadratic law in time where the width of the growing region of instability depends on the local mixing efficiency of the different density fluids that accelerate against each other g is the acceleration and A is the Atwood number defined as the diference of densities divided by their sum. This results show the independence of the large amplitude structures on the initial conditions the width of the mixing region depends also on the intermittency of the turbulence. Then dimensional analysis may also depend on the relevant reduced acceleration driven time and the molecular reactive time akin to Damkholer number and the fractal structure of the contact zone [2,4]. Detailed experiments and simulations on RT and RM shock induced fronts analized with respect to structure functions are able to determine which mechanisms are most effective in local mixing which increase the effective fractal dimension, as well as the effect of higher order geometrical parameters, such as the structure functions, in non-homogeneous fluids (Mahjoub et al 1998)[5]. The structure of a Mixing blob shows a relatively sharp head with most of the mixing taking place at the sides due to what seems to be shear instability very similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but with sideways accelerations. The formation of the blobs and spikes with their secondary instabilities produces a turbulent cascade, evident just after about 1 non-dimensional time unit, from a virtual time origin that takes into account the linear growth phase, as can be seen by the growth of the fractal dimension for different volume fractions. Two-dimensional cuts of the 3D flow also show that vortex flows have closed or spiral streamlines around their core. Examples of such flows can be also seen in the laboratory, for example at the interface of atwo-layer stratified fluid in a tank in which case streamlines

  3. 15 CFR 30.15 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Introduction. (a) For export shipments to foreign countries, the EEI is used both for statistical and for... control regulations, as well as the requirements of the statistical regulations of this part. For convenience, references to provisions of the EAR, ITAR, CBP, and OFAC regulations that affect the...

  4. 15 CFR 30.15 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Introduction. (a) For export shipments to foreign countries, the EEI is used both for statistical and for... control regulations, as well as the requirements of the statistical regulations of this part. For convenience, references to provisions of the EAR, ITAR, CBP, and OFAC regulations that affect the...

  5. 15 CFR 30.15 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the U.S. Postal Service under particular circumstances. (c) This part requires the retention of... Introduction. (a) For export shipments to foreign countries, the EEI is used both for statistical and for... control regulations, as well as the requirements of the statistical regulations of this part....

  6. 15 CFR 30.15 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the U.S. Postal Service under particular circumstances. (c) This part requires the retention of... Introduction. (a) For export shipments to foreign countries, the EEI is used both for statistical and for... control regulations, as well as the requirements of the statistical regulations of this part....

  7. Statistics of field-aligned intermittent electron flux in a linear ECR plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.

    2012-10-01

    Spontaneous emission of field-aligned intermittent high-energy electron flux has been observed in a linear electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) plasma produced in the HYPER-I device (NIFS, Japan). We utilized the temporal variation of probe's floating potential due to electron influx as an index of the intermittent events. Time series of the floating potential fluctuation have been analyzed statistically. The probability density function (PDF) exhibits a non-Gaussian distribution with a long tail in the negative amplitude side, indicating that the signal is dominated by large amplitude negative spikes. The frequency distribution of waiting time, which is defined by the time interval between two consecutive spikes, is well fitted by an exponential distribution, implying a probable connection to the stationary Poisson process. Although a power-law dependence is found in the duration distribution, its relation to the self-organized criticality has not been clear. The effect of ion species on the statistics above will also be discussed.

  8. Biodegradation kinetics of dissolved organic matter chromatographic fractions in an intermittent river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, N.; Casas-Ruiz, J. P.; Schiller, D.; Proia, L.; Obrador, B.; Zwirnmann, E.; Marcé, R.

    2017-01-01

    Controls on the degradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) are complex but key to understand the role of freshwaters in the carbon cycle. Both the origin and previous degradation history have been suggested to determine DOM reactivity, but it is still a major challenge to understand the links between DOM composition and biodegradation kinetics. An appropriate context to study these links are intermittent rivers, as summer drought naturally diversifies DOM sources and sinks. Here we investigated the biodegradation kinetics of DOM in the main aquatic environments present in a temporary river. During dark incubations we traced the dynamics of bulk DOM and its main chromatographic fractions defined using LC-OCD: high molecular weight substances (HMWS), low molecular weight substances (LMWS), and humic substances and building blocks. Bulk DOM decay patterns were successfully fitted to the reactivity continuum (RC) biodegradation model. The RC parameters depicted running waters as the sites presenting a more reactive DOM, and temporary pools, enriched in leaf litter, as the ones with slowest DOM decay. The decay patterns of each DOM fraction were consistent throughout sites. LMWS and HMWS decayed in all cases and could be modeled using the RC model. Notably, the dynamics of LMWS controlled the bulk DOM kinetics. We discuss the mechanistic basis for the chromatographic fractions' kinetics during biodegradation and the implications that preconditioning and summer drought can have for DOM biodegradation in intermittent rivers.

  9. Intermittent Turbulence in the Very Stable Ekman Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, James C

    2001-01-01

    This study describes a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a very stable Ekman layer in which a constant downward heat flux is applied at the lower boundary, thus cooling the fluid above. Numerical experiments were performed in which the strength of the imposed heat flux was varied. For downward heat fluxes above a certain critical value the turbulence becomes intermittent and, as the heat flux increases beyond this value, the flow tends to relaminarize because of the very strong ambient stratification. We adopt Mahrt?s (1999) definition of the very stable boundary layer as a boundary layer in which intermittent, rather than continuous turbulence, is observed. Numerical experiments were used to test various hypothesis of where in ?stability parameter space? the very stable boundary layer is found. These experiments support the findings of Howell and Sun (1999) that the boundary layer will exhibit intermittency and therefore be categorized as ?very stable?, when the stability parameter, z/L, exceeds unity. Another marker for the very stable boundary layer, Derbyshire?s (1990) maximum heat flux criterion, was also examined. Using a case study drawn from the simulations where turbulence intermittency was observed, the mechanism that causes the intermittence was investigated. It was found that patchy turbulence originates from a vigorous inflectional, Ekman-like instability -- a roll cell -- that lifts colder air over warmer air. The resulting convective instability causes an intense burst of turbulence. This turbulence is short-lived because the lifting motion of the roll cell, as well as the roll cell itself, is partially destroyed after the patchy turbulence is generated. Examples of intermittent turbulence obtained from the simulations appear to be consistent with observations of intermittency even though the Reynolds number of the DNS is relatively low (400).

  10. Daily or Intermittent Budesonide in Preschool Children with Recurrent Wheezing

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Robert S.; Mauger, David; Bacharier, Leonard B.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Strunk, Robert C.; Covar, Ronina; Szefler, Stanley J.; Boehmer, Susan; Jackson, Daniel J.; Sorkness, Christine A.; Gern, James E.; Kelly, H. William; Friedman, Noah J.; Mellon, Michael H.; Schatz, Michael; Morgan, Wayne J.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Raissy, Hengameh H.; Bade, Elizabeth; Malka-Rais, Jonathan; Beigelman, Avraham; Taussig, Lynn M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Daily inhaled glucocorticoids are recommended for young children at risk for asthma exacerbations, as indicated by a positive value on the modified asthma predictive index (API) and an exacerbation in the preceding year, but concern remains about daily adherence and effects on growth. We compared daily therapy with intermittent therapy. METHODS We studied 278 children between the ages of 12 and 53 months who had positive values on the modified API, recurrent wheezing episodes, and at least one exacerbation in the previous year but a low degree of impairment. Children were randomly assigned to receive a budesonide inhalation suspension for 1 year as either an intermittent high-dose regimen (1 mg twice daily for 7 days, starting early during a predefined respiratory tract illness) or a daily low-dose regimen (0.5 mg nightly) with corresponding placebos. The primary outcome was the frequency of exacerbations requiring oral glucocorticoid therapy. RESULTS The daily regimen of budesonide did not differ significantly from the intermittent regimen with respect to the frequency of exacerbations, with a rate per patient-year for the daily regimen of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.22) versus a rate of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.20) for the intermittent regimen (relative rate in the intermittent-regimen group, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.35; P=0.60). There were also no significant between-group differences in several other measures of asthma severity, including the time to the first exacerbation, or adverse events. The mean exposure to budesonide was 104 mg less with the intermittent regimen than with the daily regimen. CONCLUSIONS A daily low-dose regimen of budesonide was not superior to an intermittent high-dose regimen in reducing asthma exacerbations. Daily administration led to greater exposure to the drug at 1 year. PMID:22111718

  11. Intermittent turbulence in the very stable Ekman layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, James Coles

    This study describes a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a very stable Ekman layer in which a constant downward heat flux is applied at the lower boundary, thus cooling the fluid above. Numerical experiments were performed in which the strength of the imposed heat flux was varied. For downward heat fluxes above a certain critical value the turbulence becomes intermittent and, as the heat flux increases beyond this value, the flow tends to relaminarize because of the very strong ambient stratification. We adopt Mahrt's (1999) definition of the very stable boundary layer as a boundary layer in which intermittent, rather than continuous turbulence, is observed. Numerical experiments were used to test various hypothesis of where in "stability parameter space" the very stable boundary layer is found. These experiments support the findings of Howell and Sun (1999) that the boundary layer will exhibit intermittency and therefore be categorized as "very stable", when the stability parameter, z/ Λ, exceeds unity. Another marker for the very stable boundary layer, Derbyshire's (1990) maximum heat flux criterion, was also examined. Using a case study drawn from the simulations where turbulence intermittency was observed, the mechanism that causes the intermittence was investigated. It was found that patchy turbulence originates from a vigorous inflectional, Ekman-like instability---a roll cell---that lifts colder air over warmer air. The resulting convective instability causes an intense burst of turbulence. This turbulence is short-lived because the lifting motion of the roll cell, as well as the roll cell itself, is partially destroyed after the patchy turbulence is generated. Examples of intermittent turbulence obtained from the simulations appear to be consistent with observations of intermittency even though the Reynolds number of the DNS is relatively low (400).

  12. Invasion fitness, inclusive fitness, and reproductive numbers in heterogeneous populations.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Laurent; Mullon, Charles; Akçay, Erol; Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2016-08-01

    How should fitness be measured to determine which phenotype or "strategy" is uninvadable when evolution occurs in a group-structured population subject to local demographic and environmental heterogeneity? Several fitness measures, such as basic reproductive number, lifetime dispersal success of a local lineage, or inclusive fitness have been proposed to address this question, but the relationships between them and their generality remains unclear. Here, we ascertain uninvadability (all mutant strategies always go extinct) in terms of the asymptotic per capita number of mutant copies produced by a mutant lineage arising as a single copy in a resident population ("invasion fitness"). We show that from invasion fitness uninvadability is equivalently characterized by at least three conceptually distinct fitness measures: (i) lineage fitness, giving the average individual fitness of a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; (ii) inclusive fitness, giving a reproductive value weighted average of the direct fitness costs and relatedness weighted indirect fitness benefits accruing to a randomly sampled mutant lineage member; and (iii) basic reproductive number (and variations thereof) giving lifetime success of a lineage in a single group, and which is an invasion fitness proxy. Our analysis connects approaches that have been deemed different, generalizes the exact version of inclusive fitness to class-structured populations, and provides a biological interpretation of natural selection on a mutant allele under arbitrary strength of selection.

  13. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    sagittal plane during upstroke of flapping flight, we hypothesize that body lift is produced during flapping phases. Future efforts to model the mechanics of intermittent flight should take into account that flap-bounding birds may support up to 20% of their weight even with their wings fully flexed.

  14. Aerodynamics of intermittent bounds in flying birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobalske, Bret W.; Hearn, Jason W. D.; Warrick, Douglas R.

    2009-05-01

    sagittal plane during upstroke of flapping flight, we hypothesize that body lift is produced during flapping phases. Future efforts to model the mechanics of intermittent flight should take into account that flap-bounding birds may support up to 20% of their weight even with their wings fully flexed.

  15. Intermittent counter-current extraction-Equilibrium cell model, scaling and an improved bobbin design.

    PubMed

    Hewitson, Peter; Sutherland, Ian; Kostanyan, Artak E; Voshkin, Andrei A; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2013-08-16

    This paper describes an equilibrium cell model for intermittent counter-current extraction that is analytically solved for the first time for continuous sample injection between a pair of columns. The model is compared with practice for injections of a model mixture of compounds on a standard high-performance counter-current chromatography instrument giving good agreement for compound elution order and the times to maximum concentration for the eluted components. An improved design of end fittings for the counter-current chromatography bobbins is described which permits on-column switching of the mobile and stationary phases. This on-column switching successfully eliminates the displaced stationary phase seen in fractions when operating ICcE with standard flying leads and gives a 6% reduction in the retention time of compounds and improved resolution due to the elimination of the time delay required to pump the previous mobile phase from standard flying leads.

  16. Corrosion behavior of rebar for intermittent cathodic protection of coastal bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Ziomek-Moroz, M. | Cramer, S.D. | Covino, B.S., Jr. | Bullard, S.J. | Holcomb, G.R. | Russell, J.H. | Windisch, Jr., C.F.

    2001-02-01

    A number of reinforced concrete bridges on the Oregon coast are protected against chloride-induced corrosion damage by means of impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP). Thermal-sprayed Zn serves as the anode in these systems. Rebar in the concrete can remain passive and protected for some period of time after the CP system is turned off. The active-passive corrosion behavior of rebar in simulated pore solution (SPS) was investigated as a function of pH and Cl- concentration as part of a study of intermittent ICCP operation. Rebar corrosion rates in SPS were determined from polarization curves by fitting the Butler-Volmer equation and the linear polarization equation. Analysis of the passive film in SPS by x-ray diffraction and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy showed it to be largely Fe3O4. However, the Fe(OH)2 content increased with cathodic polarization time.

  17. Characterization of intermittency in zooplankton behaviour in turbulence.

    PubMed

    Michalec, François-Gaël; Schmitt, François G; Souissi, Sami; Holzner, Markus

    2015-10-01

    We consider Lagrangian velocity differences of zooplankters swimming in still water and in turbulence. Using cumulants, we quantify the intermittency properties of their motion recorded using three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry. Copepods swimming in still water display an intermittent behaviour characterized by a high probability of small velocity increments, and by stretched exponential tails. Low values arise from their steady cruising behaviour while heavy tails result from frequent relocation jumps. In turbulence, we show that at short time scales, the intermittency signature of active copepods clearly differs from that of the underlying flow, and reflects the frequent relocation jumps displayed by these small animals. Despite these differences, we show that copepods swimming in still and turbulent flow belong to the same intermittency class that can be modelled by a log-stable model with non-analytical cumulant generating function. Intermittency in swimming behaviour and relocation jumps may enable copepods to display oriented, collective motion under strong hydrodynamic conditions and thus, may contribute to the formation of zooplankton patches in energetic environments.

  18. Electromyographic adjustments during continuous and intermittent incremental fatiguing cycling.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Valdes, E; Guzman-Venegas, R A; Silvestre, R A; Macdonald, J H; Falla, D; Araneda, O F; Haichelis, D

    2016-11-01

    We studied the sensitivity of electromyographic (EMG) variables to load and muscle fatigue during continuous and intermittent incremental cycling. Fifteen men attended three laboratory sessions. Visit 1: lactate threshold, peak power output, and VO2max . Visits 2 and 3: Continuous (more fatiguing) and intermittent (less fatiguing) incremental cycling protocols [20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of peak power output (PPO)]. During both protocols, multichannel EMG signals were recorded from vastus lateralis: muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV), instantaneous mean frequency (iMNF), and absolute and normalized root mean square (RMS) were analyzed. MFCV differed between protocols (P < 0.001), and only increased consistently with power output during intermittent cycling. RMS parameters were similar between protocols, and increased linearly with power output. However, only normalized RMS was higher during the more fatiguing 100% PPO stage of the continuous protocol [continuous-intermittent mean difference (95% CI): 45.1 (8.5% to 81.7%)]. On the contrary, iMNF was insensitive to load changes and muscle fatigue (P = 0.14). Despite similar power outputs, continuous and intermittent cycling influenced MFCV and normalized RMS differently. Only normalized RMS was sensitive to both increases in power output (in both protocols) and muscle fatigue, and thus is the most suitable EMG parameter to monitor changes in muscle activation during cycling.

  19. Intermittent synchronization in a network of bursting neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Choongseok; Rubchinsky, Leonid L.

    2011-09-01

    Synchronized oscillations in networks of inhibitory and excitatory coupled bursting neurons are common in a variety of neural systems from central pattern generators to human brain circuits. One example of the latter is the subcortical network of the basal ganglia, formed by excitatory and inhibitory bursters of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus, involved in motor control and affected in Parkinson's disease. Recent experiments have demonstrated the intermittent nature of the phase-locking of neural activity in this network. Here, we explore one potential mechanism to explain the intermittent phase-locking in a network. We simplify the network to obtain a model of two inhibitory coupled elements and explore its dynamics. We used geometric analysis and singular perturbation methods for dynamical systems to reduce the full model to a simpler set of equations. Mathematical analysis was completed using three slow variables with two different time scales. Intermittently, synchronous oscillations are generated by overlapped spiking which crucially depends on the geometry of the slow phase plane and the interplay between slow variables as well as the strength of synapses. Two slow variables are responsible for the generation of activity patterns with overlapped spiking, and the other slower variable enhances the robustness of an irregular and intermittent activity pattern. While the analyzed network and the explored mechanism of intermittent synchrony appear to be quite generic, the results of this analysis can be used to trace particular values of biophysical parameters (synaptic strength and parameters of calcium dynamics), which are known to be impacted in Parkinson's disease.

  20. Intermittency on simultaneous observations of riometer at several Antarctic locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovalle, E. M.; Foppiano, A. J.; Stepanova, M. V.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that auroral radio wave absorption, as measured by riometers, consists of periods of relative quiescence which are interrupted by short bursts of activity. Such patterns in activity are observed in systems ranging from the stock market to turbulence, i.e. they exhibit intermittency. In the case of the auroral absorption it has also been found that intermittency strongly depends on the magnetic local time, being largest in the night-time sector. This can be interpreted as indicating that the precipitating particles responsible of the absorption exhibit intermittency, especially near the substorm eye, where the level of turbulence increases. Here, we analyse simultaneous observations of riometer absorption at seven Antarctic locations, to determine whether they exhibit intermittency. We determine the Probability Distribution Functions of the fluctuations of riometer absorption for absorption events larger than 0.1 dB, as well as those for the time-intervals between absorption events. Observations are for locations within the austral auroral absorption zone and on the polar cap. It is found that the parameters of a power law used to describe the calculated PDFs are consistent with the formation of coherent structures being more frequent within the auroral zone, as a manifestation of intermittency.

  1. Summer Alterations in Youth Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastad, Douglas N.; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated changes in children's physical fitness during summer vacation. Children's cardiorespiratory fitness decreased, as did their body weight, especially for boys. Fall curriculum offerings should be designed to accommodate detrained students. (PP)

  2. Dance Your Way to Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000809.htm Dance your way to fitness To use the sharing features on this page, ... to rhythm and music. Many health clubs and fitness centers offer dance workout classes, such as Zumba. ...

  3. Walking Shoes: Features and Fit

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Walking shoes have some features other shoes don't. Here's what to look for and ... 04, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/in-depth/walking/art-20043897 . Mayo Clinic ...

  4. Long-term monitoring of the archetype Seyfert galaxy MCG-6-30-15: X-ray, optical and near-IR variability of the corona, disc and torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lira, P.; Arévalo, P.; Uttley, P.; McHardy, I. M. M.; Videla, L.

    2015-11-01

    We present long-term monitoring of MCG-6-30-15 in X-rays, optical and near-IR wavelengths, collected over 5 yr of monitoring. We determine the power spectrum density of all the observed bands and show that after taking into account the host contamination similar power is observed in the optical and near-IR bands. There is evidence for a correlation between the light curves of the X-ray photon flux and the optical B band, but it is not possible to determine a lag with certainty, with the most likely value being around 0 d. Strong correlation is seen between the optical and near-IR bands. Cross-correlation analysis shows some complex probability distributions and lags that range from 10 to 20 d, with the near-IR following the optical variations. Filtering the light curves in frequency space shows that the strongest correlations are those corresponding to the shortest time-scales. We discuss the nature of the X-ray variability and conclude that this is intrinsic and cannot be accounted for by absorption episodes due to material intervening in the line of sight. It is also found that the lags agree with the relation τ ∝ λ4/3, as expected for an optically thick geometrically thin accretion disc, although for a larger disc than that predicted by the estimated black hole mass and accretion rate in MCG-6-30-15. The cross-correlation analysis suggests that the torus is located at ˜20 light-days from the central source and at most at ˜50 light-days from the central region. This implies an active galactic nucleus bolometric luminosity of ˜3 × 1043 erg s-1 cm-2.

  5. Complexity Induced Anisotropic Bimodal Intermittent Turbulence in Space Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Tom; Tam, Sunny W. Y.; Wu, Cheng-Chin

    2004-01-01

    The "physics of complexity" in space plasmas is the central theme of this exposition. It is demonstrated that the sporadic and localized interactions of magnetic coherent structures arising from the plasma resonances can be the source for the coexistence of nonpropagating spatiotemporal fluctuations and propagating modes. Non-Gaussian probability distribution functions of the intermittent fluctuations from direct numerical simulations are obtained and discussed. Power spectra and local intermittency measures using the wavelet analyses are presented to display the spottiness of the small-scale turbulent fluctuations and the non-uniformity of coarse-grained dissipation that can lead to magnetic topological reconfigurations. The technique of the dynamic renormalization group is applied to the study of the scaling properties of such type of multiscale fluctuations. Charged particle interactions with both the propagating and nonpropagating portions of the intermittent turbulence are also described.

  6. Temporal intermittency of energy dissipation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    PubMed

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Uzdensky, Dmitri A; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2015-02-13

    Energy dissipation in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is known to be highly intermittent in space, being concentrated in sheetlike coherent structures. Much less is known about intermittency in time, another fundamental aspect of turbulence which has great importance for observations of solar flares and other space or astrophysical phenomena. In this Letter, we investigate the temporal intermittency of energy dissipation in numerical simulations of MHD turbulence. We consider four-dimensional spatiotemporal structures, "flare events," responsible for a large fraction of the energy dissipation. We find that although the flare events are often highly complex, they exhibit robust power-law distributions and scaling relations. We find that the probability distribution of dissipated energy has a power-law index close to α≈1.75, similar to observations of solar flares, indicating that intense dissipative events dominate the heating of the system. We also discuss the temporal asymmetry of flare events as a signature of the turbulent cascade.

  7. Bound by Children: Intermittent Cohabitation and Living Together Apart

    PubMed Central

    Cross-Barnet, Caitlin; Cherlin, Andrew; Burton, Linda

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we examine variations in low-income mothers' patterns of intermittent cohabitation and the voluntary and involuntary nature of these unions. Intermittent cohabitation involves couples living together and separating in repeating cycles. Using Three-City Study ethnographic data, we identified 45 low-income mothers involved in these arrangements, 18 of whom resided with their children's fathers occasionally while saying that they were not in a cohabiting relationship. We term such relationships living together apart (LTA). Data analysis revealed that distinct patterns of voluntary and involuntary separations and reunifications characterized intermittent cohabitation and LTA and that these relationships were shaped by the bonds that shared parenting created and the economic needs of both parents. We argue that these dimensions may explain some disparate accounts of cohabitation status in low-income populations. They also demonstrate previously unexplored diversity in cohabiting relationships and suggest further questioning contemporary definitions of families. PMID:25435641

  8. Scenedesmus dimorphus biofilm: Photoefficiency and biomass production under intermittent lighting

    PubMed Central

    Toninelli, Andrea Efrem; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Mingshen; Wu, Hong; Liu, Tianzhong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of intermittent lighting on the growth performances of a Scenedesmus dimorphus biofilm. Flashing light effect (FLE) is common in traditional suspended cultures of microalgae; yet, publications about this phenomenon, in the context of biofilm cultivation, are scarce. In this work we demonstrate that, thanks to intermittent illumination, it is possible for attached cultivations to fulfill FLE, improve photoefficiency and productivity as well as providing protection from photoinhibition using much lower flashing light frequencies than those usually required with suspended cultures. Medium frequency intermittent lighting (0.1 Hz) guaranteed excellent light integration resulting in 9.13 g m−2 d−1 biomass productivity, which was 8.9% higher than with continuous lighting. Results showed that a light fraction value of 0.5 always improved photoefficiency values as related to continuous light with a 118.8% maximum increase. PMID:27561323

  9. Acute intermittent porphyria with SIADH and fluctuating dysautonomia.

    PubMed

    Nabin, A; Thapa, L J; Paudel, R; Rana, P V S

    2012-01-01

    Three cases of acute intermittent porphyria are reported. While in first case severe pain in abdomen with intermittent exacerbation was the only presentation, the second patient presented as accelerated hypertension and acute abdominal crises in whom the clinical course was characterized by development of deep coma due to inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone before she made complete recovery. The third patient, initially manifested as acute encephalitic syndrome. After initial improvement, she developed features of acute intermittent porphyria i.e. acute abdomen, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and rapidly progressing acute motor neuropathy leading to respiratory and bulbar paralysis. In addition, she developed severe and fluctuating dysautonomia leading to cardiac arrest and fatal termination. The importance of early diagnosis, recognition of autonomic disturbances, prompt treatment and counseling for avoidance of precipitating factors is stressed.

