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Sample records for 30-day flow test

  1. Research on regulating technique of material flow for 2-person and 30-day integrated CELSS test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Ai, Weidang; Feng, Hongqi; Tang, Yongkang; Huang, Zhide; Shen, Yunze; Ren, Jin; Qin, Lifeng; Zeng, Gu; Zhang, Lihong; Zhu, Jingtao; Fei, Jinxue; Xu, Guoxin

    2014-07-01

    A man-plant integration test was processed using the CELSS integration experiment platform in which 4 kinds of plants were grown (Lactuca sativa L var. Dasusheng, L. sativa L var. Youmaicai, Gynura bicolor and Cichorium endivia L) to exchange material with 2 persons in order to research the dynamic changing laws and balanced regulation of air and water between man and plant in an inclosed system. In the test the material flow was measured so that the dynamically changing laws and balanced regulation of air and water between man and plant in the closed system were mostly mastered. The material closure degree of air, water and food reached 100%, 90% and 13.9% respectively with the whole system closure degree up to 95.1%. Meanwhile, it was proved that a 13.5 m2 planting area could meet the demand of one person for O2 in the system, and the energy efficiency ratio of which reached 59.56 g/(kW m2 day). The material flow dynamic balance-regulating technology was initially mastered between man and plant through the test. The interaction was realized among man, plant and environment in the closed system, which is of great significance to the advancement of long-term manned environment control and life support technology for China.

  2. Study on the kinetic characteristics of trace harmful gases for a two-person-30-day integrated CELSS test.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Fei, Jinxue; Xu, Guoxin; Zeng, Gu; Shen, Yunze

    2015-05-01

    A two-person-30-day controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) integrated test was carried out, and more than 30 kinds of trace harmful gases including formaldehyde, benzene, and ammonia were measured and analyzed dynamically. The results showed that the kinds and quantities of the trace harmful gases presented a continuously fluctuating state during the experimental period, but none of them exceed the spacecraft maximum allowable concentration (SMAC). The results of the Pre-Test (with two persons without plants for 3 days) and the Test (with two persons and four kinds of plants for 30 days) showed that there are some notable differences for the compositions of the trace harmful gases; the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as toluene, hexane, and acetamide were searched out in the Pre-Test, but were not found in the Test. Moreover, the concentrations of the trace harmful gases such as acetic benzene, formaldehyde, and ammonia decreased greatly in the Test more than those in the Pre-Test, which means that the plants can purify these gases efficiently. In addition, the VOCs such as carbon monoxide, cyclopentane, and dichloroethylene were checked out in the Test but none in the Pre-Test, which indicates that these materials might be from the crew's metabolites or those devices in the platform. Additionally, the ethylene released specially by plants accumulated in the later period and its concentration reached nearly ten times of 0.05 mg m(-3) (maximum allowed concentration for plant growth, which must have promoted the later withering of plants). We hoped that the work can play a referring function for controlling VOCs effectively so that future more CELSS integrating tests can be implemented smoothly with more crew, longer period, and higher closure. PMID:25483969

  3. 76 FR 17734 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-1998E, Foreign Service Officer Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for ] approval in accordance with.... Originating Office: Human Resources, HR/REE/BEX. Form Number: DS-1998E. Respondents: Registrants for the... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for up to 30 days from March 30, 2011. ADDRESSES: Direct...

  4. Preventing 30-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sherri

    2015-03-01

    Preventing 30-day readmissions to hospitals is a top priority in the era of health care reform. New regulations will be costly to health care facilities because of payment guidelines. The most frequently readmitted medical conditions are acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The transition from the hospital and into the home has been classified as a vulnerable time for many patients. During this time of transition patients may fail to fully understand their discharge instructions. Ineffective communication, low health literacy, and compliance issues contribute to readmissions. Telehealth and the use of technology may be used to prevent some readmissions. PMID:25680492

  5. Methods for estimating magnitude and frequency of 1-, 3-, 7-, 15-, and 30-day flood-duration flows in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2014-01-01

    Regression equations, which allow predictions of n-day flood-duration flows for selected annual exceedance probabilities at ungaged sites, were developed using generalized least-squares regression and flood-duration flow frequency estimates at 56 streamgaging stations within a single, relatively uniform physiographic region in the central part of Arizona, between the Colorado Plateau and Basin and Range Province, called the Transition Zone. Drainage area explained most of the variation in the n-day flood-duration annual exceedance probabilities, but mean annual precipitation and mean elevation were also significant variables in the regression models. Standard error of prediction for the regression equations varies from 28 to 53 percent and generally decreases with increasing n-day duration. Outside the Transition Zone there are insufficient streamgaging stations to develop regression equations, but flood-duration flow frequency estimates are presented at select streamgaging stations.

  6. Ares I-X 30 Day Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Bob; Smith, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation represents the 30 day report on the Ares I-X test flight. Included in the review is information on the following areas: (1) Ground Systems, (2) Guidance, Navigation and Control, (3) Roll Response, (4) Vehicle Response, (5) Control System Performance, (6) Structural Damping, (7) Thrust Oscillation, (8) Stage Separation, (9) Connector Assessment, (10) USS Splashdown, (11) Data Recorder and (12) FS Hardware Assessment.

  7. 75 FR 45121 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request; 30-Day Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request; 30-Day Notice... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human...

  8. Shuttle flight experiment 30-day summary report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A total of 12 AFT training sessions were administered to SL 3 Payload Specialists over a 7 month period. Nine of these sessions were 2 hours in duration and three were 3 hours in duration. A total of three rotating chair tests were conducted in this time frame with four subjects. The performance of these crewmen across tests is shown. Test 1, a baseline motion sickness test, was conducted approximately 10 months prior to the mission, before any AFT was administered. Test 2 was administered after 2 hours of AFT, test 3 after 4 hours and test 4 after 6 hours (total) of training in symptom control. Improvement in performance is reflected by a subject's ability to tolerate a greater number of rotations across tests. Additional training for crewman was not possible within the constraints of the mission. Results of the mission indicate that, as predicted preflight, subject #32 was relatively symptom free inflight while subject #33 was not. Other preflight and postflight tests and analyses are reported.

  9. 75 FR 48971 - 30-Day Notice; Agency Information Collection Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 30-Day Notice; Agency Information Collection Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. Agency Information Collection Request. 30 Day Public Comment Request. In compliance with the requirement...), Department of Health and Human Services, is publishing the following summary of a proposed collection...

  10. Effect of feeding in 30-day bioaccumulation assays using Hyalella azteca in fluoranthene-dosed sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Harkey, G.A.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Current protocols for conducting freshwater sediment bioaccumulation tests require that food be added to exposures. To determine effects of adding food, 30-day bioaccumulation assays were conducted with H. azteca exposed to sediment dosed with four concentrations (0.05 to 1,267 nmol/g dry weight) of fluoranthene. Accumulation was significantly greater in fed versus non-fed animals at all dose levels after 96 and 240 hours of exposure and continued to be greater after 30 days in the low dose levels. At sediment concentrations above 634 nmol/g dw, survival of unfed animals dropped to 34% after 30 days, However, after 30 days, reproduction was observed in fed animals exposed to sediment concentrations > 16 times the expected LC50 calculated for fluoranthene in sediment. These data raise questions concerning the interpretation of standard toxicity and bioaccumulation tests when food is routinely added.

  11. 78 FR 29147 - 30-Day Notice and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ..., 2013 at 78 FR 14807, allowing for OMB review and a 60-day public comment period. No comments were... SECURITY United States Secret Service 30-Day Notice and Request for Comments SUMMARY: The Department of... United States Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security, and sent via electronic mail to...

  12. 75 FR 160 - Paperwork Reduction Act; 30-Day Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Paperwork Reduction Act; 30-Day Notice AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) proposes the collection of information concerning...

  13. Discharge Outcomes in Seniors Hospitalized for More than 30 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozyrskyj, Anita; Black, Charlyn; Chateau, Dan; Steinbach, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    Hospitalization is a sentinel event that leads to loss of independence for many seniors. This study of long-stay hospitalizations (more than 30 days) in seniors was undertaken to identify risk factors for not going home, to characterize patients with risk factors who did go home and to describe one year outcomes following home discharge. Using…

  14. Low platelet activity predicts 30 days mortality in patients undergoing heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Kuliczkowski, Wiktor; Sliwka, Joanna; Kaczmarski, Jacek; Zysko, Dorota; Zembala, Michal; Steter, Dawid; Zembala, Marian; Gierlotka, Marek; Kim, Moo Hyun; Serebruany, Victor

    2016-03-01

    Despite advanced techniques and improved clinical outcomes, patient survival following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is still a major concern. Therefore, predicting future CABG mortality represents an unmet medical need and should be carefully explored. The objective of this study is to assess whether pre-CABG platelet activity corresponds with 30 days mortality post-CABG. Retrospective analyses of platelet biomarkers and death at 30 days in 478 heart surgery patients withdrawn from aspirin or/and clopidogrel. Platelet activity was assessed prior to CABG for aspirin (ASPI-test) with arachidonic acid and clopidogrel (ADP-test) utilizing Multiplate impedance aggregometer. Most patients (n = 198) underwent conventional CABG, off-pump (n = 162), minimally invasive (n = 30), artificial valve implantation (n = 48) or valves in combination with CABG (n = 40). There were 22 deaths at 30 days, including 10 in-hospital fatalities. With the cut-off value set below 407 area under curve (AUC) for the ASPI-test, the 30-day mortality was 5.90% for the lower cohort and 2.66% for patients with significantly higher platelet reactivity (P = 0.038). For the ADP-test with a cut-off at 400AUC, the 30-day mortality was 9.68% for the lower cohort and 3.66% for patients with higher platelet reactivity, representing a borderline significant difference (P = 0.046). Aside from the platelet indices, patients who received red blood cell (RBC) concentrate had a highly significant (P < 0.0001) risk of death at 30 days. Both aspirin and clopidogrel tests were useful in predicting 30 days mortality following heart surgery, suggesting the danger of diminished platelet activity prior to CABG in such high-risk patients. These preliminary evidence supports early discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy for elective CABG and requires adequately powered randomized trials to test the hypothesis and potentially improve survival. PMID:26366827

  15. Modulation of HLA-DR in dry eye patients following 30 days of treatment with a lubricant eyedrop solution

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Karen B; Epstein, Seth P; Raynor, Geoffrey S; Sheyman, Alan T; Massingale, Morgan L; Dentone, Peter G; Landegger, Lukas D; Asbell, Penny A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the changes in dry eye disease (DED) severity and the percentage of cells expressing HLA-DR on the ocular surface following treatment with lubricant eyedrops containing polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol (PEG/PG) and the gelling agent hydroxypropyl guar (HP-Guar). Patients and methods Nineteen patients with DED used PEG/PG + HP-Guar eyedrops four times per day for 30 days. Assessments included DED severity (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI], corneal staining, conjunctival staining, tear film break-up time [TFBUT], and Schirmer testing) and impression cytology of the conjunctiva with masked flow cytometry at baseline and at 30 days. Results There was a significant decrease in corneal staining (P<0.01), OSDI (P=0.02), and TFBUT (P<0.01) following treatment with PEG/PG + HP-Guar. Results from flow cytometry revealed a significant decrease in cells expressing HLA-DR (P=0.02). Conclusion Treatment with PEG/PG + HP-Guar eyedrops showed improvement in dry eye severity and reduction in surface inflammation as indicated by a reduction in HLA-DR expression. PMID:26170605

  16. Health literacy and 30-day hospital readmission after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Fang, Gang; Annis, Izabela E; O'Conor, Rachel; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the validity of a predictive model of health literacy, and to examine the relationship between derived health literacy estimates and 30-day hospital readmissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting and participants A National Institute of Aging (NIA) study cohort of 696 adult, English-speaking primary care patients, aged 55–74 years, was used to assess the validity of derived health literacy estimates. Claims from 7733 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalised for AMI in 2008 in North Carolina and Illinois were used to investigate the association between health literacy estimates and 30-day hospital readmissions. Measures The NIA cohort was administered 3 common health literacy assessments (Newest Vital Sign, Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, and Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine). Health literacy estimates at the census block group level were derived via a predictive model. 30-day readmissions were measured from Medicare claims data using a validated algorithm. Results Fair agreement was found between derived estimates and in-person literacy assessments (Pearson Correlation coefficients: 0.38–0.51; κ scores: 0.38–0.40). Medicare enrollees with above basic literacy according to derived health literacy estimates had an 18% lower risk of a 30-day readmission (RR=0.82, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.92) and 21% lower incidence rate of 30-day readmission (IRR=0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.87) than patients with basic or below basic literacy. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, the risk of 30-day readmission was 12% lower (p=0.03), and the incidence rate 16% lower (p<0.01) for patients with above basic literacy. Conclusions Health literacy, as measured by a predictive model, was found to be a significant, independent predictor of 30-day readmissions. As a modifiable risk factor with evidence-based solutions, health literacy should be considered in readmission reduction

  17. Vitamin D status predicts 30 day mortality in hospitalised cats.

    PubMed

    Titmarsh, Helen; Kilpatrick, Scott; Sinclair, Jennifer; Boag, Alisdair; Bode, Elizabeth F; Lalor, Stephanie M; Gaylor, Donna; Berry, Jacqueline; Bommer, Nicholas X; Gunn-Moore, Danielle; Reed, Nikki; Handel, Ian; Mellanby, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52) for cats with a serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OH)D concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats. PMID:25970442

  18. Vitamin D Status Predicts 30 Day Mortality in Hospitalised Cats

    PubMed Central

    Titmarsh, Helen; Kilpatrick, Scott; Sinclair, Jennifer; Boag, Alisdair; Bode, Elizabeth F.; Lalor, Stephanie M.; Gaylor, Donna; Berry, Jacqueline; Bommer, Nicholas X.; Gunn-Moore, Danielle; Reed, Nikki; Handel, Ian; Mellanby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52) for cats with a serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OH)D concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats. PMID:25970442

  19. Long-term (30 days) toxicity of NiO nanoparticles for adult zebrafish Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A.; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide in the form of nanoparticles (NiO NPs) is extensively used in different industrial branches. In a test on adult zebrafish, the acute toxicity of NiO NPs was shown to be low, however longlasting contact with this compound can lead to its accumulation in the tissues and to increased toxicity. In this work we determined the 30-day toxicity of NiO NPs using a static test for zebrafish Danio rerio. We found the 30-day LC50 value to be 45.0 mg/L, LC100 (minimum concentration causing 100% mortality) was 100.0 mg/L, and LC0 (maximum concentration causing no mortality) was 6.25 mg/L for adult individuals of zebrafish. Considering a broad use of Ni in the industry, NiO NPs chronic toxicity may have a negative impact on the population of aquatic organisms and on food web dynamics in aquatic systems. PMID:26038672

  20. Fluorescent Particles For Flow Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnell, Jeremy L.; Stern, Susan M.; Torkelson, Jan R.

    1995-01-01

    Small alumina spheres coated with fluorescent dye used in flow testing of transparent plastic model of check valve. Entrained fluroescent particles make flows visible. After completion of flow test, particles remaining in valve easily detectable and removed for measurement of their sizes.

  1. Causes of 30-day readmission after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jacob K; Washington, Chad W; Guniganti, Ridhima; Dacey, Ralph G; Derdeyn, Colin P; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Hospital readmission is a common but controversial quality measure increasingly used to influence hospital compensation in the US. The objective of this study was to evaluate the causes for 30-day hospital readmission following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to determine the appropriateness of this performance metric and to identify potential avenues for improved patient care. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who received surgical orendovas-cular treatment for aneurysmal SAH at Barnes-Jewish Hospital between 2003 and 2013. Two senior faculty identified by consensus the primary medical/surgical diagnosis associated with readmission as well as the underlying causes of rehospitalization. RESULTS Among 778 patients treated for aneurysmal SAH, 89 experienced a total of 97 readmission events, yielding a readmission rate of 11.4%. The median time from discharge to readmission was 9 days (interquartile range 3-17.5 days). Actual hydrocephalus or potential concern for hydrocephalus (e.g., headache) was the most frequent diagnosis (26/97, 26.8%), followed by infections (e.g., wound infection [5/97, 5.2%], urinary tract infection [3/97, 3.1%], and pneumonia [3/97, 3.1%]) and thromboembolic events (8/97, 8.2%). In most cases (75/97, 77.3%), we did not identify any treatment lapses contributing to readmission. The most common underlying causes for readmission were unavoidable development of SAH-related pathology (e.g., hydrocephalus; 36/97, 37.1%) and complications related to neurological impairment and immobility (e.g., thromboembolic event despite high-dose chemoprophylaxis; 21/97, 21.6%). The authors determined that 22/97 (22.7%) of the readmissions were likely preventable with alternative management. In these cases, insufficient outpatient medical care (for example, for hyponatremia; 16/97, 16.5%) was the most common shortcoming. CONCLUSIONS Most readmissions after aneurysmal SAH relate to late consequences of

  2. Risk Prediction of Emergency Department Revisit 30 Days Post Discharge: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shiying; Jin, Bo; Shin, Andrew Young; Zhao, Yifan; Zhu, Chunqing; Li, Zhen; Hu, Zhongkai; Fu, Changlin; Ji, Jun; Wang, Yong; Zhao, Yingzhen; Dai, Dorothy; Culver, Devore S.; Alfreds, Shaun T.; Rogow, Todd; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G.; Widen, Eric; Ling, Xuefeng B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Among patients who are discharged from the Emergency Department (ED), about 3% return within 30 days. Revisits can be related to the nature of the disease, medical errors, and/or inadequate diagnoses and treatment during their initial ED visit. Identification of high-risk patient population can help device new strategies for improved ED care with reduced ED utilization. Methods and Findings A decision tree based model with discriminant Electronic Medical Record (EMR) features was developed and validated, estimating patient ED 30 day revisit risk. A retrospective cohort of 293,461 ED encounters from HealthInfoNet (HIN), Maine's Health Information Exchange (HIE), between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2012, was assembled with the associated patients' demographic information and one-year clinical histories before the discharge date as the inputs. To validate, a prospective cohort of 193,886 encounters between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013 was constructed. The c-statistics for the retrospective and prospective predictions were 0.710 and 0.704 respectively. Clinical resource utilization, including ED use, was analyzed as a function of the ED risk score. Cluster analysis of high-risk patients identified discrete sub-populations with distinctive demographic, clinical and resource utilization patterns. Conclusions Our ED 30-day revisit model was prospectively validated on the Maine State HIN secure statewide data system. Future integration of our ED predictive analytics into the ED care work flow may lead to increased opportunities for targeted care intervention to reduce ED resource burden and overall healthcare expense, and improve outcomes. PMID:25393305

  3. Changes in size and compliance of the calf after 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Stein, Stewart L.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that reducing muscle compartment by a long-term exposure to microgravity would cause increased leg venous compliance was tested in eight men who were assessed for vascular compliance and for serial circumferences of the calf before and after 30 days of continuous 6-deg head-down bed rest. It was found that head-down bed rest caused decreases in the calculated calf volume and the calf-muscle compartment, as well as increases in calf compliance. The percent increases in calf compliance correlated significantly with decreases in calf muscle compartment.

  4. Development of Lightweight Material Composites to Insulate Cryogenic Tanks for 30-Day Storage in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for an MLI system which will meet the design constraints of an ILRV used for 7- to 30-day missions. The ten tasks are briefly described: (1) material survey and procurement, material property tests, and selection of composites to be considered; (2) definition of environmental parameters and tooling requirements, and thermal and structural design verification test definition; (3) definition of tanks and associated hardware to be used, and definition of MLI concepts to be considered; (4) thermal analyses, including purge, evacuation, and reentry repressurization analyses; (5) structural analyses (6) thermal degradation tests of composite and structural tests of fastener; (7) selection of MLI materials and system; (8) definition of a conceptual MLI system design; (9) evaluation of nondestructive inspection techniques and definition of procedures for repair of damaged areas; and (10) preparation of preliminary specifications.

  5. Inpatient Readmissions and Emergency Department Visits within 30 Days of a Hospital Admission

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Jesse J.; Chan, Theodore C.; Killeen, James P.; Castillo, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inpatient hospital readmissions have become a focus for healthcare reform and cost-containment efforts. Initiatives targeting unanticipated readmissions have included care coordination for specific high readmission diseases and patients and health coaching during the post-discharge transition period. However, little research has focused on emergency department (ED) visits following an inpatient admission. The objective of this study was to assess 30-day ED utilization and all-cause readmissions following a hospital admission. Methods This was a retrospective study using inpatient and ED utilization data from two hospitals with a shared patient population in 2011. We assessed the 30-day ED visit rate and 30-day readmission rate and compared patient characteristics among individuals with 30-day inpatient readmissions, 30-day ED discharges, and no 30-day visits. Results There were 13,449 patients who met the criteria of an index visit. Overall, 2,453 (18.2%) patients had an ED visit within 30 days of an inpatient stay. However, only 55.6% (n=1,363) of these patients were admitted at one of these 30-day visits, resulting in a 30-day all-cause readmission rate of 10.1%. Conclusion Approximately one in five patients presented to the ED within 30 days of an inpatient hospitalization and over half of these patients were readmitted. Readmission measures that incorporate ED visits following an inpatient stay might better inform interventions to reduce avoidable readmissions. PMID:26759647

  6. The Relationship Between Nurse Staffing and 30-Day Readmission for Adults With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Karen K.; Danesh, Valerie; Funk, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between nurse staffing and 30-day excess readmission ratios for patients with heart failure in the top US adult cardiology and heart surgery hospitals. BACKGROUND Heart failure is the most common cause of hospitalization for patients older than 65 years and is the most frequent diagnosis associated with 30-day hospital readmission in the United States. METHODS A secondary data analysis was conducted using nurse staffing data from 661 cardiology and heart surgery hospitals from the 2013 US News & World Report “Best Hospitals” survey. These data were combined with excess readmission ratios from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hospital Compare database from 2013. An independent-samples t test was used to compare staffing (low/high) and excess hospital readmissions rates. RESULTS A significant difference (P = .021) was found between the low nurse staffing group (n = 358) and the high nurse staffing group (n = 303). Hospitals with a lower nurse staffing index had a significantly higher excess readmission rate. CONCLUSION These data provide further support to the body of research showing a positive relationship between nurse staffing and positive outcomes. PMID:26579974

  7. Preventing 30-day hospital readmissions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Leppin, Aaron L.; Gionfriddo, Michael R.; Kessler, Maya; Brito, Juan Pablo; Mair, Frances S.; Gallacher, Katie; Wang, Zhen; Erwin, Patricia J.; Sylvester, Tanya; Boehmer, Kasey; Ting, Henry H.; Murad, M. Hassan; Shippee, Nathan D.; Montori, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Reducing early (<30 days) hospital readmissions is a policy priority aimed at improving healthcare quality. The Cumulative Complexity Model conceptualizes patient context. It predicts that highly supportive discharge interventions will enhance patient capacity to enact burdensome self-care and avoid readmissions. Objectives To synthesize the evidence of the efficacy of interventions to reduce early hospital readmissions and identify intervention features—including their impact on treatment burden and on patients’ capacity to enact post-discharge self-care—that might explain their varying effects. Data Sources We searched electronic databases (1990 until April 1st, 2013), contacted experts, and reviewed bibliographies. Study Selection Randomized trials that assessed the effect of interventions on all-cause or unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge in adult patients admitted to the hospital for a medical or surgical cause for > 24 hours and discharged to home. Data extraction and Synthesis Reviewer pairs extracted trial characteristics and used an activity-based coding strategy to characterize the interventions; fidelity was confirmed with authors. Blinded to trial outcomes, reviewers noted the extent to which interventions placed additional work on patients after discharge or supported their capacity for self-care in accordance with the Cumulative Complexity Model. Main Outcome Relative risk of all-cause or unplanned readmission with or without out of hospital deaths at 30 days post-discharge. Results In 42 trials, the tested interventions prevented early readmissions [pooled random effects relative risk (RR) 0.82, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.91; p=.03; I2= 32%], a finding that was consistent across patient subgroups. Trials published before 2002 reported interventions that were 1.6 times more effective than those tested later (pinteraction = .01). In exploratory subgroup analyses, interventions with many components (pinteraction <.01), involving

  8. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  9. Continuous 30-day measurements utilizing the monkey metabolism pod. [study of weightlessness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    A fiberglass system was previously described, using which quantitative physiological measurements could be made to study the effects of weightlessness on 10 to 14 kg adult monkeys maintained in comfortable restraint under space flight conditions. Recent improvements in the system have made it possible to obtain continuous measurements of respiratory gas exchange, cardiovascular function, and mineral balance for periods of up to 30 days on pig-tailed monkeys. It has also been possible to operate two pods which share one set of instrumentation, thereby permitting simultaneous measurements to be made on two animals by commutating signal outputs from the pods. In principle, more than two pods could be operated in this fashion. The system is compatible with Spacelab design. Representative physiological data from ground tests of the system are presented.

  10. 78 FR 65695 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    .... ACTION: Correction, notice. SUMMARY: On October 25, 2013 at 78 FR 64146 HUD published a 30 day notice of... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette...

  11. 17 CFR 41.12 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 41.12 Section 41.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SECURITY FUTURES PRODUCTS Narrow-Based Security Indexes § 41.12 Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of sale...

  12. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Delivery of merchandise. Within the 30-day period set forth in paragraph (b) of this section, the importer... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance...

  13. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Delivery of merchandise. Within the 30-day period set forth in paragraph (b) of this section, the importer... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance...

  14. Trends in 30-day mortality rate and case mix for paediatric cardiac surgery in the UK between 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine L; Crowe, Sonya; Franklin, Rodney; McLean, Andrew; Cunningham, David; Barron, David; Tsang, Victor; Pagel, Christina; Utley, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore changes over time in the 30-day mortality rate for paediatric cardiac surgery and to understand the role of attendant changes in the case mix. Methods, setting and participants Included were: all mandatory submissions to the National Institute of Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR) relating to UK cardiac surgery in patients aged <16 years. The χ2 test for trend was used to retrospectively analyse the proportion of surgical episodes ending in 30-day mortality and with various case mix indicators, in 10 consecutive time periods, from 2000 to 2010. Comparisons were made between two 5-year eras of: 30-day mortality, period prevalence and mean age for 30 groups of specific operations. Main outcome measure 30-day mortality for an episode of surgical management. Results Our analysis includes 36 641 surgical episodes with an increase from 2283 episodes in 2000 to 3939 in 2009 (p<0.01). The raw national 30-day mortality rate fell over the period of review from 4.3% (95% CI 3.5% to 5.1%) in 2000 to 2.6% (95% CI 2.2% to 3.0%) in 2009/2010 (p<0.01). The case mix became more complex in terms of the percentage of patients <2.5 kg (p=0.05), with functionally univentricular hearts (p<0.01) and higher risk diagnoses (p<0.01). In the later time era, there was significant improvement in 30-day mortality for arterial switch with ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair, patent ductus arteriosus ligation, Fontan-type operation, tetralogy of Fallot and VSD repair, and the mean age of patients fell for a range of operations performed in infancy. Conclusions The raw 30-day mortality rate for paediatric cardiac surgery fell over a decade despite a rise in the national case mix complexity, and compares well with international benchmarks. Definitive repair is now more likely at a younger age for selected infants with congenital heart defects. PMID:25893099

  15. Cold Flow Verification Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Shamsi, A.; Shadle, L.J.

    1996-12-31

    The cold flow verification test facility consists of a 15-foot high, 3-foot diameter, domed vessel made of clear acrylic in two flanged sections. The unit can operate up to pressures of 14 psig. The internals include a 10-foot high jetting fluidized bed, a cylindrical baffle that hangs from the dome, and a rotating grate for control of continuous solids removal. The fluid bed is continuously fed solids (20 to 150 lb/hr) through a central nozzle made up of concentric pipes. It can either be configured as a half or full cylinder of various dimensions. The fluid bed has flow loops for separate air flow control for conveying solids (inner jet, 500 to 100000 scfh) , make-up into the jet (outer jet, 500 to 8000 scfh), spargers in the solids removal annulus (100 to 2000 scfh), and 6 air jets (20 to 200 scfh) on the sloping conical grid. Additional air (500 to 10000 scfh) can be added to the top of the dome and under the rotating grate. The outer vessel, the hanging cylindrical baffles or skirt, and the rotating grate can be used to study issues concerning moving bed reactors. There is ample allowance for access and instrumentation in the outer shell. Furthermore, this facility is available for future Cooperative Research and Development Program Manager Agreements (CRADA) to study issues and problems associated with fluid- and fixed-bed reactors. The design allows testing of different dimensions and geometries.

  16. 78 FR 59046 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  17. 78 FR 60886 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; Quantification of Behavioral and Physiological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... best assured of having their full effect if received within 30-days of the date of this publication... different drugs. The primary purpose of the data collected is to determine eligibility in a...

  18. 78 FR 44579 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fellowship Placement Pilot Program.... A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Fellowship Placement Pilot.... Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The Fellowship Placement Program places...

  19. 77 FR 50157 - Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: National Park...

  20. 78 FR 36562 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Home Equity Conversion Mortgage... Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Home Equity Conversion Mortgage (HECM) Insurance... Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT) System is HUD's system of record for the HECM program and...

  1. 78 FR 36561 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: The Housing Counseling Federal Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: The Housing Counseling Federal... Information Collection: The Housing Counseling Federal Advisory Committee Membership Application. OMB Approval... for the information and proposed use: The Housing Counseling Federal Advisory Committee (HCFAC)...

  2. 78 FR 39001 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Uniform Physical Standards and Physical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Uniform Physical Standards and Physical Inspection Requirements AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice... Information Collection: Uniform Physical Standards and Physical Inspection Requirements. OMB Approval...

  3. 78 FR 37834 - Submission for OMB review; 30-Day Comment Request; Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB review; 30-Day Comment Request; Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research (FITBIR) Informatics System Data Access Request SUMMARY: Under the... Collection: Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research (FITBIR) Informatics System Data...

  4. Utility of Socioeconomic Status in Predicting 30-Day Outcomes After Heart Failure Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Zubin J.; McCoy, Lisa A.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Yancy, Clyde W.; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Peterson, Eric D.; Califf, Robert M.; Hernandez, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    Background An individual's socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with health outcomes and mortality, yet it is unknown whether accounting for SES can improve risk-adjustment models for 30-day outcomes among Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) beneficiaries hospitalized with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results We linked clinical data on hospitalized HF patients in the Get With The Guidelines®-HF™ database (01/2005–12/2011) with CMS claims and county-level SES data from the 2012 Area Health Resources Files. We compared the discriminatory capabilities of multivariable models that adjusted for SES, patient, and/or hospital characteristics to determine whether county-level SES data improved prediction or changed hospital rankings for 30-day all-cause mortality and rehospitalization. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, median household income (per $5,000 increase) was inversely associated with odds of 30-day mortality (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95–1.00, p=0.032), and the percentage of persons with at least a high school diploma (per 5 unit increase) was associated with lower odds of 30-day rehospitalization (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91–0.99).After adjustment for county-level SES data, relative to whites, Hispanic ethnicity (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58, 0.83) and black race (OR 0.57, 95% CI: 0.50–0.65) remained significantly associated with lower 30-day mortality, but had similar 30-day rehospitalization. County-level SES did not improve risk adjustment or change hospital rankings for 30-day mortality or rehospitalization. Conclusions County-level SES data are modestly associated with 30-day outcomes for CMS beneficiaries hospitalized with HF, but do not improve risk adjustment models based on patient characteristics alone. PMID:25747700

  5. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-3 - Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(d)-3 Special 30-day rules for... not qualify for, or the payor does not apply, the 90-day grace period described in § 1.6049-5(d)(2)(ii... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Special 30-day rules for certain...

  6. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-3 - Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(d)-3 Special 30-day rules for... not qualify for, or the payor does not apply, the 90-day grace period described in § 1.6049-5(d)(2)(ii... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special 30-day rules for certain...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-3 - Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(d)-3 Special 30-day rules for... not qualify for, or the payor does not apply, the 90-day grace period described in § 1.6049-5(d)(2)(ii... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special 30-day rules for certain...

  8. Predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Safatli, Diaa A.; Günther, Albrecht; Schlattmann, Peter; Schwarz, Falko; Kalff, Rolf; Ewald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a life threatening entity, and an early outcome assessment is mandatory for optimizing therapeutic efforts. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 342 patients with spontaneous primary ICH to evaluate possible predictors of 30-day mortality considering clinical, radiological, and therapeutical parameters. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. Results: From 342 patients (mean age: 67 years, mean Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] on admission: 9, mean ICH volume: 62.19 ml, most common hematoma location: basal ganglia [43.9%]), 102 received surgical and 240 conservative treatment. The 30-day mortality was 25.15%. In a multivariate analysis, GCS (Odds ratio [OR] =0.726, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.661–0.796, P < 0.001), bleeding volume (OR = 1.012 per ml, 95% CI = 1.007 – 1.017, P < 0.001), and infratentorial hematoma location (OR = 5.381, 95% CI = 2.166-13.356, P = 0.009) were significant predictors for the 30-day mortality. After receiver operating characteristics analysis, we defined a “high-risk group” for an unfavorable short-term outcome with GCS <11 and ICH volume >32 ml supratentorially or 21 ml infratentorially. Using Pearson correlation, we found a correlation of 0.986 between ICH score and 30-day mortality (P < 0.001), 0.853 between FUNC score and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001), and 0.924 between ICH-GS and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001). Conclusions: GCS score on admission together with the baseline volume and localization of the hemorrhage are strong

  9. Testing the frozen flow approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Melott, Adrian L.; Moscardini, Lauro

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of the frozen-flow approximation (FFA), recently proposed by Matarrese, et al. (1992), for following the nonlinear evolution of cosmological density fluctuations under gravitational instability. We compare a number of statistics between results of the FFA and n-body simulations, including those used by Melott, Pellman & Shandarin (1993) to test the Zel'dovich approximation. The FFA performs reasonably well in a statistical sense, e.g. in reproducing the counts-in-cell distribution, at small scales, but it does poorly in the crosscorrelation with n-body which means it is generally not moving mass to the right place, especially in models with high small-scale power.

  10. Characteristics of patients dying within 30 days of diagnosis of breast or colorectal cancer in Scotland, 2003–2007

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, D H; Clark, D I; Stockton, D L; Munro, A J; Steele, R J C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recent research has shown that most of the excess risk of death following breast and colorectal cancer in England compared with Norway and Sweden occurs in older age groups during the first year, and especially in the first month of follow-up. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of patients dying within 30 days of being diagnosed with one of these cancers in Scotland during 2003–2007. Methods: Anonymised cancer registry records linked to hospital discharge and death records were extracted. The study population was divided into patients who died within 30 days of diagnosis (cases) and those who survived beyond this threshold (controls). Differences in patient-, tumour-, and health service-related characteristics were assessed using the χ2-test and logistic regression. Results: Patients dying within 30 days were more likely to be elderly and to have experienced emergency admission to non-surgical specialities. Their tumours were less likely to have been verified microscopically, but they appeared more likely to be of high grade and advanced in stage. A substantial number of patients died from causes other than their cancer. Conclusion: These results suggest that early mortality after a diagnosis of breast or colorectal cancer may be partly due to comorbidity and lifestyle factors, as well as due to more advanced disease. Further research is required to determine the precise explanation for these findings and, in particular, if any potentially avoidable factors such as delays in presentation, referral, or diagnosis exist. PMID:21206498

  11. Half of 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among HIV-Infected Patients Are Potentially Preventable

    PubMed Central

    Kitchell, Ellen; Etherton, Sarah Shelby; Duarte, Piper; Halm, Ethan A.; Jain, Mamta K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirty-day readmission rates, a widely utilized quality metric, are high among HIV-infected individuals. However, it is unknown how many 30-day readmissions are preventable, especially in HIV patients, who have been excluded from prior potentially preventable readmission analyses. We used electronic medical records to identify all readmissions within 30 days of discharge among HIV patients hospitalized at a large urban safety net hospital in 2011. Two independent reviewers assessed whether readmissions were potentially preventable using both published criteria and detailed chart review, how readmissions might have been prevented, and the phase of care deemed suboptimal (inpatient care, discharge planning, post-discharge). Of 1137 index admissions, 213 (19%) resulted in 30-day readmissions. These admissions occurred among 930 unique HIV patients, with 130 individuals (14%) experiencing 30-day readmissions. Of these 130, about half were determined to be potentially preventable using published criteria (53%) or implicit chart review (48%). Not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) greatly increased the odds of a preventable readmission (OR 5.9, CI:2.4–14.8). Most of the preventable causes of readmission were attributed to suboptimal care during the index hospitalization. Half of 30-day readmission in HIV patients are potentially preventable. Increased focus on early ART initiation, adherence counseling, management of chronic conditions, and appropriate timing of discharge may help reduce readmissions in this vulnerable population. PMID:26154066

  12. Predictive factors of mortality within 30 days in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Min, Bo Ram; Kim, Eun Soo; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin; Hwang, Jae Seok; Jeon, Seong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a common medical emergency that can be life threatening. This study evaluated predictive factors of 30-day mortality in patients with this condition. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted at a single hospital between April 2010 and November 2012, and 336 patients with symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal bleeding were consecutively enrolled. Clinical characteristics and endoscopic findings were reviewed to identify potential factors associated with 30-day mortality. Results: Overall, 184 patients were included in the study (men, 79.3%; mean age, 59.81 years), and 16 patients died within 30 days (8.7%). Multivariate analyses revealed that comorbidity of diabetes mellitus (DM) or metastatic malignancy, age ≥ 65 years, and hypotension (systolic pressure < 90 mmHg) during hospitalization were significant predictive factors of 30-day mortality. Conclusions: Comorbidity of DM or metastatic malignancy, age ≥ 65 years, and hemodynamic instability during hospitalization were predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with NVUGIB. These results will help guide the management of patients with this condition. PMID:26767858

  13. Using data linkage to generate 30-day crash-fatality adjustment factors for Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Huei; Huang, Wei-Shin; Chang, Kai-Kuo; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Doong, Ji-Liang

    2006-07-01

    Different countries have their own police reporting time standards for counting the number of fatalities in reported crashes. A rapid estimation method (such as adjustment factor) for the comparison is important. The data-linkage technique was used to combine police-reported crash data and vital registration data, in order to generate 30-day fatality adjustment factors for various reporting time standards, which could also shed light on the fatal injury trend over time. The major findings were as follows. Firstly, a conservative 30-day fatality adjustment factor for the first day (or 24 h) would be 1.54 (or 1.35) in an area with a large motorcycle population, like Taiwan. This produced 20-40% higher 30-day fatalities than UK Transport Research Laboratory predicted, and 15-25% higher fatalities than those in Europe/Japan. Secondly, after excluding motorcycle impacts, the Taiwanese factors suggested 8-14% higher fatalities within 30 days than those in Europe/Japan. Third, motorcycle fatalities influenced the overall 30-day fatality trend within 3 days. In the future, both the police under-reporting problem and the motorcycle/overall fatal injury pattern within 3 days after crashing in developing countries like Taiwan merit further investigation. PMID:16430844

  14. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and 30-day mortality among patients with pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Ghiasi, Farzin; Ahmadpoor, Amin; Amra, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the most life-threatening form of venous thrombosis which causes the majority of mortalities in this category. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been indicated as one of the risk factors for thromboembolism because of hemostatic alterations. The present study was designed to seek for the relationship between OSA and 30-day mortality of patients with PE. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted among 137 consecutive patients referred to hospital with symptoms of PE and preliminary stable hemodynamic. Confirmation of PE was made by multislice computed tomography pulmonary angiography and in the case of contraindication; V/Q lung scan and Doppler sonography were done. A STOP-Bang Questionnaire was used to determine patients with high- and low-risk of OSA. Patients were followed up for 1-month, and their survivals were recorded. Results: This study showed that there was no relationship between OSA and 30-day mortality (P = 0.389). Chronic kidney disease (P = 0.004), hypertension (P = 0.003), main thrombus (P = 0.004), and segmental thrombus (P = 0.022) were associated with 30-day mortality. In the logistic regression analysis, history of chronic kidney disease was diagnosed as a risk factor for 30-day mortality among the PE patients (P = 0.029, odds ratio = 4.93). Conclusion: Results of this study showed 30-day mortality was not affected by OSA directly. In fact, it was affected by complications of OSA such as hypertension and thrombus. Also, positive history of chronic kidney disease increased the risk of 30-day mortality. PMID:26622255

  15. Extent of Surgery Does Not Influence 30-Day Mortality in Surgery for Metastatic Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Michala Skovlund; Hindsø, Klaus; Hovgaard, Thea Bechmann; Petersen, Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Estimating patient survival has hitherto been the main focus when treating metastatic bone disease (MBD) in the appendicular skeleton. This has been done in an attempt to allocate the patient to a surgical procedure that outlives them. No questions have been addressed as to whether the extent of the surgery and thus the surgical trauma reduces survival in this patient group. We wanted to evaluate if perioperative parameters such as blood loss, extent of bone resection, and duration of surgery were risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients having surgery due to MBD in the appendicular skeleton. We retrospectively identified 270 consecutive patients who underwent joint replacement surgery or intercalary spacing for skeletal metastases in the appendicular skeleton from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013. We collected intraoperative (duration of surgery, extent of bone resection, and blood loss), demographic (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologist score [ASA score], and Karnofsky score), and disease-specific (primary cancer) variables. An association with 30-day mortality was addressed using univariate and multivariable analyses and calculation of odds ratio (OR). All patients were included in the analysis. ASA score 3 + 4 (OR 4.16 [95% confidence interval, CI, 1.80–10.85], P = 0.002) and Karnofsky performance status below 70 (OR 7.34 [95% CI 3.16–19.20], P < 0.001) were associated with increased 30-day mortality in univariate analysis. This did not change in multivariable analysis. No parameters describing the extent of the surgical trauma were found to be associated with 30-day mortality. The 30-day mortality in patients undergoing surgery for MBD is highly dependent on the general health status of the patients as measured by the ASA score and the Karnofsky performance status. The extent of surgery, measured as duration of surgery, blood loss, and degree of bone resection were not associated with 30-day mortality. PMID:27082592

  16. Myelinated fibers of the mouse spinal cord after a 30-day space flight.

    PubMed

    Povysheva, T V; Rezvyakov, P N; Shaimardanova, G F; Nikolskii, E E; Islamov, R R; Chelyshev, Yu A; Grygoryev, A I

    2016-07-01

    Myelinated fibers and myelin-forming cells in the spinal cord at the L3-L5 level were studied in C57BL/6N mice that had spent 30 days in space. Signs of destruction of myelin in different areas of white matter, reduction of the thickness of myelin sheath and axon diameter, decreased number of myelin-forming cells were detected in "flight" mice. The stay of mice in space during 30 days had a negative impact on the structure of myelinated fibers and caused reduced expression of the markers myelin-forming cells. These findings can complement the pathogenetic picture of the development of hypogravity motor syndrome. PMID:27595822

  17. 30-Day morbidity after augmentation enterocystoplasty and appendicovesicostomy: a NSQIP pediatric analysis

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Erin R.; Kurtz, Michael P.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Logvinenko, Tanya; Nelson, Caleb P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction Augmentation enterocystoplasty and appendicovesicostomy are complex pediatric urologic procedures. Although there is literature identifying long-term outcomes in these patients, the reporting of short-term postoperative outcomes has been limited by small numbers of cases and lack of prospective data collection. Here we report 30-day outcomes from the first nationally based, prospectively assembled cohort of pediatric patients undergoing these procedures. Objective To determine 30-day complication, readmission and reoperation after augmentation enterocystoplasty and appendicovesicostomy in a large national sample of pediatric patients, and to explore the association between preoperative and intraoperative characteristics and occurrence of any 30-day event. Study design We queried the 2012 and 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric database (ACS-NSQIPP) for all patients undergoing augmentation enterocystoplasty and/or appendicovesicostomy. Surgical risk score was classified on a linear scale using a validated pediatric-specific comorbidity score. Intraoperative characteristics and postoperative 30-day events were reported from prospectively collected data. A composite measure of complication, readmission and/or reoperation was used as primary outcome for the multivariate logistic regression. Results There were 461 patients included in the analysis: 245 had appendicovesicostomy, 97 had augmentation enterocystoplasty and 119 had both procedures. There were a total of 110 NSQIP complications seen in 87 patients. The most common complication was urinary tract infection(see Table for 30-day outcomes by patient). The composite measure of any 30-day event was seen in 27.8% of the cohort and this was associated with longer operative time, increased number of procedures done at time of primary surgical procedure and higher surgical risk score. Discussion The ACS-NSQIPP provides a tool to examine short

  18. Lower 30-day readmission rates with roflumilast treatment among patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Alex Z; Sun, Shawn X; Huang, Xingyue; Amin, Alpesh N

    2015-01-01

    Background Few data exist related to the impact of roflumilast on health care utilization. This retrospective study estimated 30-day hospital readmission rates between patients who did and did not use roflumilast among those with COPD hospitalizations. Methods Data were from MarketScan, a large US commercial health insurance claims database. Patients aged ≥40 years with at least one hospitalization for COPD between 2010 and 2011 were included. The roflumilast group included patients who used roflumilast within 14 days after the first hospitalization (index), while the comparison group (non-roflumilast) included patients who did not use roflumilast during the study period. Continuous enrollment for at least 6 months before and 30 days after the index date was required. The 30-day hospitalization rate was calculated after the index hospitalization. Conditional logistic regression with propensity score 1:3 matching was employed to assess the difference in 30-day hospital readmission rates between the roflumilast and non-roflumilast groups, adjusting for baseline characteristics, comorbidity, health care utilization, and COPD medication use within 14 days after the index date. Results A total of 15,755 COPD patients met the selection criteria, ie, 366 (2.3%) in the roflumilast group and 15,389 (97.7%) in the non-roflumilast group. The mean (± standard deviation) age was 71±12.5 years and 52% were female. After propensity score matching, all-cause 30-day hospitalization rates were 6.9% and 11.1% in the roflumilast and non-roflumilast groups, respectively. COPD-related 30-day hospitalization rates were 6.3% and 9.2% in the roflumilast and non-roflumilast groups, respectively. Conditional logistic regression identified a significantly lower likelihood of all-cause 30-day readmission (odds ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.37–0.93, P=0.023) for roflumilast patients relative to non-roflumilast patients. Conclusion This study showed, in a real-world setting, that

  19. Effects of leg strength and bicycle ergometry exercise on cardiovascular deconditioning after 30-day head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Liu, Yusheng; Sun, Hongyi; Zhao, Dongming; Wang, Yue; Wu, Ping; Ni, Chengzhi

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the intermittent leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could attenuate cardiovascular deconditioning induced by prolonged -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR). Fifteen male subjects were randomly allocated into group A ( n=5, 30 days HDBR without exercise), group B ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with leg muscular strength exercise) and group C ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with bicycle ergometry exercise). The orthostatic tolerance (OT) was determined by +75°/20 min head-up tilt (HUT) test and the submaximal exercise capacity was determined by bicycle ergometry before and after HDBR. The results were as follows: (1) Compared with that before HDBR, OT time decreased dramatically by 57.6% ( p<0.001) after HDBR in group A, while it decreased by 36.4% ( p=0.084) in group B and by 34.7% ( p=0.062) in group C. (2) Compared with that before HDBR, the submaximal exercise time decreased significantly by 17.7% ( p<0.05) and 21.1% ( p<0.05) in groups A and B, respectively, after HDBR. However, it had no change (+1.3%, p>0.77) in group C. (3) compared with that before HDBR, the changes of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were slightly improved in group B and C, while deteriorated in group A during orthostatic test and exercise test after HDBR. The results indicate that leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could partially attenuate the cardiovascular deconditioning induced by 30 d HDBR, and the latter exercise training could fully provide the protection for the loss of exercise capacity.

  20. 78 FR 66042 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 3 Business Registry Pilot Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 3 Business Registry Pilot..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  1. 75 FR 45118 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions; (2) the accuracy of the estimated burden;...

  2. 75 FR 45120 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions; (2) the accuracy of the estimated burden;...

  3. 75 FR 45118 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  4. 77 FR 29348 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  5. 75 FR 63479 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is..., Director, Office of Resources Management; Office of the Chief Information Officer. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  6. 77 FR 47702 - 30-Day Notice of Request for Approval: Statutory Authority To Preserve Rail Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... this collection in the Federal Register on February 10, 2012, at 77 FR 7236-37 (60-day notice). That... Surface Transportation Board 30-Day Notice of Request for Approval: Statutory Authority To Preserve Rail Service AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY:...

  7. 75 FR 77935 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-160, Online Application for Nonimmigrant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-160, Online Application for Nonimmigrant Visa, OMB 1405... of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Online Application for Nonimmigrant Visa. OMB...

  8. 75 FR 21294 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Office of Management and Budget to extend data collection regarding the status of the health care system... September 2009 HHS has collected data on bed availability, health care system resource needs such as... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office...

  9. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry. 158.42 Section 158.42 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) RELIEF FROM DUTIES ON MERCHANDISE LOST, DAMAGED, ABANDONED, OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned,...

  10. 78 FR 79474 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Father's Day

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...HUD has submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public...

  11. 78 FR 24220 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Next of kin 936 1 .6/60 92 Physician/Office Staff 17 1 5/60 1 * Annual burden is placed on health care... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request:...

  12. 17 CFR 41.12 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 41.12 Section 41.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SECURITY FUTURES PRODUCTS Narrow-Based Security Indexes § 41.12 Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for...

  13. 75 FR 67976 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... requirements of Section 512 of the Recovery Act, set forth by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  14. 78 FR 19496 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; The National Cancer Institute (NCI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... of eHealth/ mHealth tobacco cessation intervention programs. SmokefreeTXT has been developed (and is... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request;...

  15. 78 FR 40314 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fair Housing Initiatives Program Grant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fair Housing Initiatives Program Grant AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD has...

  16. 77 FR 62595 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Passport Demand Forecasting Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Passport Demand Forecasting Study ACTION: Notice of request... Department of State has submitted the information collection described below to the Office of Management and... is to allow 30 days for public comment. DATES: Submit comments directly to the Office of...

  17. 78 FR 46359 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards Payee Verification and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ...HUD has submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public...

  18. 78 FR 64146 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ...HUD has submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public...

  19. Enhanced recovery of Phytophthora ramorum from soil following 30 days storage at 4C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlamydospores of Phytophthora ramorum produced by mixing 20 percent V8 juice broth cultures with sand and incubating over a 30 day period were used to infest field soil at densities ranging from 0.2 to 42 chlamydospores per cubic centimeter of soil. Chlamydospore recovery was determined by baiting...

  20. 78 FR 36564 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Default Status Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Default Status Report..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard... Report. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0041. Type of Request: Extension of a currently approved...

