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Sample records for 30-day mortality risk

  1. Rheumatoid arthritis patients are not at increased risk for 30-day cardiovascular events, infections, or mortality after total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Serious infection, cardiovascular disease, and mortality are increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Whether RA affects the risk for these complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is unknown, we hypothesize that it does. We compared the occurrence of 30-day postoperative complications and mortality in a large cohort of RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients undergoing hip or knee TJA. Methods Analyses included 7-year data from the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program. The 30-day complications were compared by diagnosis by using logistic regression, and long-term mortality was examined by using Cox proportional hazards regression. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and clustering by surgical site. Additional covariates included sociodemographics, comorbidities, health behaviors, and operative risk factors. Results The 34,524 patients (839 RA, 33,685 OA) underwent knee (65.9%) or hip TJA. Patients were 95.7% men with a mean (SD) age of 64.4 (10.7) years and had 3,764 deaths over a mean follow-up of 3.7 (2.3) years. Compared with OA patients, those with RA were significantly more likely to require a return to the operating room (odds ratio (OR), 1.45 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.94), but had similar rates of 30-day postoperative infection, OR 1.02 (0.72 to 1.47), cardiovascular events, OR 0.69 (0.37 to 1.28), and mortality, OR 0.94 (0.38 to 2.33). RA was associated with a significantly higher long-term mortality; hazard ratio (HR), 1.22 (1.00 to 1.49). Conclusion In this study of US veterans, RA patients were not at an increased risk for short-term mortality or other major complications after TJA, although they returned to the operating room more often and had increased long-term mortality. PMID:24252350

  2. Predictors of 30-day mortality and the risk of recurrent systemic thromboembolism in cancer patients suffering acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jung; An, Sang Joon; Oh, Kyungmi; Mo, Heejung; Kang, Min Kyoung; Han, Moon-Ku; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Ko, Sang-Bae; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke in cancer patients is not rare but is a devastating event with high mortality. However, the predictors of mortality in stroke patients with cancer have not been well addressed. D-dimer could be a useful predictor because it can reflect both thromboembolic events and advanced stages of cancer. Aim In this study, we evaluate the possibility of D-dimer as a predictor of 30-day mortality in stroke patients with active cancer. Methods We included 210 ischemic stroke patients with active cancer. The 30-day mortality data were collected by reviewing medical records. We also collected follow-up D-dimer levels in 106 (50%) participants to evaluate the effects of treatment response on D-dimer levels. Results Of the 210 participants, 30-day mortality occurred in 28 (13%) patients. Higher initial NIHSS scores, D-dimer levels, and CRP levels as well as frequent cryptogenic mechanism, systemic metastasis, multiple vascular territory lesion, hemorrhagic transformation, and larger infarct volume were related to 30-day mortality. In the multivariate analysis, D-dimer [adjusted OR (aOR) = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.46–3.28, P < 0.001] predicted 30-day mortality after adjusting for confounders. The initial NIHSS score (aOR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00–1.14, P = 0.043) and hemorrhagic transformation (aOR = 3.02; 95% CI, 1.10–8.29, P = 0.032) were also significant independent of D-dimer levels. In the analysis of D-dimer changes after treatment, the mortality group showed no significant decrease in D-dimer levels, despite treatment, while the survivor group showed the opposite response. Conclusions D-dimer levels may predict 30-day mortality in acute ischemic stroke patients with active cancer. PMID:28282388

  3. Readmission for Acute Exacerbation within 30 Days of Discharge Is Associated with a Subsequent Progressive Increase in Mortality Risk in COPD Patients: A Long-Term Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Mónica; Crisafulli, Ernesto; Liapikou, Adamantia; Huerta, Arturo; Gabarrús, Albert; Chetta, Alfredo; Soler, Nestor; Torres, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Twenty per cent of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are readmitted for acute exacerbation (AECOPD) within 30 days of discharge. The prognostic significance of early readmission is not fully understood. The objective of our study was to estimate the mortality risk associated with readmission for acute exacerbation within 30 days of discharge in COPD patients. Methods The cohort (n = 378) was divided into patients readmitted (n = 68) and not readmitted (n = 310) within 30 days of discharge. Clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and severity data were evaluated at admission and during hospital stay, and mortality data were recorded at four time points during follow-up: 30 days, 6 months, 1 year and 3 years. Results Patients readmitted within 30 days had poorer lung function, worse dyspnea perception and higher clinical severity. Two or more prior AECOPD (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.51–4.05) was the only variable independently associated with 30-day readmission. The mortality risk during the follow-up period showed a progressive increase in patients readmitted within 30 days in comparison to patients not readmitted; moreover, 30-day readmission was an independent risk factor for mortality at 1 year (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.10–5.59). In patients readmitted within 30 days, the estimated absolute increase in the mortality risk was 4% at 30 days (number needed to harm NNH, 25), 17% at 6-months (NNH, 6), 19% at 1-year (NNH, 6) and 24% at 3 years (NNH, 5). Conclusion In conclusion a readmission for AECOPD within 30 days is associated with a progressive increased long-term risk of death. PMID:26943928

  4. A contemporary risk model for predicting 30-day mortality following percutaneous coronary intervention in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Katherine S.L.; Ludman, Peter F.; Hulme, William; de Belder, Mark A.; Stables, Rodney; Chowdhary, Saqib; Mamas, Mamas A.; Sperrin, Matthew; Buchan, Iain E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The current risk model for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the UK is based on outcomes of patients treated in a different era of interventional cardiology. This study aimed to create a new model, based on a contemporary cohort of PCI treated patients, which would: predict 30 day mortality; provide good discrimination; and be well calibrated across a broad risk-spectrum. Methods and results The model was derived from a training dataset of 336,433 PCI cases carried out between 2007 and 2011 in England and Wales, with 30 day mortality provided by record linkage. Candidate variables were selected on the basis of clinical consensus and data quality. Procedures in 2012 were used to perform temporal validation of the model. The strongest predictors of 30-day mortality were: cardiogenic shock; dialysis; and the indication for PCI and the degree of urgency with which it was performed. The model had an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.85 on the training data and 0.86 on validation. Calibration plots indicated a good model fit on development which was maintained on validation. Conclusion We have created a contemporary model for PCI that encompasses a range of clinical risk, from stable elective PCI to emergency primary PCI and cardiogenic shock. The model is easy to apply and based on data reported in national registries. It has a high degree of discrimination and is well calibrated across the risk spectrum. The examination of key outcomes in PCI audit can be improved with this risk-adjusted model. PMID:26942330

  5. The Risk of Acute Kidney Injury and Its Impact on 30-Day and Long-Term Mortality after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Katrin; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Kaleschke, Gerrit; Kerckhoff, Gregor; Malyar, Nasser; Meyborg, Matthias; Reinecke, Holger; Baumgartner, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Background. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is widely used in high risk patients (pts) with aortic stenosis. Underlying chronic kidney disease implicates a high risk of postprocedural acute kidney injury (AKI). We analyzed its occurrence, impact on hospital stay, and mortality. Methods. 150 consecutive pts underwent TAVI in our institution (mean age 81 ± 7 years; logistic EuroSCORE 24 ± 15%). AKI definition was a creatinine rise of 26.5 μmol/L or more within 48 hours postprocedural. Ten patients on chronic hemodialysis were excluded. Results. AKI occurred in 28 pts (20%). Baseline creatinine was higher in AKI pts (126.4 ± 59.2 μmol/L versus 108.7 ± 45.1 μmol/L, P = 0.09). Contrast media use was distributed evenly. Both, 30-day mortality (29% versus 7%, P < 0.0001) and long-term mortality (43% versus 18%, P < 0.0001) were higher; hospital stay was longer in AKI pts (20 ± 12 versus 15 ± 10 days, P = 0.03). Predicted renal failure calculated STS Score was similar (8.0 ± 5.0% [AKI] versus 7.1 ± 4.0% [non-AKI], P = 0.32) and estimated lower renal failure rates than observed. Conclusion. AKI remains a frequent complication with increased mortality in TAVI pts. Careful identification of risk factors and development of more suitable risk scores are essential. PMID:23365748

  6. Vitamin D Status Predicts 30 Day Mortality in Hospitalised Cats

    PubMed Central

    Titmarsh, Helen; Kilpatrick, Scott; Sinclair, Jennifer; Boag, Alisdair; Bode, Elizabeth F.; Lalor, Stephanie M.; Gaylor, Donna; Berry, Jacqueline; Bommer, Nicholas X.; Gunn-Moore, Danielle; Reed, Nikki; Handel, Ian; Mellanby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52) for cats with a serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OH)D concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats. PMID:25970442

  7. Predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Safatli, Diaa A.; Günther, Albrecht; Schlattmann, Peter; Schwarz, Falko; Kalff, Rolf; Ewald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a life threatening entity, and an early outcome assessment is mandatory for optimizing therapeutic efforts. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 342 patients with spontaneous primary ICH to evaluate possible predictors of 30-day mortality considering clinical, radiological, and therapeutical parameters. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. Results: From 342 patients (mean age: 67 years, mean Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] on admission: 9, mean ICH volume: 62.19 ml, most common hematoma location: basal ganglia [43.9%]), 102 received surgical and 240 conservative treatment. The 30-day mortality was 25.15%. In a multivariate analysis, GCS (Odds ratio [OR] =0.726, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.661–0.796, P < 0.001), bleeding volume (OR = 1.012 per ml, 95% CI = 1.007 – 1.017, P < 0.001), and infratentorial hematoma location (OR = 5.381, 95% CI = 2.166-13.356, P = 0.009) were significant predictors for the 30-day mortality. After receiver operating characteristics analysis, we defined a “high-risk group” for an unfavorable short-term outcome with GCS <11 and ICH volume >32 ml supratentorially or 21 ml infratentorially. Using Pearson correlation, we found a correlation of 0.986 between ICH score and 30-day mortality (P < 0.001), 0.853 between FUNC score and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001), and 0.924 between ICH-GS and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001). Conclusions: GCS score on admission together with the baseline volume and localization of the hemorrhage are strong

  8. Hyperkalemia is Associated with Increased 30-Day Mortality in Hip Fracture Patients.

    PubMed

    Norring-Agerskov, Debbie; Madsen, Christian Medom; Abrahamsen, Bo; Riis, Troels; Pedersen, Ole B; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Bathum, Lise; Lauritzen, Jes Bruun; Jørgensen, Henrik L

    2017-02-17

    Abnormal plasma concentrations of potassium in the form of hyper- and hypokalemia are frequent among hospitalized patients and have been linked to poor outcomes. In this study, we examined the prevalence of hypo- and hyperkalemia in patients admitted with a fractured hip as well as the association with 30-day mortality in these patients. A total of 7293 hip fracture patients (aged 60 years or above) with admission plasma potassium measurements were included. Data on comorbidity, medication, and death was retrieved from national registries. The association between plasma potassium and mortality was examined using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities. The prevalence of hypo- and hyperkalemia on admission was 19.8% and 6.6%, respectively. The 30-day mortality rates were increased for patients with hyperkalemia (21.0%, p < 0.0001) compared to normokalemic patients (9.5%), whereas hypokalemia was not significantly associated with mortality. After adjustment for age, sex, and individual comorbidities, hyperkalemia was still associated with increased risk of death 30 days after admission (HR = 1.93 [1.55-2.40], p < 0.0001). After the same adjustments, hypokalemia remained non-associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality (HR = 1.06 [0.87-1.29], p = 0.6). Hyperkalemia, but not hypokalemia, at admission is associated with increased 30-day mortality after a hip fracture.

  9. Relationships between in-hospital and 30-day standardized hospital mortality: implications for profiling hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, G. E.; Baker, D. W.; Norris, D. G.; Way, L. E.; Harper, D. L.; Snow, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates and the association between in-hospital mortality and hospital discharge practices. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: A secondary analysis of data for 13,834 patients with congestive heart failure who were admitted to 30 hospitals in northeast Ohio in 1992-1994. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and clinical data were collected from patients' medical records and were used to develop multivariable models that estimated the risk of in-hospital and 30-day (post-admission) mortality. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for in-hospital and 30-day mortality were determined by dividing observed death rates by predicted death rates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-hospital SMRs ranged from 0.54 to 1.42, and six hospitals were classified as statistical outliers (p <.05); 30-day SMRs ranged from 0.63 to 1.73, and seven hospitals were outliers. Although the correlation between in-hospital SMRs and 30-day SMRs was substantial (R = 0.78, p < .001), outlier status changed for seven of the 30 hospitals. Nonetheless, changes in outlier status reflected relatively small differences between in-hospital and 30-day SMRs. Rates of discharge to nursing homes or other inpatient facilities varied from 5.4 percent to 34.2 percent across hospitals. However, relationships between discharge rates to such facilities and in-hospital SMRs (R = 0.08; p = .65) and early post-discharge mortality rates (R = 0.23; p = .21) were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: SMRs based on in-hospital and 30-day mortality were relatively similar, although classification of hospitals as statistical outliers often differed. However, there was no evidence that in-hospital SMRs were biased by differences in post-discharge mortality or discharge practices. PMID:10737447

  10. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and 30-day mortality among patients with pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Ghiasi, Farzin; Ahmadpoor, Amin; Amra, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the most life-threatening form of venous thrombosis which causes the majority of mortalities in this category. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been indicated as one of the risk factors for thromboembolism because of hemostatic alterations. The present study was designed to seek for the relationship between OSA and 30-day mortality of patients with PE. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted among 137 consecutive patients referred to hospital with symptoms of PE and preliminary stable hemodynamic. Confirmation of PE was made by multislice computed tomography pulmonary angiography and in the case of contraindication; V/Q lung scan and Doppler sonography were done. A STOP-Bang Questionnaire was used to determine patients with high- and low-risk of OSA. Patients were followed up for 1-month, and their survivals were recorded. Results: This study showed that there was no relationship between OSA and 30-day mortality (P = 0.389). Chronic kidney disease (P = 0.004), hypertension (P = 0.003), main thrombus (P = 0.004), and segmental thrombus (P = 0.022) were associated with 30-day mortality. In the logistic regression analysis, history of chronic kidney disease was diagnosed as a risk factor for 30-day mortality among the PE patients (P = 0.029, odds ratio = 4.93). Conclusion: Results of this study showed 30-day mortality was not affected by OSA directly. In fact, it was affected by complications of OSA such as hypertension and thrombus. Also, positive history of chronic kidney disease increased the risk of 30-day mortality. PMID:26622255

  11. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Causes and Predictors of 30-Day Mortality Following Hip Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Fahad Siddique; Aqil, Adeel; Akinbamijo, Babawande; Mushtaq, Vhaid; Kapoor, Harish

    2017-01-01

    Background A fracture neck of femur is the leading cause of injury-related mortality in the elderly population. The 30-day mortality figure is a well utilised marker of clinical outcome following a fracture neck of femur. Current studies fail to analyse all patient demographic, biochemical and comorbid parameters associated with increased 30-day mortality. We aimed to assess medical risk factors for mortality, which are easily identifiable on admission for patients presenting with a fractured neck of femur. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively populated database was undertaken to identify all consecutive patients with a fracture neck of femur between October 2008 and March 2011. All factors related to the patient, injury and surgery were identified. The primary outcome of interest was 30-day mortality. Univariate and subsequent multivariate analyses using a backward stepwise likelihood ratio Cox regression model were performed in order to establish all parameters that significantly increased the risk of death. Results A total of 1,356 patients were included in the study. The 30-day mortality was 8.7%. The most common causes of death included pneumonia, sepsis and acute myocardial infarction. Multiple regression analysis revealed male gender, increasing age, admission source other than the patient's own home, admission haemoglobin of less than 10 g/dL, a history of myocardial infarction, concomitant chest infection during admission, increasing Charlson comorbidity score and liver disease to be significant predictors of mortality. Conclusions This study has elucidated risk factors for mortality using clinical and biochemical information which are easily gathered at the point of hospitalization. These results allow for identification of vulnerable patients who may benefit from a prioritisation of resources. PMID:28261422

  12. Predictive value of NT-proBNP for 30-day mortality in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a comparison with the GRACE and TIMI risk scores

    PubMed Central

    Schellings, Dirk AAM; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Gosselink, AT Marcel; Kedhi, Elvin; Roolvink, Vincent; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; van’t Hof, Arnoud WJ

    2016-01-01

    Background The biomarker N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts outcome in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). Whether NT-proBNP has incremental prognostic value beyond established risk strategies is still questionable. Purpose To evaluate the predictive value of NT-proBNP for 30-day mortality over and beyond the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores in patients with NSTE-ACS. Methods Patients included in our ACS registry were candidates. NT-proBNP levels on admission were measured and the GRACE and TIMI risk scores were assessed. We compared the predictive value of NT-proBNP to both risk scores and evaluated whether NT-proBNP improves prognostication by using receiver operator curves and measures of discrimination improvement. Results A total of 1324 patients were included and 50 patients died during follow-up. On logistic regression analysis NT-proBNP and the GRACE risk score (but not the TIMI risk score) both independently predicted mortality at 30 days. The predictive value of NT-proBNP did not differ significantly compared to the GRACE risk score (area under the curve [AUC]) 0.85 vs 0.87 p=0.67) but was considerably higher in comparison to the TIMI risk score (AUC 0.60 p<0.001). Adjustment of the GRACE risk score by adding NT-proBNP did not improve prognostication: AUC 0.86 (p=0.57), integrated discrimination improvement 0.04 (p=0.003), net reclassification improvement 0.12 (p=0.21). Conclusion In patients with NSTE-ACS, NT-proBNP and the GRACE risk score (but not the TIMI risk score) both have good and comparable predictive value for 30-day mortality. However, incremental prognostic value of NT-proBNP beyond the GRACE risk score could not be demonstrated. PMID:27920547

  13. Measuring hospital mortality rates: are 30-day data enough? Ischemic Heart Disease Patient Outcomes Research Team.

    PubMed Central

    Garnick, D W; DeLong, E R; Luft, H S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We compare 30-day and 180-day postadmission hospital mortality rates for all Medicare patients and those in three categories of cardiac care: coronary artery bypass graft surgery, acute myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. DATA SOURCES/COLLECTION. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) hospital mortality data for FY 1989. STUDY DESIGN. Using hospital level public use files of actual and predicted mortality at 30 and 180 days, we constructed residual mortality measures for each hospital. We ranked hospitals and used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to compare 0-30, 31-180, and 0-180-day postadmission mortality. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. For the admissions we studied, we found a broad range of hospital performance when we ranked hospitals using the 30-day data; some hospitals had much lower than predicted 30-day mortality rates, while others had much higher than predicted mortality rates. Data from the time period 31-180 days postadmission yield results that corroborate the 0-30 day postadmission data. Moreover, we found evidence that hospital performance on one condition is related to performance on the other conditions, but that the correlation is much weaker in the 31-180-day interval than in the 0-30-day period. Using ROC curves, we found that the 30-day data discriminated the top and bottom fifths of the 180-day data extremely well, especially for AMI outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. Using data on cumulative hospital mortality from 180 days postadmission does not yield a different perspective from using data from 30 days postadmission for the conditions we studied. PMID:7860319

  14. New consensus definition for acute kidney injury accurately predicts 30-day mortality in cirrhosis with infection

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Florence; O’Leary, Jacqueline G; Reddy, K Rajender; Patton, Heather; Kamath, Patrick S; Fallon, Michael B; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Subramanian, Ram M.; Malik, Raza; Maliakkal, Benedict; Thacker, Leroy R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims A consensus conference proposed that cirrhosis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) be defined as an increase in serum creatinine by >50% from the stable baseline value in <6 months or by ≥0.3mg/dL in <48 hrs. We prospectively evaluated the ability of these criteria to predict mortality within 30 days among hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and infection. Methods 337 patients with cirrhosis admitted with or developed an infection in hospital (56% men; 56±10 y old; model for end-stage liver disease score, 20±8) were followed. We compared data on 30-day mortality, hospital length-of-stay, and organ failure between patients with and without AKI. Results 166 (49%) developed AKI during hospitalization, based on the consensus criteria. Patients who developed AKI had higher admission Child-Pugh (11.0±2.1 vs 9.6±2.1; P<.0001), and MELD scores (23±8 vs17±7; P<.0001), and lower mean arterial pressure (81±16mmHg vs 85±15mmHg; P<.01) than those who did not. Also higher amongst patients with AKI were mortality in ≤30 days (34% vs 7%), intensive care unit transfer (46% vs 20%), ventilation requirement (27% vs 6%), and shock (31% vs 8%); AKI patients also had longer hospital stays (17.8±19.8 days vs 13.3±31.8 days) (all P<.001). 56% of AKI episodes were transient, 28% persistent, and 16% resulted in dialysis. Mortality was 80% among those without renal recovery, higher compared to partial (40%) or complete recovery (15%), or AKI-free patients (7%; P<.0001). Conclusions 30-day mortality is 10-fold higher among infected hospitalized cirrhotic patients with irreversible AKI than those without AKI. The consensus definition of AKI accurately predicts 30-day mortality, length of hospital stay, and organ failure. PMID:23999172

  15. Preadmission use of SSRIs alone or in combination with NSAIDs and 30-day mortality after peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Gasse, Christiane; Christensen, Steffen; Riis, Anders; Mortensen, Preben B; Adamsen, Sven; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increases the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and this risk is amplified by concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The aim of the study was to examine the impact of SSRI use alone or in combination with NSAIDs on 30-day mortality after peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). MATERIAL AND METHODS. A population-based cohort study of patients with a first hospitalization with PUB in three Danish counties was carried out between 1991 and 2005 using medical databases. We calculated 30-day mortality rate ratios (MRRs) associated with the use of SSRIs, alone or in combination with NSAIDs, adjusted for important covariates. RESULTS. Of 7415 patients admitted with PUB, 5.9% used SSRIs only, and 3.8% used SSRIs in combination with NSAIDs, with a 30-day mortality of 11.8% and 11.3%, respectively. Compared with patients who used neither SSRIs nor NSAIDs, the adjusted 30-day MRR was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.76-1.36) for current users of SSRIs and 0.89 (0.62-1.28) for the combined use of SSRIs with NSAIDs. There was a 2.11-fold (95% CI 1.35-3.30) increased risk of death associated with SSRI use starting within 60 days of admission; for those younger than 80 years, the adjusted MRR was 1.54 (0.72-3.29), and 2.57 (1.47-4.49) for those older than 80 years. CONCLUSIONS. Use of SSRIs, alone or in combination with NSAIDs, was not associated with increased 30-day mortality following PUB. However, increased mortality was found in patients who started SSRI therapy, particularly among those older than 80 years. We can only speculate on whether this finding is due to pharmacological action or confounding factors.