  10. The Prismatic Effect on Stereoacuity in Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung Sub; Chung, Seung Ah; Lee, Kyu Sung

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of acrylic refractive prism and Fresnel membrane prism on stereoacuity in intermittent exotropia. Materials and Methods Stereoacuities of fifty-two patients (mean age, 12.4 years; range 6 to 45 years) with intermittent exotropia were measured using the Titmus and TNO stereotests, while they wore prisms of varying power on nonfixating eye or evenly on each eye. Results Stereoacuities were significantly reduced with increasing prism power for both prisms, ranging from 8 to 25 prism dipotres. The effects on stereoacuity in single acrylic prism and single Fresnel prism were similar, whereas spilt Fresnel prisms reduced stereoacuity more than spilt acrylic prisms. Spilt prisms were found to have much less effect on stereoacuity than single prisms for both acrylic and Fresnel prisms. Conclusion The use of acrylic refractive prism shared evenly on each eye would be optimal method to minimize the reduction of stereoacuity during the prismatic therapy for intermittent exotropia. PMID:20046524

  11. Sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchen; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zhu, David Z; Shi, Hanchang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of hydrogen sulfide in biofilms and sediments in sewer systems can cause severe pipe corrosions and health hazards, and requires expensive programs for its prevention. The aim of this study is to propose a new control strategy and the optimal condition for sulfide elimination by intermittent nitrate dosing in sewer sediments. The study was carried out based on lab-scale experiments and batch tests using real sewer sediments. The intermittent nitrate dosing mode and the optimal control condition were investigated. The results indicated that the sulfide-intermittent-elimination strategy by nitrate dosing is advantageous for controlling sulfide accumulation in sewer sediment. The oxidation-reduction potential is a sensitive indicator parameter that can reflect the control effect and the minimum N/S (nitrate/sulfide) ratio with slight excess nitrate is necessary for optimal conditions of efficient sulfide control with lower carbon source loss. The optimal control condition is feasible for the sulfide elimination in sewer systems.

  12. SE-FIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yongkang; Weislogel, Mark; Schaeffer, Ben; Semerjian, Ben; Yang, Lihong; Zimmerli, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of capillary surfaces has developed steadily over the centuries, but it was not until the last few decades that new technologies have put a more urgent demand on a substantially more qualitative and quantitative understanding of phenomena relating to capillarity in general. So far, the new theory development successfully predicts the behavior of capillary surfaces for special cases. However, an efficient quantitative mathematical prediction of capillary phenomena related to the shape and stability of geometrically complex equilibrium capillary surfaces remains a significant challenge. As one of many numerical tools, the open-source Surface Evolver (SE) algorithm has played an important role over the last two decades. The current effort was undertaken to provide a front-end to enhance the accessibility of SE for the purposes of design and analysis. Like SE, the new code is open-source and will remain under development for the foreseeable future. The ultimate goal of the current Surface Evolver Fluid Interface Tool (SEFIT) development is to build a fully integrated front-end with a set of graphical user interface (GUI) elements. Such a front-end enables the access to functionalities that are developed along with the GUIs to deal with pre-processing, convergence computation operation, and post-processing. In other words, SE-FIT is not just a GUI front-end, but an integrated environment that can perform sophisticated computational tasks, e.g. importing industry standard file formats and employing parameter sweep functions, which are both lacking in SE, and require minimal interaction by the user. These functions are created using a mixture of Visual Basic and the SE script language. These form the foundation for a high-performance front-end that substantially simplifies use without sacrificing the proven capabilities of SE. The real power of SE-FIT lies in its automated pre-processing, pre-defined geometries, convergence computation operation

  13. Bioenergetic and metabolic response to continuous v intermittent nasoenteric feeding.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; Casper, K; Grossman, G D

    1987-06-01

    Resting thermal energy losses and metabolic balances of N, K, P, Ca, Na, and Mg were compared during continuous and intermittent nasoenteric formula infusion in four healthy men. Each feeding protocol lasted 1 week in a 4-week double crossover experiment. The initial feeding schedule was established randomly. Continuous nasoenteric formula infusion produced no increase in thermal energy losses above the fasting level; energy expenditure fell with sleep to the same extent as with intermittent feeding. Thermal losses were similar during intermittent feeding with the exception of the thermic effect of food that produced an additional average energy loss of 115.7 kcal/d. The total resting and sleeping 24-hour energy expenditure was significantly lower (P less than .01) during continuous formula infusion (means +/- SD for n = 8 balance periods, 1344 +/- 119 kcal) compared to intermittent feeding (1457 +/- 179 kcal). No significant differences in nutrient absorption or balances of N, Na, Ca, and Mg were detected between the two feeding protocols. In contrast, continuous infusion of formula was accompanied by negative balances of K and the cytosolic portion of P; weight balance was slightly negative. Weight, K, and cytosolic P balances were all positive during intermittent feeding (P = NS, less than 0.01, and P less than .05 compared to respective continuous infusion periods). Hence, 1 week of continuous nasogastric formula infusion is associated with similar nutrient absorption, a significant reduction in thermal energy losses, and equivalent protein (N) balance relative to intermittent feeding. Differences in weight balance between the two feeding protocols can be ascribed largely to fluid and mineral shifts. These results suggest that energy requirements are lower during continuous formula infusion by about 100 kcal/d compared to regular meal ingestion.

  14. Comparing continuous and intermittent exercise: an "isoeffort" and "isotime" approach.

    PubMed

    Nicolò, Andrea; Bazzucchi, Ilenia; Haxhi, Jonida; Felici, Francesco; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes an alternative way of comparing performance and acute physiological responses to continuous exercise with those of intermittent exercise, ensuring similar between-protocol overall effort (isoeffort) and the same total duration of exercise (isotime). This approach was expected to overcome some drawbacks of traditional methods of comparison. Fourteen competitive cyclists (20±3 yrs) performed a preliminary incremental test and four experimental 30-min self-paced protocols, i.e. one continuous and three passive-recovery intermittent exercise protocols with different work-to-rest ratios (2 = 40∶20s, 1 = 30∶30s and 0.5 = 20∶40s). A "maximal session effort" prescription was adopted for this experimental design. As expected, a robust perceived exertion template was observed irrespective of exercise protocol. Similar between-protocol pacing strategies further support the use of the proposed approach in competitive cyclists. Total work, oxygen uptake and heart rate mean values were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the continuous compared to intermittent protocols, while lactate values were lower. Manipulating the work-to-rest ratio in intermittent exercise, total work, oxygen uptake and heart rate mean values decreased with the decrease in the work-to-rest ratio, while lactate values increased. Despite this complex physiological picture, all protocols showed similar ventilatory responses and a nearly perfect relationship between respiratory frequency and perceived exertion. In conclusion, our data indicate that overall effort and total duration of exercise are two critical parameters that should both be controlled when comparing continuous with intermittent exercise. On an isoeffort and isotime basis, the work-to-rest ratio manipulation affects physiological responses in a different way from what has been reported in literature with traditional methods of comparison. Finally, our data suggest that during intermittent exercise

  15. Dealing with uncertainty in modeling intermittent water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieb, A. M.; Rycroft, C.; Wilkening, J.

    2015-12-01

    Intermittency in urban water supply affects hundreds of millions of people in cities around the world, impacting water quality and infrastructure. Building on previous work to dynamically model the transient flows in water distribution networks undergoing frequent filling and emptying, we now consider the hydraulic implications of uncertain input data. Water distribution networks undergoing intermittent supply are often poorly mapped, and household metering frequently ranges from patchy to nonexistent. In the face of uncertain pipe material, pipe slope, network connectivity, and outflow, we investigate how uncertainty affects dynamical modeling results. We furthermore identify which parameters exert the greatest influence on uncertainty, helping to prioritize data collection.

  16. Hierarchy compensation of non-homogeneous intermittent atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Mahjoub, Otman B.; Cantalapiedra, Inma R.

    2010-05-01

    In this work a study both the internal turbulence energy cascade intermittency evaluated from wind speed series in the atmospheric boundary layer, as well as the role of external or forcing intermittency based on the flatness (Vindel et al 2008)is carried out. The degree of intermittency in the stratified ABL flow (Cuxart et al. 2000) can be studied as the deviation, from the linear form, of the absolute scaling exponents of the structure functions as well as generalizing for non-isotropic and non-homogeneous turbulence, even in non-inertial ranges (in the Kolmogorov-Kraichnan sense) where the scaling exponents are not constant. The degree of intermittency, evaluated in the non-local quasi-inertial range, is explained from the variation with scale of the energy transfer as well as the dissipation. The scale to scale transfer and the structure function scaling exponents are calculated and from these the intermittency parametres. The turbulent diffusivity could also be estimated and compared with Richardson's law. Some two point correlations and time lag calculations are used to investigate the time and spatial integral length scales obtained from both Lagrangian and Eulerian correlations and functions, and we compare these results with both theoretical and laboratory data. We develop a theoretical description of how to measure the different levels of intermittency following (Mahjoub et al. 1998, 2000) and the role of locality in higher order exponents of structure function analysis. Vindel J.M., Yague C. and Redondo J.M. (2008) Structure function analysis and intermittency in the ABL. Nonlin. Processes Geophys., 15, 915-929. Cuxart J, Yague C, Morales G, Terradellas E, Orbe J, Calvo J, Fernández A, Soler M R, Infante C, Buenestado P, Espinalt A, Joergensen H E, Rees J M, Vilá J, Redondo J M, Cantalapiedra R and Conangla L (2000): Stable atmospheric boundary-layer experiment in Spain (Sables 98): a report, Boundary-Layer Meteorology 96, 337-370 Mahjoub O

  17. Solar flare intermittency and the earth's temperature anomalies.

    PubMed

    Scafetta, Nicola; West, Bruce J

    2003-06-20

    We argue that Earth's short-term temperature anomalies and the solar flare intermittency are linked. The analysis is based upon the study of the scaling of both the spreading and the entropy of the diffusion generated by the fluctuations of the temperature time series. The joint use of these two methods evidences the presence of a Lévy component in the temporal persistence of the temperature data sets that corresponds to the one that would be induced by the solar flare intermittency. The mean monthly temperature data sets cover the period from 1856 to 2002.

  18. Challenges to Cabin Humidity Removal Presented by Intermittent Condensing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonJouanne, Roger G.; Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    On-orbit temperature and humidity control (THC) is more easily accomplished when the THC hardware is either consistently dry (i.e., no humidity control is occurring), or consistently wet. The system is especially challenged when intermittent wet/dry conditions occur. The first six years of on-orbit ISS operations have revealed specific concerns within the THC system, specifically in the condensing heat exchanger and the downstream air/water separator. Failed or degraded hardware has been returned to ground and investigated. This paper presents the investigation findings, and the recommended hardware and procedural revisions to prevent and recover from the effects of intermittent condensing conditions.

  19. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits.

  20. Sensitization of Parker fittings

    SciTech Connect

    Wilber, W.W.

    1985-09-01

    At your request, ferrules from 316 SS Parker-Hannifen compression fittings at the FFTF have been examined and evaluated to determine the metallurgical condition as related to carbide precipitation in grain boundaries (known as sensitization) and the implications this may have with regard to corrosion resistance. To accomplish this, two ferrules from new stock, two ferrules from old stock and two ferrules that had seen service were examined metallurgically. The samples were prepared for optical metallography. They were viewed in both the etched and unetched condition and analyzed on the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for elemental content. It was confirmed that the ferrules from new stock had a 5 mil thick nitrided layer on the ferrule ID at the lead end and that the 316 SS ferrule material was in the sensitized condition, indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The material from old stock had no nitride layer but was in the sensitized condition indicating low resistance to aqueous corrosion. The ferrules that had seen service had not been nitrided and were not sensitized indicating high resistance to aqueous corrosion.

  1. Impacts of Urbanization and Intermittent Flow on Macroinvertebrates in Headwater Stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent Supreme Court cases have brought increased attention to the contribution of intermittent waters to the health of downstream ecosystems. However, there is still limited knowledge on what factors are shaping these frequently disturbed intermittent stream communities. The obj...

  2. LINKING DERMAL MODELING AND LOADING DATA TO PREDICT LONG-TERM DOSES FROM INTERMITTENT DERMAL CONTACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper we assess dermal exposure and dose resulting from intermittent contact with residue-contaminated surfaces. These estimates require an understanding of (1) the quantitative relationship between exposure and absorbed dose; (2) the impact of intermittent exposure on ...

  3. Intermittency as a consequence of turbulent transport in nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Rumpf, Benno; Newell, Alan C

    2004-02-01

    Intermittent high-amplitude structures emerge in a damped and driven discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation whose solutions transport both energy and particles from sources to sinks. These coherent structures are necessary for any solution that has statistically stationary transport properties.

  4. The Effects of Resource Intermittency on Electricity System Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sechrist, B.; Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Since society subsidizes the production of renewable electricity in order to decrease emissions from the electric power system, it is important to quantify the environmental benefits of renewables. We use the intermittency characteristics of renewable resources to assess the impact of renewable generation on the emissions of carbon dioxide and other air pollutants. Previous studies have investigated the impact of wind or solar generation on emissions; rather than focusing on a particular technology, we separate the intermittent resource into its components - specifically variability, predictability, and timing - and isolate the effect of each component. For the Texas electricity grid, we use the observed outputs of generating units to econometrically estimate the effect of each intermittency characteristic on CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions. We then use the econometric results to evaluate and compare the expected emissions implications of adding different resources to the system. While the econometric estimates are derived from the wind currently online in Texas, the decomposition of the intermittency makes the results technology agnostic and allows for a comparison between prospective resources of different types. Preliminary results will be presented.

  5. Abnormal intermittency of heart rate in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yum, Myung-Kul; Kim, Kyung-Sik; Kim, June-Soo

    2002-03-01

    Introduction: We aim to test our hypothesis that, during daily activity, though not as prominent as during HUT test, the patients may show different degree of intermittency in heart rates compared to healthy persons. METHOD AND RESULTS: Thirty patients with neurocardiogenic syncope who showed a positive HUT test and thirty healthy controls without history of syncope were included. Their twenty-four hour ambulatory electrocardiograms were digitized and RR interval (RRI) data of six-hour interval were analyzed. To quantify the intermittency (C1) behavior, The intermittency analysis was performed using Mexican hat wavelet. For the syncope group, the values of C1 were significantly higher at 6AM-6PM and lower at 6AM-midnight, respectively. However, the values were not different at midnight-6AM. The significant night-day circadian change shown in the control group was lost in C1. CONCLUSION: When compared to healthy control, the patients with neurocardiogenic syncope shows increased intermittency of heart rates in daytime during daily activity, and abnormal circadian rhythms of the index. These new findings may be useful for investigating the pathophysiology of neurocardiogenic syncope and early identification of the patients.

  6. Challenges, developments and perspectives in intermittent river ecology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although more than half the world's river networks comprise channels that periodically cease to flow and dry [intermittent rivers (IRs)], river ecology was largely developed from and for perennial systems. Ecological knowledge of IRs is rapidly increasing, so there is a need to s...

  7. Noise and Signal for Spectra of Intermittent Noiselike Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwinn, C. R.; Johnson, M. D.

    2011-05-01

    We show that intermittency of noiselike emission, after propagation through a scattering medium, affects the distribution of noise in the observed correlation function. Intermittency also affects correlation of noise among channels of the spectrum, but leaves the average spectrum, average correlation function, and distribution of noise among channels of the spectrum unchanged. Pulsars are examples of such sources: intermittent and affected by interstellar propagation. We assume that the source emits Gaussian white noise, modulated by a time envelope. Propagation convolves the resulting time series with an impulse-response function that represents effects of dispersion, scattering, and absorption. We assume that this propagation kernel is shorter than the time for an observer to accumulate a single spectrum. We show that rapidly varying intermittent emission tends to concentrate noise near the central lag of the correlation function. We derive mathematical expressions for this effect, in terms of the time envelope and the propagation kernel. We present examples, discuss effects of background noise, and compare our results with observations.

  8. 21 CFR 890.1600 - Intermittent pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intermittent pressure measurement system. 890.1600 Section 890.1600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  9. [Mitotane as possible cause of acute intermittent porphyria].

    PubMed

    von Eyben, Finn Edler

    2011-09-12

    A 54 year-old woman with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) developed an attack of porphyria after 156 days of treatment with mitotane following a non-radical adrenalectomy for adrenocortical carcinoma. Mitotane therapy was discontinued but the attack of porphyria persisted for more than four months and included episodes with severe metabolic and neurologic toxicities. Mitotane is probably porphyrinogenic for patients with AIP.

  10. 21 CFR 890.1600 - Intermittent pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intermittent pressure measurement system. 890.1600 Section 890.1600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  11. 21 CFR 890.1600 - Intermittent pressure measurement system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermittent pressure measurement system. 890.1600 Section 890.1600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  12. Acute intermittent porphyria precipitated by atazanavir/ritonavir.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Sheena; Malhotra, Prashant; Hirsch, Bruce

    2016-11-01

    Porphyrias are a group of metabolic disorders that are relatively uncommon and underdiagnosed. Although the association between HIV infection and antiretrovirals with porphyria cutanea tarda is well established, there are fewer data linking HIV and the acute hepatic porphyrias. We report the first case of acute intermittent porphyria precipitated by the drugs atazanavir and ritonavir, presenting with unexplained abdominal pain.

  13. Improvement in distance stereoacuity following surgery for intermittent exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Wendy E.; Leske, David A.; Hatt, Sarah R.; Mohney, Brian G.; Birch, Eileen E.; Weakley, David; Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether distance stereoacuity improves following surgery for intermittent exotropia using the Frisby Davis Distance (FD2) and Distance Randot stereotests. Methods Eighteen patients (median age 24 years, range 5 to 68 years) with intermittent exotropia were prospectively enrolled. Stereoacuity was measured pre- and 6 weeks post-operatively using the FD2 and Frisby near tests (real depth tests) and Preschool Randot and Distance Randot tests (polaroid vectographs). Results Distance stereoacuity measured with the FD2 improved from a median pre-operative value of 80 arc seconds (arcsec) to 40 arcsec post-operatively (P= 0.04) and stereoacuity measured with the Distance Randot improved from a median of nil to 200 arcsec (P= 0.06). In those that had subnormal stereoacuity pre-operatively, there was even more marked improvement in distance stereoacuity (FD2 median nil vs. 40 arcsec, P=0.002; Distance Randot median nil vs. 200 arcsec, P=0.004). Near stereoacuity measured with Frisby and Preschool Randot remained unchanged pre- and post- operatively (median 60 arcsec and 80 arcsec respectively). Conclusions There was improvement in distance stereoacuity measured with both the FD2 and Distance Randot stereotests in patients who underwent surgery for intermittent exotropia. The FD2 and Distance Randot may be useful outcomes measures in future clinical trials of interventions for intermittent exotropia. PMID:18082437

  14. STATISTICS OF TURBULENT FIELD VARIATIONS, NON-GAUSSIANITY AND INTERMITTENCY

    SciTech Connect

    Ragot, B. R

    2009-05-10

    Statistics of magnetic field and velocity variations are important to the study of turbulence. Their departure from Gaussianity on the short separation scales has long been recognized and ascribed to intermittency. Non-Gaussian log-normal statistics of field-line separations are now predicted, however, from simple nonfluctuating turbulence Fourier spectra that do not model any intermittency, and one may wonder how this result may impact our interpretation of the statistics of field variations. It is shown in this paper how the intermittency of the turbulence can be taken into account to estimate the distributions of field-line separations and of field variations from the simple Fourier-spectra calculations. The first accurate theory/modeling predictions for the observed in situ distributions of turbulent field variations are thereby made, free of parameter adjustment. Magnetic field data from Helios 2 and Wind are used for the validation. Because the field variations are measured between points of constant separation and not between real field lines, intermittency remains the main cause for the observed non-Gaussianity of the statistics of field variations on the short scales, even if spatial limitations and/or short-scale phase correlations could also contribute to the deviations from Gaussianity.

  15. NOISE AND SIGNAL FOR SPECTRA OF INTERMITTENT NOISELIKE EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Gwinn, C. R.; Johnson, M. D. E-mail: michaeltdh@physics.ucsb.edu

    2011-05-20

    We show that intermittency of noiselike emission, after propagation through a scattering medium, affects the distribution of noise in the observed correlation function. Intermittency also affects correlation of noise among channels of the spectrum, but leaves the average spectrum, average correlation function, and distribution of noise among channels of the spectrum unchanged. Pulsars are examples of such sources: intermittent and affected by interstellar propagation. We assume that the source emits Gaussian white noise, modulated by a time envelope. Propagation convolves the resulting time series with an impulse-response function that represents effects of dispersion, scattering, and absorption. We assume that this propagation kernel is shorter than the time for an observer to accumulate a single spectrum. We show that rapidly varying intermittent emission tends to concentrate noise near the central lag of the correlation function. We derive mathematical expressions for this effect, in terms of the time envelope and the propagation kernel. We present examples, discuss effects of background noise, and compare our results with observations.

  16. Intermittent self-catheterization appliances for disabled patients.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John

    2006-12-01

    Occasionally, district nurses may be asked to teach a patient intermittent self-catheterization (ISC). However, if the patient has some form of physical disability that reduces their manual dexterity or limits their movement, should this stop the patient undertaking the procedure? This article outlines some of the appliances available to help disabled patients undertake ISC.

  17. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  18. NuFit: nutrition and fitness CBPR program evaluation.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Chelsea; Bishop, Virginia; Cabrera, Kathy; Medina, Roxane; Takawira, Desire; Donate, Nilmari; Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Guevara, Beti

    2014-01-01

    The present study combines community-based participatory research (CBPR) and peer education to create NuFit, a nutrition and fitness curriculum, adapted by community and student peer leaders for Latino and African-American high-school students in Chicago. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of the NuFit curriculum to improve the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding nutrition and fitness for minority and adolescent student populations. The NuFit curriculum improved students' short-term self-reported behaviors and attitudes around nutrition and fitness. The NuFit curriculum shows promise as one mechanism to help prevent and combat childhood obesity by fostering healthy attitudes and behaviors during the critical developmental stage of adolescence. Involvement of and collaboration between community stakeholders and youth appeared to increase the likelihood of NuFit's cultural relevance and sustainability. More work is necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of NuFit.