  1. 78 FR 39305 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: OSHC Progress Report Template

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: OSHC Progress Report Template AGENCY... Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard at Colette.Pollard... Information Collection Title of Information Collection: OSHC Progress Report Template. OMB Approval...

  2. 78 FR 1916 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...The Department of State has submitted the information collection described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for approval. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 we are requesting comments on this collection from all interested individuals and organizations. The purpose of this Notice is to allow 30 days for public...

  3. 77 FR 37706 - Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: National Park Service,...

  4. 76 FR 78012 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  5. 78 FR 76187 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Exchange Programs Alumni Web Site Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...The Department of State has submitted the information collection described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for approval. In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 we are requesting comments on this collection from all interested individuals and organizations. The purpose of this Notice is to allow 30 days for public...

  6. 78 FR 7436 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... in the Federal Register (77 FR 69865) on November 21, 2012, and allowed 60 days for public comment... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information...

  7. 75 FR 48970 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment... Human Services, is publishing the following summary of a proposed collection for public...

  8. 75 FR 48969 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30 Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  9. 76 FR 10364 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human...

  10. 76 FR 10035 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human...

  11. 76 FR 10034 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human...

  12. 75 FR 45120 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  13. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-3 - Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments. 31.3406(d)-3 Section 31.3406(d)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection...

  14. 78 FR 36560 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal, Periodic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal...: Colette Pollard, Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th... Title of Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal, Periodic Updates and...

  15. 78 FR 36563 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Single Family Premium Collection... to the proposal by name and/or OMB Control Number and should be sent to: HUD Desk Officer, Office of... access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8339. This...

  16. 75 FR 63478 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  17. 78 FR 60293 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request; Application for the Postdoctoral Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request...)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review and approve the information...

  18. 78 FR 47335 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 811 Project Rental Assistance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ...HUD has submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public...

  19. 75 FR 27346 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  20. 76 FR 59701 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30 Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30 Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  1. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF 30 DAY CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO TOLUENE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-Evans hooded rats were exposed to 1000 ppm toluene or 0 ppm toluene 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 30 days. Following removal from the exposure conditions (18-26 hr) flash-evoked potentials were recorded to paired light flashes and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) seizure properties were ...

  2. 78 FR 70956 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Title of Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian... American and Alaskan Native populations, most notably through the Indian Housing Block Grant. The level...

  3. 78 FR 75365 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American... Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian Housing Needs. OMB Approval... the United States. HUD provides funding though several programs to Native American and Alaskan...

  4. 78 FR 69103 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW... equipment, which are being used in part because they reduce interview times. The software also provides...

  5. 76 FR 67454 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... numbered 4.C and titled ] ``Previous Grants.gov Tracking Number''; (2) Modification of an existing...

  6. 76 FR 40913 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... respondent (in hours) hours Survey Human Resource Manager 3,000 1 30/60 1,500 Focus Group Protocol Employees in All 48 1 1.5 72 Occupations Key Informant Interview Script...... Human Resource Manager 20 1 45/60... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office...

  7. 30-Day Mortality in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Prognostic Value of Clinical Scores and Anamnestic Features

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Taute, Bettina-Maria; Baasai, Nansalmaa; Wienke, Andreas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Schramm, Dominik; Surov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Identification of high-risk patients with pulmonary embolism is vital. The aim of the present study was to examine clinical scores, their single items, and anamnestic features in their ability to predict 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods A retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 was performed. Inclusion criteria were presence of pulmonary embolism, availability of patient records and 30-day follow-up. The following clinical scores were calculated: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, original and simplified pulmonary embolism severity index, Glasgow Coma Scale, and euroSCORE II. Results In the study group of 365 patients 39 patients (10.7%) died within 30 days due to pulmonary embolism. From all examined scores and parameters the best predictor of 30-day mortality were the Glasgow Coma scale (≤ 10) and parameters of the circulatory system including presence of mechanical ventilation, arterial pH (< 7.335), and systolic blood pressure (< 99 mm Hg). Conclusions Easy to ascertain circulatory parameters have the same or higher prognostic value than the clinical scores that were applied in this study. From all clinical scores studied the Glasgow Coma Scale was the most time- and cost-efficient one. PMID:26866472

  8. 78 FR 49280 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Third-Party Documentation Facsimile Transmittal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Third-Party Documentation Facsimile..., 2013. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Third-Party Documentation... of the need for the information and proposed use: The use of the Third-Party Documentation...

  9. Heart failure performance measures: do they have an impact on 30-day readmission rates?

    PubMed

    Mazimba, Sula; Grant, Nakash; Parikh, Analkumar; Mwandia, George; Makola, Diklar; Chilomo, Christine; Redko, Cristina; Hahn, Harvey S

    2013-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) accounts for more health care costs than any other diagnosis. Readmissions contribute to this expenditure. The authors evaluated the relationship between adherence to performance metrics and 30-day readmissions. This was a retrospective study of 6063 patients with CHF between 2001 and 2008. Data were collected for 30-day readmissions and compliance with CHF performance measures at discharge. Rates of readmission for CHF increased from 16.8% in 2002 to 24.8% in 2008. Adherence to performance measures increased concurrently from 95.8% to 99.9%. Except for left ventricular function (LVF) assessment, the 30-day readmission rate was not associated with adherence to performance measures. Readmitted patients had twice the odds of not having their LVF assessed (odds ratio = 2.0; P < .00005; 95% confidence interval = 1.45-2.63). CHF performance measures, except for the LVF assessment, have little relationship to 30-day readmissions. Further studies are needed to identify performance measures that correlate with quality of care. PMID:23110998

  10. 78 FR 38070 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing... Marketing (AFHM) Plan. OMB Approval Number: 2529-0013. Type of Request: Extension of a currently approved collection. Form Number: HUD-935.2A Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan (Multifamily),...

  11. 78 FR 52008 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Housing Service Coordinator Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Housing Service..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette...

  12. 75 FR 48968 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30 Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... is a biennial survey of the blood collection and utilization community to produce reliable...

  13. 75 FR 66101 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is..., OMB number, and OS document identifier, to Sherette.funncoleman@hhs.gov , or call the Reports... collections within 30 days of this notice directly to the OS OMB Desk Officer; faxed to OMB at...

  14. 75 FR 13288 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... conduct a nationwide survey which will use computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) to interview...

  15. 78 FR 38064 - Submission for OMB review; 30-day comment request: NLM PEOPLE LOCATOR® System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB review; 30-day comment request: NLM... comment. The National Library of Medicine (NLM), National Institutes of Health, may not conduct or sponsor... instruments or request more information on the proposed project contact: David Sharlip, NLM Project...

  16. 76 FR 71036 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  17. 76 FR 33761 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

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  1. 30-Day In-vivo Performance of a Wearable Artificial Pump-Lung for Ambulatory Respiratory Support

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhongjun J; Zhang, Tao; Bianchi, Giacomo; Wei, Xufeng; Son, Ho-Sung; Zhou, Kang; Sanchez, Pablo; Garcia, Jose; Griffith, Bartley P

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term in-vivo hemodynamics, gas transfer and biocompatibility of an integrated artificial pump-lung (APL) developed for ambulatory respiratory support. Methods The study was conducted in an ovine model by surgically placing the APL between the right atrium and pulmonary artery. Nine sheep were implanted. Heparin was infused as an anticoagulant. The device flow, gas transfer and plasma free hemoglobin (PFH) were measured daily. Hematological data, platelet activation and blood biochemistry were assessed twice a week. After 30 days, the sheep were euthanized for necropsy. The explanted devices were examined for gross thrombosis. Results Five sheep survived for 29 to 31 days and were electively terminated. Four sheep expired or were terminated early due to mechanical failure of IV lines or device. The APL devices in the five long-term animals were capable of delivering an oxygen transfer rate of 148±18 ml/min at a flow rate of 2.99±0.46 l/min with blood oxygen saturation of 96.7±1.3%. The device flow and oxygen transfer were stable over 30 days. The animals had normal end-organ functions except for surgery-related transient alteration in kidney function, liver function, and cell and tissue injury. There was no hemolysis. The device flow path and membrane surface were free of gross thrombus. Conclusions The APL exhibited the capability of providing respiratory support with excellent biocompatibility, long-term reliability and the potential for bridging to lung transplant. PMID:22115337

  2. Risk Factors for 30-Day Hospital Readmission among General Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kassin, Michael T; Owen, Rachel M; Perez, Sebastian; Leeds, Ira; Cox, James C; Schnier, Kurt; Sadiraj, Vjollca; Sweeney, John F

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospital readmission within 30-days of an index hospitalization is receiving increased scrutiny as a marker of poor quality patient care. This study identifies factors associated with 30-day readmission following General Surgery procedures. Study Design Using standard National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (NSQIP) protocol, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative outcomes were collected on patients undergoing inpatient General Surgery procedures at a single academic center between 2009 and 2011. Data were merged with our institutional clinical data warehouse to identify unplanned 30-day readmissions. Demographics, comorbidities, type of procedure, postoperative complications, and ICD-9 coding data were reviewed for patients who were readmitted. Univariate and multivariate analysis was utilized to identify risk factors associated with 30-day readmission. Results 1442 General Surgery patients were reviewed. 163 (11.3%) were readmitted within 30 days of discharge. The most common reasons for readmission were gastrointestinal complaint/complication (27.6%), surgical infection (22.1%), and failure to thrive/malnutrition (10.4%). Comorbidities associated with risk of readmission included disseminated cancer, dyspnea, and preoperative open wound (p<0.05 for all variables). Surgical procedures associated with higher rates of readmission included pancreatectomy, colectomy, and liver resection. Postoperative occurrences leading to increased risk of readmission were blood transfusion, postoperative pulmonary complication, wound complication, sepsis/shock, urinary tract infection, and vascular complications. Multivariable analysis demonstrates that the most significant independent risk factor for readmission is the occurrence of any postoperative complication (OR 4.20, 95% CI 2.89–6.13). Conclusions Risk factors for readmission after General Surgery procedures are multi-factorial; however, postoperative complications appear to drive readmissions in

  3. New consensus definition for acute kidney injury accurately predicts 30-day mortality in cirrhosis with infection

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Florence; O’Leary, Jacqueline G; Reddy, K Rajender; Patton, Heather; Kamath, Patrick S; Fallon, Michael B; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Subramanian, Ram M.; Malik, Raza; Maliakkal, Benedict; Thacker, Leroy R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims A consensus conference proposed that cirrhosis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) be defined as an increase in serum creatinine by >50% from the stable baseline value in <6 months or by ≥0.3mg/dL in <48 hrs. We prospectively evaluated the ability of these criteria to predict mortality within 30 days among hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and infection. Methods 337 patients with cirrhosis admitted with or developed an infection in hospital (56% men; 56±10 y old; model for end-stage liver disease score, 20±8) were followed. We compared data on 30-day mortality, hospital length-of-stay, and organ failure between patients with and without AKI. Results 166 (49%) developed AKI during hospitalization, based on the consensus criteria. Patients who developed AKI had higher admission Child-Pugh (11.0±2.1 vs 9.6±2.1; P<.0001), and MELD scores (23±8 vs17±7; P<.0001), and lower mean arterial pressure (81±16mmHg vs 85±15mmHg; P<.01) than those who did not. Also higher amongst patients with AKI were mortality in ≤30 days (34% vs 7%), intensive care unit transfer (46% vs 20%), ventilation requirement (27% vs 6%), and shock (31% vs 8%); AKI patients also had longer hospital stays (17.8±19.8 days vs 13.3±31.8 days) (all P<.001). 56% of AKI episodes were transient, 28% persistent, and 16% resulted in dialysis. Mortality was 80% among those without renal recovery, higher compared to partial (40%) or complete recovery (15%), or AKI-free patients (7%; P<.0001). Conclusions 30-day mortality is 10-fold higher among infected hospitalized cirrhotic patients with irreversible AKI than those without AKI. The consensus definition of AKI accurately predicts 30-day mortality, length of hospital stay, and organ failure. PMID:23999172

  4. A Population-Based Study of 30-day Incidence of Ischemic Stroke Following Surgical Neck Dissection

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, S. Danielle; Liu, Kuan; Garg, Amit X.; Tam, Samantha; Palma, David; Thind, Amardeep; Winquist, Eric; Yoo, John; Nichols, Anthony; Fung, Kevin; Hall, Stephen; Shariff, Salimah Z.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the 30-day incidence of ischemic stroke following neck dissection compared to matched patients undergoing non-head and neck surgeries. A surgical dissection of the neck is a common procedure performed for many types of cancer. Whether such dissections increase the risk of ischemic stroke is uncertain. A retrospective cohort study using data from linked administrative and registry databases (1995–2012) in the province of Ontario, Canada was performed. Patients were matched 1-to-1 on age, sex, date of surgery, and comorbidities to patients undergoing non-head and neck surgeries. The primary outcome was ischemic stroke assessed in hospitalized patients using validated database codes. A total of 14,837 patients underwent surgical neck dissection. The 30-day incidence of ischemic stroke following the dissection was 0.7%. This incidence decreased in recent years (1.1% in 1995 to 2000; 0.8% in 2001 to 2006; 0.3% in 2007 to 2012; P for trend <0.0001). The 30-day incidence of ischemic stroke in patients undergoing neck dissection is similar to matched patients undergoing thoracic surgery (0.5%, P = 0.26) and colectomy (0.5%, P = 0.1). Factors independently associated with a higher risk of stroke in 30 days following neck dissection surgery were of age ≥75 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–2.53), and a history of diabetes (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02–2.49), hypertension (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.64–4.25), or prior stroke (OR 4.06, 95% CI 2.29–7.18). Less than 1% of patients undergoing surgical neck dissection will experience an ischemic stroke in the following 30 days. This incidence of stroke is similar to thoracic surgery and colectomy. PMID:26287406

  5. Causes and incidence of 30 day hospital re-admissions after primary TKJR

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, John; van Dalen, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: 30 day re-admission of patients following TKJR is estimated between 0.9-9.9%. It’s a cause of significant cost to the healthcare system and marks significant patient morbidity. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe the causes and incidence of patient re-admission to hospital within 30 days of a primary total knee joint replacement between 2009-2015 in a single centre. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, computerized records were used to evaluated the causes and incidence of patient re-admission within 30 days of discharge following primary TKJR. Results: The total 30 day Re-admission rate was 5.0%. Medical causes for re-admission accounted for 29% of re-admissions. 34% were attributed to non-specific pain/swelling. Infection was attributed to 26%. 29% of patients presented with wound problems, either infective or non-infective. The total incidence of re-operation at 30 days was 0.77%. Conclusions: Our rate of re-admission is consistent with previous studies in the literature. Many patients were found to have no specific cause for re-admission. This suggests it may be possible to further reduce re-admission rates with improved patient education and management of common post-operative symptoms such as pain and swelling. Infection remains a common complication; fortunately the majority superficial infections are successfully treated with antibiotics and few requiring a washout operation. Medical complications account for almost a third showing the importance of good management of patient medical co-morbidities and risk factors.

  6. Resource Prospector Propulsion Cold Flow Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Hunter; Pederson, Kevin; Dervan, Melanie; Holt, Kimberly; Jernigan, Frankie; Trinh, Huu; Flores, Sam

    2014-01-01

    For the past year, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Johnson Space Center have been working on a government version of a lunar lander design for the Resource Prospector Mission. A propulsion cold flow test system, representing an early flight design of the propulsion system, has been fabricated. The primary objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the Resource Prospector propulsion system operation through water flow testing and obtain data for anchoring analytical models. This effort will also provide an opportunity to develop a propulsion system mockup to examine hardware integration to a flight structure. This paper will report the work progress of the propulsion cold flow test system development and test preparation. At the time this paper is written, the initial waterhammer testing is underway. The initial assessment of the test data suggests that the results are as expected and have a similar trend with the pretest prediction. The test results will be reported in a future conference.

  7. Performance testing of the Silo Flow Model

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, S.P.; O`Connor, D.; Gould, A.F.

    1994-12-31

    Several instruments are commercially available for on-line analysis of coal properties such as total moisture, ash, sulfur, and mineral matter content. These instruments have found use in coal cleaning and coal-fired utility applications. However, in many instances, the coal is stored in large bunkers or silos after on-line analysis, making the data gathered from on-line analysis a poor predictor of short-term coal quality due to the flow pattern and mixing within the silo. A computerized model, the Silo Flow Model, has been developed to model the flow of coal through a silo or bunker thus providing a prediction of the output coal quality based on on-line measurements of the quality of coal entering the silo. A test procedure was developed and demonstrated to test the performance of the Silo Flow Model. The testing was performed using controlled addition of silver nitrate to the coal, in conjunction with surface profile measurements using an array of ultrasonic gauges and data acquired from plant instrumentation. Results obtained from initial testing provided estimates of flow-related parameters used in the Silo flow Model. Similar test techniques are also used to compare predicted and actual silver content at the silo outlet as a measure of model performance. This paper describes test procedures used to validate the Silo Flow Model, the testing program, and the results obtained to data. The Silo Flow Model performance is discussed and compared against other modeling approaches.

  8. Work capacity during 30 days of bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Trowbridge, T. S.; Wade, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from a study to determine whether or not short-term variable intensity isotonic and intermittent high-intensity isokinetic short-duration leg exercise is effective for the maintenance of peak O2 (VO2) uptake and muscular strength and endurance, respectively, during 30 days of -6 deg head-down bed rest deconditioning. The results show no significant changes in leg peak torque, leg mean total work, arm total peak torque, or arm mean total work for members of the isotonic, isokinetic, and controls groups. Changes are observed, however, in peak VO2 levels. The results suggest that near-peak variabile intensity, isotonic leg excercise maintains peak VO2 during 30 days of bed rest, while peak intermittent, isokinetic leg excercise protocol does not.

  9. Influence of psychiatric comorbidity on 30-day readmissions for heart failure, myocardial infarction, and pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmedani, Brian K.; Solberg, Leif I.; Copeland, Laurel; Fang, Ying; Stewart, Christine; Hu, Jianhui; Nerenz, David R.; Williams, L. Keoki; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Waxmonsky, Jeanette; Lu, Christine Y.; Waitzfelder, Beth E.; Owen-Smith, Ashli A.; Coleman, Karen J.; Lynch, Frances L.; Ahmed, Ameena T.; Beck, Arne L.; Rossom, Rebecca C.; Simon, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented a policy in 2012 that penalizes hospitals for ‘excessive’ all-cause hospital readmissions within 30 days after discharge for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and pneumonia. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of psychiatric comorbidities on 30-day all-cause readmissions for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and pneumonia. Methods Longitudinal study from 2009-2011 within 11 Mental Health Research Network (MHRN) affiliated health systems. Data were derived from the HMO Research Network Virtual Data Warehouse. Participants were individuals admitted to the hospital for HF, AMI, and pneumonia. All index inpatient hospitalizations for HF, AMI and pneumonia were captured (n=160,169 patient index admissions). Psychiatric diagnoses were measured for the year prior to admission. All-cause readmissions within 30 days of discharge were the outcome variable. Results Approximately 18% of all individuals with these conditions were readmitted within 30-days. The rate was 5% greater for individuals with a past-year psychiatric comorbidity (21.7%) than for those without (16.5%; p<.001). Depression, anxiety, and dementia were associated with more readmissions for those with index hospitalizations for all three conditions independently and combined (p<.05). Substance use and bipolar disorders were linked with higher readmissions for those with initial HF and pneumonia hospitalizations (p<.05). Readmission rates declined overall from 2009-2011. Conclusions Individuals with HF, AMI, and pneumonia experience high rates of readmission, but psychiatric comorbidities appear to increase that risk. Future readmission interventions should consider adding mental health components. PMID:25642610

  10. Incidence, Causes and Predictors of 30-Day Readmission After Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W; Anthony, Chris A.; Duchman, Kyle R.; Pugely, Andrew J.; Gao, Yubo; Hettrich, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service has identified several quality metrics, including unplanned readmission within 30 days of surgery, to assess and compare surgeons and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence, causes and risk factors for unplanned 30-day readmission after total shoulder arthroplasty. Methods We identified patients undergoing primary elective shoulder arthroplasty performed at American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) participating hospitals in 2013. Cases were stratified by readmission status. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to assess patient demographics, comorbidities and operative variables predicting unplanned readmission. Results 2779 patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty were identified, with 74 (2.66%) requiring unplanned readmissions within 30 days of surgery. The most common surgical causes for unplanned readmission were surgical site infections (18.6%), dislocations (16.3%) and venous thromboembolism (14.0%). Medical causes for readmission were responsible for 51% of unplanned readmissions. Multivariate analysis identified patient age >75 (OR 2.62, 95% CI: 1.27 - 5.41), and ASA class of 3 (OR 1.79, 95% CI: 1.01 - 3.18) or 4 (OR 3.63, 95% CI: 1.31 - 10.08) as independent risk factors for unplanned readmission. Predictive modeling estimated that patients with ASA class of 4 and age >75 are 17.4 times more likely (95% CI 1.77-171.09) to be readmitted within 30 days of shoulder arthroplasty. Conclusion Unplanned readmission after shoulder arthroplasty is infrequent and medical complications account for more than 50% of occurrences. The risk of readmission exponentially increases when age and preoperative comorbidity burden are increased. PMID:27528839

  11. 30-Day Readmission Among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Steve; Wei, Wenhui; Bhattacharjee, Sandipan; Miao, Raymond; Sambamoorthi, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study retrospectively assessed rates and risk factors for all-cause hospital readmission among elderly Medicare beneficiaries with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) aged ≥65 years. Associations between 30-day readmission and patients' demographic, insurance, index hospital, and clinical characteristics; patient complexities specific to the elderly; and health care utilization were examined using multivariable logistic regressions. Of 202,496 elderly Medicare beneficiaries, 52% were female, 76% were white, the mean age was 75.8 years, and 13.2% had all-cause 30-day readmissions. Elderly patients with cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.01–1.12), falls and falls risk (aOR=1.15, 95% CI=1.08–1.22), polypharmacy (aOR=1.20, 95% CI=1.14–1.27), and urinary incontinence (aOR=1.08, 95% CI=1.01–1.15) were at higher risk for all-cause 30-day readmission than their counterparts without these complexities. As elderly-specific complexities are associated with greater risk for readmission, intervention programs to reduce readmission risk among elderly patients with T2DM should be tailored to suit the needs of elderly patients with extensive complexities. (Population Health Management 2015;18:256–264) PMID:25608114

  12. Comparison of robotic and laparoscopic colorectal resections with respect to 30-day perioperative morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Adina E.; Elnahas, Ahmad; Bashir, Shaheena; Cleghorn, Michelle C.; Quereshy, Fayez A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Robotic surgery has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to traditional laparoscopy. Robotic surgery addresses many of the technical and ergonomic limitations of laparoscopic surgery, but the literature regarding clinical outcomes in colorectal surgery is limited. We sought to compare robotic and laparoscopic colorectal resections with respect to 30-day perioperative outcomes. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify all patients who underwent robotic or laparoscopic colorectal surgery in 2013. We performed a logistic regression analysis to compare intraoperative variables and 30-day outcomes. Results There were 8392 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery and 472 patients who underwent robotic colorectal surgery. The robotic cohort had a lower incidence of unplanned intraoperative conversion (9.5% v. 13.7%, p = 0.008). There were no significant differences between robotic and laparoscopic surgery with respect to other intraoperative and postoperative outcomes, such as operative duration, length of stay, postoperative ileus, anastomotic leak, venous thromboembolism, wound infection, cardiac complications and pulmonary complications. On multivariable analysis, robotic surgery was protective for unplanned conversion, while male sex, malignancy, Crohn disease and diverticular disease were all associated with open conversion. Conclusion Robotic colorectal surgery has comparable 30-day perioperative morbidity to laparoscopic surgery and may decrease the rate of intraoperative conversion in select patients. PMID:27240135

  13. Return to the System Within 30 Days of Discharge after Pediatric Appendectomy.

    PubMed

    Short, Heather L; Sarda, Samir; Heiss, Kurt F; Chern, Joshua J; Raval, Mehul V

    2016-07-01

    Postprocedural revisits, readmissions, and reoperations are commonly tracked quality metrics and have reimbursement and hospital-level comparison implications. Our purpose was to document these rates after pediatric appendectomy and to identify patient factors related to these metrics. This study included 3756 appendectomies performed at a single institution from 2009 to 2013. Data were prospectively collected and clinical events within 30 days of discharge were analyzed. Regression models identified factors associated with each metric. There were 328 returns to the emergency department (8.7%), 128 readmissions (3.4%), and 41 reoperations (1.0%). The main source of readmission was the emergency department (n = 118, 92%). Nearly two-thirds of readmissions were nonoperative (n = 87, 68%) and 12.5 per cent of readmissions were not related to the index appendectomy. Factors associated with readmission include procedure length >70 minutes [odds ratio (OR) 1.89, P = 0.043] and failed nonoperative management of perforated appendicitis (OR 2.97, P = 0.041). The most common indication for reoperation was intra-abdominal abscess (n = 20, 49%), 55 per cent of which were managed with image-guided drainage. In conclusion, although 30-day revisit, readmission, and reoperation rates after appendectomy are low, there are opportunities for improvement. Furthermore, many 30-day readmissions are not related to the index procedure and must be clearly identified to avoid inaccuracies with reimbursement and quality rankings. PMID:27457862

  14. The 10-30-day intraseasonal variation of the East Asian winter monsoon: The temperature mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Suxiang; Sun, Qingfei; Huang, Qian; Chu, Peng

    2016-09-01

    East Asia is known for its monsoon characteristics, but little research has been performed on the intraseasonal time scale of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). In this paper, the extended reanalysis (ERA)-Interim sub-daily data are used to study the surface air temperature intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) of the EAWM. The results show that the air temperature (2-m level) of the EAWM has a dominant period of 10-30 days. Lake Baikal and south China are the centers of the air temperature ISO. An anomalous low frequency (10-30-day filtered) anticyclone corresponds to the intraseasonal cold air. The 10-30-day filtered cold air spreads from Novaya Zemlya to Lake Baikal and even to South China. The ISO of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index influences the temperature of the EAWM by stimulating Rossby waves in middle latitude, causing meridional circulation, and eventually leads to the temperature ISO of the EAWM. RegCM4 has good performance for the simulation of the air temperature ISO. The simulated results indicate that the plateau is responsible for the southward propagation of the intraseasonal anticyclone. The anticyclone could not reach South China when there was no plateau in western China and its upper reaches.

  15. Risk factors for 30-day readmission following hypoglycemia-related emergency room and inpatient admissions

    PubMed Central

    Emons, M F; Bae, J P; Hoogwerf, B J; Kindermann, S L; Taylor, R J; Nathanson, B H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypoglycemia is a serious complication of diabetes treatment. This retrospective observational study characterized hypoglycemia-related hospital emergency room (ER) and inpatient (in-pt) admissions and identified risk factors for 30-day all-cause and hypoglycemia-related readmission. Research design and methods 4476 hypoglycemia-related ER and in-pt encounters with discharge dates from 1/1/2009 to 3/31/2014 were identified in a large, multicenter electronic health record database. Outcomes were 30-day all-cause ER/hospital readmission and hypoglycemia-related readmission. Multivariable logistic regression methods identified risk factors for both outcomes. Results 1095 (24.5%) encounters had ER/hospital all-cause readmission within 30 days and 158 (14.4%) of these were hypoglycemia-related. Predictors of all-cause 30-day readmission included recent exposure to a hospital/nursing home (NH)/skilled nursing facility (SNF; OR 1.985, p<0.001); age 25–34 and 35–44 (OR 2.334 and 1.996, respectively, compared with age 65–74, both p<0.001); and African-American (AA) race versus all other race categories (OR 1.427, p=0.011). Other factors positively associated with readmission include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, cardiac dysrhythmias, congestive heart disease, hypertension, and mood disorders. Predictors of readmissions attributable to hypoglycemia included recent exposure to a hospital/NH/SNF (OR 2.299, p<0.001), AA race (OR 1.722, p=0.002), age 35–44 (OR 3.484, compared with age 65–74, p<0.001), hypertension (OR 1.891, p=0.019), and delirium/dementia and other cognitive disorders (OR 1.794, p=0.038). Obesity was protective against 30-day hypoglycemia-related readmission (OR 0.505, p=0.017). Conclusions Factors associated with 30-day all-cause and hypoglycemia-related readmission among patients with diabetic hypoglycemia include recent exposure to hospital/SNF/NH, adults <45 years, AAs, and several cardiovascular and

  16. Increased 30-Day Emergency Department Revisits Among Homeless Patients with Mental Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun Nok; Arora, Sanjay; Menchine, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED) as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients’ 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Results Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino). Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds) of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds) of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM) patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3.7% chance of hospital

  17. LADEE Propulsion System Cold Flow Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Jonathan Hunter; Chapman, Jack M.; Trinh, Hau, P.; Bell, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a NASA mission that will orbit the Moon. Its main objective is to characterize the atmosphere and lunar dust environment. The spacecraft development is being led by NASA Ames Research Center and scheduled for launch in 2013. The LADEE spacecraft will be operated with a bi-propellant hypergolic propulsion system using MMH and NTO as the fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The propulsion system utilizes flight-proven hardware on major components. The propulsion layout is composed of one 100-lbf main thruster and four 5-lbf RCS thrusters. The propellants are stored in four tanks (two parallel-connected tanks per propellant component). The propellants will be pressurized by regulated helium. A simulated propulsion system has been built for conducting cold flow test series to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes, such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. Propellant drainage differential between propellant tanks will also be assessed. Since the oxidizer feed line system has a higher flow demand than the fuel system does, the cold flow test focuses on the oxidizer system. The objective of the cold flow test is to simulate the LADEE propulsion fluid flow operation through water cold flow test and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. The test activities, including the simulated propulsion test article, cold flow test, and analytical modeling, are being performed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. At the time of the abstract submission, the test article checkout is being performed. The test series will be completed by November, 2012

  18. Flowing electrolyte battery testing and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.; Miller, D.; Verardo, A.

    1982-08-01

    A laboratory to evaluate the performance and cycle life of flowing electrolyte battery systems has been established at Sandia National Laboratories. Four unique flow batteries are being tested in the laboratory using a four-variable two-level factorial experimental plan. Two Exxon zinc bromine batteries and one Gould zinc bromine battery are under test. One NASA Redox battery is on test. This paper describes results obtained to date from the test program. Cycle history, efficiency values, and general performance observations for these batteries are reported. The factorial test program and available statistical results are also discussed.

  19. Flowing-electrolyte-battery testing and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.; Miller, D.W.; Verardo, A.E.

    1982-01-01

    A laboratory to evaluate the performance and cycle life of flowing electrolyte battery systems has been established at Sandia National Laboratories. Four unique flow batteries are being tested in the laboratory using a four-variable two-level factorial experimental plan. Two Exxon zinc bromine batteries and one Gould zinc bromine battery are under test. One NASA Redox battery is on test. This paper describes results obtained to date from the test program. Cycle history, efficiency values, and general performance observations for these batteries are reported. The factorial test program and available statistical results are also discussed.

  20. Flowing electrolyte battery testing and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, P. C.; Miller, D. W.; Verardo, A. E.

    A laboratory to evaluate the performance and cycle life of flowing electrolyte battery systems has been established at Sandia National Laboratories. Four unique flow batteries are being tested in the laboratory using a four-variable two-level factorial experimental plan. Two Exxon zinc bromine batteries and one Gould zinc bromine battery are under test. One NASA Redox battery is on test. This paper describes results obtained to date from the test program. Cycle history, efficiency values, and general performance observations for these batteries are reported. The factorial test program and available statistical results are also discussed.

  1. Organization of Hospital Nursing and 30-day Readmissions in Medicare Patients Undergoing Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chenjuan; McHugh, Matthew D; Aiken, Linda H

    2014-01-01

    Background Growing scrutiny of readmissions has placed hospitals at the center of readmission prevention. Little is known, however, about hospital nursing - a critical organizational component of hospital service system - in relation to readmissions. Objectives To determine the relationships between hospital nursing factors - nurse work environment, nurse staffing, and nurse education - and 30-day readmissions among Medicare patients undergoing general, orthopedic, and vascular surgery. Method and Design We linked Medicare patient discharge data, multi-state nurse survey data, and American Hospital Association Annual Survey data. Our sample included 220,914 Medicare surgical patients and 25,082 nurses from 528 hospitals in four states (CA, FL, NJ, & PA). Risk-adjusted robust logistic regressions were used for analyses. Results The average 30-day readmission rate was 10% in our sample (general surgery: 11%; orthopedic surgery: 8%; vascular surgery: 12%). Readmission rates varied widely across surgical procedures and could be as high as 26% (upper limb and toe amputation for circulatory system disorders). Each additional patient per nurse increased the odds of readmission by 3% (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.05). Patients cared in hospitals with better nurse work environments had lower odds of readmission (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). Administrative support to nursing practice (OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99) and nurse-physician relations (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99) were two main attributes of the work environment that were associated with readmissions. Conclusions Better nurse staffing and work environment were significantly associated with 30-day readmission, and can be considered as system-level interventions to reduce readmissions and associated financial penalties. PMID:25373404

  2. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and 30 Day Rehospitalizations: An Analysis of Medicare Data

    PubMed Central

    Kind, Amy JH; Jencks, Steve; Brock, Jane; Yu, Menggang; Bartels, Christie; Ehlenbach, William; Greenberg, Caprice; Smith, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Background Measures of socioeconomic disadvantage may enable improved targeting of programs to prevent rehospitalizations, but obtaining such information directly from patients can be difficult. Measures of US neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage are more readily available, although rarely employed clinically. Objective To evaluate the association between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage at the census block-group level, as measured by Singh’s validated Area Deprivation Index (ADI), and 30-day rehospitalization. Design Retrospective cohort study Setting United States Patients Random 5% national sample of fee-for-service Medicare patients discharged with congestive heart failure, pneumonia or myocardial infarction, 2004–2009 (N = 255,744) Measurements 30-day rehospitalizations. Medicare data were linked to 2000 Census data to construct an ADI for each patient’s census block-group, which were then sorted into percentiles by increasing ADI. Relationships between neighborhood ADI grouping and rehospitalization were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for patient sociodemographics, comorbidities/severity, and index hospital characteristics. Results The 30-day rehospitalization rate did not vary significantly across the least disadvantaged 85% of neighborhoods, which had an average rehospitalization rate=21%. However, within the most disadvantaged 15% of neighborhoods, rehospitalization rates rose from 22% to 27% with worsening ADI. This relationship persisted after full adjustment, with the most disadvantaged neighborhoods having a rehospitalization risk (adjusted risk ratio = 1.09, confidence interval 1.05–1.12) similar to that of chronic pulmonary disease (1.06, 1.04–1.08) and greater than that of diabetes (0.95, 0.94–0.97). Limitations No direct markers of care quality, access Conclusions Residence within a disadvantaged US neighborhood is a rehospitalization predictor of magnitude similar to chronic pulmonary

  3. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  4. Development and Implementation of a Real-Time 30-Day Readmission Predictive Model

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, Patrick R.; Greenwald, Jeffrey L.; Crevensten, Gwen C.; Chueh, Henry C.; Zai, Adrian H.

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals are under great pressure to reduce readmissions of patients. Being able to reliably predict patients at increased risk for rehospitalization would allow for tailored interventions to be offered to them. This requires the creation of a functional predictive model specifically designed to support real-time clinical operations. A predictive model for readmissions within 30 days of discharge was developed using retrospective data from 45,924 MGH admissions between 2/1/2012 and 1/31/2013 only including factors that would be available by the day after admission. It was then validated prospectively in a real-time implementation for 3,074 MGH admissions between 10/1/2013 and 10/31/2013. The model developed retrospectively had an AUC of 0.705 with good calibration. The real-time implementation had an AUC of 0.671 although the model was overestimating readmission risk. A moderately discriminative real-time 30-day readmission predictive model can be developed and implemented in a large academic hospital. PMID:25954346

  5. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 240.3a55-2 Section 240.3a55-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of sale for future delivery is trading on a designated contract market, registered derivatives...

  6. 76 FR 20688 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; 30-Day Notices, 135-Day Premarket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... February 25, 1998 (63 FR 9570). This guidance describes the user fees authorized, updates the previous... the guidance entitled ``30-Day Notices, 135-Day Premarket Approval (PMA) Supplements and 75-Day... of a guidance for industry entitled ``30-Day Notices, 135-Day Premarket Approval (PMA)...

  7. 78 FR 65696 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... October 25, 2013 at 78 FR 64145 HUD published a 30 day notice of proposed information collection. This... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing... Collection Title of Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk- Sharing Program. OMB Approval...

  8. 76 FR 6794 - 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Program for Health Information Technology, 76 FR 1262 (Jan. 7, 2011) (the ``Permanent Certification... HUMAN SERVICES 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status AGENCY... ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) status. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 300jj-11. DATES: The 30-day...

  9. Boundary layer flow visualization for flight testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obara, Clifford J.

    1986-01-01

    Flow visualization is used extensively in flight testing to determine aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary layer state. Several visualization techniques are available to the aerodynamicist. Two of the most popular are oil flows and sublimating chemicals. Oil is used to visualize boundary layer transition, shock wave location, regions of separated flow, and surface flow direction. Boundary layer transition can also be visualized with sublimating chemicals. A summary of these two techniques is discussed, and the use of sublimating chemicals is examined in some detail. The different modes of boundary layer transition are characterized by different patterns in the sublimating chemical coating. The discussion includes interpretation of these chemical patterns and the temperature and velocity operating limitations of the chemical substances. Information for selection of appropriate chemicals for a desired set of flight conditions is provided.

  10. Postoperative Morbidity by Procedure and Patient Factors Influencing Major Complications Within 30 Days Following Shoulder Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Edward; Iannuzzi, James C.; Thorsness, Robert; Noyes, Katia; Voloshin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little data are available to prioritize quality improvement initiatives in shoulder surgery. Purpose: To stratify the risk for 30-day postoperative morbidity in commonly performed surgical procedures about the shoulder completed in a hospital setting and to determine patient factors associated with major complications. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This retrospective study utilized the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from the years 2005 to 2010. Using Current Procedural Terminology codes, the database was queried for shoulder cases that were divided into 7 groups: arthroscopy without repair; arthroscopy with repair; arthroplasty; clavicle/acromioclavicular joint (AC) open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF)/repair; ORIF of proximal humeral fracture; open tendon release/repair; and open shoulder stabilization. The primary end point was any major complication, with secondary end points of incisional infection, return to the operating room, and venothromboembolism (VTE), all within 30 days of surgery. Results: Overall, 11,086 cases were analyzed. The overall major complication rate was 2.1% (n = 234). Factors associated with major complications on multivariate analysis included: procedure performed (P < .001), emergency case (P < .001), pulmonary comorbidity (P < .001), preoperative blood transfusion (P = .033), transfer from an outside institution (P = .03), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (P = .006), wound class (P < .001), dependent functional status (P = .027), and age older than 60 years (P = .01). After risk adjustment, open shoulder stabilization was associated with the greatest risk of major complications relative to arthroscopy without repair (odds ratio [OR], 5.56; P = .001), followed by ORIF of proximal humerus fracture (OR, 4.90; P < .001) and arthroplasty (OR, 4.40; P < .001). These 3 groups generated over 60% of all major complications. Open shoulder

  11. Preoperative hypoalbuminemia is a risk factor for 30-day morbidity after gynecological malignancy surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin; Oh, In-Kyoung; Yoon, Sang-Hee; Lee, Sun-Joo; Kim, Soo-Nyung; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between preoperative hypoalbuminemia and the development of complications after gynecological cancer surgery, as well as postoperative bowel function and hospital stay. Methods The medical records of 533 patients with gynecological cancer surgery at Konkuk University Hospital between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Serum albumin level <3.5 g/dL was defined as hypoalbuminemia. All perioperative complications within 30-days after surgery, time to resumption of normal diet and length of postoperative hospital stay, were analyzed. Regression models were used to assess predictors of postoperative morbidity. Results The median age was 49 years (range, 13 to 85 years). Eighty patients (15%) had hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemic patients had significantly higher consumption of alcohol >2 standard drinks per day, lower American Society of Anesthesiologist score, higher frequency of ascites, and more advanced stage compared with non-hypoalbuminemic patients. Overall complication rate within 30-days after surgery was 20.3% (108 out of 533). Hypoalbuminemic patients were more likely to develop postoperative complications compared to non-hypoalbuminemic patients (34.3% vs. 17.8%, P=0.022), and had significantly longer median time to resumption of normal diet (3.3 [1-6] vs. 2.8 [0-15] days, P=0.005) and length of postoperative hospital stay (0 [7-50] vs. 9 [1-97] days, P=0.014). In multivariate analysis, age >50 (odds ratio [OR], 2.478; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.310 to 4.686; P=0.005), operation time (OR, 1.006; 95% CI, 1.002 to 1.009; P=0.006), and hypoalbuminemia (OR, 2.367; 95% CI, 1.021 to 5.487; P=0.044) were the significant risk factor for postoperative complications. Conclusion Preoperative hypoalbuminemia in patients with elective surgery for gynecologic malignancy is an independent predictor of 30-days postoperative complications. Identification of this subset and preoperative optimization of nutritional status may improve

  12. Incidence And Risk Factors For 30-Day Readmissions After Hip Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christopher T; Gao, Yubo; Pugely, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unplanned hospital readmission following orthopedic procedures results in significant expenditures for the Medicare population. In order to reduce expenditures, hospital readmission has become an important quality metric for Medicare patients. The purpose of the present study is to determine the incidence and risk factors for 30-day readmissions after hip fracture surgery. Methods Patients over the age of 18 years who underwent hip fracture surgery, including open reduction internal fixation (ORIF), intramedullary nailing, hemi-arthroplasty, or total hip arthroplasty, between the years 2012 and 2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Overall, 17,765 patients were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to determine patient and surgical factors associated with 30-day readmission. Results There were 1503 patients (8.4%) readmitted within 30-days of their index procedure. Of the patients with a reason listed for readmission, 27.4% were for procedurally related reasons, including wound complications (16%), peri-prosthetic fractures (4.5%) and prosthetic dislocations (6%). 72.6% of readmissions were for medical reasons, including sepsis (7%), pneumonia (14%), urinary tract infection (6.3%), myocardial infarction (2.7%), renal failure (2.7%), and stroke (2.3%). In the subsequent multivariate analysis, pre-operative dyspnea, COPD, hypertension, disseminated cancer, a bleeding disorder, pre-operative hematocrit of <36, pre-operative creatinine of >1.2, an ASA class of 3 or 4, and the operative procedure type were each independently associated with readmissions risk (p<0.05 for each). Conclusions The overall rate of readmission following hip fracture surgery was moderate. Surgeons should consider discharge optimization in the at risk cohorts identified here, particularly patients with multiple medical comorbidities or an elevated ASA class, and

  13. Cold-Flow Propulsion Research Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An engineer at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Wind Tunnel Facility uses lasers to measure the velocity and gradient distortion across an eight inch curved pipe with joints and turning valves during a cold-flow propulsion research test; simulating the conditions found in the X-33's hydrogen feedline. Lasers are used because they are non-intrusive and do not disturb the flow like a probe would. The feedline supplies propellants to the turbo pump. The purpose of this project was to design the feedline to provide uniform flow into the turbo pump.

  14. The effect of discharge disposition on 30-day readmission rates after total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Nicholas L; Karia, Raj J; Hutzler, Lorraine H; Brandt, Aaron M; Slover, James D; Bosco, Joseph A

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated no significant difference in overall functional outcomes of patients discharged to a sub acute setting versus home with health services after total joint arthroplasty. These findings coupled with pressure to reduce health care costs and the implementation of a prospective payment system under Medicare have supported the use of home rehabilitation services and the trend towards earlier discharge after hospitalization. While the overall functional outcome of patients discharged to various settings has been studied, there is a relative dearth of investigation comparing postoperative complications and readmission rates between various discharge dispositions. Our study demonstrated patients discharged home with health services had a significantly lower 30 day readmission rate compared to those discharged to inpatient rehab facilities. Patients discharged to rehab facilities have a higher incidence of comorbidity and this association could be responsible for their higher rate of readmission. PMID:24183369

  15. Outcomes of a quality improvement project implementing stroke discharge advocacy to reduce 30-day readmission rates.

    PubMed

    Poston, Kristen M; Dumas, Bonnie P; Edlund, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement project was to determine whether use of aspects of a transitional care model by nurse navigators would affect 30-day readmission rates in hospitalized ischemic stroke patients discharged home with self-care. Thirty-day readmission rates and emergency department (ED) visits were compared before, during, and after the implementation of the revised discharge process. Comparative analysis demonstrated reductions in readmissions and in ED visits. Thirty-day readmission rates to our hospital decreased from 9.39% to 3.24% when comparing pre- with postintervention data. Thirty-day ED visit rates to all state hospitals decreased from 16.36% to 12.08% when comparing pre- with postintervention data. PMID:24322371

  16. The Gravity of LBNP Exercise: Lessons Learned from Identical Twins in Bed for 30 Days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Groppo, Eli R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Watenpaugh, Donald; Schneider, Suzanne; O'Leary, Deborah; Smith, Scott M.; Steinbach, Gregory C.; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Kimura, Shinji; Meyer, R. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Microgravity leads to cardiovascular deconditioning in humans, which is manifested by post-flight reduction of orthostatic tolerance and upright exercise capacity. During upright posture on Earth, blood pressures are greater in the feet than at heart or head levels due to gravity's effects on columns of blood in the body. During exposure to Microgravity, all gravitational blood pressures disappear. Presently, there is no exercise hardware available for space flight to provide gravitational blood pressures to tissues of the lower body. We hypothesized that 40 minutes of supine treadmill running per day in a LBNP chamber at 1.0 to 1.2 body weight (approximately 50 - 60 mm Hg LBNP) with a 5 min resting, nonexercise LBNP exposure at 50 mm Hg after the exercise session will maintain aerobic fitness orthostatic tolerance, and selected parameters of musculoskeletal function during 30 days of bed rest (simulated microgravity). This paper is an interim report of some of our findings on 16 subjects.

  17. Bone metabolism and nutritional status during 30-day head-down-tilt bed rest

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ericson, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Bed rest studies provide an important tool for modeling physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. Markers of bone metabolism and nutritional status were evaluated in 12 subjects (8 men, 4 women; ages 25–49 yr) who participated in a 30-day −6° head-down-tilt diet-controlled bed rest study. Blood and urine samples were collected twice before, once a week during, and twice after bed rest. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects linear regression with a priori contrasts comparing all days to the second week of the pre-bed rest acclimation period. During bed rest, all urinary markers of bone resorption increased ∼20% (P < 0.001), and serum parathyroid hormone decreased ∼25% (P < 0.001). Unlike longer (>60 days) bed rest studies, neither markers of oxidative damage nor iron status indexes changed over the 30 days of bed rest. Urinary oxalate excretion decreased ∼20% during bed rest (P < 0.001) and correlated inversely with urinary calcium (R = −0.18, P < 0.02). These data provide a broad overview of the biochemistry associated with short-duration bed rest studies and provide an impetus for using shorter studies to save time and costs wherever possible. For some effects related to bone biochemistry, short-duration bed rest will fulfill the scientific requirements to simulate spaceflight, but other effects (antioxidants/oxidative damage, iron status) do not manifest until subjects are in bed longer, in which case longer studies or other analogs may be needed. Regardless, maximizing research funding and opportunities will be critical to enable the next steps in space exploration. PMID:22995395

  18. The cost of clinical mastitis in the first 30 days of lactation: An economic modeling tool.

    PubMed

    Rollin, E; Dhuyvetter, K C; Overton, M W

    2015-12-01

    Clinical mastitis results in considerable economic losses for dairy producers and is most commonly diagnosed in early lactation. The objective of this research was to estimate the economic impact of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 30 days of lactation for a representative US dairy. A deterministic partial budget model was created to estimate direct and indirect costs per case of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 30 days of lactation. Model inputs were selected from the available literature, or when none were available, from herd data. The average case of clinical mastitis resulted in a total economic cost of $444, including $128 in direct costs and $316 in indirect costs. Direct costs included diagnostics ($10), therapeutics ($36), non-saleable milk ($25), veterinary service ($4), labor ($21), and death loss ($32). Indirect costs included future milk production loss ($125), premature culling and replacement loss ($182), and future reproductive loss ($9). Accurate decision making regarding mastitis control relies on understanding the economic impacts of clinical mastitis, especially the longer term indirect costs that represent 71% of the total cost per case of mastitis. Future milk production loss represents 28% of total cost, and future culling and replacement loss represents 41% of the total cost of a case of clinical mastitis. In contrast to older estimates, these values represent the current dairy economic climate, including milk price ($0.461/kg), feed price ($0.279/kg DM (dry matter)), and replacement costs ($2,094/head), along with the latest published estimates on the production and culling effects of clinical mastitis. This economic model is designed to be customized for specific dairy producers and their herd characteristics to better aid them in developing mastitis control strategies. PMID:26596651

  19. Bone metabolism and nutritional status during 30-day head-down-tilt bed rest.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer L L; Zwart, Sara R; Heer, Martina; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ericson, Karen; Smith, Scott M

    2012-11-01

    Bed rest studies provide an important tool for modeling physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. Markers of bone metabolism and nutritional status were evaluated in 12 subjects (8 men, 4 women; ages 25-49 yr) who participated in a 30-day -6° head-down-tilt diet-controlled bed rest study. Blood and urine samples were collected twice before, once a week during, and twice after bed rest. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects linear regression with a priori contrasts comparing all days to the second week of the pre-bed rest acclimation period. During bed rest, all urinary markers of bone resorption increased ~20% (P < 0.001), and serum parathyroid hormone decreased ~25% (P < 0.001). Unlike longer (>60 days) bed rest studies, neither markers of oxidative damage nor iron status indexes changed over the 30 days of bed rest. Urinary oxalate excretion decreased ~20% during bed rest (P < 0.001) and correlated inversely with urinary calcium (R = -0.18, P < 0.02). These data provide a broad overview of the biochemistry associated with short-duration bed rest studies and provide an impetus for using shorter studies to save time and costs wherever possible. For some effects related to bone biochemistry, short-duration bed rest will fulfill the scientific requirements to simulate spaceflight, but other effects (antioxidants/oxidative damage, iron status) do not manifest until subjects are in bed longer, in which case longer studies or other analogs may be needed. Regardless, maximizing research funding and opportunities will be critical to enable the next steps in space exploration. PMID:22995395

  20. LaRC Separate Flow Testing Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, Jack

    2000-01-01

    The main goal of this presentation is to give some of the objectives of the testing program. This includes: develop jet noise data base for separate flow nozzles with bypass ratio's 5 to 14; evaluate effect of pylon on noise; develop low performance impact noise suppression concepts; and evaluate potential for active control of jet noise.