  16. Analysis of weekend effect on 30-day mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Noad, Rebecca; Stevenson, Michael; Herity, Niall A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Several publications have demonstrated increased 30-day mortality in patients admitted on Saturdays or Sundays compared with weekdays. We sought to determine whether this was true for two different cohorts of patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results Thirty-day mortality data were obtained for 3757 patients who had been admitted to the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust with acute MI between 2009 and 2015. They were subdivided into those presenting with ST elevation MI (n=2240) and non-ST elevation MI (n= 1517). We observed no excess 30-day mortality in those admitted over weekends. Conclusion Excess mortality in patients admitted at weekends is not a universal finding. This may mean that that there are patient subgroups with proportionately greater weekend hazard and points to the need for more detailed understanding of the weekend effect.

  17. Surgeon volume and 30 day mortality for brain tumours in England

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Matt; Treasure, Peter; Greenberg, David; Brodbelt, Andrew; Collins, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that surgeons who perform more operations have better outcomes. However, in patients with brain tumours, all of the evidence comes from the USA. Methods: We examined all English patients with an intracranial neoplasm who had an intracranial resection in 2008–2010. We included surgeons who performed at least six operations over 3 years, and at least one operation in the first and last 6 months of the period. Results: The analysis data set comprised 9194 operations, 163 consultant neurosurgeons and 30 centres. Individual surgeon volumes varied widely (7–272; median=46). 72% of operations were on the brain, and 30 day mortality was 3%. A doubling of surgeon load was associated with a 20% relative reduction in mortality. Thirty day mortality varied between centres (0·95–8·62%) but was not related to centre workload. Conclusions: Individual surgeon volumes correlated with patient 30 day mortality. Centres and surgeons in England are busier than surgeons and centres in the USA. There is no relationship between centre volume and 30 day mortality in England. Services in the UK appear to be adequately arranged at a centre level, but would benefit from further surgeon sub-specialisation. PMID:27764843

  18. Hypotension During Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure Is Independently Associated With 30-Day Mortality: Findings from ASCEND-HF

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyesh A.; Heizer, Gretchen; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Schulte, Phillip J.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Hasselblad, Vic; Mills, Roger M.; McMurray, John J.; Starling, Randall C.; Wilson Tang, W. H.; Califf, Robert M.; Hernandez, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Outcomes associated with episodes of hypotension while hospitalized are not well understood. Methods and Results Using data from ASCEND-HF, we assessed factors associated with inhospital hypotension and subsequent 30-day outcomes. Patients were classified as having symptomatic or asymptomatic hypotension. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with in-hospital hypotension, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between hypotension and 30-day outcomes. We also tested for treatment interaction with nesiritide on 30-day outcomes and the association between inhospital hypotension and renal function at hospital discharge. Overall, 1555/7141 (21.8%) patients had an episode of hypotension, of which 73.1% were asymptomatic and 26.9% were symptomatic. Factors strongly associated with in-hospital hypotension included randomization to nesiritide (odds ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.76–2.23; p<0.001), chronic metolazone therapy (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.60; p<0.001), and baseline orthopnea (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.13–1.52; p=0.001) or S3 gallop (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.06–1.40; p=0.006). In-hospital hypotension was associated with increased hazards of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% CI 1.57–2.61; p<0.001), 30-day heart failure (HF) hospitalization or mortality (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.34–1.86; p<0.001), and 30-day all-cause hospitalization or mortality (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.22–1.61; p<0.001). Nesiritide had no interaction on the relationship between hypotension and 30-day outcomes (interaction p=0.874 for death, p=0.908 for death/HF hospitalization, p=0.238 death/all-cause hospitalization). Conclusions Hypotension while hospitalized for acute decompensated HF is an independent risk factor for adverse 30-day outcomes, and its occurrence highlights the need for modified treatment strategies. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT

  19. Integrated systems of stroke care and reduction in 30-day mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Aravind; Lindsay, Patrice; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K.; Côté, Robert; Joiner, Ian; Hakim, Antoine M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between the presence of integrated systems of stroke care and stroke case-fatality across Canada. Methods: We used the Canadian Institute of Health Information's Discharge Abstract Database to retrospectively identify a cohort of stroke/TIA patients admitted to all acute care hospitals, excluding the province of Quebec, in 11 fiscal years from 2003/2004 to 2013/2014. We used a modified Poisson regression model to compute the adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of 30-day in-hospital mortality across time for provinces with stroke systems compared to those without, controlling for age, sex, stroke type, comorbidities, and discharge year. We conducted surveys of stroke care resources in Canadian hospitals in 2009 and 2013, and compared resources in provinces with integrated systems to those without. Results: A total of 319,972 patients were hospitalized for stroke/TIA. The crude 30-day mortality rate decreased from 15.8% in 2003/2004 to 12.7% in 2012/2013 in provinces with stroke systems, while remaining 14.5% in provinces without such systems. Starting with the fiscal year 2009/2010, there was a clear reduction in relative mortality in provinces with stroke systems vs those without, sustained at aIRR of 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.79–0.92) in the 2011/2012, 2012/2013, and 2013/2014 fiscal years. The surveys indicated that facilities in provinces with such systems were more likely to care for patients on a stroke unit, and have timely access to a stroke prevention clinic and telestroke services. Conclusion: In this retrospective study, the implementation of integrated systems of stroke care was associated with a population-wide reduction in mortality after stroke. PMID:26850979

  20. Nonclinical Factors Associated with 30-Day Mortality after Lung Cancer Resection: An Analysis of 215,000 Patients Using the National Cancer Data Base

    PubMed Central

    Melvan, John N; Sancheti, Manu S; Gillespie, Theresa; Nickleach, Dana C; Liu, Yuan; Higgins, Kristin; Ramalingam, Suresh; Lipscomb, Joseph; Fernandez, Felix G

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical variables associated with 30-day mortality after lung cancer surgery are well known. However, the effects of non-clinical factors, including insurance coverage, household income, education, type of treatment center, and area of residence, on short term survival are less appreciated. We studied the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), a joint endeavor of the Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society, to identify disparities in 30-day mortality after lung cancer resection based on these non-clinical factors. Study Design We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients undergoing lung cancer resection from 2003-2011, using the NCDB. Data were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model to identify risk factors for 30-day mortality. Results 215,645 patients underwent lung cancer resection during our study period. We found that clinical variables such as age, gender, comorbidity, cancer stage, preoperative radiation, extent of resection, positive surgical margins, and tumor size were associated with 30-day mortality after resection. Non-clinical factors including living in lower income neighborhoods with a lesser proportion of high school graduates, and receiving cancer care at a non-academic medical center were also independently associated with increased 30-day postoperative mortality. Conclusions This study represents the largest analysis of 30-day mortality for lung cancer resection to date from a generalizable national cohort. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to known clinical risk factors, several non-clinical factors are associated with increased 30-day mortality after lung cancer resection. These disparities require further investigation to improve lung cancer patient outcomes. PMID:26206651

  1. Extent of Surgery Does Not Influence 30-Day Mortality in Surgery for Metastatic Bone Disease: An Observational Study of a Historical Cohort.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Michala Skovlund; Hindsø, Klaus; Hovgaard, Thea Bechmann; Petersen, Michael Mørk

    2016-04-01

    Estimating patient survival has hitherto been the main focus when treating metastatic bone disease (MBD) in the appendicular skeleton. This has been done in an attempt to allocate the patient to a surgical procedure that outlives them. No questions have been addressed as to whether the extent of the surgery and thus the surgical trauma reduces survival in this patient group. We wanted to evaluate if perioperative parameters such as blood loss, extent of bone resection, and duration of surgery were risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients having surgery due to MBD in the appendicular skeleton. We retrospectively identified 270 consecutive patients who underwent joint replacement surgery or intercalary spacing for skeletal metastases in the appendicular skeleton from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013. We collected intraoperative (duration of surgery, extent of bone resection, and blood loss), demographic (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologist score [ASA score], and Karnofsky score), and disease-specific (primary cancer) variables. An association with 30-day mortality was addressed using univariate and multivariable analyses and calculation of odds ratio (OR). All patients were included in the analysis. ASA score 3 + 4 (OR 4.16 [95% confidence interval, CI, 1.80-10.85], P = 0.002) and Karnofsky performance status below 70 (OR 7.34 [95% CI 3.16-19.20], P < 0.001) were associated with increased 30-day mortality in univariate analysis. This did not change in multivariable analysis. No parameters describing the extent of the surgical trauma were found to be associated with 30-day mortality. The 30-day mortality in patients undergoing surgery for MBD is highly dependent on the general health status of the patients as measured by the ASA score and the Karnofsky performance status. The extent of surgery, measured as duration of surgery, blood loss, and degree of bone resection were not associated with 30-day mortality.

  2. Early inpatient calculation of laboratory-based 30-day readmission risk scores empowers clinical risk modification during index hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Horne, Benjamin D; Budge, Deborah; Masica, Andrew L; Savitz, Lucy A; Benuzillo, José; Cantu, Gabriela; Bradshaw, Alejandra; McCubrey, Raymond O; Bair, Tami L; Roberts, Colleen A; Rasmusson, Kismet D; Alharethi, Rami; Kfoury, Abdallah G; James, Brent C; Lappé, Donald L

    2017-03-01

    Improving 30-day readmission continues to be problematic for most hospitals. This study reports the creation and validation of sex-specific inpatient (i) heart failure (HF) risk scores using electronic data from the beginning of inpatient care for effective and efficient prediction of 30-day readmission risk.

  3. Factors associated with 30-day mortality in elderly inpatients with community acquired pneumonia during 2 influenza seasons.

    PubMed

    Torner, Núria; Izquierdo, Conchita; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Chamorro, Judith; Espejo, Elena; Fernández-Sierra, Amelia; Domínguez, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia unrelated to hospitals or extended-care facilities. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with 30-day mortality in patients with CAP aged ≥ 65 y admitted to 20 hospitals in 7 Spanish regions during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 influenza seasons. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with 30-day mortality. The adjusted model included variables selected by backward elimination with a cut off of < 0.02. A total of 1928 CAP cases were recorded; 60.7% were male, 46.67% were aged 75-84 years, and 30-day mortality was 7.6% (n = 146). Pneumococcal vaccination had a significant protective effect (OR 0.68, 95% CI, 0.48-0.96; p = 0.03) and influenza vaccination in any 3 preceding seasons slight protective effect against CAP (OR 0.72, 95% CI, 0.51-1.02;p = 0.06). Factors significantly associated with 30-day mortality were having a degree of dependence (aOR 3.67, 95% CI, 2.34-5.75; p < 0,001); age ≥ 85 y (OR 3.01, 95% CI, 1.71-5.30; p < 0.001), liver impairment (aOR 2.41, 95% CI, 1.10-5.31; p = 0.03); solid organ neoplasm (aOR 2.24, 95% CI, 1.46-3.45; p < 0.001), impaired cognitive function (aOR 1.93, 95% CI, 1.22-3.05; p = 0.005), and ICU admittance (aOR2.56, 95% CI, 1.27-5.16; p = 0.009); length of stay (aOR 1.56, 95% CI, 1.02 - 2.40; p = 0.04) and cardio-respiratory resuscitation (aOR 7.75, 95% CI, 1.20 - 49.98; p = 0.03). No association was observed for other comorbidities such as chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) or heart conditions in the adjusted model. Offering both pneumococcal and influenza vaccination to the elderly may improve 30-day mortality in patients with CAP.

  4. Risk Factors and Indications for 30-Day Readmission After Primary Surgery for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    AlHilli, Mariam; Langstraat, Carrie; Tran, Christine; Martin, Janice; Weaver, Amy; McGree, Michaela; Mariani, Andrea; Cliby, William; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify patients at risk for postoperative morbidities, we evaluated indications and factors associated with 30-day readmission after epithelial ovarian cancer surgery. Methods Patients undergoing primary surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer between January 2, 2003, and December 29, 2008, were evaluated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with 30-day readmission. A parsimonious multivariable model was identified using backward and stepwise variable selection. Results In total, 324 (60.2%) patients were stage III and 91 (16.9%) were stage IV. Of all 538 eligible patients, 104 (19.3%) were readmitted within 30 days. Cytoreduction to no residual disease was achieved in 300 (55.8%) patients, and 167 (31.0%) had measurable disease (≤1 cm residual disease). The most common indications for readmission were surgical site infection (SSI; 21.2%), pleural effusion/ascites management (14.4%), and thromboembolic events (12.5%). Multivariate analysis identified American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher (odds ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–2.89; P = 0.007), ascites [1.76 (1.11–2.81); P = 0.02], and postoperative complications during initial admission [grade 3–5 vs none, 2.47 (1.19–5.16); grade 1 vs none, 2.19 (0.98–4.85); grade 2 vs none, 1.28 (0.74–2.21); P = 0.048] to be independently associated with 30-day readmission (c-index = 0.625). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the sole predictor of readmission for SSI (odds ratio, 3.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–4.33; P = 0.04). Conclusions Clinically significant risk factors for 30-day readmission include American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher, ascites and postoperative complications at initial admission. The SSI and pleural effusions/ascites are common indications for readmission. Systems can be developed to predict patients needing outpatient management, improve care, and reduce

  5. Assessing Risk and Preventing 30-Day Readmissions in Decompensated Heart Failure: Opportunity to Intervene?

    PubMed

    Dunbar-Yaffe, Richard; Stitt, Audra; Lee, Joseph J; Mohamed, Shanas; Lee, Douglas S

    2015-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients are at high risk of hospital readmission, which contributes to substantial health care costs. There is great interest in strategies to reduce rehospitalization for HF. However, many readmissions occur within 30 days of initial hospital discharge, presenting a challenge for interventions to be instituted in a short time frame. Potential strategies to reduce readmissions for HF can be classified into three different forms. First, patients who are at high risk of readmission can be identified even before their initial index hospital discharge. Second, ambulatory remote monitoring strategies may be instituted to identify early warning signs before acute decompensation of HF occurs. Finally, strategies may be employed in the emergency department to identify low-risk patients who may not need hospital readmission. If symptoms improve with initial therapy, low-risk patients could be referred to specialized, rapid outpatient follow-up care where investigations and therapy can occur in an outpatient setting.

  6. Adding Laboratory Data to Hospital Claims Data to Improve Risk Adjustment of Inpatient/30-Day Postdischarge Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pine, Michael; Fry, Donald E; Hannan, Edward L; Naessens, James M; Whitman, Kay; Reband, Agnes; Qian, Feng; Schindler, Joseph; Sonneborn, Mark; Roland, Jaclyn; Hyde, Linda; Dennison, Barbara A

    Numerical laboratory data at admission have been proposed for enhancement of inpatient predictive modeling from administrative claims. In this study, predictive models for inpatient/30-day postdischarge mortality and for risk-adjusted prolonged length of stay, as a surrogate for severe inpatient complications of care, were designed with administrative data only and with administrative data plus numerical laboratory variables. A comparison of resulting inpatient models for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, coronary artery bypass grafting, and percutaneous cardiac interventions demonstrated improved discrimination and calibration with administrative data plus laboratory values compared to administrative data only for both mortality and prolonged length of stay. Improved goodness of fit was most apparent in acute myocardial infarction and percutaneous cardiac intervention. The emergence of electronic medical records should make the addition of laboratory variables to administrative data an efficient and practical method to clinically enhance predictive modeling of inpatient outcomes of care.

  7. Incidence And Risk Factors For 30-Day Readmissions After Hip Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christopher T; Gao, Yubo; Pugely, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unplanned hospital readmission following orthopedic procedures results in significant expenditures for the Medicare population. In order to reduce expenditures, hospital readmission has become an important quality metric for Medicare patients. The purpose of the present study is to determine the incidence and risk factors for 30-day readmissions after hip fracture surgery. Methods Patients over the age of 18 years who underwent hip fracture surgery, including open reduction internal fixation (ORIF), intramedullary nailing, hemi-arthroplasty, or total hip arthroplasty, between the years 2012 and 2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Overall, 17,765 patients were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to determine patient and surgical factors associated with 30-day readmission. Results There were 1503 patients (8.4%) readmitted within 30-days of their index procedure. Of the patients with a reason listed for readmission, 27.4% were for procedurally related reasons, including wound complications (16%), peri-prosthetic fractures (4.5%) and prosthetic dislocations (6%). 72.6% of readmissions were for medical reasons, including sepsis (7%), pneumonia (14%), urinary tract infection (6.3%), myocardial infarction (2.7%), renal failure (2.7%), and stroke (2.3%). In the subsequent multivariate analysis, pre-operative dyspnea, COPD, hypertension, disseminated cancer, a bleeding disorder, pre-operative hematocrit of <36, pre-operative creatinine of >1.2, an ASA class of 3 or 4, and the operative procedure type were each independently associated with readmissions risk (p<0.05 for each). Conclusions The overall rate of readmission following hip fracture surgery was moderate. Surgeons should consider discharge optimization in the at risk cohorts identified here, particularly patients with multiple medical comorbidities or an elevated ASA class, and

  8. 30-Day Mortality and Late Survival with Reinterventions and Readmissions after Open and Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair in Medicare Beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Kristina A; Landon, Bruce E; Cotterill, Philip; O'Malley, A. James; Pomposelli, Frank B; Schermerhorn, Marc L

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Late survival is similar after EVAR and open AAA repair despite a perioperative benefit with EVAR. AAA-related reinterventions are more common after EVAR while laparotomy related reinterventions are more common after open repair. The impact of reinterventions on survival, however, is unknown. We therefore evaluate the rate of reinterventions and readmission after initial AAA repair along with 30-day mortality and the effect upon long term survival. Methods We identified AAA and laparotomy-related reinterventions for propensity score matched cohorts of Medicare beneficiaries (n=45,652) undergoing EVAR and open repair from 2001-2004. Follow-up was up to 6 years. Hospitalizations for ruptured AAA without repair and for bowel obstruction or ventral hernia without abdominal surgery were also recorded. Event rates were calculated per year and are also presented through 6 years of follow-up as events per 100 person years. Thirty day mortality was calculated for each reintervention or readmission. Results Through 6 years, overall reinterventions or readmissions were similar between repair methods but slightly more common after EVAR (7.6 vs. 7.0 per 100 person years, RR 1.1, P < .001). Overall 30 day mortality with any reintervention or readmission was 9.1%. EVAR patients had more ruptures (0.50 vs. 0.09, RR 5.7, P < .001) with a mortality of 28%, but these were uncommon. EVAR patients also had more AAA-related reinterventions through 6 years (3.7 vs. 0.9, RR 4.0, P < .001) (mortality 5.6%), the majority of which were minor endovascular reinterventions (2.4 vs. 0.2, RR 11.4, P < .001) with a 30 day mortality of 3.0%. However, minor open (0.8 vs. 0.5, RR 1.4, P < .001) (mortality 6.9%) and major reinterventions (0.4 vs. 0.2, RR 2.4, P < .001) (mortality 12.1%) were also more common after EVAR than open repair. Conversely, EVAR patients had fewer laparotomy related reinterventions than open patients (1.4 vs. 3.0, RR 0.5, P < .001) (mortality 8.1%) and readmissions

  9. 78 FR 64145 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing..., 2013. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency... Secretary to implement risk sharing with State and local housing finance agencies (HFAs). Under this...

  10. 78 FR 65696 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing... Collection Title of Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk- Sharing Program. OMB Approval Number... with State and local housing finance agencies (HFAs). Under this program, HUD provides full...

  11. Radiologic Findings and Patient Factors Associated with 30-Day Mortality after Surgical Evacuation of Subdural Hematoma in Patients Less Than 65 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Han, Myung-Hoon; Ryu, Je Il; Kim, Choong Hyun; Kim, Jae Min; Cheong, Jin Hwan; Yi, Hyeong-Joong

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the associations between 30-day mortality and various radiological and clinical factors in patients with traumatic acute subdural hematoma (SDH). During the 11-year study period, young patients who underwent surgery for SDH were followed for 30 days. Patients who died due to other medical comorbidities or other organ problems were not included in the study population. Methods From January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2014, 318 consecutive surgically-treated traumatic acute SDH patients were registered for the study. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to analyze 30-day survival rates. We also estimated the hazard ratios of various variables in order to identify the independent predictors of 30-day mortality. Results We observed a negative correlation between 30-day mortality and Glasgow coma scale score (per 1-point score increase) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52–0.70; p<0.001). In addition, use of antithrombotics (HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.27–4.33; p=0.008), history of diabetes mellitus (HR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.20–4.32; p=0.015), and accompanying traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (hazard ratio, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.27–3.58; p=0.005) were positively associated with 30-day mortality. Conclusion We found significant associations between short-term mortality after surgery for traumatic acute SDH and lower Glasgow Coma Scale scores, use of antithrombotics, history of diabetes mellitus, and accompanying traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage at admission. We expect these findings to be helpful for selecting patients for surgical treatment of traumatic acute SDH, and for making accurate prognoses. PMID:28264246

  12. Predictors of 30-Day Mortality and 90-Day Functional Recovery after Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage : Hospital Based Multivariate Analysis in 585 Patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify independent predictors of mortality and functional recovery in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and to improve functional outcome in these patients. Methods Data were collected retrospectively on 585 patients with supratentorial PICH admitted to the Stroke Unit at our hospital between 1st January 2004 and the 31st July 2008. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the associations between all selected variables and 30-day mortality and 90-day functional recoveries after PICH was evaluated. Results Ninety-day functional recovery was achieved in 29.1% of the 585 patients and 30-day mortality in 15.9%. Age (OR=7.384, p=0.000), limb weakness (OR=6.927, p=0.000), and hematoma volume (OR=5.293, p=0.000) were found to be powerful predictors of 90-day functional recovery. Furthermore, initial consciousness (OR=3.013, p=0.014) hematoma location (lobar, OR=2.653, p=0.003), ventricular extension of blood (OR=2.077, p=0.013), leukocytosis (OR=2.048, p=0.008), alcohol intake (drinker, OR=1.927, p=0.023), and increased serum aminotransferase (OR=1.892, p=0.035) were found to be independent predictors of 90-day functional recovery after PICH. On the other hand, a pupillary abnormality (OR=4.532, p=0.000) and initial unconsciousness (OR=3.362, p=0.000) were found to be independent predictors of 30-day mortality after PICH. Conclusion The predictors of mortality and functional recovery after PICH identified during this analysis may assist during clinical decision-making, when advising patients or family members about the prognosis of PICH and when planning intervention trials. PMID:19609417

  13. Length of stay, wait time to surgery and 30-day mortality for patients with hip fractures after the opening of a dedicated orthopedic weekend trauma room