  19. TransFit: Finite element analysis data fitting software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) mission support team has made extensive use of geometric ray tracing to analyze the performance of AXAF developmental and flight optics. One important aspect of this performance modeling is the incorporation of finite element analysis (FEA) data into the surface deformations of the optical elements. TransFit is software designed for the fitting of FEA data of Wolter I optical surface distortions with a continuous surface description which can then be used by SAO's analytic ray tracing software, currently OSAC (Optical Surface Analysis Code). The improved capabilities of Transfit over previous methods include bicubic spline fitting of FEA data to accommodate higher spatial frequency distortions, fitted data visualization for assessing the quality of fit, the ability to accommodate input data from three FEA codes plus other standard formats, and options for alignment of the model coordinate system with the ray trace coordinate system. TransFit uses the AnswerGarden graphical user interface (GUI) to edit input parameters and then access routines written in PV-WAVE, C, and FORTRAN to allow the user to interactively create, evaluate, and modify the fit. The topics covered include an introduction to TransFit: requirements, designs philosophy, and implementation; design specifics: modules, parameters, fitting algorithms, and data displays; a procedural example; verification of performance; future work; and appendices on online help and ray trace results of the verification section.

  20. Characterizing spatial and temporal patterns of intermittent rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Stefan B.; Hoeve, Jasper; Sauquet, Eric; Leigh, Catherine; Bonada, Núria; Fike, Kimberly; Dahm, Clifford; Booij, Martijn J.; Datry, Thibault

    2015-04-01

    Intermittent rivers (IRs) support high biodiversity due to their dynamic alternations between terrestrial and aquatic phases. They represent a large proportion of the river network. However the current knowledge on these ecosystems is limited. The international research project "Intermittent River Biodiversity Analysis and Synthesis" (IRBAS, www.irbas.fr) aims to collect and analyze data on IR biodiversity from France, Spain, North America and Australia. These activities ultimately should help in identifying relationships between flow regime components and ecological responses. The IRBAS project will provide guidelines for policy-makers and resource managers for effective water and habitat management, restoration and preservation. This work examines one of the aspects in the IRBAS project: studying the large-scale spatial distribution of IRs as well as the year-to-year variability of zero-flow events. IRs were described by two variables: the frequency of periods without flow (FREQ) per time period (months or years) and the total number of zero-flow days (DUR) in a specified time window (month or year). Daily discharge data from more than 1700 gauging stations with no significant human influence on flow were collected from France, Spain, Australia and conterminous United States. A minimum length of 30 years of data starting from 1970 was required with less than 5% of missing data. Climate data for France and Australia were also collected. A classification of perennial versus intermittent rivers was defined, with 455 stations out of the 1684 considered "intermittent", i.e. the gauging station records had, on average, at least 5 zero-flow days per year. The analysis of the subset of IRs showed that: - Greater than 50% of the IRs in the database is located in Australia, where only 35% of the stations are considered perennial. In Spain the proportion of IRs reaches 25%. The proportion of intermittent rivers in France (7%) is certainly underestimated as a consequence of

  1. The influence of continuous and intermittent traffic noise on sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, J. L.; Stråle, L.-O.; Berlin, M. H.

    1987-08-01

    The effects of road traffic noise on sleep were studied in the laboratory using nine young male adults (aged 20-26). The subjects were exposed to noise with different temporal characteristics: (i) continuous traffic noise of 36 dB(A) or 45 dB(A), (ii) intermittent noise of 50 truck passages with L pmax = 45 dB(A) ( L eq = 29 dB(A)) or L pmax = 55 dB(A) ( L eq = 36 dB(A)), and (iii) a combination of continuous (45 dB(A)) and intermittent ( L pmax = 55 dB(A)) traffic noise. For one noise condition (intermittent 55 dB(A)) the effect of the use of ear plugs was also studied. The intermittent noise of L pmax = 45 dB(A) caused transitions towards lighter sleep, whereas 55 dB(A) was needed to induce awakening effects. It could be shown that the probability for arousal reactions depends on the emergence of the noise peaks from the background, rather than the absolute noise peak level. Continuous traffic noise of 45 dB(A) caused REM sleep deficits, while intermittent traffic noise of L pmax = 45 dB(A) caused stage III+IV deficits. The night with ear plugs was virtually undisturbed. After nights with REM sleep deficits the subjective sleep quality was rated lower and mood was influenced adversely. For the types of exposure used in the present investigation L eq alone is not an adequate descriptor of the noise dose, relating to the sleep disturbances observed. From the present experiment, together with other existing data, it might be concluded that the WHO recommendation of L eq = 35 dB(A) is adequate, but should be supplemented with a maximum noise level, as expressed for example in L pmax or LI, that should not be exceeded.

  2. The development of a high intensity dance performance fitness test.

    PubMed

    Redding, Emma; Weller, Peter; Ehrenberg, Shantel; Irvine, Sarah; Quin, Edel; Rafferty, Sonia; Wyon, Matthew; Cox, Carol

    2009-01-01

    While there is currently a validated dance-specific exercise method of measuring aerobic fitness, no such test has been developed to measure high intensity capabilities in dance. The purpose of this study was to initiate an intermittent high intensity dance-specific fitness test. The test was designed to be able to observe changes in heart rate (HR), thereby allowing for a measurement of physical fitness at high intensities. Sixteen professional dancers (4 males and 12 females) volunteered to take part in this study. The fitness test protocol consists of movements that are representative of contemporary dance, and contains exercise and rest periods that mimic the intermittent nature of dance. The participants performed four trials. The physiological variables measured were HR (b.min(-1)) for each one minute bout of the four minute test for all trials, oxygen uptake (VO(2)) throughout the test, and end blood lactate (BLa mmol.L) for each trial. In addition, five of the participants undertook a maximal oxygen uptake treadmill test, and the scores obtained were compared with those from the dance test. Results show HR consistency across each one minute bout of the test and across each of the four trials of testing for all participants, indicating that the test is reliable. There was good reliability between bouts of each trial (typical error as % of CV = 1.5), intraclass "r" = 0.8, and good reliability between the four trials (typical error as % of CV = 2.1), intraclass "r" = 0.82. There were no significant differences between the maximal VO(2) and BLa scores established in the treadmill and dance tests, demonstrating validity. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the high intensity dance-specific test is a reliable and valid means of assessing and monitoring the cardiovascular fitness of dancers. The test allows dancers to be assessed within an environment that they are accustomed to (the studio), using a mode of exercise that is relevant (dance), and it is

  3. Fitness testing of tennis players: How valuable is it?

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Ulbricht, Alexander; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In tennis, sport-specific technical skills are predominant factors, although a complex profile of physical performance factors is also required. The fitness test batteries assist in examining tennis players’ capabilities for performance at different levels in the laboratory as well as in the field, in the junior or elite level. While laboratory tests can be, and are, used to evaluate basic performance characteristics of athletes in most individual sports, in a more specific approach, field-based methods are better suited to the demands of complex intermittent sports like tennis. A regular test battery performed at different periods of the year allows to obtain an individual's performance profile, as well as the ability to prescribe individual training interventions. Thus, the aim of the present review was to describe and evaluate the different physical tests recommended and used by practitioners, sports scientists and institutions (national tennis federations). PMID:24668375

  4. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  5. Use of Intermittent Recompression and Nitrox Breathing Mixtures during Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, M.L.; Abercromby, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: NASA's plans for lunar surface exploration include pressurized suitport rovers that are quickly ingressed and egressed with minimal consumables losses. This capability enables crewmembers to perform multiple short extravehicular activities (EVAs) at different locations in a single day versus a single 8-hr EVA. Modeling work and empirical human and animal data indicate that intermittent recompressions between EVA suit pressure and cabin pressure reduce decompression stress. Savings in crew time and gas losses may also be achieved if the N2 purge is shortened to 2 minutes, achieving 80% O2 (vs. 8 minutes, 95% O2). METHODS: A validated Tissue Bubble Dynamics Model was used to predict decompression stress using 80% and 95% O2 breathing mixtures during 3 x 2-hr EVAs (4.3 PSIA) with 1hr recompressions back to 8.0 PSIA (32% O2) versus a single 8-hr EVA. 15 minutes was spent at 6.0 PSIA before depressurizations to 4.3 PSIA; initial EVA tasks could be performed during this time. Model validation was based on significant prediction (p<0.001) and goodness of fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 altitude exposures (McFadden s rho-squared=0.214). RESULTS: A 2.2% predicted increase in DCS risk due to the shortened purge is more than compensated for by a predicted 2.5% reduction in DCS risk due to intermittent recompression. 15 minutes at 80% O2, 6.0 PSIA prior to a 4.3 PSIA EVA prevents supersaturation in the brain and spinal cord (5-10 minute half-time compartments) and reduces tissue tensions in 40 min compartments, where most of the body s inert gas is located, to approximately the same levels (4.39 vs 4.00 PSIA) as achieved during a 40 min 95% O2 prebreathe at 10.2 PSIA. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent recompressions between lunar EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements, decompression stress, and/or suit operating pressures.

  6. Motivating Students in Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hunter, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Physical educators have a responsibility to motivate students to develop personal fitness. This is a critical concept as physical education is the only part of the curriculum capable of meeting the health needs of students regarding physical activity. Current physical educators must promote fitness in ways that motivate students to engage in…

  7. Fitting Surge Functions to Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of fitting a surge function to a set of data such as that for a drug response curve is considered. A variety of different techniques are applied, including using some fundamental ideas from calculus, the use of a CAS package, and the use of Excel's regression features for fitting a multivariate linear function to a set of transformed…

  8. My Career: Group Fitness Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tammy Kenney, who teaches a yoga-Pilates class in several different gyms. In this interview, Kenney talks about her career as a group fitness instructor and gives her best advice for someone who wants to teach group fitness.

  9. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  10. Staff Development: Fine and Fit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Ann

    1982-01-01

    The Merrimack Education Center in Chelmsford (Massachusetts) responded to needs for stress management training and morale boosting in its 22-district service area with a midwinter "Fitness for Educators" conference. Participants learned techniques for maintaining physical fitness, managing hyperactivity, developing holistic health…

  11. Fitness and Health. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents five articles on children's fitness and health: "Relaxation: Every Child's Right to Simply Be" (Patrice Thomas and Wendy Shepherd); "Infant Massage" (Carolyn Oleson); "Fitness and the Young Child" (James M. Poole); "Partners in Health: Helping Families Advocate for Their Children's Health Care" (Karen Sokal-Gutierrez); and "Preventing…

  12. FitSKIRT: Oligochromatic Fitting of Dusty Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Geyter, G.; Baes, M.

    2014-03-01

    We present the updated version of FitSKIRT, a method to fit radiative transfer models to UV/optical/NIR images of dusty galaxies. Among various improvements made to the code, the most substantial one is the ability to simultaneously fit to several images. This oligochromatic fitting technique (“oligo” stems from Ancient Greek meaning “a few”) can use several reference images, ranging from the UV to NIR, to constrain the parameters of the model more appropriately. Since the alterations made to the code are quite substantial, we revisit the test case used to test the previous version. This new test case is created to check to which degree the improved FitSKIRT is capable of retrieving the initial parameters. Both the images and parameter values are compared to provide insights and valorize the updated fitting procedure. The result is a highly automated fitting routine capable of providing more accurate constraints on both the distribution and properties of stars and dust in dusty galaxies.

  13. Transfer of value from fit.

    PubMed

    Higgins, E Tory; Chen Idson, Lorraine; Freitas, Antonio L; Spiegel, Scott; Molden, Daniel C

    2003-06-01

    People experience regulatory fit when they pursue a goal in a manner that sustains their regulatory orientation (E. T. Higgins, 2000). Five studies tested whether the value experienced from regulatory fit can transfer to a subsequent evaluation of an object. In Studies 1 and 2, participants gave the same coffee mug a higher price if they had chosen it with a strategy that fit their orientation (eager strategy/promotion; vigilant strategy/prevention) than a strategy that did not fit. Studies 3-5 investigated possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Value transfer was independent of positive mood, perceived effectiveness (instrumentality), and perceived efficiency (ease), and occurred for an object that w as independent of the fit process itself. The findings supported a value confusion account of transfer.

  14. FITS Liberator: Image processing software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Johansen, Teis; Hurt, Robert; de Martin, David

    2012-06-01

    The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's XMM-Newton Telescope and Cassini-Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  15. Detailed characteristics of intermittent current pulses due to positive corona

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang Cui, Xiang; Lu, Tiebing; Wang, Zhenguo; Li, Xuebao; Xiang, Yu; Wang, Xiaobo

    2014-08-15

    In order to get detailed characteristics of intermittent current pulses due to positive corona such as the repetition rate of burst-pulse trains, the peak value ratio of the primary pulse to the secondary pulse, the number of pulses per burst, and the interval of the secondary pulses, a systematic study was carried out in a coaxial conductor-cylinder electrode system with the conductor electrode being set with a discharge point. Empirical formulae for the number of pulses per burst and the interval of the secondary pulses are first presented. A theoretical model based on the motion of the space-charge clouds is proposed. Analysis with the model gives explanations to the experimental results and reveals some new insights into the physical mechanism of positive intermittent corona.

  16. Intermittency and local heating in the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Osman, K T; Matthaeus, W H; Wan, M; Rappazzo, A F

    2012-06-29

    Evidence for nonuniform heating in the solar wind plasma near current sheets dynamically generated by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is obtained using measurements from the ACE spacecraft. These coherent structures only constitute 19% of the data, but contribute 50% of the total plasma internal energy. Intermittent heating manifests as elevations in proton temperature near current sheets, resulting in regional heating and temperature enhancements extending over several hours. The number density of non-Gaussian structures is found to be proportional to the mean proton temperature and solar wind speed. These results suggest magnetofluid turbulence drives intermittent dissipation through a hierarchy of coherent structures, which collectively could be a significant source of coronal and solar wind heating.

  17. Intermittent individual housing increases survival of newly proliferated cells.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Elin; Pham, Therese M; Zwart, Mieke; Baumans, Vera; Brené, Stefan

    2005-09-08

    In this study, we analyzed how intermittent individual housing with or without a running wheel influenced corticosterone levels and survival of newly proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Female Balb/c mice, in standard or enhanced housing, were divided into groups that were individually housed with or without running wheels on every second day. Intermittent individual housing without, but not with, running wheels increased survival of proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus as compared with continuous group housing in standard or enhanced conditions. Thus, changes in housing conditions on every second day can, under certain circumstances, have an impact on the survival of newly proliferated cells in the dentate gyrus.

  18. Positive effects of intermittent fasting in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Fann, David Yang-Wei; Ng, Gavin Yong Quan; Poh, Luting; Arumugam, Thiruma V

    2017-03-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is a dietary protocol where energy restriction is induced by alternate periods of ad libitum feeding and fasting. Prophylactic intermittent fasting has been shown to extend lifespan and attenuate the progress and severity of age-related diseases such as cardiovascular (e.g. stroke and myocardial infarction), neurodegenerative (e.g. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease) and cancerous diseases in animal models. Stroke is the second leading cause of death, and lifestyle risk factors such as obesity and physical inactivity have been associated with elevated risks of stroke in humans. Recent studies have shown that prophylactic IF may mitigate tissue damage and neurological deficit following ischemic stroke by a mechanism(s) involving suppression of excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death pathways in animal stroke models. This review summarizes data supporting the potential hormesis mechanisms of prophylactic IF in animal models, and with a focus on findings from animal studies of prophylactic IF in stroke in our laboratory.

  19. Intermittent-flow coefficients of a poppet valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, C D

    1939-01-01

    Flow coefficients were determined for the inlet valve of a modern air-cooled cylinder during operation of the valve. The cylinder head with valves was mounted on a large tank that could be evacuated. Operating the valve with a rotating cam allowed air to flow through the valve into the evacuated tank. The change of pressure in the tank was a measure of the amount of air flowing though the valve in a given number of cycles. The flow coefficients were determined from the pressure across the valve, the quantity of air flowing, and the valve-lift curve. Coefficients were measured with lifts of 0.1 to 0.6 inch and speeds of 130 to 1,200 r.p.m. The results obtained with intermittent flow were compared with the results of tests made with steady flow through this cylinder head. This comparison indicated that steady-flow coefficients can be used for intermittent flow.

  20. Intermittent Bellerophon state in frequency-weighted Kuramoto model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenchang; Zou, Yong; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Zonghua; Guan, Shuguang

    2016-12-01

    Recently, the Bellerophon state, which is a quantized, time dependent, clustering state, was revealed in globally coupled oscillators [Bi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 204101 (2016)]. The most important characteristic is that in such a state, the oscillators split into multiple clusters. Within each cluster, the instantaneous frequencies of the oscillators are not the same, but their average frequencies lock to a constant. In this work, we further characterize an intermittent Bellerophon state in the frequency-weighted Kuramoto model with a biased Lorentzian frequency distribution. It is shown that the evolution of oscillators exhibits periodical intermittency, following a synchronous pattern of bursting in a short period and resting in a long period. This result suggests that the Bellerophon state might be generic in Kuramoto-like models regardless of different arrangements of natural frequencies.

  1. A search of the 'Wow' locale for intermittent radio signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Robert H.

    1994-12-01

    In 1977 a search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI) at Ohio State University (OSU) recorded a strong signal near the 21-cm hydrogen line, which displayed several characteristics that might be expected of a candidate interstellar radio signal. This event was not repeatable with the OSC meridian transit radio telescope but could have been due to an intermittent source, which would be difficult to reobserve with a transit instrument. This article reports a search for the OSU signal using the fully steerable Harvard-Smithsonian 26-m radio telescope, tracking for up to 4 hr at a time to improve the chances of detecting an intermittent source. Despite higher sensitivity and longer cumulative observations, no signals resembling the OSU event were found.

  2. Experimental Evidence on Intermittent Lag Synchronization in Coupled Chua's Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. K.; Dana, S. K.

    2003-08-01

    Phase synchronization (PS) in coupled chaotic oscillators has been investigated numerically in Lorenz, Rossler models and also experimentally in cardiorespiratory systems by many researchers. In non-identical oscillators, which is a reality, complete synchronization (CS) of amplitude and phase is difficult to arrive at. Lag synchronization (LS) is an intermediate step between complete (CS) and PS. PS shows promises in communication, in the context of pulse position modulation, in homoclinic chaotic systems. As has been observed earlier by others in numerical experiments that there is an intermittent region between PS and LS. This intermediate region is defined as the intermittent lag synchronization (ILS). Experimental evidence on both PS and ILS using two coupled Chua's oscillator (non-identical) is reported here.

  3. Tissue-specific splicing mutation in acute intermittent porphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Grandchamp, B.; Picat, C. ); Mignotte, V.; Romeo, P.H.; Goossens, M. ); Wilson, J.H.P.; Sandkuyl, L. ); Te Velde, K. ); Nordmann, Y. )

    1989-01-01

    An inherited deficiency of porphobilinogen deaminase in humans is responsible for the autosomal dominant disease acute intermittent porphyria. Different classes of mutations have been described at the protein level suggesting that this is a heterogeneous disease. It was previously demonstrated that porphobilinogen deaminase is encoded by two distinct mRNA species expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Analysis of the genomic sequences indicated that these two mRNAs are transcribed from two promoters and only differ in their first exon. The first mutation identified in the human porphobilinogen deaminase gene is a single-base substitution (G {yields} A) in the canonical 5{prime} splice donor site of intron 1. This mutation leads to a particular subtype of acute intermittent porphyria characterized by the restriction of the enzymatic defect to nonerythropoietic tissues. Hybridization analysis using olignonucleotide probes after in vitro amplification of genomic DNA offers another possibility of detecting asymptomatic carriers of the mutation in affected families.

  4. Intermittent/transient faults in computer systems: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of an approach for diagnosing intermittent/transient (I/T) faults is presented. The development of an interrelated theory and experimental methodology to be used in a laboratory situation to measure the capability of a fault tolerant computing system to diagnose I/T faults, is discussed. To the extent that such diagnosing capability is important to reliability in fault tolerant computing systems, this theory and supporting methodology serves as a foundation for validation efforts.

  5. Nephrolithiasis resulting in intermittent ureteral obstruction in a cow.

    PubMed

    Divers, T J; Reef, V B; Roby, K A

    1989-04-01

    Bilateral nephrolithiasis with intermittent ureterolithiasis was diagnosed in a 7-year old Holstein cow. Two episodes of ureterolithiasis resulted in severe azotemia which resolved after spontaneous movement of the stone. A third episode of obstruction one year after the initial episode resulted in rupture of one kidney, necessitating euthanasia. The histopathological examination of the kidney was diagnostic for chronic pyelonephritis. Corynebacterium sp. was cultured from a nephrolith. In this case it is believed that the chronic pyelonephritis predisposed to the calculi formation.

  6. Tester Detects Steady-Short Or Intermittent-Open Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bobby L.

    1990-01-01

    Momentary open circuits or steady short circuits trigger buzzer. Simple, portable, lightweight testing circuit sounds long-duration alarm when it detects steady short circuit or momentary open circuit in coaxial cable or other two-conductor transmission line. Tester sensitive to discontinuities lasting 10 microseconds or longer. Used extensively for detecting intermittent open shorts in accelerometer and extensometer cables. Also used as ordinary buzzer-type continuity checker to detect steady short or open circuits.

  7. Intermittency in two-dimensional Ekman-Navier-Stokes turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boffetta, G.; Celani, A.; Musacchio, S.; Vergassola, M.

    2002-08-01

    We study the statistics of the vorticity field in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence with linear Ekman friction. We show that the small-scale vorticity fluctuations are intermittent, as conjectured by Bernard [Europhys. Lett. 50, 333 (2000)] and Nam et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5134 (2000)]. The small-scale statistics of vorticity fluctuations coincide with that of a passive scalar with finite lifetime transported by the velocity field itself.

  8. Intermittent fasting during Ramadan: does it affect sleep?

    PubMed

    Bahammam, Ahmed S; Almushailhi, Khalid; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Sharif, Munir M

    2014-02-01

    Islamic intermittent fasting is distinct from regular voluntary or experimental fasting. We hypothesised that if a regimen of a fixed sleep-wake schedule and a fixed caloric intake is followed during intermittent fasting, the effects of fasting on sleep architecture and daytime sleepiness will be minimal. Therefore, we designed this study to objectively assess the effects of Islamic intermittent fasting on sleep architecture and daytime sleepiness. Eight healthy volunteers reported to the Sleep Disorders Centre on five occasions for polysomnography and multiple sleep latency tests: (1) during adaptation; (2) 3 weeks before Ramadan, after having performed Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting); (3) 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline); (4) 2 weeks into Ramadan (Ramadan); and (5) 2 weeks after Ramadan (non-fasting; Recovery). Daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the multiple sleep latency test. The participants had a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years, a body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg m(-2) and an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 7.3 ± 2.7. There was no change in weight or the Epworth Sleepiness Scale in the four study periods. The rapid eye movement sleep percentage was significantly lower during fasting. There was no difference in sleep latency, non-rapid eye movement sleep percentage, arousal index and sleep efficiency. The multiple sleep latency test analysis revealed no difference in the sleep latency between the 'non-fasting baseline', 'baseline fasting', 'Ramadan' and 'Recovery' time points. Under conditions of a fixed sleep-wake schedule and a fixed caloric intake, Islamic intermittent fasting results in decreased rapid eye movement sleep with no impact on other sleep stages, the arousal index or daytime sleepiness.

  9. [Normobaric intermittent hypoxia and functional state of the erythrocyte pool].

    PubMed

    Dlusskaia, I G; Stepanov, V K; Radchenko, S N; Dvornikov, M V

    2004-01-01

    Functional state of the pool of erythrocytes was evaluated in ten essentially healthy male subjects before, during and in 2 months after a series of 15 exposures to normobaric intermittent hypoxia (NIH). The erythrocyte pool dynamics, hemoglobin content, low and highly resistive fractions of erythrocytes were analyzed using a modified acidic histogram technique. It was demonstrated that the erythrocyte pool was either in the state of destruction (concurrent to the NIH exposure) or ensuing persistent improvement of the functional characteristics under study.

  10. Intermittent acceleration as a countermeasure to soleus muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Aunno, Dominick S.; Robinson, Ronald R.; Smith, Gregory S.; Thomason, Donald B.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of using intermittent acceleration as a countermeasure to muscle atrophy was investigated in rats subjected to 7 days of hindlimb suspension interrupted by daily periods of 1.2 g acceleration, for 15-min periods evenly spaced over 12-hr interval. It was found that this regimen, when repeated for 7 days, failed to completely maintain the mass of soleus muscle, which was 84 percent of control.