  1. Characterization of Flow Bench Engine Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voris, Alex; Riley, Lauren; Puzinauskas, Paul

    2015-11-01

    This project was an attempt at characterizing particle image velocimetry (PIV) and swirl-meter test procedures. The flow direction and PIV seeding were evaluated for in-cylinder steady state flow of a spark ignition engine. For PIV seeding, both wet and dry options were tested. The dry particles tested were baby powder, glass particulate, and titanium dioxide. The wet particles tested were fogs created with olive oil, vegetable oil, DEHS, and silicon oil. The seeding was evaluated at 0.1 and 0.25 Lift/Diameter and at cylinder pressures of 10, 25 and 40 inches of H2O. PIV results were evaluated through visual and fluid momentum comparisons. Seeding particles were also evaluated based on particle size and cost. It was found that baby powder and glass particulate were the most effective seeding options for the current setup. The oil fogs and titanium dioxide were found to deposit very quickly on the mock cylinder and obscure the motion of the particles. Based on initial calculations and flow measurements, the flow direction should have a negligible impact on PIV and swirl-meter results. The characterizations found in this project will be used in future engine research examining the effects of intake port geometry on in-cylinder fluid motion and exhaust gas recirculation tolerances. Thanks to NSF site grant #1358991.

  2. Resource Prospector Propulsion System Cold Flow Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Hunter; Holt, Kim; Addona, Brad; Trinh, Huu

    2015-01-01

    Resource Prospector (RP) is a NASA mission being led by NASA Ames Research Center with current plans to deliver a scientific payload package aboard a rover to the lunar surface. As part of an early risk reduction activity, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Johnson Space Flight Center (JSC) have jointly developed a government-version concept of a lunar lander for the mission. The spacecraft consists of two parts, the lander and the rover which carries the scientific instruments. The lander holds the rover during launch, cruise, and landing on the surface. Following terminal descent and landing the lander portion of the spacecraft become dormant after the rover embarks on the science mission. The lander will be equipped with a propulsion system for lunar descent and landing, as well as trajectory correction and attitude control maneuvers during transit to the moon. Hypergolic propellants monomethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide will be used to fuel sixteen 70-lbf descent thrusters and twelve 5-lbf attitude control thrusters. A total of four metal-diaphragm tanks, two per propellant, will be used along with a high-pressure composite-overwrapped pressure vessel for the helium pressurant gas. Many of the major propulsion system components are heritage missile hardware obtained by NASA from the Air Force. In parallel with the flight system design activities, a simulated propulsion system based on flight drawings was built for conducting a series of water flow tests to characterize the transient fluid flow of the propulsion system feed lines and to verify the critical operation modes such as system priming, waterhammer, and crucial mission duty cycles. The primary objective of the cold flow testing was to simulate the RP propulsion system fluid flow operation through water flow testing and to obtain data for anchoring analytical models. The models will be used to predict the transient and steady state flow behaviors in the actual flight operations. All design and

  3. 78 FR 52557 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 811 Project Rental Assistance (PRA) for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 811 Project Rental... Information Collection: Section 811 Project Rental Assistance (PRA) for Persons with Disabilities....

  4. SSME hot gas manifold flow comparison test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. B., Jr.; Dill, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (HPFT) component of NASA's Alternate Turbopump Development effort, which is aimed at the proper aerodynamic integration of the current Phase II three-duct SSME Hot Gas Manifold (HGM) and the future 'Phase II-plus' two-duct HGM. Half-scale water flow tests of both HGM geometries were conducted to provide initial design data for the HPFT. The results reveal flowfield results and furnish insight into the performance differences between the two HGM flowpaths. Proper design of the HPFT can potentially secure significant flow improvements in either HGM configuration.

  5. Forced Flow Flame-Spreading Test (FFFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Forced Flow Flame-Spreading Test was designed to study flame spreading over solid fuels when air is flowing at a low speed in the same direction as the flame spread. Previous research has shown that in low-speed concurrent airflows, some materials are more flammable in microgravity than earth. This image shows a 10-cm flame in microgravity that burns almost entirely blue on both sides of a thin sheet of paper. The glowing thermocouple in the lower half of the flame provides temperature measurements.

  6. A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Roshni; Myles, Puja R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cholesterol lowering drugs HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and PPARα activators (fibrates) have been shown to reduce host inflammation via non-disease specific immunomodulatory mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that commonly prescribed drugs in general practice, statins and fibrates, may be beneficial in influenza-like illness related mortality. This retrospective cohort study examines the association between two lipid lowering drugs, statins and fibrates, and all-cause 30-day mortality following a medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI). Methods. Primary care patient data were retrospectively extracted from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database. The sample comprised 201,179 adults aged 30 years or older experiencing a MAARI episode. Patient exposure to statins or fibrates was coded as separate dichotomous variables and deemed current if the most recent GP prescription was issued in the 30 days prior to MAARI diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression were used for analyses. Adjustment was carried out for chronic lung disease, heart failure, metformin and glitazones, comorbidity burden, socio-demographic and lifestyle variables such as smoking status and body mass index (BMI). Statistical interaction tests were carried out to check for effect modification by gender, body mass index, smoking status and comorbidity. Results. A total of 1,096 (5%) patients died within the 30-day follow up period. Of this group, 213 (19.4%) were statin users and 4 (0.4%) were fibrate users. After adjustment, a significant 35% reduction in odds [adj OR; 0.65 (95% CI [0.52–0.80])] and a 33% reduction in the hazard [adj HR: 0.67 (95% CI [0.55–0.83])] of all-cause 30-day mortality following MAARI was observed in statin users. A significant effect modification by comorbidity burden was observed for the association between statin use and MAARI-related mortality. Fibrate use was associated with a non

  7. A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Roshni; Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cholesterol lowering drugs HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and PPARα activators (fibrates) have been shown to reduce host inflammation via non-disease specific immunomodulatory mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that commonly prescribed drugs in general practice, statins and fibrates, may be beneficial in influenza-like illness related mortality. This retrospective cohort study examines the association between two lipid lowering drugs, statins and fibrates, and all-cause 30-day mortality following a medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI). Methods. Primary care patient data were retrospectively extracted from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database. The sample comprised 201,179 adults aged 30 years or older experiencing a MAARI episode. Patient exposure to statins or fibrates was coded as separate dichotomous variables and deemed current if the most recent GP prescription was issued in the 30 days prior to MAARI diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression were used for analyses. Adjustment was carried out for chronic lung disease, heart failure, metformin and glitazones, comorbidity burden, socio-demographic and lifestyle variables such as smoking status and body mass index (BMI). Statistical interaction tests were carried out to check for effect modification by gender, body mass index, smoking status and comorbidity. Results. A total of 1,096 (5%) patients died within the 30-day follow up period. Of this group, 213 (19.4%) were statin users and 4 (0.4%) were fibrate users. After adjustment, a significant 35% reduction in odds [adj OR; 0.65 (95% CI [0.52-0.80])] and a 33% reduction in the hazard [adj HR: 0.67 (95% CI [0.55-0.83])] of all-cause 30-day mortality following MAARI was observed in statin users. A significant effect modification by comorbidity burden was observed for the association between statin use and MAARI-related mortality. Fibrate use was associated with a non

  8. Wing Leading Edge Joint Laminar Flow Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Aaron; Westphal, Russell V.; Zuniga, Fanny A.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Koga, Dennis J.

    1996-01-01

    An F-104G aircraft at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has been equipped with a specially designed and instrumented test fixture to simulate surface imperfections of the type likely to be present near the leading edge on the wings of some laminar flow aircraft. The simulated imperfections consisted of five combinations of spanwise steps and gaps of various sizes. The unswept fixture yielded a pressure distribution similar to that of some laminar flow airfoils. The experiment was conducted at cruise conditions typical for business-jets and light transports: Mach numbers were in the range 0.5-0.8, and unit Reynolds numbers were 1.5-2.5 million per foot. Skin friction measurements indicated that laminar flow was often maintained for some distance downstream of the surface imperfections. Further work is needed to more precisely define transition location and to extend the experiments to swept-wing conditions and a broader range of imperfection geometries.

  9. Review of flow battery testing at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.; Miller, D.W.; Robinson, C.E.; Rodriguez, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating prototype zinc/bromine, Redox, and zinc/ferricyanide flowing electrolyte batteries and cells. This paper will update previous reports of test results of two Exxon zinc/bromine batteries and one NASA Redox iron/chromium battery. Two 60-sq. cm. zinc/ferricyanide cells from Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. are also being evaluated. Performance, life, and operating data will be described for these batteries and cells.

  10. Effect of 30-day orbital flight BION M1 on excretion of expired endogenous CO in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulagin, Yury; Tatarkin, Sergey; Dyachenko, Alexander

    It is known that increased destruction of hem structures is accompanied by increase of the endogenous carbon monoxide excretion rate with respiration (VCO). Changes VCO preceded the observed changes in the blood composition [D’yachenko A. et al., 2010]. Changes in blood composition, i.e. rise of red blood cells content and reduction of reticulocytes content was detected after a 12-day orbital flight (OF) in mice C57BL/6 [Gridley D.et al., 2003]. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 30-day OF on excretion of endogenous CO. The method and apparatus for simultaneous measurement of VCO, and O2 and CO2 exchange were developed. The research consisted of three parts: 1). Measurement of VCO in five C57BL/6 mice after 30-day OF on the Russian satellite BION M1. 2). Measurement of VCO in six C57BL/6 mice after 30-day ground-based experiment (GBE) with simulated flight telemetry environment of BION M1. 3). Measurement of VCO in seven C57BL/6 mice in vivarium The results: Mice weight after OF was 24.3+-3.3 (mean +-SD) with minimal weight 18.1 g, and maximal weight 29.9 g. Vivarium mice weight was 27.0+-1.8 g. KGE mice weight was 25.0+-1.3 g. Mice age in all three groups was the same. We measured and estimated VCO and total CO excretion (MCO) for two gas mixtures ventilated mouse camera: atmospheric CO-contained air and then CO-free air(30 min). The results showed that the average MCO allocated GBE and vivarium mice did not significantly differ. Average MCO in mice after OF was significantly higher then in vivarium group (T=-2,74; p=0.02). MCO after GBE was between the vivarium and OF groups. MCO in OF and KGE groups did not differ ( T=-1,93; p=0,085). Blood tests in mice after OF was not carried out, because the recovery after the OF was studied in this group. The largest excretion of CO was observed in a mouse N39 after the OF. The weight of this mouse was only 18.1 g, i.e. much less than mean weight. Increase of VCO in food-restricted animal is known

  11. Sultan - forced flow, high field test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1981-09-01

    Three European laboratories: CNEN (Frascati, I) ECN (Petten, NL) and SIN (Villigen, CH) decided to coordinate their development efforts and to install a common high field forced flow test facility at Villigen Switzerland. The test facility SULTAN (Supraleiter Testanlage) is presently under construction. As a first step, an 8T/1m bore solenoid with cryogenic periphery will be ready in 1981. The cryogenic system, data acquisition system and power supplies which are contributed by SIN are described. Experimental feasibilities, including cooling, and instrumentation are reviewed. Progress of components and facility construction is described. Planned extension of the background field up to 12T by insert coils is outlined. 5 refs.

  12. An Administrative Claims Model for Profiling Hospital 30-Day Mortality Rates for Pneumonia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bratzler, Dale W.; Normand, Sharon-Lise T.; Wang, Yun; O'Donnell, Walter J.; Metersky, Mark; Han, Lein F.; Rapp, Michael T.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Outcome measures for patients hospitalized with pneumonia may complement process measures in characterizing quality of care. We sought to develop and validate a hierarchical regression model using Medicare claims data that produces hospital-level, risk-standardized 30-day mortality rates useful for public reporting for patients hospitalized with pneumonia. Methodology/Principal Findings Retrospective study of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries age 66 years and older with a principal discharge diagnosis of pneumonia. Candidate risk-adjustment variables included patient demographics, administrative diagnosis codes from the index hospitalization, and all inpatient and outpatient encounters from the year before admission. The model derivation cohort included 224,608 pneumonia cases admitted to 4,664 hospitals in 2000, and validation cohorts included cases from each of years 1998–2003. We compared model-derived state-level standardized mortality estimates with medical record-derived state-level standardized mortality estimates using data from the Medicare National Pneumonia Project on 50,858 patients hospitalized from 1998–2001. The final model included 31 variables and had an area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.72. In each administrative claims validation cohort, model fit was similar to the derivation cohort. The distribution of standardized mortality rates among hospitals ranged from 13.0% to 23.7%, with 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of 16.5%, 17.4%, and 18.3%, respectively. Comparing model-derived risk-standardized state mortality rates with medical record-derived estimates, the correlation coefficient was 0.86 (Standard Error = 0.032). Conclusions/Significance An administrative claims-based model for profiling hospitals for pneumonia mortality performs consistently over several years and produces hospital estimates close to those using a medical record model. PMID:21532758

  13. 30-day Mortality after Bariatric Surgery: Independently Adjudicated Causes of Death in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark D.; Patterson, Emma; Wahed, Abdus S.; Belle, Steven H.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Dakin, Gregory F.; Flum, David R.; Machado, Laura; Mitchell, James E.; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter; Ramanathan, Ramesh; Schrope, Beth; Staten, Myrlene; Ude, Akuezunkpa; Wolfe, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mortality following bariatric surgery is a rare event in contemporary series, making it difficult for any single center to draw meaningful conclusions as to cause of death. Nevertheless, much of the published mortality data come from single center case series and reviews of administrative databases. These sources tend to produce lower mortality estimates than those obtained from controlled clinical trials. Furthermore, information about the causes of death and how they were determined is not always available. The aim of the present report is to describe in detail all deaths occurring within 30-days of surgery in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS). Methods LABS is a 10-center observational cohort study of bariatric surgical outcomes. Data were collected prospectively for bariatric surgeries performed between March 2005 and April 2009. All deaths occurring within 30-days of surgery were identified, and cause of death assigned by an independent Adjudication Subcommittee, blinded to operating surgeon and site. Results 6118 patients underwent primary bariatric surgery. 18 deaths (0.3%) occurred within 30-days of surgery. The most common cause of death was sepsis (33% of deaths), followed by cardiac causes (28%) and pulmonary embolism (17%). For one patient cause of death could not be determined despite examination of all available information. Conclusions This study confirms the low 30-day mortality rate following bariatric surgery. The recognized complications of anastomotic leak, cardiac events, and pulmonary emboli accounted for the majority of 30-day deaths. PMID:21866378

  14. Clinical review is essential to evaluate 30-day mortality after trauma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Securing high-quality mortality statistics requires systematic evaluation of all trauma deaths. We examined the proportion of trauma patients dying within 30 days from causes not related to the injury and the impact of exclusion of patients dead on arrival on 30-day trauma mortality. We also defined the demographics, injury characteristics, cause of death and time to death in patients admitted to our trauma center who died within 30 days, between 2007-2011. Methods Demographics, injury characteristics, status alive/dead on arrival, cause of death and time to death of all patients were reviewed. Deaths were analyzed based on injury mechanism (penetrating, blunt trauma and low energy blunt trauma) and cause of death (traumatic brain injury (TBI), hemorrhage, organ dysfunction and other/unknown). Results Of the 7422 admissions, 343 deaths were identified of which 36 (10.5%) involved causes not related to the injury. The overall age was 71 years, Injury Severity Score (ISS) 29 and time to death 24 hours (all medians). Fifty-four patients (17.6%) were dead on arrival. Exclusion of patients dead on arrival reduced the overall mortality rate (P < 0.05) and median ISS (P < 0.05) and increased median age (P < 0.01) and time to death (P < 0.001). Injury mechanism was penetrating trauma in 7.5%, blunt trauma in 56.0%, and low energy blunt trauma in 36.5%. TBI accounted for 58.6%; hemorrhage 16.3%, organ dysfunction 15.0%, and other/unknown for 10.1% of the deaths. Patients who died after low energy blunt trauma were older, had lower ISS and longer time to death compared to those who died after penetrating and blunt trauma (all P < 0.01). Conclusions Clinical review of all trauma deaths was essential to interpret mortality. Thirty-day trauma mortality included 10.5% deaths not directly related to the injury and the exclusion of patients dead on arrival significantly affected the unadjusted mortality rate, ISS, median age and time to death

  15. Analysis of risk factors, localization and 30-day prognosis of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Smajlović, Dzevdet; Salihović, Denisa; C Ibrahimagić, Omer; Sinanović, Osman; Vidović, Mirjana

    2008-05-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is the deadliest, most disabling and least treatable form of stroke despite progression in medical science. The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency, risk factors, localization and 30-day prognosis in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. We analyzed 352 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) hospitalized at the Department of Neurology Tuzla during a three-year follow up. The following data were collected for all patients in a computerized database: age, sex, risk factors (hypertension, heart diseases, diabetes and smoking) and CT findings. Stroke severity was estimated with Scandinavian Stroke Scale, ICH topography was specified by CT, and outcome at 1st month after onset included information on vital status and disability (modified Rankin Scale, mRS). The most frequent risk factors were hypertension (84%), heart diseases (31%), cigarette smoking (28%) and diabetes mellitus (14%). The most frequent localization of ICH was multilobar (38%), internal capsule/basal ganglia region (36%) and lobar (17%). Within first month died 147 patients (42%). The highest mortality rate was in patients with brain stem (83%) and multilobar hemorrhage (64%). Factors independently associated with mortality were age (odds ratio 1,05 (95% confidence interval 1,02 to 1,08); p=0,001), stroke severity (OR 0,93 (0,92 to 0,95); p<0,0001), multilobar hemorrhage (OR 5,4 (3,0 to 9,6); p<0,0001) and intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 3,9 (2,2 to 7,1); p<0,0001). Favorable outcome at first month (mRS < or = 2) had 45% of the surviving patients with ICH. The best outcome was for the patients with cerebellar hemorrhage (63%), while only 40% of the patients with hemorrhage in internal capsule/basal ganglia region had Rankin scale 2 or less. Hypertension is the most frequent risk factor in patients with ICH. ICHs are mainly localized in lobar and internal capsule/basal ganglia regions. Independent predictors of mortality following ICH are age, hypertension

  16. Bion M1. Peculiarities of life activities of microbes in 30-day spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis; Morozova, Julia; Voeikova, Tatiana; Tyaglov, Boris; Novikova, Liudmila; Krestyanova, Irina; Emelyanova, Lydia

    The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of space flight factors ( SFF) to microorganism strains , exposed inside unmanned spacecraft Bion M-1 during the 30- day space flight. Objectives of the work - the study of the influence of the SFF exchange chromosomal DNA in crosses microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces; the level of spontaneous phage induction of lysogenic strains fS31 from Streptomyces lividans 66 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) on the biosynthesis of the antibiotic tylosin strain of Streptomyces fradiae; survival electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR- 1 is used in the microbial fuel cell As a result of this work it was found that the SFF affect the exchange of chromosomal DNA by crossing strains of Streptomyces. Was detected polarity crossing , expressed in an advantageous contribution chromosome fragment of one of the parent strains in recombinant offspring. This fact may indicate a more prolonged exposure of cells in microgravity and , as a consequence, the transfer of longer fragments of chromosomal DNA This feature is the transfer of genetic material in microgravity could lead to wider dissemination and horizontal transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA of symbiotic microflora astronauts and other strains present in the spacecraft. It was shown no effect on the frequency of recombination PCF and the level of mutation model reversion of auxotrophic markers to prototrophy It was demonstrated that PCF increase the level of induction of cell actinophage fS31 lysogenic strain of S. lividans 66, but did not affect the level of induction of this phage cells S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). It is shown that the lower the level of synthesis PCF antibiotic aktinorodina (actinorhodin) in lysogenic strain S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). 66 Strains of S. lividans and S. coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) can be used as a biosensor for studying the effect on microorganisms PCF It is shown that the effect of the PCF reduces synthesis of tylosin and desmicosyn S. fradiae at

  17. Scaled Rocket Testing in Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Aaron; MacLean, Matthew; Carr, Zakary; Parker, Ron; Holden, Michael; Mehta, Manish

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was strongly based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Detailed base heating results are outside of the scope of the current work, rather test methodology and techniques are presented along with broader applicability toward scaled rocket testing in supersonic and hypersonic flow.

  18. ICFT: An initial closed-loop flow test of the Fenton Hill Phase II HDR reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, Z.V.; Aguilar, R.G.; Dennis, B.R.; Dreesen, D.S.; Fehler, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; House, L.S.; Ito, H.; Kelkar, S.M.; Malzahn, M.V.

    1989-02-01

    A 30-day closed-loop circulation test of the Phase II Hot Dry Rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, was conducted to determine the thermal, hydraulic, chemical, and seismic characteristics of the reservoir in preparation for a long-term energy-extraction test. The Phase II heat-extraction loop was successfully tested with the injection of 37,000 m/sup 3/ of cold water and production of 23,300 m/sup 3/ of hot water. Up to 10 MW/sub t/ was extracted when the production flow rate reached 0.0139 m/sup 3//s at 192/degree/C. By the end of the test, the water-loss rate had decreased to 26% and a significant portion of the injected water was recovered; 66% during the test and an additional 20% during subsequent venting. Analysis of thermal, hydraulic, geochemical, tracer, and seismic data suggests the fractured volume of the reservoir was growing throughout the test. 19 refs., 64 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Discharge Hospice Referral and Lower 30-Day All-Cause Readmission in Medicare Beneficiaries Hospitalized for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kheirbek, Raya E.; Fletcher, Ross D.; Bakitas, Marie A.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Parvataneni, Sridivya; Bearden, Donna; Bailey, F. Amos; Morgan, Charity J.; Singh, Steven; Blackman, Marc R.; Zile, Michael R.; Patel, Kanan; Ahmed, Momanna B.; Tucker, Rodney O.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Love, Thomas E.; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Roseman, Jeffrey M.; Rich, Michael W.; Allman, Richard M.; Ahmed, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause for hospital readmission. Hospice care may help palliate HF symptoms but its association with 30-day all-cause readmission remains unknown. Methods and Results Of the 8032 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for HF in 106 Alabama hospitals (1998–2001), 182 (2%) received discharge hospice referrals. Of the 7850 patients not receiving hospice referrals, 1608 (20%) died within 6 months post-discharge (the hospice-eligible group). Propensity scores for hospice referral were estimated for each of the 1790 (182+1608) patients and were used to match 179 hospice-referral patients with 179 hospice-eligible patients who were balanced on 28 baseline characteristics (mean age, 79 years, 58% women, 18% African American). Overall, 22% (1742/8032) died in 6 months, of whom 8% (134/1742) received hospice referrals. Among the 358 matched patients, 30-day all-cause readmission occurred in 5% and 41% of hospice-referral and hospice-eligible patients, respectively (hazard ratio {HR} associated with hospice referral, 0.12; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.06–0.24). HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day all-cause readmission associated with hospice referral among the 126 patients who died and 232 patients who survived 30-day post-discharge were 0.03 (0.04–0.21) and 0.17 (0.08–0.36), respectively. Although 30-day mortality was higher in the hospice referral group (43% vs. 27%), it was similar at 90 days (64% vs. 67% among hospice-eligible patients). Conclusions A discharge hospice referral was associated with lower 30-day all-cause readmission among hospitalized HF patients. However, most HF patients who died within 6 months of hospital discharge did not receive a discharge hospice referral. PMID:26019151

  20. Testing the Markov hypothesis in fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Daniel W.; Saggini, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Stochastic Markov processes are used very frequently to model, for example, processes in turbulence and subsurface flow and transport. Based on the weak Chapman-Kolmogorov equation and the strong Markov condition, we present methods to test the Markov hypothesis that is at the heart of these models. We demonstrate the capabilities of our methodology by testing the Markov hypothesis for fluid and inertial particles in turbulence, and fluid particles in the heterogeneous subsurface. In the context of subsurface macrodispersion, we find that depending on the heterogeneity level, Markov models work well above a certain scale of interest for media with different log-conductivity correlation structures. Moreover, we find surprising similarities in the velocity dynamics of the different media considered.

  1. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C{sub 4}F{sub 10} weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd.

  2. Effects of erythropoietin on posttraumatic place learning in fimbria-fornix transected rats after a 30-day postoperative pause.

    PubMed

    Malá, Hana; Rodriguez Castro, Maria; Dall Jørgensen, Katrine; Mogensen, Jesper

    2007-10-01

    Human recombinant erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects following both vascular and mechanical brain injury. Previously, we showed that behavioral symptoms associated with mechanical lesions of the hippocampus are nearly abolished due to EPO treatment. In these studies, the EPO administration took place simultaneously with the infliction of brain injury and the rehabilitation training started 6-7 days postoperatively. In the present study, we tested whether the therapeutic effect of EPO on the acquisition of an allocentric eight-arm radial maze spatial task also manifests itself if the rehabilitative training is postponed. Postoperatively, the animals were left without any specific stimulation for 30 days. The current results show an improved behavioral performance of the EPO-treated lesioned group relative to the saline-treated lesioned group, and confirm EPO's therapeutic effect even in case of postponed rehabilitation. However, compared to the control group, the EPO-treated lesioned group demonstrated an impaired task acquisition. All subjects eventually recovered functionally. Subsequently, the animals were given behavioral challenges during which the cue constellation in the room was changed. The challenges revealed that, although the EPO-treated lesion group had achieved the same level of task proficiency as the control group, the cognitive mechanisms mediating the task performance in the EPO-treated lesion group (as well as in the saline-treated lesion group) were dissimilar from those mediating the task in the control group. Both the EPO-treated and the saline-treated lesion group demonstrated an increased dependency on the original cue configuration. PMID:17970627

  3. Final report for the flow excursion follow-on testing

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.A.; Walters, T.W.

    1992-08-05

    The purpose of the Mark 22 Flow Excursion Follow-On testing was to investigate the theory that approximately 15% of the flow bypassed the primary flow channels in previous testing, whereas the design called for only a 3% bypass. The results of the follow-on tests clearly confirmed this theory. The testing was performed in two phases. During the first phase, characterization tests performed during the earlier test program were repeated.

  4. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  5. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  6. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  7. 76 FR 34122 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: NEA/PI Online Performance Reporting System (PRS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: NEA/PI Online Performance Reporting System (PRS) ACTION... Collection: NEA/PI Online Performance Reporting System (PRS). OMB Control Number: 1405-0183. Type of...

  8. Predicting 30-Day Readmissions: Performance of the LACE Index Compared with a Regression Model among General Medicine Patients in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng; Wang, Sijia; Tan, Shu Yun; Thumboo, Julian; Liu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    The LACE index (length of stay, acuity of admission, Charlson comorbidity index, CCI, and number of emergency department visits in preceding 6 months) derived in Canada is simple and may have clinical utility in Singapore to predict readmission risk. We compared the performance of the LACE index with a derived model in identifying 30-day readmissions from a population of general medicine patients in Singapore. Additional variables include patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical and laboratory variables during the index admission, and prior healthcare utilization in the preceding year. 5,862 patients were analysed and 572 patients (9.8%) were readmitted in the 30 days following discharge. Age, CCI, count of surgical procedures during index admission, white cell count, serum albumin, and number of emergency department visits in previous 6 months were significantly associated with 30-day readmission risk. The final logistic regression model had fair discriminative ability c-statistic of 0.650 while the LACE index achieved c-statistic of 0.628 in predicting 30-day readmissions. Our derived model has the advantage of being available early in the admission to identify patients at high risk of readmission for interventions. Additional factors predicting readmission risk and machine learning techniques should be considered to improve model performance. PMID:26682212

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  10. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

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  11. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  12. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services...

  13. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services...

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  20. Predicting 30-Day Readmissions: Performance of the LACE Index Compared with a Regression Model among General Medicine Patients in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng; Wang, Sijia; Tan, Shu Yun; Thumboo, Julian; Liu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    The LACE index (length of stay, acuity of admission, Charlson comorbidity index, CCI, and number of emergency department visits in preceding 6 months) derived in Canada is simple and may have clinical utility in Singapore to predict readmission risk. We compared the performance of the LACE index with a derived model in identifying 30-day readmissions from a population of general medicine patients in Singapore. Additional variables include patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical and laboratory variables during the index admission, and prior healthcare utilization in the preceding year. 5,862 patients were analysed and 572 patients (9.8%) were readmitted in the 30 days following discharge. Age, CCI, count of surgical procedures during index admission, white cell count, serum albumin, and number of emergency department visits in previous 6 months were significantly associated with 30-day readmission risk. The final logistic regression model had fair discriminative ability c-statistic of 0.650 while the LACE index achieved c-statistic of 0.628 in predicting 30-day readmissions. Our derived model has the advantage of being available early in the admission to identify patients at high risk of readmission for interventions. Additional factors predicting readmission risk and machine learning techniques should be considered to improve model performance. PMID:26682212

  1. Optical Air Flow Measurements for Flight Tests and Flight Testing Optical Air Flow Meters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jentink, Henk W.; Bogue, Rodney K.

    2005-01-01

    Optical air flow measurements can support the testing of aircraft and can be instrumental to in-flight investigations of the atmosphere or atmospheric phenomena. Furthermore, optical air flow meters potentially contribute as avionics systems to flight safety and as air data systems. The qualification of these instruments for the flight environment is where we encounter the systems in flight testing. An overview is presented of different optical air flow measurement techniques applied in flight and what can be achieved with the techniques for flight test purposes is reviewed. All in-flight optical airflow velocity measurements use light scattering. Light is scattered on both air molecules and aerosols entrained in the air. Basic principles of making optical measurements in flight, some basic optical concepts, electronic concepts, optoelectronic interfaces, and some atmospheric processes associated with natural aerosols are reviewed. Safety aspects in applying the technique are shortly addressed. The different applications of the technique are listed and some typical examples are presented. Recently NASA acquired new data on mountain rotors, mountain induced turbulence, with the ACLAIM system. Rotor position was identified using the lidar system and the potentially hazardous air flow profile was monitored by the ACLAIM system.

  2. Counter-Flow Cooling Tower Test Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvořák, Lukáš; Nožička, Jiří

    2014-03-01

    The article contains a design of a functional experimental model of a cross-flow mechanical draft cooling tower and the results and outcomes of measurements. This device is primarily used for measuring performance characteristics of cooling fills, but with a simple rebuild, it can be used for measuring other thermodynamic processes that take part in so-called wet cooling. The main advantages of the particular test cell lie in the accuracy, size, and the possibility of changing the water distribution level. This feature is very useful for measurements of fills of different heights without the influence of the spray and rain zone. The functionality of this test cell has been verified experimentally during assembly, and data from the measurement of common film cooling fills have been compared against the results taken from another experimental line. For the purpose of evaluating the data gathered, computational scripts were created in the MATLAB numerical computing environment. The first script is for exact calculation of the thermal balance of the model, and the second is for determining Merkel's number via Chebyshev's method.

  3. Evaluation of 30-Day Hospital Readmission After Surgery for Advanced-Stage Ovarian Cancer in a Medicare Population

    PubMed Central

    Eskander, Ramez N.; Chang, Jenny; Ziogas, Argyrios; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bristow, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze rate, risk factors, and costs associated with 30-day readmission after ovarian cancer surgery. Patients and Methods The SEER-Medicare linked database (1992 to 2010) was used to evaluate readmission rates within 30 days of index surgery in patients with stage IIIC/IV ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with readmission. Results Of 5,152 eligible patients, 1,003 (19.5%) were readmitted within 30 days of discharge. Mean patient age was 75 years. Diagnoses associated with readmission included infection (34.7%), dehydration (34.3%), ileus/obstruction (26.2%), metabolic/electrolyte derangements (23.1%), and anemia (12.3%). In multivariable analysis, year of discharge was significantly associated with 30-day readmission (1996 to 2000: odds ratio [OR], 1.32; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.71; 2001 to 2005: OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.0; 2006 to 2010: OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.21; referent years 1992 to 1995), as were length of index hospital stay more than 8 days (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.64) and discharge to a skilled nursing facility (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.63). Patients readmitted within 30 days had a significantly greater 1-year mortality rate compared with patients not readmitted (41.1% v 25.1%, respectively; P < .001). The median cost of readmission hospital stay was $9,220 in year 2010 dollars, with a total cost of $9.3 million over the study period. Conclusion Early readmission after surgery for ovarian cancer is common. There is a significant association between 30-day readmission and 1-year mortality. These findings may catalyze development of targeted interventions to decrease early readmission, improve patient outcomes, and control health care costs. PMID:25385738

  4. 46 CFR 162.018-7 - Flow rating tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flow rating tests. 162.018-7 Section 162.018-7 Shipping...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL ENGINEERING EQUIPMENT Safety Relief Valves, Liquefied Compressed Gas § 162.018-7 Flow rating tests. (a) Flow rating of valves shall be conducted in accordance with UG-131 of section VIII...

  5. African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-Resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study During the 2006 NAMMA Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Man-Li C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, extended -range (30 -day) high-resolution simulations with the NASA global mesoscale model are conducted to simulate the initiation and propagation of six consecutive African easterly waves (AEWs) from late August to September 2006 and their association with hurricane formation. It is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and 6th AEWs. Remarkable simulations of a mean African easterly jet (AEJ) are also obtained. Nine additional 30 -day experiments suggest that although land surface processes might contribute to the predictability of the AEJ and AEWs, the initiation and detailed evolution of AEWs still depend on the accurate representation of dynamic and land surface initial conditions and their time -varying nonlinear interactions. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is realistically simulated.

  6. Residents examine factors associated with 30-day, same-cause hospital readmissions on an internal medicine service.

    PubMed

    Moran, Jennifer; Colbert, Colleen Y; Song, Juhee; Hull, Joshua; Rajan, Sabitha; Varghees, Sunita; Arroliga, Alejandro C; Reddy, Santosh P

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in stemming the tide of hospital readmissions in an attempt to improve quality of care. This study presents the Phase I results of a resident-led quality improvement initiative to determine the percentage of and risk factors for same-cause readmissions (SCRs; defined as hospital readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge for treatment of the same condition) to the internal medicine service of a multispecialty teaching hospital in central Texas. Results indicate that patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/asthma or anemia may be at increased risk for SCRs. Those patients who are insured by Medicaid and those who require assistance from social services also demonstrated an increased risk for SCRs. This study appears to be the first resident-led initiative in the field to examine 30-day SCRs to an internal medicine service for demographic and clinical risk factors. PMID:23550215

  7. 30 Days Wild: Development and Evaluation of a Large-Scale Nature Engagement Campaign to Improve Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Miles; Cormack, Adam; McRobert, Lucy; Underhill, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to increase people’s engagement with and connection to nature, both for human well-being and the conservation of nature itself. In order to suggest ways for people to engage with nature and create a wider social context to normalise nature engagement, The Wildlife Trusts developed a mass engagement campaign, 30 Days Wild. The campaign asked people to engage with nature every day for a month. 12,400 people signed up for 30 Days Wild via an online sign-up with an estimated 18,500 taking part overall, resulting in an estimated 300,000 engagements with nature by participants. Samples of those taking part were found to have sustained increases in happiness, health, connection to nature and pro-nature behaviours. With the improvement in health being predicted by the improvement in happiness, this relationship was mediated by the change in connection to nature. PMID:26890891

  8. 75 FR 37811 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... per hours) per hours respondent response In-depth interview screening 500 1 10/60 83 In-depth interview main interview 360 1 1 360 Focus group screening 800 1 10/60 133 Focus group main interview 400 1 2 800 Web-based message testing main interview........ 660 1 1 660 Omnibus survey questions...

  9. Evaluation of a Pharmacist-Specific Intervention on 30-Day Readmission Rates for High-Risk Patients with Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Douglas N.; Pinner, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmacist interventions have been shown to have an impact on reducing readmission rates, however further research is necessary to target resources to high-risk populations and determine the most effective bundle of interventions. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a pharmacist-bundled intervention on 30-day readmission rates for high-risk patients with pneumonia. Methods: A pilot study with a historical control conducted at a community, teaching-affiliated medical center. Up to 65 selected subjects were included if they had pneumonia and any of the following high-risk criteria: admission within 6 months, at least 5 scheduled home medications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or heart failure. A retrospective chart review was conducted to compile the historical control group that received usual care between June and November 2013. Patients admitted from December 2013 through March 2014 were reviewed to receive a bundled intervention. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission rates. Risk factors and reasons for readmission, pharmacist clinical interventions, and the time interval between discharge and readmission were also evaluated. Results: A trend toward a reduced 30-day readmission rate was observed in the intervention group (n = 43) compared to those who received usual care (n = 65) (27.9% vs 40.0%; relative risk [RR], 0.6977; 95% CI, 0.3965–1.2278; P = .2119). The most commonly identified high-risk inclusion criteria were having at least 5 scheduled home medications and COPD. The time interval between discharge and readmission did not considerably differ between groups (10.8 vs 10.6 days). Conclusions: The pharmacist-bundled intervention was associated with a reduced 30-day readmission rate for high-risk patients with pneumonia. PMID:26823619

  10. Using multiple household food inventories to measure food availability in the home over 30 days: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The consumption of foods, especially by children, may be determined by the types of foods that are available in the home. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods in the home, which can miss the change in availability when resources are not available, the primary objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the weekly availability of household food items changed over one month by 1) developing the methodology for the direct observation of the presence and amount of food items in the home; 2) conducting five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; and 3) determining the frequency that food items were present in the participating households. Methods After the development and pre-testing of the 251-item home observation guide that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere), two trained researchers recruited a convenience sample of 9 households (44.4% minority); administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, food resources, and food security); and conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval) over a 30-day period. Each in-home assessment included food-related activities since the last assessment, and an observational survey of types and amounts of foods present. Results Complete data were collected from all 9 women (32.8 y ± 6.0; 3 married; 4 ± 1.6 adults/children in household; 4 received food assistance; and 6 had very low food security) and their households. Weekly grocery purchases (place, amount, and purpose) varied from once (n = 1) to every week (n = 5); 4 used fast food 2-3 times/wk for 4 weeks. The weekly presence and amounts of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables and dairy varied. Conclusions The feasibility of conducting multiple in-home assessments was confirmed with 100% retention of participants through 5 in

  11. Marijuana use motives: concurrent relations to frequency of past 30-day use and anxiety sensitivity among young adult marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bernstein, Amit

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation examined two theoretically relevant aspects of marijuana motives using the Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) [Simons, J., Correia, C. J., Carey, K. B., & Borsari, B. E. (1998). Validating a five-factor marijuana motives measure: Relations with use, problems, and alcohol motives. Journal of Counseling Psychology 45, 265-273] among 141 (78 female) young adults (M(age)=20.17, S.D.=3.34). The first objective was to evaluate the incremental validity of marijuana motives in relation to frequency of past 30-day use after controlling for the theoretically relevant factors of the number of years using marijuana (lifetime), current levels of alcohol, as well as tobacco smoking use. As expected, coping, enhancement, social, and expansion motives each were uniquely and significantly associated with past 30-day marijuana use over and above the covariates; conformity motives were not a significant predictor. A second aim was to explore whether coping, but no other marijuana motive, was related to the emotional vulnerability individual difference factor of anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety). As hypothesized, after controlling for number of years using marijuana (lifetime), past 30-day marijuana use, current levels of alcohol consumption, and cigarettes smoked per day, anxiety sensitivity was incrementally and uniquely related to coping motives for marijuana use, but not other motives. These results are discussed in relation to the clinical implications of better understanding the role of motivation for marijuana use among emotionally vulnerable young adults. PMID:16647822

  12. Effect of feeding in 30-day bioaccumulation assays using Hyalella azteca in fluoranthene-dosed sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Harkey, G.A.; Driscoll, S.K.; Landrum, P.F.

    1997-04-01

    Current protocols for conducting freshwater sediment bioaccumulation tests recommend that food not be added to exposures, whereas toxicity tests require food addition. To determine effects of adding food on exposure, 30-d sediment exposures were conducted with Hyalella azteca to sediment dosed with four fluoranthene concentrations. Accumulation was significantly greater in fed versus nonfed animals at all dose levels after 96 h of exposure and continued to be greater after 30 d in the low dose levels. At sediment concentrations above 478 nmol/g dry weight, survival of unfed animals dropped to 34% after 30 d. After 30 d of exposure, growth and reproduction were observed in fed animals exposed to sediment 10-d studies reported in the literature using sediment with comparable organic carbon concentrations. Samples of sediment in exposure breakers taken from the sediment-water interface (flocculant layer) and 1 to 2 cm below the interface had large differences in fluoranthene and organic carbon concentrations. The concentration of fluoranthene was 2 to 10 times greater in the flocculant layer, the area inhabited by H. azteca, compared to the deeper sediment. These data raise questions concerning the interpretation of standard toxicity and bioaccumulation tests when food is routinely added.

  13. Tests Of Shear-Flow Model For Acoustic Impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrot, Tony L.; Watson, Willie R.; Jones, Michael G.

    1992-01-01

    Tests described in report conducted to validate two-dimensional shear-flow analytical model for determination of acoustic impedance of acoustic liner in grazing-incidence, grazing-flow environment by use of infinite-waveguide method. Tests successful for both upstream and downstream propagations. Work has potential for utility in testing of engine ducts in commercial aircraft.

  14. Analysis of Flow Angularity Repeatability Tests in the NTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemsch, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    An extensive data base of flow angularity repeatability measurements from four NTF check standard model tests is analyzed for statistical consistency and to characterize the results for prediction of angle-of-attack uncertainty for customer tests. A procedure for quality assurance for flow angularity measurements during customer tests is also presented. The efficacy of the procedure is tested using results from a customer test.

  15. Incidence and 30-day case fatality for acute myocardial infarction in England in 2010: national-linked database study

    PubMed Central

    Smolina, Kate; Wright, Frances L.; Rayner, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are limited national population-based epidemiological data on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in England, making the current burden of disease, and clinical prognosis, difficult to quantify. The aim of this study was to provide national estimates of incidence and 30-day case fatality rate (CFR) for first and recurrent AMI in England. Methods: Population-based study using person-linked routine hospital and mortality data on 79 896 individuals of any age, who were admitted to hospital for AMI or who died suddenly from AMI in 2010. Results: Of 82 252 AMI events in 2010, 83% were first. Age-standardized incidence of first AMI per 100 000 population was 130 (95% CI 129–131) in men and 55.9 (95% CI 55.3–56.6) in women. Age-standardized 30-day overall CFRs including sudden AMI deaths for men and women, respectively, were 32.4% (95% CI 32.0–32.9) and 30.3% (95% CI 29.8–30.9) for first AMI and 29.7% (95% CI 28.7–30.7) and 26.7% (95% CI 25.5–27.9) for recurrent AMI. Age-standardized hospitalized 30-day CFR was 12.0% (95% CI 11.6–12.3) for men and 12.3% (95% CI 11.9–12.7) for women. Conclusions: While the majority of AMIs are not fatal, of those that are, two-thirds occur as sudden AMI deaths. About one in six of all AMIs are recurrent events. These findings reinforce the importance of primary and secondary prevention in reducing AMI morbidity and mortality. PMID:22241758

  16. Robotic CABG decreases 30-day complication rate, length of stay and acute care facility discharge rate compared to conventional surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leyvi, Galina; Forest, Stephen; Srinivas, V. S.; Greenberg, Mark; Wang, Nan; Mais, Alec; Snyder, Max; DeRose, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of this study was to compare the short term outcomes of robotic with conventional on pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods The study population included 2091 consecutive patients who underwent either conventional or robotic CABG from January 2007 to March 2012. Pre-operative, intra-operative and 30-day post-operative variables were collected for each group. In order to compare the incidence of rapid recovery between conventional and robotic CABG, the surrogate variables of early discharge and discharge to home (versus rehabilitation or acute care facility) were evaluated. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was utilized. Results One hundred and fifty robotic and 1,619 conventional CABG cases were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that robotic surgery was a strong predictor of lower 30-day complications (OR = 0.24, p=0.005), short length of stay (OR 3.31, p < 0.001), and decreased need for an acute care facility (OR 0.55, p = 0.032). In the presence of complications (NY State Complication Composite), the robotic technique was not associated with a change in discharge status. Conclusions In this retrospective review robotic CABG was associated with a lower 30-day complication rate, a shorter length of stay and a lower incidence of acute care facility discharge than conventional on pump CABG. It may suggest a more rapid recovery to pre-operative status after robotic surgery: however, only a randomized prospective study could confirm the advantages of a robotic approach PMID:25238421

  17. A space maintainability experiment aboard the Ben Franklin submersible during the 30-day Gulf Stream drift mission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; May, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    In the summer of 1969, a deep submersible drifted for 30 days below the surface of the Gulf Stream, while operated by a six man crew. The main purpose of the mission was oceanographic research. The crew's activities and completely self-contained environment resembled those of a space station such as Skylab. Because of these similarities aspects of onboard vehicle maintenance during the actual conduct of a scientific mission were investigated. The maintainability study was accomplished in six distinct phases. Two useful plots of manpower distribution were developed. A maintenance action summary is presented in a table.

  18. Capillary flow solderability test for printed wiring boards

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Yost, F.G.; Hernandez, C.L.; Sackinger, S.J.

    1994-04-01

    This report describes a new technique for evaluating capillary flow solderability on printed circuit boards. The test involves the flow of molten solder from a pad onto different-sized conductor lines. It simulates the spreading dynamics of either plated-through-hole (PTH) or surface mount technology (SMT) soldering. A standard procedure has been developed for the test. Preliminary experiments were conducted and the results demonstrate test feasibility. Test procedures and results are presented in this report.

  19. Oscillating flow loss test results in Stirling engine heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koester, G.; Howell, S.; Wood, G.; Miller, E.; Gedeon, D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented for a test program designed to generate a database of oscillating flow loss information that is applicable to Stirling engine heat exchangers. The tests were performed on heater/cooler tubes of various lengths and entrance/exit configurations, on stacked and sintered screen regenerators of various wire diameters and on Brunswick and Metex random fiber regenerators. The test results were performed over a range of oscillating flow parameters consistent with Stirling engine heat exchanger experience. The tests were performed on the Sunpower oscillating flow loss rig which is based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. In general, the results are presented by comparing the measured oscillating flow losses to the calculated flow losses. The calculated losses are based on the cycle integration of steady flow friction factors and entrance/exit loss coefficients.

  20. Oscillating-flow regenerator test rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. G.; Gedeon, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed in setting up and performing tests on a regenerator test rig. An earlier status report presented test results, together with heat transfer correlations, for four regenerator samples (two woven screen samples and two felt metal samples). Lessons learned from this testing led to improvements to the experimental setup, mainly instrumentation as well as to the test procedure. Given funding and time constraints for this project it was decided to complete as much testing as possible while the rig was set up and operational, and to forego final data reduction and analysis until later. Additional testing was performed on several of the previously tested samples as well an on five newly fabricated samples. The following report is a summary of the work performed at OU, with many of the final test results included in raw data form.

  1. Readmission for Acute Exacerbation within 30 Days of Discharge Is Associated with a Subsequent Progressive Increase in Mortality Risk in COPD Patients: A Long-Term Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Mónica; Crisafulli, Ernesto; Liapikou, Adamantia; Huerta, Arturo; Gabarrús, Albert; Chetta, Alfredo; Soler, Nestor; Torres, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Twenty per cent of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are readmitted for acute exacerbation (AECOPD) within 30 days of discharge. The prognostic significance of early readmission is not fully understood. The objective of our study was to estimate the mortality risk associated with readmission for acute exacerbation within 30 days of discharge in COPD patients. Methods The cohort (n = 378) was divided into patients readmitted (n = 68) and not readmitted (n = 310) within 30 days of discharge. Clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and severity data were evaluated at admission and during hospital stay, and mortality data were recorded at four time points during follow-up: 30 days, 6 months, 1 year and 3 years. Results Patients readmitted within 30 days had poorer lung function, worse dyspnea perception and higher clinical severity. Two or more prior AECOPD (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.51–4.05) was the only variable independently associated with 30-day readmission. The mortality risk during the follow-up period showed a progressive increase in patients readmitted within 30 days in comparison to patients not readmitted; moreover, 30-day readmission was an independent risk factor for mortality at 1 year (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.10–5.59). In patients readmitted within 30 days, the estimated absolute increase in the mortality risk was 4% at 30 days (number needed to harm NNH, 25), 17% at 6-months (NNH, 6), 19% at 1-year (NNH, 6) and 24% at 3 years (NNH, 5). Conclusion In conclusion a readmission for AECOPD within 30 days is associated with a progressive increased long-term risk of death. PMID:26943928

  2. NASA Flight Tests Explore Supersonic Laminar Flow

    NASA Video Gallery

    In partnership with Aerion Corporation of Reno, Nevada, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center’s tested supersonic airflow over a small experimental airfoil design on its F-15B Test Bed aircraft du...

  3. Altitude Compensating Nozzle Cold Flow Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, J. H.; McDaniels, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of four altitude compensating nozzle (ACN) concepts were evaluated by NASA MSFC in the Nozzle Test Facility. The ACN concepts were a dual bell, a dual expander, an annular plug nozzle and an expansion deflection nozzle. Two reference bell nozzles were also tested. Axial thrust and nozzle wall static pressures were measured for each nozzle over a wide range of nozzle pressure ratios. The nozzle hardware and test program are described. Sample test results are presented.

  4. Noninvasive blood flow tests in vascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, O. K.; Cole, C. W.

    1993-01-01

    Noninvasive testing is now routine for assessing vascular conditions. Many noninvasive tests are available for obtaining physiologic and anatomic information that is both precise and reproducible. This paper discusses noninvasive testing with plethysmography, Doppler ultrasonography, and duplex scanning for carotid artery occlusive disease, deep venous thrombosis, and peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8268746

  5. Assessment of the National Transonic Facility for Laminar Flow Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Jeffrey D.; Sutanto, Mary I.; Witkowski, David P.; Watkins, A. Neal; Rivers, Melissa B.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    A transonic wing, designed to accentuate key transition physics, is tested at cryogenic conditions at the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley. The collaborative test between Boeing and NASA is aimed at assessing the facility for high-Reynolds number testing of configurations with significant regions of laminar flow. The test shows a unit Reynolds number upper limit of 26 M/ft for achieving natural transition. At higher Reynolds numbers turbulent wedges emanating from the leading edge bypass the natural transition process and destroy the laminar flow. At lower Reynolds numbers, the transition location is well correlated with the Tollmien-Schlichting-wave N-factor. The low-Reynolds number results suggest that the flow quality is acceptable for laminar flow testing if the loss of laminar flow due to bypass transition can be avoided.

  6. Reduce Driveline Trauma Through Stabilization and Exit Site Management: 30 Days Feasibility Results from the Multicenter RESIST Study.