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michel; Hopman, Wilma; Yach, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Background In September 2011, Kingston General Hospital (KGH) opened a dedicated orthopedic weekend trauma room. Previously, 1 weekend operating room (OR) was used by all surgical services. We assessed the impact this dedicated weekend trauma room had on hospital length of stay (LOS), time to surgery and 30-day mortality for patients with hip fractures. Methods Patients admitted between Oct. 1, 2009, and Sept. 30, 2012, were identified through our trauma registry, representing the 2 years before and 1 year after the opening of the orthopedic weekend trauma room. We documented type of fracture, mode of fixation, age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, time to OR, LOS, discharge disposition and 30-day mortality. We excluded patients with multiple fractures, open fractures and those requiring trauma team activation. Results Our study included 609 patients (405 pre- and 204 post–trauma room opening). Mean LOS decreased from 11.6 to 9.4 days (p = 0.005) and there was a decreasing trend in mean time to OR from 31.5 to 28.5 hours (p = 0.16). There was no difference in 30-day mortality (p = 0.24). The LOS decreased by an average of 2 days following opening of the weekend trauma room (p = 0.031) and by an average of 2.2 additional days if the patient was admitted on the weekend versus during the week (p = 0.024). Conclusion The weekend trauma OR at KGH significantly decreased the LOS and appears to have decreased wait times to surgery. Further analysis is needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the current strategy, the long-term outcome of this patient population and the impact the additional orthopedic weekend trauma room has had on other surgical services (i.e., general surgery) and their patients. PMID:27668332

  14. External Validation of a Case-Mix Adjustment Model for the Standardized Reporting of 30-Day Stroke Mortality Rates in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ping; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, Yongjun; Wang, Xianwei; Liu, Liping; Ji, Ruijun; Meng, Xia; Jing, Jing; Tong, Xu; Guo, Li; Wang, Yilong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose A case-mix adjustment model has been developed and externally validated, demonstrating promise. However, the model has not been thoroughly tested among populations in China. In our study, we evaluated the performance of the model in Chinese patients with acute stroke. Methods The case-mix adjustment model A includes items on age, presence of atrial fibrillation on admission, National Institutes of Health Stroke Severity Scale (NIHSS) score on admission, and stroke type. Model B is similar to Model A but includes only the consciousness component of the NIHSS score. Both model A and B were evaluated to predict 30-day mortality rates in 13,948 patients with acute stroke from the China National Stroke Registry. The discrimination of the models was quantified by c-statistic. Calibration was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results The c-statistic of model A in our external validation cohort was 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.79–0.82), and the c-statistic of model B was 0.82 (95% confidence interval, 0.81–0.84). Excellent calibration was reported in the two models with Pearson’s correlation coefficient (0.892 for model A, p<0.001; 0.927 for model B, p = 0.008). Conclusions The case-mix adjustment model could be used to effectively predict 30-day mortality rates in Chinese patients with acute stroke. PMID:27846282

  15. Development, Validation and Deployment of a Real Time 30 Day Hospital Readmission Risk Assessment Tool in the Maine Healthcare Information Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shiying; Wang, Yue; Jin, Bo; Shin, Andrew Young; Zhu, Chunqing; Huang, Min; Zheng, Le; Luo, Jin; Hu, Zhongkai; Fu, Changlin; Dai, Dorothy; Wang, Yicheng; Culver, Devore S.; Alfreds, Shaun T.; Rogow, Todd; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G.; Widen, Eric; Ling, Xuefeng B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Identifying patients at risk of a 30-day readmission can help providers design interventions, and provide targeted care to improve clinical effectiveness. This study developed a risk model to predict a 30-day inpatient hospital readmission for patients in Maine, across all payers, all diseases and all demographic groups. Methods Our objective was to develop a model to determine the risk for inpatient hospital readmission within 30 days post discharge. All patients within the Maine Health Information Exchange (HIE) system were included. The model was retrospectively developed on inpatient encounters between January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 from 24 randomly chosen hospitals, and then prospectively validated on inpatient encounters from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 using all HIE patients. Results A risk assessment tool partitioned the entire HIE population into subgroups that corresponded to probability of hospital readmission as determined by a corresponding positive predictive value (PPV). An overall model c-statistic of 0.72 was achieved. The total 30-day readmission rates in low (score of 0–30), intermediate (score of 30–70) and high (score of 70–100) risk groupings were 8.67%, 24.10% and 74.10%, respectively. A time to event analysis revealed the higher risk groups readmitted to a hospital earlier than the lower risk groups. Six high-risk patient subgroup patterns were revealed through unsupervised clustering. Our model was successfully integrated into the statewide HIE to identify patient readmission risk upon admission and daily during hospitalization or for 30 days subsequently, providing daily risk score updates. Conclusions The risk model was validated as an effective tool for predicting 30-day readmissions for patients across all payer, disease and demographic groups within the Maine HIE. Exposing the key clinical, demographic and utilization profiles driving each patient’s risk of readmission score may be useful to providers

  16. The AFFORD Clinical Decision Aid To Identify Emergency Department Patients With Atrial Fibrillation At Low Risk For 30-Day Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Tyler W.; Storrow, Alan B.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Abraham, Robert L.; Liu, Dandan; Miller, Karen F.; Moser, Kelly M.; Russ, Stephan; Roden, Dan M.; Harrell, Frank E.; Darbar, Dawood

    2015-01-01

    There is wide variation in the management of emergency department (ED) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to derive and internally validate the first prospective, ED-based clinical decision aid to identify patients with AF at low risk for 30-day adverse events. We performed a prospective cohort study at a university-affiliated, tertiary-care, ED. Patients were enrolled from June 9, 2010 to February 28, 2013 and followed for 30 days. We enrolled a convenience sample of ED patients presenting with symptomatic AF. Candidate predictors were based on ED data available in the first two hours. The decision aid was derived using model approximation (preconditioning) followed by strong bootstrap internal validation. We utilized an ordinal outcome hierarchy defined as the incidence of the most severe adverse event within 30 days of the ED evaluation. Of 497 patients enrolled, stroke and AF-related death occurred in 13 (3%) and 4 (<1%) patients, respectively. The decision aid included the following: age, triage vitals (systolic blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, supplemental oxygen requirement); medical history (heart failure, home sotalol use, prior percutaneous coronary intervention, electrical cardioversion, cardiac ablation, frequency of AF symptoms); ED data (2 hour heart rate, chest radiograph results, hemoglobin, creatinine, and brain natriuretic peptide). The decision aid’s c-statistic in predicting any 30-day adverse event was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.65, 0.76). In conclusion, among ED patients with AF, AFFORD provides the first evidence based decision aid for identifying patients who are at low risk for 30-day adverse events and candidates for safe discharge. PMID:25633190

  17. Variation between Hospitals with Regard to Diagnostic Practice, Coding Accuracy, and Case-Mix. A Retrospective Validation Study of Administrative Data versus Medical Records for Estimating 30-Day Mortality after Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Skyrud, Katrine Damgaard; Lindman, Anja Schou

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of patient administrative data (PAS) for calculating 30-day mortality after hip fracture as a quality indicator, by a retrospective study of medical records. Methods We used PAS data from all Norwegian hospitals (2005–2009), merged with vital status from the National Registry, to calculate 30-day case-mix adjusted mortality for each hospital (n = 51). We used stratified sampling to establish a representative sample of both hospitals and cases. The hospitals were stratified according to high, low and medium mortality of which 4, 3, and 5 hospitals were sampled, respectively. Within hospitals, cases were sampled stratified according to year of admission, age, length of stay, and vital 30-day status (alive/dead). The final study sample included 1043 cases from 11 hospitals. Clinical information was abstracted from the medical records. Diagnostic and clinical information from the medical records and PAS were used to define definite and probable hip fracture. We used logistic regression analysis in order to estimate systematic between-hospital variation in unmeasured confounding. Finally, to study the consequences of unmeasured confounding for identifying mortality outlier hospitals, a sensitivity analysis was performed. Results The estimated overall positive predictive value was 95.9% for definite and 99.7% for definite or probable hip fracture, with no statistically significant differences between hospitals. The standard deviation of the additional, systematic hospital bias in mortality estimates was 0.044 on the logistic scale. The effect of unmeasured confounding on outlier detection was small to moderate, noticeable only for large hospital volumes. Conclusions This study showed that PAS data are adequate for identifying cases of hip fracture, and the effect of unmeasured case mix variation was small. In conclusion, PAS data are adequate for calculating 30-day mortality after hip-fracture as a quality

  18. Worse Prognosis in Heart Failure Patients with 30-Day Readmission

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Ying-Chang; Chou, Shing-Hsien; Liu, Kuan-Liang; Hsieh, I-Chang; Wu, Lung-Sheng; Lin, Chia-Pin; Wen, Ming-Shien; Chu, Pao-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) readmission results in substantial expenditure on HF management. This study aimed to evaluate the readmission rate, outcome, and predictors of HF readmission. Methods Patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF < 40%) who were admitted for acute decompensation of de novo HF were enrolled to analyze readmission rate, mortality and predictors of readmission. Results A total of 433 de novo HF patients with LVEF < 40% were enrolled during the period August 2013 to December 2014. The in-hospital and 6-month mortality rates were 3.9% and 15.2%, respectively. In those patients surviving the index HF hospitalization, the 30-day and 6-month readmission rates were 10.9% and 27%, respectively. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, the readmission group had higher mortality than the non-readmission group (27.66% vs. 10.36%; p = 0.001). The survivors of the 30-day readmission had similar mortality rates at 6 months, regardless of the cause of readmission (cardiovascular vs. non-cardiovascular: 25% vs. 30.43%, p = 0.677). Among all the parameters, prescription of beta blockers independently reduced the risk of 30-day readmission (odds ratio 0.15; 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.99; p = 0.049). Conclusions Those HF patients who suffered from 30-day readmission had worse prognosis at the 6-month follow-up. Regardless of the readmission causes, the patients surviving the 30-day readmission had similar mortality rates at 6-month follow-up. These results underscored the importance of reducing readmission as a means to improve HF outcome. PMID:27899857

  19. Comparing three clinical prediction rules for primarily predicting the 30-day mortality of patients with pulmonary embolism: The “Simplified Revised Geneva Score,” the “Original PESI,” and the “Simplified PESI”

    PubMed Central

    Tamizifar, Babak; Fereyduni, Farid; Esfahani, Morteza Abdar; Kheyri, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) should be evaluated for the clinical probability of PE using an applicable risk score. The Geneva prognostic score, the PE Severity Index (PESI), and its simplified version (sPESI) are well-known clinical prognostic scores for PE. The purpose of this study was to analyze these clinical scores as prognostic tools. Materials and Methods: A historical cohort study was conducted on patients with acute PE in Al-Zahra Teaching Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, from June 2013 to August 2014. To compare survival in the 1-month follow-up and factor-analyze mortality from the survival graph, Kaplan–Meier, and log-rank logistic regression were applied. Results: Two hundred and twenty four patients were assigned to two “low risk” and “high risk” groups using the three versions of “Simplified PESI, Original PESI, and Simplified Geneva.” They were followed for a period of 1 month after admission. The overall mortality rate within 1 month from diagnosis was about 24% (95% confidence interval, 21.4–27.2). The mortality rate of low risk PE patients was about 4% in the PESI, 17% in the Geneva, and <1% in the simplified PESI scales (P < 0.005). The mortality rate among high risk patients was 33%, 33.5%, and 27.5%, respectively. Conclusions: Among patients with acute PE, the simplified PESI model was able to accurately predict mortality rate for low risk patients. Among high risk patients, however, the difference between the three models in predicting prognosis was not significant. PMID:27656606

  20. External validation of the Revised Cardiac Risk Index and update of its renal variable to predict 30-day risk of major cardiac complications after non-cardiac surgery: rationale and plan for analyses of the VISION study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michael; Devereaux, P J; MacNeil, S Danielle; Lam, Ngan N; Hildebrand, Ainslie M; Acedillo, Rey R; Mrkobrada, Marko; Chow, Clara K; Lee, Vincent W; Thabane, Lehana; Garg, Amit X

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) is a popular classification system to estimate patients' risk of postoperative cardiac complications based on preoperative risk factors. Renal impairment, defined as serum creatinine >2.0 mg/dL (177 µmol/L), is a component of the RCRI. The estimated glomerular filtration rate has become accepted as a more accurate indicator of renal function. We will externally validate the RCRI in a modern cohort of patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery and update its renal component. Methods and analysis The Vascular Events in Non-cardiac Surgery Patients Cohort Evaluation (VISION) study is an international prospective cohort study. In this prespecified secondary analysis of VISION, we will test the risk estimation performance of the RCRI in ∼34 000 participants who underwent elective non-cardiac surgery between 2007 and 2013 from 29 hospitals in 15 countries. Using data from the first 20 000 eligible participants (the derivation set), we will derive an optimal threshold for dichotomising preoperative renal function quantified using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-Epi) glomerular filtration rate estimating equation in a manner that preserves the original structure of the RCRI. We will also develop a continuous risk estimating equation integrating age and CKD-Epi with existing RCRI risk factors. In the remaining (approximately) 14 000 participants, we will compare the risk estimation for cardiac complications of the original RCRI to this modified version. Cardiac complications will include 30-day non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal cardiac arrest and death due to cardiac causes. We have examined an early sample to estimate the number of events and the distribution of predictors and missing data, but have not seen the validation data at the time of writing. Ethics and dissemination The research ethics board at each site approved the VISION protocol prior to recruitment. We will

  1. Ares I-X 30 Day Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Bob; Smith, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation represents the 30 day report on the Ares I-X test flight. Included in the review is information on the following areas: (1) Ground Systems, (2) Guidance, Navigation and Control, (3) Roll Response, (4) Vehicle Response, (5) Control System Performance, (6) Structural Damping, (7) Thrust Oscillation, (8) Stage Separation, (9) Connector Assessment, (10) USS Splashdown, (11) Data Recorder and (12) FS Hardware Assessment.

  2. 30-Day Survival Probabilities as a Quality Indicator for Norwegian Hospitals: Data Management and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Sahar; Lindman, Anja Schou; Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Tomic, Oliver; Helgeland, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Background The Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (NOKC) reports 30-day survival as a quality indicator for Norwegian hospitals. The indicators have been published annually since 2011 on the website of the Norwegian Directorate of Health (www.helsenorge.no), as part of the Norwegian Quality Indicator System authorized by the Ministry of Health. Openness regarding calculation of quality indicators is important, as it provides the opportunity to critically review and discuss the method. The purpose of this article is to describe the data collection, data pre-processing, and data analyses, as carried out by NOKC, for the calculation of 30-day risk-adjusted survival probability as a quality indicator. Methods and Findings Three diagnosis-specific 30-day survival indicators (first time acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and hip fracture) are estimated based on all-cause deaths, occurring in-hospital or out-of-hospital, within 30 days counting from the first day of hospitalization. Furthermore, a hospital-wide (i.e. overall) 30-day survival indicator is calculated. Patient administrative data from all Norwegian hospitals and information from the Norwegian Population Register are retrieved annually, and linked to datasets for previous years. The outcome (alive/death within 30 days) is attributed to every hospital by the fraction of time spent in each hospital. A logistic regression followed by a hierarchical Bayesian analysis is used for the estimation of risk-adjusted survival probabilities. A multiple testing procedure with a false discovery rate of 5% is used to identify hospitals, hospital trusts and regional health authorities with significantly higher/lower survival than the reference. In addition, estimated risk-adjusted survival probabilities are published per hospital, hospital trust and regional health authority. The variation in risk-adjusted survival probabilities across hospitals for AMI shows a decreasing trend over time: estimated

  3. Weight Discrimination and Risk of Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination based on weight is a stressful social experience linked to declines in physical and mental health. We examine whether this harmful association extends to risk of mortality. Participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; N=13,692) and the Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS; N=5,079) reported on discriminatory experiences and attributed those experiences to personal characteristics, including weight. Weight discrimination was associated with a nearly 60% increased mortality risk in both HRS (HR=1.57, 95% CI=1.34-1.84) and MIDUS (HR=1.59, 95% CI=1.09-2.31) that was not accounted for by common physical and psychological risk factors. The association between weight discrimination and mortality was generally stronger than for other attributions for discrimination. In addition to poor health outcomes, weight discrimination may shorten life expectancy. PMID:26420442

  4. Physical Activity, Health Benefits, and Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinos, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of epidemiologic evidence from large studies supports unequivocally an inverse, independent, and graded association between volume of physical activity, health, and cardiovascular and overall mortality. This association is evident in apparently healthy individuals, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, regardless of body weight. Moreover, the degree of risk associated with physical inactivity is similar to, and in some cases even stronger than, the more traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The exercise-induced health benefits are in part related to favorable modulations of cardiovascular risk factors observed by increased physical activity or structured exercise programs. Although the independent contribution of the exercise components, intensity, duration, and frequency to the reduction of mortality risk is not clear, it is well accepted that an exercise volume threshold defined at caloric expenditure of approximately 1,000 Kcal per week appears to be necessary for significant reduction in mortality risk. Further reductions in risk are observed with higher volumes of energy expenditure. Physical exertion is also associated with a relatively low and transient increase in risk for cardiac events. This risk is significantly higher for older and sedentary individuals. Therefore, such individuals should consult their physician prior to engaging in exercise. “Walking is man’s best medicine”Hippocrates PMID:23198160

  5. MARKET EVIDENCE OF MISPERCEIVED MORTALITY RISK *

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Goldman, Dana; Sood, Neeraj

    2013-01-01

    We construct and implement a test of rational consumer behavior in a high-stakes financial market. In particular, we test whether consumers make systematic mistakes in perceiving their mortality risks. We implement this test using data from secondary life insurance markets where consumers with a life-threatening illness sell their life insurance policies to firms in return for an up-front payment. We compare predictions from two models: one with consumers who correctly perceive their mortality risk, and one with consumers who are misguided about their life expectancy, and find that our data are most consistent with the predictions made by the second model. PMID:23606779

  6. Sex Differences in the Rate, Timing and Principal Diagnoses of 30-Day Readmissions in Younger Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Rachel P.; Ranasinghe, Isuru; Wang, Yongfei; Dharmarajan, Kumar; Murugiah, Karthik; Nuti, Sudhakar V.; Hsieh, Angela F.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Young women (<65 years) experience a 2–3-fold greater mortality risk than younger men after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, it is unknown whether they are at higher risk for 30-day readmission, and if this association varies by age. We examined sex differences in the rate, timing and principal diagnoses of 30-day readmissions, including the independent effect of sex following adjustment for confounders. Methods and Results We included patients aged 18–64 years with a principal diagnosis of AMI. Data was utilized from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-State Inpatient Database for California (07–09). Readmission diagnoses were categorized using an aggregated version of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Condition Categories, and readmission timing was determined from the day after discharge. Of 42,518 younger patients with AMI (26.4% female), 4,775 (11.2%) had at least one readmission. The 30-day all-cause readmission rate was higher for women (15.5% vs. 9.7%, P<0.0001). For both sexes, readmission risk was highest on days 2–4 after discharge and declined thereafter, and women were more likely to present with non-cardiac diagnoses (44.4% vs. 40.6%, P=0.01). Female sex was associated with a higher rate of 30-day readmission, which persisted after adjustment (HR=1.22, 95% CI 1.15, 1.30). There was no significant interaction between age and sex on readmission. Conclusions Compared with men, younger women have a higher risk for readmission, even after adjustment for confounders. The timing of 30-day readmission was similar in women and men, and both sexes were susceptible to a wide range of causes for readmission. PMID:26085455

  7. Gangrenous cholecystitis: mortality and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Önder, Akın; Kapan, Murat; Ülger, Burak Veli; Oğuz, Abdullah; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Uslukaya, Ömer

    2015-02-01

    As a serious complication of cholelithiasis, gangrenous cholecystitis presents greater mortality than noncomplicated cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to specify the risk factors on mortality. 107 consecutive patients who underwent surgery due to gangrenous cholecystitis between January 1997 and October 2011 were investigated retrospectively. The study included 60 (56.1%) females and 47 (43.9%) males, with a mean age of 60.7 ± 16.4 (21-88) years. Cardiovascular diseases were the most frequently accompanying medical issues (24.3%). Thirty-six complications (33.6%) developed in 29 patients, and surgical site infection was proven as the most common. Longer delay time prior to hospital admission, low white blood cell count, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, pericholecystic fluid in abdominal ultrasonography, and conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery were identified as risk factors affecting mortality (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.044, P = 0.005, P = 0.049, P = 0.009, P = 0.022, P = 0.011, and P = 0.004, respectively). Longer delay time prior to hospital admission and low white blood cell count were determined as independent risk factors affecting mortality.

  8. Childhood Sleep Duration and Lifelong Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628

  9. Predictors of early dyspnoea relief in acute heart failure and the association with 30-day outcomes: findings from ASCEND-HF

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Robert J.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Stebbins, Amanda; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Felker, G. Michael; Heizer, Gretchen M.; Atar, Dan; Teerlink, John R.; Califf, Robert M.; Massie, Barry M.; Hasselblad, Vic; Starling, Randall C.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine the characteristics associated with early dyspnoea relief during acute heart failure (HF) hospitalization, and its association with 30-day outcomes. Methods and results ASCEND-HF was a randomized trial of nesiritide vs. placebo in 7141 patients hospitalized with acute HF in which dyspnoea relief at 6 h was measured on a 7-point Likert scale. Patients were classified as having early dyspnoea relief if they experienced moderate or marked dyspnoea improvement at 6 h. We analysed the clinical characteristics, geographical variation, and outcomes (mortality, mortality/HF hospitalization, and mortality/hospitalization at 30 days) associated with early dyspnoea relief. Early dyspnoea relief occurred in 2984 patients (43%). In multivariable analyses, predictors of dyspnoea relief included older age and oedema on chest radiograph; higher systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and natriuretic peptide level; and lower serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), sodium, and haemoglobin (model mean C index = 0.590). Dyspnoea relief varied markedly across countries, with patients enrolled from Central Europe having the lowest risk-adjusted likelihood of improvement. Early dyspnoea relief was associated with lower risk-adjusted 30-day mortality/HF hospitalization [hazard ratio (HR) 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68–0.96] and mortality/hospitalization (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74–0.99), but similar mortality. Conclusion Clinical characteristics such as respiratory rate, pulmonary oedema, renal function, and natriuretic peptide levels are associated with early dyspnoea relief, and moderate or marked improvement in dyspnoea was associated with a lower risk for 30-day outcomes. PMID:23159547

  10. Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing

    2008-08-01

    This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates

  11. Variations of Radon Risk with Changing Mortality Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jing

    2008-08-07

    This study examines the variation of radon risks with changing mortality rates. The Canadian age-specific mortality rates averaged over five year periods from 1986 to 1990 and from 1996 to 2000 were used in the risk calculations. Because of the synergistic interaction between smoking and radon, the risk of radon induced lung cancer for Canadian men decreased with the declining lung cancer mortality rates while for Canadian women the radon risks increased with the rising lung cancer mortality rates.

  12. Individual joblessness, contextual unemployment, and mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Tapia Granados, José A; House, James S; Ionides, Edward L; Burgard, Sarah; Schoeni, Robert S

    2014-08-01

    Longitudinal studies at the level of individuals find that employees who lose their jobs are at increased risk of death. However, analyses of aggregate data find that as unemployment rates increase during recessions, population mortality actually declines. We addressed this paradox by using data from the US Department of Labor and annual survey data (1979-1997) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of individuals-the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using proportional hazards (Cox) regression, we analyzed how the hazard of death depended on 1) individual joblessness and 2) state unemployment rates, as indicators of contextual economic conditions. We found that 1) compared with the employed, for the unemployed the hazard of death was increased by an amount equivalent to 10 extra years of age, and 2) each percentage-point increase in the state unemployment rate reduced the mortality hazard in all individuals by an amount equivalent to a reduction of 1 year of age. Our results provide evidence that 1) joblessness strongly and significantly raises the risk of death among those suffering it, and 2) periods of higher unemployment rates, that is, recessions, are associated with a moderate but significant reduction in the risk of death among the entire population.