  11. Apparatus producing constant cable tension for intermittent demand

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    1984-05-23

    This invention relates to apparatus for producing constant tension in cable or the like when it is unreeled and reeled from a drum or spool under conditions of intermittent demand. The invention is particularly applicable to the handling of superconductive cable, but the invention is also applicable to the unreeling and reeling of other strands, such as electrical cable, wire, cord, other cables, fish line, wrapping paper and numerous other materials.

  12. Intermittent exercise alters endurance in an eight-legged ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, R B; Full, R J

    1992-05-01

    Most animals move intermittently, yet many proposed performance limitations of terrestrial locomotion are based on steady-state measurements and assumptions. We examined the effect of work-rest transitions by exercising the ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata (28.1 +/- 8.1 g), intermittently on a treadmill at 0.30 m/s, a supramaximal speed [i.e., greater than the speed that elicits the maximal rate of oxygen consumption (VO2)]. Duration of the exercise and pause periods, ratio of exercise to pause, and speed during the exercise period were varied to determine the effect on performance. Crabs fatigued after 7.5 min of continuous running, a distance capacity (i.e., total distance traveled before fatigue) of 135 m. When the task was done intermittently with 2-min exercise and 2-min pause periods, the crabs fatigued after 87 min (a total distance of 787 m), representing an 5.8-fold increase in distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same absolute speed (0.30 m/s) and a 2.2-fold increase in distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same average speed (0.15 m/s). Pause periods less than 30 s did not result in greater distance capacity compared with continuous exercise at the same average speed. Longer (3-5 min) and shorter exercise periods (less than or equal to 30 s) decreased distance capacity. Leg muscle lactate increased 10-fold to 15 mumol/g leg during intermittent exercise. However, significant amounts of lactate were cleared from the leg during the brief pause periods.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Head Injury With Subsequent, Intermittent, Nonschizophrenic, Psychotic Symptoms and Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Carl C.; Kelly, Ruby P.

    1987-01-01

    A young, black, adult woman presented to an outpatient clinic for treatment with a history of intermittent, nonschizophrenic, psychotic symptoms. Blacks, because of their situational sociology, may be more predisposed to severe head injuries, and this acquired biologic factor may be, in part, responsible for the high rates of black-on-black murder. The use of beta blockers is discussed as an adjunct in the treatment of violence occurring in patients with a past history of severe head injury. PMID:3694693

  14. Intermittent patient suction system, self-contained control

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Jay L.

    1992-01-01

    An intermittent patient suction system, a self-contained control device therefor and methods of making the same are provided, the self-contained control device having a housing that contains two restrictor units therein for respectively controlling the "on" time and "off" time that the control device applies a vacuum and does not apply a vacuum through the output of the control device to the patient.

  15. Single Stage Surgical Outcomes for Large Angle Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Chen, Jingchang; Shen, Tao; Kang, Ying; Deng, Daming; Lin, Xiaoming; Wu, Heping; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian; Li, Jianqun; Yan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Although there were many prior studies about exotropia, few focused on large-angle intermittent exotropia. The goal of this study was to evaluate single-stage surgical outcomes for large-angle intermittent exotropia and analyze risk factors that may affect the success of surgery. Records from intermittent exotropia patients with exodeviations >60 prism diopters(PD) who were surgically treated at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, of Sun Yat-Sen University were reviewed. Included within this review were data on, pre- and post-operative ocular motility, primary alignment, binocular vision and complications. Patients with exodeviations ≤70PD received two-muscle surgery, while those with exodeviations >70PD were subjected to a three-muscle procedure. A total of 40 records were reviewed. The mean exodeviation was 73±9PD at distance and 75±26PD at near. There were 25 patients received two-muscle surgery and 15 the three-muscle procedure. Orthophoria (deviation within 8PD) was obtained in 77.5% of these patients and the ratios of surgical under-correction and over-correction were 15% and 7.5% respectively. However, when combining ocular alignment with binocular vision as the success criteria, success rates decreased to 30%. No statistically significant differences in success rates were obtained between the two- and three-muscle surgery groups. Seven subjects experienced an abduction deficit during the initial postoperative stages, but eventually showed a full recovery. One patient required a second surgery for overcorrection. No statistically significant risk factors for poor outcome were revealed. Our data showed that single-stage two- and three-muscle surgeries for large-angle intermittent exotropia are effective in achieving a favorable outcome. PMID:26919493

  16. Supplemental intermittent-day heat training and the lactate threshold.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Stuart; Chalmers, Samuel; Alderton, Stephen; Norton, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Heat acclimation over consecutive days has been shown to improve aerobic-based performance. Recently, it has been suggested that heat training can improve performance in a temperate environment. However, due to the multifactorial training demands of athletes, consecutive-day heat training may not be suitable. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of brief (8×30min) intermittent (every 3-4 days) supplemental heat training on the second lactate threshold point (LT2) in temperate and hot conditions. 21 participants undertook eight intermittent-day mixed-intensity treadmill exercise training sessions in hot (30°C; 50% relative humidity [RH]) or temperate (18°C; 30% RH) conditions. A pre- and post-incremental exercise test occurred in temperate (18°C; 30% RH) and hot conditions (30°C; 50% RH) to determine the change in LT2. The heat training protocol did not improve LT2 in temperate (Effect Size [ES]±90 confidence interval=0.10±0.16) or hot (ES=0.26±0.26) conditions. The primary finding was that although the intervention group had a change greater than the SWC, no statistically significant improvements were observed following an intermittent eight day supplemental heat training protocol comparable to a control group training only in temperate conditions. This is likely due to the brief length of each heat training session and/or the long duration between each heat exposure.

  17. Ecological research and management of intermittent rivers: an ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rivers and streams that do not flow permanently (herein intermittent rivers; IRs) make up a large proportion of the world's inland waters and are gaining widespread attention. We review the research on IRs from its early focus on natural history through to current application in management and policy.The few early studies of the ecology of IRs were largely descriptive. Nevertheless, in the 1970s, synthesis of this sparse research complemented work on temporary standing waters to found a powerful framework for much of the subsequent research on IRs.Research on the ecology and biogeochemistry of IRs continues to fuel our understanding of resistance and resilience to drying and flooding as disturbances. Syntheses of the growing literature, including cross-continental and cross-climate comparisons, are revealing the generality and individuality of ecological and ecosystem responses to flow cessation and surface water loss. Meanwhile, increasing numbers of experiments test the causality of these responses.Much of the increased consideration of IRs in research, management and policy is driven by the observed and projected shifts in flow regimes from perennial to intermittent associated with changes in land and water use and climate, superimposed on the high incidence of natural intermittency. The need to protect and better manage IRs is prompting researchers to develop new or modified methods to monitor flow status and assess the ecological condition of these systems.

  18. Intermittent outgassing through a non-Newtonian fluid.

    PubMed

    Divoux, Thibaut; Bertin, Eric; Vidal, Valérie; Géminard, Jean-Christophe

    2009-05-01

    We report an experimental study of the intermittent dynamics of a gas flowing through a column of a non-Newtonian fluid. In a given range of the imposed constant flow rate, the system spontaneously alternates between two regimes: bubbles emitted at the bottom either rise independently one from the other or merge to create a winding flue which then connects the bottom air entrance to the free surface. The observations are reminiscent of the spontaneous changes in the degassing regime observed on volcanoes and suggest that, in the nature, such a phenomenon is likely to be governed by the non-Newtonian properties of the magma. We focus on the statistical distribution of the lifespans of the bubbling and flue regimes in the intermittent steady state. The bubbling regime exhibits a characteristic time whereas, interestingly, the flue lifespan displays a decaying power-law distribution. The associated exponent, which is significantly smaller than the value 1.5 often reported experimentally and predicted in some standard intermittency scenarios, depends on the fluid properties and can be interpreted as the ratio of two characteristic times of the system.

  19. Sensitivity of intermittent streams to climate variations in the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eng, Kenny; Wolock, David M.; Dettinger, Mike

    2015-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in the literature on streamflow changes caused by climate change because of the potential negative effects on aquatic biota and water supplies. Most previous studies have primarily focused on perennial streams, and there have been only a few studies examining the effect of climate variability on intermittent streams. Our objectives in this study were to (1) identify regions of similar zero-flow behavior, and (2) evaluate the sensitivity of intermittent streams to historical variability in climate in the United States. This study was carried out at 265 intermittent streams by evaluating: (1) correlations among time series of flow metrics (number of zero-flow events, the average of the central 50% and largest 10% of flows) with climate (magnitudes, durations and intensity), and (2) decadal changes in the seasonality and long-term trends of these flow metrics. Results identified five distinct seasonality patterns in the zero-flow events. In addition, strong associations between the low-flow metrics and historical changes in climate were found. The decadal analysis suggested no significant seasonal shifts or decade-to-decade trends in the low-flow metrics. The lack of trends or changes in seasonality is likely due to unchanged long-term patterns in precipitation over the time period examined.

  20. Ultrastructure of medial rectus muscles in patients with intermittent exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Yao, J; Wang, X; Ren, H; Liu, G; Lu, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the ultrastructure of the medial rectus in patients with intermittent exotropia at different ages. Patients and methods The medial recti were harvested surgically from 20 patients with intermittent exotropia. Patients were divided into adolescent (age<18 years, n=10) and adult groups (age >18 years, n=10). The normal control group included five patients without strabismus and undergoing eye enucleation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize the medial recti. Western blot was used to determine the levels of myosin and actin. Results Varying fiber thickness, atrophy, and misalignment of the medial recti were visualized under optical microscope in patients with exotropia. Electron microscopy revealed sarcomere destruction, myofilament disintegration, unclear dark and light bands, collagen proliferation, and fibrosis. The adolescent group manifested significantly higher levels of myosin and actin than the adult group (P<0.05). Conclusion Younger patients with intermittent exotropia show stronger contraction of the medial recti compared with older patients. Our findings suggest that childhood was the appropriate time for surgery as the benefit of the intervention was better than in adulthood. PMID:26514242

  1. Intermittent Surface Water Connectivity: Fill and Spill vs. Fill ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intermittent surface connectivity can influence aquatic systems, since chemical and biotic movements are often associated with water flow. Although often referred to as fill and spill, wetlands also fill and merge. We examined the effects of these connection types on water levels, ion concentrations, and biotic communities of eight prairie pothole wetlands between 1979 and 2015. Fill and spill caused pulsed surface water connections that were limited to periods following spring snow melt. In contrast, two wetlands connected through fill and merge experienced a nearly continuous, 20-year surface water connection and had completely coincident water levels. Fill and spill led to minimal convergence in dissolved ions and macroinvertebrate composition, while these constituents converged under fill and merge. The primary factor determining difference in responses was duration of the surface water connection between wetland pairs. Our findings suggest that investigations into the effects of intermittent surface water connections should not consider these connections generically, but need to address the specific types of connections. In particular, fill and spill promotes external water exports while fill and merge favors internal storage. The behaviors of such intermittent connections will likely be accentuated under a future with more frequent and severe climate extremes. Under the Safe and Sustainable Water Resources National Program, work is being done to qu

  2. Intermittent diplopia and strabismus caused by ocular neuromyotonia.

    PubMed Central

    Yee, R D; Purvin, V A; Azzarelli, B; Nelson, P B

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: Two cases illustrate the symptoms, signs, etiologies, and treatment of ocular neuromyotonia (ONM). METHODS: The histories, neuroradiologic tests, and/or biopsy revealed the etiologies of ONM in both patients. Clinical observations, videotaping, and electronic eye movement recordings documented the eye movements. RESULTS: A 72-year-old man with chronic arachnoiditis following myelography with thorium dioxide (Thorotrast) developed intermittent diplopia and a partial right third nerve palsy. Left gaze induced spasm of the right medial rectus. Right gaze produced right lateral rectus spasm. A 66-year-old woman, who had radiation treatment for a pituitary tumor and acromegaly, had intermittent spasm of the left medial rectus muscle and left esotropia. The episodes occurred spontaneously and were induced by right gaze. A left internuclear ophthalmoplegia was also found. Carbamazepine (Tegretol) abolished the ONM in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although ONM is an unusual cause of intermittent diplopia and strabismus, its distinctive clinical features identify it. Injury to the peripheral cranial nerves probably leads to segmental demyelination, axonal hyperexcitability, and a self-perpetuating, reverberating circuit, which causes spasms of the extraocular muscles. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:8981697

  3. Friction Reduction Through Ultrasonic Vibration: Part 1: Modelling Intermittent Contact.

    PubMed

    Vezzoli, Eric; Virdih, Zlatko; Giamundo, Vincenzo; Lemaire-Semail, Betty; Giraud, Frederic; Rodic, Tomaz; Peric, Djordje; Adams, Michael

    2017-02-17

    Ultrasonic vibration is employed to modify the friction of a finger pad in way that induces haptic sensations. A combination of intermittent contact and squeeze film levitation has been previously proposed as the most probable mechanism. In this paper, in order to understand the underlying principles that govern friction modulation by intermittent contact, numerical models based on finite element (FE) analysis and also a spring-Coulombic slider are developed. The physical input parameters for the FE model are optimised by measuring the contact phase shift between a finger pad and a vibrating plate. The spring-slider model assists in the interpretation of the FE model and leads to the identification of a dimensionless group that allows the calculated coefficient of friction to be approximately superimposed onto an exponential function of the dimensionless group. Thus, it is possible to rationalise the computed relative reduction in friction being (i) dependent on the vibrational amplitude, frequency, and the intrinsic coefficient of friction of the device, and the reciprocal of the exploration velocity, and (ii) independent of the applied normal force, and the shear and extensional elastic moduli of the finger skin provided that intermittent contact is sufficiently well developed. Experimental validation of the modelling using real and artificial fingertips will be reported in part 2 of this work, which supports the current modelling.

  4. The influence of respiratory muscle training upon intermittent exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Nicks, C R; Morgan, D W; Fuller, D K; Caputo, J L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of respiratory muscle training (RMT) on intermittent exercise performance, respiratory muscle strength (PI (max)), respiratory muscle fatigue (RMF), and dyspnea in soccer athletes. Collegiate soccer athletes (20 male, 7 female) were randomly divided into either a RMT or control condition during off-season conditioning. The RMT group performed a 30RM protocol (10 times weekly) for 5 weeks using a commercially-available training device, while the controls received no RMT. Performance was evaluated utilizing Level 1 of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (IRT) and dyspnea was assessed during and immediately following the IRT. RMF was quantified within 2 minutes (RMF2) and 10 minutes (RMF10) after completing the IRT. Following training, the RMT group significantly increased IRT performance by 216.6 +/- 231.0 meters (p = .008) while the 49.2 +/- 75.1 meter increase observed in the controls was not significant. PI (max) in the RMT group increased from 138.1 +/- 19.6 to 165.3 +/- 23.5 cmH (2)O (p < .001), with no significant change observed in the controls. RMT did not significantly affect RMF or dyspnea. In conclusion, RMT improved intermittent exercise performance in these soccer athletes. The mechanisms by which RMT improves performance warrant further study.

  5. Intermittency of solar system plasma turbulence near Venus and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Eliza; Echim, Marius; Chang, Tom

    2016-04-01

    We analyze magnetic field data from Venus Express (VEX) and CLUSTER to investigate the turbulent properties of the solar wind and the Earth's and Venus' magnetosheaths. A systematic study of the PDFs (Probability Distribution Functions) of the measured magnetic fluctuations and their fourth order moments (kurtosis) reveals numerous intermittent time series. The presence of intermittency is marked by non-Gaussian PDFs with heavy wings and a scale dependent kurtosis. Higher order analyses on the scale dependence of several moment orders of the PDFs, the structure functions, along with the scaling of the kurtosis allow for a selection of scales that pertain to different scaling regimes, governed by different physics. On such sub-ranges of scales we investigate the fractal structure of fluctuations through the Rank Ordered Multifractal Analysis - ROMA (Chang and Wu, 2008). ROMA is applied to a selection of intermittent magnetic field time series in the solar wind and planetary magnetosheaths and helps to quantify the turbulence properties through the estimation of a spectrum of local Hurst exponents. Research supported by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 313038/STORM, and a grant of the Romanian Ministry of National Education, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-ID-PCE-2012-4-0418.

  6. MissFITS: Basic Maintenance and Packaging Tasks on FITS Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmo, Chiara; Bertin, Emmanuel

    2010-10-01

    MissFITS is a program that performs basic maintenance and packaging tasks on FITS files using an optimized FITS library. MissFITS can: add, edit, and remove FITS header keywords;split and join Multi-Extension-FITS (MEF) files;unpile and pile FITS data-cubes; and, create, check, and update FITS checksums, using R. Seaman's protocol.

  7. AKLSQF - LEAST SQUARES CURVE FITTING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Least Squares Curve Fitting program, AKLSQF, computes the polynomial which will least square fit uniformly spaced data easily and efficiently. The program allows the user to specify the tolerable least squares error in the fitting or allows the user to specify the polynomial degree. In both cases AKLSQF returns the polynomial and the actual least squares fit error incurred in the operation. The data may be supplied to the routine either by direct keyboard entry or via a file. AKLSQF produces the least squares polynomial in two steps. First, the data points are least squares fitted using the orthogonal factorial polynomials. The result is then reduced to a regular polynomial using Sterling numbers of the first kind. If an error tolerance is specified, the program starts with a polynomial of degree 1 and computes the least squares fit error. The degree of the polynomial used for fitting is then increased successively until the error criterion specified by the user is met. At every step the polynomial as well as the least squares fitting error is printed to the screen. In general, the program can produce a curve fitting up to a 100 degree polynomial. All computations in the program are carried out under Double Precision format for real numbers and under long integer format for integers to provide the maximum accuracy possible. AKLSQF was written for an IBM PC X/AT or compatible using Microsoft's Quick Basic compiler. It has been implemented under DOS 3.2.1 using 23K of RAM. AKLSQF was developed in 1989.

  8. Evaluation of fitness level by the oxygen uptake efficiency slope after a short-term intermittent endurance training.

    PubMed

    Mourot, L; Perrey, S; Tordi, N; Rouillon, J D

    2004-02-01

    Several indicators are used as indices of cardiorespiratory reserve. Among them, oxygen uptake (VO(2)) at peak and ventilatory threshold (VAT) levels are the most common used. In the present study, endurance training was used to evaluate and compare the usefulness of a new index, the Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Slope (OUES) as an alternative to the previous ones. Fifteen physical education student women participated in the study (8 as a trained group [T: age (mean +/- SD) 21.9 +/- 3.3 y, height 165.1 +/- 5.5 cm, weight 60.4 +/- 3.3 kg] and 7 as a control group [C: age 21.7 +/- 1.9 y, height 165.4 +/- 7.2 cm, weight 59.6 +/- 8.6 kg]). Before and after 6 weeks of the Square-Wave Endurance Exercise Test (SWEET) training program or daily activities, they performed an incremental test (30 W/3 min) on a cycle ergometer to determined VO(2), power output and parameters associated with breathing efficiency (the respiratory equivalents, and the ventilatory dead space to tidal volume ratio [Vd/Vt]) at peak- and VAT-levels. The slope of the relationship between ventilation and carbon dioxide production was also calculated. OUES, derived from the logarithmic relationship between VO(2) and minute ventilation (V(E)), was determined at 75 % (OUES75), 90 % (OUES90) and 100 % (OUES100) of exercise duration. After endurance training in T, VO(2) and power output were significantly improved at peak- and VAT-levels while all breathing efficiency indices remained unchanged. No changes were observed in C after 6 weeks. Despite significant correlation between OUES values and VO(2) at peak- and VAT-levels, OUES75, OUES90 and OUES100 did not significantly change after endurance training. While VO(2) and power output at peak- and VAT-levels increased in all T, training-induced changes in OUES appeared more variable. We concluded that OUES was not sufficiently sensitive to highlight improvement of cardiorespiratory reserve after endurance training whereas VO(2) at peak and VAT levels did.

  9. Total force fitness: the military family fitness model.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Stephen V; Pollock, Liz Davenport; Moore, Monique; Wadsworth, Shelley MacDermid; Cato, Colanda; Dekle, Judith Ward; Meyer, Sonia Wei; Shriver, Amber; Mueller, Bill; Stephens, Mark; Seidler, Dustin A; Sheldon, Joseph; Picano, James; Finch, Wanda; Morales, Ricardo; Blochberger, Sean; Kleiman, Matthew E; Thompson, Daniel; Bates, Mark J

    2015-03-01

    The military lifestyle can create formidable challenges for military families. This article describes the Military Family Fitness Model (MFFM), a comprehensive model aimed at enhancing family fitness and resilience across the life span. This model is intended for use by Service members, their families, leaders, and health care providers but also has broader applications for all families. The MFFM has three core components: (1) family demands, (2) resources (including individual resources, family resources, and external resources), and (3) family outcomes (including related metrics). The MFFM proposes that resources from the individual, family, and external areas promote fitness, bolster resilience, and foster well-being for the family. The MFFM highlights each resource level for the purpose of improving family fitness and resilience over time. The MFFM both builds on existing family strengths and encourages the development of new family strengths through resource-acquiring behaviors. The purpose of this article is to (1) expand the military's Total Force Fitness (TFF) intent as it relates to families and (2) offer a family fitness model. This article will summarize relevant evidence, provide supportive theory, describe the model, and proffer metrics that support the dimensions of this model.

  10. ALFA: Automated Line Fitting Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesson, R.

    2015-12-01

    ALFA fits emission line spectra of arbitrary wavelength coverage and resolution, fully automatically. It uses a catalog of lines which may be present to construct synthetic spectra, the parameters of which are then optimized by means of a genetic algorithm. Uncertainties are estimated using the noise structure of the residuals. An emission line spectrum containing several hundred lines can be fitted in a few seconds using a single processor of a typical contemporary desktop or laptop PC. Data cubes in FITS format can be analysed using multiple processors, and an analysis of tens of thousands of deep spectra obtained with instruments such as MUSE will take a few hours.