    PubMed

    Stahovich, Marcia; Sundareswaran, Kartik S; Fox, Sarah; Hallinan, William; Blood, Peggy; Chen, Leway; Pamboukian, Salpy V; Chinn, Raymond; Farrar, David J; Pagani, Francis D; Blue, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The percutaneous lead management kit (PLMK) was developed for the HeartMate 2 (HM2) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) to reduce trauma at the exit site and to maintain a clean environment. REduce Driveline Trauma through StabIlization and Exit Site ManagemenT (RESIST) was a multicenter, prospective, nonrandomized study designed to evaluate the feasibility of the PLMK for managing the HM2 driveline exit site. Fifty patients were enrolled at five sites at a median of 495 days post-HM2 implant; 92% (46 of 50) of patients used the PLMK for a minimum of 30 days. At 30 days, more patients found the PLMK to be extremely comfortable (80% vs. 37%, p < 0.001) and extremely effective at stabilizing the driveline (82% vs. 40%, p < 0.001) compared with each center's standard of care. Frequency of dressing changes was 6-7 days or higher for 85% of the patients with PLMK. Three patients developed driveline infection while on PLMK (6%, 0.15 events per patient year), and 35 patients continued to use the PLMK after 6 months. The PLMK is easy to use, increases patient comfort, and increases driveline stability with a dressing change frequency of 6-7 days. PMID:27111738

  7. Pharmacokinetic and Genomic Effects of Arsenite in Drinking Water on Mouse Lung in a 30-Day Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chilakapati, Jaya; Wallace, Kathleen; Hernandez-Zavala, Araceli; Moore, Tanya; Ren, Hongzu

    2015-01-01

    The 2 objectives of this subchronic study were to determine the arsenite drinking water exposure dependent increases in female C3H mouse liver and lung tissue arsenicals and to characterize the dose response (to 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm arsenite in drinking water for 30 days and a purified AIN-93M diet) for genomic mouse lung expression patterns. Mouse lungs were analyzed for inorganic arsenic, monomethylated, and dimethylated arsenicals by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy. The total lung mean arsenical levels were 1.4, 22.5, 30.1, 50.9, 105.3, and 316.4 ng/g lung tissue after 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm, respectively. At 85 ppm, the total mean lung arsenical levels increased 14-fold and 131-fold when compared to either the lowest noncontrol dose (0.05 ppm) or the control dose, respectively. We found that arsenic exposure elicited minimal numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 77, 38, 90, 87, and 87 DEGs) after 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm, respectively, which were associated with cardiovascular disease, development, differentiation, apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response. After 30 days of arsenite exposure, this study showed monotonic increases in mouse lung arsenical (total arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid) concentrations but no clear dose-related increases in DEG numbers. PMID:26674514

  8. HIV care engagement within 30 days after hospital discharge among patients from a Thai tertiary-care centre.

    PubMed

    Ayudhya, Daruni Phalakawong Na; Khawcharoenporn, Thana

    2015-06-01

    A cohort study was conducted to assess the rate of follow-up visit within 30 days after hospital discharge and to determine factors associated with no follow-up among Thai HIV-infected adults during the period from November 2012 to October 2013. Of the 120 eligible patients, 76 (63%) were males, median age was 40 years, and 57 (48%) were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. The rate of follow-up within 30 days after hospital discharge was 69%. Independent factors associated with no follow-up were no caregiver (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 7.82; p = 0.002), age (aOR 1.06; p = 0.007 for each year younger), being immigrant (aOR 5.10; p = 0.03) and monthly household income less than $US 300 (aOR 2.99; p = 0.04). These findings suggest the need for interventions to improve care engagement including close monitoring for follow-up, pre-discharge financial and medical coverage planning, assessment for the need for caregiver and patient education about the importance of care engagement. PMID:25015932

  9. Flow generation in a novel centrifugal diffuser test device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidos, P.

    1983-09-01

    Recognition of the need to develop optimum diffusers for advanced centrifugal compressors, resulted in the design and manufacture of a novel low-speed test facility for centrifugal diffuser testing. The CDTD was designed to allow the flow angle and wall boundary profiles into the test diffuser to be controlled by variable geometry in the flow generator. The present study reports on the design of the flow generator and the analysis of the internal flow using a NASA computer code (MERIDL). First test results are given and are compared with the results of a control volume analysis. The flow angle control technique was found to work effectively but to give somewhat smaller angles (by 4 deg) than were predicted. It was concluded that the information obtained would allow scaling of the device; however, an analysis code was needed which would accept the real physical boundary conditions.

  10. Separate Flow Nozzle Test Status Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiyed, Naseem H. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn, in partnership with US industry, completed an exhaustive experimental study on jet noise reduction from separate flow nozzle exhaust systems. The study developed a data base on various bypass ratio nozzles, screened quietest configurations and acquired pertinent data for predicting the plume behavior and ultimately its corresponding jet noise. Several exhaust system configurations provided over 2.5 EPNdB jet noise reduction at take-off power. These data were disseminated to US aerospace industry in a conference hosted by NASA GRC whose proceedings are shown in this report.

  11. Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.

  12. Test flow disturbances in an expansion tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paull, A.; Stalker, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    The operation of an expansion tube is investigated theoretically with emphasis on the factors that have limited the utility of the expansion tube in the past. It is shown why the window of steady test conditions is narrow and how this window can be expanded so that these facilities can be used in a variety of hypersonic research. The theoretical predictions are supported by centerline Pitot pressure measurements using air as the test gas.

  13. Effect of a 30-day isolation stress on calcium, phosphorus and other excretory products in an unrestrained chimpanzee.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabbot, I. M.; Mcnew, J. J.; Hoshizaki, T.; Sedgwick, C. J.; Adey, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An unrestrained chimpanzee was studied in an isolation chamber and in his home cage environment. The study consisted of 49 urine collection days (14 days pre-, 5 days post- and 30 days of isolation), and then of 10 days in the home cage. Dietary intake, urine and fecal data were obtained. The effect of isolation on various excretory parameters was studied. Urine samples were analyzed for volume, osmolarity, creatinine, creatine, urea-N, 17-hydroxy corticosteroids, VMA, calcium and inorganic phosphorus. One way analyses of variance performed on the urinary excretion parameters showed all except creatinine excretion to vary significantly during periods of the study. The changes observed in calcium and phosphorus were highly significant. The data suggests that the calcium to phosphorus excretion ratio might serve as a physiological stress indicator of Selye's adaptation syndrome (period of resistance).

  14. Can the American College of Surgeons Risk Calculator Predict 30-Day Complications After Knee and Hip Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Adam I; Kwasny, Mary J; Suleiman, Linda I; Khakhkhar, Rishi H; Moore, Michael A; Beal, Matthew D; Manning, David W

    2015-09-01

    Accurate risk stratification of patients undergoing total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty is essential in the highly scrutinized world of pay-for-performance, value-driven healthcare. We assessed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) surgical risk calculator's ability to predict 30-day complications using 1066 publicly-reported Medicare patients undergoing primary THA or TKA. Risk estimates were significantly associated with complications in the categories of any complication (P = .005), cardiac complication (P < .001), pneumonia (P < .001) and discharge to skilled nursing facility (P < .001). However, predictability of complication occurrence was poor for all complications assessed. To facilitate the equitable provision and reimbursement of patient care, further research is needed to develop accurate risk stratification tools in TKA and THA surgery. PMID:26165953

  15. Hip Fractures: What Information Does the Evidence Show That Patients and Families Need to Decrease 30-Day Readmission?

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kristin OʼMara

    2015-01-01

    The current bundled payment reimbursement from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services will not cover the additional cost of hospital readmission for the same diagnosis, and patients with hip fractures have one of the highest cost-saving opportunities when compared with other admission reasons. Common reasons for readmission to the hospital after hip fracture include pneumonia, dehydration, and mobility issues. The learning modalities including visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic were used to make recommendations on how the education can be incorporated into the instruction of patients with hip fractures and their families. These learning techniques can be used to develop education to decrease possibility of 30-day readmission after hip fracture. Nurses must focus their education to meet the needs of each individual patient, adapting to different types of adult learners to increase the health literacy of patients with hip fractures and their families. PMID:26575502

  16. Flight tests of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, M. A.; Banks, D. W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.

    2015-06-01

    A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80 inch (203 cm) chord and 40 inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The test article was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0° to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, was similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.

  17. Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Michael A.; Banks, Daniel W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    A flight-test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80-inch (203 cm) chord and 40-inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane (McDonnell Douglas Corporation, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). The test article was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0 deg to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2-D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, were similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.

  18. Factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Marcelo Felipe; Kozak, Ana Carolina Leiroz Ferreira Botelho Maisano; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; de Godoy, Moacyr Fernandes; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Moscardini, Airton Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Left atrioventricular valve regurgitation is the most concerning residual lesion after surgical correction of atrioventricular septal defect. Objective To determine factors associated with moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of surgical repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect. Methods We assessed the results of 51 consecutive patients 14 years-old and younger presenting with incomplete atrioventricular septal defect that were operated on at our practice between 2002 and 2010. The following variables were considered: age, weight, absence of Down syndrome, grade of preoperative left atrioventricular valve regurgitation, abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve and the use of annuloplasty. The median age was 4.1 years; the median weight was 13.4 Kg; 37.2% had Down syndrome. At the time of preoperative evaluation, there were 23 cases with moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (45.1%). Abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve were found in 17.6%; annuloplasty was performed in 21.6%. Results At the time of postoperative evaluation, there were 12 cases with moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (23.5%). The variation between pre- and postoperative grades of left atrioventricular valve regurgitation of patients with atrioventricular valve malformation did not reach significance (P=0.26), unlike patients without such abnormalities (P=0.016). During univariate analysis, only absence of Down syndrome was statistically significant (P=0.02). However, after a multivariate analysis, none of the factors reached significance. Conclusion None of the factors studied was determinant of a moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within the first 30 days of repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect in the sample. Patients without abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve benefit more of the operation. PMID:26107451

  19. Anabolic and Catabolic Signaling Pathways in mouse Longissimus Dorsi after 30-day BION-M1 Spaceflight and Subsequent Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoev, Timur; Blottner, Dieter; Shenkman, Boris; Lomonosova, Yulia; Vilchinskaya, Natalia; Nemirovskaya, Tatiana; Salanova, Michele

    The aim of the study was to analyze some of the key markers regulating anabolic and catabolic processes in mouse m. longissimus dorsi, an important back muscle system for trunk stabilization, following 30-day spaceflight and 8-day recovery period. C57/black mice were divided into 3 groups: 1) Vivarium Control (n=7), 2) Flight (n=5), 3) Recovery (n=5). The experiment was carried out in accordance with the rules of biomedical ethics certified by the Russian Academy of Sciences Committee on Bioethics. Using Western-blotting analysis we determined the content of IRS-1, p-AMPK, MURF-1 and eEF2 in m. longissimus dorsi. The content of IRS-1 in mice m. longissimus dorsi after the 30-day flight did not differ from the control group, however, in the Recovery group IRS-1 level was 80% higher (p<0.05) as compared to Control. Phospho-AMPK content remained unchanged. In the Recovery group there was an increase of eEF2 by 75% compared to the Control (p<0.05). After spaceflight MuRF-1 content was increased more than 2 times compared to the control animals. Thus, our findings showed that the work of the IRS-1 - dependent signaling pathway is only active in the recovery period. The content of the ubiquitin-ligase MURF-1 that takes parts in degrading myosin heavy chain was increased after the spaceflight, however, after 8-day recovery period MURF-1 level did not exceed the control indicating normalization of protein degradation in m. longissimus dorsi. The work was supported by the program of basic research of RAS and Federal Space Program of Russia for the period of 2006-2015.

  20. Flow tests of the Willis Hulin well

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, P.L.; Hayden, C.G.; Rogers, L.A.

    1992-02-01

    The Hulin well was tested between 20,100 and 20,700 feet down in layers of brine-saturated clean sand with occasional intervening layers of shale. The characteristics of the brine and gas were determined in this interval and an initial determination of the reservoir properties were made.

  1. Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, M. A.; Banks, D. W.; Garzon, G. A.; Matisheck, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    A flight test campaign of a supersonic natural laminar flow airfoil has been recently completed. The test surface was an 80-inch (203 cm) chord and 40-inch (102 cm) span article mounted on the centerline store location of an F-15B airplane. The wing was designed with a leading edge sweep of effectively 0 deg to minimize boundary layer crossflow. The test article surface was coated with an insulating material to avoid significant heat transfer to and from the test article structure to maintain a quasi-adiabatic wall. An aircraft-mounted infrared camera system was used to determine boundary layer transition and the extent of laminar flow. The tests were flown up to Mach 2.0 and chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million. The objectives of the tests were to determine the extent of laminar flow at high Reynolds numbers and to determine the sensitivity of the flow to disturbances. Both discrete (trip dots) and 2-D disturbances (forward-facing steps) were tested. A series of oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, appeared on the surface, which generated sufficient crossflow to affect transition. Despite the unwanted crossflow, the airfoil performed well. The results indicate the sensitivity of the flow to the disturbances, which can translate into manufacturing tolerances, were similar to that of subsonic natural laminar flow wings.

  2. The Forced Flow Flame-Spreading Test (FFFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Forced Flow Flame-Spreading Test was designed to study flame spreading over solid fuels when air is flowing at a low speed concurrent airflows, some materials are more flammable in microgravity than earth. 1.5 cm flame in microgravity that melts a polyethylene cylinder into a liquid ball.

  3. Flow-test device fits into restricted access passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, J. J.; Oberschmidt, M.; Rosenbaum, B. J.

    1967-01-01

    Test device using a mandrel with a collapsible linkage assembly enables a fluid flow sensor to be properly positioned in a restricted passage by external manipulation. This device is applicable to the combustion chamber of a rocket motor.

  4. How is flow experienced and by whom? Testing flow among occupations.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Susana; Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez, Alma M

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this paper are to test (1) the factorial structure of the frequency of flow experience at work; (2) the flow analysis model in work settings by differentiating the frequency of flow and the frequency of its prerequisites; and (3) whether there are significant differences in the frequency of flow experience depending on the occupation. A retrospective study among 957 employees (474 tile workers and 483 secondary school teachers) using multigroup confirmatory factorial analyses and multiple analyses of variance suggested that on the basis of the flow analysis model in work settings, (1) the frequency of flow experience has a two-factor structure (enjoyment and absorption); (2) the frequency of flow experience at work is produced when both challenge and skills are high and balanced; and (3) secondary school teachers experience flow more frequently than tile workers. PMID:22674654

  5. 30-day mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting and valve surgery has greatly improved over the last decade, but the 1-year mortality remains constant

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Laura Sommer; Hjortdal, Vibeke Elisabeth; Andreasen, Jan Jesper; Mortensen, Poul Erik; Jakobsen, Carl-Johan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) is a valuable tool in control of the quality of cardiac surgery. However, the validity of the risk score for the individual patient may be questioned. The present study was carried out to investigate whether the continued fall in short-term mortality reflects an actual improvement in late mortality, and subsequently, to investigate EuroSCORE as predictor of 1-year mortality. Methods: A population-based cohort study of 25,602 patients from a 12-year period from three public university hospitals undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or valve surgery. Analysis was carried out based on EuroSCORE, age and co-morbidity factors (residual EuroSCORE). Results: During the period the average age increased from 65.1 ± 10.0 years to 68.9 ± 10.7 years (P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA), and the number of females increased from 26.0% to 28.2% (P = 0.0012, Chi-square test). The total EuroSCORE increased from 4.67 to 5.68 while the residual EuroSCORE decreased from 2.64 to 1.83. Thirty-day mortality decreased from 4.07% in 1999–2000 to 2.44% in 2011–2012 (P = 0.0056; Chi-square test), while 1-year mortality was unchanged (6.50% in 1999–2000 vs. 6.25% in 2011–2012 [P = 0.8086; Chi-square test]). Discussion: The study demonstrates that both co-morbidity and age has a great impact on 30-day mortality. However, with time the impact of co-morbidity seems less. Thus, age is more important than co-morbidity in late mortality. The various developments in short and long-term mortality are not readily explained. Conclusion: Although 30-day mortality of CABG and valve surgery patients has decreased during the 12-year period, the 1-year mortality remains the same. PMID:25849679

  6. Utility of models to predict 28-day or 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions: an updated systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip R; Roberts, Pamela; Goh, Louise; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update previous systematic review of predictive models for 28-day or 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions. Design Systematic review. Setting/data source CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE from 2011 to 2015. Participants All studies of 28-day and 30-day readmission predictive model. Outcome measures Characteristics of the included studies, performance of the identified predictive models and key predictive variables included in the models. Results Of 7310 records, a total of 60 studies with 73 unique predictive models met the inclusion criteria. The utilisation outcome of the models included all-cause readmissions, cardiovascular disease including pneumonia, medical conditions, surgical conditions and mental health condition-related readmissions. Overall, a wide-range C-statistic was reported in 56/60 studies (0.21–0.88). 11 of 13 predictive models for medical condition-related readmissions were found to have consistent moderate discrimination ability (C-statistic ≥0.7). Only two models were designed for the potentially preventable/avoidable readmissions and had C-statistic >0.8. The variables ‘comorbidities’, ‘length of stay’ and ‘previous admissions’ were frequently cited across 73 models. The variables ‘laboratory tests’ and ‘medication’ had more weight in the models for cardiovascular disease and medical condition-related readmissions. Conclusions The predictive models which focused on general medical condition-related unplanned hospital readmissions reported moderate discriminative ability. Two models for potentially preventable/avoidable readmissions showed high discriminative ability. This updated systematic review, however, found inconsistent performance across the included unique 73 risk predictive models. It is critical to define clearly the utilisation outcomes and the type of accessible data source before the selection of the predictive model. Rigorous validation of the predictive models with moderate-to-high discriminative

  7. Immunohistochemical study of motoneurons in lumbar spinal cord of c57black/6 mice after 30-days space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkina, Oksana; Islamov, Rustem; Nurullin, Leniz; Petrov, Konstantin.; Rezvyakov, Pavel; Nikolsky, Evgeny

    To investigate mechanisms of hypogravity motor syndrome development the immunoexpression of heat shock proteins (Hsp27 and Hsp70), proteins of synaptic transmission (Synaptophysin and PSD95) and neuroprotective proteins (VEGF and Flt-1) in motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in c57black/6 control mice (n=2) and after 30-days space flight (n=2) was studied. For a quantitative assessment of target proteins level in motoneurons frozen cross sections of lumbar spinal cord were underwent to immunohistochemical staining. Primary antibodies against VEGF, Flt-1, Hsp27 and Hsp70 (SantaCruz Biotechnology, inc. USA), against Synaptophysin and PSD95 (Abcam plc, UK) were visualized by streptavidin-biotin method. Images of spinal cords were received using OlympusBX51WI microscope with AxioCamMRm camera (CarlZeiss, Germany) and the AxioVisionRel. 4.6.3 software (CarlZeiss, Germany). The digitized data were analyzed using ImageJ 1.43 software (NIH, the USA). Quantitively, protein level in motoneurons was estimated by the density of immunoprecipitation. Results of research have not revealed any reliable changes in the immunnoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its Flt-1 receptor in motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in control and in mice after 30-day space flight. Studying of heat shock proteins, such as Hsp27 and Hsp70, revealed the decrease in level of these proteins immunoexpression in motoneurons of mice from flight group by 15% and 10%, respectively. Some decrease in level of immunnoexpression of presynaptic membrane proteins (synaptophysin, by 21%) and proteins of postsynaptic area (PSD95, by 55%) was observed after space flight. The data obtained testify to possible changes in a functional state (synaptic activity and stress resistance) of motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in mice after space flight. Thus, we obtained new data on involvement of motoneurons innervating skeletal muscles in development of hypogravity motor syndrome. Research was supported

  8. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test plan and procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    The purpose of this test plan and procedure is to test the Whittaker electrochemical cell and the Sierra Monitor Corp. flammable gas monitors in a simulated field flow configuration. The sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Flammable Gas Interlock (FGI), to detect flammable gases, including hydrogen and teminate the core sampling activity at a predetermined concentration level.

  9. Chronic Kidney Disease, Hemodynamic Instability, and Endoscopic High-Risk Appearance Are Associated with 30-Day Rebleeding in Patients with Non-Variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo Jin; Hah, Yu Jin; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin; Hwang, Jae Seok

    2013-01-01

    The results of studies that evaluated predictive factors for rebleeding in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate predictive factors for 30-day rebleeding in these patients. A consecutive 312 patients presenting symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal bleeding were enrolled in this prospective, observational study. Clinical and demographic characteristics and endoscopic findings were evaluated for potential factors associated with 30-day rebleeding using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 176 patients were included (male, 80.1%; mean age, 59.7±16.0 yr). Rebleeding within 7 and 30 days occurred in 21 (11.9%) and 27 (15.3%) patients, respectively. We found that chronic kidney disease (CKD) (OR, 10.29; 95% CI, 2.84-37.33; P<0.001), tachycardia (pulse>100 beats/min) during the admission (OR, 3.79; 95% CI, 1.25-11.49; P=0.019), and Forrest classes I, IIa, and IIb (OR, 6.14; 95% CI, 1.36-27.66; P=0.018) were significant independent predictive factors for 30-day rebleeding. However, neither Rockall nor Blatchford scores showed statistically significant relationships with 30-day rebleeding in a multivariate analysis. CKD, hemodynamic instability during hospitalization, and an endoscopic high-risk appearance are significantly independent predictors of 30-day rebleeding in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. These factors may be useful for clinical management of such patients. PMID:24133356

  10. Structure of the cortical cytoskeleton in fibers of postural muscles and cardiomyocytes of mice after 30-day 2-g centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Ogneva, Irina V; Gnyubkin, V; Laroche, N; Maximova, M V; Larina, I M; Vico, L

    2015-03-01

    Altered external mechanical loading during spaceflights causes negative effects on muscular and cardiovascular systems. The aim of the study was estimation of the cortical cytoskeleton statement of the skeletal muscle cells and cardiomyocytes. The state of the cortical cytoskeleton in C57BL6J mice soleus, tibialis anterior muscle fibers, and left ventricle cardiomyocytes was investigated after 30-day 2-g centrifugation ("2-g" group) and within 12 h after its completion ("2-g + 12-h" group). We used atomic force microscopy for estimating cell's transverse stiffness, Western blotting for measuring protein content, and RT-PCR for estimating their expression level. The transverse stiffness significantly decreased in cardiomyocytes (by 16%) and increased in skeletal muscles fibers (by 35% for soleus and by 29% for tibialis anterior muscle fibers) in animals of the 2-g group (compared with the control group). For cardiomyocytes, we found that, in the 2-g + 12-h group, α-actinin-1 content decreased in the membranous fraction (by 27%) and increased in cytoplasmic fraction (by 28%) of proteins (compared with the levels in the 2-g group). But for skeletal muscle fibers, similar changes were noted for α-actinin-4, but not for α-actinin-1. In conclusion, we showed that the different isoforms of α-actinins dissociate from cortical cytoskeleton under increased/decreased of mechanical load. PMID:25539936

  11. Effects of 30 day simulated microgravity and recovery on fluid homeostasis and renal function in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Bryan J.; Mendonca, Margarida M.

    1995-01-01

    Transition from a normal gravitational environment to that of microgravity eventually results in decreased plasma and blood volumes, increasing with duration of exposure to microgravity. This loss of vascular fluid is presumably due to negative fluid and electrolyte balance and most likely contributes to the orthostatic intolerance associated with the return to gravity. The decrease in plasma volume is presumed to be a reflection of a concurrent decrease in extracellular fluid volume with maintenance of normal plasma-interstitial fluid balance. In addition, the specific alterations in renal function contributing to these changes in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis are potentially responding to neuro-humoral signals that are not consistent with systemic fluid volume status. We have previously demonstrated an early increase in both glomerular filtration rate and extracellular fluid volume and that this decreases towards control values by 7 days of simulated microgravity. However, longer duration studies relating these changes to plasma volume alterations and the response to return to orthostasis have not been fully addressed. Male Wistar rats were chronically cannulated, submitted to 30 days heat-down tilt (HDT) and followed for 7 days after return to orthostasis from HDT. Measurements of renal function and extracellular and blood volumes were performed in the awake rat.

  12. Factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Marcelo Felipe; Kozak, Ana Carolina Leiroz Ferreira Botelho Maisano; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; Hassem Sobrinho Junior, Sirio; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Moscardini, Airton Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Left atrioventricular valve regurgitation is the most concerning residual lesion after surgical correction of atrioventricular septal defects. Objective To determine factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect. Methods We assessed the results of 53 consecutive patients 3 years-old and younger presenting with complete atrioventricular septal defect that were operated on at our practice between 2002 and 2010. The following variables were considered: age, weight, absence of Down syndrome, grade of preoperative atrioventricular valve regurgitation, abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve and the use of annuloplasty. Median age was 6.7 months; median weight was 5.3 Kg; 86.8% had Down syndrome. At the time of preoperative evaluation, there were 26 cases with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (49.1%). Abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve were found in 11.3%; annuloplasty was performed in 34% of the patients. Results At the time of postoperative evaluation, there were 21 cases with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (39.6%). After performing a multivariate analysis, the only significant factor associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation was the absence of Down syndrome (P=0.03). Conclusion Absence of Down syndrome was associated with moderate or severe postoperative left atrioventricular valve regurgitation after surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect at our practice. PMID:26313720

  13. The migraine generator revisited: continuous scanning of the migraine cycle over 30 days and three spontaneous attacks.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Laura H; May, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Functional imaging using positron emission tomography and later functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed a particular brainstem area that is believed to be specifically activated in migraine during, but not outside of the attack, and consequently has been coined the 'migraine generator'. However, the pathophysiological concept behind this term is not undisputed and typical migraine premonitory symptoms such as fatigue and yawning, but also a typical association of attacks to circadian and menstrual cycles, all make the hypothalamus a possible regulating region of migraine attacks. Neuroimaging studies investigating native human migraine attacks however are scarce and for methodological but also clinical reasons there are currently no studies investigating the last 24 h before headache onset. Here we report a migraine patient who had magnetic resonance imaging every day for 30 days, always in the morning, to cover, using functional imaging, a whole month and three complete, untreated migraine attacks. We found that hypothalamic activity as a response to trigeminal nociceptive stimulation is altered during the 24 h prior to pain onset, i.e. increases towards the next migraine attack. More importantly, the hypothalamus shows altered functional coupling with the spinal trigeminal nuclei and the region of the migraine generator, i.e. the dorsal rostral pons during the preictal day and the pain phase of native human migraine attacks. These data suggest that although the brainstem is highly linked to the migraine biology, the real driver of attacks might be the functional changes in hypothalamo-brainstem connectivity. PMID:27190019

  14. Human performance profiles for planetary analog extra-vehicular activities: 120 day and 30 day analog missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarmer, Tiffany M.

    Understanding performance factors for future planetary missions is critical for ensuring safe and successful planetary extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). The goal of this study was to gain operational knowledge of analog EVAs and develop biometric profiles for specific EVA types. Data was collected for a 120 and 30 day analog planetary exploration simulation focusing on EVA type, pre and post EVA conditions, and performance ratings. From this five main types of EVAs were performed: maintenance, science, survey/exploratory, public relations, and emergency. Each EVA type has unique characteristics and performance ratings showing specific factors in chronological components, environmental conditions, and EVA systems that have an impact on performance. Pre and post biometrics were collected to heart rate, blood pressure, and SpO2. Additional data about issues and specific EVA difficulties provide some EVA trends illustrating how tasks and suit comfort can negatively affect performance ratings. Performance decreases were noted for 1st quarter and 3rd quarter EVAs, survey/exploratory type EVAs, and EVAs requiring increased fine and gross motor function. Stress during the simulation is typically higher before the EVA and decreases once the crew has returned to the habitat. Stress also decreases as the simulation nears the end with the 3rd and 4th quarters showing a decrease in stress levels. Operational components and studies have numerous variable and components that effect overall performance, by increasing the knowledge available we may be able to better prepare future crews for the extreme environments and exploration of another planet.

  15. Increased in vivo glucose utilization in 30-day-old obese Zucker rat: Role of white adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Krief, S.; Bazin, R.; Dupuy, F.; Lavau, M. )

    1988-03-01

    In vivo whole-body glucose utilization and uptake in multiple individual tissues were investigated in conscious 30-day-old Zucker rats, which when obese are hyperphagic, hyperinsulinemic, and normoglycemic. Whole-body glucose metabolism (assessed by (3-{sup 3}H)glucose) was 40% higher in obese (fa/fa) than in lean (Fa/fa) rats, suggesting that obese rats were quite responsive to their hyperinsulinemia. In obese compared with lean rats, tissue glucose uptake was increased by 15, 12, and 6 times in dorsal, inguinal, perigonadal white depots, respectively; multiplied by 2.5 in brown adipose tissue; increased by 50% in skin from inguinal region but not in that from cranial, thoracic, or dorsal area; and increased twofold in diaphragm but similar in heart in proximal intestine, and in total muscular mass of limbs. The data establish that in young obese rats the hypertrophied white adipose tissue was a major glucose-utilizing tissue whose capacity for glucose disposal compared with that of half the muscular mass. Adipose tissue could therefore play an important role in the homeostasis of glucose in obese rats in the face of their increased carbohydrate intake.

  16. Analytical flow/thermal modeling of combustion gas flows in Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor test joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, G. H.; Knox, E. C.; Pond, J. E.; Bacchus, D. L.; Hengel, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    A one-dimensional analytical tool, TOPAZ (Transient One-dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer), was used to model the flow characteristics of hot combustion gases through Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) joints and to compute the resultant material surface temperatures and o-ring seal erosion of the joints. The capabilities of the analytical tool were validated with test data during the Seventy Pound Charge (SPC) motor test program. The predicted RSRM joint thermal response to ignition transients was compared with test data for full-scale motor tests. The one-dimensional analyzer is found to be an effective tool for simulating combustion gas flows in RSRM joints and for predicting flow and thermal properties.

  17. ac power control in the Core Flow Test Loop

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    This work represents a status report on a development effort to design an ac power controller for the Core Flow Test Loop. The Core Flow Test Loop will be an engineering test facility which will simulate the thermal environment of a gas-cooled fast-breeder reactor. The problems and limitations of using sinusoidal ac power to simulate the power generated within a nuclear reactor are addressed. The transformer-thyristor configuration chosen for the Core Flow Test Loop power supply is presented. The initial considerations, design, and analysis of a closed-loop controller prototype are detailed. The design is then analyzed for improved performance possibilities and failure modes are investigated at length. A summary of the work completed to date and a proposed outline for continued development completes the report.

  18. Testing the instream flow method in trout streams

    SciTech Connect

    Studley, T.K.; Railsback, S.F.; Asce, M.

    1995-12-31

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s (PG&E) Department of Research and Development and co-sponsors are fieldtesting the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) at a number of trout stream study sites. Fish populations, flows, and other variables were measured for an eight-year baseline period. Three levels of increasingly sophisticated predictions of population response to increased flows were made. The flow increases have been implemented and additional data are being collected to test the predictions. The baseline data and prediction analyses indicate that (1) using different habitat suitability criteria produces substantially different predictions of how populations respond to flow changes, (2) overlaps in habitat used by trout species can lead to misleading predictions of a population`s response to flow changes, and (3) factors other than habitat during summer low flows can limit trout populations (these include spawning habitat, high flows, stream channel characteristics, and stream temperature). Comprehensive field studies are expensive, but are more likely to result in instream flows that provide a cost-effective tradeoff between power and fisheries values.

  19. Flow tests of the Gladys McCall well

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, P.L.; Hayden, C.G.; Rogers, L.A. )

    1992-04-01

    This report pulls together the data from all of the geopressured-geothermal field research conducted at the Gladys McCall well. The well produced geopressured brine containing dissolved natural gas from the Lower Miocene sands at a depth of 15,150 to 16,650 feet. More than 25 million barrels of brine and 727 million standard cubic feet of natural gas were produced in a series of flow tests between December 1982 and October 1987 at various brine flow rates up to 28,000 barrels per day. Initial short-term flow tests for the Number 9 Sand found the permeability to be 67 to 85 md (millidarcies) for a brine volume of 85 to 170 million barrels. Initial short-term flow tests for the Number 8 Sand found a permeability of 113 to 132 md for a reservoir volume of 430 to 550 million barrels of brine. The long-term flow and buildup test of the Number 8 Sand found that the high-permeability reservoir connected to the wellbore (measured by the short-term flow test) was connected to a much larger, low-permeability reservoir. Numerical simulation of the flow and buildup tests required this large connected reservoir to have a volume of about 8 billion barrels (two cubic miles of reservoir rock) with effective permeabilities in the range of 0.2 to 20 md. Calcium carbonate scale formation in the well tubing and separator equipment was a problem. During the first 2 years of production, scale formation was prevented in the surface equipment by injection of an inhibitor upstream of the choke. Starting in 1985, scale formation in the production tubing was successfully prevented by injecting inhibitor pills'' directly into the reservoir. Corrosion and/or erosion of surface piping and equipment, as well as disposal well tubing, was also significant.

  20. Hanford Tank Farms Waste Certification Flow Loop Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Scott, Paul A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Wells, Beric E.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Denslow, Kayte M.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.

    2010-01-01

    A future requirement of Hanford Tank Farm operations will involve transfer of wastes from double shell tanks to the Waste Treatment Plant. As the U.S. Department of Energy contractor for Tank Farm Operations, Washington River Protection Solutions anticipates the need to certify that waste transfers comply with contractual requirements. This test plan describes the approach for evaluating several instruments that have potential to detect the onset of flow stratification and critical suspension velocity. The testing will be conducted in an existing pipe loop in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s facility that is being modified to accommodate the testing of instruments over a range of simulated waste properties and flow conditions. The testing phases, test matrix and types of simulants needed and the range of testing conditions required to evaluate the instruments are described

  1. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 6. Single annulus tests, transient test program

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1992-09-01

    The coolant in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production nuclear reactor assemblies is circulated as a subcooled liquid under normal operating conditions. This coolant is evenly distributed throughout multiple annular flow channels with a uniform pressure profile across each coolant flow channel. During the postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), which is initiated by a hypothetical guillotine pipe break, the coolant flow through the reactor assemblies is significantly reduced. The flow reduction and accompanying power reduction (after shutdown is initiated) occur in the first 1 to 2 seconds of the LOCA. This portion of the LOCA is referred to as the Flow Instability phase. This report presents the experimental results for the transient portion of the single annulus test program. The test program was designed to investigate the onset of flow instability in an annular geometry similar to the MARK 22 reactor. The test program involved testing of both a ribless heater and a ribbed heater under steady state as well as transient conditions. The ribbed heater testing is currently underway and will be reported separately. The steady state portion of this test program with ribless heater was completed and reported in report No. CU-HTRF-T3A. The present report presents transient test results obtained from a ribless, uniform annulus test section. A total of thirty five transients were conducted with six cases in which flow excursion occurred. No unstable conditions resulted for tests in which the steady state Q{sub ratio} OFI limit was not exceeded.

  2. Ground vibration test of the laminar flow control JStar airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, M. W.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Ellison, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    A ground vibration test was conducted on a Lockheed JetStar airplane that had been modified for the purpose of conducting laminar flow control experiments. The test was performed prior to initial flight flutter tests. Both sine-dwell and single-point-random excitation methods were used. The data presented include frequency response functions and a comparison of mode frequencies and mode shapes from both methods.

  3. Fractional flow in fractured chalk; a flow and tracer test revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odling, N. E.; West, L. J.; Hartmann, S.; Kilpatrick, A.

    2013-04-01

    A multi-borehole pumping and tracer test in fractured chalk is revisited and reinterpreted in the light of fractional flow. Pumping test data analyzed using a fractional flow model gives sub-spherical flow dimensions of 2.2-2.4 which are interpreted as due to the partially penetrating nature of the pumped borehole. The fractional flow model offers greater versatility than classical methods for interpreting pumping tests in fractured aquifers but its use has been hampered because the hydraulic parameters derived are hard to interpret. A method is developed to convert apparent transmissivity and storativity (L4-n/T and S2-n) to conventional transmissivity and storativity (L2/T and dimensionless) for the case where flow dimension, 2 < n < 3. These parameters may then be used in further applications, facilitating application of the fractional flow model. In the case illustrated, improved fits to drawdown data are obtained and the resultant transmissivities and storativities are found to be lower by 30% and an order of magnitude respectively, than estimates from classical methods. The revised hydraulic parameters are used in a reinterpretation of a tracer test using an analytical dual porosity model of solute transport incorporating matrix diffusion and modified for fractional flow. Model results show smaller fracture apertures, spacings and dispersivities than those when 2D flow is assumed. The pumping and tracer test results and modeling presented illustrate the importance of recognizing the potential fractional nature of flow generated by partially penetrating boreholes in fractured aquifers in estimating aquifer properties and interpreting tracer breakthrough curves.

  4. A contemporary risk model for predicting 30-day mortality following percutaneous coronary intervention in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Katherine S.L.; Ludman, Peter F.; Hulme, William; de Belder, Mark A.; Stables, Rodney; Chowdhary, Saqib; Mamas, Mamas A.; Sperrin, Matthew; Buchan, Iain E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The current risk model for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the UK is based on outcomes of patients treated in a different era of interventional cardiology. This study aimed to create a new model, based on a contemporary cohort of PCI treated patients, which would: predict 30 day mortality; provide good discrimination; and be well calibrated across a broad risk-spectrum. Methods and results The model was derived from a training dataset of 336,433 PCI cases carried out between 2007 and 2011 in England and Wales, with 30 day mortality provided by record linkage. Candidate variables were selected on the basis of clinical consensus and data quality. Procedures in 2012 were used to perform temporal validation of the model. The strongest predictors of 30-day mortality were: cardiogenic shock; dialysis; and the indication for PCI and the degree of urgency with which it was performed. The model had an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.85 on the training data and 0.86 on validation. Calibration plots indicated a good model fit on development which was maintained on validation. Conclusion We have created a contemporary model for PCI that encompasses a range of clinical risk, from stable elective PCI to emergency primary PCI and cardiogenic shock. The model is easy to apply and based on data reported in national registries. It has a high degree of discrimination and is well calibrated across the risk spectrum. The examination of key outcomes in PCI audit can be improved with this risk-adjusted model. PMID:26942330

  5. The statistical extended-range (10-30-day) forecast of summer rainfall anomalies over the entire China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The extended-range (10-30-day) rainfall forecast over the entire China was carried out using spatial-temporal projection models (STPMs). Using a rotated empirical orthogonal function analysis of intraseasonal (10-80-day) rainfall anomalies, China is divided into ten sub-regions. Different predictability sources were selected for each of the ten regions. The forecast skills are ranked for each region. Based on temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) and Gerrity skill score, useful skills are found for most parts of China at a 20-25-day lead. The southern China and the mid-lower reaches of Yangtze River Valley show the highest predictive skills, whereas southwestern China and Huang-Huai region have the lowest predictive skills. By combining forecast results from ten regional STPMs, the TCC distribution of 8-year (2003-2010) independent forecast for the entire China is investigated. The combined forecast results from ten STPMs show significantly higher skills than the forecast with just one single STPM for the entire China. Independent forecast examples of summer rainfall anomalies around the period of Beijing Olympic Games in 2008 and Shanghai World Expo in 2010 are presented. The result shows that the current model is able to reproduce the gross pattern of the summer intraseasonal rainfall over China at a 20-day lead. The present study provides, for the first time, a guide on the statistical extended-range forecast of summer rainfall anomalies for the entire China. It is anticipated that the ideas and methods proposed here will facilitate the extended-range forecast in China.

  6. Laminar flow test installation in the Boeing Research Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George-Falvy, Dezso

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the initial wind tunnels tests in the 5- by 8-ft Boeing Research Wind Tunnel of a near full-scale (20-foot chord) swept wing section having laminar flow control (LFC) by slot suction over its first 30 percent chord. The model and associated test apparatus were developed for use as a testbed for LFC-related experimentation in support of preliminary design studies done under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This paper contains the description of the model and associated test apparatus as well as the results of the initial test series in which the proper functioning of the test installation was demonstrated and new data were obtained on the sensitivity of suction-controlled laminar flow to surface protuberances in the presence of crossflow due to sweep.

  7. Patients more likely to engage in treatment at 30 days when given buprenorphine in the ED, referred for follow-up.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    A new randomized trial shows patients who present to the ED with opioid dependence are much more likely to engage in treatment when they receive buprenorphine along with coordinated follow-up than when they just receive a brief intervention and a facilitated referral for treatment or just screening and referral. However, barriers to prescribing are robust, and many ED leaders are not persuaded they should be in the business of providing treatment for addiction. In the trial, at 30 days 78% of patients in the buprenorphine group (89 of 114 patients) were engaged in addiction treatment, compared with just 45% of the patients in the brief intervention group (50 of 111 patients) and 37% of patients in the referral group (38 of 102 patients). To prescribe buprenorphine for addiction disease, providers must undergo training and pass a test to obtain a DEA waiver; they are limited to treating 100 patients. While experts note there are not enough providers to prescribe buprenorphine and provide the follow-up needed to patients with addiction disease, they also acknowledge concerns about drug diversion as well as potential problems with capacity if EDs take a larger role in treating addiction. PMID:26258203

  8. The 2013 German-Russian BION-M1 Joint Flight Project: Skeletal Muscle and Neuromuscular Changes in Mice Housed for 30 Days in a Biosatellite on Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blottner, Dieter; Shenkman, Boris; Salanova, Michele

    Exposure to microgravity results in various structural, biochemical and molecular changes of the skeletal neuromuscular system. The BION Joint Flight Proposal between the Charité Berlin Center of Space Medicine (www.zwmb.de) in Berlin, and the Institute of Biomedical Problem (IMBP) in Moscow, provided an exciting opportunity for a more detailed analysis of neuromuscular changes in mice (C57/bl6) exposed to real microgravity housed for 30 days in a BION M1 biosatellite on orbit. The mice from the BION flight group (n=5) were compared to three different on-ground control groups (Flight control, BION-ground and Vivarium, each n=5 mice). We started to analyse various skeletal muscles from the hind limbs or trunk. Apart from routine structural and biochemical analysis (fiber size and type distribution, slow/fastMyHC) we test the hypothesis for the presence of a microgravity-induced sarcolemma-cytosolic protein shift of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and partial loss in neuromuscular synapse scaffold protein (Homer) immunoexpression known to be prone to disuse in mice or humans (hind limb unloading, bed rest) as previously shown (Sandonà D et al., PLoS One, 2012, Salanova M et al., FASEB J, 2011). National Sponsors: Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) via the German AeroSpace Board, DLR e.V., Bonn-Oberkassel, Germany (#50WB1121); Contract RAS-IMBP/Charité Berlin # Bion-M1/2013

  9. Design verification and cold-flow modeling test report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This report presents a compilation of the following three test reports prepared by TRW for Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) as part of the Healy Clean Coal Project, Phase 1 Design of the TRW Combustor and Auxiliary Systems, which is co-sponsored by the Department of Energy under the Clean Coal Technology 3 Program: (1) Design Verification Test Report, dated April 1993, (2) Combustor Cold Flow Model Report, dated August 28, 1992, (3) Coal Feed System Cold Flow Model Report, October 28, 1992. In this compilation, these three reports are included in one volume consisting of three parts, and TRW proprietary information has been excluded.

  10. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: LDV Measured Flow Field Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary C.; Krupar, Martin J.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Woodward, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented of an experiment conducted to investigate potential sources of noise in the flow developed by two 22-in. diameter turbofan models. The R4 and M5 rotors that were tested were designed to operate at nominal take-off speeds of 12,657 and 14,064 RPMC, respectively. Both fans were tested with a common set of swept stators installed downstream of the rotors. Detailed measurements of the flows generated by the two were made using a laser Doppler velocimeter system. The wake flows generated by the two rotors are illustrated through a series of contour plots. These show that the two wake flows are quite different, especially in the tip region. These data are used to explain some of the differences in the rotor/stator interaction noise generated by the two fan stages. In addition to these wake data, measurements were also made in the R4 rotor blade passages. These results illustrate the tip flow development within the blade passages, its migration downstream, and (at high rotor speeds) its merging with the blade wake of the adjacent (following) blade. Data also depict the variation of this tip flow with tip clearance. Data obtained within the rotor blade passages at high rotational speeds illustrate the variation of the mean shock position across the different blade passages.

  11. Flow Visualization of Liquid Hydrogen Line Chilldown Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rame, Enrique; Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen John B.

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental measurements of wall and fluid temperature during chill-down tests of a warm cryogenic line with liquid hydrogen. Synchronized video and fluid temperature measurements are used to interpret stream temperature profiles versus time. When cold liquid hydrogen starts to flow into the warm line, a sequence of flow regimes, spanning from all-vapor at the outset to bubbly with continuum liquid at the end can be observed at a location far downstream of the cold inlet. In this paper we propose interpretations to the observed flow regimes and fluid temperature histories for two chilldown methods, viz. trickle (i.e. continuous) flow and pulse flow. Calculations of heat flux from the wall to the fluid versus wall temperature indicate the presence of the transition/nucleate boiling regimes only. The present tests, run at typical Reynolds numbers of approx O(10 (exp 5)), are in sharp contrast to similar tests conducted at lower Reynolds numbers where a well-defined film boiling region is observed.

  12. Flow reference method testing and analysis: Field test plan, Texas Utilities Decordova Steam Electric Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, E.; Werner, A.S.

    1997-05-30

    This report describes the experimental design and test plan for the first of three field tests that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted in 1997 as part of a major study to evaluate potential improvements to Method 2, EPA`s test method for measuring flue gas volumetric flow in stacks. The experimental design involved four test teams taking concurrent in-stack measurements with velocity sensing probes. Seven types of probes were included in the study. Three test matrices were used to gather data for inter-probe and inter-team comparisons and to assess the impact of velocity decline near the stack wall on volumetric flow measurements.

  13. Flow measurements in a centrifugal diffusor test device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitting, T.

    1985-06-01

    This work sought to verify concepts used in the design of a large scale, low speed, radial cascade wind tunnel which was to be used to investigate flow phenomena in and the performance of vaned radial diffusors. A major contributor to centrifugal compressor efficiency is the performance of the vaned diffusor which closely follows the impeller of the compressor. The purpose of this diffusor is to efficiently convert most of the kinetic energy of the transonic flow entering the vane into pressure. The need for an experimental facility which could simulate adequately, at low cost and in a controlled way, the environment of the centrifugal compressor motivated the development of the Centrifugal Diffusor Test Device (CDTD). It was expected that the generation of a three dimensional flow would provide improved empirical data on annular cascade performance. This measurement program surveyed the axial and circumferential uniformity of the flow at the inlet of a transonic wedge-type blading mounted in the device. Evaluation of the results showed the flow uniformity to be unsatisfactory. Leakage and other small perturbations in the flow field in the swirl generator are believed to be amplified by the basic flow configuration of the device.

  14. EPA flow reference method testing and analysis: Findings report. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    In the summer of 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a series of week-long field tests at three electric utility sites to evaluate potential improvements to Method 2, EPA`s test method for measuring flue gas volumetric flow in stacks. The findings from that study are presented in document EPA/430-R-99-009a (NTIS Order Number PB99-150286). This document contains 10 appendices for that report.

  15. Development and use of an administrative claims measure for profiling hospital-wide performance on 30-day unplanned readmission

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Leora I.; Partovian, Chohreh; Lin, Zhenqiu; Grady, Jacqueline N.; Herrin, Jeph; Conover, Mitchell; Montague, Julia; Dillaway, Chloe; Bartczak, Kathleen; Suter, Lisa G.; Ross, Joseph S.; Bernheim, Susannah M.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Drye, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing publicly-reported readmission measures are condition-specific, representing < 20% of adult hospitalizations. An all-condition measure may better measure quality and promote innovation. Objective To develop an all-condition, hospital-wide readmission measure. Design Measure development Setting 4,821 US hospitals. Patients Medicare Fee for Service (FFS) beneficiaries ≥ 65 years. Measurements Hospital-level, risk-standardized unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge. The measure uses Medicare FFS claims and is a composite of five specialty-based risk-standardized rates for medicine, surgery/gynecology, cardiorespiratory, cardiovascular and neurology cohorts. We randomly split the 2007–2008 admissions for development and validation. Models were adjusted for age, principal diagnosis and comorbidity. We examined calibration in Medicare and all-payer data, and compared hospital rankings in the development and validation samples. Results The development dataset contained 8,018,949 admissions associated with 1,276,165 unplanned readmissions (15.9%). The median hospital risk-standardized unplanned readmission rate was 15.8 (range 11.6–21.9). The five specialty cohort models accurately predicted readmission risk in both Medicare and all-payer datasets for average risk patients but slightly overestimated readmission risk at the extremes. Overall hospital risk-standardized readmission rates did not differ statistically in the split samples (p=0.7 for difference in rank) and 76% of hospitals’ validation set rankings were within two deciles of the development rank (24% >2 deciles). Of hospitals ranking in the top or bottom deciles, 90% remained within two deciles (10% >2 deciles), and 82% remained within one decile (18% > 1 decile). Limitations Risk-adjustment was limited to that available in claims data. Conclusions We developed a claims-based hospital-wide unplanned readmission measure for profiling hospitals that produced reasonably

  16. CONSTRUCTION AND EVALUATION OF A FLOW TEST STAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A test stand for the examination of flow monitors in a 3-inch pipe was designed, constructed, and evaluated. The calculations necessary for the proper design are based on empirical data and are described in detail. A statistical analysis was used to estimate the error generated f...

  17. Cotton-Harvester-Flow Simulator for Testing Cotton Yield Monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental system was developed to simulate the pneumatic flow arrangement found in picker-type cotton harvesters. The simulation system was designed and constructed for testing a prototype cotton yield monitor developed at Mississippi State University. The simulation system was constructed to ...

  18. Development, Validation and Deployment of a Real Time 30 Day Hospital Readmission Risk Assessment Tool in the Maine Healthcare Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shiying; Wang, Yue; Jin, Bo; Shin, Andrew Young; Zhu, Chunqing; Huang, Min; Zheng, Le; Luo, Jin; Hu, Zhongkai; Fu, Changlin; Dai, Dorothy; Wang, Yicheng; Culver, Devore S.; Alfreds, Shaun T.; Rogow, Todd; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G.; Widen, Eric; Ling, Xuefeng B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Identifying patients at risk of a 30-day readmission can help providers design interventions, and provide targeted care to improve clinical effectiveness. This study developed a risk model to predict a 30-day inpatient hospital readmission for patients in Maine, across all payers, all diseases and all demographic groups. Methods Our objective was to develop a model to determine the risk for inpatient hospital readmission within 30 days post discharge. All patients within the Maine Health Information Exchange (HIE) system were included. The model was retrospectively developed on inpatient encounters between January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 from 24 randomly chosen hospitals, and then prospectively validated on inpatient encounters from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 using all HIE patients. Results A risk assessment tool partitioned the entire HIE population into subgroups that corresponded to probability of hospital readmission as determined by a corresponding positive predictive value (PPV). An overall model c-statistic of 0.72 was achieved. The total 30-day readmission rates in low (score of 0–30), intermediate (score of 30–70) and high (score of 70–100) risk groupings were 8.67%, 24.10% and 74.10%, respectively. A time to event analysis revealed the higher risk groups readmitted to a hospital earlier than the lower risk groups. Six high-risk patient subgroup patterns were revealed through unsupervised clustering. Our model was successfully integrated into the statewide HIE to identify patient readmission risk upon admission and daily during hospitalization or for 30 days subsequently, providing daily risk score updates. Conclusions The risk model was validated as an effective tool for predicting 30-day readmissions for patients across all payer, disease and demographic groups within the Maine HIE. Exposing the key clinical, demographic and utilization profiles driving each patient’s risk of readmission score may be useful to providers

  19. Flow-Field Survey in the Test Region of the SR-71 Aircraft Test Bed Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizukami, Masashi; Jones, Daniel; Weinstock, Vladimir D.