  13. Iran Mortality and Measures of Risk: Rankings for Public policy

    PubMed Central

    Aalabaf-Sabaghi, M

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper offers mortality risk rankings for Iranian mortality data. It extends methods to include mixed cohorts, tests changes in mortality risks, compares measures of risk and discusses public policy implications. Methods: The methodology used in risk measures takes current practice and extends it to include variations in population dynamics. The specification is presented and compared with existing literature. Results: Our findings confirm literature results in the re-ordering that takes place when different risk measures are used. In addition, we find there is consistency in risk rankings between 1999 and 2000 records of Iranian mortality data. Thus, these risk measures are stable, robust across time and relay risk information consistently. Conclusions: There are considerable implications in adopting particular risk measures for public policy. However, given properties of risk measures discussed here, it is clear that policy makers can select relevant risk measures depending on their priorities. PMID:23112989

  14. Association of frontal QRS-T angle--age risk score on admission electrocardiogram with mortality in patients admitted with an acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lown, Mark T; Munyombwe, Theresa; Harrison, Wendy; West, Robert M; Hall, Christiana A; Morrell, Christine; Jackson, Beryl M; Sapsford, Robert J; Kilcullen, Niamh; Pepper, Christopher B; Batin, Phil D; Hall, Alistair S; Gale, Chris P

    2012-02-01

    Risk assessment is central to the management of acute coronary syndromes. Often, however, assessment is not complete until the troponin concentration is available. Using 2 multicenter prospective observational studies (Evaluation of Methods and Management of Acute Coronary Events [EMMACE] 2, test cohort, 1,843 patients; and EMMACE-1, validation cohort, 550 patients) of unselected patients with acute coronary syndromes, a point-of-admission risk stratification tool using frontal QRS-T angle derived from automated measurements and age for the prediction of 30-day and 2-year mortality was evaluated. Two-year mortality was lowest in patients with frontal QRS-T angles <38° and highest in patients with frontal QRS-T angles >104° (44.7% vs 14.8%, p <0.001). Increasing frontal QRS-T angle-age risk (FAAR) scores were associated with increasing 30-day and 2-year mortality (for 2-year mortality, score 0 = 3.7%, score 4 = 57%; p <0.001). The FAAR score was a good discriminator of mortality (C statistics 0.74 [95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.78] at 30 days and 0.77 [95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.79] at 2 years), maintained its performance in the EMMACE-1 cohort at 30 days (C statistics 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.8] at 30 days and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.83] at 2 years), in men and women, in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and compared favorably with the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score. The integrated discrimination improvement (age to FAAR score at 30 days and at 2 years in EMMACE-1 and EMMACE-2) was p <0.001. In conclusion, the FAAR score is a point-of-admission risk tool that predicts 30-day and 2-year mortality from 2 variables across a spectrum of patients with acute coronary syndromes. It does not require the results of biomarker assays or rely on the subjective interpretation of electrocardiograms.

  15. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality Score: Update 2015

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Murray M.; Holubkov, Richard; Funai, Tomohiko; Dean, J. Michael; Berger, John T.; Wessel, David L.; Meert, Kathleen; Berg, Robert A.; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Harrison, Rick E.; Carcillo, Joseph; Dalton, Heidi; Shanley, Thomas; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Tamburro, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Severity of illness measures have long been used in pediatric critical care. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality is a physiologically based score used to quantify physiologic status, and when combined with other independent variables, it can compute expected mortality risk and expected morbidity risk. Although the physiologic ranges for the Pediatric Risk of Mortality variables have not changed, recent Pediatric Risk of Mortality data collection improvements have been made to adapt to new practice patterns, minimize bias, and reduce potential sources of error. These include changing the outcome to hospital survival/death for the first PICU admission only, shortening the data collection period and altering the Pediatric Risk of Mortality data collection period for patients admitted for “optimizing” care before cardiac surgery or interventional catheterization. This analysis incorporates those changes, assesses the potential for Pediatric Risk of Mortality physiologic variable subcategories to improve score performance, and recalibrates the Pediatric Risk of Mortality score, placing the algorithms (Pediatric Risk of Mortality IV) in the public domain. Design Prospective cohort study from December 4, 2011, to April 7, 2013. Measurements and Main Results Among 10,078 admissions, the unadjusted mortality rate was 2.7% (site range, 1.3–5.0%). Data were divided into derivation (75%) and validation (25%) sets. The new Pediatric Risk of Mortality prediction algorithm (Pediatric Risk of Mortality IV) includes the same Pediatric Risk of Mortality physiologic variable ranges with the subcategories of neurologic and nonneurologic Pediatric Risk of Mortality scores, age, admission source, cardiopulmonary arrest within 24 hours before admission, cancer, and low-risk systems of primary dysfunction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the development and validation sets was 0.88 ± 0.013 and 0.90 ± 0.018, respectively. The Hosmer

  16. The 30-day prognosis of chronic-disease patients after contact with the out-of-hours service in primary healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Anders Helles; Moth, Grete; Christensen, Morten Bondo; Vestergaard, Mogens; Olesen, Frede; Vedsted, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Little is known about the prognosis of patients with chronic disease who contact the out-of-hours (OOH) service in primary care. The characteristics of contacts with the Danish out-of-hours service and daytime general practice, hospitalization, and death were studied during a 30-day follow-up period in patients with chronic heart diseases. Design. Cohort study. Setting and subjects. The study was based on data from 11 897 adults aged 18 + years from a Danish survey of OOH contacts, including information on consultation type. Reason for encounter (RFE) was categorized by OOH GPs at triage as either “exacerbation” or “new health problem”. Registry data were used to identify eligible patients, and the cohort was followed for 30 days after OOH contact through nationwide registries on healthcare use and mortality. Main outcome measures. The 30-day prognosis of chronic-disease patients after OOH contact. Results. Included patients with chronic disease had a higher risk of new OOH contact, daytime GP contact, and hospitalization than other patients during the 30-day follow-up period. OOH use was particularly high among patients with severe mental illness. A strong association was seen between chronic disease and risk of dying during follow-up. Conclusion. Patients with chronic disease used both daytime general practice and the out-of-hours service more often than others during the 30-day follow-up period; they were more often hospitalized and had higher risk of dying. The findings call for a proactive approach to future preventive day care and closer follow-up of this group, especially patients with psychiatric disease. PMID:25471829

  17. 77 FR 62518 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request (30-Day FRN); Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... their full effect if received within 30 days of the date of this publication. Proposed Collection... ovarian cancer can reduce mortality from these cancers which currently cause an estimated 255,700 deaths... term effects of the screening on cancer incidence and mortality for the four targeted cancers....

  18. Muscle Quality and Myosteatosis: Novel Associations With Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Ilse; Murphy, Rachel A.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Visser, Marjolein; Launer, Lenore; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Lang, Thomas F.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle composition may affect mortality risk, but prior studies have been limited to specific samples or less precise determination of muscle composition. We evaluated associations of thigh muscle composition, determined using computed tomography imaging, and knee extension strength with mortality risk among 4,824 participants aged 76.4 (standard deviation (SD), 5.5) years from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study (2002–2006). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios. After 8.8 years of follow-up, there were 1,942 deaths. For men, each SD-increment increase in muscle lean area, muscle quality, and strength was associated with lower mortality risk, with decreases ranging between 11% and 22%. Each SD-increment increase in intermuscular adipose tissue and intramuscular adipose tissue was associated with higher mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.22) and HR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.30), respectively). For women, each SD-increment increase in muscle lean area, muscle quality, and strength was associated with lower mortality risk, with decreases ranging between 12% and 19%. Greater intramuscular adipose tissue was associated with an 8% higher mortality risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16). This study shows that muscle composition is associated with mortality risk. These results also show the importance of improving muscle strength and area and lowering muscle adipose tissue infiltration. PMID:26643983

  19. Hospital Strategies for Reducing Risk-Standardized Mortality Rates in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Elizabeth H.; Curry, Leslie A.; Spatz, Erica S.; Herrin, Jeph; Cherlin, Emily J.; Curtis, Jeptha P.; Thompson, Jennifer W.; Ting, Henry H.; Wang, Yongfei; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite recent improvements in survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), U.S. hospitals vary 2-fold in their 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs). Nevertheless, information is limited on hospital-level factors that may be associated with RSMRs. Objective To identify hospital strategies that were associated with lower RSMRs. Design Cross-sectional survey of 537 hospitals (91% response rate) and weighted multivariate regression by using data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to determine the associations between hospital strategies and hospital RSMRs. Setting Acute care hospitals with an annualized AMI volume of at least 25 patients. Participants Patients hospitalized with AMI between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2009. Measurements Hospital performance improvement strategies, characteristics, and 30-day RSMRs. Results In multivariate analysis, several hospital strategies were significantly associated with lower RSMRs and in aggregate were associated with clinically important differences in RSMRs. These strategies included holding monthly meetings to review AMI cases between hospital clinicians and staff who transported patients to the hospital (RSMR lower by 0.70 percentage points), having cardiologists always on site (lower by 0.54 percentage points), fostering an organizational environment in which clinicians are encouraged to solve problems creatively (lower by 0.84 percentage points), not cross-training nurses from intensive care units for the cardiac catheterization laboratory (lower by 0.44 percentage points), and having physician and nurse champions rather than nurse champions alone (lower by 0.88 percentage points). Fewer than 10% of hospitals reported using at least 4 of these 5 strategies. Limitation The cross-sectional design demonstrates statistical associations but cannot establish causal relationships. Conclusion Several strategies, which are currently implemented by relatively few hospitals, are

  20. Implications of Public Reporting of Risk-Adjusted Mortality Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Misperceptions and Potential Consequences for High-Risk Patients Including Nonsurgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anuj; Yeh, Robert W; Tamis-Holland, Jacqueline E; Patel, Shalin H; Guyton, Robert A; Klein, Lloyd W; Rab, Tanveer; Kirtane, Ajay J

    2016-10-24

    Assessment of clinical outcomes such as 30-day mortality following coronary revascularization procedures has historically been used to spur quality improvement programs. Public reporting of risk-adjusted outcomes is already mandated in several states, and proposals to further expand public reporting have been put forward as a means of increasing transparency and potentially incentivizing high quality care. However, for public reporting of outcomes to be considered a useful surrogate of procedural quality of care, several prerequisites must be met. First, the reporting measure must be truly representative of the quality of the procedure itself, rather than be dominated by other underlying factors, such as the overall level of illness of a patient. Second, to foster comparisons among physicians and institutions, the metric requires accurate ascertainment of and adjustment for differences in patient risk profiles. This is particularly relevant for high-risk clinical patient scenarios. Finally, the potential deleterious consequences of public reporting of a quality metric should be considered prior to expanding the use of public reporting more broadly. In this viewpoint, the authors review in particular the characterization of high-risk patients currently treated by percutaneous coronary interventional procedures, assessing the adequacy of clinical risk models used in this population. They then expand upon the limitations of 30-day mortality as a quality metric for percutaneous coronary intervention, addressing the strengths and limitations of this metric, as well as offering suggestions to enhance its future use in public reporting.

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  4. Advancing Age and 30-Day Adverse Outcomes Following Non-Emergent General Surgical Operations

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Csaba; Kile, Deidre; Hawn, Mary T.; Finlayson, Emily; Henderson, William G.; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Background While some single center studies have demonstrated that major surgical operations are safe to perform in older adults, most multicenter database studies find advancing age to independently predict adverse postoperative outcomes. We hypothesized that thirty-day postoperative mortality, complications, failure to rescue rates and postoperative length of stay will increase with advancing age. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) Participants Patients undergoing non-emergent major general surgical operations between 2005 and 2008 were studied. Measures Postoperative outcomes of interest were complications occurring within 30 days of the index operation, return to OR within 30 days, failure to rescue after a postoperative complication, post-surgical length of stay and 30 day mortality. Results A total of 165,600 patients were studied. The rates of postoperative mortality, overall morbidity, and each type of postoperative complication increased as age increased. The rates of failure to rescue after each type of postoperative complication also increased with age. Mortality rates in patients ≥80 following renal insufficiency (43.3%), stroke (36.5%), myocardial infarction (35.6%), and pulmonary complications (25-39%) were particularly high. Median postoperative length of stay increased with age following surgical site infection, UTI, pneumonia, return to OR, and overall morbidity, but not after venous thromboembolism, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency, failure to wean from the ventilator or reintubations. Conclusion Thirty-day mortality, complications and failure to rescue rates increase with advancing age following non-emergent general surgical operations. Patients over 80 years of age have especially high mortality following renal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary complications. As patient age advances, surgeons need to be

  5. Characteristics of older adults rehospitalized within 7 and 30 days of discharge: implications for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Hain, Debra J; Tappen, Ruth; Diaz, Sanya; Ouslander, Joseph G

    2012-08-01

    Rehospitalization within 30 days consumes a significant portion of health care costs; therefore, interventions aimed at reducing the risk of rehospitalization are needed. A retrospective study was conducted examining rehospitalization rates and diagnoses according to discharge location and comparing characteristics of older adults within 7 and 30 days of discharge from a community hospital. Data on rehospitalization for Medicare fee-for-service patients (75 and older) over a 12-month period were obtained from the information technology department of a not-for-profit community hospital. A total of 6,809 patients were discharged, with 12% rehospitalized within 30 days. Skilled nursing facilities had the highest rehospitalization rates (15%), followed by home with home health care (13%) and then home with self-care (8%). The highest rehospitalization rates were in areas where nursing has a strong presence, suggesting that nurses can play an important role in the development of interventions aimed at reducing rehospitalizations.

  6. Spatial elements of mortality risk in old-growth forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, Adrian; Battles, John; van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2008-01-01

    For many species of long-lived organisms, such as trees, survival appears to be the most critical vital rate affecting population persistence. However, methods commonly used to quantify tree death, such as relating tree mortality risk solely to diameter growth, almost certainly do not account for important spatial processes. Our goal in this study was to detect and, if present, to quantify the relevance of such processes. For this purpose, we examined purely spatial aspects of mortality for four species, Abies concolor, Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, and Pinus lambertiana, in an old-growth conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA. The analysis was performed using data from nine fully mapped long-term monitoring plots.In three cases, the results unequivocally supported the inclusion of spatial information in models used to predict mortality. For Abies concolor, our results suggested that growth rate may not always adequately capture increased mortality risk due to competition. We also found evidence of a facilitative effect for this species, with mortality risk decreasing with proximity to conspecific neighbors. For Pinus lambertiana, mortality risk increased with density of conspecific neighbors, in keeping with a mechanism of increased pathogen or insect pressure (i.e., a Janzen-Connell type effect). Finally, we found that models estimating risk of being crushed were strongly improved by the inclusion of a simple index of spatial proximity.Not only did spatial indices improve models, those improvements were relevant for mortality prediction. For P. lambertiana, spatial factors were important for estimation of mortality risk regardless of growth rate. For A. concolor, although most of the population fell within spatial conditions in which mortality risk was well described by growth, trees that died occurred outside those conditions in a disproportionate fashion. Furthermore, as stands of A. concolor become increasingly dense, such spatial

  7. Musculoskeletal Fitness and Risk of Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Craig, Cora L.

    2002-01-01

    Quantified the relationship between musculoskeletal fitness and all-cause mortality in Canada, using measures of musculoskeletal fitness (situps, pushups, grip strength, and sit- and-reach trunk flexibility) from adult male and female participants in the Canadian Fitness Survey. Results indicated that some components of musculoskeletal fitness,…

  8. Hyperlipidemia is associated with lower risk of poststroke mortality independent of statin use: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Yeramaneni, Samrat; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Sucharew, Heidi; Alwell, Kathleen; Moomaw, Charles J; Flaherty, Matthew L; Woo, Daniel; Adeoye, Opeolu; Ferioli, Simona; de los Rios La Rosa, Felipe; Martini, Sharyl; Mackey, Jason; Khatri, Pooja; Kissela, Brett M; Khoury, Jane C

    2017-01-01

    Background Although statin therapy is associated with reduced stroke and mortality risk, some studies report that higher lipid levels are associated with improved outcomes following ischemic stroke. Aims We examined the association of hyperlipidemia (HLD) combined with statin therapy on all-cause mortality in stroke patients. Methods All stroke patients in the Greater Cincinnati Northern Kentucky region of ~1.3 million were identified using ICD-9 discharge codes in 2005 and 2010. Stroke patients with and without HLD were categorized based on their reported statin use at baseline or discharge into three groups: no-HLD/no-statins, HLD/no-statins, and HLD/on-statins. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the risk of mortality at 30 days, 1 year, and 3 years poststroke. Results Overall, 77% (2953) of the 3813 ischemic stroke patients were diagnosed with HLD and 72% (n = 2123) of those patients were on statin medications. The mean age was 70.0 ± 14.6 years, 56% were women, and 21% were black. In adjusted analyses, the HLD/no-statins group showed 35% (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.46–0.92), 27% (aHR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.59–0.90), and 17% (aHR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70–0.97) reduced risk of mortality at 30 days, 1 year, and 3 years, respectively, poststroke, compared with no-HLD/no-statins group. The HLD/on-statins group showed an additional 17% significant survival benefit at 3 years poststroke compared with HLD/no-statins group. Conclusions A diagnosis of HLD in ischemic stroke patients is associated with reduced short- and long-term mortality, irrespective of statin use. Statin therapy is associated with significant, additional long-term survival benefit. PMID:27649737

  9. Risk factors for early infant mortality in Sarlahi district, Nepal.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P.; Khatry, Subarna K.; Christian, Parul; LeClerq, Steven C.; Pradhan, Elizabeth Kimbrough; Shrestha, Sharada Ram

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Early infant mortality has not declined as rapidly as child mortality in many countries. Identification of risk factors for early infant mortality may help inform the design of intervention strategies. METHODS: Over the period 1994-97, 15,469 live-born, singleton infants in rural Nepal were followed to 24 weeks of age to identify risk factors for mortality within 0-7 days, 8-28 days, and 4-24 weeks after the birth. FINDINGS: In multivariate models, maternal and paternal education reduced mortality between 4 and 24 weeks only: odds ratios (OR) 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.66) and 0.63 (95% CI = 0.44-0.88), respectively. Miscarriage in the previous pregnancy predicted mortality in the first week of life (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.37-2.87), whereas prior child deaths increased the risk of post-neonatal death (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.24-2.75). A larger maternal mid-upper arm circumference reduced the risk of infant death during the first week of life (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.81-0.95). Infants of women who did not receive any tetanus vaccinations during pregnancy or who had severe illness during the third trimester were more likely to die in the neonatal period. Maternal mortality was strongly associated with infant mortality (OR = 6.43, 95% CI = 2.35-17.56 at 0-7 days; OR = 11.73, 95% CI = 3.82-36.00 at 8-28 days; and OR = 51.68, 95% CI = 20.26-131.80 at 4-24 weeks). CONCLUSION: Risk factors for early infant mortality varied with the age of the infant. Factors amenable to intervention included efforts aimed at maternal morbidity and mortality and increased arm circumference during pregnancy. PMID:14758431

  10. Risk factors and predictors of mortality for proximal humeral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Benjamin WT; Manning, Paul A; Wallace, W Angus; Geoghegan, John M

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk factors for mortality after proximal humeral fracture, including socioeconomic status, are poorly defined. This retrospective review of prospectively collected data defines the epidemiology and predictors of mortality in association with proximal humeral fractures. Methods Patients who sustained proximal humeral fractures were identified from fragility fracture and trauma databases between May 2001 and September 2012. Results In total, 1880 patients with a mean age of 69 years and a male to female ratio of 2 : 3 were identified. Socioeconomic distribution is skewed towards the lowest and highest quintiles. Low-energy mechanisms caused 88% of fractures. Men sustain fractures when they are aged 10 years younger and via higher-energy mechanisms. In total, 536 patients (29%) died within the study period with a 1-year mortality of 9.8%, rising to 28.2% at 5 years. Female gender, increasing age, pathological fracture and increased number of co-morbidities were independent variables for increased mortality. Conclusions The present study, which was conducted over an 11-year period, is the first to combine the epidemiology and risk factors for mortality with socioeconomic rank. One-year mortality risk is twice that of the background matched population. Patient counselling with respect to increased mortality should be considered, especially in higher-risk elderly females with multiple co-morbidities. PMID:27582921

  11. Morbidity associated with 30-day surgical site infection following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Sherrod, Brandon A; Rocque, Brandon G

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Morbidity associated with surgical site infection (SSI) following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgical procedures is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze acute morbidity and mortality associated with SSI after nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide cohort. METHODS The authors reviewed data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) 2012-2014 database, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients. Procedures were categorized by Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. CSF shunts were excluded. Deep and superficial SSIs occurring within 30 days of an index procedure were identified. Deep SSIs included deep wound infections, intracranial abscesses, meningitis, osteomyelitis, and ventriculitis. The following outcomes occurring within 30 days of an index procedure were analyzed, along with postoperative time to complication development: sepsis, wound disruption, length of postoperative stay, readmission, reoperation, and death. RESULTS A total of 251 procedures associated with a 30-day SSI were identified (2.7% of 9296 procedures). Superficial SSIs were more common than deep SSIs (57.4% versus 42.6%). Deep SSIs occurred more frequently after epilepsy or intracranial tumor procedures. Superficial SSIs occurred more frequently after skin lesion, spine, Chiari decompression, craniofacial, and myelomeningocele closure procedures. The mean (± SD) postoperative length of stay for patients with any SSI was 9.6 ± 14.8 days (median 4 days). Post-SSI outcomes significantly associated with previous SSI included wound disruption (12.4%), sepsis (15.5%), readmission (36.7%), and reoperation (43.4%) (p < 0.001 for each). Post-SSI sepsis rates (6.3% vs 28.0% for superficial versus deep SSI, respectively; p < 0.001), wound disruption rates (4.9% vs 22.4%, p < 0.001), and reoperation rates (23.6% vs 70.1%, p < 0.001) were significantly greater for patients