  11. Characterization of wind power resource and its intermittency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunturu, U. B.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Wind resource in the continental and offshore United States has been calculated and characterized using metrics that describe - apart from abundance - its availability, persistence and intermittency. The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) boundary layer flux data has been used to construct wind power density profiles at 50, 80, 100 and 120 m turbine hub heights. The wind power density estimates at 50 m are qualitatively similar to those in the US wind atlas developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), but quantitatively a class less in some regions, but are within the limits of uncertainty. We also show that for long tailed distributions like those of the wind power density, the mean is an overestimation and median is a more robust metric for summary representation of wind power resource.Generally speaking, the largest and most available wind power density resources are found in off-shore regions of the Atlantic and Pacific coastline, and the largest on-shore resource potential lies in the central United States. However, the intermittency and widespread synchronicity of on-shore wind power density are substantial, and highlights areas where considerable back-up generation technologies will be required. Generation-duration curves are also presented for the independent systems operator (ISO) zones of the U.S. to highlight the regions with the largest capacity factor (MISO, ERCOT, and SWPP) as well as the periods and extent to which all ISOs contain no wind power and the potential benefits of aggregation on wind power intermittency in each region. The impact of raising the wind turbine hub height on metrics of abundance, persistence, variability and intermittency is analyzed. There is a general increase in availability and abundance of wind resource but there is also an increase in intermittency with respect to a 'usable wind power' crossing level in low resource regions. A similar perspective of wind resource for

  12. Adaptation of cat motoneurons to sustained and intermittent extracellular activation.

    PubMed Central

    Spielmann, J M; Laouris, Y; Nordstrom, M A; Robinson, G A; Reinking, R M; Stuart, D G

    1993-01-01

    1. The main purpose of this study was to quantify the adaptation of spinal motoneurons to sustained and intermittent activation, using an extracellular route of stimulating current application to single test cells, in contrast to an intracellular route, as has been used previously. In addition, associations were tested between firing rate properties of the tested cells and other type (size)-related properties of these cells and their motor units. 2. Motoneurons supplying the medial gastrocnemius muscle of the deeply anaesthetized cat were stimulated for 240 s with microelectrodes which passed sustained extracellular current at 1.25 times the threshold for repetitive firing. Many cells were also tested following a rest period with intermittent 1 s current pulses (duration 600 ms) at the same relative stimulus strength. Cell discharge was assessed from the EMG of the motor unit innervated by the test neuron. The motoneurons and their motor units were assigned to four categories (i.e. types FF, FR, S and F; where F = FF + FR) based on conventional criteria. In all, twenty F (16 FF, 4 FR) and fourteen S cells were studied with sustained stimulation. Thirty of these cells (17 F, 13 S) and an additional two cells (1 F, 1 S) were studied with intermittent stimulation. 3. The mean threshold current required for sustained firing for a period of > or = 2 s was not significantly different for F and S cells. However, most of the other measured parameters of motoneuron firing differed significantly for these two cell groups. For example, at 1.25 times the threshold current for repetitive firing, the mean firing duration in response to 240 s of sustained activation was 123 +/- 88 s (+/- S.D.) for F cells vs. 233 +/- 19 s for S cells. These values were significantly longer than those from a comparable, previously reported study that employed intracellular stimulation. With intermittent stimulation, the firing durations of F and S cells were not significantly different from each

  13. Intermittent turbulence in solar wind from the south polar hole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikin, A. A.; Feynman, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Smith, E. J.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    The magnetic fields measured by the Ulysses spacecraft are used to study solar wind turbulence in the fast solar wind from the south polar hole. The spacecraft was at about 46 deg south latitude and 3.9 AU. For a magnetic field with a Gaussian distribution the power spectrum (second-order structure function) is sufficient to completely characterize the turbulence. However, the actual distribution is non-Gaussian so that the effects of intermittency must be taken into account. The observed spectral exponents include effects of intermittency and cannot be directly compared with the standard second-order spectral theories such as the Kolmogorov and Kraichnan theories. To permit a better comparison of the observations with the theoretical models, we study the structure characteristics of the data. We find the exponents of the second-order structure functions (power spectra) and the higher-order normalized structure functions for the components of the magnetic fields. We show that these sets of exponents can be approximately described by two basic numbers: the spectral exponent and the intermittency exponent. The intermittency exponent characterizes correlation properties of the energy cascade from large to small scales. Before comparing the observations to the theoretically expected values, a reduction must be made to the observed spectral exponent. The amount of the reduction depends on both the intermittency exponent and the model of the energy cascade assumed in the turbulence theory. We reduce the measured spectral indices according to a simple model for Alfven turbulence that is described here. We then compare our reduced spectral indices with second-order spectral theory. The reduced spectral indices for the period range of 1 min to about a half hour are remarkably constant and in good agreement with the value of 3/2. Thus our treatment is self-consistent. Our tentative conclusion is that the high-frequency turbulence appears to agree with the model of random

  14. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test : a useful tool for evaluation of physical performance in intermittent sports.

    PubMed

    Bangsbo, Jens; Iaia, F Marcello; Krustrup, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The two Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (IR) tests evaluate an individual's ability to repeatedly perform intense exercise. The Yo-Yo IR level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) test focuses on the capacity to carry out intermittent exercise leading to a maximal activation of the aerobic system, whereas Yo-Yo IR level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) determines an individual's ability to recover from repeated exercise with a high contribution from the anaerobic system. Evaluations of elite athletes in various sports involving intermittent exercise showed that the higher the level of competition the better an athlete performs in the Yo-Yo IR tests. Performance in the Yo-Yo IR tests for young athletes increases with rising age. The Yo-Yo IR tests have shown to be a more sensitive measure of changes in performance than maximum oxygen uptake. The Yo-Yo IR tests provide a simple and valid way to obtain important information of an individual's capacity to perform repeated intense exercise and to examine changes in performance.

  15. Flexible fitting for fluid lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barajas, S. L.

    1976-01-01

    Tube fitting, consisting of movable tubular section containing two spring pressure Teflon actuated low friction seals, two standard connectors, and two hexagonal retaining nuts, provides flexible joint that allows axial and rotational motion.

  16. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattione, Paul

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  17. Periodic Pattern of Genetic and Fitness Diversity during Evolution of an Artificial Cell-Like System.

    PubMed

    Ichihashi, Norikazu; Aita, Takuyo; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    Genetic and phenotypic diversity are the basis of evolution. Despite their importance, however, little is known about how they change over the course of evolution. In this study, we analyzed the dynamics of the adaptive evolution of a simple evolvable artificial cell-like system using single-molecule real-time sequencing technology that reads an entire single artificial genome. We found that the genomic RNA population increases in fitness intermittently, correlating with a periodic pattern of genetic and fitness diversity produced by repeated diversification and domination. In the diversification phase, a genomic RNA population spreads within a genetic space by accumulating mutations until mutants with higher fitness are generated, resulting in an increase in fitness diversity. In the domination phase, the mutants with higher fitness dominate, decreasing both the fitness and genetic diversity. This study reveals the dynamic nature of genetic and fitness diversity during adaptive evolution and demonstrates the utility of a simplified artificial cell-like system to study evolution at an unprecedented resolution.

  18. Physical Fitness in the Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-17

    situations, deal with the day to day duty demands, and maintain a trim physical appearance. But if it has been years since you exercised , do not run right...how much exercise is required to achieve and maintain a fit unit and secondly, how is this fitness requirement modified by age and sex . The Training...as the activity in which you are involved becomes easier, increase the amount. You can do 7 this by varying the intensity (how hard you exercise as

  19. Potential Fifty Percent Reduction in Saturation Diving Decompression Time Using a Combination of Intermittent Recompression and Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernhardt, Michael I.; Abercromby, Andrew; Conklin, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    Conventional saturation decompression protocols use linear decompression rates that become progressively slower at shallower depths, consistent with free gas phase control vs. dissolved gas elimination kinetics. If decompression is limited by control of free gas phase, linear decompression is an inefficient strategy. The NASA prebreathe reduction program demonstrated that exercise during O2 prebreathe resulted in a 50% reduction (2 h vs. 4 h) in the saturation decompression time from 14.7 to 4.3 psi and a significant reduction in decompression sickness (DCS: 0 vs. 23.7%). Combining exercise with intermittent recompression, which controls gas phase growth and eliminates supersaturation before exercising, may enable more efficient saturation decompression schedules. A tissue bubble dynamics model (TBDM) was used in conjunction with a NASA exercise prebreathe model (NEPM) that relates tissue inert gas exchange rate constants to exercise (ml O2/kg-min), to develop a schedule for decompression from helium saturation at 400 fsw. The models provide significant prediction (p < 0.001) and goodness of fit with 430 cases of DCS in 6437 laboratory dives for TBDM (p = 0.77) and with 22 cases of DCS in 159 altitude exposures for NEPM (p = 0.70). The models have also been used operationally in over 25,000 dives (TBDM) and 40 spacewalks (NEPM). The standard U.S. Navy (USN) linear saturation decompression schedule from saturation at 400 fsw required 114.5 h with a maximum Bubble Growth Index (BGI(sub max)) of 17.5. Decompression using intermittent recompression combined with two 10 min exercise periods (75% VO2 (sub peak)) per day required 54.25 h (BGI(sub max): 14.7). Combined intermittent recompression and exercise resulted in a theoretical 53% (2.5 day) reduction in decompression time and theoretically lower DCS risk compared to the standard USN decompression schedule. These results warrant future decompression trials to evaluate the efficacy of this approach.

  20. Compendium of U.S. Army Visual Medical Fitness Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    service. Table 15 Visual standards for retention -- Category Standard Aniseikonia Correctable with iseikonic lenses Dipiopia, Intermittent and in zone...Table 16 Visual standards for mobilization Category Standard Aniseikonia Correctable with iseikonic lenses Diplopia, Intermittent and in zone

  1. Deming's General Least Square Fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Rinard, Phillip

    1992-02-18

    DEM4-26 is a generalized least square fitting program based on Deming''s method. Functions built into the program for fitting include linear, quadratic, cubic, power, Howard''s, exponential, and Gaussian; others can easily be added. The program has the following capabilities: (1) entry, editing, and saving of data; (2) fitting of any of the built-in functions or of a user-supplied function; (3) plotting the data and fitted function on the display screen, with error limits if requested, and with the option of copying the plot to the printer; (4) interpolation of x or y values from the fitted curve with error estimates based on error limits selected by the user; and (5) plotting the residuals between the y data values and the fitted curve, with the option of copying the plot to the printer. If the plot is to be copied to a printer, GRAPHICS should be called from the operating system disk before the BASIC interpreter is loaded.

  2. Measured, modeled, and causal conceptions of fitness.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    THIS PAPER PROPOSES PARTIAL ANSWERS TO THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: in what senses can fitness differences plausibly be considered causes of evolution?What relationships are there between fitness concepts used in empirical research, modeling, and abstract theoretical proposals? How does the relevance of different fitness concepts depend on research questions and methodological constraints? The paper develops a novel taxonomy of fitness concepts, beginning with type fitness (a property of a genotype or phenotype), token fitness (a property of a particular individual), and purely mathematical fitness. Type fitness includes statistical type fitness, which can be measured from population data, and parametric type fitness, which is an underlying property estimated by statistical type fitnesses. Token fitness includes measurable token fitness, which can be measured on an individual, and tendential token fitness, which is assumed to be an underlying property of the individual in its environmental circumstances. Some of the paper's conclusions can be outlined as follows: claims that fitness differences do not cause evolution are reasonable when fitness is treated as statistical type fitness, measurable token fitness, or purely mathematical fitness. Some of the ways in which statistical methods are used in population genetics suggest that what natural selection involves are differences in parametric type fitnesses. Further, it's reasonable to think that differences in parametric type fitness can cause evolution. Tendential token fitnesses, however, are not themselves sufficient for natural selection. Though parametric type fitnesses are typically not directly measurable, they can be modeled with purely mathematical fitnesses and estimated by statistical type fitnesses, which in turn are defined in terms of measurable token fitnesses. The paper clarifies the ways in which fitnesses depend on pragmatic choices made by researchers.

  3. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Illness & disability Drugs, alcohol & smoking Your feelings Relationships Bullying Safety Your future Environmental health Skip section navigation ( ... June 22, 2015 top About this site Mission Statement Privacy Policy For the Media Contact Us Language ...

  4. Ligand fitting with CCP4

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structures of protein–ligand complexes are often used to infer biology and inform structure-based drug discovery. Hence, it is important to build accurate, reliable models of ligands that give confidence in the interpretation of the respective protein–ligand complex. This paper discusses key stages in the ligand-fitting process, including ligand binding-site identification, ligand description and conformer generation, ligand fitting, refinement and subsequent validation. The CCP4 suite contains a number of software tools that facilitate this task: AceDRG for the creation of ligand descriptions and conformers, Lidia and JLigand for two-dimensional and three-dimensional ligand editing and visual analysis, Coot for density interpretation, ligand fitting, analysis and validation, and REFMAC5 for macromolecular refinement. In addition to recent advancements in automatic carbohydrate building in Coot (LO/Carb) and ligand-validation tools (FLEV), the release of the CCP4i2 GUI provides an integrated solution that streamlines the ligand-fitting workflow, seamlessly passing results from one program to the next. The ligand-fitting process is illustrated using instructive practical examples, including problematic cases such as post-translational modifications, highlighting the need for careful analysis and rigorous validation. PMID:28177312

  5. Radiobiologic effect of intermittent radiation exposure in murine tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Sugie, Chikao . E-mail: chikao@bg8.so-net.ne.jp; Shibamoto, Yuta; Ito, Masato; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Akihiko; Fukaya, Nobuyuki; Niimi, Hiroshige; Hashizume, Takuya

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: In stereotactic irradiation using a linear accelerator, the effect of radiation may be reduced during intermittent exposures owing to recovery from sublethal damage in tumor cells. After our previous in vitro study suggesting this phenomenon, we investigated the issue in murine tumors. Methods and Materials: We used EMT6 and SCCVII tumors approximately 1 cm in diameter growing in the hind legs of syngeneic mice. Three schedules of intermittent radiation were investigated. First, 2 fractions of 10 Gy were given at an interval of 15-360 min to investigate the pattern of recovery from sublethal damage. Second, 5 fractions of 4 Gy were given with interfraction intervals of 2.5-15 min each. Third, 10 fractions of 2 Gy were given with interfraction intervals of 1-7 min each. Doses of 15-20 Gy were also given without interruption to estimate the dose-modifying factors. Tumors were excised 20 h later, and tumor cell survival was determined by an in vivo-in vitro assay. Results: In the 2-fraction experiment, the increase in cell survival with elongation of the interval was much less than that observed in our previous in vitro study. In the 5- and 10-fraction experiments, no significant increase in cell survival was observed after the intermittent exposures. Moreover, cell survival decreased at most points of the 5-fraction experiments by interruption of radiation in both EMT6 and SCCVII tumors. In the 10-fraction experiment, cell survival also decreased when the interruption was 3 or 7 min in EMT6 tumors. Conclusion: The results of the present in vivo studies were different from those of our in vitro studies in which cell survival increased significantly when a few minutes or longer intervals were posed between fractions. This suggests that recovery from sublethal damage in vivo may be counterbalanced by other phenomena such as reoxygenation that sensitizes tumor cells to subsequent irradiation.

  6. Intermittent Nitrate Use and Risk of Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Devyani; Peloquin, Christine; Kiel, Douglas P.; Neogi, Tuhina; Lu, Na; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Nitrates, commonly used anti-anginal medications, also have beneficial effect on bone remodeling and bone density, particularly with intermittent use. However, their effect on fracture risk is not clear. We examined the relation of short-acting nitrate use (proxy for intermittent use) to the risk of hip fracture in a large cohort of older adults with ischemic heart disease. Materials and Methods Participants ≥ 60 years old with ischemic heart disease and without history of hip fracture from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), an electronic medical records database in the UK, were included. The association of incident (new) use of short-acting nitrate formulations (nitroglycerin sublingual/spray/ointment or ISDN injection/sprays) with incident (new-onset) hip fracture risk was examined by plotting Kaplan-Maier curves and calculating Hazard ratios (HR) using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Competing risk by death was analyzed in separate analyses. Results Among 14, 451 pairs of matched nitrate users and non-users (mean age 72±7.6, 41% women for each cohort), 573 fractures occurred during follow up (257 nitrate users; 316 non-users). Hip fracture risk was 33% lower among short-acting nitrate users compared with non-users (HR=0.67, 95% CI 0.53–0.85, p=0.0008). Competing risk analysis by death did not change effect estimates. Conclusion In this large population-based cohort of older adults with ischemic heart disease, we found significant reduction in hip fracture risk with use of short-acting nitrates (intermittent use). Future studies are warranted given the potential for nitrates to be potent, inexpensive and readily available anti-osteoporotic agents. PMID:27720852

  7. Classification and misclassification of sensory monofixation in intermittent exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.; Mohney, Brian G.; Brodsky, Michael C.; Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The course of intermittent exotropia (XT), and response to surgery, may depend on whether or not there is underlying monofixation. The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of sensory monofixation in intermittent XT using different stereotests, and to determine the risk of misclassifying monofixation based on a single administration of each test. Design Retrospective case review of children with intermittent XT Methods Forty-four children were identified in whom Preschool Randot, Frisby, and Titmus stereoacuity were all measured at a single exam. Ninety-two children were identified with near stereoacuity measured on 2 sequential visits (Preschool Randot n=73, Frisby n=66 and Titmus n=40). Monofixation was defined as stereoacuity worse than previously published age-referenced normal thresholds, bifixation was defined as at least 40 arcsec, and ’uncertain’ as within normal range for age but worse than 40 arcsec). Results In children measured by all 3 tests on the same visit, sensory monofixation occurred in 36% using Preschool Randot, 48% using Titmus and 55% using Frisby (P>0.1 for each comparison). There was poor agreement between Frisby and Preschool Randot when classifying monofixation in individual patients (P=0.05). In children measured on sequential visits, misclassification occurred in 5% with Preschool Randot, 13% with Titmus and 23% with Frisby (Preschool Randot vs Frisby, P=0.005) Conclusions Classification of monofixation depends on the stereotest used. Regardless of stereotest, there is a risk of misclassifying monofixation on a single assessment. Potential misclassification needs to be considered in clinical practice and designing studies. PMID:20381008

  8. Temporal and spatial intermittencies within channel flow turbulence near transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Anubhav; Park, Jae Sung; Graham, Michael D.

    2017-02-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of plane Poiseuille flow are performed in an extended domain at friction Reynolds numbers ranging from 70 to 100. In minimal domains, turbulence in this Reynolds number range displays substantial intermittency that is associated with chaotic movement of turbulent trajectories between lower and upper branch invariant solutions known as exact coherent states (ECS). The present work aims to address the relationship between temporal dynamics in minimal channels and spatiotemporal dynamics in extended domains. Both temporal and spatial analyses of the turbulent velocity fields are performed, the latter using image analysis methods. These analyses partition the flow characteristics into low-, intermediate- and high-drag classes; we present the differences between flows fields in these classes in terms of simple quantities like mean velocity, wall shear stress, and flow structures. The temporal and spatial analysis methods, although completely independent of one another, yield very similar results for both low- and high-drag regions. In particular, the conditional mean profiles in regions of low drag closely resemble those found in low-drag temporal intervals in the minimal channel. Finally, we address the possibility of similarities between turbulence and exact coherent states in two ways: (1) comparing wall shear stress in localized patches the size of minimal channels in large domains with those in actual minimal channel and (2) comparing conditional mean velocity profiles during low-drag events with mean profiles from lower branch ECS. These analyses show that both the local near-wall flow structure in the low-drag patches of the large domain and the conditional mean profiles in the region y+≲30 resemble those of a lower branch minimal domain ECS. In summary, the results presented here suggest that spatiotemporal intermittency in transitional channel flow turbulence is related to temporal intermittency, and by extension to the

  9. Effects of intermittent fasting on glucose and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Antoni, Rona; Johnston, Kelly L; Collins, Adam L; Robertson, M Denise

    2017-01-16

    Two intermittent fasting variants, intermittent energy restriction (IER) and time-restricted feeding (TRF), have received considerable interest as strategies for weight-management and/or improving metabolic health. With these strategies, the pattern of energy restriction and/or timing of food intake are altered so that individuals undergo frequently repeated periods of fasting. This review provides a commentary on the rodent and human literature, specifically focusing on the effects of IER and TRF on glucose and lipid metabolism. For IER, there is a growing evidence demonstrating its benefits on glucose and lipid homeostasis in the short-to-medium term; however, more long-term safety studies are required. Whilst the metabolic benefits of TRF appear quite profound in rodents, findings from the few human studies have been mixed. There is some suggestion that the metabolic changes elicited by these approaches can occur in the absence of energy restriction, and in the context of IER, may be distinct from those observed following similar weight-loss achieved via modest continuous energy restriction. Mechanistically, the frequently repeated prolonged fasting intervals may favour preferential reduction of ectopic fat, beneficially modulate aspects of adipose tissue physiology/morphology, and may also impinge on circadian clock regulation. However, mechanistic evidence is largely limited to findings from rodent studies, thus necessitating focused human studies, which also incorporate more dynamic assessments of glucose and lipid metabolism. Ultimately, much remains to be learned about intermittent fasting (in its various forms); however, the findings to date serve to highlight promising avenues for future research.

  10. Intermittent Hypoxia Impairs Endothelial Function in Early Preatherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tuleta, I; França, C N; Wenzel, D; Fleischmann, B; Nickenig, G; Werner, N; Skowasch, D

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia seems to be a major pathomechanism of obstructive sleep apnea-associated progression of atherosclerosis. The goal of the present study was to assess the influence of hypoxia on endothelial function depending on the initial stage of vasculopathy. We used 16 ApoE-/- mice were exposed to a 6-week-intermittent hypoxia either immediately (early preatherosclerosis) or after 5 weeks of high-cholesterol diet (advanced preatherosclerosis). Another 16 ApoE-/- mice under normoxia served as corresponding controls. Endothelial function was measured by an organ bath technique. Blood plasma CD31+/annexin V+ endothelial microparticles as well as sca1/flk1+ endothelial progenitor cells in blood and bone marrow were analyzed by flow cytometry. The findings were that intermittent hypoxia impaired endothelial function (56.6±6.2% of maximal phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction vs. 35.2±4.1% in control) and integrity (increased percentage of endothelial microparticles: 0.28±0.05% vs. 0.15±0.02% in control) in early preatherosclerosis. Peripheral repair capacity expressed as the number of endothelial progenitor cells in blood was attenuated under hypoxia (2.0±0.5% vs. 5.3±1.9% in control), despite the elevated number of these cells in the bone marrow (2.0±0.4% vs. 1.1±0.2% in control). In contrast, endothelial function, as well as microparticle and endothelial progenitor cell levels were similar under hypoxia vs. control in advanced preatherosclerosis. We conclude that hypoxia aggravates endothelial dysfunction and destruction in early preatherosclerosis.

  11. 14 CFR 23.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fitting factors. 23.625 Section 23.625... Fitting factors. For each fitting (a part or terminal used to join one structural member to another), the... actual stress conditions are simulated in the fitting and surrounding structures, a fitting factor of...

  12. Implementation of Health Fitness Exercise Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, David E., Ed.

    This monograph includes the following articles to aid in implementation of fitness concepts: (1) "Trends in Physical Fitness: A Personal Perspective" (H. Harrison Clarke); (2) "A Total Health-Fitness Life-Style" (Steven N. Blair); (3) "Objectives for the Nation--Physical Fitness and Exercise" (Jack H. Wilmore); (4) "A New Physical Fitness Test"…

  13. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0113 TITLE: Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models...Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by DAMDI7-02-1-0113 Finasteride Administration in Animal Models 6. AUTHOR(S) Zhou Wang, Ph.D. 7...differentiation but weaker in stimulating proliferation, which led to our hypothesis that intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) can be enhanced by finasteride

  14. Intermittent Auscultation for Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Surveillance: American College of Nurse-Midwives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Fetal heart rate surveillance is a standard component of intrapartum care. The fetal heart rate can be evaluated using intermittent auscultation or electronic fetal monitoring. Research that has compared these 2 strategies found them to be equivalent with respect to long-term neonatal outcomes. The purpose of this clinical bulletin by the American College of Nurse-Midwives is to review the evidence for use of intermittent auscultation and provide recommendations for intermittent auscultation technique, interpretation, and documentation.

  15. Intermittency factor measurements in the transition region for a circular tube with two different inlet configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, S. C.; Tam, L. M.; Ghajar, A. J.

    1993-07-01

    Intermittency factor measurements were made in the fully developed transition region of a horizontal circular straight tube with reentrant and square-edged inlets under isothermal flow conditions. A correlation for prediction of the intermittency factor and consequently the fully developed skin friction coefficient in the transition region for each inlet is recommended. The fully developed skin friction coefficients obtained from intermittency factor measurements and direct pressure drop measurements showed close agreement.

  16. Intermittency in 200 GeV/nucleon S+S collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, P.; Bloomer, M.A.

    1992-03-01

    We have studied one and two-dimensional intermittency in S+S collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon in a high statistics electronic measurement at the CERN SPS using pad-readout streamer tubes. We observe no intermittency signal beyond that produced by folding the Fritiof event generator with a detailed model of our detector. Even though the observed signal contains significant distortions due to experimental effects, we show that we are sensitive to intermittency in the collision.

  17. An analysis of six cases of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP)

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Soumitra; Chaudhury, Pranit KR.; Goswami, Hiranya K.