    2000-01-01

    A flat plate and faired pod have been mounted on a NASA SR-71A aircraft for use as a supersonic flight experiment test bed. A test article can be placed on the flat plate; the pod can contain supporting systems. A series of test flights has been conducted to validate this test bed configuration. Flight speeds to a maximum of Mach 3.0 have been attained. Steady-state sideslip maneuvers to a maximum of 2 deg have been conducted, and the flow field in the test region has been surveyed. Two total-pressure rakes, each with two flow-angle probes, have been placed in the expected vicinity of an experiment. Static-pressure measurements have been made on the flat plate. At subsonic and low supersonic speeds with no sideslip, the flow in the surveyed region is quite uniform. During sideslip maneuvers, localized flow distortions impinge on the test region. Aircraft sideslip does not produce a uniform sidewash over the test region. At speeds faster than Mach 1.5, variable-pressure distortions were observed in the test region. Boundary-layer thickness on the flat plate at the rake was less than 2.1 in. For future experiments, a more focused and detailed flow-field survey than this one would be desirable.

  20. Testing the global flow reconstruction method on coupled chaotic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plachy, Emese; Kolláth, Zoltán

    2010-03-01

    Irregular behaviour of pulsating variable stars may occur due to low dimensional chaos. To determine the quantitative properties of the dynamics in such systems, we apply a suitable time series analysis, the global flow reconstruction method. The robustness of the reconstruction can be tested through the resultant quantities, like Lyapunov dimension and Fourier frequencies. The latter is specially important as it is directly derivable from the observed light curves. We have performed tests using coupled Rossler oscillators to investigate the possible connection between those quantities. In this paper we present our test results.

  1. Flow and diffusion of high-stakes test scores

    PubMed Central

    Marder, M.; Bansal, D.

    2009-01-01

    We apply visualization and modeling methods for convective and diffusive flows to public school mathematics test scores from Texas. We obtain plots that show the most likely future and past scores of students, the effects of random processes such as guessing, and the rate at which students appear in and disappear from schools. We show that student outcomes depend strongly upon economic class, and identify the grade levels where flows of different groups diverge most strongly. Changing the effectiveness of instruction in one grade naturally leads to strongly nonlinear effects on student outcomes in subsequent grades. PMID:19805049

  2. Applying well flow adapted filtering to transient pumping tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, Alraune; Attinger, Sabine

    2014-05-01

    Transient pumping tests are often used to estimate porous medium characteristics like hydraulic conductivity and storativity. The interpretation of pumping test drawdowns is based on methods which are normally developed under the assumption of homogeneous porous media. However aquifer heterogeneity strongly impacts on well flow pattern, in particular in the vicinity of the pumping well. The purpose of this work is to present a method to interpret drawdowns of transient pumping tests in heterogeneous porous media. With this method we are able to describe the effects that statistical quantities like variance and correlation length have on pumping test drawdowns. Furthermore it allows inferring on the statistical parameters of aquifer heterogeneity from drawdown data by invers estimation, which is not possible using methods for homogeneous media like Theis' solution. The method is based on a representative description of hydraulic conductivity for radial flow regimes. It is derived from a well flow adapted filtering procedure (Coarse Graining), where the heterogeneity of hydraulic conductivity is assumed to be log-normal distributed with a Gaussian correlation structure. applying the up scaled hydraulic conductivity to the groundwater flow equation results in a hydraulic head which depends on the statistical parameters of the porous medium. It describes the drawdown of a transient pumping test in heterogeneous media. We used an ensemble of transient pumping test simulations to verify the up scaled drawdown solution. We generated transient pumping tests in heterogeneous media for various values of the statistical parameters variance and correlation length and evaluated their impact on the drawdown behavior as well as on the temporal evolution. We further examined the impact of several aspects like the location of an observation well or the local conductivity at the pumping well on the drawdown behavior. This work can be understood as an expansion of the work of Zech et

  3. Cold Flow Plume Entrainment Test Final Report NTF Test Number 2456

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; McDaniels, David; Mishtawy, Jason; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Hammad, Khaled J.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Space Shuttle Return to Flight (RTF) program, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to define the velocity flowfields around the Shuttle stack at liftoff. These CFD predicted velocity flowfields were used in debris transport analysis (DTA). High speed flows such as plumes induce or 'entrain' mass from the surrounding environment. Previous work had shown that CFD analysis over-predicts plume induced flows. Therefore, the DTA would tend to 1) predict more debris impacts, and 2) the debris velocity (and kinetic energy) of those impacts would be too high. At a November, 2004 peer-review it was recommended that the Liftoff DTA team quantify the uncertainty in the DTA caused by the CFD's over prediction of plume induced flow. To do so, the Liftoff DTA team needed benchmark quality data for plume induced flow to quantify the CFD accuracy and its effect on the DTA. MSFC's Nozzle Test Facility (NTF) conducted the "Nozzle Induced Flows test, P#2456" to obtain experimental data for plume induced flows for nozzle flow exhausting into q quiescent freestream. Planning for the test began in December, 2004 and the experimental data was obtained in February and March of 2005. The funding for this test was provided by MSFC's Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems Integration and Engineering office.

  4. Fluid flow measurements of Test Series A and B for the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E.W.; Lagus, P.L.; Lie, K.

    1987-12-01

    The degree of waste isolation achieved by a repository seal system is dependent upon the fluid flow characteristics, or permeability, of the seals. In order to obtain meaningful, site-specific data on the performance of various possible seal system components, a series of in situ experiments called the Small Scale Seal Performance Tests (SSSPT) are being conducted at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report contains the results of gas flow, tracer penetration, and brine flow tests conducted on concrete seals in vertical (Test Series A) and horizontal (Test Series B) configurations. The test objectives were to evaluate the seal performance and to determine if there existed scaling effects which could influence future SSSPT designs. 3 refs., 77 figs.

  5. Measurements of Turbulent Flow Field in Separate Flow Nozzles with Enhanced Mixing Devices - Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James

    2002-01-01

    As part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program, a series of experiments was conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center on the effect of mixing enhancement devices on the aeroacoustic performance of separate flow nozzles. Initial acoustic evaluations of the devices showed that they reduced jet noise significantly, while creating very little thrust loss. The explanation for the improvement required that turbulence measurements, namely single point mean and RMS statistics and two-point spatial correlations, be made to determine the change in the turbulence caused by the mixing enhancement devices that lead to the noise reduction. These measurements were made in the summer of 2000 in a test program called Separate Nozzle Flow Test 2000 (SFNT2K) supported by the Aeropropulsion Research Program at NASA Glenn Research Center. Given the hot high-speed flows representative of a contemporary bypass ratio 5 turbofan engine, unsteady flow field measurements required the use of an optical measurement method. To achieve the spatial correlations, the Particle Image Velocimetry technique was employed, acquiring high-density velocity maps of the flows from which the required statistics could be derived. This was the first successful use of this technique for such flows, and shows the utility of this technique for future experimental programs. The extensive statistics obtained were likewise unique and give great insight into the turbulence which produces noise and how the turbulence can be modified to reduce jet noise.

  6. Flap survey test of a combined surface blowing model: Flow measurements at static flow conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukushima, T.

    1978-01-01

    The Combined Surface Blowing (CSB) V/STOL lift/propulsion system consists of a blown flap system which deflects the exhaust from a turbojet engine over a system of flaps deployed at the trailing edge of the wing. Flow measurements consisting of velocity measurements using split film probes and total measure surveys using a miniature Kiel probe were made at control stations along the flap systems at two spanwise stations, the centerline of the nozzle and 60 percent of the nozzle span outboard of the centerline. Surface pressure measurements were made in the wing cove and the upper surface of the first flap element. The test showed a significant flow separation in the wing cove. The extent of the separation is so large that the flow into the first flap takes place only at the leading edge of the flap. The velocity profile measurements indicate that large spanwise (3 dimensional) flow may exist.

  7. Universal Verification Methodology Based Register Test Automation Flow.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae Hun; Cho, Yong Kwan; Park, Sun Kyu

    2016-05-01

    In today's SoC design, the number of registers has been increased along with complexity of hardware blocks. Register validation is a time-consuming and error-pron task. Therefore, we need an efficient way to perform verification with less effort in shorter time. In this work, we suggest register test automation flow based UVM (Universal Verification Methodology). UVM provides a standard methodology, called a register model, to facilitate stimulus generation and functional checking of registers. However, it is not easy for designers to create register models for their functional blocks or integrate models in test-bench environment because it requires knowledge of SystemVerilog and UVM libraries. For the creation of register models, many commercial tools support a register model generation from register specification described in IP-XACT, but it is time-consuming to describe register specification in IP-XACT format. For easy creation of register model, we propose spreadsheet-based register template which is translated to IP-XACT description, from which register models can be easily generated using commercial tools. On the other hand, we also automate all the steps involved integrating test-bench and generating test-cases, so that designers may use register model without detailed knowledge of UVM or SystemVerilog. This automation flow involves generating and connecting test-bench components (e.g., driver, checker, bus adaptor, etc.) and writing test sequence for each type of register test-case. With the proposed flow, designers can save considerable amount of time to verify functionality of registers. PMID:27483924

  8. Analysis of Alcove 8/Niche 3 Flow and Transport Tests

    SciTech Connect

    H.H. Liu

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document analyses of the Alcove 8/Niche 3 flow and transport tests, with a focus on the large-infiltration-plot tests and compare pre-test model predictions with the actual test observations. The tests involved infiltration that originated from the floor of Alcove 8 (located in the Enhanced Characterization of Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift) and observations of seepage and tracer transport at Niche 3 (located in the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF)). The test results are relevant to drift seepage and solute transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ) of Yucca Mountain. The main objective of this analysis was to evaluate the modeling approaches used and the importance of the matrix diffusion process by comparing simulation and actual test observations. The pre-test predictions for the large plot test were found to differ from the observations and the reasons for the differences were documented in this report to partly address CR 6783, which concerns unexpected test results. These unexpected results are discussed and assessed with respect to the current baseline unsaturated zone radionuclide transport model in Sections 6.2.4, 6.3.2, and 6.4.

  9. Flow through a mechanical distraction enterogenesis device: a pilot test

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaka, Eiichi A.; Okawada, Manabu; Herman, Richard; Utter, Brent; Luntz, Jonathan; Brei, Diann; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.

    2011-01-01

    Background We tested the coupling portion of a prototype intraluminal distraction enterogenesis device to allow flow-through of simulated enteric contents (SEC) in both pig and human jejunum. Materials and methods SEC was made using 80% corn syrup. Ten cm pig and human intestinal segments had a spoke-shaped 2.2cm coupling adaptor sutured in place intraluminally. The adaptor had a flow-through area of 33.6mm2. SEC was pumped into the proximal part of the intestinal segment at 0.083mL/sec. The times to first passage of SEC through the coupler (first drop), 10mL and 20mL of SEC eluted from the distal end were recorded. Results Mean time to first drop elution was 155±38 seconds with pig, and 149±22 seconds with human bowel (p = 0.8). This corresponded to a hydrostatic pressure of 37.5mmHg before the initial drop passed through. Mean flow rates were 0.094mL/sec in pig bowel and 0.084mL/sec in human bowel (p=0.09). To account for occlusion from luminal debris, a 75% occlusion of coupler holes was studied in the smaller pig bowel to investigate if reductions in flow-through area could be tolerated. Mean time to first drop increased slightly to 171±15 seconds, and the elution rate stayed the same (p=0.5). Conclusions After a physiological level of initial pressure buildup allowing the first drop of SEC to pass the coupling adaptor, our prototype intestinal coupling adaptor did not obstruct flow-through of SEC, even after a 75% decrease in flow-through area. This type of attachment represents a viable approach to placing a device in-continuity without obstructing flow of enteric contents. PMID:21571307

  10. Computational analysis of turbine engine test cell flow phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prufert, Matthew Brian

    1998-11-01

    Turbine engine altitude test cells must incorporate an exhaust system collector to remove hot exhaust gases from the vicinity of the jet engine and to provide additional pumping to simulate the reduced pressure which would be encountered in flight. For economic reasons, it is desirable to utilize the same test configuration to simulate as much of the engine operating envelope as possible. To extend the test envelope, a cut-and-try approach is usually taken using available test data, one-dimensional analyses, and past experience. In this study, a computational approach was used to model some of the recognized operational problems which are commonly encountered. Specifically, computational models were used to evaluate the performance of an altitude test cell at low altitude conditions. Particular emphasis was placed on potential test section over-heating and the reduction of diffuser pumping to achieve near sea-level test conditions. A computational model which utilizes the NPARC Navier-Stokes code was applied to several test configurations operating at steady-state and to a single diffuser configuration in the presence of unsteady pressure fluctuations. During 1997/1998, the author developed two-dimensional and three-dimensional NPARC Navier-Stokes flow models and procedures for use in predicting test cell and engine surface cooling effectiveness for a military engine installation in an altitude test chamber. The predicted model flowfields for both steady-state and time variant flows were used to qualitatively verify limited infrared imaging camera data and quantitatively compare numerical results with test cell and diffuser pressure and temperature data. Prediction of surface convention heat transfer rates are currently beyond the capabilities of the NPARC CFD code. To quantify localized wall heat transfer rates, the BLAYER boundary layer code also was utilized. The BLAYER code is capable of quantifying boundary layer convection heat transfer rates based on near

  11. Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Flow Measurements Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cliff; Wernet, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Modern aircraft design often puts the engine exhaust in close proximity to the airframe surfaces. Aircraft noise prediction tools must continue to develop in order to meet the challenges these aircraft present. The Jet-Surface Interaction Tests have been conducted to provide a comprehensive quality set of experimental data suitable for development and validation of these exhaust noise prediction methods. Flow measurements have been acquired using streamwise and cross-stream particle image velocimetry (PIV) and fluctuating surface pressure data acquired using flush mounted pressure transducers near the surface trailing edge. These data combined with previously reported far-field and phased array noise measurements represent the first step toward the experimental data base. These flow data are particularly applicable to development of noise prediction methods which rely on computational fluid dynamics to uncover the flow physics. A representative sample of the large flow data set acquired is presented here to show how a surface near a jet affects the turbulent kinetic energy in the plume, the spatial relationship between the jet plume and surface needed to generate surface trailing-edge noise, and differences between heated and unheated jet flows with respect to surfaces.

  12. Performance testing of a Savonius windmill rotor in shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojola, O. O.; Onasanya, O. E.

    The effects of flow shear and/or unsteadiness on the power producing performance of a Savonius windmill rotor are studied. Measurements are made in two laboratory statistically-steady shear flows, and in the natural wind, which is both viscous and unsteady. The measurements were made of the speed, torque, and power of the rotor at a number of streamwise stations for each of four values of the bucket overlap ratio. Flow velocity profiles and graphs of wind shear variation are given. It is concluded that even in the presence of shear, the power coefficient of a Savonius windmill rotor is most strongly dependent on the tip speed ratio. As in inviscid flow, the power coefficient peaked at a tip speed ratio = 0.8. The major effect of shear was to reduce the power coefficient below the inviscid flow level, the magnitude of reduction depending on the magnitude of shear present. In field testing of the Savonius rotor, the unsteadiness of the wind proved to be a greater source of power loss than the wind shear.

  13. The association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan

    PubMed Central

    GOTO, Akira; NAKADA, Ken; KATAMOTO, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of peripartum disorders in dairy herds negatively influences productivity and reproductive performance. Concrete data from local areas are helpful for explaining the importance of peripartum management to dairy farmers. This study was conducted to clarify the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in 179 dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan. A database was compiled from the records of the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan, the Dairy Cooperative Association and the Federation of Agricultural Mutual Relief Association. In this study, we created a comprehensive database of dairy farm production data for epidemiological analysis and used a general linear mixed model to analyze the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with milk production or reproductive performance. The database can be used to describe, analyze and predict the risk of production. A cross-sectional analysis with contrasts was applied to investigate the association of cows served by AI/all cows, pregnant cows/cows served by AI, days open, milk yield and somatic cell counts with culling and death rate within 30 days after calving. The days open value significantly increased with increasing rate of culling and death within 30 days after calving (P for trend <0.001). No significant differences were found for the other comparisons. Our data suggest that proper feeding and management in the dry period may lead to improved postpartum reproductive performance in this dairy cow cohort. PMID:26666177

  14. The association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan.

    PubMed

    Goto, Akira; Nakada, Ken; Katamoto, Hiromu

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of peripartum disorders in dairy herds negatively influences productivity and reproductive performance. Concrete data from local areas are helpful for explaining the importance of peripartum management to dairy farmers. This study was conducted to clarify the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in 179 dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan. A database was compiled from the records of the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan, the Dairy Cooperative Association and the Federation of Agricultural Mutual Relief Association. In this study, we created a comprehensive database of dairy farm production data for epidemiological analysis and used a general linear mixed model to analyze the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with milk production or reproductive performance. The database can be used to describe, analyze and predict the risk of production. A cross-sectional analysis with contrasts was applied to investigate the association of cows served by AI/all cows, pregnant cows/cows served by AI, days open, milk yield and somatic cell counts with culling and death rate within 30 days after calving. The days open value significantly increased with increasing rate of culling and death within 30 days after calving (P for trend <0.001). No significant differences were found for the other comparisons. Our data suggest that proper feeding and management in the dry period may lead to improved postpartum reproductive performance in this dairy cow cohort. PMID:26666177

  15. 75 FR 77901 - 30-Day Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on U.S. Nominations to the World Heritage List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... in the Federal Register on July 27, 2006 (FR 71, 144:42664-42665). The National Park Service Office... National Park Service 30-Day Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on U.S. Nominations to the World Heritage List and Potential Additions to the U.S. World Heritage Tentative List AGENCY: National...

  16. A review of flow battery testing at Sandia

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.C.; Miller, D.W.; Robinson, C.E.; Rodriguez, G.P.

    1984-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is evaluating prototype zinc/bromine, Redox, and zinc/ferricyanide flowing electrolyte batteries and cells. This paper updates previous reports of test results of two Exxon zinc/bromine batteries and one NASA Redox iron/chromium battery. Two 60sq. cm. zinc/ferricyanide cells from Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. are also being evaluated. Performance, life, and operating data are described for these batteries and cells.

  17. Flammable gas interlock spoolpiece flow response test report

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-24

    The purpose of this test report is to document the testing performed under the guidance of HNF-SD-WM-TC-073, {ital Flammable Gas Interlock Spoolpiece Flow Response Test Plan and Procedure}. This testing was performed for Lockheed Martin Hanford Characterization Projects Operations (CPO) in support of Rotary Mode Core Sampling jointly by SGN Eurisys Services Corporation and Numatec Hanford Company. The testing was conducted in the 305 building Engineering Testing Laboratory (ETL). NHC provides the engineering and technical support for the 305 ETL. The key personnel identified for the performance of this task are as follows: Test responsible engineering manager, C. E. Hanson; Flammable Gas Interlock Design Authority, G. P. Janicek; 305 ETL responsible manager, N. J. Schliebe; Cognizant RMCS exhauster engineer, E. J. Waldo/J. D. Robinson; Cognizant 305 ETL engineer, K. S. Witwer; Test director, T. C. Schneider. Other support personnel were supplied, as necessary, from 305/306 ETL. The testing, on the flammable Gas Interlock (FGI) system spoolpiece required to support Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) of single shell flammable gas watch list tanks, took place between 2-13-97 and 2-25-97.

  18. Radial flow permeability testing of an argillaceous limestone.

    PubMed

    Selvadurai, A P S; Jenner, L

    2013-01-01

    Argillaceous Lindsay limestone is the geologic storage formation that will be encountered at the site for the construction of a deep ground repository in Ontario, Canada, for the storage of low to intermediate level nuclear waste. The permeability of the Lindsay limestone is a key parameter that will influence the long-term movement of radionuclides from the repository to the geosphere. This paper describes the use of both steady-state and transient radial flow laboratory tests to determine the permeability of this argillaceous limestone. The interpretation of the tests is carried out using both analytical results and computational models of flow problems that exhibit radial symmetry. The results obtained from this research investigation are compared with the data available in the literature for similar argillaceous limestones mainly found in the Lindsay (Cobourg) formation. The experiments give permeabilities in the range of 1.0 × 10(-22) to 1.68 × 10(-19) m(2) for radial flows that are oriented along bedding planes under zero axial stress. The factors influencing transient pulse tests in particular and the interpretation of the results are discussed. PMID:22489872

  19. Uptake of a Consumer-Focused mHealth Application for the Assessment and Prevention of Heart Disease: The <30 Days Study

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Plinio P; Picton, Peter; Seto, Emily; Zbib, Ahmad; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle behavior modification can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of death worldwide, by up to 80%. We hypothesized that a dynamic risk assessment and behavior change tool delivered as a mobile app, hosted by a reputable nonprofit organization, would promote uptake among community members. We also predicted that the uptake would be influenced by incentives offered for downloading the mobile app. Objective The primary objective of our study was to evaluate the engagement levels of participants using the novel risk management app. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of incentives on the overall uptake and usage behaviors. Methods We publicly launched the app through the iTunes App Store and collected usage data over 5 months. Aggregate information included population-level data on download rates, use, risk factors, and user demographics. We used descriptive statistics to identify usage patterns, t tests, and analysis of variance to compare group means. Correlation and regression analyses determined the relationship between usage and demographic variables. Results We captured detailed mobile usage data from 69,952 users over a 5-month period, of whom 23,727 (33.92%) were registered during a 1-month AIR MILES promotion. Of those who completed the risk assessment, 73.92% (42,380/57,330) were female, and 59.38% (34,042/57,330) were <30 years old. While the older demographic had significantly lower uptake than the younger demographic, with only 8.97% of users aged ≥51 years old downloading the app, the older demographic completed more challenges than their younger counterparts (F 8, 52,422 = 55.10, P<.001). In terms of engagement levels, 84.94% (44,537/52,431) of users completed 1–14 challenges over a 30-day period, and 10.03% (5,259/52,431) of users completed >22 challenges. On average, users in the incentives group completed slightly more challenges during the first 30 days of the intervention (mean 7.9, SD 0

  20. Early Dynamic Risk Stratification with Baseline Troponin Levels and 90-minute ST Segment Resolution to Predict 30 Day Cardiovascular Mortality in STEMI: Analysis from CLARITY TIMI-28

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Matthew W.; Morrow, David A.; Scirica, Benjamin M.; Jiang, Songtao; Bode, Christoph; Rifai, Nader; Gerszten, Robert E.; Gibson, C. Michael; Cannon, Christopher P.; Braunwald, Eugene; Sabatine, Marc S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Troponin is the preferred biomarker for risk stratification in non-ST-elevation ACS. The incremental prognostic utility of the initial magnitude of troponin elevation and its value in conjunction with ST segment resolution (STRes) in STEMI is less well-defined. Methods Troponin T (TnT) was measured in 1250 patients at presentation undergoing fibrinolysis for STEMI in CLARITY-TIMI 28. STRes was measured at 90 minutes. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the independent association between TnT levels, STRes, and 30-day cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Results Patients were classified into undetectable TnT at baseline (n=594), detectable but below the median of 0.12 ng/ml (n=330), and above the median (n=326). Rates of 30-day CV death were 1.5%, 4.5%, and 9.5% respectively (P<0.0001). Compared with those with undetectable levels and adjusting for baseline factors, the odds ratios for 30-day CV death were 4.56 (1.72-12.08, P=0.002) and 5.81 (2.29-14.73, P=0.0002) for those below and above the median, respectively. When combined with STRes, there was a significant gradient of risk, and in a multivariable model both baseline TnT (P=0.004) and STRes (P=0.003) were significant predictors of 30-day CV death. The addition of TnT and STRes to clinical risk factors significantly improved the C-statistic (0.86 to 0.90, P=0.02) and the integrated discriminative improvement 7.1% (P=0.0009). Conclusions Baseline TnT and 90-minute STRes are independent predictors of 30-day CV death in patients with STEMI. Use of these two simple, readily available tools can aid clinicians in early risk stratification. PMID:20569707

  1. Mechanical Ventilation in Patients with the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Treated with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Impact on Hospital and 30 Day Postdischarge Survival.

    PubMed

    Modrykamien, Ariel M; Hernandez, Omar O; Im, Yunhee; Walters, Ryan W; Schrader, Caleb L; Smith, Lauren E; Lima, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation support for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients involves the use of low tidal volumes and positive end-expiratory pressure. Nevertheless, the optimal ventilator strategy for ARDS patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy remains unknown. A retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of adult ARDS patients treated with V-V ECMO from October 2012 to May 2015 was performed. Mechanical ventilation data, as well as demographic and clinical data, were collected. We assessed the association between ventilator data and outcomes of interest. The primary outcome was hospital survival. Secondary outcome was 30 day survival posthospital discharge. Sixty-four ARDS patients were treated with ECMO. Univariate analysis showed that plateau pressure was independently associated with hospital survival. Tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and plateau were independently associated with 30 day survival. Multivariate analysis, after controlling for covariates, revealed that a 1 unit increase in plateau pressure was associated with a 21% decrease in the odds of hospital survival (95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.39-33.42%, p = 0.007). In regards to 30 day survival postdischarge, a 1 unit increase in plateau pressure was associated with a 14.4% decrease in the odds of achieving the aforementioned outcome (95% CI = 1.75-25.4%, p = 0.027). Also, a 1 unit increase in PEEP was associated with a 36.2% decrease in the odds of 30 day survival (95% CI = 10.8-54.4%, p = 0.009). Among ARDS patients undergoing ECMO therapy, only plateau pressure is associated with hospital survival. Plateau pressure and PEEP are both associated with 30 day survival posthospital discharge. PMID:27347707

  2. The AFFORD Clinical Decision Aid To Identify Emergency Department Patients With Atrial Fibrillation At Low Risk For 30-Day Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Tyler W.; Storrow, Alan B.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Abraham, Robert L.; Liu, Dandan; Miller, Karen F.; Moser, Kelly M.; Russ, Stephan; Roden, Dan M.; Harrell, Frank E.; Darbar, Dawood

    2015-01-01

    There is wide variation in the management of emergency department (ED) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to derive and internally validate the first prospective, ED-based clinical decision aid to identify patients with AF at low risk for 30-day adverse events. We performed a prospective cohort study at a university-affiliated, tertiary-care, ED. Patients were enrolled from June 9, 2010 to February 28, 2013 and followed for 30 days. We enrolled a convenience sample of ED patients presenting with symptomatic AF. Candidate predictors were based on ED data available in the first two hours. The decision aid was derived using model approximation (preconditioning) followed by strong bootstrap internal validation. We utilized an ordinal outcome hierarchy defined as the incidence of the most severe adverse event within 30 days of the ED evaluation. Of 497 patients enrolled, stroke and AF-related death occurred in 13 (3%) and 4 (<1%) patients, respectively. The decision aid included the following: age, triage vitals (systolic blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, supplemental oxygen requirement); medical history (heart failure, home sotalol use, prior percutaneous coronary intervention, electrical cardioversion, cardiac ablation, frequency of AF symptoms); ED data (2 hour heart rate, chest radiograph results, hemoglobin, creatinine, and brain natriuretic peptide). The decision aid’s c-statistic in predicting any 30-day adverse event was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.65, 0.76). In conclusion, among ED patients with AF, AFFORD provides the first evidence based decision aid for identifying patients who are at low risk for 30-day adverse events and candidates for safe discharge. PMID:25633190

  3. Facility for cold flow testing of solid rocket motor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacchus, D. L.; Hill, O. E.; Whitesides, R. Harold

    1992-02-01

    A new cold flow test facility was designed and constructed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the purpose of characterizing the flow field in the port and nozzle of solid propellant rocket motors (SRM's). A National Advisory Committee was established to include representatives from industry, government agencies, and universities to guide the establishment of design and instrumentation requirements for the new facility. This facility design includes the basic components of air storage tanks, heater, submicron filter, quiet control valve, venturi, model inlet plenum chamber, solid rocket motor (SRM) model, exhaust diffuser, and exhaust silencer. The facility was designed to accommodate a wide range of motor types and sizes from small tactical motors to large space launch boosters. This facility has the unique capability of testing ten percent scale models of large boosters such as the new Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), at full scale motor Reynolds numbers. Previous investigators have established the validity of studying basic features of solid rocket motor development programs include the acquisition of data to (1) directly evaluate and optimize the design configuration of the propellant grain, insulation, and nozzle; and (2) provide data for validation of the computational fluid dynamics, (CFD), analysis codes and the performance analysis codes. A facility checkout model was designed, constructed, and utilized to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new facility. This model consists of a cylindrical chamber and converging/diverging nozzle with appropriate manifolding to connect it to the facility air supply. It was designed using chamber and nozzle dimensions to simulate the flow in a 10 percent scale model of the ASRM. The checkout model was recently tested over the entire range of facility flow conditions which include flow rates from 9.07 to 145 kg/sec (20 to 320 Ibm/sec) and supply pressure from 5.17 x 10 exp 5 to 8.27 x 10 exp 6 Pa. The

  4. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84.93...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) A static-flow test will be performed on all open-circuit apparatus. (b) The flow from the apparatus shall be greater than 200...

  5. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84.93...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) A static-flow test will be performed on all open-circuit apparatus. (b) The flow from the apparatus shall be greater than 200...

  6. Lateral flow-based antibody testing for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Gwyn, Sarah; Mitchell, Alexandria; Dean, Deborah; Mkocha, Harran; Handali, Sukwan; Martin, Diana L

    2016-08-01

    We describe here a lateral flow-based assay (LFA) for the detection of antibodies against immunodominant antigen Pgp3 from Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of urogenital chlamydia infection and ocular trachoma. Optimal signal detection was achieved when the gold-conjugate and test line contained Pgp3, creating a dual sandwich capture assay. The LFA yielded positive signals with serum and whole blood but not with eluted dried blood spots. For serum, the agreement of the LFA with the non-reference multiplex assay was 96%, the specificity using nonendemic pediatric sera was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.961. For whole blood, the agreement of LFA with multiplex was 81.5%, the specificity was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.940. The LFA was tested in a field environment and yielded similar results to those from laboratory-based testing. These data show the successful development of a lateral flow assay for detection of antibodies against Pgp3 with reliable use in field settings, which would make antibody-based testing for trachoma surveillance highly practical, especially after cessation of trachoma elimination programs. PMID:27208400

  7. The CD14 rs2569190 TT Genotype Is Associated with an Improved 30-Day Survival in Patients with Sepsis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansur, Ashham; Liese, Benjamin; Steinau, Maximilian; Ghadimi, Michael; Bergmann, Ingo; Tzvetkov, Mladen; Popov, Aron Frederik; Beissbarth, Tim; Bauer, Martin; Hinz, José

    2015-01-01

    According to previous investigations, CD14 is suggested to play a pivotal role in initiating and perpetuating the pro-inflammatory response during sepsis. A functional polymorphism within the CD14 gene, rs2569190, has been shown to impact the pro-inflammatory response upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, a central mediator of inflammation in sepsis. In this study, we hypothesized that the strong pro-inflammatory response induced by the TT genotype of CD14 rs2569190 may have a beneficial effect on survival (30-day) in patients with sepsis. A total of 417 adult patients with sepsis (and of western European descent) were enrolled into this observational study. Blood samples were collected for rs2569190 genotyping. Patients were followed over the course of their stay in the ICU, and the 30-day mortality risk was recorded as the primary outcome parameter. Sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were quantified at sepsis onset and throughout the observational period to monitor organ failure as a secondary variable. Moreover, organ support-free days were evaluated as a secondary outcome parameter. TT-homozygous patients were compared to C-allele carriers. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a higher 30-day mortality risk among C-allele carriers compared with T homozygotes (p = 0.0261). To exclude the effect of potential confounders (age, gender, BMI and type of infection) and covariates that varied at baseline with a p-value < 0.2 (e.g., comorbidities), we performed multivariate Cox regression analysis to examine the survival time. The CD14 rs2569190 C allele remained a significant covariate for the 30-day mortality risk in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.08-4.12; p = 0.0282). The 30-day mortality rate among C allele carriers was 23%, whereas the T homozygotes had a mortality rate of 13%. Additionally, an analysis of organ-specific SOFA scores revealed a significantly higher SOFA-Central nervous system score among patients

  8. Parametric Testing of Chevrons on Single Flow Hot Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Brown, Clifford A.

    2004-01-01

    A parametric family of chevron nozzles have been studied, looking for relationships between chevron geometric parameters, flow characteristics, and far-field noise. Both cold and hot conditions have been run at acoustic Mach number 0.9. Ten models have been tested, varying chevron count, penetration, length, and chevron symmetry. Four comparative studies were defined from these datasets which show: that chevron length is not a major impact on either flow or sound; that chevron penetration increases noise at high frequency and lowers it at low frequency, especially for low chevron counts; that chevron count is a strong player with good low frequency reductions being achieved with high chevron count without strong high frequency penalty; and that chevron asymmetry slightly reduces the impact of the chevron. Finally, it is shown that although the hot jets differ systematically from the cold one, the overall trends with chevron parameters is the same.

  9. Testing of models of flow-induced hemolysis in blood flow through hypodermic needles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yangsheng; Kent, Timothy L; Sharp, M Keith

    2013-03-01

    Hemolysis caused by flow in hypodermic needles interferes with a number of tests on blood samples drawn by venipuncture, including assays for metabolites, electrolytes, and enzymes, causes discomfort during dialysis sessions, and limits transfusion flow rates. To evaluate design modifications to address this problem, as well as hemolysis issues in other cardiovascular devices, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based prediction of hemolysis has potential for reducing the time and expense for testing of prototypes. In this project, three CFD-integrated blood damage models were applied to flow-induced hemolysis in 16-G needles and compared with experimental results, which demonstrated that a modified needle with chamfered entrance increased hemolysis, while a rounded entrance decreased hemolysis, compared with a standard needle with sharp entrance. After CFD simulation of the steady-state velocity field, the time histories of scalar stress along a grid of streamlines were calculated. A strain-based cell membrane failure model and two empirical power-law blood damage models were used to predict hemolysis on each streamline. Total hemolysis was calculated by weighting the predicted hemolysis along each streamline by the flow rate along each streamline. The results showed that only the strain-based blood damage model correctly predicted increased hemolysis in the beveled needle and decreased hemolysis in the rounded needle, while the power-law models predicted the opposite trends. PMID:23419169

  10. Flight Tests of a Supersonic Natural Laminar Flow Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Mike; Banks, Dan; Garzon, Andres; Matisheck, Jason

    2014-01-01

    IR thermography was used to characterize the transition front on a S-NLF test article at chord Reynolds numbers in excess of 30 million Changes in transition due to Mach number, Reynolds number, and surface roughness were investigated - Regions of laminar flow in excess of 80% chord at chord Reynolds numbers greater than 14 million IR thermography clearly showed the transition front and other flow features such as shock waves impinging upon the surface A series of parallel oblique shocks, of yet unknown origin, were found to cause premature transition at higher Reynolds numbers. NASA has a current goal to eliminate barriers to the development of practical supersonic transport aircraft Drag reduction through the use of supersonic natural laminar flow (S-NLF) is currently being explored as a means of increasing aerodynamic efficiency - Tradeoffs work best for business jet class at M<2 Conventional high-speed designs minimize inviscid drag at the expense of viscous drag - Existence of strong spanwise pressure gradient leads to crossflow (CF) while adverse chordwise pressure gradients amplifies and Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) instabilities Aerion Corporation has patented a S-NLF wing design (US Patent No. 5322242) - Low sweep to control CF - dp/dx < 0 on both wing surfaces to stabilize TS - Thin wing with sharp leading edge to minimize wave drag increase due to reduction in sweep NASA and Aerion have partnered to study S-NLF since 1999 Series of S-NLF experiments flown on the NASA F-15B research test bed airplane Infrared (IR) thermography used to characterize transition - Non-intrusive, global, good spatial resolution - Captures significant flow features well

  11. Preliminary Results of Testing of Flow Effects on Evaporator Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, M.Z.

    2002-02-15

    This investigation has focused on the effects of fluid flow on solids deposition from solutions that simulate the feed to the 2H evaporator at the Savannah River Site. Literature studies indicate that the fluid flow (or shear) affects particle-particle and particle-surface interactions and thus the phenomena of particle aggregation in solution and particle deposition (i.e., scale formation) onto solid surfaces. Experimental tests were conducted with two configurations: (1) using a rheometer to provide controlled shear conditions and (2) using controlled flow of reactive solution through samples of stainless steel tubing. All tests were conducted at 80 C and at high silicon and aluminum concentrations, 0.133 M each, in solutions containing 4 M sodium hydroxide and 1 A4 each of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. Two findings from these experiments are important for consideration in developing approaches for reducing or eliminating evaporator scaling problems: (1) The rheometer tests suggested that for the conditions studied, maximum solids deposition occurs at a moderate shear rate, approximately 12 s{sup -1}. That value is expected to be on the order of shear rates that will occur in various parts of the evaporator system; for instance, a 6 gal/min single-phase liquid flow through the 2-in. lift or gravity drain lines would result in a shear rate of approximately 16 s{sup -1}. These results imply that engineering approaches aimed at reducing deposits through increased mixing would need to generate shear near all surfaces significantly greater than 12 s{sup -1}. However, further testing is needed to set a target value for shear that is applicable to evaporator operation. This is because the measured trend is not statistically significant at the 95% confidence interval due to variability in the results. In addition, testing at higher temperatures and lower concentrations of aluminum and silicon would more accurately represent conditions in the evaporator. Without

  12. Corrosion erosion test of SS316 in flowing Pb Bi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, K.; Kurata, Y.; Saito, S.; Futakawa, M.; Sasa, T.; Oigawa, H.; Wakai, E.; Miura, K.

    2003-05-01

    Corrosion tests of austenitic stainless tube were done under flowing Pb-Bi conditions for 3000 h at 450 °C. Specimens were 316SS produced as a tubing form with 13.8 mm outer diameter, 2 mm thickness and 40 cm length. During operation, maximum temperature, temperature difference and flow velocity of Pb-Bi at the specimen were kept at 450, 50 °C, and 1 m/s, respectively. After the test, specimen and components of the loop were cut and examined by optical microscope, SEM, EDX, WDX and X-ray diffraction. Pb-Bi adhered on the surface of the specimen even after Pb-Bi was drained out to the storage tank from the circulating loop. Results differed from a stagnant corrosion test in that the specimen surface became rough and the corrosion rate was maximally 0.1 mm/3000 h. Mass transfer from the high temperature to the lower temperature area was observed: crystals of Fe-Cr were found on the tube surface in the low-temperature region. The sizes of crystals varied from 0.1 to 0.2 mm. The depositing crystals were ferrite grains and the chemical composition ratio (mass%) of Fe to Cr was 9:1.

  13. Validation of the Risk Estimator Decision aid for Atrial Fibrillation (RED-AF) for Predicting 30-Day Adverse Events in Emergency Department Patients With Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Tyler W.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Self, Wesley H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nearly 70% of emergency departments (ED) visits for atrial fibrillation (AF) result in hospitalization. The incidence of serious 30-day adverse events following an ED evaluation for AF remains low. This study’s goal was to prospectively validate our previously reported Risk Estimator Decision aid for AF (RED-AF) model for estimating a patient’s risk of experiencing a 30-day adverse event. Methods This was a prospective cohort study, which enrolled a convenience sample of ED patients presenting with AF. RED-AF, previously derived from a retrospective cohort of 832 patients, assigns points based on age, sex, coexisting disease (heart failure, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), smoking, home medications (beta blocker, diuretic), physical examination findings (dyspnea, palpitations, peripheral edema), and adequacy of ED ventricular rate control. Primary outcome was occurrence of ≥1 AF-related adverse outcome (ED visits, rehospitalization, cardiovascular complications, death) within 30 days. We identified a clinically relevant threshold and measured RED-AF’s performance in this prospective cohort, assessing its calibration, discrimination, and diagnostic accuracy. Results The study enrolled 497 patients between June 2010 and February 2013. Of these, 120 (24%) had ≥1 adverse event within 30 days. A RED-AF score of 87 was identified as an optimal threshold, resulting in sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95%CI) of 96% (91–98) and 19% (15–23), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 27% (23–32) and 93% (85–97), respectively. The c-statistic for RED-AF was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.59 to 0.71). Conclusion In this separate validation cohort, RED-AF performed moderately well and similar to the original derivation cohort for identifying the risk of short-term AF-related adverse events in ED patients diagnosed with AF. PMID:25245277

  14. [STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF THE LYMPH TISSUE OF MICE LYMPHATIC NODES FOLLOWING THE 30-DAY FLIGHT ONBOARD SPACECRAFT BION-M1].

    PubMed

    Bulekbaeva, L E; Demchenko, G A; Ilyin, E A; Erofeeva, L M

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the results of studying the lymph tissue of mesenteric and cervical lymphatic nodes in C57BL/6N mice after the 30-day orbital flight onboard biosatellite Bion-M1. Histological and morphometric investigations revealed changes in the ratio of the nodes structural-functional zones and microstructure. Reductions in reticular cells, plasmocytes, macrophages and blasts in the nodes point to degradation of both humoral and cellular immunity. PMID:26554128

  15. Trends and Variations in the Rates of Hospital Complications, Failure-to-Rescue and 30-Day Mortality in Surgical Patients in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-2009

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Lixin; Chen, Jack; Assareh, Hassan; Hollis, Stephanie J.; Hillman, Ken; Flabouris, Arthas

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the increased acceptance of failure-to-rescue (FTR) as an important patient safety indicator (defined as the percentage of deaths among surgical patients with treatable complications), there has not been any large epidemiological study reporting FTR in an Australian setting nor any evaluation on its suitability as a performance indicator. Methods We conducted a population-based study on elective surgical patients from 82 public acute hospitals in New South Wales, Australia between 2002 and 2009, exploring the trends and variations in rates of hospital complications, FTR and 30-day mortality. We used Poisson regression models to derive relative risk ratios (RRs) after adjusting for a range of patient and hospital characteristics. Results The average rates of complications, FTR and 30-day mortality were 13.8 per 1000 admissions, 14.1% and 6.1 per 1000 admission, respectively. The rates of complications and 30-day mortality were stable throughout the study period however there was a significant decrease in FTR rate after 2006, coinciding with the establishment of national and state-level peak patient safety agencies. There were marked variations in the three rates within the top 20% of hospitals (best) and bottom 20% of hospitals (worst) for each of the four peer-hospital groups. The group comprising the largest volume hospitals (principal referral/teaching hospitals) had a significantly higher rate of FTR in comparison to the other three groups of smaller-sized peer hospital groups (RR = 0.78, 0.57, and 0.61, respectively). Adjusted rates of complications, FTR and 30-day mortality varied widely for individual surgical procedures between the best and worst quintile hospitals within the principal referral hospital group. Conclusions The decrease in FTR rate over the study period appears to be associated with a wide range of patient safety programs. The marked variations in the three rates between- and within- peer hospital groups highlight the

  16. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy at a new bariatric surgery centre in Canada: 30-day complication rates using the Clavien–Dindo classification

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Vanessa; Twells, Laurie; Gregory, Deborah; Murphy, Raleen; Smith, Chris; Boone, Darrell; Pace, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has the highest rate of obesity in Canada, prompting the establishment of a bariatric surgery program at the Health Sciences Centre in NL. This retrospective study examined 30-day complication rates in more than 200 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) between May 2011 and February 2014. Methods We performed a chart review and collected data on 30-day postoperative complications. Complications were graded and reported using the Clavien–Dindo classification. Grades I and II were defined as minor and grades III and higher were defined as major complications. Results We reviewed the charts of the first 209 patients to undergo LSG. The mean body mass index was 49.2, 81% were women and the average age was 43 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (55.0%), obstructive sleep apnea (46.4%), dyslipidemia (42.1%), diabetes (37.3%), osteoarthritis (36.4%) and cardiovascular disease with previous cardiac stents (5.3%). Furthermore, 38.3% of patients reported psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression and anxiety. The overall 30-day complication rate was 15.3%. The complication rate for minor complications was 13.4% and for major complications was 1.9% (2 leaks, 1 stricture and 1 fistula). Conclusion Our results support the feasibility of safely performing LSG surgery at bariatric centres completing fewer than 125 procedures annually. PMID:27007089

  17. Performance and mood-state parameters during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeRoshia, C. W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    The study was designed to determine if performance and mood impairments occur in bed-rested subjects, and if different exercise-training regimens modify or prevent them. Eighteen normal, healthy men were divided on the basis of age, peak oxygen uptake, and maximal isometric knee extension strength into three similar groups: no exercise (NOE), isotonic exercise (ITE), and isokinetic exercise (IKE). A 15-min battery of 10 performance tests and 8 mood and 2 sleep scales were administered daily during ambulatory control, 30 d of absolute bed rest (BR), and 4 d of ambulatory recovery. Performance test proficiency increased (p < 0.05) for all three groups during BR in 7 of 10 tests and there were no consistent significant differences between the three groups. However, during BR, the ITE group was distinguished from the other groups by a decline (p < 0.05) in the activation mood dimension and in two of its constituent scales (motivation and concentration), and by improvement (p < 0.05) in the trouble-falling-asleep and psychological-tension scales. Since few deleterious changes in performance and mood occurred in the three groups and did not exceed baseline ambulatory levels, we conclude that mood and performance did not deteriorate in response to prolonged BR and were not altered by exercise training. However, the decline in activation mood scales in the ITE group may reflect overtraining or excess total workload in this group.

  18. Numerical Modelling of Vegetation Flow Interaction: the Wienfluss Test Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C.; Yagci, O.; Rauch, H.; Stoesser, T.

    2003-04-01

    We apply a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code based on a finite-volume discretisation to a 170m test reach of the a river in Vienna. One of the primary aims of this paper is to test various methods for representing the flow resistance of natural vegetation. The two approaches considered vary in complexity and could be practically implemented and applied within 2D and 3D flood modelling tools. The first approach uses empirical relationships derived from the laboratory data and modifies the existing friction term in the momentum equations. While the second approach introduces a drag related sink term in addition to the bed friction term. The roughness closure models considered do not modify the turbulence model (in this case the k-e model) and hence do not require re-calibration for each application. The test reach is straight and comprises an asymmetrical compound channel that is vegetated on the floodplain by willows and unvegetated within the main channel. The development of the willows has been monitored over a four year period and plant parameters which characterise the dimensions of individual trees and their distribution have been quantified. Further, streamwise velocity data of high-spatial resolution has been collected at one cross-section for a series of flood events. The performance of each approach is quantified in terms of its ability to reproduce the streamwise velocity distribution in a partially vegetated channel. Different parameter tests are conducted to allow the sensitivity of the computed velocities against mesh resolution, and other important plant properties to be examined. For both flow resistance approaches, reasonable agreement is found between the measured and computed floodplain velocities.

  19. Uninstrumented assembly airflow testing in the Annular Flow Distribution facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-02-01

    During the Emergency Cooling System phase of a postulated large-break loss of coolant accident (ECS-LOCA), air enters the primary loop and is pumped down the reactor assemblies. One of the experiments performed to support the analysis of this accident was the Annular Flow Distribution (AFD) experiment, conducted in a facility built for this purpose at Babcock and Wilcox Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. As part of this experiment, a large body of airflow data were acquired in a prototypical mockup of the Mark 22 reactor assembly. This assembly was known as the AFD (or the I-AFD here) reference assembly. The I-AFD assembly was fully prototypical, having been manufactured in SRS`s production fabrication facility. Similar Mark 22 mockup assemblies were tested in several test facilities in the SRS Heat Transfer Laboratory (HTL). Discrepancies were found. The present report documents further work done to address the discrepancy in airflow measurements between the AFD facility and HTL facilities. The primary purpose of this report is to disseminate the data from the U-AFD test, and to compare these test results to the I-AFD data and the U-AT data. A summary table of the test data and the B&W data transmittal letter are included as an attachment to this report. The full data transmittal volume from B&W (including time plots of the various instruments) is included as an appendix to this report. These data are further analyzed by comparing them to two other HTL tests, namely, SPRIHTE 1 and the Single Assembly Test Stand (SATS).

  20. Columbia University Flow Instability Experimental Program, Volume 5: Single annulus tests, steady-state test program

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents results for the steady state portion of the finless single annulus test program. The objective of the experimental study was to investigate the onset of flow instability in an annular geometry similar to the MARK 22 reactor. The test program involved testing of both a finless or ribless heater and a ribbed heater. The latter program is currently underway and will be reported separately. For finless heater, testing was conducted in both a steady state and transient mode. The present report presents steady state results for a series of experiments with uniform and asymmetric heating. The demand curves obtained under uniform heating yielded OFI flow-rates which were slightly below those obtained for a circular tube geometry with the same L/D ratio; however, the single annulus had a hydraulic diameter which was approximately fifty percent larger than the circular tube. The asymmetric heating cases were selected to provide the same average power input as the uniform cases. The results for these tests indicated that the flow-rate at OFI increased with the degree of asymmetry.

  1. Field Test of a DHW Distribution System: Temperature and Flow Analyses (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, C. D.; Hendron, B.; Magnusson, L.

    2010-05-13

    This presentation discusses a field test of a DHW distribution system in an occupied townhome. It includes measured fixture flows and temperatures, a tested recirculation system, evaluated disaggregation of flow by measured temperatures, Aquacraft Trace Wizard analysis, and comparison.

  2. Laminar flow control leading edge glove flight test article development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, W. E.; Mcnay, D. E.; Thelander, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    A laminar flow control (LFC) flight test article was designed and fabricated to fit into the right leading edge of a JetStar aircraft. The article was designed to attach to the front spar and fill in approx. 70 inches of the leading edge that are normally occupied by the large slipper fuel tank. The outer contour of the test article was constrained to align with an external fairing aft of the front spar which provided a surface pressure distribution over the test region representative of an LFC airfoil. LFC is achieved by applying suction through a finely perforated surface, which removes a small fraction of the boundary layer. The LFC test article has a retractable high lift shield to protect the laminar surface from contamination by airborne debris during takeoff and low altitude operation. The shield is designed to intercept insects and other particles that could otherwise impact the leading edge. Because the shield will intercept freezing rain and ice, a oozing glycol ice protection system is installed on the shield leading edge. In addition to the shield, a liquid freezing point depressant can be sprayed on the back of the shield.