  12. Antipsychotics and Mortality: Adjusting for Mortality Risk Scores to Address Confounding by Terminal Illness

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoonyoung; Franklin, Jessica M.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Levin, Raisa; Crystal, Stephen; Gerhard, Tobias; Huybrechts, Krista F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Earlier studies have documented a greater mortality risk associated with conventional compared with atypical antipsychotics. Concern remains that the association is not causal, but due to residual confounding by differences in underlying health. To address this concern, we evaluated whether adjustment for prognostic indices specifically developed fornursing home (NH) populations affected the magnitude of the previously observed associations. DESIGN Cohort study SETTING A merged dataset of Medicaid, Medicare, the Minimum Data Set (MDS), the Online Survey Certification and Reporting system (OSCAR), and the National Death Index in the US for 2001-2005 PARTICIPANTS Dual eligible subjects ≥ 65 years who initiated antipsychotic treatment in a NH (n=75,445). MEASUREMENTS Three mortality risk scores (MRIS, MMRI-R, and ADEPT) were derived for each patient using baseline MDS data, and their performance was assessed using c-statistics and goodness-of-fit tests. The impact of adjusting for these indices in addition to propensity scores (PS) on the antipsychotic-mortality association was evaluated using Cox models with and without adjustment for risk scores. RESULTS Each risk score showed moderate discrimination for 6-month mortality with c-statistics ranging from 0.61 to 0.63. There was no evidence of lack of fit. Imbalances in risk scores between conventional and atypical antipsychotic users in the full cohort, suggesting potential confounding, were greatly reduced within PS deciles. Accounting for each score in the Cox model did not change the relative risk estimates: 2.24 with PS only adjustment vs. 2.20, 2.20, 2.22 after further adjustment for the three risk scores. CONCLUSION Although causality cannot be proven based on non-randomized studies, this study adds to the body of evidence rejecting alternative explanations for the increased mortality risk associated with conventional antipsychotics. PMID:25752911

  13. Nursing Home Medical Staff Organization and 30-Day Rehospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Julie C.; Intrator, Orna; Karuza, Jurgis; Wetle, Terrie; Mor, Vincent; Katz, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between features of nursing home (NH) medical staff organization and residents’ 30-day rehospitalizations. Design Cross-sectional study combining primary data collected from a survey of medical directors, NH resident assessment data (minimum data set), Medicare claims, and the Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) database. Setting A total of 202 freestanding US nursing homes. Participants Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries who were hospitalized and subsequently admitted to a study nursing home. Measurements Medical staff organization dimensions derived from the survey, NH residents’ characteristics derived from minimum data set data, hospitalizations obtained from Part A Medicare claims, and NH characteristics from the OSCAR database and from www.ltcfocus.org. Study outcome defined within a 30-day window following an index hospitalization: rehospitalized, otherwise died, otherwise survived and not rehospitalized. Results Thirty-day rehospitalizations occurred for 3788 (20.3%) of the 18,680 initial hospitalizations. Death was observed for 884 (4.7%) of residents who were not rehospitalized. Adjusted by hospitalization, resident, and NH characteristics, nursing homes having a more formal appointment process for physicians were less likely to have 30-day rehospitalization (b = −0.43, SE = 0.17), whereas NHs in which a higher proportion of residents were cared for by a single physician were more likely to have rehospitalizations (b = 0.18, SE = 0.08). Conclusion This is the first study to show a direct relationship between features of NH medical staff organization and resident-level process of care. The relationship of a more strict appointment process and rehospitalizations might be a consequence of more formalized and dedicated medical practice with a sense of ownership and accountability. A higher volume of patients per physician does not appear to improve quality of care. PMID:22682694

  14. Risk factors for early mortality after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chao-Wei; Tsai, Hsin-I; Sung, Chang-Mu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Huang, Shu-Wei; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Wu, Tsung-Han; Chan, Kun-Ming; Yu, Ming-Chin; Lee, Wei-Chen; Chen, Miin-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite advances in surgical technique and medical care, liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a high-risk major operation. The present study evaluated the risk factors for early mortality after hepatectomy. We retrospectively reviewed records of patients undergoing liver resection for HCC between 1983 and 2015. A point score (Risk Assessment for early Mortality (RAM) score) for hepatectomy was developed based on multivariate analyses. Three hundred eighty-three patients (11.3%) expired within 6 months after the operation. Logistic regression analyses identified that operative duration >270 minutes and blood loss >800 cc were significant predictors of major surgical complications (P = 0.013 and 0.002, respectively). On the other hand, diabetes mellitus, albumin ≤3.5 g/dL, α-fetoprotein (AFP) >200 ng/mL, major surgical procedure, blood loss >800 cc, and major surgical complications were independent risk factors for early mortality after hepatectomy (P = 0.019, <0.001, <0.001, 0.006, 0.018, and <0.001, respectively). Risk Assessment for early Mortality score (RAM score) identified 3 subgroups of patients with distinct 6-month mortality rate, with Class III (score 10) having highest risk of early mortality. Our study demonstrated that meticulous surgical techniques to minimize blood loss and avoid prolonged operative time may help decrease the occurrence of major surgical complications. In addition to major surgical complications, diabetes mellitus, hypoalbuminemia, high AFP, massive blood loss, and major surgical procedure are also associated with early mortality after liver resection. Further study is warranted to validate the utility of RAM score as a bedside scoring system to predict postoperative outcome. PMID:27684875

  15. Community level risk factors for maternal mortality in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Julio C; Moser, Christine M

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the effect of risk and socioeconomic factors on maternal mortality at the community level in Madagascar using a unique, nationwide panel of communes (i.e., counties). Previous work in this area uses individual or cross-country data to study maternal mortality, however, studying maternal mortality at the community level is imperative because this is the level at which most policy is implemented. The results show that longer travel time from the community to the hospital leads to a high level of maternal mortality. The findings suggest that improvement to transportation systems and access to hospitals with surgery rooms are needed to deal with obstetric complications and reduce maternal mortality.

  16. Mortality Risk Assessment of Total Knee Arthroplasty and Related Surgery After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Von Keudell, Arvind G.; Thornhill, Thomas S.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Losina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background: The optimal antiplatelet therapy (APT) treatment strategy after Coronary Artery Stenting (CAS) in non-cardiac surgery, such as total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or urgent TKA-related surgery remains unknown. Methods: We built a decision tree model to examine the mortality outcomes of two alternative strategies for APT after CAS use in the perioperative period namely, continuous use and discontinuation. Results: If surgery was performed in the first month after CAS placement, discontinuing APT led to an estimated 30-day post TKA mortality of 10.5%, compared to 1.0% in a strategy with continuous APT use. Mortality with both strategies decreased with longer intervals. Conclusion: Our model demonstrated that APT discontinuation in patients undergoing TKA or urgent TKA related surgery after CAS placement might lead to greater 30-day mortality up to one year. PMID:28144380

  17. Oral health and mortality risk in the institutionalised elderly

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Leiv; Gil-Montoya, José A.; Willumsen, Tiril

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examining oral health and oral hygiene as predictors of subsequent one-year survival in the institutionalized elderly. Design: It was hypothesized that oral health would be related to mortality in an institutionalized geriatric population. A 12-month prospective study of 292 elderly residing in nine geriatric institutions in Granada, Spain, was thus carried out to evaluate the association between oral health and mortality. Independent samples, T-test, chi-square test and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Sixty-three participants died during the 12-month follow-up. Results: Mortality was increased in denture users (RR = 2.18, p= 0.007) and in people suffering severe cognitive impairment (RR = 2. 24, p= 0.003). One-year mortality was 50% in participants having both these characteristics. Conclusions: Oral hygiene was not significantly associated with mortality. Cognitive impairment and wearing dentures increased the risk of death. One-year mortality was 50% in cognitively impaired residents wearing dentures as opposed to 10% in patients without dentures and cognitive impairment. Key words:Oral health, mortality risk, institutionalised elderly. PMID:22322487

  18. Analysis of 30-Day Postdischarge Morbidity and Readmission after Radical Gastrectomy for Gastric Carcinoma: A Single-Center Study of 2107 Patients With Prospective Data

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Oh; Kyu Park, Young; Ran Jung, Mi; Yeop Ryu, Seong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract PD morbidity and readmission pose a substantial clinical and economic burden to the healthcare system. Comprehensive PD complications and readmission data are essential for developing initiatives to improve patient care. No previous studies have extensively investigated PD complications after gastric cancer surgery. We investigated the incidence, types, treatment, and risk factors of 30-day postdischarge (PD) complications after gastric cancer surgery. Between 2010 and 2013, data concerning complications and readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge were prospectively collected in 2107 patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery. In total, 1642 patients (77.9%) underwent distal gastrectomy, 418 (19.8%) total gastrectomy, and 47 (2.3%) other procedures. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were 17.4% and 0.6%, respectively, with a mean 8.8-day hospital stay. Sixty-one patients (2.9%) developed 30-day PD morbidity (58 local and 3 systemic complications), accounting for 16.6% of overall morbidity; 47 (2.2%) were readmitted; and 7 (0.3%) underwent a reoperation. The mean time to PD complications was 9.5 days after index hospital discharge. The most common complication was intra-abdominal abscess (n = 14), followed by wound, ascites, and anastomosis leakage. No mortality occurred resulting from PD complications. In the univariate and multivariate analyses, underlying comorbidity (hypertension and liver cirrhosis) and obesity were independent risk factors for developing PD complications. The early PD period is a vulnerable time for surgical patients with substantial risk of complication and readmission. Tailored discharge plans along with appropriate PD patient support are essential for improving the quality of patient care. PMID:25789945

  19. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lack of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and no breastfeeding among children 6-23 months of age are associated with increased diarrhea morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We estimate the protective effects conferred by varying levels of breastfeeding exposure against diarrhea incidence, diarrhea prevalence, diarrhea mortality, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for diarrhea illness. Methods We systematically reviewed all literature published from 1980 to 2009 assessing levels of suboptimal breastfeeding as a risk factor for selected diarrhea morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to generate pooled relative risks by outcome and age category. Results We found a large body of evidence for the protective effects of breastfeeding against diarrhea incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, diarrhea mortality, and all-cause mortality. The results of random effects meta-analyses of eighteen included studies indicated varying degrees of protection across levels of breastfeeding exposure with the greatest protection conferred by exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and by any breastfeeding among infants and young children 6-23 months of age. Specifically, not breastfeeding resulted in an excess risk of diarrhea mortality in comparison to exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age (RR: 10.52) and to any breastfeeding among children aged 6-23 months (RR: 2.18). Conclusions Our findings support the current WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life as a key child survival intervention. Our findings also highlight the importance of breastfeeding to protect against diarrhea-specific morbidity and mortality throughout the first 2 years of life. PMID:21501432

  20. Incidence, Causes and Predictors of 30-Day Readmission After Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W; Anthony, Chris A.; Duchman, Kyle R.; Pugely, Andrew J.; Gao, Yubo; Hettrich, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service has identified several quality metrics, including unplanned readmission within 30 days of surgery, to assess and compare surgeons and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence, causes and risk factors for unplanned 30-day readmission after total shoulder arthroplasty. Methods We identified patients undergoing primary elective shoulder arthroplasty performed at American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) participating hospitals in 2013. Cases were stratified by readmission status. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to assess patient demographics, comorbidities and operative variables predicting unplanned readmission. Results 2779 patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty were identified, with 74 (2.66%) requiring unplanned readmissions within 30 days of surgery. The most common surgical causes for unplanned readmission were surgical site infections (18.6%), dislocations (16.3%) and venous thromboembolism (14.0%). Medical causes for readmission were responsible for 51% of unplanned readmissions. Multivariate analysis identified patient age >75 (OR 2.62, 95% CI: 1.27 - 5.41), and ASA class of 3 (OR 1.79, 95% CI: 1.01 - 3.18) or 4 (OR 3.63, 95% CI: 1.31 - 10.08) as independent risk factors for unplanned readmission. Predictive modeling estimated that patients with ASA class of 4 and age >75 are 17.4 times more likely (95% CI 1.77-171.09) to be readmitted within 30 days of shoulder arthroplasty. Conclusion Unplanned readmission after shoulder arthroplasty is infrequent and medical complications account for more than 50% of occurrences. The risk of readmission exponentially increases when age and preoperative comorbidity burden are increased. PMID:27528839

  1. Levels and risk factors for perinatal mortality in Ahmedabad, India.

    PubMed Central

    Mavalankar, D. V.; Trivedi, C. R.; Gray, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    To estimate levels and determinants of perinatal mortality, we conducted a hospital-based surveillance and case-control study, linked with a population survey, in Ahmedabad, India. The perinatal mortality rate was 79.0 per 1000, and was highest for preterm low-birth-weight babies. The case-control study of 451 stillbirths, 160 early neonatal deaths and 1465 controls showed that poor maternal nutritional status, absence of antenatal care, and complications during labour were independently associated with substantially increased risks of perinatal death. Multivariate analyses indicate that socioeconomic factors largely operate through these proximate factors and do not have an independent effect. Estimates of attributable risk derived from the prevalence of exposures in the population survey suggest that improvements in maternal nutrition and antenatal and intrapartum care could result in marked reductions of perinatal mortality. PMID:1934237

  2. A Study of Risks, Medical Care, and Infant Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Helen C., Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Using vital records for live births which occurred in New York City in 1968, and infant deaths among them, this study of Risks, Medical Care, and Infant Mortality examined the characteristics of prenatal care among pregnant women from a wide range of racial, social, and economic backgrounds. (Author/SB)

  3. Mortality Risk Stratification in Fontan Patients Who Underwent Heart Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christopher J; Bauer, Brenton S; Hageman, Abbie; Aboulhosn, Jamil A; Reardon, Leigh C

    2017-03-01

    The number of patients who require orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) for failing Fontan physiology continues to grow; however, the methods and tools to evaluate risk of OHT are limited. This study aimed to identify a set of preoperative variables and characteristics that were associated with a greater risk of postoperative mortality in patients who received OHT for failing Fontan physiology. Thirty-six Fontan patients were identified as having undergone OHT at University of California-Los Angeles Medical Center from 1991 to 2014. Data were collected retrospectively and analyzed. The primary end point was designated as postoperative mortality. After an average follow-up time of 3.5 years, 17 (44%) patients suffered postoperative mortality. Patient characteristics including (1) age <18 years at the time of OHT, (2) Fontan-OHT interval of <10 years, (3) systemic ventricular ejection fraction <20%, (4) moderate-to-severe atrioventricular valve insufficiency, (5) an elevated Model of End-stage Liver Disease, eXcluding INR score, or (6) need for advanced mechanical support before surgery were associated with an increased incidence of postoperative mortality. Using these risk factors, we present a theoretical framework to stratify risk of postoperative death in failing Fontan patients after OHT. In conclusion, a method such as this may aid in the transplantation evaluation and listing process of patients with failing Fontan physiology.

  4. Necrotising Soft Tissue Infection–Risk Factors for Mortality

    PubMed Central

    V., Kalaivani; Hiremath, Bharati V.; V. A, Indumathi

    2013-01-01

    Necrotising Soft Tissue Infection is a rapidly progressing fatal disorder, the prognosis of which depends on early diagnosis and management. Objective: In this study, our objective was to assess the factors contributing to mortality due to NSTI. Methods: A retrospective review of the records of all patients with NSTI involving fascia, skin or muscle between January 2007 and December 2011, was performed. The atiology, predisposing factors, risk factors, causative microbiological organisms and the clinical outcomes associated with mortality were studied. Statistical Data: Descriptive statistics comprising of proportion(%) presented. Chi–square test was employed to assess the statistical significance in the distribution of various known risk factors between the survivors and non–survivors. A ‘p’ value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Sixty patients records were reviewed. Fifty-one patients (85%) were males and nine (15%) were females. Mean age was 46.57 years (+/- 20.60) ranging from 15–83 years. All the patients were treated by debridement & wide spectrum antibiotics. Mono-microbial atiology being found in 27 patients (63.3%) and polymicrobial culture was isolated in 13 patients (36.7%), with E-coli and staphylococci being the most common organisms to be isolated. In most patients, multiple debridements were done. The overall mortality rate was estimated to be 25%. Age, aatiology, diabetes mellitus, hypoalbuminemia, alcohol, site of infection, bacteriology etc. were the risk factors associated with mortality, that were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was the most common associated risk factor found in 32 patients (53.3%), though not statistically significant. Increasing age (>50 years, p value = 0.016), raised Serum Creatinine (>1.2mg/dl, p-value = 0.023) and delayed surgical intervention(>24 hours p value= 0.006) were the risk factors associated with Mortality in NSTI that were statistically significant. Conclusion: Despite the use of

  5. Surgical mortality score: risk management tool for auditing surgical performance.

    PubMed

    Hadjianastassiou, Vassilis G; Tekkis, Paris P; Poloniecki, Jan D; Gavalas, Manolis C; Goldhill, David R

    2004-02-01

    Existing methods of risk adjustment in surgical audit are complex and costly. The present study aimed to develop a simple risk stratification score for mortality and a robust audit tool using the existing resources of the hospital Patient Administration System (PAS) database. This was an observational study for all patients undergoing surgical procedures over a two-year period, at a London university hospital. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictive factors of in-hospital mortality, the study outcome. Odds ratios were used as weights in the derivation of a simple risk-stratification model-the Surgical Mortality Score (SMS). Observed-to-expected mortality risk ratios were calculated for application of the SMS model in surgical audit. There were 11,089 eligible cases, under five surgical specialties (maxillofacial, orthopedic, renal transplant/dialysis, general, and neurosurgery). Incomplete data were 3.7% of the total, with no evidence of systematic underreporting. The SMS model was well calibrated [Hosmer-Lemeshow C-statistic: development set (3.432, p = 0.33), validation set (6.359, p = 0.10) with a high discriminant ability (ROC areas: development set [0.837, S.E.=0.013] validation set [0.816, S.E. = 0.016]). Subgroup analyses confirmed that the model can be used by the individual specialties for both elective and emergency cases. The SMS is an accurate risk- stratification model derived from existing database resources. It is simple to apply as a risk-management, screening tool to detect aberrations from expected surgical outcomes and to assist in surgical audit.

  6. Discharge to a rehabilitation facility is associated with decreased 30-day readmission in elective spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Abt, Nicholas B; McCutcheon, Brandon A; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Murphy, Meghan; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Fogelson, Jeremy; Nassr, Ahmad; Currier, Bradford L; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-02-01

    The aim of our study was to determine independent predictors of discharge disposition to rehabilitation or skilled care (SC) facilities and investigate whether discharge location is associated with unplanned readmission and/or reoperation rates. All elective spinal surgery patients in a national surgical registry were analyzed using between 2011 and 2012. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess for predictors of discharge to rehabilitation or SC facilities versus home as well as to determine whether discharge disposition was significantly associated with the 30-day unplanned readmission or reoperation. Of 34,023 elective spinal surgery patients, the distribution of discharge locations was as follows: 30,606 (90.0%) discharged home, 1674 (4.9%) discharged to rehabilitation, and 1743 (5.1%) discharged to SC. Patients discharged home were associated with the lowest complication rate relative to rehabilitation and SC facilities. Following multivariable regression analysis, there was a significant increase in the odds of discharge to rehabilitation associated with age, male gender, current smoking, ASA class three and four, history of diabetes, operative time, total hospital length of stay, preoperative neurologic morbidity and having at least one postoperative morbidity event. Moreover, there were 804 (4.06%) 30-day unplanned readmissions and 822 (2.45%) unplanned reoperations. After risk adjustment, discharge to rehabilitation was independently associated with decreased odds of 30-day unplanned readmission (OR=0.41; p=0.008) but not reoperation.

  7. Human parainfluenza virus infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: risk factors, management, mortality, and changes over time.

    PubMed

    Ustun, Celalettin; Slabý, Jiří; Shanley, Ryan M; Vydra, Jan; Smith, Angela R; Wagner, John E; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Young, Jo-Anne H

    2012-10-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are uncommon, yet high-risk pathogens after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT). We evaluated 5178 pediatric and adult patients undergoing HCT between 1974 and 2010 to determine the incidence, risk factors, response to treatment, and outcome of HPIV infection as well as any change in frequency or character of HPIV infection over time. HPIV was identified in 173 patients (3.3%); type 3 was most common (66%). HPIV involved upper respiratory tract infection (URTI; 57%), lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI; 9%), and both areas of the respiratory tract (34%), at a median of 62 days after transplantation. In more recent years, HPIV has occurred later after HCT, whereas the proportion with nosocomial infection and mortality decreased. Over the last decade, HPIV was more common in older patients and in those receiving reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). RIC was a significant risk factor for later (beyond day +30). HPIV infections, and this association was strongest in patients with URTI. HCT using a matched unrelated donor (MURD), mismatched related donor (MMRD), age 10 to 19 years, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were all risk factors for HPIV infections. LRTI, early (<30 days), age 10 to 19 years, MMRD, steroid use, and coinfection with other pathogens were risk factors for mortality. The survival of patients with LRTI, especially very early infections, was poor regardless of ribavirin treatment. HPIV incidence remains low, but may have delayed onset associated with RIC regimens and improving survival. Effective prophylaxis and treatment for HPIV are needed.

  8. Derivation and validation of a 30-day heart failure readmission model.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lisa M; Gavin, Michael; Piatkowski, Gail; Chang, James D; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2014-11-01

    In 2006, there were >1 million hospital admissions for heart failure (HF), and the estimated cost to the United States in 2009 was >$37.2 billion. Better models to target aggressive therapy to patients at the highest risk for readmission are clearly needed. We studied 3,413 consecutive admissions for HF based on discharge diagnosis codes from October 2007 to August 2011 from a single academic center. We randomly generated derivation and validation sets in a 3:1 ratio. We used generalized estimating equations to develop our models, accounting for repeated hospitalizations and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test to examine model calibration. The 30-day readmission rate was 24.2% in the derivation set. Of 25 candidate variables, the best fitting model included creatinine, troponin, hematocrit, and hyponatremia at discharge; race; zip code of residence; discharge hour; and number of hospitalizations in the previous year. Insignificant variables included intravenous diuretic use on day of discharge, discharge service, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, age, and gender. The risk of 30-day readmission increased with increasing decile of predicted risk in both the validation and derivation cohorts. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the model was 0.69 in the derivation set and 0.66 in the validation set. In conclusion, we derived and validated a simple model relating discharge-specific characteristics at risk of 30-day readmission. Application of this approach may facilitate targeted intervention to reduce the burden of rehospitalization in patients with HF, but our results suggest that the best readmission models may require incorporation of both clinical and local system factors for optimal prediction.

  9. Mortality Risk of Hypnotics: Strengths and Limits of Evidence.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2016-02-01

    Sleeping pills, more formally defined as hypnotics, are sedatives used to induce and maintain sleep. In a review of publications for the past 30 years, descriptive epidemiologic studies were identified that examined the mortality risk of hypnotics and related sedative-anxiolytics. Of the 34 studies estimating risk ratios, odds ratios, or hazard ratios, excess mortality associated with hypnotics was significant (p < 0.05) in 24 studies including all 14 of the largest, contrasted with no studies at all suggesting that hypnotics ever prolong life. The studies had many limitations: possibly tending to overestimate risk, such as possible confounding by indication with other risk factors; confusing hypnotics with drugs having other indications; possible genetic confounders; and too much heterogeneity of studies for meta-analyses. There were balancing limitations possibly tending towards underestimates of risk such as limited power, excessive follow-up intervals with possible follow-up mixing of participants taking hypnotics with controls, missing dosage data for most studies, and over-adjustment of confounders. Epidemiologic association in itself is not adequate proof of causality, but there is proof that hypnotics cause death in overdoses; there is thorough understanding of how hypnotics euthanize animals and execute humans; and there is proof that hypnotics cause potentially lethal morbidities such as depression, infection, poor driving, suppressed respiration, and possibly cancer. Combining these proofs with consistent evidence of association, the great weight of evidence is that hypnotics cause huge risks of decreasing a patient's duration of survival.