    2006-01-01

    This analysis describes the diagnosis and psychiatric treatment modalities of 6 patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age 28.5 years) of acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), who presented to the Psychiatry OPD over a period of one year. The mean number of episodes was 2.83. Premorbid personality traits, clinical presentation, urine colour and urinary porphobilinogen titre were recorded. Among the 6 patients, 4 had abdominal pain, 5 had autonomic instability, all 6 had mental symptoms, 3 had depression, 2 came in delirium, and 3 had an episode of seizure. PMID:20844651

  18. An overview of male intermittent self-catheterisation.

    PubMed

    Logan, Karen

    Since the early 1970s intermittent self-catheterisation (ISC) has become increasingly popular and is now considered the method of choice for draining retained urine from the bladder and to treat urethral strictures in men. It is the preferred option for this kind of bladder dysfunction management instead of an indwelling urinary catheter. Learning ISC can be a challenging time for men, but with the support of knowledgeable experienced nurses in teaching ISC it can be successfully achieved. This article outlines the anatomy of the male urinary tract, offers practical tips for nurses who teach it, and highlights issues important to men when learning and living with ISC.

  19. Carbon-Carbon Turbocharger Housing Unit for Intermittent Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An improved, lightweight, turbine housing unit for an intermittent combustion reciprocating internal combustion engine turbocharger is prepared from a lay-up or molding of carbon-carbon composite materials in a single-piece or two-piece process. When compared to conventional steel or cast iron, the use of carbon-carbon composite materials in a turbine housing unit reduces the overall weight of the engine and reduces the heat energy loss used in the turbocharging process. This reduction in heat energy loss and weight reduction provides for more efficient engine operation.

  20. Numerical hysteresis model for intermittent studies in unsaturated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, M.

    1986-07-01

    In the present study, the use of one of the recent dependent domain models of capillary hysteresis in the numerical analysis of intermittent infiltration and redistribution of water in two types of soils (a sand and Rubicon Sandy Loam) has been shown. The numerical results for both the soils have been presented in terms of pressure head depth, moisture content depth and the pressure head-moisture content relationships. The capillary hysteresis model has been found to be very useful for the prediction of both wetting and drying scanning curves of various orders.

  1. Intermittent claudication due to ischaemia of the lumbosacral plexus

    PubMed Central

    Wohlgemuth, W.; Rottach, K.; Stoehr, M

    1999-01-01

    The distinct clinical syndrome of exercise induced ischaemia of the lumbosacral plexus is not a widely known cause for intermittent claudication. Eight patients with the mentioned syndrome were investigated clinically, neurophysiologically, and with imaging techniques. The clinical examination showed a typical exercise induced sequence of symptoms: pain, paraesthesia, and sensory and motor deficits. The underlying vascular conditions were high grade stenoses or occlusions of the arteries supplying the lumbosacral plexus. Spinal stenosis could be excluded in all cases. Five patients received successful interventional radiological therapy. The syndrome can be diagnosed clinically and successful therapy is possible by interventional radiology.

 PMID:10567501

  2. Echolocation of insects using intermittent frequency-modulated sounds.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Ikuo; Takanashi, Takuma

    2015-09-01

    Using echolocation influenced by Doppler shift, bats can capture flying insects in real three-dimensional space. On the basis of this principle, a model that estimates object locations using frequency modulated (FM) sound was proposed. However, no investigation was conducted to verify whether the model can localize flying insects from their echoes. This study applied the model to estimate the range and direction of flying insects by extracting temporal changes from the time-frequency pattern and interaural range difference, respectively. The results obtained confirm that a living insect's position can be estimated using this model with echoes measured while emitting intermittent FM sounds.

  3. Non-Poissonian intermittent fluorescence from complex structured environments

    SciTech Connect

    Budini, Adrian A.

    2006-06-15

    We characterize the photon-counting statistics of single-chromophore systems submitted to continuous laser radiation and embedded in a complex structured environment able to induce strong non-Markovian effects in the decay dynamics. In the weak-laser-excitation regime, the photon-emission process can be described through a delay function. We demonstrate that the dynamics, by itself, is able to develop a non-Poissonian intermittent fluorescence phenomenon where the bright and dark intervals are characterized by probability distributions that may depart from an exponential one.

  4. Transition to Chaos by Type I Intermittency in Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dimitriu, D. G.; Chiriac, S. A.

    2008-03-19

    We report on experimental results that emphasize the development of a scenario of transition to chaos in plasma by type I intermittency, in connection with the nonlinear dynamics of a complex space charge structure. The transition to chaos evolves by increasing the potential applied on the excitation electrode. Regular oscillations interrupted by random bursts were observed in the time series of the current collected by the electrode. At high values of the potential applied on the electrode, the random bursts appear more frequently, the final state of the plasma system dynamics being a chaotic one.

  5. Synchronization of complex networks coupled by periodically intermittent noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang; Yan, Huiyun; Li, Jiaorui

    2016-04-01

    Noise is ubiquitous in real systems, so it is important to investigate the effects of noise on the network system. In this paper, the synchronization of complex network coupled by periodically intermittent noise is investigated and a sufficient condition of noise-induced synchronization is obtained analytically via stability theory of stochastic differential equation. The sufficient condition provides a theoretical reference for the analysis of the impact of coupling noise intensity, duration, coupled oscillator number and other parameters on the synchronization behavior. As examples, Rossler-like and Lorenz network systems are presented to verify the theoretical result.

  6. Intermittent hepatic porphyria in pregnancy with good perinatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Sijanović, Siniša; Rubin, Mirjana; Košuta Petrović, Maja; Abičić Žuljević, Kristina; Simić, Ivana

    2012-02-01

    Porphyrias are rare metabolic diseases caused by enzymatic defects of the haeme biosynthesis. Association of pregnancy and acute porphyria is rare, but mortality rate among pregnant women from acute attack has been reported up to 42%. This paper presents a patient with pregnancy complicated by intermittent hepatic porphyria with good perinatal outcome. The pattern of the attack in pregnancy varies individually and it makes porphyric pregnancies a challenge. Previously diagnosed porphyria patients should be closely monitored during pregnancy and diagnosis of acute porphyria must be also considered in all pregnant women with unexplained abdominal pain.

  7. Periodic versus Intermittent Adaptive Cycles in Quasispecies Coevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeholzer, Alexander; Frey, Erwin; Obermayer, Benedikt

    2014-09-01

    We study an abstract model for the coevolution between mutating viruses and the adaptive immune system. In sequence space, these two populations are localized around transiently dominant strains. Delocalization or error thresholds exhibit a novel interdependence because immune response is conditional on the viral attack. An evolutionary chase is induced by stochastic fluctuations and can occur via periodic or intermittent cycles. Using simulations and stochastic analysis, we show how the transition between these two dynamic regimes depends on mutation rate, immune response, and population size.

  8. Withdrawal severity after chronic intermittent ethanol in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Metten, Pamela; Sorensen, Michelle L.; Cameron, Andy Jade; Yu, Chia-Hua; Crabbe, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background To study withdrawal, ethanol is usually administered chronically without interruption. However, interest has recurred in models of episodic exposure. Increasing evidence suggests that chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol leads to a sensitization effect in both withdrawal severity and in ethanol consumption. The goal of the present study was to examine mouse inbred strain differences in withdrawal severity following chronic intermittent exposure using the handling induced convulsion as the behavioral endpoint. We also sought to compare the withdrawal responses of inbred strains across acute, chronic continuous, and chronic intermittent exposure regimens. Methods Male mice from 15 standard inbred strains were exposed to ethanol vapor for 16 hours each day for 3 days and removed to an air chamber during the intervening 8 hours. Mice in the control groups were handled the same, except that they were exposed only to air. Daily blood ethanol concentrations were averaged for each mouse to estimate total dose of ethanol experienced. Results Across strains, mice had an average daily blood ethanol concentration (BEC) of 1.45 ± 0.02 mg/ml and we restricted the range of this value to 1.00 to 2.00 mg/ml. To evaluate strain differences, we divided data into two dose groups based on BEC, Low Dose (1.29 ± 0.1 mg/ml) and High Dose (1.71 ± 0.02 mg/ml). After the third inhalation exposure, ethanol- and air-exposed groups were tested hourly for handling-induced convulsions for 10 hr and at hr 24 and 25. Strains differed markedly in the severity of withdrawal (after subtraction of air control values) in both dose groups. Conclusion The chronic intermittent exposure paradigm is sufficient to elicit differential withdrawal responses across nearly all strains. Data from the High Dose groups correlated well with withdrawal data derived from prior acute (single high dose) and chronic continuous (for 72 hrs) ethanol withdrawal studies, supporting the influence of common

  9. Atomistic Model of Fluorescence Intermittency of Colloidal Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voznyy, O.; Sargent, E. H.

    2014-04-01

    Optoelectronic applications of colloidal quantum dots demand a high emission efficiency, stability in time, and narrow spectral bandwidth. Electronic trap states interfere with the above properties but understanding of their origin remains lacking, inhibiting the development of robust passivation techniques. Here we show that surface vacancies improve the fluorescence yield compared to vacancy-free surfaces, while dynamic vacancy aggregation can temporarily turn fluorescence off. We find that infilling with foreign cations can stabilize the vacancies, inhibiting intermittency and improving quantum yield, providing an explanation of recent experimental observations.

  10. Can Mathematical Models Predict the Outcomes of Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Intermittent Androgen Deprivation Therapy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, R. A.; Packer, A. M.; Kuang, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy is a common treatment for advanced or metastatic prostate cancer. Like the normal prostate, most tumors depend on androgens for proliferation and survival but often develop treatment resistance. Hormonal treatment causes many undesirable side effects which significantly decrease the quality of life for patients. Intermittently applying androgen deprivation in cycles reduces the total duration with these negative effects and may reduce selective pressure for resistance. We extend an existing model which used measurements of patient testosterone levels to accurately fit measured serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. We test the model's predictive accuracy, using only a subset of the data to find parameter values. The results are compared with those of an existing piecewise linear model which does not use testosterone as an input. Since actual treatment protocol is to re-apply therapy when PSA levels recover beyond some threshold value, we develop a second method for predicting the PSA levels. Based on a small set of data from seven patients, our results showed that the piecewise linear model produced slightly more accurate results while the two predictive methods are comparable. This suggests that a simpler model may be more beneficial for a predictive use compared to a more biologically insightful model, although further research is needed in this field prior to implementing mathematical models as a predictive method in a clinical setting. Nevertheless, both models are an important step in this direction.

  11. Intermittent dust mass loss from activated asteroid P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, F.; Pozuelos, F.

    2014-02-01

    We present observations and models of the dust environment of activated asteroid P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS). The object displayed a complex morphology during the observations, with the presence of multiple tails. We combined our own observations, all made with instrumentation attached to the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias on La Palma, with previously published Hubble Space Telescope images to build a model aimed at fitting all the observations. Altogether, the data cover a full three month period of observations which can be explained by intermittent dust loss. The most plausible scenario is that of an asteroid rotating with the spinning axis oriented perpendicular to the orbit plane and losing mass from the equatorial region, consistent with rotational break-up. Assuming that the ejection velocity of the particles (v ∼ 0.02-0.05 m s{sup –1}) corresponds to the escape velocity, the object diameter is constrained to ∼30-130 m for bulk densities 3000-1000 kg m{sup –3}.

  12. Changes in Drop-Jump Landing Biomechanics During Prolonged Intermittent Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Randy J.; Cone, John C.; Tritsch, Amanda J.; Pye, Michele L.; Montgomery, Melissa M.; Henson, Robert A.; Shultz, Sandra J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As injury rates rise in the later stages of sporting activities, a better understanding of lower extremity biomechanics in the later phases of gamelike situations may improve training and injury prevention programs. Hypothesis: Lower extremity biomechanics of a drop-jump task (extracted from a principal components analysis) would reveal factors associated with risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury during a 90-minute individualized intermittent exercise protocol (IEP) and for 1 hour following the IEP. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Fifty-nine athletes (29 women, 30 men) completed 3 sessions. The first session assessed fitness for an IEP designed to simulate the demands of a soccer match. An experimental session assessed drop-jump biomechanics, after a dynamic warm-up, every 15 minutes during the 90-minute IEP, and for 1 hour following the IEP. A control session with no exercise assessed drop-jump performance at the same intervals. Results: Two biomechanical factors early in the first half (hip flexion at initial contact and hip loading; ankle loading and knee shear force) decreased at the end of the IEP and into the 60-minute recovery period, while a third factor (knee loading) decreased only during the recovery period (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The individualized sport-specific IEP may have more subtle effects on landing biomechanics when compared with short-term, exhaustive fatigue protocols. Clinical Relevance: Potentially injurious landing biomechanics may not occur until the later stages of soccer activity. PMID:24587862

  13. Effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on sports performance and training: a review.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Anis; Leiper, John B; Souissi, Nizar; Coutts, Aaron J; Chamari, Karim

    2009-12-01

    The month-long diurnal Ramadan fast imposes a major challenge to Islamic athletes. Sporting events are programmed throughout the year, with the result that training and competition are often scheduled during Ramadan. The small numbers of well-controlled studies that have examined the effects of Ramadan on athletic performance suggest that few aspects of physical fitness are negatively affected, and only modest decrements are observed. Whereas subjective feelings of fatigue and other mood indicators are often cited as implying additional stress on the athlete throughout Ramadan, most studies show these measures may not be reflected in decreases in performance. The development and early implementation of sensible eating and sleeping strategies can greatly alleviate the disruptions to training and competitiveness, thus allowing the athlete to perform at a high level while undertaking the religious intermittent fast. Nevertheless, further research is required to understand the mechanisms and energy pathways that allow athletes to maintain their performance capacities during Ramadan, and which factors are responsible for the observed decrements in performance of some individuals.

  14. Can Mathematical Models Predict the Outcomes of Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Intermittent Androgen Deprivation Therapy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, R. A.; Packer, A. M.; Kuang, Y.

    Androgen deprivation therapy is a common treatment for advanced or metastatic prostate cancer. Like the normal prostate, most tumors depend on androgens for proliferation and survival but often develop treatment resistance. Hormonal treatment causes many undesirable side effects which significantly decrease the quality of life for patients. Intermittently applying androgen deprivation in cycles reduces the total duration with these negative effects and may reduce selective pressure for resistance. We extend an existing model which used measurements of patient testosterone levels to accurately fit measured serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. We test the model's predictive accuracy, using only a subset of the data to find parameter values. The results are compared with those of an existing piecewise linear model which does not use testosterone as an input. Since actual treatment protocol is to re-apply therapy when PSA levels recover beyond some threshold value, we develop a second method for predicting the PSA levels. Based on a small set of data from seven patients, our results showed that the piecewise linear model produced slightly more accurate results while the two predictive methods are comparable. This suggests that a simpler model may be more beneficial for a predictive use compared to a more biologically insightful model, although further research is needed in this field prior to implementing mathematical models as a predictive method in a clinical setting. Nevertheless, both models are an important step in this direction.

  15. Modeling of growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis in an intermittent fed batch culture with total cell retention.

    PubMed

    Atehortúa, Paula; Alvarez, Hernán; Orduz, Sergio

    2007-11-01

    An extended dynamical model for growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in an intermittent fed-batch culture with total cell retention is proposed. This model differs from reported models, by including dynamics for natural death of cells and substrate consumption for cell maintenance. The proposed model uses sigmoid functions to describe these kinetic parameters. Equations for time evolution of substrate, vegetative, sporulated and total cell concentration were taken from previous works. Model parameters were determined from batch experimental data obtained in pilot plant. Parameter identification was developed in two stages: (1) coarse identification using a multivariable optimization with constraints algorithm, (2) fine identification by heuristic fit of model parameters looking for a minimal model error. The proposed model estimates adequate time evolution of the process variables with a mean error of 2.6% on substrate concentration and 6.7% on biomass concentration.

  16. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: Global Delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach.…

  17. The effect of warm up on single and intermittent-sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Yaicharoen, Pongson; Wallman, Karen; Bishop, David; Morton, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Lack of benefit of warm up on prolonged intermittent-sprint performance has been proposed to be due to use of a pacing strategy by participants. To investigate this, twelve participants performed four cycle trials that consisted of either prolonged intermittent-sprint performance (80 min) or single-sprint performance (4 s), with or without a warm up. The first-sprint of intermittent-sprint performance was also assessed. No interaction effects (P > 0.05) were found between trials for intermittent-sprint performance for total work (J · kg(-1)), or percentage work and power decrement. Work done during the first-sprint of intermittent-sprint performance (no warm up) was less (P < 0.001) than the first-sprint of intermittent-sprint performance (warm up; effect size (ES) = 0.59) and both single-sprint trials (warm up and no warm up; ES = 0.91, 0.75, respectively). Peak power (W · kg(-1)) for single-sprint (warm up) was greater (P < 0.05) than single-sprint (no warm up), and the first-sprint of intermittent-sprint performance (warm up and no warm up). Warm up improved single-sprint performance and the first sprint of intermittent-sprint performance. Use of a pacing strategy probably resulted in similar intermittent-sprint performance between trials. These results suggest that team-sport players should perform a warm up at the start of a game or before substitution during a game.

  18. Development of rapid preexcited ventricular response to atrial fibrillation in a patient with intermittent preexcitation.

    PubMed

    Gemma, Lee W; Steinberg, Leonard A; Prystowsky, Eric N; Padanilam, Benzy J

    2013-03-01

    Intermittent preexcitation during sinus rhythm is indicative of an accessory pathway at a very low risk for sudden death. We present the case of a 49-year-old man with intermittent preexcitation who subsequently developed rapid atrial fibrillation with a shortest preexcited R-R interval of 230 milliseconds. Electrophysiology study showed intermittent preexcitation at baseline and 1:1 anterograde accessory pathway conduction to 220 milliseconds in the presence of 1 mcg/min isoproterenol infusion. The pathway was successfully ablated at the lateral mitral annulus. Accessory pathways highly sensitive to catecholamines may show intermittent preexcitation at baseline with potential for rapid conduction during atrial fibrillation and sudden death.

  19. Aerobic fitness testing: an update.

    PubMed

    Stevens, N; Sykes, K

    1996-12-01

    This study confirms that all three tests are reliable tools for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness and the prediction of aerobic capacity. While this particular study consisted of active, youthful subjects, subsequent studies at University College Chester have found similar findings with larger databases and a wider cross-section of subjects. The Astrand cycle test and Chester step test are submaximal tests with error margins of 5-15 per cent and therefore, not as precise as maximal testing. However, they still give a reasonably accurate reflection of an individual's fitness without the cost, time, effort and risk on the part of the subject. The bleep test is a low-cost maximal test designed for well-motivated, active individuals who are used to running to physical exhaustion. Used on other groups, results will not accurately reflect cardiorespiratory fitness values. While all three tests have inherent advantages and disadvantages, perhaps the most important factors are the knowledge and skills of the tester. Without a sound understanding of the physiological principles underlying these tests, and the ability to conduct an accurate assessment and evaluation of results in a knowledgeable and meaningful way, then the credibility of the tests and the results become suspect. However, used correctly, aerobic capacity tests can provide valuable baseline data about the fitness levels of individuals and data from which exercise programmes may be developed. The tests also enable fitness improvements to be monitored, help to motivate participants by establishing reasonable and achievable goals, assist in risk stratification and facilitate participants' education about the importance of physical fitness for work and for life. Since this study was completed, further tests have been repeated on 140 subjects of a wider age and ability range. This large database confirms the results found in this study.

  20. Quantum algorithm for data fitting.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Nathan; Braun, Daniel; Lloyd, Seth

    2012-08-03

    We provide a new quantum algorithm that efficiently determines the quality of a least-squares fit over an exponentially large data set by building upon an algorithm for solving systems of linear equations efficiently [Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)]. In many cases, our algorithm can also efficiently find a concise function that approximates the data to be fitted and bound the approximation error. In cases where the input data are pure quantum states, the algorithm can be used to provide an efficient parametric estimation of the quantum state and therefore can be applied as an alternative to full quantum-state tomography given a fault tolerant quantum computer.

  1. Decision making on fitness landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, R.; Sibani, P.

    2017-04-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et al. that we call the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures.

  2. Physical fitness assessment: an update.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Robert P; Greene, Jill Amanda; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) gives the following definition of health-related physical fitness: Physical fitness is defined as a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. It is also characterized by (1) an ability to perform daily activities with vigor, and (2) a demonstration of traits and capacities that are associated with a low risk of premature development of hypokinetic diseases (e.g., those associated with physical inactivity). Information from an individual's health and medical records can be combined with information from physical fitness assessment to meet the specific health goals and rehabilitative needs of that individual. Attaining adequate informed consent from participants prior to exercise testing is mandatory because of ethical and legal considerations.A physical fitness assessment includes measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular fitness, and musculoskeletal flexibility. The three common techniques for assessing body composition are hydrostatic weighing, and skinfold measurements, and anthropometric measurements. Cardiorespiratory endurance is a crucial component of physical fitness assessment because of its strong correlation with health and health risks. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the traditionally accepted criterion for measuring cardiorespiratory endurance. Although maximal-effort tests must be used to measure VO2max, submaximal exercise can be used to estimate this value. Muscular fitness has historically been used to describe an individual's integrated status of muscular strength and muscular endurance. An individual's muscular strength is specific to a particular muscle or muscle group and refers to the maximal force (N or kg) that the muscle or muscle group can generate. Dynamic strength can be assessed by measuring the movement of an individual's body against an external load. Isokinetic testing may be performed by assessing

  3. Intermittent Water Supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-01-19

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS), in which water is provided through pipes for only limited durations, serve at least 300 million people around the world. However, providing water intermittently can compromise water quality in the distribution system. In IWS systems, the pipes do not supply water for periods of time, supply periods are shortened, and pipes experience regular flow restarting and draining. These unique behaviors affect distribution system water quality in ways that are different than during normal operations in continuous water supplies (CWS). A better understanding of the influence of IWS on mechanisms causing contamination can help lead to incremental steps that protect water quality and minimize health risks. This review examines the status and nature of IWS practices throughout the world, the evidence of the effect of IWS on water quality, and how the typical contexts in which IWS systems often exist-low-income countries with under-resourced utilities and inadequate sanitation infrastructure-can exacerbate mechanisms causing contamination. We then highlight knowledge gaps for further research to improve our understanding of water quality in IWS.

  4. Intermittency measurement in two-dimensional bacterial turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xiang; Ding, Long; Huang, Yongxiang; Chen, Ming; Lu, Zhiming; Liu, Yulu; Zhou, Quan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an experimental velocity database of a bacterial collective motion, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, in turbulent phase with volume filling fraction 84 % provided by Professor Goldstein at Cambridge University (UK), was analyzed to emphasize the scaling behavior of this active turbulence system. This was accomplished by performing a Hilbert-based methodology analysis to retrieve the scaling property without the β -limitation. A dual-power-law behavior separated by the viscosity scale ℓν was observed for the q th -order Hilbert moment Lq(k ) . This dual-power-law belongs to an inverse-cascade since the scaling range is above the injection scale R , e.g., the bacterial body length. The measured scaling exponents ζ (q ) of both the small-scale (k >kν ) and large-scale (k intermittency parameters are μS=0.26 and μL=0.17 , respectively, for the small- and large-scale motions. It implies that the former cascade is more intermittent than the latter one, which is also confirmed by the corresponding singularity spectrum f (α ) versus α . Comparison with the conventional two-dimensional Ekman-Navier-Stokes equation, a continuum model indicates that the origin of the multifractality could be a result of some additional nonlinear interaction terms, which deservers a more careful investigation.

  5. Intermittent Demand Forecasting in a Tertiary Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen-Yang; Chiang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Meng-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Forecasts of the demand for medical supplies both directly and indirectly affect the operating costs and the quality of the care provided by health care institutions. Specifically, overestimating demand induces an inventory surplus, whereas underestimating demand possibly compromises patient safety. Uncertainty in forecasting the consumption of medical supplies generates intermittent demand events. The intermittent demand patterns for medical supplies are generally classified as lumpy, erratic, smooth, and slow-moving demand. This study was conducted with the purpose of advancing a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit's efforts to achieve a high level of accuracy in its forecasting of the demand for medical supplies. On this point, several demand forecasting methods were compared in terms of the forecast accuracy of each. The results confirm that applying Croston's method combined with a single exponential smoothing method yields the most accurate results for forecasting lumpy, erratic, and slow-moving demand, whereas the Simple Moving Average (SMA) method is the most suitable for forecasting smooth demand. In addition, when the classification of demand consumption patterns were combined with the demand forecasting models, the forecasting errors were minimized, indicating that this classification framework can play a role in improving patient safety and reducing inventory management costs in health care institutions.