  3. Supine Lower Body Negative Pressure Exercise Maintains Upright Exercise Capacity in Male Twins during 30 Days of Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Macias, Brandon R.; Meyer, R. Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Exercise capacity is reduced following both short and long duration exposures to microgravity. We have shown previously that supine lower body negative pressure with exercise (LBNP(sub ex) maintains upright exercise capacity in men after 5d and 15d bed rest, as a simulation of microgravity. We hypothesized that LBNP(sub ex) would protect upright exercise capacity (VO2pk) and sprint performance in eight sets of identical male twins during a 30-d bed rest. Twins within each set were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) who performed no exercise or to an exercise group (EX) who performed a 40-min interval (40-80% pre-BR VO2pk) LBNP(sub ex) (55+/-4 mmHg) exercise protocol, plus 5 min of resting LBNP, 6 d/wk. LBNP produced footward force equivalent to 1.0- 1.2 times body weight. Pre- and post-bed rest, subjects completed an upright graded exercise test to volitional fatigue and sprint test of 30.5 m. After bed rest, VO2pk was maintained in the EX subjects (-3+/-3%), but was significantly decreased in the CON subjects (-24+/-4%). Sprint time also was increased in the CON subjects (24+/-8%), but maintained in the EX group (8+/-2%). The performance of a supine, interval exercise protocol with LBNP maintains upright exercise capacity and sprint performance during 30 d of bed rest. This exercise countermeasure protocol may help prevent microgravity-induced deconditioning during long duration space flight.

  4. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84.93...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) A static-flow test will be...) water-column height when full container pressure is applied. (c) Where pressure demand apparatus...

  5. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84.93...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) A static-flow test will be...) water-column height when full container pressure is applied. (c) Where pressure demand apparatus...

  6. 42 CFR 84.93 - Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. 84.93...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.93 Gas flow test; open-circuit apparatus. (a) A static-flow test will be...) water-column height when full container pressure is applied. (c) Where pressure demand apparatus...

  7. 30 CFR 75.152 - Tests of air flow; qualified person.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests of air flow; qualified person. 75.152....152 Tests of air flow; qualified person. A person is a qualified person within the meaning of the provisions of Subpart D—Ventilation of this part requiring that tests of air flow be made by a...

  8. Lower Extremity Muscle Thickness During 30-Day 6 degrees Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.; Kirby, L. C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Muscle thickness was measured in 19 Bed-Rested (BR) men (32-42 year) subjected to IsoTonic (ITE, cycle orgometer) and IsoKi- netic (IKE, torque orgometer) lower extremity exercise training, and NO Exercise (NOE) training. Thickness was measured with ultrasonography in anterior thigh-Rectus Femoris (RF) and Vastus Intermadius (VI), and combined posterior log-soleus, flexor ballucis longus, and tibialis posterior (S + FHL +TP) - muscles. Compared with ambulatory control values, thickness of the (S + FHL + TP) decreased by 90%-12% (p less than 0.05) In all three test groups. The (RF) thickness was unchanged in the two exercise groups, but decreased by 10% (p less than 0.05) in the NOE. The (VI) thickness was unchanged In the ITE group, but decreased by 12%-l6% (p less than 0.05) in the IKE and NOE groups. Thus, intensive, alternating, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise training is as effective as intensive, intermittent, isokinetic exercise training for maintaining thicknesses of rectus femoris and vastus lntermedius anterior thigh muscles, but not posterior log muscles, during prolonged BR deconditioning.

  9. Knee-joint proprioception during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernauer, E. M.; Walby, W. F.; Ertl, A. C.; Dempster, P. T.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if daily isotonic exercise or isokinetic exercise training coupled with daily leg proprioceptive training, would influence leg proprioceptive tracking responses during bed rest (BR), 19 men (36 +/- SD 4 years, 178 +/- 7 cm, 76.8 +/- 7.8 kg) were allocated into a no-exercise (NOE) training control group (n = 5), and isotonic exercise (ITE, n = 7) and isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training groups. Exercise training was conducted during BR for two 30-min periods.d-1, 5 d.week-1. Only the IKE group performed proprioceptive training using a new isokinetic procedure with each lower extremity for 2.5 min before and after the daily exercise training sessions; proprioceptive testing occurred weekly for all groups. There were no significant differences in proprioceptive tracking scores, expressed as a percentage of the perfect score of 100, in the pre-BR ambulatory control period between the three groups. Knee extension and flexion tracking responses were unchanged with NOE during BR, but were significantly greater (*p < 0.05) at the end of BR in both exercise groups when compared with NOE responses (extension: NOE 80.7 +/- 0.7%, ITE 82.9* +/- 0.6%, IKE 86.5* +/- 0.7%; flexion: NOE 77.6 +/- 1.5%, ITE 80.0 +/- 0.8% (NS), IKE 83.6* +/- 0.8%). Although proprioceptive tracking was unchanged during BR with NOE, both isotonic exercise training (without additional proprioceptive training) and especially isokinetic exercise training when combined with daily proprioceptive training, significantly improved knee proprioceptive tracking responses after 30 d of BR.

  10. Knee-Joint Proprioception During 30-Day 6 deg Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernauer, E. M.; Walby, W. F.; Ertl, A. C.; Dempster, P. T.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if daily isotonic exercise or isokinetic exercise training coupled with daily log proprioceptive training, would influence log proprioceptive tracking responses during Bed Rest (BR), 19 men (36 +/- SD 4 years, 178 +/- 7 cm, 76.8 +/- 7.8 kg) were allocated into a NO-Exercise (NOE) training control group (n = 5), and IsoTanic Exercise (ITE, n = 7) and IsoKinetic Exercise (IKE, n = 7) training groups. Exercise training was conducted during BR for two 30-min period / d, 5 d /week. Only the IKE group performed proprioceptive training using a now isokinetic procedure with each lower extremity for 2.5 min before and after the daily exercise training sessions; proprioceptive testing occurred weekly for all groups. There were no significant differences in proprioceptive tracking scores, expressed as a percentage of the perfect score of 100, in the pro-BR ambulatory control period between the three groups. Knee extension and flexion tracking responses were unchanged with NOE during BR, but were significantly greater (*p less than 0.05) at the end of BR in both exercise groups when compared with NOE responses (extension: NOE 80.7 +/- 0.7%, ITE 82.9 +/- 0.6%, IKE 86.5* +/- 0.7%; flexion: NOE 77.6 +/- 1.50, ITE 80.0 +/- 0.8% (NS), IKE 83.6* +/- 0.8%). Although proprioceptive tracking was unchanged during BR with NOE, both lsotonic exercise training (without additional propriaceptive training) and especially isokinetic exercise training when combined with daily proprioceptive training, significantly improved knee proprioceptive tracking responses after 30 d of BR.

  11. Curved flow wind tunnnel test of F-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutze, F. H.

    1980-01-01

    The curved flow capability of a stability wind tunnel was used to investigate the lateral directional characteristics of an F-18 aircraft. The model is described and the procedures used to obtain and correct the data and a graphical presentation of the results are presented. The results include graphs of lateral directional derivatives versus sideslip or static plots, the lateral directional static stability derivatives versus angle of attack, and finally the lateral directional derivatives versus nondimensional yaw rate for different angles of attack and sideslip. Results are presented for several configurations including complete, complete without vertical tails, complete without horizontal tails, fuselage wing and fuselage alone. Each of these were tested with and without wing leading edge extensions.

  12. Aeroacoustic Characteristics of Model Jet Test Facility Flow Conditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Haskin, Harry H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of flow conditioning devices used to suppress internal rig noise in high speed, high temperature experimental jet facilities is discussed. The aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of a number of devices including pressure loss and extraneous noise generation are measured. Both aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics are strongly dependent on the porosity of the flow conditioner and the closure ratio of the duct system. For unchoked flow conditioners, the pressure loss follows conventional incompressible flow models. However, for choked flow conditioners, a compressible flow model where the duct and flow conditioner system is modeled as a convergent-divergent nozzle can be used to estimate pressure loss. Choked flow conditioners generate significantly more noise than unchoked conditioners. In addition, flow conditioners with small hole diameters or sintered metal felt material generate less self-noise noise compared to flow conditioners with larger holes.

  13. Quality measures for total ankle replacement, 30-day readmission and reoperation rates within 1 year of surgery: a data linkage study using the NJR data set

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Razi; Macgregor, Alexander J; Goldberg, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report on the rate of 30-day readmission and the rate of additional or revision surgery within 12 months following total ankle replacement (TAR). Design A data-linkage study of the UK National Joint Registry (NJR) data and Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) database. These two databases were linked in a deterministic fashion. HES episodes 12 months following the index procedure were isolated and analysed. Logistic regression was used to model predictors of reoperation and revision for primary ankle replacement. Participants All patients who underwent primary and revision ankle replacements according to the NJR between February 2008 and February 2013. Results The rate of 30-day readmission following primary and revision ankle replacement was 2.2% and 1.3%, respectively. In the 12 months following primary and revision ankle replacements, the revision rate (where implants needed to be removed) was 1.2% with increased odds in those orthopaedic units preforming <20 ankle replacements per year and patients with a preoperative fixed equinus deformity. The reoperation other than revision (where implants were not removed) in the 12 months following primary and revision TARs was 6.6% and 9.3%, respectively. Rheumatoid arthritis, cemented prosthesis and high ASA grade significantly increased the odds of reoperation. Conclusions TAR has a 30-day readmission rate of 2.2%, which is similar to that of knee replacement but lower than that of total hip replacement. 6.6% of patients undergoing primary TAR require a reoperation within 12 months of the index procedure. Early revision rates are significantly higher in low-volume centres. PMID:27217286

  14. Predictors of 30-Day Mortality and 90-Day Functional Recovery after Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage : Hospital Based Multivariate Analysis in 585 Patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify independent predictors of mortality and functional recovery in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and to improve functional outcome in these patients. Methods Data were collected retrospectively on 585 patients with supratentorial PICH admitted to the Stroke Unit at our hospital between 1st January 2004 and the 31st July 2008. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the associations between all selected variables and 30-day mortality and 90-day functional recoveries after PICH was evaluated. Results Ninety-day functional recovery was achieved in 29.1% of the 585 patients and 30-day mortality in 15.9%. Age (OR=7.384, p=0.000), limb weakness (OR=6.927, p=0.000), and hematoma volume (OR=5.293, p=0.000) were found to be powerful predictors of 90-day functional recovery. Furthermore, initial consciousness (OR=3.013, p=0.014) hematoma location (lobar, OR=2.653, p=0.003), ventricular extension of blood (OR=2.077, p=0.013), leukocytosis (OR=2.048, p=0.008), alcohol intake (drinker, OR=1.927, p=0.023), and increased serum aminotransferase (OR=1.892, p=0.035) were found to be independent predictors of 90-day functional recovery after PICH. On the other hand, a pupillary abnormality (OR=4.532, p=0.000) and initial unconsciousness (OR=3.362, p=0.000) were found to be independent predictors of 30-day mortality after PICH. Conclusion The predictors of mortality and functional recovery after PICH identified during this analysis may assist during clinical decision-making, when advising patients or family members about the prognosis of PICH and when planning intervention trials. PMID:19609417

  15. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 4: Appendix, costs, and data management requirements of the dedicated 30-day laboratory. [carry-on laboratory for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results of the updated 30-day life sciences dedicated laboratory scheduling and costing activities are documented, and the 'low cost' methodology used to establish individual equipment item costs is explained in terms of its allowances for equipment that is commerical off-the-shelf, modified commercial, and laboratory prototype; a method which significantly lowers program costs. The costs generated include estimates for non-recurring development, recurring production, and recurring operations costs. A cost for a biomedical emphasis laboratory and a Delta cost to provide a bioscience and technology laboratory were also generated. All cost reported are commensurate with the design and schedule definitions available.

  16. Effectiveness of using thyrocalcitonin for the prevention of a calcium metabolic disorder in the mineralized tissues of rabbits with 30 days hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Shashkov, V. S.; Dmitriyev, B. S.; Yegorov, B. B.; Lobachik, V. I.; Brishin, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    A 30 day hypokinesia in rabbits led to a considerable lag in weight gain for the skeletal bones, reduction in Ca45 uptake, and an increase in isotope resorption rate in the rapidly metabolized fraction of extremity bones. On the other hand, Ca45 content in the teeth and maxillae increased, which may be explained by redistribution of isotope among the various mineralized tissues. Injection of thyrocalcitonin (50 IU/day) produced a distinct normalizing effect on Ca45 uptake and resorption in the mineralized tissues of rabbits kept hypokinetic.

  17. Cinematics and sticking of heart valves in pulsatile flow test.

    PubMed

    Köhler, J; Wirtz, R

    1991-05-01

    The aim of the project was to develop laboratory test devices for studies of the cinematics and sticking behaviour of technical valve protheses. The second step includes testing technical valves of different types and sizes under static and dynamic conditions. A force-deflection balance was developed in order to load valve rims by static radial forces until sticking or loss of a disc (sticking- and clamping-mould point) with computer-controlled force deflection curves. A second deflection device was developed and used for prosthetic valves in the aortic position of a pulsatile mock circulation loop with simultaneous video-cinematography. The stiffness of technical valve rims varied between 0.20 (St. Jude) and about 1.0 N/micron (metal rim valves). The stiffness decreased significantly with increasing valve size. Sticking under pulsatile flow conditions was in good agreement with the static deflection measurements. Hence, valve sticking with increasing danger of thrombus formation is more likely with a less stiff valve rim. In the case of forces acting perpendicularly to the pendulum axis, the clamping mould-point of the valve can be reached, followed by disc dislodgement. PMID:1864654

  18. North vs south differences in acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage in Croatia: hospitalization incidence trends, clinical features, and 30-day case fatality

    PubMed Central

    Ljubičić, Neven; Pavić, Tajana; Budimir, Ivan; Puljiz, Željko; Bišćanin, Alen; Bratanić, Andre; Nikolić, Marko; Hrabar, Davor; Troskot, Branko

    2014-01-01

    Aim To assess the seven-year trends of hospitalization incidence due to acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage (APUH) and associated risk factors, and examine the differences in these trends between two regions in Croatia. Methods The study collected sociodemographic, clinical, and endoscopic data on 2204 patients with endoscopically confirmed APUH who were admitted to the Clinical Hospital Center “Sestre Milosrdnice,” Zagreb and Clinical Hospital Center Split between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. We determined hospitalization incidence rates, 30-day case fatality rate, clinical outcomes, and incidence-associated factors. Results No differences were observed in APUH hospitalization incidence rates between the regions. Age-standardized one-year cumulative APUH hospitalization incidence rate calculated using the European Standard Population was significantly higher in Zagreb than in Split region (43.2/100 000 vs 29.2/100,000). A significantly higher APUH hospitalization incidence rates were observed in the above 65 years age group. Overall 30-day case fatality rate was 4.9%. Conclusion The hospitalization incidence of APUH in two populations did not change over the observational period and it was significantly higher in the Zagreb region. The incidence of acute duodenal ulcer hemorrhage also remained unchanged, whereas the incidence of acute gastric ulcer hemorrhage increased. The results of this study allow us to monitor epidemiological indicators of APUH and compare data with other countries. PMID:25559836

  19. Metal ion release and surface composition of the Cu 18Ni 20Zn nickel silver during 30 days immersion in artificial sweat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošev, Ingrid; Kosec, Tadeja

    2007-11-01

    In order to study nickel ion release associated with nickel allergy, Cu-18Ni-20Zn nickel-silver alloy was immersed in artificial sweat and Ringer physiological solution for 30 days. Dissolution of metal ions was measured as a function of time, and the characteristics of the solid surface layer formed after 30 days were studied by SEM/EDS and XPS. The dissolution of nickel prevails over dissolution of copper and zinc. Nickel release in artificial sweat is approximately 10 times higher than in Ringer physiological solution and in both solutions the nickel release exceeds 0.5 μg cm -2 week -1, the threshold above which the allergy is triggered. Evidence of selective nickel dissolution is reported. The composition of the surface layer formed in artificial sweat and in Ringer physiological solution differs in the content of nickel and chlorine. In artificial sweat, the major constituents of the surface layer are dominantly oxides, Cu 2O and ZnO, with traces of chlorine. In Ringer physiological solution, the composition of the surface layer changes to a mixture of oxides, chlorides and/or oxychlorides. Two components peaks were detected in the Cl 2p 3/2 peak; however, it was not possible to distinguish the exact nature of the chloride compound formed. The mechanism of nickel release is discussed as a function of the composition of the solution.

  20. 42 CFR 84.94 - Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus. 84.94...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.94 Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus. (a) Where oxygen is supplied... rated service time of the apparatus. (b) Where constant flow is used in conjunction with demand...

  1. Oscillating-flow loss test results in rectangular heat exchanger passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. Gary

    1991-01-01

    Test results of oscillating flow losses in rectangular heat exchanger passages of various aspect ratios are given. This work was performed in support of the design of a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a dynamic space power conversion system. Oscillating flow loss testing was performed using an oscillating flow rig, which was based on a variable stroke and variable frequency linear drive motor. Tests were run over a range of oscillating flow parameters encompassing the flow regimes of the proposed engine design. Test results are presented in both tabular and graphical form and are compared against analytical predictions.

  2. A Multicenter, Prospective Study of a Novel Nasal EPAP Device in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Efficacy and 30-Day Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Leon; Massie, Clifford A.; Dolan, Diana C.; Loomas, Bryan; Kram, Jerrold; Hart, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Evaluate the efficacy of a novel device placed in the nares that imposes an expiratory resistance for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and evaluate adherence to the device over a 30-day in-home trial period. Design: One diagnostic and 3 treatment polysomnograms were administered in a Latin-square design to identify the optimal expiratory resistance to be used during the 30-day in-home trial. Subjects had repeat polysomnography with the prescribed device at the end of the 30-day trial. Setting: Multicenter study. Participants: Participants (N = 34; age 27 to 67) with a baseline apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5. Measurements and Results: The AHI was reduced from 24.5 ± 23.6 (mean ± SD) to an average of 13.5 ± 18.7 (p < 0.001) across initial treatment nights. The AHI was 15.5 ± 18.9 (p = 0.001) for the prescribed device at the end of the 30-day trial. Of 24 subjects with an AHI > 10 at baseline, 13 achieved an AHI ≤ 10 on the initial treatment nights; 10 had a similar response on the final treatment night. Percent of the night snoring decreased from 27.5 ± 23.2 to 11.6 ± 13.7 (p < 0.001) on initial treatment nights and 14.6 ± 20.6 (p = 0.013) at the end of the trial; Epworth Sleepiness scores decreased from 8.7 ± 4.0 at baseline to 6.9 ± 4.4 (p < 0.001) at the end of the trial; the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index improved from 7.4 ± 3.3 to 6.5 ± 3.6 (p = 0.042). Mean oxygen saturation increased from 94.8 ± 2.0 to 95.2 ± 1.9 (p = 0.023) on initial treatment nights and 95.3 ± 1.9 (p = 0.003) at the end of the trial. Sleep architecture was not affected. Participants reported using the device all night long for 94% of nights during the in-home trial. Conclusions: Treatment with this novel device was well tolerated and accepted by the participants. An overall reduction in AHI was documented; however, therapeutic response was variable among the participants. Further research is required to identify the ideal candidates for this

  3. EFFECTS OF TEST TEMPERATURE ON FLOW OF METALLIC GLASSES

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. NOURI; Y. LIU; P. WESSELING; J. LEWANDOWSKI

    2006-04-12

    Micro-hardness experiments were conducted over a range of temperatures using a Nikon QM micro-hardness machine on a number of metallic glass (e.g. Zr-, Fe-, Al-) systems. Although high micro-hardness was exhibited at room temperature, significant hardness reductions were exhibited near the glass transition temperature, T{sub g}. The effects of changes in test temperature on the micro-hardness will be reported. The effects of exposure time on the hardness evolution at a given temperature will also be summarized to illustrate some of the differences in behavior of the systems shown. The extreme softening near T{sub g}, characteristic of bulk metallic glass systems, enables the exploration of novel deformation processing. In order to develop deformation processing windows, the evaluation of bulk metallic glass mechanical properties under quasi-static conditions and the determination of flow properties at different temperatures and strain rates are reported. The use of such information to create layered/composite bulk metallic glasses will be summarized.

  4. F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Scott G.; Fischer, Michael C.

    1999-01-01

    The F-16XL-2 Supersonic Laminar Flow Control Flight Test Experiment was part of the NASA High-Speed Research Program. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate extensive laminar flow, to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and design methodology, and to establish laminar flow control design criteria. Topics include the flight test hardware and design, airplane modification, the pressure and suction distributions achieved, the laminar flow achieved, and the data analysis and code correlation.

  5. SR-71 LASRE during in-flight cold flow test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This shot, from above and behind the SR-71 in flight, runs 11 seconds and shows the Aerospike engine and its fuel system being charged with gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen during one of two tests. The tests are to check for leaks and check the flow characteristics of cryogenic fuels to be used in the engine. The NASA/Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) concluded its flight operations phase at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November 1998. The goal of this experiment was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin, Bethesda, Maryland, validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future potential reusable launch vehicle. Information from the LASRE experiment will help Lockheed Martin maximize its design for a future potential reusable launch vehicle. It gave Lockheed an understanding of the performance of the lifting body and linear aerospike engine combination even before the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator flies. LASRE was a small, half-span model of a lifting body with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine. The experiment, mounted on the back of an SR-71 aircraft, operates like a kind of 'flying wind tunnel.' The experiment focused on determining how the engine plume of a reusable launch vehicle engine plume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting body shape at specific altitudes and speeds reaching approximately 750 miles per hour. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume could create drag; design refinements look to minimize that interaction. During the flight research program, the aircraft completed seven research flights. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus on the back of the aircraft. The first of those two flights occurred October 31, 1997. The SR-71 took off at 8:31 a.m. PST. The aircraft flew for one hour and fifty minutes, reaching a

  6. Influence of repetitive Gz acceleration on structural and metabolic profile of m. vastus lateralis in monkeys exposed to 30 day bedrest.

    PubMed

    Belozerova, I N; Matveeva, O A; Kuznetsov, S L; Nemirovskaya, T L; Shenkman, B S

    2000-07-01

    It was shown that changes in structural and metabolic indices of extensor muscles of the lower extremities were usually found in man after exposure to space flight or to bed rest. Similar changes were also observed in monkeys, space-flown on "Kosmos" biosatellites. Response to weightlessness and to restraint was found to be different in m. soleus and in m. vastus lateralis. Therefore, it is important to study structural and metabolic changes of m. vastus lateralis fibers under conditions of gravitational unloading in monkeys, who have motor apparatus similar to that of man, and are much more fruitful object of research. It is assumed that artificial gravity can serve as a countermeasure, aimed at diminishing effects of gravitational unloading. We have studied the effect of repeated gravity overloading, created by means of a centrifuge, on structural and metabolic indices of monkey m. vastus lateralis at the background of 30 day head down tilt bed rest (BR). PMID:12697551

  7. Characteristics and preliminary observations of the influence of electromyostimulation on the size and function of human skeletal muscle during 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvoisin, Marc R.; Convertino, Victor A.; Buchanan, Paul; Gollnick, Philip A.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of transcutaneous electromyostimulation (EMS) on the development of atrophy and the loss of strength in lower limb musculature in humans exposed to microgravity was determined in three subjects who received EMS twice daily in a 3-d on/1-d off cycle on their dominant leg during 30 days of bedrest. The output waveform from the stimulator was sequenced to the knee extensors, knee flexors, ankle extensors, and ankle flexors, and caused three isometric contractions of each muscle group per minute. It was found that, in the dominant leg, EMS acted to attenuate the changes caused by bedrest, such as reductions in the leg volume, muscle compartment size, cross-sectional area of slow- and fast-twitch fibers, strength, and aerobic enzyme activities, and an increase in leg compliance.

  8. Exposure to microgravity for 30 days onboard Bion M1 caused muscle atrophy and decreased regeneration in the mouse femoral Quadriceps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora; Radugina, Elena A.; Almeida, Eduardo; Blaber, Elizabeth; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Markitantova, Yulia

    Mechanical unloading of muscle during spaceflight in microgravity is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber type composition, gene expression, and reductions in regenerative muscle growth. Although limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time, up to two weeks of spaceflight. Here we report on how 30-day, long-term, mechanical unloading in microgravity affects mouse muscle of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013. Muscle morphology observed in histological sections shows signs of extensive atrophy and regenerative hypoplasia. Specifically, we observed a two-fold decrease in the number of myonuclei and low density of myofibrils, their separation and fragmentation. Despite obvious atrophy, muscle regeneration nevertheless appears to have continued after 30 days in microgravity as evidenced by thin and short newly formed muscle fibers. Many of them however showed evidence of apoptosis and degradation of synthesized fibrils, suggesting long-term unloading in microgravity affects late stages of myofiber differentiation. Ground asynchronous and vivarium control animals showed normal, well-developed tissue structure with sufficient blood and nerve supply and evidence of regenerative formation of new muscle fibers free of apoptotic nuclei. Myofiber nuclei stress responses in spaceflight animals was detected by positive nuclear immunolocalization of c-jun and c-myc proteins. Regenerative activity of satellite cells in muscle was localized with pax-7, MyoD and MCad immunostaining, and did not appear altered in microgravity. In summary, long-term spaceflight in microgravity causes significant atrophy

  9. Immunotoxicological Evaluation of Corn Genetically Modified with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ah Gene by a 30-Day Feeding Study in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan; Liang, Chunlai; Wang, Wei; Fang, Jin; Sun, Nana; Jia, Xudong; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    This study was to investigate the immunotoxicological potential of corn genetically modified (GM) with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ah gene in BALB/c mice. Female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: the negative control group, the parental corn group, the GM corn group and the positive control group with 10 mice per group. Mice in the GM corn group and the parental corn group were fed with diets containing 70% corresponding corn for 30 days. Mice in the negative control group and the positive control group were fed with AIN93G diet, administered with saline or 200 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY) via intraperitoneal injection 24 h before the termination of the study, respectively. At the end of the study, the immunotoxicological effects of the GM corn were evaluated through immunopathology parameters including body and organ weights, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, histological examination, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotype; humoral immunity including antibody plaque-forming cell, serum immunoglobulin, cytokine and half hemolysis value; cellular immunity such as mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte reaction, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction; non-specific immunity including phagocytic activities of phagocytes, natural killer cell activity. A single dose of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg bw) was found to have significant adverse effects on immunopathology, cellular immunity, and humoral immunity in mice. The corn genetically modified with Bt Cry1Ah gene is considered consistent with the parental corn in terms of immunopathology, humoral immunity, cellular immunity and non-specific immunity. No adverse immunotoxicological effects of GM corn with Bt Cry1Ah gene were found when feeding mice for 30 days. PMID:24520311

  10. Testing low mass flow train in the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    UTSI reports on testing of the Low Mass Flow Train in the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. During this period eight tests were conducted, which complete the seed/slag interaction test series. Preliminary results of these tests are reported. Additional nitrogen oxide (NO/sub x/) measurements are included, as are SO/sub 2/ removal results. An analysis of deposit accumulation on the tubes in the materials test module is reported. Data obtained from high velocity thermocouple (HVT) probes in the radiant furnace are included for the first time and show essentially a flat temperature profile in the furnace. Heat transfer calculations for the flow train are correlated with experimental measurements, including those obtained from both UTSI and MSU line reversal systems.

  11. Smart licensing and environmental flows: Modeling framework and sensitivity testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilby, R. L.; Fenn, C. R.; Wood, P. J.; Timlett, R.; Lequesne, T.

    2011-12-01

    Adapting to climate change is just one among many challenges facing river managers. The response will involve balancing the long-term water demands of society with the changing needs of the environment in sustainable and cost effective ways. This paper describes a modeling framework for evaluating the sensitivity of low river flows to different configurations of abstraction licensing under both historical climate variability and expected climate change. A rainfall-runoff model is used to quantify trade-offs among environmental flow (e-flow) requirements, potential surface and groundwater abstraction volumes, and the frequency of harmful low-flow conditions. Using the River Itchen in southern England as a case study it is shown that the abstraction volume is more sensitive to uncertainty in the regional climate change projection than to the e-flow target. It is also found that "smarter" licensing arrangements (involving a mix of hands off flows and "rising block" abstraction rules) could achieve e-flow targets more frequently than conventional seasonal abstraction limits, with only modest reductions in average annual yield, even under a hotter, drier climate change scenario.

  12. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 3. Single tube parallel flow tests

    SciTech Connect

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1990-06-01

    The coolant in the Savannah River Site (SRS) production nuclear reactor assemblies is circulated as a subcooled liquid under normal operating conditions. This coolant is evenly distributed throughout multiple annular flow channels with a uniform pressure profile across each coolant flow channel. During the postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), which is initiated by a hypothetical guillotine pipe break, the coolant flow through the reactor assemblies is significantly reduced. The flow reduction and accompanying power reduction (after shutdown is initiated) occur in the first 1--2 seconds of the LOCA. This portion of the LOCA is referred to as the Flow Instability phase. A series of down flow experiments have been conducted on three different size single tubes. The objective of these experiments was to determine the effect of a parallel flow path on the occurrence of flow instability. In all cases, it has been shown that the point of flow instability (OFI) determined under controlled flow operation does not change when operating in a controlled pressure drop mode (parallel path operation).

  13. The application of flow cytometry to histocompatibility testing.

    PubMed

    Horsburgh, T; Martin, S; Robson, A J

    2000-03-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful technique that enables the sensitive and quantitative detection of both cellular antigens and bound biological moieties. This article reviews how flow cytometry is increasingly being used as histocompatibility laboratories for the analysis of antibody specificity and HLA antigen expression. A basic description of flow cytometry principles and standardisation is given, together with an outline of clinical application in the areas of pre-transplant cross-matching, antibody screening, post-transplant antibody monitoring and HLA-B27 detection. It is concluded that flow cytometry is a useful multi-parametric analytical tool, yielding clinical benefit especially in the identification of patients at risk of early transplant rejection. PMID:10834606

  14. Testing and Performance Verification of a High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Rotor in an Internal Flow Component Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale E.; Podboy, Gary G.; Miller, Christopher J.; Thorp, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    A 1/5 scale model rotor representative of a current technology, high bypass ratio, turbofan engine was installed and tested in the W8 single-stage, high-speed, compressor test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The same fan rotor was tested previously in the GRC 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel as a fan module consisting of the rotor and outlet guide vanes mounted in a flight-like nacelle. The W8 test verified that the aerodynamic performance and detailed flow field of the rotor as installed in W8 were representative of the wind tunnel fan module installation. Modifications to W8 were necessary to ensure that this internal flow facility would have a flow field at the test package that is representative of flow conditions in the wind tunnel installation. Inlet flow conditioning was designed and installed in W8 to lower the fan face turbulence intensity to less than 1.0 percent in order to better match the wind tunnel operating environment. Also, inlet bleed was added to thin the casing boundary layer to be more representative of a flight nacelle boundary layer. On the 100 percent speed operating line the fan pressure rise and mass flow rate agreed with the wind tunnel data to within 1 percent. Detailed hot film surveys of the inlet flow, inlet boundary layer and fan exit flow were compared to results from the wind tunnel. The effect of inlet casing boundary layer thickness on fan performance was quantified. Challenges and lessons learned from testing this high flow, low static pressure rise fan in an internal flow facility are discussed.

  15. Operational evaluation of a proppeller test stand in the quiet flow facility at Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, P. J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Operational proof tests of a propeller test stand (PTS) in a quiet flow facility (QFF) are presented. The PTS is an experimental test bed for acoustic propeller research in the quiet flow environment of the QFF. These proof tests validate thrust and torque predictions, examine the repeatability of measurements on the PTS, and determine the effect of applying artificial roughness to the propeller blades. Since a thrusting propeller causes an open jet to contract, the potential flow core was surveyed to examine the magnitude of the contraction. These measurements are compared with predicted values. The predictions are used to determine operational limitations for testing a given propeller design in the QFF.

  16. Experimental testing of flexible barriers for containment of debris flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeNatale, Jay S.; Iverson, Richard M.; Major, Jon J.; LaHusen, Richard G.; Fliegel, Gregg L.; Duffy, John D.

    1999-01-01

    In June 1996, six experiments conducted at the U.S. Geological Survey Debris Flow Flume demonstrated that flexible, vertical barriers constructed of wire rope netting can stop small debris flows. All experimental debris flows consisted of water-saturated gravelly sand with less than two percent finer sediment by weight. All debris flows had volumes of about 10 cubic meters, masses of about 20 metre tons, and impact velocities of 5 to 9 meters per second. In four experiments, the debris flow impacted pristine, unreformed barriers of varying design; in the other two experiments, the debris flow impacted barriers already loaded with sediment from a previous flow. Differences in barrier design led to differences in barrier performance. Experiments were conducted with barriers constructed of square-mesh wire-rope netting with 30centimeter, 20centimeter, and 15 centimeter mesh openings as well as 30centimeter diameter interlocking steel rings. In all cases, sediment cascading downslope at the leading edge of the debris flows tended to spray through the nets. Nets fitted with finer-mesh chain link or chicken wire liners contained more sediment than did unlined nets, and a ring net fitted with a synthetic silt screen liner contained nearly 100 percent of the sediment. Irreversible net displacements of up to 2 meters and friction brake engagement on the support and anchor cables dissipated some of the impact energy. However, substantial forces developed in the steel support columns and the lateral and tie-back anchor cables attached to these columns. As predicted by elementary mechanics, the anchor cables experienced larger tensile forces when the support columns were hinged at the base rather than bolted rigidly to the foundation. Measured loads in the lateral anchor cables exceeded those in the tie-back anchor cables and the load cell capacity of 45 kilo-Newtons. Measurements also indicated that the peak loads in the tie- back anchors were highly transient and occurred at

  17. Performance testing of a Savonius windmill rotor in shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojola, O. O.; Onasanya, O. E.

    The effects of flow shear and/or unsteady behavior on the power generation capability of a Savonius wind turbine rotor are assessed in view of measurements conducted, both in two statistically steady shear flows and in the wind, of rotor tip speed and torque at a number of streamwise stations for each of four values of the rotor bucket overlap ratio. It is found that, even in the absence of shear, the power coefficient of a Savonius wind turbine rotor is most strongly dependent on tip speed ratio.

  18. Effect of Hospital Use of Oral Nutritional Supplementation on Length of Stay, Hospital Cost, and 30-Day Readmissions Among Medicare Patients With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Julia Thornton; Linthicum, Mark T.; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Partridge, Jamie S.; LaVallee, Chris; Lakdawalla, Darius N.; Wischmeyer, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Patients with COPD are at a high risk of nutritional deficiency, which is associated with declines in respiratory function, lean body mass and strength, and immune function. Although oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) has been associated with improvements in some of these domains, the impact of hospital ONS on readmission risk, length of stay (LOS), and cost among hospitalized patients is unknown. METHODS: Using the Premier Research Database, we first identified Medicare patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of COPD. We then identified hospitalizations in which ONS was provided, and used propensity-score matching to compare LOS, hospitalization cost, and 30-day readmission rates in a one-to-one matched sample of ONS and non-ONS hospitalizations. To further address selection bias among patients prescribed ONS, we also used instrumental variables analysis to study the association of ONS with study outcomes. Model covariates included patient and provider characteristics and a time trend. RESULTS: Out of 10,322 ONS hospitalizations and 368,097 non-ONS hospitalizations, a one-to-one matched sample was created (N = 14,326). In unadjusted comparisons in the matched sample, ONS use was associated with longer LOS (8.7 days vs 6.9 days, P < .0001), higher hospitalization cost ($14,223 vs $9,340, P < .0001), and lower readmission rates (24.8% vs 26.6%, P = .0116). However, in instrumental variables analysis, ONS use was associated with a 1.9-day (21.5%) decrease in LOS, from 8.8 to 6.9 days (P < .01); a hospitalization cost reduction of $1,570 (12.5%), from $12,523 to $10,953 (P < .01); and a 13.1% decrease in probability of 30-day readmission, from 0.34 to 0.29 (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: ONS may be associated with reduced LOS, hospitalization cost, and readmission risk in hospitalized Medicare patients with COPD. PMID:25357165

  19. Risk factors for unplanned readmission within 30 days after pediatric neurosurgery: a nationwide analysis of 9799 procedures from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.

    PubMed

    Sherrod, Brandon A; Johnston, James M; Rocque, Brandon G

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Hospital readmission rate is increasingly used as a quality outcome measure after surgery. The purpose of this study was to establish, using a national database, the baseline readmission rates and risk factors for patient readmission after pediatric neurosurgical procedures. METHODS The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric database was queried for pediatric patients treated by a neurosurgeon between 2012 and 2013. Procedures were categorized by current procedural terminology (CPT) code. Patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, operative variables, and postoperative complications were analyzed via univariate and multivariate techniques to find associations with unplanned readmissions within 30 days of the primary procedure. RESULTS A total of 9799 cases met the inclusion criteria, 1098 (11.2%) of which had an unplanned readmission within 30 days. Readmission occurred 14.0 ± 7.7 days postoperatively (mean ± standard deviation). The 4 procedures with the highest unplanned readmission rates were CSF shunt revision (17.3%; CPT codes 62225 and 62230), repair of myelomeningocele > 5 cm in diameter (15.4%), CSF shunt creation (14.1%), and craniectomy for infratentorial tumor excision (13.9%). The lowest unplanned readmission rates were for spine (6.5%), craniotomy for craniosynostosis (2.1%), and skin lesion (1.0%) procedures. On multivariate regression analysis, the odds of readmission were greatest in patients experiencing postoperative surgical site infection (SSI; deep, organ/space, superficial SSI, and wound disruption: OR > 12 and p < 0.001 for each). Postoperative pneumonia (OR 4.294, p < 0.001), urinary tract infection (OR 4.262, p < 0.001), and sepsis (OR 2.616, p = 0.006) also independently increased the readmission risk. Independent patient risk factors for unplanned readmission included Native American race (OR 2.363, p = 0.019), steroid use > 10 days (OR 1.411, p = 0

  20. Evaluation of early conception factor lateral flow test to determine nonpregnancy in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Divakar J; Radke, Brian; Pitney, Phyllis A; Goonewardene, Laksiri A

    2007-08-01

    The early conception factor (ECF) lateral flow test was evaluated for its ability to accurately determine nonpregnant status in dairy cattle. Results of 2 field trials involving 191 cows and 832 tests indicated the probability that a cow can be correctly diagnosed as nonpregnant by using the ECF test is only about 50%. Agreement of test results between milk and serum obtained from the same cow was 57.5%. The ECF test was not consistent in identifying nonpregnancy when the same cows were tested repeatedly over a period of 4 weeks. We conclude that the ECF lateral flow test does not accurately identify nonpregnancy in dairy cattle. PMID:17824326

  1. Development, testing and application of DrainFlow: A fully distributed integrated surface-subsurface flow model for drainage study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri, Ali; Bardsley, William Earl

    2016-06-01

    Hydrological and hydrogeological investigation of drained land is a complex and integrated procedure. The scale of drainage studies may vary from a high-resolution small scale project through to comprehensive catchment or regional scale investigations. This wide range of scales and integrated system behaviour poses a significant challenge for the development of suitable drainage models. Toward meeting these requirements, a fully distributed coupled surface-subsurface flow model titled DrainFlow has been developed and is described. DrainFlow includes both the diffusive wave equation for surface flow components (overland flow, open drain, tile drain) and Richard's equation for saturated/unsaturated zones. To overcome the non-linearity problem created from switching between wet and dry boundaries, a smooth transitioning technique is introduced to buffer the model at tile drains and at interfaces between surface and subsurface flow boundaries. This gives a continuous transition between Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. DrainFlow is tested against five well-known integrated surface-subsurface flow benchmarks. DrainFlow as applied to some synthetic drainage study examples is quite flexible for changing all or part of the model dimensions as required by problem complexity, problem scale, and data availability. This flexibility enables DrainFlow to be modified to allow for changes in both scale and boundary conditions, as often encountered in real-world drainage studies. Compared to existing drainage models, DrainFlow has the advantage of estimating actual infiltration directly from the partial differential form of Richard's equation rather than through analytical or empirical infiltration approaches like the Green and Ampt equation.

  2. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelmsen, T. N.; Christensen, S.

    2009-12-01

    In this study the Local Grid Refinement (LGR) method developed for MODFLOW-2005 (Mehl and Hill, 2005) is utilized to describe groundwater flow in areas containing buried Quaternary valley structures. The tests are conducted as comparative analysis between simulations run with a globally refined model, a locally refined model, and a globally coarse model, respectively. The models vary from simple one layer models to more complex ones with up to 25 model layers. The comparisons of accuracy are conducted within the locally refined area and focus on water budgets, simulated heads, and simulated particle traces. Simulations made with the globally refined model are used as reference (regarded as “true” values). As expected, for all test cases the application of local grid refinement resulted in more accurate results than when using the globally coarse model. A significant advantage of utilizing MODFLOW-LGR was that it allows increased numbers of model layers to better resolve complex geology within local areas. This resulted in more accurate simulations than when using either a globally coarse model grid or a locally refined model with lower geological resolution. Improved accuracy in the latter case could not be expected beforehand because difference in geological resolution between the coarse parent model and the refined child model contradicts the assumptions of the Darcy weighted interpolation used in MODFLOW-LGR. With respect to model runtimes, it was sometimes found that the runtime for the locally refined model is much longer than for the globally refined model. This was the case even when the closure criteria were relaxed compared to the globally refined model. These results are contradictory to those presented by Mehl and Hill (2005). Furthermore, in the complex cases it took some testing (model runs) to identify the closure criteria and the damping factor that secured convergence, accurate solutions, and reasonable runtimes. For our cases this is judged to

  3. [Desmin content and transversal stiffness of the left ventricle mouse cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibers after a 30-day space flight on board "BION-M1" biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Ogneva, I V; Maximova, M V; Larina, I M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transversal stiffness of the cortical cytoskeleton and the cytoskeletal protein desmin content in the left ventricle cardiomyocytes, fibers of the mouse soleus and tibialis anterior muscle after a 30-day space flight on board the "BION-M1" biosatellite (Russia, 2013). The dissection was made after 13-16.5 h after landing. The transversal stiffness was measured in relaxed and calcium activated state by, atomic force microscopy. The desmin content was estimated by western blotting, and the expression level of desmin-coding gene was detected using real-time PCR. The results indicate that, the transversal stiffness of the left ventricle cardiomyocytes and fibers of the soleus muscle in relaxed and activated states did not differ from the control. The transversal stiffness of the tibialis muscle fibers in relaxed and activated state was increased in the mice group after space flight. At the same time, in all types of studied tissues the desmin content and the expression level of desmin-coding gene did not differ from the control level. PMID:25730983

  4. Isoform composition and gene expression of thick and thin filament proteins in striated muscles of mice after 30-day space flight.

    PubMed

    Ulanova, Anna; Gritsyna, Yulia; Vikhlyantsev, Ivan; Salmov, Nikolay; Bobylev, Alexander; Abdusalamova, Zarema; Rogachevsky, Vadim; Shenkman, Boris; Podlubnaya, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    Changes in isoform composition, gene expression of titin and nebulin, and isoform composition of myosin heavy chains as well as changes in titin phosphorylation level in skeletal (m. gastrocnemius, m. tibialis anterior, and m. psoas) and cardiac muscles of mice were studied after a 30-day-long space flight onboard the Russian spacecraft "BION-M" number 1. A muscle fibre-type shift from slow-to-fast and a decrease in the content of titin and nebulin in the skeletal muscles of animals from "Flight" group was found. Using Pro-Q Diamond staining, an ~3-fold increase in the phosphorylation level of titin in m. gastrocnemius of mice from the "Flight" group was detected. The content of titin and its phosphorylation level in the cardiac muscle of mice from "Flight" and "Control" groups did not differ; nevertheless an increase (2.2 times) in titin gene expression in the myocardium of flight animals was found. The observed changes are discussed in the context of their role in the contractile activity of striated muscles of mice under conditions of weightlessness. PMID:25664316

  5. Improving temperature monitoring in the vaccine cold chain at the periphery: an intervention study using a 30-day electronic refrigerator temperature logger (Fridge-tag).

    PubMed

    Kartoğlu, Umit; Nelaj, Erida; Maire, Denis

    2010-05-28

    This intervention study was conducted in Albania to establish the superiority of the Fridge-tag (30-day electronic refrigerator temperature logger) against thermometers. Intervention sites used Fridge-tag and a modified temperature control record sheet, while control sites continued with their routine operation with thermometers. All refrigerators in both groups were equipped with downloadable electronic data loggers to record temperatures for reference. Focus group sessions were conducted with involved staff to discuss temperature monitoring, Fridge-tag use and its user-friendliness. Significant discrepancies were observed between thermometer readings and the electronic data loggers in control sites, while all alarms from Fridge-tag were confirmed in the intervention group. Thermometers are not sufficient to monitor temperatures in refrigerators since they miss the great majority of low and high alarms. Fridge-tag has proven to be an effective tool in providing health workers with the information they need to take the necessary actions when there are refrigerator temperature variations. PMID:20398615

  6. Isoform Composition and Gene Expression of Thick and Thin Filament Proteins in Striated Muscles of Mice after 30-Day Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Ulanova, Anna; Gritsyna, Yulia; Vikhlyantsev, Ivan; Salmov, Nikolay; Bobylev, Alexander; Abdusalamova, Zarema; Rogachevsky, Vadim; Shenkman, Boris; Podlubnaya, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    Changes in isoform composition, gene expression of titin and nebulin, and isoform composition of myosin heavy chains as well as changes in titin phosphorylation level in skeletal (m. gastrocnemius, m. tibialis anterior, and m. psoas) and cardiac muscles of mice were studied after a 30-day-long space flight onboard the Russian spacecraft “BION-M” number 1. A muscle fibre-type shift from slow-to-fast and a decrease in the content of titin and nebulin in the skeletal muscles of animals from “Flight” group was found. Using Pro-Q Diamond staining, an ~3-fold increase in the phosphorylation level of titin in m. gastrocnemius of mice from the “Flight” group was detected. The content of titin and its phosphorylation level in the cardiac muscle of mice from “Flight” and “Control” groups did not differ; nevertheless an increase (2.2 times) in titin gene expression in the myocardium of flight animals was found. The observed changes are discussed in the context of their role in the contractile activity of striated muscles of mice under conditions of weightlessness. PMID:25664316

  7. Seismic monitoring of a flow test in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Johnston, C.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this seismic monitoring project was to characterize in detail the micro-seismic activity related to the flow-injection test in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Our goal was to determine if any sources of seismic energy related to the test were observable at the surface, using both conventional seismic network techniques and relatively newer array techniques. These methods allowed us to detect and locate both impulsive microearthquakes and continuous sources of seismic energy. Our network, which was sensitive enough to be triggered by magnitude 0.0 or larger events, found no impulsive microearthquakes in the vicinity of the flow test in the 8 month period before the test and only one event during the flow test. We have observed some continuous seismic noise sources that may be attributed to the flow test. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Pre-test CFD Calculations for a Bypass Flow Standard Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Johnson

    2011-11-01

    The bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is the flow that occurs between adjacent graphite blocks. Gaps exist between blocks due to variances in their manufacture and installation and because of the expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. Although the temperature of fuel compacts and graphite is sensitive to the presence of bypass flow, there is great uncertainty in the level and effects of the bypass flow. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) program at the Idaho National Laboratory has undertaken to produce experimental data of isothermal bypass flow between three adjacent graphite blocks. These data are intended to provide validation for computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses of the bypass flow. Such validation data sets are called Standard Problems in the nuclear safety analysis field. Details of the experimental apparatus as well as several pre-test calculations of the bypass flow are provided. Pre-test calculations are useful in examining the nature of the flow and to see if there are any problems associated with the flow and its measurement. The apparatus is designed to be able to provide three different gap widths in the vertical direction (the direction of the normal coolant flow) and two gap widths in the horizontal direction. It is expected that the vertical bypass flow will range from laminar to transitional to turbulent flow for the different gap widths that will be available.

  9. Field test of a biological assumption of instream flow models

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, G.F.; Sale, M.J.; Cushman, R.M.; Loar, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Hydraulic-rating methods are an attractive means of deriving instream flow recommendations at many small hydropower sites because they represent a compromise between relatively inexpensive, low-resolution, discharge methods and the costly, complex, habitat evaluation models. Like the other methods, however, they rely on certain biological assumptions about the relationship between aquatic biota and streamflow characteristics. One such assumption is that benthic production available as food for fishes is proportional to stream bottom area. Wetted perimeter is an easily measured physical parameter which represents bottom area and that is a function of discharge. Therefore, wetted perimeter should reflect the benthic food resource available to support stream fishes under varying flows. As part of a larger effort to compare a number of existing instream flow assessment methods in southern Appalachian trout streams, we examined the validity of the benthos/wetted perimeter relationship at four field sites. Benthos samples were taken at permanent riffle transects over a variety of discharges and were used to relate observed benthos densities to the fluctuations in wetted perimeter and streamflow in these systems. For most of the sites and taxa examined, benthic densities did not show a consistent relationship with discharge/wetted perimeter dynamics. Our analysis indicates that simple physical habitat descriptors obtained from hydraulic-rating models do not provide sufficient information on the response of benthic organisms to decreased discharges. Consequently, these methods may not be sufficient to protect aquatic resources in water-use conflicts.

  10. Numerical Calibration of Mass Flow Plug for Inlet Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasson, Jonathan; Barnhart, Paul; Davis, David O.

    2015-01-01

    A simple control volume model has been developed to calculate the discharge coefficient through a mass flow plug (MFP) and validated with a calibration experiment. The maximum error of the model within the operating region of the MFP is 0.54%. The control volume analysis developed work is comprised of a sequence of flow calculations through the MFP. The model uses the MFP geometry and operating pressure and temperature to couple continuity, momentum, energy, an equation of state, and wall shear. The discharge coefficient calculation also includes the effects of boundary layer growth, including the reduction in cross-sectional flow area as characterized by the boundary layer displacement thickness. The last calculation in the sequence uses an integral method to calculate the growth of the boundary layer, from which the displacement thickness is then determined. The result of these successive calculations is an accurate one-dimension model of the velocity, pressure, and temperature through the MFP. For comparison, a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calibration is shown, which when compared to the presented numerical model, had a lower accuracy with a maximum error of 1.35% in addition to being slower by a factor of 100."