  10. Risk factors and mortality among newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Razzaq, Athar; Iqbal Quddusi, Ahmed; Nizami, Naila

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors for persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborns (PPHN) and their influence on mortality. Methods: This was an observational study conducted at The Children’s Hospital & the Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan, from July 2011 to June 2012.All admitted babies who had respiratory distress, cyanosis and evidence of hypoxia on ABG,s were diagnosed provided that they were having right- to- left or bidirectional hemodynamic shunting at the ductus arteriosus or at patent foramen ovale along with Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) jet >40 mm of Hg on echocardiography. All the demographic, maternal, antenatal, natal and postnatal data were recorded on a predesigned Performa. Results: There were 79 patients, including 61 males and 18 females. The most common risk factors observed in our study were male sex (72.1%), cesarean section mode of delivery (54.2%), positive pressure ventilation while resuscitation (44.2%) birth asphyxia (40.4%) and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)35.4%. It was found that male sex (88.8%), cesarean-section delivery (77.7%), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) 44.8% and sepsis (44.4%) were more associated with PPHN in premature infants than with term and post term infants. Out of the total 79 patients, death occurred among 7 preterm and 14 terms and post term infants. As a whole, cesarean section mode of delivery (71.4%), birth asphyxia (57.1%) and female sex (52.4%) were found major risk factors associated with mortality. However, respiratory distress syndrome (Relative Risk RR=5), birth asphyxia (RR=2.5) and male sex (RR=2)were found to be associated with increased risk of mortality in preterm than term and post term infants. Conclusion: Male gender, cesarean section mode of delivery, MAS and RDS are the major risk factors for PPHN in any age group. RDS, Birth asphyxia and male sex are associated with increased risk of mortality in pre term than term and post term infants. PMID:24353699

  11. Measuring the Value of Mortality Risk Reductions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tekeşin, Cem; Ara, Shihomi

    2014-01-01

    The willingness to pay (WTP) for mortality risk reduction from four causes (lung cancer, other type of cancer, respiratory disease, traffic accident) are estimated using random parameter logit model with data from choice experiment for three regions in Turkey. The value of statistical life (VSL) estimated for Afsin-Elbistan, Kutahya-Tavsanli, Ankara and the pooled case are found as 0.56, 0.35, 0.46 and 0.49 million Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) adjusted 2012 US dollars (USD). Different types of risk cause different VSL estimates and we found the lung cancer premium of 213% against traffic accident. The effects of one-year-delayed provision of risk-reduction service are the reduction of WTP by 482 TL ($318 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average, and the disutility from status-quo (zero risk reduction) against alternative is found to be 891 TL ($589 in PPP adjusted USD) per person on average. Senior discounts of VSL are partially determined by status-quo preference and the amount of discount decreases once the status-quo bias is removed. The peak VSL is found to be for the age group 30–39 and the average VSL for the age group is 0.8 million PPP adjusted USD). Turkey’s compliance to European Union (EU) air quality standard will cause welfare gains of total 373 million PPP adjusted USD for our study areas in terms of reduced number of premature mortality. PMID:25000150

  12. Development and implementation of a real-time 30-day readmission predictive model.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Patrick R; Greenwald, Jeffrey L; Crevensten, Gwen C; Chueh, Henry C; Zai, Adrian H

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals are under great pressure to reduce readmissions of patients. Being able to reliably predict patients at increased risk for rehospitalization would allow for tailored interventions to be offered to them. This requires the creation of a functional predictive model specifically designed to support real-time clinical operations. A predictive model for readmissions within 30 days of discharge was developed using retrospective data from 45,924 MGH admissions between 2/1/2012 and 1/31/2013 only including factors that would be available by the day after admission. It was then validated prospectively in a real-time implementation for 3,074 MGH admissions between 10/1/2013 and 10/31/2013. The model developed retrospectively had an AUC of 0.705 with good calibration. The real-time implementation had an AUC of 0.671 although the model was overestimating readmission risk. A moderately discriminative real-time 30-day readmission predictive model can be developed and implemented in a large academic hospital.

  13. Predicting 30-Day Readmissions: Performance of the LACE Index Compared with a Regression Model among General Medicine Patients in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng; Wang, Sijia; Tan, Shu Yun; Thumboo, Julian; Liu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    The LACE index (length of stay, acuity of admission, Charlson comorbidity index, CCI, and number of emergency department visits in preceding 6 months) derived in Canada is simple and may have clinical utility in Singapore to predict readmission risk. We compared the performance of the LACE index with a derived model in identifying 30-day readmissions from a population of general medicine patients in Singapore. Additional variables include patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical and laboratory variables during the index admission, and prior healthcare utilization in the preceding year. 5,862 patients were analysed and 572 patients (9.8%) were readmitted in the 30 days following discharge. Age, CCI, count of surgical procedures during index admission, white cell count, serum albumin, and number of emergency department visits in previous 6 months were significantly associated with 30-day readmission risk. The final logistic regression model had fair discriminative ability c-statistic of 0.650 while the LACE index achieved c-statistic of 0.628 in predicting 30-day readmissions. Our derived model has the advantage of being available early in the admission to identify patients at high risk of readmission for interventions. Additional factors predicting readmission risk and machine learning techniques should be considered to improve model performance. PMID:26682212

  14. 9 CFR 96.12 - Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 30 days; disposition. 96.12 Section 96.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... STATES § 96.12 Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition. Foreign animal casings... period of 30 days after arrival in the United States, subject to the ability of Division inspectors...

  15. 17 CFR 41.12 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 41.12 Section 41.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of sale for... U.S.C. 1a(25)) for the first 30 days of trading, if: (1) Such index would not have been a...

  16. 7 CFR 27.58 - Postponed classification; must be within 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. 27... Classification § 27.58 Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. If thereafter the classification of the cotton be desired, notice thereof shall be filed not later than the expiration of 30 days after the...

  17. 17 CFR 41.12 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 41.12 Section 41.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of... narrow-based security index under section 1a(35) of the Act (7 U.S.C. 1a(35)) for the first 30 days...

  18. 43 CFR 4.1186 - Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement... Expedited Review of Section 521(a)(2) Or 521(a)(3) Orders of Cessation § 4.1186 Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement. (a) Any person qualified to receive a 30-day decision may waive that right— (1)...

  19. 7 CFR 27.58 - Postponed classification; must be within 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. 27... Classification § 27.58 Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. If thereafter the classification of the cotton be desired, notice thereof shall be filed not later than the expiration of 30 days after the...

  20. 43 CFR 4.1186 - Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement... Expedited Review of Section 521(a)(2) Or 521(a)(3) Orders of Cessation § 4.1186 Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement. (a) Any person qualified to receive a 30-day decision may waive that right— (1)...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-3 - Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special 30-day rules for certain reportable... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(d)-3 Special 30-day rules for... certification of notified payee underreporting) within 30 days after the establishment or acquisition...

  2. 43 CFR 4.1186 - Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement... Expedited Review of Section 521(a)(2) Or 521(a)(3) Orders of Cessation § 4.1186 Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement. (a) Any person qualified to receive a 30-day decision may waive that right— (1)...

  3. 9 CFR 96.12 - Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 30 days; disposition. 96.12 Section 96.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... STATES § 96.12 Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition. Foreign animal casings... period of 30 days after arrival in the United States, subject to the ability of Division inspectors...

  4. 43 CFR 4.1186 - Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement... Expedited Review of Section 521(a)(2) Or 521(a)(3) Orders of Cessation § 4.1186 Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement. (a) Any person qualified to receive a 30-day decision may waive that right— (1)...

  5. 7 CFR 27.58 - Postponed classification; must be within 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. 27... Classification § 27.58 Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. If thereafter the classification of the cotton be desired, notice thereof shall be filed not later than the expiration of 30 days after the...

  6. 9 CFR 96.12 - Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 30 days; disposition. 96.12 Section 96.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... STATES § 96.12 Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition. Foreign animal casings... period of 30 days after arrival in the United States, subject to the ability of Division inspectors...

  7. 7 CFR 27.58 - Postponed classification; must be within 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. 27... Classification § 27.58 Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. If thereafter the classification of the cotton be desired, notice thereof shall be filed not later than the expiration of 30 days after the...

  8. 43 CFR 4.1186 - Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement... Expedited Review of Section 521(a)(2) Or 521(a)(3) Orders of Cessation § 4.1186 Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement. (a) Any person qualified to receive a 30-day decision may waive that right— (1)...

  9. 17 CFR 41.12 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 41.12 Section 41.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of sale for... U.S.C. 1a(25)) for the first 30 days of trading, if: (1) Such index would not have been a...

  10. 7 CFR 27.58 - Postponed classification; must be within 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. 27... Classification § 27.58 Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. If thereafter the classification of the cotton be desired, notice thereof shall be filed not later than the expiration of 30 days after the...

  11. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-3 - Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special 30-day rules for certain reportable... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(d)-3 Special 30-day rules for... certification of notified payee underreporting) within 30 days after the establishment or acquisition...

  12. 9 CFR 96.12 - Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 30 days; disposition. 96.12 Section 96.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... STATES § 96.12 Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition. Foreign animal casings... period of 30 days after arrival in the United States, subject to the ability of Division inspectors...

  13. Alcohol consumption and the risk of postoperative mortality and morbidity after primary hip or knee arthroplasty – A register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rotevatn, Torill A.; Bøggild, Henrik; Olesen, Christinna R.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Mortensen, Rikke N.; Jensen, Per F.; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the implications of low and moderate preoperative alcohol consumption on postoperative mortality and morbidity after primary hip and knee arthroplasty. Methods A total of 30,799 patients who underwent primary hip or knee arthroplasty between January 1st, 2005 and October 8th, 2011 with information on preoperative alcohol consumption (0 grams of pure alcohol/week, >0–168 g/week, >168–252 g/week, and >252 g/week) were identified through the Danish Anesthesia Database. The 90-day and 1-year risks of mortality (primary outcomes), 1-year risk of prosthetic infection, and 30-day risks of cardiovascular disease and deep venous thrombosis (secondary outcomes) were estimated by Cox regression analysis. Results We identified 285 (0.9%) deaths within the first 90 days and 694 (2.3%) within the first year. Within the first 30 days, 209 (0.7%) and 270 (0.9%) patients had acquired cardiovascular disease and deep venous thrombosis, respectively, and 514 (1.7%) patients developed prosthetic infection within the first year. The adjusted mortality models yielded hazard ratios of 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41 to 0.74) at 90 days and 0.61 (95% CI 0.51 to 0.73) at 1 year for the group consuming >0–168 g/week when compared to abstainers. Adjusted hazard ratios showed that the group consuming >0–168 g/week had a 0.91 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.11) risk of prosthetic infection, 0.68 (95% CI 0.50 to 0.92) risk of cardiovascular disease and 0.88 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.15) risk of deep venous thrombosis when compared to abstainers. Conclusions This study demonstrates that low-to-moderate alcohol consumption prior to primary hip or knee arthroplasty is associated with lower risks of mortality at both 90 days and 1 year after surgery and of cardiovascular disease after 30 days. More research from longitudinal studies is needed to identify specific causal relations and explanations. PMID:28306737

  14. A Model to Predict Duration of Ventilation and 30-Day Mortality in Patients with Traumatic Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-02

    Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per...2 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98...383 PATTERN OF HOSPITAL ADMISSIONS AND OUTCOME OF ACUTE ALUMINIUM PHOSPHIDE POISONING IN AN INDIAN ICU RANVIR SINGH1, diptimala agrawal2, vivek

  15. Risk factors for mortality in the Bangladesh cyclone of 1991.

    PubMed

    Bern, C; Sniezek, J; Mathbor, G M; Siddiqi, M S; Ronsmans, C; Chowdhury, A M; Choudhury, A E; Islam, K; Bennish, M; Noji, E

    1993-01-01

    Cyclones continue to pose a dangerous threat to the coastal populations of Bangladesh, despite improvements in disaster control procedures. After 138,000 persons died in the April 1991 cyclone, we carried out a rapid epidemiological assessment to determine factors associated with cyclone-related mortality and to identify prevention strategies. A nonrandom survey of 45 housing clusters comprising 1123 persons showed that mortality was greatest among under-10-year-olds (26%) and women older than 40 years (31%). Nearly 22% of persons who did not reach a concrete or brick structure died, whereas all persons who sought refuge in such structures survived. Future cyclone-associated mortality in Bangladesh could be prevented by more effective warnings leading to an earlier response, better access to designated cyclone shelters, and improved preparedness in high-risk communities. In particular, deaths among women and under-10-year-olds could be reduced by ensuring that they are given special attention by families, neighbours, local authorities, and especially those in charge of early warnings and emergency evacuation.

  16. Online social integration is associated with reduced mortality risk

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, William R.; Burke, Moira; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions increasingly take place online. Friendships and other offline social ties have been repeatedly associated with human longevity, but online interactions might have different properties. Here, we reference 12 million social media profiles against California Department of Public Health vital records and use longitudinal statistical models to assess whether social media use is associated with longer life. The results show that receiving requests to connect as friends online is associated with reduced mortality but initiating friendships is not. Additionally, online behaviors that indicate face-to-face social activity (like posting photos) are associated with reduced mortality, but online-only behaviors (like sending messages) have a nonlinear relationship, where moderate use is associated with the lowest mortality. These results suggest that online social integration is linked to lower risk for a wide variety of critical health problems. Although this is an associational study, it may be an important step in understanding how, on a global scale, online social networks might be adapted to improve modern populations’ social and physical health. PMID:27799553

  17. Sex composition of the workplace and mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Kieron J

    2013-11-01

    This study uses Swedish occupational register data to examine whether the proportion of men in administrative workplaces in the Swedish public service affects all-cause mortality risks amongst both males and females of working age. Using piecewise constant survival models to analyse occupational data from the Swedish administrative registers from 1995 to 2007, it was found that for males, a 1% increase in the proportion of males was associated with a 1.3% increase in mortality risk (hazard ratio, HR 1.013, 95% CI 1.007-1.020, p<0.001), but no association was found for females (HR 1.004, 95% CI 0.996-1.012, p=0.297). Adjustments were made for age, family status, education, occupational status, occupational segregation by sex, the total number of individuals in the workplace, level of government, region, period and variables reflecting the workplace structure by age, age by sex, occupation and education. A higher proportion of males may be related to (i) an increased exposure to risky health behaviours such as alcohol consumption and unhealthy dietary patterns, (ii) a tendency towards sickness presenteeism, and (iii) an increase in the levels of several well-established emotional stressors in the workplace, leading to an increased level of psychosocial stress. The findings and potential extensions of this research are discussed.

  18. Undernutrition, subsequent risk of mortality and civil war in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Verwimp, Philip

    2012-07-01

    The paper investigates the effect of child undernutrition on the risk of mortality in Burundi. Using anthropometric data from a longitudinal survey (1998-2007) we find that undernourished children, measured by the height-for-age z-scores (HAZ) in 1998 had a higher probability to die during subsequent years. In order to address the problem of omitted variables correlated with both nutritional status and the risk of mortality, we use the length of exposure to civil war prior to 1998 as a source of exogenous variation in a child's nutritional status. Children exposed to civil war in their area of residence have worse nutritional status. The results indicate that one year of exposure translates into a 0.15 decrease in the HAZ, resulting in a 10% increase in the probability to die. For boys, we find a 0.34 decrease in HAZ per year of exposure, resulting in 25% increase in the probability to die. For girls, the results are statistically not significant at the usual thresholds. We show the robustness of our results and we derive policy conclusion for a nutrition intervention in times of conflict.

  19. No evidence for race and socioeconomic status as independent predictors of 30-day readmission rates following orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Tracey; Yoon, Richard S; Hutzler, Lorraine; Band, Philip; Liublinksa, Victoria; Slover, James; Bosco, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services considers readmissions within 30 days of discharge to be a quality indicator. Hospitals' and eventually physicians' readmission rates will be used to determine payment for services. It is imperative that health care providers understand which patients are at risk for readmission so that they can apply the appropriate preventive interventions. The research team analyzed all orthopedic admissions and readmissions at their institution from September 2008 to April 2011 in this study. Preparing for the next stage in health care reform, identifying any preoperative factors that may place certain patients into a "high-risk" category for readmission following an orthopedic procedure is of paramount importance. This data analysis of more than 13 000 patients noted that race-based and income-based risk factors did not translate into significant risk factors or predictors of 30-day readmission following orthopedic admission.

  20. Relationship between platelet count and 30-day clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions. Pooled analysis of four ISAR trials.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Raisuke; Ndrepepa, Gjin; Mehilli, Julinda; Bruskina, Olga; Schulz, Stefanie; Schömig, Albert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2007-10-01

    Platelets play an important role in the development of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of platelet count on the outcome of patients undergoing PCI after pre-treatment with clopidogrel is unknown. The study included 5,256 patients enrolled in four randomized trials - ISAR-REACT, ISAR-SMART2, ISAR-SWEET, and ISAR-REACT2 - which assessed the value of abciximab in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI after pre-treatment with 600 mg of clopidogrel. Platelet count was measured at baseline before PCI. Primary endpoint was the 30-day incidence of MACE, secondary endpoint was mortality. The tertiles of platelet counts were: lower tertile (<198 x 10(9)/L; n = 1,726), middle tertile (198-244 x 10(9)/L; n = 1,750) and upper tertile (>244 x 10(9)/L; n = 1,780). The 30-day incidence of MACE was 6.7% (n = 116) among patients of the lower tertile, 6.3% (n = 111) among patients of the middle tertile, and 7.0% (n = 124) among patients of the upper tertile (P = 0.76). The 30-day mortality was 1.2% (n = 22) among patients of the upper tertile, 0.5% (n = 9) among patients of middle tertile and 0.6% (n = 11) among patients of the lower tertile (P = 0.04). Q-wave myocardial infarction occurred in 1.3% of patients (n = 23) in the upper tertile, 0.7% of patients (n = 13) in the middle tertile and 0.5% of patients (n = 8) in the lower tertile (P = 0.02). Platelet count was an independent correlate of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio 2.69, 95% confidence interval 1.08-6.67; P = 0.033 for the third vs. the first tertile). In conclusion, in patients with CAD undergoing PCI after pre-treatment with 600 mg clopidogrel, baseline platelet count predicts 30-day mortality.

  1. Population attributable risks of patient, child and organizational risk factors for perinatal mortality in hospital births.

    PubMed

    Poeran, Jashvant; Borsboom, Gerard J J M; de Graaf, Johanna P; Birnie, Erwin; Steegers, Eric A P; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the contributing role of maternal, child, and organizational risk factors in perinatal mortality by calculating their population attributable risks (PAR). The primary dataset comprised 1,020,749 singleton hospital births from ≥22 weeks' gestation (The Netherlands Perinatal Registry 2000-2008). PARs for single and grouped risk factors were estimated in four stages: (1) creating a duplicate dataset for each PAR analysis in which risk factors of interest were set to the most favorable value (e.g., all women assigned 'Western' for PAR calculation of ethnicity); (2) in the primary dataset an elaborate multilevel logistic regression model was fitted from which (3) the obtained coefficients were used to predict perinatal mortality in each duplicate dataset; (4) PARs were then estimated as the proportional change of predicted- compared to observed perinatal mortality. Additionally, PARs for grouped risk factors were estimated by using sequential values in two orders: after PAR estimation of grouped maternal risk factors, the resulting PARs for grouped child, and grouped organizational factors were estimated, and vice versa. The combined PAR of maternal, child and organizational factors is 94.4 %, i.e., when all factors are set to the most favorable value perinatal mortality is expected to be reduced with 94.4 %. Depending on the order of analysis, the PAR of maternal risk factors varies from 1.4 to 13.1 %, and for child- and organizational factors 58.7-74.0 and 7.3-34.3 %, respectively. In conclusion, the PAR of maternal-, child- and organizational factors combined is 94.4 %. Optimization of organizational factors may achieve a 34.3 % decrease in perinatal mortality.