  6. Dynamic intermittent strain can rapidly impair ventral hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Kallinowski, Friedrich; Baumann, Elena; Harder, Felix; Siassi, Michael; Mahn, Axel; Vollmer, Matthias; Morlock, Michael M

    2015-11-26

    Ventral hernia repair fails frequently despite advanced mesh inserting surgery. A model for dynamic intermittent straining (DIS) of ventral hernia repairs was developed. The influence of phospholipids, position, overlap, fixation and tissue quality of various meshes on the durability of hernia repair was studied. DIS comprises the repetition of submaximal impacts delivered via a hydraulically driven plastic containment. Pig tissues simulate a ventral hernia with a standardized 5cm defect. Commercially available meshes strengthened with tacks, glue and sutures were used to bridge this defect in an underlay (IPOM) or sublay (retromuscular) position starting with a 5cm overlap in all directions. We tested 35 different ways of ventral hernia repair with up to 425 submaximal intermittent dynamic impacts until mesh dislocation occurred 10 times or a maximum of 4000 impacts each were withstood. The likelihood of a failing repair was related to the mesh, the lubricants, the position, the overlap, the fixation and the tissue quality. Most meshes dislocated easily and required fixation. One of the meshes tested was stable without fixation with a 5cm overlap and failed after reducing the overlap. Phospholipids exerted a strong influence on the biomaterial tested. The sublay position was about 10% more durable in comparison to the IPOM position. DIS revealed distinct degrees of stability with primarily stable, intermediate and primarily unstable repairs. Based on the DIS results available, the currently used ventral hernia repair options can be classified. In the future, DIS investigations can improve the durability of hernia repair.

  7. Thymic Selection of T Cells as Diffusion with Intermittent Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Košmrlj, Andrej

    2011-04-01

    T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses by recognizing short peptides derived from pathogens, and by distinguishing them from self-peptides. To ensure the latter, immature T cells (thymocytes) diffuse within the thymus gland, where they encounter an ensemble of self-peptides presented on (immobile) antigen presenting cells. Potentially autoimmune T cells are eliminated if the thymocyte binds sufficiently strongly with any such antigen presenting cell. We model thymic selection of T cells as a random walker diffusing in a field of immobile traps that intermittently turn "on" and "off". The escape probability of potentially autoimmune T cells is equivalent to the survival probability of such a random walker. In this paper we describe the survival probability of a random walker on a d-dimensional cubic lattice with randomly placed immobile intermittent traps, and relate it to the result of a well-studied problem where traps are always "on". Additionally, when switching between the trap states is slow, we find a peculiar caging effect for the survival probability.

  8. Intermittent collective dynamics emerge from conflicting imperatives in sheep herds.

    PubMed

    Ginelli, Francesco; Peruani, Fernando; Pillot, Marie-Helène; Chaté, Hugues; Theraulaz, Guy; Bon, Richard

    2015-10-13

    Among the many fascinating examples of collective behavior exhibited by animal groups, some species are known to alternate slow group dispersion in space with rapid aggregation phenomena induced by a sudden behavioral shift at the individual level. We study this phenomenon quantitatively in large groups of grazing Merino sheep under controlled experimental conditions. Our analysis reveals strongly intermittent collective dynamics consisting of fast, avalanche-like regrouping events distributed on all experimentally accessible scales. As a proof of principle, we introduce an agent-based model with individual behavioral shifts, which we show to account faithfully for all collective properties observed. This offers, in turn, an insight on the individual stimulus/response functions that can generate such intermittent behavior. In particular, the intensity of sheep allelomimetic behavior plays a key role in the group's ability to increase the per capita grazing surface while minimizing the time needed to regroup into a tightly packed configuration. We conclude that the emergent behavior reported probably arises from the necessity to balance two conflicting imperatives: (i) the exploration of foraging space by individuals and (ii) the protection from predators offered by being part of large, cohesive groups. We discuss our results in the context of the current debate about criticality in biology.

  9. Hydrology and Geomorphology of Tallgrass Prairie Intermittent Headwater Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, M. D.; Grudzinski, B.

    2011-12-01

    The arid to semi-arid Great Plains region of the United States covers more than 1 million km2, yet virtually nothing is known about the geomorphology of its intermittent headwater streams. These streams and the perennial rivers they feed support a unique and increasingly endangered assemblage of endemic fish species. While human impacts in the region are not at first glace significant, the reality is that the Great Plains are an intensively managed landscape, with pervasive cattle grazing, channelization, and groundwater over-pumping affecting these systems. These stresses will only increase with potential climate and related land use changes. Few natural remnants of native grassland remain today, limiting opportunities to study the natural dynamics of these systems in contrast to the anthropogenically modified systems. This paper presents a review of the existing geomorphological and hydrological knowledge of Great Plains headwater streams and presents the initial analysis of an 18 year intermittent headwater stream record from the tallgrass Konza Prairie LTER, Kansas. Results suggest that fire frequency and grazing and the resultant riparian vegetation composition strongly influence stream flow dynamics as well as stream geomorphology.

  10. Intermittent negative pressure ventilation in patients with restrictive respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Schiavina, M; Fabiani, A

    1993-01-01

    Thirty one patients in stable respiratory failure (arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) 67 +/- 20 mmHg (8.9 +/- 2.7 kPa) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) 59 +/- 10 mmHg 7.9 +/- 1.3 kPa)), secondary to non-obstructive ventilatory impairment, were treated by intermittent negative pressure ventilation (INPV), using a pneumowrap or poncho during the night. Daytime arterial blood gas measurements, taken before and after the ventilation, revealed a substantial improvement in PaO2, PaCO2 and maximal inspiratory pressure (Pimax). This improvement persisted during the six month follow-up of home nocturnal ventilation. The polysomnographic, recording during mechanical ventilation by poncho, in five patients, showed a general improvement in the quality and structure of sleep. All patients returned to normal arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) values (> 90%), except for one. In three patients, the appearance of obstructive events was noted but the desaturation that they caused was, remarkably, lower than that caused by central events in baseline recording. We conclude that non-invasive treatment by INPV, in patients with neuromuscular and chest wall disease, is the method of choice as an alternative to intermittent positive pressure ventilation and to tracheostomy.

  11. Reconstructing the intermittent dynamics of the torque in wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Pedro G.; Wächter, Matthias; Peinke, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    We apply a framework introduced in the late nineties to analyze load measurements in off-shore wind energy converters (WEC). The framework is borrowed from statistical physics and properly adapted to the analysis of multivariate data comprising wind velocity, power production and torque measurements, taken at one single WEC. In particular, we assume that wind statistics drives the fluctuations of the torque produced in the wind turbine and show how to extract an evolution equation of the Langevin type for the torque driven by the wind velocity. It is known that the intermittent nature of the atmosphere, i.e. of the wind field, is transferred to the power production of a wind energy converter and consequently to the shaft torque. We show that the derived stochastic differential equation quantifies the dynamical coupling of the measured fluctuating properties as well as it reproduces the intermittency observed in the data. Finally, we discuss our approach in the light of turbine monitoring, a particular important issue in off-shore wind farms.

  12. INTERMITTENT CONVECTION IN THE BOUNDARY OF DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. BOEDO; D.L. RUDAKOV; R.J. COLCHIN; R.A. MOYER; S. KRASHENINNIKOV; D.G. WHYTE; G.R. McKEE; M.J. SCHAFFER; P.C. STANGEBY; W.P. WEST; S.L. ALLEN; A.W. LEONARD

    2002-06-01

    Intermittent plasma objects (IPOs) featuring higher pressure than the surrounding plasma, and responsible for {approx}50% of the E x B{sub T} radial transport, are observed in the scrape-off layer (SOL) and edge of the DIII-D tokamak. The skewness of probe and BES intermittent data suggest IPO formation at or near the last closed flux surface (LCFS) and the existence of hole-IPO pairs. The particle content of the IPOs at the LCFS is linearly dependent on the discharge density, however, when normalized to the local averaged density, it is fairly insensitive to density variations. It is also shown that the IPOs thermalize with the background plasma within 1 cm of the LCFS. The IPOs appear in the SOL of both L and H mode discharges carrying {approx}50% of the total SOL radial E x B{sub T} transport at all radii. However, the total flux and the IPO contribution, are highly reduced in H-mode conditions due to the increased confinement.

  13. Intermittent flow regimes near the convection threshold in ferromagnetic nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Krauzina, Marina T; Bozhko, Alexandra A; Putin, Gennady F; Suslov, Sergey A

    2015-01-01

    The onset and decay of convection in a spherical cavity filled with ferromagnetic nanofluid and heated from below are investigated experimentally. It is found that, unlike in a single-component Newtonian fluid where stationary convection sets in as a result of supercritical bifurcation and where convection intensity increases continuously with the degree of supercriticality, convection in a multicomponent ferromagnetic nanofluid starts abruptly and has an oscillatory nature. The hysteresis is observed in the transition between conduction and convection states. In moderately supercritical regimes, the arising fluid motion observed at a fixed temperature difference intermittently transitions from quasiharmonic to essentially irregular oscillations that are followed by periods of a quasistationary convection. The observed oscillations are shown to result from the precession of the axis of a convection vortex in the equatorial plane. When the vertical temperature difference exceeds the convection onset value by a factor of 2.5, the initially oscillatory convection settles to a steady-state regime with no intermittent behavior detected afterward. The performed wavelet and Fourier analyses of thermocouple readings indicate the presence of various oscillatory modes with characteristic periods ranging from one hour to several days.

  14. Horizontal visibility graphs generated by type-I intermittency.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Ángel M; Luque, Bartolo; Lacasa, Lucas; Gómez, Jose Patricio; Robledo, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    The type-I intermittency route to (or out of) chaos is investigated within the horizontal visibility (HV) graph theory. For that purpose, we address the trajectories generated by unimodal maps close to an inverse tangent bifurcation and construct their associated HV graphs. We show how the alternation of laminar episodes and chaotic bursts imprints a fingerprint in the resulting graph structure. Accordingly, we derive a phenomenological theory that predicts quantitative values for several network parameters. In particular, we predict that the characteristic power-law scaling of the mean length of laminar trend sizes is fully inherited by the variance of the graph degree distribution, in good agreement with the numerics. We also report numerical evidence on how the characteristic power-law scaling of the Lyapunov exponent as a function of the distance to the tangent bifurcation is inherited in the graph by an analogous scaling of block entropy functionals defined on the graph. Furthermore, we are able to recast the full set of HV graphs generated by intermittent dynamics into a renormalization-group framework, where the fixed points of its graph-theoretical renormalization-group flow account for the different types of dynamics. We also establish that the nontrivial fixed point of this flow coincides with the tangency condition and that the corresponding invariant graph exhibits extremal entropic properties.

  15. Intermittent Flow Regimes in a Transonic Fan Airfoil Cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Capece, V. R.; Hayden, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center linear cascade on the intermittent flow on the suction surface of an airfoil section from the tip region of a modern low aspect ratio fan blade. Experimental results revealed that, at a large incidence angle, a range of transonic inlet Mach numbers exist where the leading-edge shock-wave pattern was unstable. Flush mounted high frequency response pressure transducers indicated large local jumps in the pressure in the leading edge area, which generates large intermittent loading on the blade leading edge. These measurements suggest that for an inlet Mach number between 0.9 and 1.0 the flow is bi-stable, randomly switching between subsonic and supersonic flows. Hence, it appears that the change in overall flow conditions in the transonic region is based on the frequency of switching between two stable flow states rather than on the continuous increase of the flow velocity. To date, this flow behavior has only been observed in a linear transonic cascade. Further research is necessary to confirm this phenomenon occurs in actual transonic fans and is not the byproduct of an endwall restricted linear cascade.

  16. Twist-induced Magnetosphere Reconfiguration for Intermittent Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Yu, Cong; Tong, Hao

    2016-08-01

    We propose that the magnetosphere reconfiguration induced by magnetic twists in the closed field line region can account for the mode switching of intermittent pulsars. We carefully investigate the properties of axisymmetric force-free pulsar magnetospheres with magnetic twists in closed field line regions around the polar caps. The magnetosphere with twisted closed lines leads to enhanced spin-down rates. The enhancement in spin-down rate depends on the size of the region with twisted closed lines. Typically, it is increased by a factor of ˜2, which is consistent with the intermittent pulsars’ spin-down behavior during the “off” and “on” states. We find that there is a threshold of maximal twist angle {{Δ }}{φ }{{thres}}˜ 1. The magnetosphere is stable only if the closed line twist angle is less than {{Δ }}{φ }{{thres}}. Beyond this value, the magnetosphere becomes unstable and gets untwisted. The spin-down rate would reduce to its off-state value. The quasi-periodicity in spin-down rate change can be explained by long-term activities in the star’s crust and the untwisting induced by MHD instability. The estimated duration of on-state is about 1 week, consistent with observations. Due to the MHD instability, there exists an upper limit for the spin-down ratio (f˜ 3) between the on-state and the off-state, if the Y-point remains at the light cylinder.

  17. Intermittent cathodic protection for steel reinforced concrete bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Soltesz, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal-sprayed zinc anodes are used for impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems on Oregon's reinforced concrete coastal bridges to prevent chloride-induced corrosion damage. Thermal-sprayed zinc performs well as an ICCP anode but the service life of the zinc anode is directly related to the average current density used to operate the systems. After a ICCP system is turned off, the rebar in the concrete remains passive and protected for a period of time. Intermittent operation of CP systems is possible when continuous corrosion rate monitoring is used to identify conditions when the CP system needs to be turned on to reestablish protection conditions for the rebar. This approach applies CP protection only when needed and reflects the fact that external protection may not be needed for a range of environmental conditions. In doing so, intermittent CP would lower the average current necessary to protect rebar, increase the anode service life, and reduce the lifetime costs for protecting reinforced concrete bridges.

  18. Enhancement of Nitrogen Removal in an Intermittent Aeration Membrane Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaojuan; Wisniewski, Christelle; Li, Xudong; Zhou, Qi

    2010-11-01

    An intermittent aerated membrane bioreactor was applied in laboratory scale to treat synthetic household wastewater. The system organic load and nitrogen load were 0.34 kgCODṡm-3ṡd-1 and 0.06 kgTNṡm-3ṡd-1, respectively. The hydraulic residence time was equal to 12 h and very long sludge residence times were imposed. Intermittent aeration, with anoxic-aerobic cycle of 30/60 minutes, was employed in the system. The results showed that 100% SS and >90% COD could be removed. The average removal efficiency of NH4-N and TN was 99.7% and 80%, respectively. A linear relationship between the fouling rate and the MLSS, MLVSS concentration was founded. The denitrification seemed to be the rate-limiting step for nitrogen removal. To enhance denitrification, the following strategies could be considered: 1) to select suitable aeration/non-aeration cycle, 2) to control the aeration intensity, 3) to feed the system at the beginning of non-aeration period, 4) to maintain high MLSS concentration.

  19. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    PubMed

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (<10 psi), elevated indicator bacteria were frequently detected even when there was a chlorine residual, suggesting persistent contamination had occurred through intrusion or backflow. At pressures between 10 and 17 psi, evidence of periodic contamination suggested that transient intrusion, backflow, release of particulates, or sloughing of biofilms from pipe walls had occurred. Few total coliform and no E. coli were detected when water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  20. Intermittent collective dynamics emerge from conflicting imperatives in sheep herds

    PubMed Central

    Ginelli, Francesco; Peruani, Fernando; Pillot, Marie-Helène; Chaté, Hugues; Theraulaz, Guy; Bon, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Among the many fascinating examples of collective behavior exhibited by animal groups, some species are known to alternate slow group dispersion in space with rapid aggregation phenomena induced by a sudden behavioral shift at the individual level. We study this phenomenon quantitatively in large groups of grazing Merino sheep under controlled experimental conditions. Our analysis reveals strongly intermittent collective dynamics consisting of fast, avalanche-like regrouping events distributed on all experimentally accessible scales. As a proof of principle, we introduce an agent-based model with individual behavioral shifts, which we show to account faithfully for all collective properties observed. This offers, in turn, an insight on the individual stimulus/response functions that can generate such intermittent behavior. In particular, the intensity of sheep allelomimetic behavior plays a key role in the group’s ability to increase the per capita grazing surface while minimizing the time needed to regroup into a tightly packed configuration. We conclude that the emergent behavior reported probably arises from the necessity to balance two conflicting imperatives: (i) the exploration of foraging space by individuals and (ii) the protection from predators offered by being part of large, cohesive groups. We discuss our results in the context of the current debate about criticality in biology. PMID:26417082

  1. Current Issues in Flexibility Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Duane V.; Magnusson, Peter; McHugh, Malachy

    2000-01-01

    Physical activity is extremely important in maintaining good health. Activity is not possible without a certain amount of flexibility. This report discusses issues related to flexibility fitness. Flexibility is a property of the musculoskeletal system that determines the range of motion achievable without injury to the joints. Static flexibility…

  2. Physical Performance, Fitness and Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald R.

    This book deals principally with the relationships between diet, fitness, and physical work capacity. The extreme nutritional states of obesity and chronic food deprivation are considered, and the effect of supplementation and modification of normal dietaries on work capacity are discussed. Figures and data tables provide information regarding…

  3. Coaches as Fitness Role Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Randall; Zillifro, Traci D.; Nichols, Ronald; Hull, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    The lack of physical activity, low fitness levels, and elevated obesity rates as high as 32% of today's youth are well documented. Many strategies and grants have been developed at the national, regional, and local levels to help counteract these current trends. Strategies have been developed and implemented for schools, households (parents), and…

  4. Hotels Make Room for Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koszuta, Laurie Einstein

    1986-01-01

    Hotels, in hopes of gaining a competitive edge, are offering workout rooms, exercise equipment, fitness trails, and jogging tracks, but no standards have been set for safety of the facilities or staff preparedness in exercise screening, equipment use, injury prevention, or first aid. (MT)

  5. Standardizing Documentation of FITS Headers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Although the FITS file format[1] can be self-documenting, human intervention is often needed to read the headers to write the necessary transformations to make a given instrument team's data compatible with our preferred analysis package. External documentation may be needed to determine what the values are of coded values or unfamiliar acronyms.Different communities have interpreted keywords slightly differently. This has resulted in ambiguous fields such as DATE-OBS, which could be either the start or mid-point of an observation.[2]Conventions for placing units and additional information within the comments of a FITS card exist, but they require re-writing the FITS file. This operation can be quite costly for large archives, and should not be taken lightly when dealing with issues of digital preservation.We present what we believe is needed for a machine-actionable external file describing a given collection of FITS files. We seek comments from data producers, archives, and those writing software to help develop a single, useful, implementable standard.References:[1] Pence, et.al. 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201015362[2] Rots, et.al, (in preparation), http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu arots/TimeWCS/

  6. Fitness: Tips for Staying Motivated

    MedlinePlus

    ... fitness routine at least twice a week. Find sports or activities that you enjoy, then vary the routine to keep you on your toes. If you're not enjoying your workouts, try something different. Join a volleyball or softball league. Take a ballroom dancing class. Check out a health club or martial ...

  7. National Adult Physical Fitness Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Newsletter, 1973

    1973-01-01

    This report of a personal interview research survey conducted for the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in 1972 presents the following findings: (a) 45 percent of all adult Americans do not engage in any form of exercise; (b) walking is the most popular form of exercise, followed by bicycle riding, swimming, calisthenics, bowling,…

  8. Color Coding Childrens' Fitness Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Barbara H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A program of the Salt Lake City School District and the University of Utah, Operation C.H.A.M.P. (Children's Health and Movement Program), was designed to motivate elementary school children to do their best in physical education and fitness testing. The program is described. (MT)

  9. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  10. Sports Potentials for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This report, one of a series on research into specific physical activities and their efficacy in improving and maintaining physical fitness, examines sport participation and the potential it has for developing muscular strength, muscular endurance, and circulatory-respiratory endurance. The activities consist primarily of the following twelve…

  11. Leading a Culture of Fitness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    beliefs that inspire Airmen, both collectively and individually, to maintain optimum fitness for the institution and themselves.5 To best prepare for...performance report, plan the mission, or take an hour during the day to go workout ? This is a false dilemma because there are numerous other

  12. Self-Fitting Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Convery, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    A self-contained, self-fitting hearing aid (SFHA) is a device that enables the user to perform both threshold measurements leading to a prescribed hearing aid setting and fine-tuning, without the need for audiological support or access to other equipment. The SFHA has been proposed as a potential solution to address unmet hearing health care in developing countries and remote locations in the developed world and is considered a means to lower cost and increase uptake of hearing aids in developed countries. This article reviews the status of the SFHA and the evidence for its feasibility and challenges and predicts where it is heading. Devices that can be considered partly or fully self-fitting without audiological support were identified in the direct-to-consumer market. None of these devices are considered self-contained as they require access to other hardware such as a proprietary interface, computer, smartphone, or tablet for manipulation. While there is evidence that self-administered fitting processes can provide valid and reliable results, their success relies on user-friendly device designs and interfaces and easy-to-interpret instructions. Until these issues have been sufficiently addressed, optional assistance with the self-fitting process and on-going use of SFHAs is recommended. Affordability and a sustainable delivery system remain additional challenges for the SFHA in developing countries. Future predictions include a growth in self-fitting products, with most future SFHAs consisting of earpieces that connect wirelessly with a smartphone and providers offering assistance through a telehealth infrastructure, and the integration of SFHAs into the traditional hearing health-care model. PMID:27072929

  13. Accelerated Fitting of Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-07-01

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15-30 labels simultaneously.

  14. Physiological responses of young thoroughbred horses to intermittent high-intensity treadmill training

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Training of young Thoroughbred horses must balance development of cardiopulmonary function and aerobic capacity with loading of the musculoskeletal system that can potentially cause structural damage and/or lameness. High-speed equine treadmills are sometimes used to supplement exercise on a track in the training of young Thoroughbreds because the horse can run at high speeds but without the added weight of a rider. We tested the hypothesis that intermittent high-intensity exercise on a treadmill of young Thoroughbred horses entering training can enhance development of aerobic capacity (Vo2max) and running performance more than conventional training under saddle, and do so without causing lameness. Results Twelve yearling Thoroughbreds trained for 8 months with conventional riding (C) only, conventional riding plus a short (2 month, S) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise, or a long (8 month, L) interval of once-per-week high-intensity treadmill exercise. Three treadmill exercise tests evaluated Vo2max, oxygen transport and running performance variables in June of the yearling year (only for L), October of the yearling year and April of the 2-year-old year. No horses experienced lameness during the study. Aerobic capacity increased in all groups after training. In both October and April, Vo2max in L was higher than in C, but did not differ between L and S or S and C. Running speeds eliciting Vo2max also increased in all groups after training, with S (809 ± 3 m/s) and L (804 ± 9 m/s) higher than C (764 ± 27 m/s). Maximum heart rate decreased for all groups after training. Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration increased for L throughout training. Conclusions Young Thoroughbred horses can increase aerobic capacity and running performance more than by strictly using track training under saddle with the addition of intermittent high-intensity treadmill exercise, and they can do so without experiencing lameness

  15. Stability of College Students' Fit with Their Academic Major and the Relationship between Academic Fit and Occupational Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghandour, Louma

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the fit between students' interests and their academic choices at different stages of their college careers. Using image theory (Beach, 1990) as an integrated theory of person-vocation fit, this investigation focuses on the stability of academic fit during college and the relationship between fit with academic choice and fit…

  16. Intermittent hypoxia alters gut microbiota diversity in a mouse model of sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Torres, Marta; Montserrat, Josep M; Sanchez-Alcoholado, Lidia; Cardona, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J; Gozal, David; Poroyko, Valeryi A; Navajas, Daniel; Queipo-Ortuño, Maria I; Farré, Ramon

    2015-04-01

    We assessed whether intermittent hypoxia, which emulates one of the hallmarks of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), leads to altered faecal microbiome in a murine model. In vivo partial pressure of oxygen was measured in colonic faeces during intermittent hypoxia in four anesthetised mice. 10 mice were subjected to a pattern of chronic intermittent hypoxia (20 s at 5% O2 and 40 s at room air for 6 h·day(-1)) for 6 weeks and 10 mice served as normoxic controls. Faecal samples were obtained and microbiome composition was determined by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing and bioinformatic analysis by Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology. Intermittent hypoxia exposures translated into hypoxia/re-oxygenation patterns in the faeces proximal to the bowel epithelium (<200 μm). A significant effect of intermittent hypoxia on global microbial community structure was found. Intermittent hypoxia increased the α-diversity (Shannon index, p<0.05) and induced a change in the gut microbiota (ANOSIM analysis of β-diversity, p<0.05). Specifically, intermittent hypoxia-exposed mice showed a higher abundance of Firmicutes and a smaller abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla than controls. Faecal microbiota composition and diversity are altered as a result of intermittent hypoxia realistically mimicking OSA, suggesting the possibility that physiological interplays between host and gut microbiota could be deregulated in OSA.