  11. Rayleigh Scattering for Measuring Flow in a Nozzle Testing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Carlos R.; Panda, Jayanta

    2006-01-01

    A molecular Rayleigh-scattering-based air-density measurement system was built in a large nozzle-and-engine-component test facility for surveying supersonic plumes from jet-engine exhaust. A molecular Rayleigh-scattering-based air-density measurement system was built in a large nozzle-and-enginecomponent test facility for surveying supersonic plumes from jet-engine exhaust

  12. Validation of non-Darcian flow effects in slug tests conducted in fractured rock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Patryk M.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryA series of rising and falling head slug tests with different initial applied head differentials (ΔHo) were conducted in open fractured dolostone and sandstone boreholes using straddle packers isolating specific depth intervals (1.5 m length) to examine the influence of non-Darcian flow. The open holes were developed and inspected using video and acoustic televiewing (ATV) to ensure that evidence of skin effects due to drilling were absent. The transmissivity (T) values obtained from both the rising and falling head slug tests were very similar at low initial applied head; however, the T values were progressively smaller at larger ΔHo, suggesting error due to non-Darcian flow. Non-Darcian flow behavior was confirmed by constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals where the injection rate (Q) vs. applied head (dH) relationship became non-linear at relatively low injection rates, and the non-Darcian data also resulted in lower T values. For a series of slug tests conducted at different ΔHo, non-Darcian flow effects gradually increased as ΔHo increased, consistent with the trends for constant head step tests conducted in the same test intervals. To maintain Darcian flow conditions in the fractured dolostone and sandstone tested in this study, ΔHo must be kept small, generally less than 0.2 m. This study demonstrates that by conducting both "stepped" slug tests and constant head step tests, the Darcian flow assumption for both types of tests can be rigorously validated. However, when only slug tests are conducted, it is necessary to conduct a series of "stepped" slug tests, including tests with small applied head differentials, to avoid errors due to non-Darcian flow.

  13. [Flow field test on the tangential section of polypropylene tubular membrane module annular gap in rotating linear tangential flow].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengduan; Chen, Wenmei; Li, Jianming; Jiang, Guangming

    2002-07-01

    A new type of polypropylene tubular membrane apparatus of rotating cross flow was designed to study experimentally the flow field characteristics of the tangential section of the membrane annular gap. The authors designed rotary linear tangential flow tubular membrane separator and its test system for the first time. Through the system, the flow field of rotary linear tangential flow with the advanced Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was tested for the first time. A lot of streamlines and vorticity maps of the tangential section of separator in different operation conditions were obtained. The velocity distribution characteristics were analyzed quantitatively: 1. At non-vortex area, no matter how the operation parameters change, the velocity near to rotary tangential flow entrance was higher than the velocity far from entrance at the same radial coordinates. At vortex area, generally the flow velocity of inner vortex was lower than the outer vortex. At the vortex center, the velocity was lowest, the tangential velocity were equal to zero generally. At the vortex center zone, the tangential velocity was less than the axial velocity. 2. Under test operations, the tangential velocity and axial velocity of vortices borders are 1-2 times of average axial velocity of membrane module annular gap. The maximum tangential velocity and axial velocity of ellipse vortices were 2-6 times of average axial velocity of membrane module annular gap. 3. The vortices that are formed on the tangential section, there existed mass transfer between inner and outer parts of fluid. Much fluid of outer vortices got into the inner ones, which was able to prevent membrane tube from particles blocking up very soon. PMID:12371104

  14. Design of Material Strength Test in Lead-Bismuth Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Masatoshi Kondo; Minoru Takahashi; Koji Hata

    2002-07-01

    Liquid lead and lead-bismuth have drawn the attention as one of the candidate coolants of the fast breeder reactors (FBRs), and the accelerator driven transmutation systems (ADSs). In order to use the coolant to the systems, the physical and chemical characteristics of the heavy metals are necessary. This plan has been proposed for the strength test of materials in the liquid metal surroundings. The lead-bismuth circulation loop with the strength test has been designed, and the strength test of candidate materials has been planned. (authors)

  15. Development of Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment on the International Space Station- Normal and Low Gravity Flow Boiling Experiment Development and Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Hall, Nancy R.; Hasan, Mohammad M.; Wagner, James D.; May, Rochelle L.; Mackey, Jeffrey R.; Kolacz, John S.; Butcher, Robert L.; Frankenfield, Bruce J.; Mudawar, Issam; Konichi, Chris; Hyounsoon, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Flow boiling and condensation have been identified as two key mechanisms for heat transport that are vital for achieving weight and volume reduction as well as performance enhancement in future space systems. Since inertia driven flows are demanding on power usage, lower flows are desirable. However, in microgravity, lower flows are dominated by forces other than inertia (like the capillary force). It is of paramount interest to investigate limits of low flows beyond which the flow is inertial enough to be gravity independent. One of the objectives of the Flow Boiling and Condensation Flight Experiment sets to investigate these limits for flow boiling and condensation. A two-phase flow loop consisting of a Flow Boiling Module and two Condensation Modules has been developed to experimentally study flow boiling condensation heat transfer in the reduced gravity environment provided by the reduced gravity platform. This effort supports the development of a flow boiling and condensation facility for the International Space Station (ISS). The closed loop test facility is designed to deliver the test fluid, FC-72 to the inlet of any one of the test modules at specified thermodynamic and flow conditions. The zero-g-aircraft tests will provide subcooled and saturated flow boiling critical heat flux and flow condensation heat transfer data over wide range of flow velocities. Additionally, these tests will verify the performance of all gravity sensitive components, such as evaporator, condenser and accumulator associated with the two-phase flow loop. We will present in this paper the breadboard development and testing results which consist of detailed performance evaluation of the heater and condenser combination in reduced and normal gravity. We will also present the design of the reduced gravity aircraft rack and the results of the ground flow boiling heat transfer testing performed with the Flow Boiling Module that is designed to investigate flow boiling heat transfer and

  16. An evaluation of pressure and flow measurement in the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system.

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.; Briggs, Ronald J.

    2013-07-01

    The National Solar Thermal Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories has a unique test capability called the Molten Salt Test Loop (MSTL) system. MSTL allows customers and researchers to test components in flowing, molten nitrate salt at plant-like conditions for pressure, flow, and temperature. An important need in thermal storage systems that utilize molten salts is for accurate flow and pressure measurement at temperatures above 535%C2%B0C. Currently available flow and pressure instrumentation for molten salt is limited to 535%C2%B0C and even at this temperature the pressure measurement appears to have significant variability. It is the design practice in current Concentrating Solar Power plants to measure flow and pressure on the cold side of the process or in dead-legs where the salt can cool, but this practice won't be possible for high temperature salt systems. For this effort, a set of tests was conducted to evaluate the use of the pressure sensors for flow measurement across a device of known flow coefficient Cv. To perform this task, the pressure sensors performance was evaluated and was found to be lacking. The pressure indicators are severely affected by ambient conditions and were indicating pressure changes of nearly 200psi when there was no flow or pressure in the system. Several iterations of performance improvement were undertaken and the pressure changes were reduced to less than 15psi. The results of these pressure improvements were then tested for use as flow measurement. It was found that even with improved pressure sensors, this is not a reliable method of flow measurement. The need for improved flow and pressure measurement at high temperatures remains and will need to be solved before it will be possible to move to high temperature thermal storage systems with molten salts.

  17. Early processing variations in selective attention to the color and direction of moving stimuli during 30 days head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; He, Si-Yang; Niu, Dong-Bin; Guo, Jian-Ping; Xu, Yun-Long; Wang, De-Sheng; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Li, Zhi-Li; Tang, Guo-Hua; Li, Yin-Hui; Bai, Yan-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    Dynamic variations in early selective attention to the color and direction of moving stimuli were explored during a 30 days period of head-down bed rest. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded at F5, F6, P5, P6 scalp locations in seven male subjects who attended to pairs of bicolored light emitting diodes that flashed sequentially to produce a perception of movement. Subjects were required to attend selectively to a critical feature of the moving target, e.g., color or direction. The tasks included: a no response task, a color selective response task, a moving direction selective response task, and a combined color-direction selective response task. Subjects were asked to perform these four tasks on: the 3rd day before bed rest; the 3rd, 15th and 30th day during the bed rest; and the 5th day after bed rest. Subjects responded quickly to the color than moving direction and combined color-direction response. And they had a longer reaction time during bed rest on the 15th and 30th day during bed rest after a relatively quicker response on the 3rd day. Using brain event-related potentials technique, we found that in the color selective response task, the mean amplitudes of P1 and N1 for target ERPs decreased in the 3rd day during bed rest and 5th day after bed rest in comparison with pre-bed rest, 15th day and 30th day during bed rest. In the combined color-direction selective response task, the P1 latencies for target ERPs on the 3rd and 30th day during bed rest were longer than on the 15th day during bed rest. As 3rd day during bed rest was in the acute adaptation period and 30th day during bed rest was in the relatively adaptation stage of head-down bed rest, the results help to clarify the effects of bed rest on different task loads and patterns of attention. It was suggested that subjects expended more time to give correct decision in the head-down tilt bed rest state. A difficulty in the recruitment of brain resources was found in feature selection task

  18. Flow Quality Studies of the NASA Glenn Research Center Icing Research Tunnel Circuit (1995 Tests)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, E. Allen; Kee-Bowling, Bonnie A.; Gonsalez, Jose C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of conducting the flow-field surveys described in this report was to more fully document the flow quality in several areas of the tunnel circuit in the NASA Glenn Research Center Icing Research Tunnel. The results from these surveys provide insight into areas of the tunnel that were known to exhibit poor flow quality characteristics and provide data that will be useful to the design of flow quality improvements and a new heat exchanger for the facility. An instrumented traversing mechanism was used to survey the flow field at several large cross sections of the tunnel loop over the entire speed range of the facility. Flow-field data were collected at five stations in the tunnel loop, including downstream of the fan drive motor housing, upstream and downstream of the heat exchanger, and upstream and downstream of the spraybars located in the settling chamber upstream of the test section. The data collected during these surveys greatly expanded the data base describing the flow quality in each of these areas. The new data matched closely the flow quality trends recorded from earlier tests. Data collected downstream of the heat exchanger and in the settling chamber showed how the configuration of the folded heat exchanger affected the pressure, velocity, and flow angle distributions in these areas. Smoke flow visualization was also used to qualitatively study the flow field in an area downstream of the drive fan and in the settling chamber/contraction section.

  19. Fluctuating Pressure Data from 2-D Nozzle Cold Flow Tests (Dual Bell)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.

    2001-01-01

    Rocket engines nozzle performance changes as a vehicle climbs through the atmosphere. An altitude compensating nozzle, ACN, is intended to improve on a fixed geometry bell nozzle that performs at optimum at only one trajectory point. In addition to nozzle performance, nozzle transient loads are an important consideration. Any nozzle experiences large transient toads when shocks pass through the nozzle at start and shutdown. Additional transient toads will occur at transitional flow conditions. The objectives of cold flow nozzle testing at MSFC are CFD benchmark / calibration and Unsteady flow / sideloads. Initial testing performed with 2-D inserts to 14" transonic wind tunnel. Recent review of 2-D data in preparation for nozzle test facility 3-D testing. This presentation shows fluctuating pressure data and some observations from 2-D dual-bell nozzle cold flow tests.

  20. Coat and claws as new matrices for noninvasive long-term cortisol assessment in dogs from birth up to 30 days of age.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, M C; Comin, A; Meloni, T; Faustini, M; Rota, A; Prandi, A

    2015-09-15

    The last stage of fetal development and the neonatal period represent the most critical phases for the mammals' offspring. In the dog, the knowledge about the final intrauterine fetal development and biology, as well as about the neonatal physiology, remains scarce. Hormonal changes occurring in the last intrauterine fetal phase and during the early neonatal age are still not completely clear, probably because of the invasiveness related to the collection of the more common biological matrix, represented by circulating blood. Toward term of pregnancy, during parturition, and after birth, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a key system regulating several physiological processes, and its activity was previously investigated by blood analysis, considered an invasive procedure providing a single-point measurement. In respect to animal welfare, and for a more correct long-term retrospective investigation, noninvasive hormonal studies were performed firstly on the hair of humans and coat of animals and, more recently, in the nails of human beings. This study was aimed to assess cortisol (COR) in coat and claws of newborn puppies and to evaluate the possible influence of the newborn gender, breed body size, and age on coat and claws COR concentrations. The results obtained from 165 newborn puppies evidenced that coat and claws COR levels were highly correlated each other (P < 0.0001), although the COR accumulation in the two matrices was different in relation to the class of age. Moreover, the puppies age influenced both coat and claws COR concentrations (P < 0.05), with premature puppies showing higher values when compared to term born-dead puppies or puppies dead between 1 and 30 days of age. The present study reported that COR is quantifiable in coat and claws of newborn dogs. Moreover, both matrices appear as useful tools for new, noninvasive, long-term perinatal and neonatal researches also in canine species. PMID:26081135

  1. Field testing the hypothesis of Darcian flow through a carbonate aquifer.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The acceptability of the hypothesis of Darcian flow through a semiconfined carbonate aquifer was tested prior to running a multiple-day aquifer test in Pinellas County, Florida. The approach used to test the hypothesis was to run a number of hour-long aquifer tests at different discharges with drawdown measured at the same time during each test in two observation wells, one at 35 feet and the other at 733 feet from the pumped well. The hypothesis of Darcian flow through the semiconfined carbonate aquifer was deemed acceptable.-from Author

  2. Design and Implementation of a Characterization Test Rig for Evaluating High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Flow Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; DeLaat, John C.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2010-01-01

    A test rig was designed and developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for the purpose of characterizing high bandwidth liquid fuel flow modulator candidates to determine their suitability for combustion instability control research. The test rig is capable of testing flow modulators at up to 600 psia supply pressure and flows of up to 2 gpm. The rig is designed to provide a quiescent flow into the test section in order to isolate the dynamic flow modulations produced by the test article. Both the fuel injector orifice downstream of the test article and the combustor are emulated. The effect of fuel delivery line lengths on modulator dynamic performance can be observed and modified to replicate actual fuel delivery systems. For simplicity, water is currently used as the working fluid, although future plans are to use jet fuel. The rig is instrumented for dynamic pressures and flows and a high-speed data system is used for dynamic data acquisition. Preliminary results have been obtained for one candidate flow modulator.

  3. Phase 2: HGM air flow tests in support of HEX vane investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. B., Jr.; Steele, L. L.; Eisenhart, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    Following the start of SSME certification testing for the Pratt and Whitney Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP), cracking of the leading edge of the inner HEX vane was experienced. The HEX vane, at the inlet of the oxidizer bowl in the Hot Gas Manifold (HGM), accepts the HPOTP turbine discharge flow and turns it toward the Gaseous Oxidizer Heat Exchanger (GOX HEX) coil. The cracking consistently initiated over a specific circumferential region of the hex vane, with other circumferential locations appearing with increased run time. Since cracking had not to date been seen with the baseline HPOTP, a fluid-structural interaction involving the ATD HPOTP turbine exit flowfield and the HEX inner vane was suspected. As part of NASA contract NAS8-36801, Pratt and Whitney conducted air flow tests of the ATD HPOTP turbine turnaround duct flowpath in the MSFC Phase 2 HGM air flow model. These tests included HEX vane strain gages and additional fluctuating pressure gages in the turnaround duct and HEX vane flowpath area. Three-dimensional flow probe measurements at two stations downstream of the turbine simulator exit plane were also made. Modifications to the HPOTP turbine simulator investigated the effects on turbine exit flow profile and velocity components, with the objective of reproducing flow conditions calculated for the actual ATD HPOTP hardware. Testing was done at the MSFC SSME Dynamic Fluid Air Flow (Dual-Leg) Facility, at air supply pressures between 50 and 250 psia. Combinations of turbine exit Mach number and pressure level were run to investigate the effect of flow regime. Information presented includes: (1) Descriptions of turbine simulator modifications to produce the desired flow environment; (2) Types and locations for instrumentation added to the flow model for improved diagnostic capability; (3) Evaluation of the effect of changes to the turbine simulator flowpath on the turbine exit flow environment; and (4

  4. Effects of shaft supporting structure on performance test of axial flow fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, R.; Liu, S. L.; Li, M. X.; Zheng, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    CFD numerical simulation combined with theoretical analysis are used to research and discuss the obstructing effect, caused by the supporting structure of torsion meter and connecting shaft, on the outlet airflow of axial-flow fan in type-C ducted inlet device. The relations between axial flow fan's total pressure efficiency and flow rate are studied when the distance between supporting structure and outlet section is different, which may provide a reference for the proper design of the performance test device.

  5. Phase 2: HGM air flow tests in support of HEX vane investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, G. B., Jr.; Steele, L. L.; Eisenhart, D. W.

    1993-07-01

    Following the start of SSME certification testing for the Pratt and Whitney Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) High Pressure Oxidizer Turbopump (HPOTP), cracking of the leading edge of the inner HEX vane was experienced. The HEX vane, at the inlet of the oxidizer bowl in the Hot Gas Manifold (HGM), accepts the HPOTP turbine discharge flow and turns it toward the Gaseous Oxidizer Heat Exchanger (GOX HEX) coil. The cracking consistently initiated over a specific circumferential region of the hex vane, with other circumferential locations appearing with increased run time. Since cracking had not to date been seen with the baseline HPOTP, a fluid-structural interaction involving the ATD HPOTP turbine exit flowfield and the HEX inner vane was suspected. As part of NASA contract NAS8-36801, Pratt and Whitney conducted air flow tests of the ATD HPOTP turbine turnaround duct flowpath in the MSFC Phase 2 HGM air flow model. These tests included HEX vane strain gages and additional fluctuating pressure gages in the turnaround duct and HEX vane flowpath area. Three-dimensional flow probe measurements at two stations downstream of the turbine simulator exit plane were also made. Modifications to the HPOTP turbine simulator investigated the effects on turbine exit flow profile and velocity components, with the objective of reproducing flow conditions calculated for the actual ATD HPOTP hardware. Testing was done at the MSFC SSME Dynamic Fluid Air Flow (Dual-Leg) Facility, at air supply pressures between 50 and 250 psia. Combinations of turbine exit Mach number and pressure level were run to investigate the effect of flow regime. Information presented includes: (1) Descriptions of turbine simulator modifications to produce the desired flow environment; (2) Types and locations for instrumentation added to the flow model for improved diagnostic capability; (3) Evaluation of the effect of changes to the turbine simulator flowpath on the turbine exit flow environment; and (4

  6. Cerebral blood flow response pattern during balloon test occlusion of the internal carotid artery

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, J.P.; Yonas, H.; Jungreis, C.

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate the risk of temporary or permanent internal carotid artery occlusion. In 156 patients intraarterial balloon test occlusion in combination with a stable xenon-enhanced CT cerebral blood flow study was performed before radiologic or surgical treatment. All 156 patients passed the clinical balloon test occlusion and underwent a xenon study in combination with a second balloon test. Quantitative flow data were analyzed for absolute changes as well as changes in symmetry. Fourteen patients exhibited reduced flow values between 20 and 30 mL/100 g per minute, an absolute decrease in flow, and significant asymmetry in the middle cerebral artery territory during balloon test occlusion. These patients would be considered at high risk for cerebral infarction if internal carotid artery occlusion were to be performed. With one exception they belonged to a group (class I) of 61 patients who showed bilateral or ipsilateral flow decrease and significant asymmetry with lower flow on the side of occlusion. The other 95 patients, who showed a variety of cerebral blood flow response patterns including ipsilateral or bilateral flow increase, were at moderate (class II) or low (class III) stroke risk. In contrast to these findings, exclusively qualitative flow analysis failed to identify the patients at high risk: a threshold with an asymmetry index of 10% revealed only 16% specificity whereas an asymmetry index of 45% showed only 61% sensitivity for detection of low flow areas (<30 mL/100 g per minute). For achieving a minimal hemodynamic related-stroke rate associated with permanent clinical internal carotid artery occlusion we suggest integration of a thorough analysis of quantitative cerebral blood flow data before and during balloon test occlusion. 68 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Development of an example flow test object and comparison of five of these test objects, constructed in various laboratories.

    PubMed

    Teirlinck, C J; Bezemer, R A; Kollmann, C; Lubbers, J; Hoskins, P R; Ramnarine, K V; Fish, P; Fredeldt, K E; Schaarschmidt, U G

    1998-02-01

    Doppler test objects are used to characterise Doppler systems, both stand-alone systems and the Doppler part of so-called duplex scanners. The aim of the project partially presented here is the development and validation of an example of a Doppler test object fulfilling the requirements of the IEC 1685. The project has been carried out by nine partners of five European countries and has been funded by the European Commission. The flow Doppler test object is composed of: tissue mimicking material (TMM), blood mimicking fluid (BMF), tube (embedded in the TMM and carrying the BMF), tank flow system, including a pump and a flow meter. In the normative part of the IEC 1685, requirements are given for the values of acoustical parameters of TMM and BMF such as sound velocity, attenuation and backscattering. For BMF, requirements are given also for values of density and viscosity. In an informative (but not compulsory) annex, a description is given of a flow test object meeting these requirements as an example. 'example test object' developed during the project is composed of TMM based on agar and including SiC- and Al2O3-powders, BMF based on nylon particles suspended in water and glycerine, and a tube of c-flex, a silicon copolymer. Two tube sizes are used: 4.0 mm ID and 8.0 mm ID. During the project, very precise recipes have been developed for the composition and preparation of both TMM and BMF. Based on these recipes and a description of the construction in a design five flow test objects have been constructed in the laboratories of five participants. The test objects have been compared by measurements of the physical parameters and by Doppler measurements of the five test objects with the Doppler system. The measurements have been carried out by five observers. Inter-test object and inter-observer variabilities are determined, yielding information about usefulness of the parameters. PMID:9651595

  8. A Study of a Network-Flow Algorithm and a Noncorrecting Algorithm for Test Assembly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, R. D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    When the network-flow algorithm (NFA) and the average growth approximation algorithm (AGAA) were used for automated test assembly with American College Test and Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery item banks, results indicate that reasonable error in item parameters is not harmful for test assembly using NFA or AGAA. (SLD)

  9. Blood trauma testing of CentriMag and RotaFlow centrifugal flow devices: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sobieski, Michael A; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Ising, Mickey; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    Mechanical circulatory assist devices that provide temporary support in heart failure patients are needed to enable recovery or provide a bridge to decision. Minimizing risk of blood damage (i.e., hemolysis) with these devices is critical, especially if the length of support needs to be extended. Hematologic responses of the RotaFlow (Maquet) and CentriMag (Thoratec) temporary support devices were characterized in an in vitro feasibility study. Paired static mock flow loops primed with fresh bovine blood (700 mL, hematocrit [Hct] = 25 ± 3%, heparin titrated for activated clotting time >300 s) pooled from a single-source donor were used to test hematologic responses to RotaFlow (n = 2) and CentriMag (n = 2) simultaneously. Pump differential pressures, temperature, and flow were maintained at 250 ± 10 mm Hg, 25 ± 2°C, and 4.2 ± 0.25 L/min, respectively. Blood samples (3 mL) were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180, 240, 300, and 360 min after starting pumps in accordance with recommended Food and Drug Administration and American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines. The CentriMag operated at a higher average pump speed (3425 rpm) than the RotaFlow (3000 rpm) while maintaining similar constant flow rates (4.2 L/min). Hematologic indicators of blood trauma (hemoglobin, Hct, platelet count, plasma free hemoglobin, and white blood cell) for all measured time points as well as normalized and modified indices of hemolysis were similar (RotaFlow: normalized index of hemolysis [NIH] =  0.021 ± 0.003 g/100 L, modified index of hemolysis [MIH] = 3.28 ± 0.52 mg/mg compared to CentriMag: NIH =  0.041 ± 0.010 g/100 L, MIH = 6.08 ± 1.45 mg/mg). In this feasibility study, the blood trauma performance of the RotaFlow was similar or better than the CentriMag device under clinically equivalent, worst-case test conditions. The RotaFlow device may be a more cost-effective alternative to

  10. 42 CFR 84.94 - Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas flow test; closed-circuit apparatus. 84.94 Section 84.94 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.94 Gas flow...

  11. Flow for Exercise Adherence: Testing an Intrinsic Model of Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petosa, R. Lingyak; Holtz, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health behavior theory generally does not include intrinsic motivation as a determinate of health practices. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the flow theory of exercise adherence. Flow theory posits that exercise can be intrinsically rewarding if the experiences of self/time transcendence and control/mastery are achieved…

  12. ANGULAR FLOW INSENSITIVE PITOT TUBE SUITABLE FOR USE WITH STANDARD STACK TESTING EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five pitot tube designs were tested under various gas flow conditions for accuracy in measuring static and total pressure. The static- and impact-pressure measuring tubes least affected by angular flow were combined and then evaluated in the presence of standard particulate sampl...

  13. Near-well nonlinear flow identified by various displacement well response testing.

    PubMed

    Zenner, Matthias A

    2009-01-01

    The impact of nonlinear flow phenomena on well response tests is still not completely understood today. With the present paper, a set of 10 well response tests is investigated. The tests were conducted in a fractured Devonian limestone formation close to the western national border of Germany. The test design incorporates a packer as well as different solid cylinders to initiate a series of slug-injection and slug-withdrawal tests by various initial displacements. Nonlinear response characteristics were observed in the course of the tests, which cannot be explained by tubing-controlled flow inside the cased well. The analysis shows that the nonlinear response characteristics are likely to be either formation controlled according to non-Darcian flow developing in a high-conductivity fracture compartment of the tested limestone formation or a consequence of a severe well inefficiency caused by some sort of screen clogging. This inference is obtained from analyzing the data by a nonlinear well response test model, which differentiates between wellbore internal hydraulic head losses and a generalized rate-dependent skin effect accounting for nonlinear flow processes in the vicinity of the well. The potential of identifying near-well nonlinear flow by various displacement well response testing may indicate this methodology to be a valuable complement to modern high-resolution borehole imaging techniques used when characterizing fractured reservoirs and the tightness of fractured reservoir cap rocks. PMID:19245376

  14. Correlation of steel corrosion in pipe flow with jet impingement and rotating cylinder tests

    SciTech Connect

    Efird, K.D.; Wright, E.J.; Boros, J.A.; Hailey, T.G.

    1993-12-01

    The relationship of laboratory fluid flow corrosion test techniques to flow-accelerated corrosion in field applications and the parameters required to apply laboratory data effectively in the field were studied. Single-phase, aqueous, sweet corrosion of steel in turbulent pipe flow was correlated to corrosion in jet impingement and rotating cylinder tests. All tests were conducted simultaneously, using the same test fluid to minimize environmental variables and to allow a direct, realistic comparison of test methods. Rotating cylinder electrode corrosion rates did not correlate with pipe flow based on wall shear stress or mass transfer for flow-accelerated corrosion of carbon (C) steel in the environment studied. Jet impingement corrosion rates for the test ring at r/r{sub 0} = 3 correlated with pipe flow based on wall shear stress. The general equation for flow-accelerated corrosion of C steel under turbulent flow conditions in this environment was expressed as: R = a{tau}{sub w}{sup b} where R was the C steel corrosion rate in mm/y and {tau}{sub w} was the wall shear stress in N/m{sup 2}. Effects of solution chemistry were contained in the equation coefficient and exponent and require further experimental definition. The physical fluid and hydrodynamic parameters were included in {tau}{sub w}. Use of wall shear stress as the correlating factor did not imply a shear mechanism for corrosion acceleration. Wall shear stress was found to be a hydrodynamic factor that can be used effectively to relate fluid flow in different geometries, allowing valid comparison of laboratory tests and field operations.

  15. Experimental onset of flow instability testing by Creare, Inc. Book 1

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.

    1992-11-01

    Flow excursions can occur during subcooled heated flow if the supply system is not adequate to meet the heated channel pressure demand. Available experimental flow instability (FI) data for ribbed annuli such as used in the SRS production reactors is very limited. Creare Inc. completed a series of FI tests which included two annular geometries; one of these included metallic ribs which separated the annulus into four sub-channels. This report summarizes the results of the onset of flow instability (OFI) testing which was completed by Creare in support of the SRS Reactor Restart Program. A copy of the final test report has been attached and the archival locations for the supporting documentation and electronic test data is also included. The purpose of this report is to: Archive the Creare Program data; inspect the data which has been archived; review the results presented by Creare; and evaluate if the Creare Program data may be used in critical applications.

  16. A flight test of laminar flow control leading-edge systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, M. C.; Wright, A. S., Jr.; Wagner, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    NASA's program for development of a laminar flow technology base for application to commercial transports has made significant progress since its inception in 1976. Current efforts are focused on development of practical reliable systems for the leading-edge region where the most difficult problems in applying laminar flow exist. Practical solutions to these problems will remove many concerns about the ultimate practicality of laminar flow. To address these issues, two contractors performed studies, conducted development tests, and designed and fabricated fully functional leading-edge test articles for installation on the NASA JetStar aircraft. Systems evaluation and performance testing will be conducted to thoroughly evaluate all system capabilities and characteristics. A simulated airline service flight test program will be performed to obtain the operational sensitivity, maintenance, and reliability data needed to establish that practical solutions exist for the difficult leading-edge area of a future commercial transport employing laminar flow control.

  17. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing.

    PubMed

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices. PMID:27435456

  18. Computer tomography of flows external to test models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prikryl, I.; Vest, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    Computer tomographic techniques for reconstruction of three-dimensional aerodynamic density fields, from interferograms recorded from several different viewing directions were studied. Emphasis is on the case in which an opaque object such as a test model in a wind tunnel obscures significant regions of the interferograms (projection data). A method called the Iterative Convolution Method (ICM), existing methods in which the field is represented by a series expansions, and analysis of real experimental data in the form of aerodynamic interferograms are discussed.

  19. Experiment 2074: post-drilling reservoir flow testing through EE-3A first revision

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.; Robinson, Bruce A.

    1987-11-20

    As previously outlined in memorandum ESS-4-87-305 (11/12/87), EE-3A will be pressurized with the Kobe pumps for the next week, and then a sequence of reservoir flow tests and logs will be conducted for a one to two week period beginning Tuesday, 12/1/87. The purpose of this memorandum is to better define this flow test and sequence of logs, organized as a "formal" experiment.

  20. Numerical tests of constitutive laws for dense granular flows.

    PubMed

    Lois, Gregg; Lemaître, Anaël; Carlson, Jean M

    2005-11-01

    We numerically and theoretically study the macroscopic properties of dense, sheared granular materials. In this process we first consider an invariance in Newton's equations, explain how it leads to Bagnold's scaling, and discuss how it relates to the dynamics of granular temperature. Next we implement numerical simulations of granular materials in two different geometries--simple shear and flow down an incline--and show that measurements can be extrapolated from one geometry to the other. Then we observe nonaffine rearrangements of clusters of grains in response to shear strain and show that fundamental observations, which served as a basis for the shear transformation zone (STZ) theory of amorphous solids [M. L. Falk and J. S. Langer, Phys. Rev. E. 57, 7192 (1998); M.R.S. Bull 25, 40 (2000)], can be reproduced in granular materials. Finally we present constitutive equations for granular materials as proposed by Lemaître [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 064303 (2002)], based on the dynamics of granular temperature and STZ theory, and show that they match remarkably well with our numerical data from both geometries. PMID:16383599

  1. Models, assumptions, and experimental tests of flows near magnetized boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, M. Umair

    2015-11-01

    We present a history of research on the magnetized plasma boundary and recent first measurements of particle flows in such structures in laboratory plasmas using multi-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Our measurements show that the canonical model for this boundary proposed in 1982 [Chodura, Phys. Fluids (1982)] is inaccurate for systems where the ion-neutral collision length is less than at least 4 times the ion gyro radius. Rather, our measurements validate more sophisticated plasma boundary fluid models that take neutral collisions into account [Riemann, Phys. Plasmas (1994); Ahedo, Phys. Plasmas (1997); Siddiqui et al., Phys. Plasmas (2014)]. In light of these results, we show that both three-dimensional ion and neutral velocity distribution functions are strongly affected near the boundary. We discuss effects of these perturbed distributions on wall loading and erosion in experiments and applications such as divertor tokamak scrape-off layers and Hall thrusters. Finally, we propose modern definitions of the oft-used term, ``magnetic presheath.'' This work is supported by U.S. National Science Foundation grant number PHY-1360278.

  2. Raft River wellfield testing and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, B.F.

    1982-04-01

    The testing procedures and an overview of the expected performance of the Raft River wellfield during plant operation are presented. Four well-testing procedures were used to evaluate the seven geothermal wells: (1) artesian flow and airlift tests during and shortly after drilling; (2) short duration constant rate and variable-head artesian flow tests following drilling; (3) a series of pulse discharge and injection tests of short duration, with constant rate and variable head; and (4) pumping and injection tests of up to 30 days duration using permanently installed pumps. Productivity curves were plotted for each of the exploratory and production wells. It was concluded that the Raft River wellfield has the capability of supplying the necessary flow to operate the 5MW(e) facility. (MJF)

  3. Mechanical properties of non-sarcomeric cytoskeleton of mice cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibers after 30-day spaceflight biosatellite BION-M1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogneva, Irina; Maximova, Maria; Larina, Irina

    The aim of this study was to determine transversal stiffness of the cortical cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal protein desmin content of the left ventricle cardiomyocytes, soleus and tibialis anterior muscle fibers of the mice after 30-days space flight biosatellite «BION-M1» (Russia, 2013). The dissection was made after 13-16.5 hours after landing. Transversal stiffness was measured in relaxed and calcium activated state by atomic force microscope. Desmin content was estimated by using western-blot, expression level of the gene, coding desmin, - by real time PCR. The transversal stiffness of the cortical cytoskeleton of the cardiomyocytes and fibers of the skeletal muscles (as measured using the atomic force microscopy) did not differ significantly within the study groups in comparison to the vivarium control group, except for its slight increase in tibialis anterior fibers muscle in the post-flight group of animals. The content of beta- and gamma-actin in the membranous fraction of proteins in the left ventricular cardiomyocytes (as detected using the western blot technique) did not differ significantly within all study groups and correlated with the transversal stiffness. Similar situation was revealed in fibers of the soleus muscle and tibialis anterior muscle, as well as correlation with the transversal stiffness of their cortical cytoskeleton was noted. At the same time, the content of beta-actin in the cytoplasmic fraction of proteins was found to be decreased in all types of studied tissues in comparison to the control levels in the post-flight group, as well as lowered beta-actin gene expression rates in the post-flight group of animals (as detected using the RT-PCR technique). After completion of the space flight, content of alpha-actinin-4 was found to be reduced in the membranous fraction of proteins of mouse cardiomyocytes, while its content in the cytoplasmic fraction of proteins did not change significantly. Furthermore, gene expression rates of this

  4. Characteristics and Preliminary Observations of the Influence of Electromyostimulation on the Size and Function of Human Skeletal Muscle During 30 Days of Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvoisin, Marc R.; Convertino, Victor A; Buchanan, Paul; Gollinick, Philip D.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1989-01-01

    During 30 days (d) of bedrest, the practicality of using Elec- troMyoStimulation (EMS) as a deterrent to atrophy and strength loss of lower limb musculature was examined. An EMS system was developed that provided variable but quantifiable levels of EMS, and measured torque. The dominant log of three male subjects was stimulated twice daily in a 3-d on/1-d off cycle during bedrest. The non-dominant leg of each subject acted as a control. A stimulator, using a 0.3 ms monophasic 60 Hz pulse waveform, activated muscle tissue for 4 s. The output waveform from the stimulator was sequenced to the Knee Extensors (KE), Knee Flex- ors (KF), Ankle Extensors (AE), and Ankle Flexors (AF), and caused three isometric contractions of each muscle group per minute. Subject tolerance determined EMS Intensity. Each muscle group received four 5-min bouts of EMS each session with a 10 -min rest between bouts. EMS and torque levels for each muscle action were recorded directly an a computer. Overall average EMS Intensity was 197, 197, 195, and 188 mA for the KE, KF, AF, and AE, respectively. Overall average torque development for these muscle groups was 70, 16, 12, and 27 Nm, respectively. EMS intensity doubled during the study, and average torque increased 2.5 times. Average maximum torque throughout a session reached 54% of maximal voluntary for the KE and 29% for the KF. Reductions in leg volume, muscle compartment size, cross-sectional area of slow and fast-twitch fibers, strength, and aerobic enzyme activities, and increased log compliance were attenuated in the legs which received EMS during bedrest. These results indicate that similar EMS levels induce different torques among different muscle groups and that repeated exposure to EMS increases tolerance and torque development. Longer orien- tation periods, therefore, may enhance its effectiveness. Our preliminary data suggest that the efficacy of EMS as an effective countermeasure for muscle atrophy and strength loss during long

  5. Water Flow Simulation Test on Flow-Induced Oscillation of Thermowell in Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor “MONJU”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Masaya; Anoda, Yoshinari

    Water flow simulation tests were performed on the flow-induced oscillations of the thermowell in the prototype fast breeder reactor (FBR), MONJU. The displacements of the target cylinder were measured, and the oscillation amplitudes, the frequency characteristics, and the phase relationships were estimated. The estimations showed that the oscillations of the target cylinder had a one-dimensional oscillation region in the in-line direction with symmetric vortices shedding and a two-dimensional oscillation region induced by alternative vortices. The phase estimation, carried out by a methodology using wavelet analysis and statistical analysis, indicated that the effect of the alternative vortices on the in-line oscillation was changed with the flow velocity.

  6. Acoustic tests of a 15.2 centimeter-diameter potential flow convergent nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karchmer, A. M.; Dorsch, R. G.; Friedman, R.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the jet noise radiated to the far field from a 15.2-cm-diam potential flow convergent nozzle has been conducted. Tests were made with unheated airflow over a range of subsonic nozzle exhaust velocities from 62 to 310m/sec. Mean and turbulent velocity measurements in the flow field of the nozzle exhaust indicated no apparent flow anomalies. Acoustic measurements yielded data uncontaminated by internal and/or background noise to velocities as low as 152m/sec. Finally, no significantly different acoustic characteristics between the potential flow nozzle and simple convergent nozzles were found.

  7. A mercury flow meter for ion thruster testing. [response time, thermal sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The theory of operation of the thermal flow meter is presented, and a theoretical model is used to determine design parameters for a device capable of measuring mercury flows in the range of 0 to 5 gm/hr. Flow meter construction is described. Tests performed using a positive displacement mercury pump as well as those performed with the device in the feed line of an operating thruster are discussed. A flow meter response time of about a minute and a sensitivity of about 10 mv/gm/hr are demonstrated. Additional work to relieve a sensitivity of the device to variations in ambient temperature is indicated to improve its quantitative performance.

  8. Hot-Film and Hot-Wire Anemometry for a Boundary Layer Active Flow Control Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenahan, Keven C.; Schatzman, David M.; Wilson, Jacob Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Unsteady active flow control (AFC) has been used experimentally for many years to minimize bluff-body drag. This technology could significantly improve performance of rotorcraft by cleaning up flow separation. It is important, then, that new actuator technologies be studied for application to future vehicles. A boundary layer wind tunnel was constructed with a 1ft-x-3ft test section and unsteady measurement instrumentation to study how AFC manipulates the boundary layer to overcome adverse pressure gradients and flow separation. This unsteady flow control research requires unsteady measurement methods. In order to measure the boundary layer characteristics, both hot-wire and hot-film Constant Temperature Anemometry is used. A hot-wire probe is mounted in the flow to measure velocity while a hot-film array lays on the test surface to measure skin friction. Hot-film sensors are connected to an anemometer, a Wheatstone bridge circuit with an output that corresponds to the dynamic flow response. From this output, the time varying flow field, turbulence, and flow reversal can be characterized. Tuning the anemometers requires a fan test on the hot-film sensors to adjust each output. This is a delicate process as several variables drastically affect the data, including control resistance, signal input, trim, and gain settings.

  9. Testing of SLA-561V in NASA-Ames' Turbulent Flow Duct with Augmented Radiative Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Kornienko, Robert S.; Radbourne, Chris A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of Mars Science Laboratory s (MSL) heatshield development program, SLA-561 was tested in NASA Ames Turbulent Flow Duct (TFD) Facility. For these tests, the TFD facility was modified to include a ceramic plate located in the wall opposite to the test model. Normally the TFD wall opposite to the test model is water-cooled steel. Installing a noncooled ceramic plate allows the ceramic to absorb convective heating and radiate the energy back to the test model as the plate heats up. This work was an effort to increase the severity of TFD test conditions. Presented here are the results from these tests.

  10. Rolling flow wind tunnel tests of F-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutze, F. H.

    1980-01-01

    The lateral directional characteristics of an F-18 aircraft was investigated. Aerodynamic derivatives associated with pure roll rate, or the 'p' derivatives were obtained. The model is described and the procedures used to obtain and correct the data, and a graphical presentation of the results are presented. These results include graphs of the lateral directional static stability derivatives versus angle of attack, and the lateral directional force and moment coefficients versus nondimensional roll rate. Results are presented for several configurations including complete, complete without vertical tails, complete without horizontal tails, fuselage wing and fuselage alone. Each of these configuations was tested with and without wing leading edge extensions. The basic control surfaces were deflected and the results were investigated.

  11. Field testing the role of heterogeneity at the inter-well scale during two phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovorka, S. D.; Gulf Coast Carbon Center; Geoseq

    2011-12-01

    Connectivity of rocks with different fluid flow properties (reservoir architecture) is a major source of uncertainty in predicting multi-phase fluid flow. Multi-institution research teams have completed three major DOE-funded test programs in which movement of supercritical CO2 through brine-saturated fluvial sandstones was observed with multiple tools. In each test, closely spaced wells (30 to 100 m) were drilled to reservoir depth so that the amount of reservoir complexity sampled between the wells would be reduced and higher resolution measurements of change could be obtained during time-lapse monitoring. During one test (Frio 1), an exceptionally homogeneous injection zone produced by marine reworking of a fine-grained fluvial sandstone of the Upper Frio Formation produced a classic-wedge-shaped CO2 plume. The maximum area occupied by CO2 was the result of radial expansion of the plume near the injection well; this produced plume down-building. Away from the injection well , the importance of gravity-override increased. A second test at the same well array in a deeper sandstone (Frio 2) was sited in heterogeneous (gravel to muddy sandstone) high permeability (>3 Darcy), weakly cemented fluvial sandstone. A slow injection rate over a small interval at the flow unit base was used to accentuate buoyancy effects. Measurements of plume migration through time using tracers and cross-well seismic documented interaction between near-well radial flow and vertical rise. However, because of discontinuous fast paths in gravel zones and CO2 ponding against muddy sandstone baffles, reservoir heterogeneity was a dominant influence in short-term plume evolution. The third test interval in the SECARB "Early" test documented response of amalgamated gravel and sandstone point bars in which heterogeneity was reduced by cementation. CO2 injection rate was increased incrementally and flow-rate dependent reservoir responses observed. These suggest that capillary-entry pressure and

  12. Water Flow Testing and Unsteady Pressure Analysis of a Two-Bladed Liquid Oxidizer Pump Inducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Jordan B.; Mulder, Andrew; Zoladz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The unsteady fluid dynamic performance of a cavitating two-bladed oxidizer turbopump inducer was characterized through sub-scale water flow testing. While testing a novel inlet duct design that included a cavitation suppression groove, unusual high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed. With potential implications for inducer blade loads, these high-frequency components were analyzed extensively in order to understand their origins and impacts to blade loading. Water flow testing provides a technique to determine pump performance without the costs and hazards associated with handling cryogenic propellants. Water has a similar density and Reynolds number to liquid oxygen. In a 70%-scale water flow test, the inducer-only pump performance was evaluated. Over a range of flow rates, the pump inlet pressure was gradually reduced, causing the flow to cavitate near the pump inducer. A nominal, smooth inducer inlet was tested, followed by an inlet duct with a circumferential groove designed to suppress cavitation. A subsequent 52%-scale water flow test in another facility evaluated the combined inducer-impeller pump performance. With the nominal inlet design, the inducer showed traditional cavitation and surge characteristics. Significant bearing loads were created by large side loads on the inducer during synchronous cavitation. The grooved inlet successfully mitigated these loads by greatly reducing synchronous cavitation, however high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed over a range of frequencies. Analytical signal processing techniques showed these oscillations to be created by a rotating, multi-celled train of pressure pulses, and subsequent CFD analysis suggested that such pulses could be created by the interaction of rotating inducer blades with fluid trapped in a cavitation suppression groove. Despite their relatively low amplitude, these high-frequency pressure oscillations posed a design concern due to their sensitivity to flow conditions and

  13. Promoted Ignition and Burning Tests of Stainless Steel in Flowing and Nonflowing Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsyth, Elliot T.; Maes, Miguel; Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Bachelier, Frederic

    2003-01-01

    The Industry-Sponsored Metals Combustion Test Program 96-1 was coordinated through Wendell Hull & Associates, Inc. on behalf of several contributing companies, and all design and testing was performed at the NASA White Sands Test Facility. Phase I of this test program studied the threshold pressure for self-sustained burning of various types and sizes of stain less steel rods in nonflowing oxygen, as observed in Standard Test Method for Determining the Combustion Behavior of Metallic Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres (ASTM G 124-95). Phase II studied the ignition and propagation of burning of 316L stainless steel rods and pipe in flowing gaseous oxygen. The test sample configurations were chosen to replicate previous promoted ignition and burning tests as well as to represent geometries and cross-sectional thicknesses common in industrial piping applications. The gas pressw'es and velocities for the test matrix were selected to generally compare with CGA G-4.4 guidelines for the use of stain less steel in oxygen service. This paper summarizes the results from the Phase I nonflowing oxygen tests and presents in detail the results of the Phase II flowing oxygen tests. The maximum sample burn-length is shown as a function of test pressure in Phase 1 and also as a function of gas velocity in Phase IT. These results indicate that flowing oxygen, under the given test conditions, significantly affects maximum sample burn length as compared to nonflowing oxygen. Supplementary flowing oxygen test data on stainless steel rods from a follow-up test program are consistent with these results and are presented herein.

  14. A FLOW-THROUGH TESTING PROCEDURE WITH DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR L.)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lemna minor is one of the smallest flowering plants. Because of its floating habit, ease of culture, and small size it is well adapted for laboratory investigations. Procedures for flow-through tests were developed. Testing procedures were developed with this apparatus. By using ...

  15. Investigation of the Flow-Induced Vibration in the E2 Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, Luciano

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of flow induced vibration due to coupling between the fluid flow and the propellants lines (LOX and RP-1) was performed. Various flow rate conditions were studied to check whether flow induced vibration was possible due to vortex shedding in both valves and pipe lines. Resonance test was conducted for all segments of the LOX-feedline for the preburner under test. In addition, critical values of frequency and velocity are calculated using a mass damping model. A simple chart characterizing the relation between frequency and velocity is developed for each component; i.e. propellant lines, valves and flow meters. It was found that flow induced vibration occurs for various segments with flow rates of 113 lb/s, 275 lb/s and 40 lb/s. Even more interesting using critical conditions for buckling, it was found that the valve or pipe may collapse for a flow rate of 275 lb/s and valve height of 10% of pipe diameter. Furthermore, two models for the acoustic pressure acting on the segments particularly for the valve are proposed.

  16. Investigation of the Flow-Induced Vibration in the E2 Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, Luciano

    2001-01-01

    An investigation of flow induced vibration due to coupling between the fluid flow and the propellants lines (LOX and RP-1) was performed. Various flow rate conditions were studied to check whether flow induced vibration was possible due to vortex shedding in both valves and pipe lines. Resonances test was conducted for all segments of the LOX-feedline for the preburner under test. In addition, critical values of frequency and velocity are calculated using a mass damping model. A simple chart characterizing the relation between frequency and velocity is developed for each component; i.e. propellant lines, valves and flow meters. It was found that flow induced vibration occurs for various segments with flow rates of 113 1b/s, 275 lb/s and 40 lb/s. Even more interesting using critical conditions for buckling, it was found that the valve or pipe may collapse for a flow rate of 275 lb/s and valve height of 10% of pipe diameter. Furthermore, two models for the acoustic pressure acting on the segments particularly for the valve are proposed.

  17. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle; Seaford, Mark; Dufrene, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    NASA MSFC and CUBRC designed and developed a 2% scale SLS propulsive wind tunnel test program to investigate base flow effects during flight from lift-off to MECO. This type of test program has not been conducted in 40+ years during the NASA Shuttle Program. Dufrene et al paper described the operation, instrumentation type and layout, facility and propulsion performance, test matrix and conditions and some raw results. This paper will focus on the SLS base flow physics and the generation and results of the design environments being used to design the thermal protection system.

  18. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, John C.; Xenofos, George D.; Farrow, John L.; Tyler, Tom; Williams, Robert; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a full-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrumentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors.

  19. Pre-test estimates of temperature decline for the LANL Fenton Hill Long-Term Flow Test

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, B.A.; Kruger, P.

    1992-06-01

    Pre-test predications for the Long-Term Flow Test (LTFT) of the experimental Hot Dry Rock (HDR) reservoir at Fenton Hill were made using two models. Both models are dependent on estimates of the ``effective`` reservoir volume accessed by the fluid and the mean fracture spacing (MFS) of major joints for fluid flow. The effective reservoir volume was estimated using a variety of techniques, and the range of values for the MFS was set through experience in modeling the thermal cooldown of other experimental HDR reservoirs. The two pre-test predictions for cooldown to 210{degrees}C (a value taken to compare the models) from initial temperature of 240{degrees}C are 6.1 and 10.7 years. Assuming that a minimum of 10{degrees}C is required to provide an unequivocal indication of thermal cooldown, both models predict that the reservoir will not exhibit observable cooldown for at least two years.

  20. Overview on test cases for computation of internal flows in turbomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fottner, Leonhard

    1992-09-01

    Aero engine component design and development makes increasing use of computer codes for flow field calculations, such as two- or three-dimensional flow fields and flow fields with strong viscous effects. The accuracy of these calculation methods depends on the mathematical models and numerical schemes used to describe the physical reality. The proof of validity and the refinement of such methods depend on verification against relevant test cases, primarily experimental test cases. The AGARD Propulsion and Energetics Panel established Working Group 18 to specify relevant reference test cases to serve as validation bases for new methods, but also as check for existing production codes. The present paper gives an overview on the results of the Working Group and briefly describes the different test cases. These test cases refer to analytical and experimental test cases for steady flow in linear compressor and turbine cascades, single blade rows, single and multistage axial compressors and turbines and ducts. In addition, suggestions for future tests designed to reduce the limitations are discussed.