  2. Relationship between Early Physician Follow-Up and 30-Day Readmission after Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Yu-Chi; Chang, Guann-Ming; Chang, Hsien-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Background Thirty-day readmission rates after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure are important patient outcome metrics. Early post-discharge physician follow-up has been promoted as a method of reducing 30-day readmission rates. However, the relationships between early post-discharge follow-up and 30-day readmission for AMI and heart failure are inconclusive. We used nationwide population-based data to examine associations between 7-day physician follow-up and 30-day readmission, and further associations of 7-day same physician (during the index hospitalization and at follow-up) and cardiologist follow-up with 30-day readmission for non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or heart failure. Methods We analyzed all patients 18 years or older with NSTEMI and heart failure and discharged from hospitals in 2010 in Taiwan through Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Cox proportional hazard models with robust sandwich variance estimates and propensity score weighting were performed after adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics to test associations between 7-day physician follow-up and 30-day readmission. Results The study population for NSTEMI and heart failure included 5,008 and 13,577 patients, respectively. Early physician follow-up was associated with a lower hazard ratio of readmission compared with no early physician follow-up for patients with NSTEMI (hazard ratio [HR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.57), and for patients with heart failure (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.48–0.60). Same physician follow-up was associated with a reduced hazard ratio of readmission compared with different physician follow-up for patients with NSTEMI (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.48–0.65), and for patients with heart failure (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.62–0.76). Conclusions For each condition, patients who have an outpatient visit with a physician within 7 days of discharge have a lower risk of 30-day readmission. Moreover

  3. Predicting 30-Day Readmissions in an Asian Population: Building a Predictive Model by Incorporating Markers of Hospitalization Severity

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lian Leng; Liu, Nan; Wang, Sijia; Thumboo, Julian; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Background To reduce readmissions, it may be cost-effective to consider risk stratification, with targeting intervention programs to patients at high risk of readmissions. In this study, we aimed to derive and validate a prediction model including several novel markers of hospitalization severity, and compare the model with the LACE index (Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Charlson comorbidity index, Emergency department visits in past 6 months), an established risk stratification tool. Method This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients ≥ 21 years of age, who were admitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore from January 1, 2013 through May 31, 2015. Data were extracted from the hospital’s electronic health records. The outcome was defined as unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge from the index hospitalization. Candidate predictive variables were broadly grouped into five categories: Patient demographics, social determinants of health, past healthcare utilization, medical comorbidities, and markers of hospitalization severity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the outcome, and receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to compare our model with the LACE index. Results 74,102 cases were enrolled for analysis. Of these, 11,492 patient cases (15.5%) were readmitted within 30 days of discharge. A total of fifteen predictive variables were strongly associated with the risk of 30-day readmissions, including number of emergency department visits in the past 6 months, Charlson Comorbidity Index, markers of hospitalization severity such as ‘requiring inpatient dialysis during index admission, and ‘treatment with intravenous furosemide 40 milligrams or more’ during index admission. Our predictive model outperformed the LACE index by achieving larger area under the curve values: 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77–0.79) versus 0.70 (95% CI: 0.69–0.71). Conclusion Several factors are important for

  4. International Validity of the “HOSPITAL” Score to Predict 30-day Potentially Avoidable Readmissions in Medical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Donzé, Jacques D.; Williams, Mark V.; Robinson, Edmondo J.; Zimlichman, Eyal; Aujesky, Drahomir; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Kripalani, Sunil; Metlay, Joshua P.; Wallington, Tamara; Fletcher, Grant S.; Auerbach, Andrew D.; Schnipper, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Identification of patients at high risk of potentially avoidable readmission allows hospitals to efficiently direct additional care transitions services to the patients most likely to benefit. OBJECTIVE To externally validate the “HOSPITAL” score in an international multicenter study to assess its generalizability. DESIGN International multicenter retrospective cohort study. SETTING 9 large hospitals across 4 different countries. PARTICIPANTS All adult patients consecutively discharged alive from a medical department between January and December, 2011 (117,065 participants). Patients transferred to another acute care facility were excluded. EXPOSURES The “HOSPITAL” score includes the following predictors at discharge: Hemoglobin, discharge from an Oncology service, Sodium level, Procedure during the index admission, Index Type of admission (urgent), number of Admissions during the last 12 months, and Length of stay. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES 30-day potentially avoidable readmission to the index hospital using the SQLape algorithm. RESULTS Of all medical discharges, 14.5% (n=16,992) were followed by a 30-day readmission, and 9.7% (n=11,307) were followed by a 30-day potentially avoidable readmission. The discriminatory power of the “HOSPITAL” score to predict potentially avoidable readmission was good with a C-statistic of 0.72 (95% CI 0.72-0.72). As in the derivation study, patients were classified into 3 risk categories: low (62%), intermediate (24%), and high risk (14%). The estimated proportions of potentially avoidable readmission for each risk category matched the observed proportion, resulting in an excellent calibration (Pearson goodness of fit test P=0.89). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The “HOSPITAL” score identified patients at high risk of 30-day potentially avoidable readmission with moderately high discrimination and excellent calibration when applied to a large international multicenter cohort of medical patients. This score

  5. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  6. Mortality Related Risk Factors in High-Risk Pulmonary Embolism in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Ergün, Recai; Çalışkan, Taner; Aydın, Kutlay; Tokur, Murat Emre; Cömert, Bilgin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We sought to identify possible risk factors associated with mortality in patients with high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) after intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Patients and Methods. PE patients, diagnosed with computer tomography pulmonary angiography, were included from two ICUs and were categorized into groups: group 1 high-risk patients and group 2 intermediate/low-risk patients. Results. Fifty-six patients were included. Of them, 41 (73.2%) were group 1 and 15 (26.7%) were group 2. When compared to group 2, need for vasopressor therapy (0 vs 68.3%; p < 0.001) and need for invasive mechanical ventilation (6.7 vs 36.6%; p = 0.043) were more frequent in group 1. The treatment of choice for group 1 was thrombolytic therapy in 29 (70.7%) and anticoagulation in 12 (29.3%) patients. ICU mortality for group 1 was 31.7% (n = 13). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, APACHE II score >18 (OR 42.47 95% CI 1.50–1201.1), invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 30.10 95% CI 1.96–463.31), and thrombolytic therapy (OR 0.03 95% CI 0.01–0.98) were found as independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion. In high-risk PE, admission APACHE II score and need for invasive mechanical ventilation may predict death in ICU. Thrombolytic therapy seems to be beneficial in these patients. PMID:28025592

  7. Risk factors for mortality during the 2002 landslides in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Carlos; Lee, Tze-San; Young, Stacy; Batts, Dahna; Benjamin, Jefferson; Malilay, Josephine

    2009-10-01

    This study examines health effects resulting from landslides in Chuuk during Tropical Storm Chata'an in July 2002, and suggests strategies to prevent future mortality. In August 2002, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to identify risk factors for mortality during landslides, which included 52 survivors and 40 surrogates for 43 decedents to identify risk factors for death. Findings suggest that 1) females had a higher mortality rate from this event than males, and 2) children aged 5-14 years had a 10-fold increase in mortality when compared with annual mortality rates from all causes. Awareness of landslides occurring elsewhere and knowledge of natural warning signs were significantly associated with lower risks of death; being outside during landslides was not associated with reduced mortality. In Chuuk, improving communication systems during tropical storms and increasing knowledge of natural warnings can reduce the risk for mortality during landslides.

  8. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients starting hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eun Hui; Kim, Ha Yeon; Kang, Yong Un; Kim, Chang Seong; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan

    2015-01-01

    Background Incident hemodialysis patients have the highest mortality in the first several months after starting dialysis. This study evaluated the in-hospital mortality rate after hemodialysis initiation, as well as related risk factors. Methods We examined in-hospital mortality and related factors in 2,692 patients starting incident hemodialysis. The study population included patients with acute kidney injury, acute exacerbation of chronic kidney disease, and chronic kidney disease. To determine the parameters associated with in-hospital mortality, patients who died in hospital (nonsurvivors) were compared with those who survived (survivors). Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were determined using logistic regression analysis. Results Among all patients, 451 (16.8%) died during hospitalization. The highest risk factor for in-hospital mortality was cardiopulmonary resuscitation, followed by pneumonia, arrhythmia, hematologic malignancy, and acute kidney injury after bleeding. Albumin was not a risk factor for in-hospital mortality, whereas C-reactive protein was a risk factor. The use of vancomycin, inotropes, and a ventilator was associated with mortality, whereas elective hemodialysis with chronic kidney disease and statin use were associated with survival. The use of continuous renal replacement therapy was not associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion Incident hemodialysis patients had high in-hospital mortality. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, infections such as pneumonia, and the use of inotropes and a ventilator was strong risk factors for in-hospital mortality. However, elective hemodialysis for chronic kidney disease was associated with survival. PMID:26484040

  9. Noise sensitivity and future risk of illness and mortality.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, S A; Shipley, M

    2015-07-01

    Aircraft and road traffic noise exposure increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Noise annoyance is the most frequent response to environmental noise. Noise annoyance has been shown to modify the association of transport noise exposure on CVD and noise sensitivity moderates the annoyance response to noise. This study uses prospective data from phases 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 in 3630 male and female civil servants from the UK Whitehall II Study to examine whether a single question on noise sensitivity measured by annoyance responses to noise in general predicts physical and mental ill-health and mortality. Non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke morbidity over the follow-up were defined by MONICA criteria based on study ECGs, hospital records, hospital admission statistics or General Practitioner confirmation. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and psychological distress by the General Health questionnaire (GHQ). There was no association between noise sensitivity and CVD morbidity or mortality except in people from lower employment grades where there was an association with angina. Noise sensitivity was a consistent predictor of depressive symptoms and psychological distress at phases 3, 5 and 7. High noise sensitivity scores at baseline predicted GHQ caseness at phase 3 adjusting for age, sex, employment grade, self-rated health and GHQ caseness at baseline (OR=1.56 95% CI 1.29-1.88). Noise sensitivity has been identified as a predictor of mental ill-health. More longitudinal research is needed including measures of noise exposure.

  10. Risks from Worldwide Terrorism: Mortality and Morbidity Patterns and Trends

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T; Jones, E D

    2005-01-25

    Worldwide data on terrorist incidents between 1968 and 2004 gathered by the RAND corporation and the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) were assessed for patterns and trends in morbidity/mortality. The data involve a total of 19,828 events, 7,401 ''adverse'' events (each causing {ge}1 victim), 91,346 cases of casualty (either injury or death) and 25,408 deaths. Analyses revealed a number of interesting patterns and apparently significant trends. Most terror-related adverse events, casualties and deaths involved bombs and guns. Weapon-specific patterns and terror-related risk levels in Israel (ISR) have differed markedly from those of all other regions combined (AOR). ISR had a fatal fraction of casualties about half that of AOR, but has experienced relatively constant lifetime terror-related casualty risks on the order of 0.5%--a level 2 to 3 orders of magnitude more than those experienced in AOR, which have increased {approx}100-fold over the same period. Individual event fatality has increased steadily, the median increasing from 14 to 50%. Lorenz curves obtained indicate substantial dispersion among victim/event rates: about half of all victims were caused by the top 2% (10%) of harm-ranked events in OAR (ISR). Extreme values of victim/event rates were found to be well modeled by classic or generalized Pareto distributions, indicating that these rates have been as predictable as similarly extreme phenomena such as rainfall, sea levels, earthquakes, etc. This observation suggests that these extreme-value patterns may be used to improve strategies to prevent and manage risks associated with terror-related consequences.

  11. 78 FR 52005 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Project Construction Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... August 21, 2013 Part IV Department of Housing and Urban Development 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily... Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard at...

  12. 77 FR 48160 - Division of Cardiovascular Devices 30-Day Notices and Annual Reports; Public Workshop; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... following public workshop entitled ``Division of Cardiovascular Devices 30-Day Notices and Annual Reports... requirements applicable to premarket approval applications (PMAs), 30-day notices and annual reports... periodic (annual) report. This workshop is intended to focus on manufacturing method and procedure...

  13. 43 CFR 4.1187 - Procedure if 30-day decision requirement is not waived.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Procedure if 30-day decision requirement is...-day decision requirement is not waived. If the applicant does not waive the 30-day decision... a response to the application for review shall file a written response within 5 working days...

  14. 78 FR 64141 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certificate of Housing Counseling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... October 25, 2013 Part III Department of Housing and Urban Development 30-Day Notice of Proposed... / Notices#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Certificate of Housing Counseling: Homeownership and Certificate of Housing Counseling:...

  15. 43 CFR 4.1187 - Procedure if 30-day decision requirement is not waived.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedure if 30-day decision requirement...-day decision requirement is not waived. If the applicant does not waive the 30-day decision... a response to the application for review shall file a written response within 5 working days...

  16. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  17. 43 CFR 4.1187 - Procedure if 30-day decision requirement is not waived.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure if 30-day decision requirement...-day decision requirement is not waived. If the applicant does not waive the 30-day decision... a response to the application for review shall file a written response within 5 working days...

  18. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  19. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  20. The impact on cardiac diagnosis and mortality of focused transthoracic echocardiography in hip fracture surgery patients with increased risk of cardiac disease: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Canty, D J; Royse, C F; Kilpatrick, D; Bowyer, A; Royse, A G

    2012-11-01

    Hip fracture surgery is associated with a high rate of mortality and morbidity; heart disease is the leading cause and is often unrecognised and inadequately treated. Pre-operative focused transthoracic echocardiography by anaesthetists frequently influences management, but mortality outcome studies have not been performed to date. Mortality over the 12 months after hip fracture surgery, in 64 patients at risk of cardiac disease who received pre-operative echocardiography, was compared with 66 randomised historical controls who did not receive echocardiography. Mortality was lower in the group that received echocardiography over the 30 days (4.7% vs 15.2%, log rank p=0.047) and 12 months after surgery (17.1% vs 33.3%, log rank p=0.031). Hazard of death was also reduced with pre-operative echocardiography over 12 months after adjustment for known risk factors (hazard ratio 0.41, 95% CI 0.2-0.85, p=0.016). Pre-operative echocardiography was not associated with a delay in surgery. These data support a randomised controlled trial to confirm these findings.

  1. Complications and 30-day Outcomes Associated With Venous Thromboembolism in the Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgical Population

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Dustin; Sherrod, Brandon; McGwin, Gerald; Ponce, Brent; Gilbert, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The risk of morbidity associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) after pediatric orthopaedic surgery remains unclear despite increased use of thromboprophylaxis measures. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, Pediatric database was queried for patients undergoing an orthopaedic surgical procedure between 2012 and 2013. Upper extremity and skin/subcutaneous surgeries were excluded. Associations between VTE and procedure, demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and 30-day postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Results Of 14,776 cases, 15 patients (0.10%) experienced postoperative VTE. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurred in 13 patients (0.09%), and pulmonary embolism developed in 2 patients (0.01%). The procedure with the highest VTE rate was surgery for infection (1.2%). Patient factors associated with the development of VTE included hyponatremia (P = 0.003), abnormal partial thromboplastin time (P = 0.046), elevated aspartate transaminase level (P = 0.004), and gastrointestinal (P = 0.011), renal (P = 0.016), and hematologic (P = 0.019) disorders. Nearly half (46.2%) of DVTs occurred postdischarge. Complications associated with VTE included prolonged hospitalization (P = <0.001), pneumonia (P = <0.001), unplanned intubation (P = 0.003), urinary tract infection (P = 0.003), and central line-associated bloodstream infection (P = <0.001). Most of the postoperative complications (66.7%) occurred before VTE diagnosis, and no patients with VTE died. Conclusion In the absence of specified risk factors, thromboprophylaxis may be unnecessary for this population. PMID:26855119

  2. Increased Cancer Mortality Risk for NASA's ISS Astronauts: The Contribution of Diagnostic Radiological Examinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, C.W.; Picco, C. E.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Shavers, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the radiation exposures and risks associated with long-term spaceflight on the International Space Station. NASA's risk model of cancer mortality is also presented.

  3. The Asymptotic Distribution of Mortality Rates in Competing Risks Analyses,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    For a sample of individuals from an animal or human population under observation in a clinical trial or life test, mortality rates are defined for...model, these mortality rates are shown to have an asymptotic normal distribution. An expression for the asymptotic correlation between a pair of... mortality rates is thus obtained and a necessary and sufficient condition for their asymptotic independence is investigated in some general situations with

  4. Bloodstream Infections Due to Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: Risk Factors for Mortality and Treatment Outcome, with Special Emphasis on Antimicrobial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, Sung-Han; Park, Wan Beom; Lee, Ki-Deok; Kim, Hong-Bin; Kim, Eui-Chong; Oh, Myoung-Don; Choe, Kang-Won

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate risk factors for mortality and treatment outcome of bloodstream infections due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-EK). ESBL production in stored K. pneumoniae and E. coli blood isolates from Jan 1998 to Dec 2002 was phenotypically determined according to NCCLS guidelines and/or the double-disk synergy test. A total of 133 patients with ESBL-EK bacteremia, including 66 patients with ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and 67 with ESBL-producing E. coli, were enrolled. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 25.6% (34 of 133). Independent risk factors for mortality were severe sepsis, peritonitis, neutropenia, increasing Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and administration of broad-spectrum cephalosporin as definitive antimicrobial therapy (P < 0.05 for each of these risk factors). In 117 of the 133 patients, excluding 16 patients who died within 3 days after blood culture sample acquisition, the 30-day mortality rates according to definitive antibiotics were as follows: carbapenem, 12.9% (8 of 62); ciprofloxacin, 10.3% (3 of 29); and others, such as cephalosporin or an aminoglycoside, 26.9% (7 of 26). When patients who received appropriate definitive antibiotics, such as carbapenem or ciprofloxacin, were evaluated, mortality in patients receiving inappropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy was found not to be significantly higher than mortality in those receiving appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy (18.9 versus 15.5%; P = 0.666). Carbapenem and ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics in antimicrobial therapy for ESBL-EK bacteremia. A delay in appropriate definitive antimicrobial therapy was not associated with higher mortality if antimicrobial therapy was adjusted appropriately according to the susceptibility results. Our data suggest that more prudent use of carbapenem as empirical antibiotic may be reasonable. PMID:15561828

  5. Prevalence of risk factors and risk of mortality in relation to occupational group.

    PubMed

    Tamosiūnas, Abdonas; Reklaitiene, Regina; Domarkiene, Stanislava; Baceviciene, Migle; Virviciūte, Dalia

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of risk factors in different occupational groups of Kaunas men and women aged 35-64 years, and to assess the prognostic value of occupation on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. The four random samples of Kaunas men and women (3,293 men and 3,561 women) aged 35-64 years from the Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) study (1983-2002) were examined using the standard epidemiological methods. The participants of the first three surveys were followed-up, in terms the end points reached, from the beginning of each survey until January 1, 2004. A multivariate Cox model was used for the analysis. In 1983-1984, the proportion of manual workers was greater than proportion of non-manual workers among both men and women. Twenty years later, the proportion of female manual workers decreased twice to 26.2%. The prevalence of majority risk factors showed no difference in manual and non-manual workers among both men and women. The risk of death from cardiovascular diseases among manual workers was 1.5 times greater than among non-manual workers. The different prognostic value of various variables has been determined on all-cause mortality risk in groups of manual and non-manual workers.

  6. Relation of physical activity to cardiovascular disease mortality and the influence of cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Reddigan, Jacinta I; Ardern, Chris I; Riddell, Michael C; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2011-11-15

    Physical activity can improve several metabolic risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality. We sought to evaluate the extent to which metabolic risk factors mediate the association between physical activity and CVD mortality and whether physical activity provides protective effects against CVD mortality in healthy adults and those with metabolic risk factors. A sample of 10,261 adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with public-access mortality data linkage (follow-up 13.4 ± 3.9 years) was used. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire and classified into inactive, light, and moderate/vigorous activity categories. Metabolic risk factors (dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, inflammation, and insulin resistance) were categorized using clinical thresholds. After adjusting for basic confounders, engaging in light or moderate/vigorous physical activity was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality (p < 0.05). Adjustment for each risk-factor set only slightly attenuated this relation. When all risk-factor sets were added to the model simultaneously, light (hazard ratio 0.72, 0.62 to 0.84) and moderate/vigorous (hazard ratio 0.72, 0.62 to 0.85) activity remained at lower risk of CVD mortality. In addition, physical activity provided protective effects for CVD mortality in healthy subjects and those with metabolic risk factors in isolation or in clusters. In conclusion, physical activity was associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality independent of traditional and inflammatory risk factors. Taken together these results suggest that physical activity may protect against CVD mortality regardless of the presence of metabolic risk factors.

  7. Careers and mortality in France: evidence on how far occupational mobility predicts differentiated risks.

    PubMed

    Cambois, Emmanuelle

    2004-06-01

    This new study goes beyond the well-established correlation between mortality differentials and occupational status, to focus on the impact of professional careers on mortality risk. It shows heterogeneity in the mortality risks within occupational classes, strongly related to the type of occupational moves experienced. The occupational data are taken from the French longitudinal census sample-using 1968 and 1975 census records-and mortality risks are estimated over the 1975-1980 period, for both occupational classes and pathways between classes. Results show a close relationship between occupational mobility and mortality. For men, favorable occupational moves-e.g. from clerks to upper class-put them less at risk of mortality than their counterparts who remained in their class. An inverse relationship is found for unfavorable moves. In most cases, the mortality risks of the movers are in between the risks in the class left and in the class joined. Similar patterns apply to specific groups of women only (upper classes, manual workers, clerks) for which occupational moves are probably driven, as for most men, by mortality related determinants (level of education, qualifications, health, etc.). The findings strongly support the use of a dynamic approach, based on individuals' experiences, to improve our understanding of mortality differentials.

  8. Impact of Peri-Operative Acute Kidney Injury as a Severity Index for 30-day Readmission After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeremiah R.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Ross, Cathy S.; Kramer, Robert S.; Magnus, Patrick C.; Chaisson, Kristine; Boss, Richard A.; Helm, Robert E.; Horton, Susan R.; Hofmaster, Patricia; Desaulniers, Helen; Blajda, Pamela; Westbrook, Benjamin M.; Duquette, Dennis; LeBlond, Kelly; Quinn, Reed D.; Jones, Cheryl; DiScipio, Anthony W.; Malenka, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the United States, 15–20% are re-hospitalized within 30-days. Current models to predict readmission have not evaluated the association between severity of post-operative acute kidney injury (AKI) and 30-day readmissions. Methods We collected data from 2,209 consecutive patients who underwent either coronary artery bypass (CABG) or valve surgery at seven member hospitals of the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group Cardiac Surgery Registry (NNE) between July 2008 and December 2010. Administrative data at each hospital was searched to identify all patients readmitted to the index hospital within 30 days of discharge. We defined AKI Stages by the AKI Network definition of 0.3 or 50% increase (Stage 1), 2-fold increase (stage 2) and a 3-fold or 0.5 increase if the baseline serum creatinine was at least 4.0 (mg/dL) or new dialysis (stage 3). We evaluate the association between stages of AKI and 30-day readmission using multivariate logistic regression. Results There were 260 patients readmitted within 30-days (12.1%). The median time to readmission was 9 (IQR 4–16) days. Patients not developing AKI following cardiac surgery had a 30-day readmission rate of 9.3% compared to patients developing AKI stage 1 (16.1%), AKI stage 2 (21.8%) and AKI stage 3 (28.6%, p <0.001). Adjusted odds ratios for AKI stage 1 (1.81; 1.35, 2.44), stage 2 (2.39; 1.38, 4.14) and stage 3 (3.47; 1.85–6.50). Models to predict readmission were significantly improved with the addition of AKI stage (c-statistic 0.65, p = 0.001) and net reclassification rate of 14.6% (95%CI: 5.05% to 24.14%, p = .003). Conclusions In addition to more traditional patient characteristics, the severity of post-operative AKI should be used when assessing a patient’s risk for readmission. PMID:24119985

  9. Mortality risk factors and excess mortality in a cohort of cocaine users admitted to drug treatment in Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Luis; Molist, Gemma; Espelt, Albert; Barrio, Gregorio; Guitart, Anna; Bravo, Maria J; Brugal, M Teresa

    2014-02-01

    We assessed mortality risk factors and excess mortality compared to the general population in two Spanish sub-cohorts of 8,825 cocaine and heroin users (CHUs) and 11,905 only cocaine users (OCUs) aged 15-49 admitted to drug treatment. Heroin use (among all cocaine users), no-regular employment and drug injection (among CHUs and OCUs), daily cocaine use and previous drug treatment (among CUs), and death before 2005 and >10 years of heroin use (among CHUs) were clearly associated with higher mortality in Cox regression. Excess mortality was assessed by the directly standardized mortality rate ratio, which was higher in CHUs (14.3; 95% CI: 12.6-16.2) than CUs (5.1; 95% CI: 4.3-6.0) and in women than men, especially among OCUs (8.6; 95% CI: 7.5-10.0 vs. 3.5; 95% CI: 3.3-3.8); it decreased with age among CHUs, but did not decrease overall during 1997-2008. OCUs excess mortality was considerable and showed no signs of decline, suggesting the need for improved treatment and prevention interventions.

  10. 78 FR 64143 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Contractor's Requisition-Project Mortgages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Contractor's Requisition--Project..., 2013. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Contractor's...

  11. 78 FR 44579 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fellowship Placement Pilot Program.... A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Fellowship Placement Pilot.... Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The Fellowship Placement Program places...