  17. Sound-wave coherence in atmospheric turbulence with intrinsic and global intermittency.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D Keith; Ostashev, Vladimir E; Goedecke, George H

    2008-08-01

    The coherence function of sound waves propagating through an intermittently turbulent atmosphere is calculated theoretically. Intermittency mechanisms due to both the turbulent energy cascade (intrinsic intermittency) and spatially uneven production (global intermittency) are modeled using ensembles of quasiwavelets (QWs), which are analogous to turbulent eddies. The intrinsic intermittency is associated with decreasing spatial density (packing fraction) of the QWs with decreasing size. Global intermittency is introduced by allowing the local strength of the turbulence, as manifested by the amplitudes of the QWs, to vary in space according to superimposed Markov processes. The resulting turbulence spectrum is then used to evaluate the coherence function of a plane sound wave undergoing line-of-sight propagation. Predictions are made by a general simulation method and by an analytical derivation valid in the limit of Gaussian fluctuations in signal phase. It is shown that the average coherence function increases as a result of both intrinsic and global intermittency. When global intermittency is very strong, signal phase fluctuations become highly non-Gaussian and the average coherence is dominated by episodes with weak turbulence.

  18. Affecting Factors and Outcome on Intermittent Internet Pulling Behavior in Taiwan's Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hui-Jen; Lay, Yun-Long

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays people's lives heavily rely on Internet facilities. Internet users generally have constant Internet connectivity and intermittently click on sites they want to access even amidst studying or working. In this study, we sought to examine the factors affecting intermittent Internet pulling behavior on undergraduate students. Furthermore, the…

  19. Assessing the Long-Term System Value of Intermittent Electric Generation Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lamont, A D

    2005-08-24

    This research investigates the economic penetration and system-wide effects of large-scale intermittent technologies in an electric generation system. The research extends the standard screening curve analysis to optimize the penetration and system structure with intermittent technologies. The analysis is based on hour-by-hour electric demands and intermittent generation. A theoretical framework is developed to find an expression for the marginal value of an intermittent technology as a function of the average system marginal cost, the capacity factor of the generator, and the covariance between the generator's hourly production and the hourly system marginal cost. A series of model runs are made examining the penetration of wind and photovoltaic in a simple electric generation system. These illustrate the conclusions in the theoretical analysis and illustrate the effects that large-scale intermittent penetration has on the structure of the generation system. In the long-term, adding intermittent generation to a system allows us to restructure the dispatchable generation capacity to a mix with lower capital cost. It is found that large scale intermittent generation tends to reduce the optimal capacity and production of baseload generators and increase the capacity and production of intermediate generators, although the extent to which this occurs depends strongly on the pattern of production from the intermediate generators. It is also shown that the marginal value of intermittent generation declines as it penetrates. The analysis investigates the specific mechanism through which this occurs.

  20. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... period of six months, such as for chemotherapy. A pregnant employee may take leave intermittently for... serious health condition and is not strong enough to work a full-time schedule. (2) Intermittent or... schedule reduction might occur, for example, where an employee, with the employer's agreement, works...

  1. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... period of six months, such as for chemotherapy. A pregnant employee may take leave intermittently for... serious health condition and is not strong enough to work a full-time schedule. (2) Intermittent or... schedule reduction might occur, for example, where an employee, with the employer's agreement, works...

  2. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... period of six months, such as for chemotherapy. A pregnant employee may take leave intermittently for... serious health condition and is not strong enough to work a full-time schedule. (2) Intermittent or... schedule reduction might occur, for example, where an employee, with the employer's agreement, works...

  3. Intermittent Compressive Stress Enhanced Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Expression in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pumklin, Jittima; Manokawinchoke, Jeeranan; Bhalang, Kanokporn; Pavasant, Prasit

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force was shown to promote IGF-1 expression in periodontal ligament both in vitro and in vivo. Though the mechanism of this effect has not yet been proved, here we investigated the molecular mechanism of intermittent mechanical stress on IGF-1 expression. In addition, the role of hypoxia on the intermittent compressive stress on IGF-1 expression was also examined. In this study, human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLs) were stimulated with intermittent mechanical stress for 24 hours. IGF-1 expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Chemical inhibitors were used to determine molecular mechanisms of these effects. For hypoxic mimic condition, the CoCl2 supplementation was employed. The results showed that intermittent mechanical stress dramatically increased IGF-1 expression at 24 h. The pretreatment with TGF-β receptor I or TGF-β1 antibody could inhibit the intermittent mechanical stress-induced IGF-1 expression. Moreover, the upregulation of TGF-β1 proteins was detected in intermittent mechanical stress treated group. Correspondingly, the IGF-1 expression was upregulated upon being treated with recombinant human TGF-β1. Further, the hypoxic mimic condition attenuated the intermittent mechanical stress and rhTGF-β1-induced IGF-1 expression. In summary, this study suggests intermittent mechanical stress-induced IGF-1 expression in HPDLs through TGF-β1 and this phenomenon could be inhibited in hypoxic mimic condition. PMID:26106417

  4. Intermittency in {sup 32}S + S and {sup 32}S + Au collisions at the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, M.A.; Jacobs, P.; WA80 Collaboration

    1991-12-01

    Nonstatistical or ``intermittent`` fluctuations of charged particle multiplicities have been investigated at the CERN SPS with the WA80 multiplicity array for {sup 32}S+S and {sup 32}S+Au collisions of varying centrality. Within the phase space domain studied there is no evidence for intermittency in these collisions beyond that accounted for by FRITIOF filtered through a full detector simulation.

  5. Intermittency in sup 32 S + S and sup 32 S + Au collisions at the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomer, M.A.; Jacobs, P.

    1991-12-01

    Nonstatistical or intermittent'' fluctuations of charged particle multiplicities have been investigated at the CERN SPS with the WA80 multiplicity array for {sup 32}S+S and {sup 32}S+Au collisions of varying centrality. Within the phase space domain studied there is no evidence for intermittency in these collisions beyond that accounted for by FRITIOF filtered through a full detector simulation.

  6. Simultaneous Infrared Dry-Blanching and Dehydration of apple slices Controlled by Intermittent Heating Mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared heating controlled by intermittent heating mode was found to be able to achieve simultaneous dry-blanching and dehydration of apple slices with a desirable quality. In order to better understand the performance of intermittent heating for simultaneous dry-blanching and dehydration (SIDBD),...

  7. Bimodal fitting or bilateral implantation?

    PubMed

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Massie, Robyn; Van Wanrooy, Emma; Rushbrooke, Emma; Psarros, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarises findings from studies that evaluated the benefits of bimodal fitting (combining a hearing aid and a cochlear implant in opposite ears) or bilateral cochlear implantation, relative to unilateral implantation, for children (Ching et al., 2007). On average, the size of binaural speech intelligibility advantages due to redundancy and head shadow was similar for the two bilateral conditions. An added advantage of bimodal fitting was that the low-frequency cues provided by acoustic hearing complemented the high-frequency cues conveyed by electric hearing in perception of voice and music. Some children with bilateral cochlear implants were able to use spatial separation between speech and noise to improve speech perception in noise. This is possibly a combined effect of the directional microphones in their implant systems and their ability to use spatial cues. The evidence to date supports the provision of hearing in two ears as the standard of care.

  8. Funtools: FITS Users Need Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Eric; Murray, Stephen S.; Roll, John

    2011-12-01

    Funtools is a "minimal buy-in" FITS library and utility package developed at the the High Energy Astrophysics Division of SAO. The Funtools library provides simplified access to a wide array of file types: standard astronomical FITS images and binary tables, raw arrays and binary event lists, and even tables of ASCII column data. A sophisticated region filtering library (compatible with ds9) filters images and tables using boolean operations between geometric shapes, support world coordinates, etc. Funtools also supports advanced capabilities such as optimized data searching using index files. Because Funtools consists of a library and a set of user programs, it is most appropriately built from source. Funtools has been ported to Solaris, Linux, LinuxPPC, SGI, Alpha OSF1, Mac OSX (darwin) and Windows 98/NT/2000/XP. Once the source code tar file is retrieved, Funtools can be built and installed easily using standard commands.

  9. Pleasure and Pain: Experiences of Fitness Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrench, Alison; Garrett, Robyne

    2008-01-01

    The obesity crisis is a hegemonic discourse that has established common-sense understandings that young people are less active and fit than previous generations. Unquestioning acceptance of links between fitness and obesity in turn leads to unproblematic fitness testing of young people. Argument is made that fitness tests motivate and encourage…

  10. Benefit segmentation of the fitness market.

    PubMed

    Brown, J D

    1992-01-01

    While considerate attention is being paid to the fitness and wellness needs of people by healthcare and related marketing organizations, little research attention has been directed to identifying the market segments for fitness based upon consumers' perceived benefits of fitness. This article describes three distinct segments of fitness consumers comprising an estimated 50 percent of households. Implications for marketing strategies are also presented.

  11. Musculoskeletal Fitness and Risk of Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Craig, Cora L.

    2002-01-01

    Quantified the relationship between musculoskeletal fitness and all-cause mortality in Canada, using measures of musculoskeletal fitness (situps, pushups, grip strength, and sit- and-reach trunk flexibility) from adult male and female participants in the Canadian Fitness Survey. Results indicated that some components of musculoskeletal fitness,…

  12. 14 CFR 29.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fitting factors. 29.625 Section 29.625... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.625 Fitting factors. For each... are simulated in the fitting and surrounding structures, a fitting factor of at least 1.15 must...

  13. 14 CFR 27.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fitting factors. 27.625 Section 27.625... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.625 Fitting factors. For each... are simulated in the fitting and surrounding structures, a fitting factor of at least 1.15 must...

  14. 14 CFR 25.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fitting factors. 25.625 Section 25.625... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.625 Fitting factors. For each... conditions are simulated in the fitting and surrounding structures, a fitting factor of at least 1.15 must...

  15. 14 CFR 23.625 - Fitting factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitting factors. 23.625 Section 23.625... Fitting factors. For each fitting (a part or terminal used to join one structural member to another), the following apply: (a) For each fitting whose strength is not proven by limit and ultimate load tests in...

  16. Youth Physical Fitness: Ten Key Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; Welk, Gregory J.; Richardson, Cheryl; Vowell, Catherine; Lambdin, Dolly; Wikgren, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of physical fitness has been a key objective of physical education for more than a century. During this period, physical education has evolved to accommodate changing views on fitness and health. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues with fitness assessment and fitness education central to the new Presidential Youth…

  17. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse...

  18. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse...

  19. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse...

  20. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse...

  1. 10 CFR 26.406 - Fitness monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fitness monitoring. 26.406 Section 26.406 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.406 Fitness monitoring. (a...) Licensees and other entities shall implement a fitness monitoring program to deter substance abuse...

  2. How Healthy Are Corporate Fitness Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Work, Janis A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the usefulness of corporate fitness programs in improving employee fitness and reducing health care costs, noting the lack of related research. Corporations consider physical fitness an important component of fiscal fitness, but what is needed is a health promotion philosophy focusing on the total population's health. (SM)

  3. A new Riemann fit for circular tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frühwirth, R.; Strandlie, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present in this contribution a new Riemann track fit which operates on centered and scaled measurements. With these transformations, the fit becomes invariant under translations and similarity transforms of the measurements. We show in a simulation study in a generic, cylindrical detector that the modified Riemann fit is more precise than the standard Riemann fit, in particular if the hit resolution is large.

  4. Obtaining, Maintaining, and Advancing Your Fitness Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Patricia; Herman, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Public awareness of health, fitness, and exercise has increased and the fitness industry has expanded in recent years. Yet, ironically, the health of our nation continues to deteriorate. Now more than ever there is the need for qualified fitness professionals to help individuals to improve or maintain health and fitness. Since fitness…

  5. Intermittency, nonlinear dynamics and dissipation in the solar wind and astrophysical plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Wan, Minping; Servidio, S.; Greco, A.; Osman, K. T.; Oughton, S.; Dmitruk, P.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is given of important properties of spatial and temporal intermittency, including evidence of its appearance in fluids, magnetofluids and plasmas, and its implications for understanding of heliospheric plasmas. Spatial intermittency is generally associated with formation of sharp gradients and coherent structures. The basic physics of structure generation is ideal, but when dissipation is present it is usually concentrated in regions of strong gradients. This essential feature of spatial intermittency in fluids has been shown recently to carry over to the realm of kinetic plasma, where the dissipation function is not known from first principles. Spatial structures produced in intermittent plasma influence dissipation, heating, and transport and acceleration of charged particles. Temporal intermittency can give rise to very long time correlations or a delayed approach to steady-state conditions, and has been associated with inverse cascade or quasi-inverse cascade systems, with possible implications for heliospheric prediction. PMID:25848085

  6. Observation of turbulent intermittency scaling with magnetic helicity in an MHD plasma wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Schaffner, D A; Wan, A; Brown, M R

    2014-04-25

    The intermittency in turbulent magnetic field fluctuations has been observed to scale with the amount of magnetic helicity injected into a laboratory plasma. An unstable spheromak injected into the MHD wind tunnel of the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment displays turbulent magnetic and plasma fluctuations as it relaxes into a Taylor state. The level of intermittency of this turbulence is determined by finding the flatness of the probability distribution function of increments for magnetic pickup coil fluctuations B˙(t). The intermittency increases with the injected helicity, but spectral indices are unaffected by this variation. While evidence is provided which supports the hypothesis that current sheets and reconnection sites are related to the generation of this intermittent signal, the true nature of the observed intermittency remains unknown.

  7. Intermittent fasting modulation of the diabetic syndrome in streptozotocin-injected rats.

    PubMed

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Selselet-Attou, Ghalem; Hupkens, Emeline; Nguidjoe, Evrard; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of intermittent overnight fasting in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Over 30 days, groups of 5-6 control or STZ rats were allowed free food access, starved overnight, or exposed to a restricted food supply comparable to that ingested by the intermittently fasting animals. Intermittent fasting improved glucose tolerance, increased plasma insulin, and lowered Homeostatis Model Assessment index. Caloric restriction failed to cause such beneficial effects. The β-cell mass, as well as individual β-cell and islet area, was higher in intermittently fasting than in nonfasting STZ rats, whilst the percentage of apoptotic β-cells appeared lower in the former than latter STZ rats. In the calorie-restricted STZ rats, comparable findings were restricted to individual islet area and percentage of apoptotic cells. Hence, it is proposed that intermittent fasting could represent a possible approach to prevent or minimize disturbances of glucose homeostasis in human subjects.

  8. Intermittency analyses on the SIERRA measurements of the electric field fluctuations in the auroral zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Sunny W. Y.; Chang, Tom; Kintner, Paul M.; Klatt, Eric

    2005-03-01

    We perform intermittency analyses on the electric field data obtained by the SIERRA sounding rocket in the auroral zone. The electric field fluctuations are broadband, covering the extremely low-frequency range with a power-law relation, similar to the type of fluctuations commonly observed at various altitudes of the auroral region. Our preliminary analyses of the data based on the technique of probability distribution functions indicate that the electric field fluctuations are intermittent in the spacecraft frame. Using the methods of wavelet analyses and local intermittency measures, we determine the degree of intermittency of the fluctuations at various scales. It is found that the electric field fluctuations are more intermittent at smaller scales.

  9. Dynamic resetting of the human circadian pacemaker by intermittent bright light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rimmer, D. W.; Boivin, D. B.; Shanahan, T. L.; Kronauer, R. E.; Duffy, J. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    In humans, experimental studies of circadian resetting typically have been limited to lengthy episodes of exposure to continuous bright light. To evaluate the time course of the human endogenous circadian pacemaker's resetting response to brief episodes of intermittent bright light, we studied 16 subjects assigned to one of two intermittent lighting conditions in which the subjects were presented with intermittent episodes of bright-light exposure at 25- or 90-min intervals. The effective duration of bright-light exposure was 31% or 63% compared with a continuous 5-h bright-light stimulus. Exposure to intermittent bright light elicited almost as great a resetting response compared with 5 h of continuous bright light. We conclude that exposure to intermittent bright light produces robust phase shifts of the endogenous circadian pacemaker. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that humans, like other species, exhibit an enhanced sensitivity to the initial minutes of bright-light exposure.

  10. Coexistence of intermittencies in the neuronal network of the epileptic brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Moskalenko, Olga I.; Sitnikova, Evgenia; Pavlov, Alexey N.

    2016-03-01

    Intermittent behavior occurs widely in nature. At present, several types of intermittencies are known and well-studied. However, consideration of intermittency has usually been limited to the analysis of cases when only one certain type of intermittency takes place. In this paper, we report on the temporal behavior of the complex neuronal network in the epileptic brain, when two types of intermittent behavior coexist and alternate with each other. We prove the presence of this phenomenon in physiological experiments with WAG/Rij rats being the model living system of absence epilepsy. In our paper, the deduced theoretical law for distributions of the lengths of laminar phases prescribing the power law with a degree of -2 agrees well with the experimental neurophysiological data.

  11. Intermittent Fasting Modulation of the Diabetic Syndrome in Streptozotocin-Injected Rats

    PubMed Central

    Belkacemi, Louiza; Selselet-Attou, Ghalem; Hupkens, Emeline; Nguidjoe, Evrard; Louchami, Karim; Sener, Abdullah; Malaisse, Willy J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of intermittent overnight fasting in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Over 30 days, groups of 5-6 control or STZ rats were allowed free food access, starved overnight, or exposed to a restricted food supply comparable to that ingested by the intermittently fasting animals. Intermittent fasting improved glucose tolerance, increased plasma insulin, and lowered Homeostatis Model Assessment index. Caloric restriction failed to cause such beneficial effects. The β-cell mass, as well as individual β-cell and islet area, was higher in intermittently fasting than in nonfasting STZ rats, whilst the percentage of apoptotic β-cells appeared lower in the former than latter STZ rats. In the calorie-restricted STZ rats, comparable findings were restricted to individual islet area and percentage of apoptotic cells. Hence, it is proposed that intermittent fasting could represent a possible approach to prevent or minimize disturbances of glucose homeostasis in human subjects. PMID:22291702

  12. Robust, low-cost data loggers for stream temperature, flow intermittency, and relative conductivity monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapin, Thomas; Todd, Andrew S.; Zeigler, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature and streamflow intermittency are critical parameters influencing aquatic ecosystem health. Low-cost temperature loggers have made continuous water temperature monitoring relatively simple but determining streamflow timing and intermittency using temperature data alone requires significant and subjective data interpretation. Electrical resistance (ER) sensors have recently been developed to overcome the major limitations of temperature-based methods for the assessment of streamflow intermittency. This technical note introduces the STIC (Stream Temperature, Intermittency, and Conductivity logger); a robust, low-cost, simple to build instrument that provides long-duration, high-resolution monitoring of both relative conductivity (RC) and temperature. Simultaneously collected temperature and RC data provide unambiguous water temperature and streamflow intermittency information that is crucial for monitoring aquatic ecosystem health and assessing regulatory compliance. With proper calibration, the STIC relative conductivity data can be used to monitor specific conductivity.

  13. Intermittency, nonlinear dynamics and dissipation in the solar wind and astrophysical plasmas.

    PubMed

    Matthaeus, W H; Wan, Minping; Servidio, S; Greco, A; Osman, K T; Oughton, S; Dmitruk, P

    2015-05-13

    An overview is given of important properties of spatial and temporal intermittency, including evidence of its appearance in fluids, magnetofluids and plasmas, and its implications for understanding of heliospheric plasmas. Spatial intermittency is generally associated with formation of sharp gradients and coherent structures. The basic physics of structure generation is ideal, but when dissipation is present it is usually concentrated in regions of strong gradients. This essential feature of spatial intermittency in fluids has been shown recently to carry over to the realm of kinetic plasma, where the dissipation function is not known from first principles. Spatial structures produced in intermittent plasma influence dissipation, heating, and transport and acceleration of charged particles. Temporal intermittency can give rise to very long time correlations or a delayed approach to steady-state conditions, and has been associated with inverse cascade or quasi-inverse cascade systems, with possible implications for heliospheric prediction.

  14. Assessing fitness in endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-03-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels.

  15. Smoking, Exercise, and Physical Fitness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    activity , smoking behavior, and physical fitness were examined in 3,045 Navy personnel. Exercise and smoking behaviors were measured using a "life-style... physical endurance-both cardiorespiratory (1.5-mile run) and muscular (sit-ups). After controlling for the effects of exercise activity , smoking was...although smoking has been associated with lower physical activity in supervised exercise programs (Dishman, Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985). There has also

  16. Comparison Between the Continuous and Intermittent Heating Methods for Simultaneous Infrared Dry-Blanching and Dehydration of Apple Slices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD) can be operated in two heating modes, continuous and intermittent heating. Under continuous heating, infrared radiation intensity was kept constant while the product temperature remained constant under intermittent heating in this study. ...

  17. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, John M.; Zadoks, Abraham L.

    1993-11-30

    An improved gasifier adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications.

  18. Intermittently-fed high-pressure gasifier process

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, J.M.; Zadoks, A.L.

    1993-11-30

    An improved gasifier is described which is adapted for gasifying a predetermined charge of non-gaseous fuel into fuel gas. Each charge of non-gaseous fuel, which may have optional conditioning materials added to it, is intermittently fed to a gasifier chamber where each charge is partially burned with high-pressure air supplied thereto. High-pressure and temperature fuel gas is produced which is cleansed prior to passing out of the gasifier chamber. After gasification of the charge of fuel is ended, the gasifier chamber is vented. The residue of the burned charge in the gasifier chamber is removed, along with the contaminated or reacted conditioning materials, and replaced by a fresh charge. The subject invention provides a feasible way of continuously fueling an internal combustion engine with gasified fuel and is compact enough to be practical for even mobile applications. 3 figures.

  19. Acute intermittent porphyria: A critical diagnosis for favorable outcome

    PubMed Central

    Divecha, Chhaya; Tullu, Milind S.; Gandhi, Akanksha; Deshmukh, Chandrahas T.

    2016-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterized by the accumulation of toxic metabolites of the heme pathway. It rarely presents in the prepubertal age group. AIP often presents with nonspecific and nonlocalizing symptoms. Moreover, several commonly used medications and stress states are known to precipitate an attack. We present the case of a previously healthy 5 years female who was diagnosed as acute central nervous system infection/inflammation at admission. It was the presence of red flags that led to a correct diagnosis. Besides supportive management, a dedicated search for intravenous hemin (chemically heme arginate, aminolevulinic acid synthase inhibitor, and drug of choice) was attempted. Unexpected help was rendered by doctors from a medical college in Gujarat, and two ampoules could be obtained. The patient received three doses of intravenous hemin; however, she succumbed later. This case is presented for the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges faced in developing countries. PMID:27555700

  20. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tye A; Anderson, Todd W; Širović, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.