  1. Test Data of Flow Field of Shuttle SRM Nozzle Joint with Bond Defects, Using Unheated Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hair, Leroy M.; McAnally, James V.; Hengel, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The nozzle-to-case joint on the Shuttle SRM (as redesigned after the Challenger accident) features an adhesive sealant filling and bonding the joint, with a wiper O-ring to prevent the adhesive from reaching and disabling the closure O-ring. Flawless implementation of that joint design would ensure that hot, corrosive propellant combustion gases never reach the closure O-ring. However, understanding the flow field related to bonding defects is prudent. A comprehensive test program was conducted to quantify such flow fields and associated heating environments. A two-dimensional, full-scale model represented 65 inches of the nozzle joint, using unheated air as the test medium, in a blowdown mode. Geometry variations modeled RSRM assembly tolerances, and two types of bonding defects: pullaways and blowholes. A range of the magnitude of each type defect was tested. Also a range of operational parameters was tested, representative of the RSRM flow environment, including duplication of RSRM Mach and Reynolds numbers. Extensive instrumentation was provided to quantify pressures, heat rates, and velocities. The resulting data established that larger geometric defects cause larger pressure and larger heating, at the closure O-ring region. Velocity trends were not so straight-forward. Variations in assembly tolerances did not generally affect flow fields or heating. Operational parameters affected flow fields and heating as might be expected, increasing density or velocity increased heating. Complete details of this test effort are presented.

  2. Compact test apparatus for evaluation of flow erosion of marine coatings.

    PubMed

    Dębowski, M A; Quintana, R; Lee, H P

    2015-10-01

    An apparatus designed and manufactured for evaluation of flow erosion of coatings or layers is presented in this paper. The setup was primarily designed for coatings intended to perform in dynamic marine environments but can be also used for evaluation using fresh water. The concept is based on an in-line flow test cell and modular design allowing good flexibility of varying testing parameters. The flow rate that can be achieved depends on the flow cell geometry and can reach 28 km/h (15 kn) with the presented setup. Temperature may be adjusted between 15 and 35 °C. Particle and metal ion filters are parts of this setup. The dimensions of the apparatus including all components do not exceed 2 m × 2 m × 2 m. The use of the apparatus is illustrated with the results of evaluation of self-polishing anti-fouling coatings and model, silicon wafer grafted layers. PMID:26520992

  3. Wind Tunnel Test Results for Gas Flows Inside Axisymmetric Cavities on Cylindric Bodies with Nose Cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shvets, A. L.; Gilinsky, M.; Blankson, I. M.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental test results of air flow inside and at the cylindrical cavity located on axisymmetric body are presented. These tests were conducted in the wind tunnel A-7 of Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University. Pressure distribution along the cavities and optical measurements were obtained. Dependence of these characteristics of length of a cavity in the range: L/D = 0.5 - 14 and free stream Mach in the range: M(sub infinity) = 0.6 - 3.0 was determined. Flow structure inside the cavity, cause of flow regime change, separation zones geometry and others were studied. In particular, the flow modes of with open and closed separation zones are determined.

  4. Estimation of Critical Flow Velocity for Collapse of Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Guillen; Mark J. Russell

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents calculations performed to determine the critical flow velocity for plate collapse due to static instability for the Gas Test Loop booster fuel assembly. Long, slender plates arranged in a parallel configuration can experience static divergence and collapse at sufficiently high coolant flow rates. Such collapse was exhibited by the Oak Ridge High Flux Reactor in the 1940s and the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory in the 1950s. Theoretical formulas outlined by Miller, based upon wide-beam theory and Bernoulli’s equation, were used for the analysis. Calculations based upon Miller’s theory show that the actual coolant flow velocity is only 6% of the predicted critical flow velocity. Since there is a considerable margin between the theoretically predicted plate collapse velocity and the design velocity, the phenomena of plate collapse due to static instability is unlikely.

  5. Compact test apparatus for evaluation of flow erosion of marine coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debowski, M. A.; Quintana, R.; Lee, H. P.

    2015-10-01

    An apparatus designed and manufactured for evaluation of flow erosion of coatings or layers is presented in this paper. The setup was primarily designed for coatings intended to perform in dynamic marine environments but can be also used for evaluation using fresh water. The concept is based on an in-line flow test cell and modular design allowing good flexibility of varying testing parameters. The flow rate that can be achieved depends on the flow cell geometry and can reach 28 km/h (15 kn) with the presented setup. Temperature may be adjusted between 15 and 35 °C. Particle and metal ion filters are parts of this setup. The dimensions of the apparatus including all components do not exceed 2 m × 2 m × 2 m. The use of the apparatus is illustrated with the results of evaluation of self-polishing anti-fouling coatings and model, silicon wafer grafted layers.

  6. SRM Internal Flow Tests and Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis. Volume 4; Cold Flow Analyses and CFD Analysis Capability Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation of the effect of model inlet air temperature drift during a test run was performed to aid in the decision on the need for and/or the schedule for including heaters in the SRMAFTE. The Sverdrup acceptance test data was used to determine the drift in air temperature during runs over the entire range of delivered flow rates and pressures. The effect of this temperature drift on the model Reynolds number was also calculated. It was concluded from this study that a 2% change in absolute temperature during a test run could be adequately accounted for by the data analysis program. A handout package of these results was prepared and presented to ED35 management.

  7. Rapid Flow Cytometry Test for Identification of Different Carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana P; Faria-Ramos, Isabel; Ricardo, Elisabete; Miranda, Isabel M; Espinar, Maria J; Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Cantón, Rafael; Rodrigues, Acácio G; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

    2016-06-01

    A flow cytometry test was developed to identify carbapenemase production by Enterobacteriaceae and to discriminate between the different types of carbapenemases (classes A, B, and D). It is based on the detection of meropenem activity against bacteria, coupled with different carbapenemase inhibitors, which is assessed by flow cytometry. It represents a convenient, fast, and reliable approach (100% sensitivity and 100% specificity) for the detection and characterization of different carbapenemases. PMID:27021318

  8. Analysis of a Transonic Alternating Flow Phenomenon Observed During Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K.; Piatak, David J.; Rausch, Russ D.

    2010-01-01

    A transonic wind tunnel test of the Ares I-X Rigid Buffet Model (RBM) identified a Mach number regime where unusually large buffet loads are present. A subsequent investigation identified the cause of these loads to be an alternating flow phenomenon at the Crew Module-Service Module junction. The conical design of the Ares I-X Crew Module and the cylindrical design of the Service Module exposes the vehicle to unsteady pressure loads due to the sudden transition from separated to attached flow about the cone-cylinder junction with increasing Mach number. For locally transonic conditions at this junction, the flow randomly fluctuates back and forth between a subsonic separated flow and a supersonic attached flow. These fluctuations produce a square-wave like pattern in the pressure time histories which, upon integration result in large amplitude, impulsive buffet loads. Subsequent testing of the Ares I RBM found much lower buffet loads since the evolved Ares I design includes an ogive fairing that covers the Crew Module-Service Module junction, thereby making the vehicle less susceptible to the onset of alternating flow. An analysis of the alternating flow separation and attachment phenomenon indicates that the phenomenon is most severe at low angles of attack and exacerbated by the presence of vehicle protuberances. A launch vehicle may experience either a single or, at most, a few impulsive loads since it is constantly accelerating during ascent rather than dwelling at constant flow conditions in a wind tunnel. A comparison of a wind-tunnel-test-data-derived impulsive load to flight-test-data-derived load indicates a significant over-prediction in the magnitude and duration of the buffet load

  9. Construction and demolition waste: Comparison of standard up-flow column and down-flow lysimeter leaching tests.

    PubMed

    Butera, Stefania; Hyks, Jiri; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-09-01

    Five samples of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) were investigated in order to quantify leaching of inorganic elements under percolation conditions according to two different experimental setups: standardised up-flow saturated columns (<4mm particle size) and unsaturated, intermittent down-flow lysimeters (<40mm particle size). While standardised column tests are meant primarily to provide basic information on characteristic leaching properties and mechanisms and not to reproduce field conditions, the lysimeters were intended to mimic the actual leaching conditions when C&DW is used in unbound geotechnical layers. In practice, results from standardised percolation tests are often interpreted as estimations of actual release from solid materials in percolation scenarios. In general, the two tests yielded fairly similar results in terms of cumulative release at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) 10l·kgTS; however, significant differences were observed for P, Pb, Ba, Mg and Zn. Further differences emerged in terms of concentration in the early eluates (L/S<5l·kg(-1)TS) for Al, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, DOC, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Zn. Observed differences between tests are likely to be due to differences in pH related to crushing and exposure of fresh particle surfaces, as well as in equilibrium conditions. In the case of C&DW, the standardised column tests, which are more practical, are considered to acceptably describe cumulative releases at L/S 10l·kg(-1)TS in percolation scenarios. However, when the focus is on estimation of initial concentrations for (for example) risk assessment, data from standardised column tests may not be fully applicable, and data from lysimeters may be used for validation purposes. Se, Cr and, to a lesser extent, SO4 and Sb were leaching from C&DW in critical amounts compared with existing limit values. PMID:26031330

  10. Flow tests of a single fuel element coolant channel for a compact fast reactor for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springborn, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Water flow tests were conducted on a single-fuel-element cooling channel for a nuclear concept to be used for space power. The tests established a method for measuring coolant flow rate which is applicable to water flow testing of a complete mockup of the reference reactor. The inlet plenum-to-outlet plenum pressure drop, which approximates the overall core pressure drop, was measured and correlated with flow rate. This information can be used for reactor coolant flow and heat transfer calculations. An analytical study of the flow characteristics was also conducted.

  11. Research on optical fiber flow test method with non-intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ying; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Wenan

    2014-06-01

    In the field of oil well logging, real-time monitoring of the fluid flow parameter provides a scientific basis for oil and gas optimization exploration and increase in reservoir recovery, so a non-intrusive flow test method based on turbulent vibration was proposed. The specific length of the sensor fiber wound tightly around the outer wall of the pipe was connected with the optical fiber gratings at both ends, and the sensor fiber and the optical fiber gratings composed the flow sensing unit. The dynamic pressure was generated by the turbulence when fluid flows through the pipe, and the dynamic pressure resulted in the light phase shift of the sensor fiber. The phase information was demodulated by the fiber optic interferometer technology, time division multiplexing technology, and phase generated carrier modulation and demodulation techniques. The quadratic curve relationship between the phase change and flow rate was found by experimental data analysis, and the experiment confirmed the feasibility of the optical fiber flow test method with non-intrusion and achieved the real-time monitoring of the fluid flow.

  12. Research on optical fiber flow test method with non-intrusive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Ying; Liu, Xiao-hui; Wang, Chang; Zhao, Wen-an

    2013-09-01

    In the field of oil well logging, real-time monitoring of fluid flow parameter provides a scientific basis for oil and gas optimization exploration and increase of reservoir recovery, so the non-intrusive flow test method based on turbulent vibration is proposed. The specific length of sensor fiber wound tightly around the outer wall of the pipe is connected with the optical fiber gratings at both ends, the sensor fiber and the optical fiber gratings compose the flow sensing unit. The dynamic pressure is generated by the turbulence when fluid flows through the pipe, and the dynamic pressure results in the light phase shift of the sensor fiber. The phase information is demodulated by fiber optic interferometer technology, time division multiplexing technology and Phase Generated Carrier modulation and demodulation techniques. The quadratic curve relationship between phase change and flow rate is found by experimental data analysis, and the experiment confirms the feasibility of optical fiber flow test method with non-intrusive and implements the realtime monitoring of flow.

  13. Regional groundwater flow and tritium transport modeling and risk assessment of the underground test area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The groundwater flow system of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding region was evaluated to estimate the highest potential current and near-term risk to the public and the environment from groundwater contamination downgradient of the underground nuclear testing areas. The highest, or greatest, potential risk is estimated by assuming that several unusually rapid transport pathways as well as public and environmental exposures all occur simultaneously. These conservative assumptions may cause risks to be significantly overestimated. However, such a deliberate, conservative approach ensures that public health and environmental risks are not underestimated and allows prioritization of future work to minimize potential risks. Historical underground nuclear testing activities, particularly detonations near or below the water table, have contaminated groundwater near testing locations with radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. Tritium was selected as the contaminant of primary concern for this phase of the project because it is abundant, highly mobile, and represents the most significant contributor to the potential radiation dose to humans for the short term. It was also assumed that the predicted risk to human health and the environment from tritium exposure would reasonably represent the risk from other, less mobile radionuclides within the same time frame. Other contaminants will be investigated at a later date. Existing and newly collected hydrogeologic data were compiled for a large area of southern Nevada and California, encompassing the Nevada Test Site regional groundwater flow system. These data were used to develop numerical groundwater flow and tritium transport models for use in the prediction of tritium concentrations at hypothetical human and ecological receptor locations for a 200-year time frame. A numerical, steady-state regional groundwater flow model was developed to serve as the basis for the prediction of the movement of tritium from the

  14. Fluid Structure Interaction in a Cold Flow Test and Transient CFD Analysis of Out-of-Round Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph; Brown, Andrew; McDaniels, David; Wang, Ten-See

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes two nozzle fluid flow interactions. They include: 1) Cold flow nozzle tests with fluid-structure interaction at nozzle separated flow; and 2) CFD analysis for nozzle flow and side loads of nozzle extensions with various out-of-round cases.

  15. Seismic monitoring of the June, 1988 Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program flow/injection test

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Hutchings, L.J.; Hauk, T.F.

    1988-10-04

    The purpose of the seismic monitoring project was to characterize in detail the micro-seismic activity related to the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) flow-injection test in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Our goal was to determine if any sources of seismic energy related to the test were observable at the surface. We deployed our recording stations so that we could detect and locate both impulsive microearthquakes and continuous seismic noise energy. Our network, which was sensitive enough to be triggered by magnitude 0.0 or larger events, found no impulsive microearthquakes in the vicinity of the flow test in the 8 month period before the test and only one event during the flow test. This event has provided the opportunity to compare the detection and location capabilities of small networks and arrays in a geothermal environment. At present, we are carefully scanning all of the data that we collected during the flow test for evidence of anomalous seismic noise sources and for impulsive events smaller than the network detection threshold (magnitude 0.0). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  16. A semi-analytical solution for slug tests in an unconfined aquifer considering unsaturated flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongbing

    2016-01-01

    A semi-analytical solution considering the vertical unsaturated flow is developed for groundwater flow in response to a slug test in an unconfined aquifer in Laplace space. The new solution incorporates the effects of partial penetrating, anisotropy, vertical unsaturated flow, and a moving water table boundary. Compared to the Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) model, the new solution can significantly improve the fittings of the modeled to the measured hydraulic heads at the late stage of slug tests in an unconfined aquifer, particularly when the slug well has a partially submerged screen and moisture drainage above the water table is significant. The radial hydraulic conductivities estimated with the new solution are comparable to those from the KGS, Bouwer and Rice, and Hvorslev methods. In addition, the new solution also can be used to examine the vertical conductivity, specific storage, specific yield, and the moisture retention parameters in an unconfined aquifer based on slug test data.

  17. Flow reference method testing and analysis: Wind tunnel experimental results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the results of wind tunnel tests that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted in 1997 as part of a major study to evaluate potential improvements to Method 2, EPA`s test method for measuring flue gas volumetric flow in stacks. Conducted in the Merrill Subsonic Wind Tunnel at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, the wind tunnel tests were designed to evaluate how accurately various probes can measure angles and velocity of flow under prescribed conditions and, additionally, to calibrate the probes for use in planned field experiments. To provide a basis for selecting probes for subsequent field tests, the wind tunnel testing was performed over a range of velocity, pitch, and yaw angle settings approximating the conditions encountered at actual utility sites.

  18. Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

    2000-02-01

    One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required.

  19. Interpreting Variations in Groundwater Flows from Repeated Distributed Thermal Perturbation Tests.

    PubMed

    Hausner, Mark B; Kryder, Levi; Klenke, John; Reinke, Richard; Tyler, Scott W

    2016-07-01

    To better understand the groundwater resources of southern Nye County, Nevada, a multipart distributed thermal perturbation sensing (DTPS) test was performed on a complex of three wells. These wells penetrate an alluvial aquifer that drains the Nevada National Security Site, and characterizing the hydraulic properties and flow paths of the regional groundwater flow system has proven very difficult. The well complex comprised one pumping well and two observation wells, both located 18 m from the pumping well. Using fiber-optic cables and line heaters, DTPS tests were performed under both stressed and unstressed conditions. Each test injects heat into the water column over a period of one to two days, and observes the rising temperature during heat injection and falling temperatures after heating ceases. Aquifer thermal properties are inferred from temperature patterns in the cased section of the wells, and fluxes through the 30-m screened section are estimated based on a model that incorporates conductive and advective heat fluxes. Vertical variations in flux are examined on a scale of tens of cm. The actively flowing zones of the aquifer change between the stressed and unstressed test, and anisotropy in the aquifer permeability is apparent from the changing fluxes between tests. The fluxes inferred from the DTPS tests are compared to solute tracer tests previously performed on the same site. The DTPS-based fluxes are consistent with the fastest solute transport observed in the tracer test, but appear to overestimate the mean flux through the system. PMID:26714003

  20. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VI - Groundwater Flow Model Documentation Package

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Volume VI of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the groundwater flow model data. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  1. Methodology of a combined ground based testing and numerical modelling analysis of supersonic combustion flow paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannemann, Klaus; Karl, Sebastian; Martinez Schramm, Jan; Steelant, Johan

    2010-10-01

    In the framework of the European Commission co-funded LAPCAT (Long-Term Advanced Propulsion Concepts and Technologies) project, the methodology of a combined ground-based testing and numerical modelling analysis of supersonic combustion flow paths was established. The approach is based on free jet testing of complete supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) configurations consisting of intake, combustor and nozzle in the High Enthalpy Shock Tunnel Göttingen (HEG) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and computational fluid dynamics studies utilising the DLR TAU code. The capability of the established methodology is demonstrated by applying it to the flow path of the generic HyShot II scramjet flight experiment configuration.

  2. Test Outline for Flutter Analysis of Rectangular Panels in Rarefied Flow Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akl, Fred A.

    1996-01-01

    Jet plume impingement forces acting on large flexible space structures may precipitate dynamically unstable behavior during space flights. Typical operating conditions in space involve rarefied gas flow regimes which are intrinsically distinct from continuum gas flow and are normally modeled using the kinetic theory of gas flow. Docking and undocking operations of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Mir space laboratory represent a scenario in which the stability boundaries of solar panels may be of interest. Extensive literature review of research work on the dynamic stability of rectangular panels in rarefied gas flow conditions indicated the lack of published reports dealing with this phenomenon. A recently completed preliminary study for NASA JSC dealing with the mathematical analysis of the stability of two-degree-of-freedom elastically supported rigid panels under the effect of rarefied gas flow was reviewed. A test plan outline is prepared for the purpose of conducting a series of experiments on four rectangular rigid test articles in a vacuum chamber under the effect of continuous and pulsating Nitrogen jet plumes. The purpose of the test plan is to gather enough data related to a number of key parameters to allow the validation of the two-degree-of-freedom mathematical model. The hardware required careful design to select a very lightweight material while satisfying rigidity and frequency requirements within the constraints of the test environment. The data to be obtained from the vacuum chamber tests can be compared with the predicted behavior of the theoretical two-degree-of-freedom model. Using the data obtained in this study, further research can identify the limitations of the mathematical model. In addition modifications to the mathematical model can be made, if warranted, to accurately predict the behavior of rigid panels under rarefied gas flow regimes.

  3. Nanoscale Capillary Flows in Alumina: Testing the Limits of Classical Theory.

    PubMed

    Lei, Wenwen; McKenzie, David R

    2016-07-21

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes have well-formed cylindrical channels, as small as 10 nm in diameter, in a close packed hexagonal array. The channels in AAO membranes simulate very small leaks that may be present for example in an aluminum oxide device encapsulation. The 10 nm alumina channel is the smallest that has been studied to date for its moisture flow properties and provides a stringent test of classical capillary theory. We measure the rate at which moisture penetrates channels with diameters in the range of 10 to 120 nm with moist air present at 1 atm on one side and dry air at the same total pressure on the other. We extend classical theory for water leak rates at high humidities by allowing for variable meniscus curvature at the entrance and show that the extended theory explains why the flow increases greatly when capillary filling occurs and enables the contact angle to be determined. At low humidities our measurements for air-filled channels agree well with theory for the interdiffusive flow of water vapor in air. The flow rate of water-filled channels is one order of magnitude less than expected from classical capillary filling theory and is coincidentally equal to the helium flow rate, validating the use of helium leak testing for evaluating moisture flows in aluminum oxide leaks. PMID:27336652

  4. Forced Flow Flame Spreading Test: Preliminary Findings From the USMP-3 Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Greenberg, Paul S.; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Tien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Shih, Hsin-Yi

    1998-01-01

    The Forced Flow Flame spreading Test (FFFT) is a study of flame spreading over solid fuels in very low-speed air flows. The FFFT experiment is part of research entitled Solid Inflammability Boundary at Low Speeds, (SIBAL) intended for operations on the Space Station. In the FFFT experiment, a series of 15 experiments conducted aboard the space shuttle during the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-3) mission provided information about the structure and spreading characteristics of flames in low-speed, concurrent flows. The test samples included flat sheets of cellulose and cast cylinders of cellulose, burned in air at velocities of approximately 1 to 8 cm/sec. The test results have been successfully compared to theoretical predictions of the SIBAL program, a fundamentally based numerical simulation of concurrent flow flame spread. Additionally, some guidance for the design characteristics of the SIBAL flight experiment have been obtained including some verification of the theoretical predictions of flame size versus the required size of the SIBAL flow duct, and the effect of the presence of thermocouples in the vicinity of near-limit flames in microgravity.

  5. In Situ Local Fracture Flow Measurement by the Double Packer Dilution Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, A.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Klepikova, M.; Lavenant, N.

    2011-12-01

    For prediction of flow and transport in fractured media, prior estimation of the fracture network is essential, but challenging. Recent developments in hydraulic tomography have shown promising results for understanding connectivities between boreholes. However, as the hydraulic tomographic survey is typically based on the propagation of head only, it becomes a strongly non unique problem. To reduce the non uniqueness of tomographic surveys point conditioning has been found beneficial. Just as well, measurement of local flow in a fracture can serve as point conditioning for hydraulic and tracer tomographic surveys. Nevertheless, only few measurements of local fracture flow have been performed since this type of measurements implies several important technical issues. Dilution test in a packed off interval is a possible method for measuring fracture flow (e.g. Drost et al. 1968, Novakowski et al., 2005). However, a key issue for estimating flow with dilution tests is to ensure a full mixing of the tracer in the packed interval. This is typically done by including a mixing system within the packer. The design of such system can be challenging for deep wells and small diameters. Here, we propose a method where mixing is ensured by a recirculation loop including a surface tank. This method is adapted from the design proposed by Brouyere et al. (2008), who measured dilution in open wells. Dilution is quantified by measuring the concentration in the surface barrel as function of time. Together with the measurement of the circulating flow and the water filled volume in the surface barrel, the measured tracer dilution allows for calculation of the fracture flow. Since the method can be applied using a classical double packer system, it may provide a broader application of local flow measurements in heterogeneous media. We tested the approach on the Ploemeur fractured crystalline rock site. A one meter interval at depth 80 m with a single flowing fracture was isolated with

  6. Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

  7. Novel Optical Technique Developed and Tested for Measuring Two-Point Velocity Correlations in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Goldburg, Walter I.

    2002-01-01

    A novel technique for characterizing turbulent flows was developed and tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The work is being done in collaboration with the University of Pittsburgh, through a grant from the NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program. The technique we are using, Homodyne Correlation Spectroscopy (HCS), is a laser-light-scattering technique that measures the Doppler frequency shift of light scattered from microscopic particles in the fluid flow. Whereas Laser Doppler Velocimetry gives a local (single-point) measurement of the fluid velocity, the HCS technique measures correlations between fluid velocities at two separate points in the flow at the same instant of time. Velocity correlations in the flow field are of fundamental interest to turbulence researchers and are of practical importance in many engineering applications, such as aeronautics.

  8. Design, testing, and model validation of an MR squeeze-flow vibration damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, Neil D.; Stanway, Roger; Johnson, Andrew R.; Mellor, Phillip

    2001-07-01

    Ongoing research at the University of Sheffield is currently concerned with the design and construction of magneto- rheological (MR) squeeze-flow vibration damper. Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of employing such a device as the key component in a controllable vibration isolator. The work also demonstrated the inadequacies of existing mathematical models which do not account for the observed behavior of MR fluids in squeeze flow. In parallel with investigations into the behavior of MR dampers, a collaborative programme between the Universities of Liverpool and Sheffield is also in progress. Here attention is focussed on ER fluids in squeeze-flow and a new test facility has been constructed for use in the development and validation of mathematical models. It is anticipated that this collaborative programme will assist in the development of both ER and MR squeeze-flow models. In this paper, the authors present a summary of progress to date.

  9. Sampling Point Compliance Tests for 325 Building at Set-Back Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Barnett, J. M.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2011-05-31

    The stack sampling system at the 325 Building (Radiochemical Processing Laboratory [RPL]) was constructed to comply with the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI’s) Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities (ANSI N13.1-1969). This standard provided prescriptive criteria for the location of radionuclide air-sampling systems. In 1999, the standard was revised (Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities [ANSI/Health Physics Society [HPS] 13.1-1999]) to provide performance-based criteria for the location of sampling systems. Testing was conducted for the 325 Building stack to determine whether the sampling system would meet the updated criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration in the revised ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 standard under normal operating conditions (Smith et al. 2010). Measurement results were within criteria for all tests. Additional testing and modeling was performed to determine whether the sampling system would meet criteria under set-back flow conditions. This included measurements taken from a scale model with one-third of the exhaust flow and computer modeling of the system with two-thirds of the exhaust flow. This report documents the results of the set-back flow condition measurements and modeling. Tests performed included flow angularity, uniformity of velocity, gas concentration, and particle concentration across the duct at the sampling location. Results are within ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests. These tests are applicable for the 325 Building stack under set-back exhaust flow operating conditions (980 - 45,400 cubic feet per minute [cfm]) with one fan running. The modeling results show that criteria are met for all tests using a two-fan configuration exhaust (flow modeled at 104,000 cfm). Combined with the results from the earlier normal operating conditions, the ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests

  10. 3D Particle image velocimetry test of inner flow in a double blade pump impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Houlin; Wang, Kai; Yuan, Shouqi; Tan, Minggao; Wang, Yong; Ru, Weimin

    2012-05-01

    The double blade pump is widely used in sewage treatment industry, however, the research on the internal flow characteristics of the double blade pump with particle image velocimetry (PIV) technology is very little at present. To reveal inner flow characteristics in double blade pump impeller under off-design and design conditions, inner flows in a double blade pump impeller, whose specific speed is 111, are measured under the five off-design conditions and design condition by using 3D PIV test technology. In order to ensure the accuracy of the 3D PIV test, the external trigger synchronization system which makes use of fiber optic and equivalent calibration method are applied. The 3D PIV relative velocity synthesis procedure is compiled by using Visual C++ 2005. Then absolute velocity distribution and relative velocity distribution in the double blade pump impeller are obtained. Test results show that vortex exists in each condition, but the location, size and velocity of vortex core are different. Average absolute velocity value of impeller outlet increases at first, then decreases, and then increases again with increase of flow rate. Again average relative velocity values under 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 design condition are higher than that under 1.0 design condition, while under 0.6 and 1.4 design condition it is lower. Under low flow rate conditions, radial vectors of absolute velocities at impeller outlet and blade inlet near the pump shaft decrease with increase of flow rate, while that of relative velocities at the suction side near the pump shaft decreases. Radial vectors of absolute velocities and relative velocities change slightly under the two large flow rate conditions. The research results can be applied to instruct the hydraulic optimization design of double blade pumps.

  11. Characterization of scale-dependent dispersivity in fractured formations through a divergent flow tracer test.

    PubMed

    Sharifi Haddad, Amin; Hassanzadeh, Hassan; Abedi, Jalal; Chen, Zhangxin; Ware, Antony

    2015-04-01

    Scale-dependency of dispersivity has been reported from field tracer tests. We present a simple methodology for characterization of dispersivity as a linear function of scale around an injection well using divergent flow tracer test data conducted in fractured formations. Results show that the slope of this linear dispersivity function can be estimated using tracer concentration measurements in a monitoring well. The characterized dispersivity function has applications in modeling of field-scale transport processes in fractured formations. PMID:24660811

  12. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle First Stage Roll Control System Cold Flow Development Test Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butt, Adam; Popp, Christopher G.; Holt, Kimberly A.; Pitts, Hank M.

    2010-01-01

    The Ares I launch vehicle is the selected design, chosen to return humans to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It is configured in two inline stages: the First Stage is a Space Shuttle derived five-segment Solid Rocket Booster and the Upper Stage is powered by a Saturn V derived J-2X engine. During launch, roll control for the First Stage (FS) is handled by a dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS) located on the connecting Interstage. That system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque while any induced yaw or pitch moments are handled by vectoring of the booster nozzle. This paper provides an overview of NASA s Ares I FS RoCS cold flow development test program including detailed test objectives, types of tests run to meet those objectives, an overview of the results, and applicable lessons learned. The test article was built and tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. The FS RoCS System Development Test Article (SDTA) is a full scale, flight representative water flow test article whose primary objective was to obtain fluid system performance data to evaluate integrated system level performance characteristics and verify analytical models. Development testing and model correlation was deemed necessary as there is little historical precedent for similar large flow, pulsing systems such as the FS RoCS. The cold flow development test program consisted of flight-similar tanks, pressure regulators, and thruster valves, as well as plumbing simulating flight geometries, combined with other facility grade components and structure. Orifices downstream of the thruster valves were used to simulate the pressure drop through the thrusters. Additional primary objectives of this test program were to: evaluate system surge pressure (waterhammer) characteristics due to thruster valve operation over a range of mission duty cycles at various feed system pressures, evaluate temperature transients and heat transfer in the

  13. Effect of banana on cold stress test & peak expiratory flow rate in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, C; Bairy, K L; Rao, N M; Udupa, E G

    1999-07-01

    The effect of banana on cold stress induced hypertension, peak expiratory flow rate and plasma ACE activity in healthy human volunteers was tested. Systolic blood pressure (P < 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.025) and mean arterial blood pressure (P < 0.005) were significantly decreased during cold stress after banana treatment compared to controls subjected to cold stress. There was no significant changes in heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate but only significant decrease in plasma ACE activity after banana treatment. Banana decreased the rise of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure in healthy volunteers subjected to cold stress test without much effect on heart rate and peak expiratory flow rate. PMID:10709336

  14. Model-Invariant Hybrid Computations of Separated Flows for RCA Standard Test Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) subproject has identified several smooth-body separated flows as standard test cases to emphasize the challenge these flows present for computational methods and their importance to the aerospace community. Results of computations of two of these test cases, the NASA hump and the FAITH experiment, are presented. The computations were performed with the model-invariant hybrid LES-RANS formulation, implemented in the NASA code VULCAN-CFD. The model- invariant formulation employs gradual LES-RANS transitions and compensation for model variation to provide more accurate and efficient hybrid computations. Comparisons revealed that the LES-RANS transitions employed in these computations were sufficiently gradual that the compensating terms were unnecessary. Agreement with experiment was achieved only after reducing the turbulent viscosity to mitigate the effect of numerical dissipation. The stream-wise evolution of peak Reynolds shear stress was employed as a measure of turbulence dynamics in separated flows useful for evaluating computations.

  15. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology.

  16. Study and application of a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huaizhong; Li, Gensheng; Huang, Zhongwei; Li, Jingbin; Zhang, Yi

    2015-12-01

    As the exploration and development of oil and gas focus more and more on deeper formation, hydraulic issues such as high-pressure water jet rock breaking, wellbore multiphase flow law, cuttings carrying efficiency, and hydraulic fracturing technique during the drilling and completion process have become the key points. To accomplish related researches, a high-pressure water jet multi-functional flow test system was designed. The following novel researches are carried out: study of high-pressure water jet characteristics under confining pressure, wellbore multiphase flow regime, hydraulic pressure properties of down hole tools during jet fracturing and pulsed cavitation jet drilling, and deflector's friction in radial jet drilling. The validity and feasibility of the experimental results provided by the system with various test modules have proved its importance in the research of the high-pressure water jet and well completion technology. PMID:26724077

  17. An assessment of TRAC-PD2 refill calculations based on Creare countercurrent flow tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.

    1982-04-01

    An important step in computer code development is the assessment of code capabilities through comparison of calculated results with experimental data A number of Creare countercurrent flow tests were simulated with the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC)-PD2 code to assess the emergency core coolant (ECC) lower plenum penetration and refill predictive capabilities. The tests examined in this study indicate a prediction of complete bypass and delivery at countercurrent steam flows where these phenomena occurred experimentally. Steam flows leading to partial delivery experimentally did not always lead to partial delivery in the calculations, however. A number of parameters can potentially effect TRAC refill calculations. Sensitivity studies indicate the TRAC results are most sensitive to droplet Weber number variations that affect interfacial shear and heat transfer rates. The condensation model also affects calculations with subcooled ECC liquid.

  18. Modern challenges for flow investigations in model hydraulic turbines on classical test rig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschênes, C.; Houde, S.; Aeschlimann, V.; Fraser, R.; Ciocan, G. D.

    2014-03-01

    The BulbT project involved several investigations of flow phenomena in different parts of a model bulb turbine installed on the test rig of Laval University Laboratory. The aim is to create a comprehensive data base in order to increase the knowledge of the flow phenomena in this type of turbines and to validate or improve numerical flow simulation strategies. This validation being based on a kinematic comparison between experimental and numerical data, the project had to overcome challenges to facilitate the use of the experimental data for that purpose. Many parameters were checked, such as the test bench repeatability, the intrusiveness of a priori non-intrusive methods, the geometry of the runner and draft tube. This paper illustrates how some of those problematic were solved.

  19. Application of a cold flow model in testing the feasiblity of an oil shale retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.W.; Tatterson, D.F.; Vasalos, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    An oil shale fluid bed process successfully tested in 1.5 ton/day pilot plant in Amoco Research Center is discussed. Emphasis is given on information showing the application of cold flow unit results in the interpretation of retort product yields.

  20. 7 CFR 28.603 - Procedures for air flow tests of micronaire reading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for air flow tests of micronaire reading... micronaire reading. In determining in terms of micronaire readings, the fiber fineness and maturity, in... cotton in terms of micronaire reading on the curvilinear scale adopted in September 1950 by...

  1. Flow-Visualization Techniques Used at High Speed by Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel-Test Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes a variety of optically based flow-visualization techniques used for high-speed research by the Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel Test Team of the High-Speed Research Program during its tenure. The work of other national experts is included for completeness. Details of each technique with applications and status in various national wind tunnels are given.

  2. 7 CFR 28.603 - Procedures for air flow tests of micronaire reading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for air flow tests of micronaire reading... micronaire reading. In determining in terms of micronaire readings, the fiber fineness and maturity, in... cotton in terms of micronaire reading on the curvilinear scale adopted in September 1950 by...

  3. Mechanical Design of a Performance Test Rig for the Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xenofos, George; Forbes, John; Farrow, John; Williams, Robert; Tyler, Tom; Sargent, Scott; Moharos, Jozsef

    2003-01-01

    To support development of the Boeing-Rocketdyne RS84 rocket engine, a fill-flow, reaction turbine geometry was integrated into the NASA-MSFC turbine air-flow test facility. A mechanical design was generated which minimized the amount of new hardware while incorporating all test and instrUmentation requirements. This paper provides details of the mechanical design for this Turbine Air-Flow Task (TAFT) test rig. The mechanical design process utilized for this task included the following basic stages: Conceptual Design. Preliminary Design. Detailed Design. Baseline of Design (including Configuration Control and Drawing Revision). Fabrication. Assembly. During the design process, many lessons were learned that should benefit future test rig design projects. Of primary importance are well-defined requirements early in the design process, a thorough detailed design package, and effective communication with both the customer and the fabrication contractors. The test rig provided steady and unsteady pressure data necessary to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The rig also helped characterize the turbine blade loading conditions. Test and CFD analysis results are to be presented in another JANNAF paper.

  4. The Sympathetic Release Test: A Test Used to Assess Thermoregulation and Autonomic Control of Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansey, E. A.; Roe, S. M.; Johnson, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    When a subject is heated, the stimulation of temperature-sensitive nerve endings in the skin, and the raising of the central body temperature, results in the reflex release of sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone in the skin of the extremities, causing a measurable temperature increase at the site of release. In the sympathetic release test, the…

  5. Variation between Hospitals with Regard to Diagnostic Practice, Coding Accuracy, and Case-Mix. A Retrospective Validation Study of Administrative Data versus Medical Records for Estimating 30-Day Mortality after Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Skyrud, Katrine Damgaard; Lindman, Anja Schou

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of patient administrative data (PAS) for calculating 30-day mortality after hip fracture as a quality indicator, by a retrospective study of medical records. Methods We used PAS data from all Norwegian hospitals (2005–2009), merged with vital status from the National Registry, to calculate 30-day case-mix adjusted mortality for each hospital (n = 51). We used stratified sampling to establish a representative sample of both hospitals and cases. The hospitals were stratified according to high, low and medium mortality of which 4, 3, and 5 hospitals were sampled, respectively. Within hospitals, cases were sampled stratified according to year of admission, age, length of stay, and vital 30-day status (alive/dead). The final study sample included 1043 cases from 11 hospitals. Clinical information was abstracted from the medical records. Diagnostic and clinical information from the medical records and PAS were used to define definite and probable hip fracture. We used logistic regression analysis in order to estimate systematic between-hospital variation in unmeasured confounding. Finally, to study the consequences of unmeasured confounding for identifying mortality outlier hospitals, a sensitivity analysis was performed. Results The estimated overall positive predictive value was 95.9% for definite and 99.7% for definite or probable hip fracture, with no statistically significant differences between hospitals. The standard deviation of the additional, systematic hospital bias in mortality estimates was 0.044 on the logistic scale. The effect of unmeasured confounding on outlier detection was small to moderate, noticeable only for large hospital volumes. Conclusions This study showed that PAS data are adequate for identifying cases of hip fracture, and the effect of unmeasured case mix variation was small. In conclusion, PAS data are adequate for calculating 30-day mortality after hip-fracture as a quality

  6. A comparison of measured and predicted test flow in an expansion tube with air and oxygen test gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aaggard, K. V.; Goad, W. K.

    1975-01-01

    Simultaneous time-resolved measurements of temperature, density, pitot pressure, and wall pressure in both air and O2 test gases were obtained in the Langley pilot model expansion tube. These tests show nonequilibrium chemical and vibrational relaxation significantly affect the test-flow condition. The use of an electromagnetic device to preopen the secondary diaphragm before the arrival of the primary shock wave resulted in an improvement in the agreement between the measured pitot pressure and the value inferred from measured density and interface velocity. Boundary-layer splitter plates used to reduce the wall boundary layer show that this disagreement in the measured and inferred pitot pressures is not a result of boundary-layer effects.

  7. Single element injector cold flow testing for STME swirl coaxial injector element design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulka, J.; Schneider, J. A.

    1993-06-01

    An oxidizer-swirled coaxial element injector is being investigated for application in the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). Single element cold flow experiments were conducted to provide characterization of the STME injector element for future analysis, design, and optimization. All tests were conducted to quiescent, ambient backpressure conditions. Spray angle, circumferential spray uniformity, dropsize, and dropsize distribution were measured in water-only and water/nitrogen flows. Rupe mixing efficiency was measured using water/sucrose solution flows with a large grid patternator for simple comparative evaluation of mixing. Factorial designs of experiment were used for statistical evaluation of injector geometrical design features and propellant flow conditions on mixing and atomization. Increasing the free swirl angle of the liquid oxidizer had the greatest influence on increasing the mixing efficiency. The addition of gas assistance had the most significant effect on reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing droplet size distribution. Increasing the oxidizer injection velocity had the greatest influence for reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing size distribution for non-gas assisted flows. Single element and multi-element subscale hot fire testing are recommended to verify optimized designs before committing to the STME design.

  8. Single element injector cold flow testing for STME swirl coaxial injector element design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J.; Schneider, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    An oxidizer-swirled coaxial element injector is being investigated for application in the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). Single element cold flow experiments were conducted to provide characterization of the STME injector element for future analysis, design, and optimization. All tests were conducted to quiescent, ambient backpressure conditions. Spray angle, circumferential spray uniformity, dropsize, and dropsize distribution were measured in water-only and water/nitrogen flows. Rupe mixing efficiency was measured using water/sucrose solution flows with a large grid patternator for simple comparative evaluation of mixing. Factorial designs of experiment were used for statistical evaluation of injector geometrical design features and propellant flow conditions on mixing and atomization. Increasing the free swirl angle of the liquid oxidizer had the greatest influence on increasing the mixing efficiency. The addition of gas assistance had the most significant effect on reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing droplet size distribution. Increasing the oxidizer injection velocity had the greatest influence for reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing size distribution for non-gas assisted flows. Single element and multi-element subscale hot fire testing are recommended to verify optimized designs before committing to the STME design.

  9. Flow-Log Analysis for Hydraulic Characterization of Selected Test Wells at the Indian Point Energy Center, Buchanan, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Flow logs from 24 test wells were analyzed as part of the hydraulic characterization of the metamorphosed and fractured carbonate bedrock at the Indian Point Energy Center in Buchanan, New York. The flow logs were analyzed along with caliper, optical- and acoustic-televiewer, and fluid-resistivity and temperature logs to determine the character and distribution of fracture-flow zones and estimate their transmissivities and hydraulic heads. Many flow zones were associated with subhorizontal to shallow-dipping fractured zones, southeast-dipping bedding fractures, northwest-dipping conjugate fractures, or combinations of bedding and conjugate fractures. Flow-log analysis generally provided reasonable first-order estimates of flow-zone transmissivity and head differences compared with the results of conventional hydraulic-test analysis and measurements. Selected results of an aquifer test and a tracer test provided corroborating information in support of the flow-log analysis.

  10. Orifice In-flow Efficiency Tests. Volume 1: Test Results. Volume 2: Application to Shuttle Venting During Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haukohl, J.; Forkois, J. L.; Robertson, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made of the capability for computing internal pressures throughout flight for compartments located within space shuttle vehicles. A test program was conducted at a 6 x 6 foot supersonic wind tunnel to determine orifice efficiencies for the flow of air into a compartment from a flowing external stream. Measurements were made over a Mach number range of 0.7 to 1.9 for varying orifice geometry, vent orientation, vent plate thickness, flat plate boundary layer thickness, and pressure ratio across the vent plate. A computer program developed for outflow venting was modified for use in computing compartment pressures for inflow conditions. Results from both the outflow and inflow computer programs are included. A user's manual and program listing of the inflow venting program are also included.

  11. Inlet Flow Test Calibration for a Small Axial Compressor Facility. Part 1: Design and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. P.; Prahst, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    An axial compressor test rig has been designed for the operation of small turbomachines. The inlet region consisted of a long flowpath region with two series of support struts and a flapped inlet guide vane. A flow test was run to calibrate and determine the source and magnitudes of the loss mechanisms in the inlet for a highly loaded two-stage axial compressor test. Several flow conditions and IGV angle settings were established in which detailed surveys were completed. Boundary layer bleed was also provided along the casing of the inlet behind the support struts and ahead of the IGV. A detailed discussion of the flowpath design along with a summary of the experimental results are provided in Part 1.

  12. Conception of a test bench to generate known and controlled conditions of refrigerant mass flow.

    PubMed

    Martins, Erick F; Flesch, Carlos A; Flesch, Rodolfo C C; Borges, Maikon R

    2011-07-01

    Refrigerant compressor performance tests play an important role in the evaluation of the energy characteristics of the compressor, enabling an increase in the quality, reliability, and efficiency of these products. Due to the nonexistence of a refrigerating capacity standard, it is common to use previously conditioned compressors for the intercomparison and evaluation of the temporal drift of compressor performance test panels. However, there are some limitations regarding the use of these specific compressors as standards. This study proposes the development of a refrigerating capacity standard which consists of a mass flow meter and a variable-capacity compressor, whose speed is set based on the mass flow rate measured by the meter. From the results obtained in the tests carried out on a bench specifically developed for this purpose, it was possible to validate the concept of a capacity standard. PMID:21334618

  13. The NASA Juncture Flow Experiment: Goals, Progress, and Preliminary Testing (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Neuhart, Danny H.; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA has been working toward designing and conducting a juncture flow experiment on a wing-body aircraft configuration. The experiment is planned to provide validation-quality data for CFD that focuses on the onset and progression of a separation bubble near the wing-body juncture trailing edge region. This paper describes the goals and purpose of the experiment. Although currently considered unreliable, preliminary CFD analyses of several different configurations are shown. These configurations have been subsequently tested in a series of "risk-reduction" wind tunnel tests, in order to help down-select to a final configuration that will attain the desired flow behavior. The risk-reduction testing at the higher Reynolds number has not yet been completed (at the time of this writing), but some results from one of the low-Reynolds-number experiments are shown.

  14. Brief Communication: A new testing field for debris flow warning systems and algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arattano, M.; Coviello, V.; Cavalli, M.; Comiti, F.; Macconi, P.; Marchi, L.; Theule, J.; Crema, S.

    2015-03-01

    Early warning systems (EWSs) are among the measures adopted for the mitigation of debris flow hazards. EWSs often employ algorithms that require careful and long testing to grant their effectiveness. A permanent installation has been so equipped in the Gadria basin (Eastern Italian Alps) for the systematic test of event-EWSs. The installation is conceived to produce didactic videos and host informative visits. The populace involvement and education is in fact an essential step in any hazard mitigation activity and it should envisaged in planning any research activity. The occurrence of a debris flow in the Gadria creek, in the summer of 2014, allowed a first test of the installation and the recording of an informative video on EWSs.

  15. Nozzle start flow investigation in the conditions of high-altitude test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, V. V.; Bazhenova, T. V.; Fortov, V. E.; Golub, V. V.; Makeich, A. A.; Shcherbak, S. B.

    Rocket engines for future-technology vehicles development requires special ground-based test facilities to simulate the conditions at high altitude. The unsteady flow phenomena in the nozzle during starting process can cause the dangerous loads on the nozzles. The real propulsion engines high-altitude tests in the vacuum chamber are very expensive due to the huge vacuum chamber should be used. Usually ejector pumps are used for the initial rarefaction creation. The investigations of real propulsions in the test facilities with ejector are not so expensive but they can cause external loads on the nozzle wall at the nozzle start. Both of these techniques do not allow the flow pattern in the diffuser observing. Because the modern nozzles usually are thin any pressure excess around the nozzle may cause nozzle damage. In the present paper, a method of experimental and numerical analyses of disturbances at the start of a rocket engine is proposed.

  16. Why is the Cascadia subduction zone backarc hot? Numerical tests of mantle wedge flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, C. A.; Wang, K.; Hyndman, R. D.; He, J.

    2003-12-01

    -arc temperatures (>1250° C). However, the flow pattern produces low backarc mantle temperatures and heat flow, inconsistent with observations. For all models, full coupling between the subducting plate and wedge was assumed. If partial decoupling occurs, due to the presence of hydrated mantle or serpentine/talc, wedge flow velocities will be slower, and the wedge will be cooler than predicted by the models. None of the traction-driven flow models simultaneously produced high temperatures below the volcanic arc and a uniformly hot backarc. Numerous studies indicate that the mantle wedge viscosity is less than 1019 Pa s. Initial tests suggest that at such low viscosities, wedge flow driven by thermal buoyancy may be more important than traction-driven flow.

  17. Nature and extent of lava-flow aquifers beneath Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Prothro, L.B.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    Work is currently underway within the Underground Test Area subproject of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Program to develop corrective action plans in support of the overall corrective action strategy for the Nevada Test Site as established in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). A closure plan is currently being developed for Pahute Mesa, which has been identified in the FFACO as consisting of the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units. Part of this effort requires that hydrogeologic data be compiled for inclusion in a regional model that will be used to predict a contaminant boundary for these Corrective Action Units. Hydrogeologic maps have been prepared for use in the model to define the nature and extent of aquifers and confining units that might influence the flow of contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear tests conducted at Pahute Mesa. Much of the groundwater flow beneath Pahute Mesa occurs within lava-flow aquifers. An understanding of the distribution and hydraulic character of these important hydrogeologic units is necessary to accurately model groundwater flow beneath Pahute Mesa. This report summarizes the results of a study by Bechtel Nevada geologists to better define the hydrogeology of lava-flow aquifers at Pahute Mesa. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) aid in the development of the hydrostratigraphic framework for Pahute Mesa, and (2) provide information on the distribution and hydraulic character of lava-flow aquifers beneath Pahute Mesa for more accurate computer modeling of the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

  18. Testing and benchmarking of a three-dimensional groundwater flow and solute transport model

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, P.N.; Andersen, P.F.; Faust, C.R.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1988-12-31

    A three-dimensional finite-difference model was developed to simulate groundwater flow and solute transport. The model is intended for application to a variety of groundwater resource and solute migration evaluations, including several complex sites at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). Because the model, FTWORK, is relatively new, there is a need to provide confidence in the model results. Methodologies that test models include comparisons with analytical solutions, comparisons with empirical data, and checking that conservation properties hold. Another level of testing is the comparison of one code against another. This paper describes the testing and benchmarking procedure used to verify the validate FTWORK.

  19. Wind-Tunnel Survey of an Oscillating Flow Field for Application to Model Helicopter Rotor Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirick, Paul H.; Hamouda, M-Nabil H.; Yeager, William T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the flow field produced by the Airstream Oscillator System (AOS) in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The magnitude of a simulated gust field was measured at 15 locations in the plane of a typical model helicopter rotor when tested in the TDT using the Aeroelastic Rotor Experimental System (ARES) model. These measurements were made over a range of tunnel dynamic pressures typical of those used for an ARES test. The data indicate that the gust field produced by the AOS is non-uniform across the tunnel test section, but should be sufficient to excite a model rotor.

  20. Field Test Results from a 10 kW Wind Turbine with Active Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Thomas; Bychkova, Veronika; Taylor, Keith; Clingman, Dan; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Active flow control devices including synthetic jets and dynamic vortex generators were tested on a 10 kW wind turbine at RPI. Previous work has shown that load oscillations caused by dynamic stall could be modified through the use of active flow control by injecting momentum into the flow field near the leading edge of a dynamically pitching model. In this study, this work has been extended to its logical conclusion, field-testing active flow control on a real wind turbine. The blades in the current study have a 0.28m chord and 3.05m span, no twist or taper, and were retrofitted with six synthetic jets on one blade and ten dynamic vortex generators on a second blade. The third blade of this turbine was not modified, in order to serve as a control. Strain gauges were installed on each blade to measure blades' deflection. A simple closed loop control was demonstrated and preliminary results indicate reduced vibrational amplitude. Future testing will be conducted on a larger scale, 600kW machine at NREL, incorporating information collected during this study.