  12. 78 FR 64234 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Environmental Review Procedures for Entities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... (NEPA), the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, related federal environmental laws... compliance with all applicable environmental laws and authorities. HUD (or the State for certain State... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Environmental Review Procedures...

  13. 78 FR 59046 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  14. 78 FR 69103 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval Number... Quality Control process involves selecting a nationally representative sample of assisted households...

  15. 78 FR 36561 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: The Housing Counseling Federal Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: The Housing Counseling Federal... Information Collection: The Housing Counseling Federal Advisory Committee Membership Application. OMB Approval... for the information and proposed use: The Housing Counseling Federal Advisory Committee (HCFAC)...

  16. Effect of feeding in 30-day bioaccumulation assays using Hyalella azteca in fluoranthene-dosed sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Harkey, G.A.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Current protocols for conducting freshwater sediment bioaccumulation tests require that food be added to exposures. To determine effects of adding food, 30-day bioaccumulation assays were conducted with H. azteca exposed to sediment dosed with four concentrations (0.05 to 1,267 nmol/g dry weight) of fluoranthene. Accumulation was significantly greater in fed versus non-fed animals at all dose levels after 96 and 240 hours of exposure and continued to be greater after 30 days in the low dose levels. At sediment concentrations above 634 nmol/g dw, survival of unfed animals dropped to 34% after 30 days, However, after 30 days, reproduction was observed in fed animals exposed to sediment concentrations > 16 times the expected LC50 calculated for fluoranthene in sediment. These data raise questions concerning the interpretation of standard toxicity and bioaccumulation tests when food is routinely added.

  17. Avoidable 30-Day Readmissions Among Patients With Stroke and Other Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nahab, Fadi; Takesaka, Jennifer; Mailyan, Eugene; Judd, Lilith; Culler, Steven; Webb, Adam; Frankel, Michael; Choi, Dennis; Helmers, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on factors associated with 30-day readmissions and the frequency of avoidable readmissions among patients with stroke and other cerebrovascular disease. Methods: University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) database records were used to identify patients discharged with a diagnosis of stroke or other cerebrovascular disease at a university hospital from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 and readmitted within 30 days to the index hospital. Logistic regression models were used to identify patient and clinical characteristics associated with 30-day readmission. Two neurologists performed chart reviews on readmissions to identify avoidable cases. Results: Of 2706 patients discharged during the study period, 174 patients had 178 readmissions (6.4%) within 30 days. The only factor associated with 30-day readmission was the index length of stay >10 days (vs <5 days; odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% CI [1.4, 3.7]). Of 174 patients readmitted within 30 days (median time to readmission 10 days), 92 (53%) were considered avoidable readmissions including 38 (41%) readmitted for elective procedures within 30 days of discharge, 27 (29%) readmitted after inadequate outpatient care coordination, 15 (16%) readmitted after incomplete initial evaluations, 8 (9%) readmitted due to delayed palliative care consultation, and 4 (4%) readmitted after being discharged with inadequate discharge instructions. Only 5% of the readmitted patients had outpatient follow-up recommended within 1 week. Conclusions: More than half of the 30-day readmissions were considered avoidable. Coordinated timing of elective procedures and earlier outpatient follow-up may prevent the majority of avoidable readmissions among patients with stroke and other cerebrovascular disease. PMID:23983857

  18. Risks of all-cause and suicide mortality in mental disorders: a meta-review

    PubMed Central

    Chesney, Edward; Goodwin, Guy M; Fazel, Seena

    2014-01-01

    A meta-review, or review of systematic reviews, was conducted to explore the risks of all-cause and suicide mortality in major mental disorders. A systematic search generated 407 relevant reviews, of which 20 reported mortality risks in 20 different mental disorders and included over 1.7 million patients and over a quarter of a million deaths. All disorders had an increased risk of all-cause mortality compared with the general population, and many had mortality risks larger than or comparable to heavy smoking. Those with the highest all-cause mortality ratios were substance use disorders and anorexia nervosa. These higher mortality risks translate into substantial (10-20 years) reductions in life expectancy. Borderline personality disorder, anorexia nervosa, depression and bipolar disorder had the highest suicide risks. Notable gaps were identified in the review literature, and the quality of the included reviews was typically low. The excess risks of mortality and suicide in all mental disorders justify a higher priority for the research, prevention, and treatment of the determinants of premature death in psychiatric patients. PMID:24890068

  19. Parkinson's disease and risk of mortality: meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Gong, D D; Man, C F; Fan, Y

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the existing prospective observational studies on the morality risk among Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and determine the overall risk ratio (RR) of mortality by conducting a meta-analysis and systematic review. Original articles published in English were searched in PubMed and Embase databases prior to March 2013. Only prospective observational studies providing adjusted risk estimates related to PD and future mortality were considered eligible. Pooled adjusted RR and 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed either by fixed-effects models or by random-effects models. Eight studies with 72,833 participants were identified and analysed. In the pooled analyses, patients with PD had a greater risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 2.22; 95% CI: 1.78-2.77). Subgroup analyses based on the design, gender, follow-up duration and sample size showed that a consistent positive association between PD and the mortality risk in each subgroup. However, no statistical significance was found for the baseline age <65 years (RR = 1.42; 95% CI: 0.72-2.77). PD patients with dementia had particularly high mortality risks (RR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.06-6.92). This meta-analysis indicated that among patients with PD, the all-cause mortality increased by 2.22-fold compared with the general population. PD patients with dementia particularly had higher risks of mortality.

  20. Unplanned 30-Day Readmissions in a General Internal Medicine Hospitalist Service at a Comprehensive Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Joanna-Grace M.; Gadiraju, Sahitya; Hiremath, Adarsh; Lin, Heather Yan; Farroni, Jeff; Halm, Josiah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hospital readmissions are considered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid as a metric for quality of health care delivery. Robust data on the readmission profile of patients with cancer are currently insufficient to determine whether this measure is applicable to cancer hospitals as well. To address this knowledge gap, we estimated the unplanned readmission rate and identified factors influencing unplanned readmissions in a hospitalist service at a comprehensive cancer center. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed unplanned 30-day readmission of patients discharged from the General Internal Medicine Hospitalist Service at a comprehensive cancer center between April 1, 2012, and September 30, 2012. Multiple independent variables were studied using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models, with generalized estimating equations to identify risk factors associated with readmissions. Results: We observed a readmission rate of 22.6% in our cohort. The median time to unplanned readmission was 10 days. Unplanned readmission was more likely in patients with metastatic cancer and those with three or more comorbidities. Patients discharged to hospice were less likely to be readmitted (all P values < .01). Conclusion: We observed a high unplanned readmission rate among our population of patients with cancer. The risk factors identified appear to be related to severity of illness and open up opportunities for improving coordination with primary care physicians, oncologists, and other specialists to manage comorbidities, or perhaps transition appropriate patients to palliative care. Our findings will be instrumental for developing targeted interventions to help reduce readmissions at our hospital. Our data also provide direction for appropriate application of readmission quality measures in cancer hospitals. PMID:26152375

  1. Risk factors for mortality in patients with mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Spellberg, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Fredricks, David; Morris, Michele I; Perfect, John R; Chin-Hong, Peter V; Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Brass, Eric P

    2012-08-01

    Optimal clinical care and clinical investigation of patients with mucormycosis are limited by absence of controlled trials, and absence of well-defined predictors of mortality or clinical response. The Deferasirox-AmBisome Therapy for mucormycosis (DEFEAT Mucor) study was the first randomized clinical trial conducted on patients with mucormycosis, and demonstrated that adjunctive deferasirox therapy did not improve outcomes of the disease. The current study describes clinical factors from the 20 patients enrolled to identify those associated with 90-day mortality of the 11 (55%) patients who died by day 90. Age, diabetes mellitus, transplant status, or antifungal therapy were not associated with mortality. However, active malignancy or neutropenia at enrollment were associated with increased mortality. Pulmonary infection was linked with lower Kaplan-Meier survival compared to non-pulmonary infection. Higher baseline serum concentrations of iron and ferritin were also associated with mortality. No patient who progressed clinically during the first 14 days of study therapy survived; however, many patients who clinically improved during that time did not survive to 90 days. In contrast, day 30 clinical response was predictive of 90-day survival. These factors may be useful in defining enrollment randomization stratification critieria for future clinical trials, and in supporting clinical care of patients with mucormycosis.

  2. 14-Year Survey in a Swedish County Reveals a Pronounced Increase in Bloodstream Infections (BSI). Comorbidity - An Independent Risk Factor for Both BSI and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Giske, Christian G.; Fredrikson, Mats; Östholm Balkhed, Åse; Claesson, Carina; Nilsson, Lennart E.; Hoffmann, Mikael; Hanberger, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives we assessed the incidence, risk factors and outcome of BSI over a 14-year period (2000–2013) in a Swedish county. Methods retrospective cohort study on culture confirmed BSI among patients in the county of Östergötland, Sweden, with approximately 440,000 inhabitants. A BSI was defined as either community-onset BSI (CO-BSI) or hospital-acquired BSI (HA-BSI). Results of a total of 11,480 BSIs, 67% were CO-BSI and 33% HA-BSI. The incidence of BSI increased by 64% from 945 to 1,546 per 100,000 hospital admissions per year during the study period. The most prominent increase, 83% was observed within the CO-BSI cohort whilst HA-BSI increased by 32%. Prescriptions of antibiotics in outpatient care decreased with 24% from 422 to 322 prescriptions dispensed/1,000 inhabitants/year, whereas antibiotics prescribed in hospital increased by 67% (from 424 to 709 DDD per 1,000 days of care). The overall 30-day mortality for HA-BSIs was 17.2%, compared to 10.6% for CO-BSIs, with an average yearly increase per 100,000 hospital admissions of 2 and 5% respectively. The proportion of patients with one or more comorbidities, increased from 20.8 to 55.3%. In multivariate analyses, risk factors for mortality within 30 days were: HA-BSI (2.22); two or more comorbidities (1.89); single comorbidity (1.56); CO-BSI (1.21); male (1.05); and high age (1.04). Conclusion this survey revealed an alarming increase in the incidence of BSI over the 14-year study period. Interventions to decrease BSI in general should be considered together with robust antibiotic stewardship programmes to avoid both over- and underuse of antibiotics. PMID:27835663

  3. Human-caused mortality influences spatial population dynamics: pumas in landscapes with varying mortality risks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newby, Jesse R.; Mills, L. Scott; Ruth, Toni K.; Pletscher, Daniel H.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Quigley, Howard B.; Murphy, Kerry M.; DeSimone, Rich

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of how stressors affect dispersal attributes and the contribution of local populations to multi-population dynamics are of immediate value to basic and applied ecology. Puma (Puma concolor) populations are expected to be influenced by inter-population movements and susceptible to human-induced source–sink dynamics. Using long-term datasets we quantified the contribution of two puma populations to operationally define them as sources or sinks. The puma population in the Northern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (NGYE) was largely insulated from human-induced mortality by Yellowstone National Park. Pumas in the western Montana Garnet Mountain system were exposed to greater human-induced mortality, which changed over the study due to the closure of a 915 km2 area to hunting. The NGYE’s population growth depended on inter-population movements, as did its ability to act as a source to the larger region. The heavily hunted Garnet area was a sink with a declining population until the hunting closure, after which it became a source with positive intrinsic growth and a 16× increase in emigration. We also examined the spatial and temporal characteristics of individual dispersal attributes (emigration, dispersal distance, establishment success) of subadult pumas (N = 126). Human-caused mortality was found to negatively impact all three dispersal components. Our results demonstrate the influence of human-induced mortality on not only within population vital rates, but also inter-population vital rates, affecting the magnitude and mechanisms of local population’s contribution to the larger metapopulation.

  4. Does the mortality risk of social isolation depend upon socioeconomic factors?

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew C

    2016-10-01

    This study considers whether socioeconomic status influences the impact of social isolation on mortality risk. Using data from the Alameda County Study, Cox proportional hazard models indicate that having a high income worsens the mortality risk of social isolation. Education may offset risk, however, and the specific pattern that emerges depends on which measures for socioeconomic status and social isolation are included. Additionally, lonely people who earn high incomes suffer especially high risk of accidents and suicides as well as cancer. Further research is needed that contextualizes the health risks of social isolation within the broader social environment.

  5. Half of 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among HIV-Infected Patients Are Potentially Preventable

    PubMed Central

    Kitchell, Ellen; Etherton, Sarah Shelby; Duarte, Piper; Halm, Ethan A.; Jain, Mamta K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirty-day readmission rates, a widely utilized quality metric, are high among HIV-infected individuals. However, it is unknown how many 30-day readmissions are preventable, especially in HIV patients, who have been excluded from prior potentially preventable readmission analyses. We used electronic medical records to identify all readmissions within 30 days of discharge among HIV patients hospitalized at a large urban safety net hospital in 2011. Two independent reviewers assessed whether readmissions were potentially preventable using both published criteria and detailed chart review, how readmissions might have been prevented, and the phase of care deemed suboptimal (inpatient care, discharge planning, post-discharge). Of 1137 index admissions, 213 (19%) resulted in 30-day readmissions. These admissions occurred among 930 unique HIV patients, with 130 individuals (14%) experiencing 30-day readmissions. Of these 130, about half were determined to be potentially preventable using published criteria (53%) or implicit chart review (48%). Not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) greatly increased the odds of a preventable readmission (OR 5.9, CI:2.4–14.8). Most of the preventable causes of readmission were attributed to suboptimal care during the index hospitalization. Half of 30-day readmission in HIV patients are potentially preventable. Increased focus on early ART initiation, adherence counseling, management of chronic conditions, and appropriate timing of discharge may help reduce readmissions in this vulnerable population. PMID:26154066

  6. [Mortality risks of migrants: Analysis of the healthy-migrant-effect after the 2011 German Census].

    PubMed

    Kohls, Martin

    2015-06-01

    In Germany there are 16 million people with a migration background, one in five of the total population. There are relatively few migrant mortality studies in Germany, which is primarily due to the restricted quantity and quality of existing data. The official migrant death statistics for Germany suffer from incomplete migrant population stock data due to non-registered remigration events. After the German census in 2011 especially the migrant stock data was adjusted downwards, and therefore realistic estimates of the migrant mortality risk and the healthy-migrant-effect are possible. Between 2010 and 2013 mortality risks of foreigners rose strongly due to the census corrections of the migrant population. However, the risks for adults and pensioners still lie below the risks for Germans in the same age groups. The lower risks indicate a healthy-migrant-effect, whicht was primarily effective shortly after the immigration event. Analysis based on data from the Statutory Pension Insurance (GRV) shows higher migrant mortality risks in the age group from 65 to 84. In that age group there are supposedly a lot of people, who immigrated to Germany in the context of the guest worker recruitment in the 1950s to 1970s and who had hard working conditions in their lifetimes. Their mortality risk, therefore, increased in the long-term perspective. In the future the lack of data in the migrant population will again rise due to unregistered remigration. Alternative databases need to be used for migrant mortality analyses.

  7. Fitness versus Fatness: Which Influences Health and Mortality Risk the Most?

    PubMed

    Gaesser, Glenn A; Tucker, Wesley J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Angadi, Siddhartha S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a more powerful predictor of mortality than body mass index or adiposity, and improving CRF is more important than losing body fat for reducing risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Data on reduced morbidity and mortality associated with increased CRF are strong and consistent. By contrast, data on intentional weight loss and mortality are uncertain, and weight loss-induced risk factor modification may be largely transient. Because weight loss maintenance is poor and considering the health risks associated with chronic weight instability ( "yo-yo" dieting), we propose an alternative paradigm that focuses on improving CRF rather than reducing body weight. We contend that this is a safer alternative for management of obesity and the associated comorbidities. Exercise adherence may improve if clinicians emphasized to their patients the importance of CRF compared with weight loss in improving health and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

  8. The Life-Long Mortality Risks Of World War II Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Glen H.; Brown, James Scott; Martin, Leslie R.; Friedman, Howard W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This longitudinal study of American veterans investigated the mortality risks of five World War II military experiences (i.e., combat exposure) and their variation among veterans in the post-war years. Methods The male subjects (N=854) are members of the Stanford-Terman study, and 38 percent served in World War II. Cox models (proportional hazards regressions) compared the relative mortality risk associated with each military experience. Results Overseas duty, service in the Pacific and exposure to combat significantly increased the mortality risks of veterans in the study. Individual differences in education, mental health in 1950, and age at entry into the military, as well as personality factors made no difference in these results. Conclusions A gradient is observable such that active duty on the home front, followed by overseas duty, service in the Pacific, and combat exposure markedly increased the risk of relatively early mortality. Potential linking mechanisms include heavy drinking. PMID:20161074

  9. Morbidity, mortality, and categorization of the risk of perioperative complications in lung cancer patients*

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani, Fabiana; Paisani, Denise de Moraes; de Oliveira, Anderson; de Souza, Rodrigo Caetano; Perfeito, João Aléssio Juliano; Faresin, Sonia Maria

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine morbidity and mortality rates by risk category in accordance with the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines, to determine what role pulmonary function tests play in this categorization process, and to identify risk factors for perioperative complications (PCs). METHODS: This was a historical cohort study based on preoperative and postoperative data collected for cases of lung cancer diagnosed or suspected between 2001 and 2010. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients evaluated, only 13 (5.4%) were classified as being at high risk of PCs. Predicted postoperative FEV1 (FEV1ppo) was sufficient to define the risk level in 156 patients (65.3%); however, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was necessary for identifying those at high risk. Lung resection was performed in 145 patients. Overall morbidity and mortality rates were similar to those reported in other studies. However, morbidity and mortality rates for patients at an acceptable risk of PCs were 31.6% and 4.3%, respectively, whereas those for patients at high risk were 83.3% and 33.3%. Advanced age, COPD, lobe resection, and lower FEV1ppo were correlated with PCs. CONCLUSIONS: Although spirometry was sufficient for risk assessment in the majority of the population studied, CPET played a key role in the identification of high-risk patients, among whom the mortality rate was seven times higher than was that observed for those at an acceptable risk of PCs. The risk factors related to PCs coincided with those reported in previous studies. PMID:24626266

  10. Myelinated fibers of the mouse spinal cord after a 30-day space flight.

    PubMed

    Povysheva, T V; Rezvyakov, P N; Shaimardanova, G F; Nikolskii, E E; Islamov, R R; Chelyshev, Yu A; Grygoryev, A I

    2016-07-01

    Myelinated fibers and myelin-forming cells in the spinal cord at the L3-L5 level were studied in C57BL/6N mice that had spent 30 days in space. Signs of destruction of myelin in different areas of white matter, reduction of the thickness of myelin sheath and axon diameter, decreased number of myelin-forming cells were detected in "flight" mice. The stay of mice in space during 30 days had a negative impact on the structure of myelinated fibers and caused reduced expression of the markers myelin-forming cells. These findings can complement the pathogenetic picture of the development of hypogravity motor syndrome.

  11. Mortality Risk amongst Nursing Home Residents Evacuated after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kami, Masahiro; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Background Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. Methods A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04–3.49). There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34–1.76) to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74–4.76). No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07–3.49). Conclusion High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. PMID:23555921

  12. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jim T

    2007-01-01

    Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the) major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident) with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks. PMID:17407581

  13. Associations of Bowel Movement Frequency with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality among US Women

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenjie; Li, Yanping; Heianza, Yoriko; Staller, Kyle D.; Chan, Andrew T.; Rimm, Eric B.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.; Qi, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests a potential impact of gastrointestinal function on cardiometabolic risk. Abnormal bowel movements have been related to various cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and altered metabolism of bile acids and gut microbiota. However, little is known about whether bowel movement frequency affects risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. In the Nurses’ Health Study, bowel movement frequency was self-reported in 1982 by 86,289 women free from CVD and cancer. During up to 30 years of follow-up, we documented 7,628 incident CVD cases and 21,084 deaths. After adjustment for dietary intake, lifestyle, medication use, and other risk factors, as compared with women with daily bowel movement, having bowel movements more than once daily was significantly associated with increased risk of CVD (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–1.21), total mortality (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.12–1.22), and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.07–1.28). With further adjustment for body mass index and diabetes status, the association with total mortality remained significant (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.06–1.15), whereas the associations with incident CVD and cardiovascular mortality were no longer significant. Our results suggest increased bowel movement frequency is a potential risk factor for premature mortality. PMID:27596972

  14. White-coat hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and total mortality

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuli; Huang, Weijun; Mai, Weiyi; Cai, Xiaoyan; An, Dongqi; Liu, Zhuheng; Huang, He; Zeng, Jianping; Hu, Yunzhao; Xu, Dingli

    2017-01-01

    Background: Whether white-coat hypertension (WCH) is an innocent phenomenon is controversial. Method: In this study, we evaluated the association of WCH and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and mortality, stratified by baseline antihypertensive treatment status. Databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were searched for prospective studies with data on CVD and total mortality associated with WCH. The primary outcomes were the risk of CVD and total mortality associated with WCH stratified by antihypertensive treatment status. The relative risks of events compared with normotension were calculated. Results: A total of 23 cohorts (20 445 individuals), 11 cohorts (8656 individuals), and 12 cohorts (21 336 individuals) were included for analysis of cardiovascular risk associated with WCH in patients without baseline antihypertensive treatment (untreated), or under antihypertensive treatment (treated) or mixed population (including both untreated and treated patients), respectively. In untreated cohorts, WCH was associated with a 38 and 20% increased risk of CVD and total mortality compared with normotension, respectively. In the mixed population, WCH was associated with a 19 and 50% increased risk of CVD and total mortality. However, in the treated patients, neither the risk of CVD, nor total mortality was increased in WCH. Meta-regression analyses indicated that neither differences of clinic blood pressure, nor out-of-office blood pressure variables were correlated with risk of CVD in WCH. Conclusion: We concluded that WCH is associated with long-term risk of CVD and total mortality in patients without antihypertensive treatment. Close follow-up should be performed in WCH patients. PMID:28253216

  15. Mortality Risk Factors for Patients with Septic Shock after Implementation of the Surviving Sepsis Campaign Bundles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moo Hyun; Jeong, Woo Yong; Jung, In Young; Oh, Dong Hyun; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Eun Jin; Jeong, Su Jin; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, June Myung

    2016-01-01

    Background Septic shock remains a leading cause of death, despite advances in critical care management. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) has reduced morbidity and mortality. This study evaluated risk factors for mortality in patients with septic shock who received treatment following the SSC bundles. Materials and Methods This retrospective cohort study included patients with septic shock who received treatments following SSC bundles in an urban emergency department between November 2007 and November 2011. Primary and secondary endpoints were all-cause 7- and 28-day mortality. Results Among 436 patients, 7- and 28-day mortality rates were 7.11% (31/436) and 14% (61/436), respectively. In multivariate analysis, high lactate level (odds ratio [OR], 1.286; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.016–1.627; P=0.036) and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.913–0.996; P=0.032) were independent risk factors for 7-day mortality. Risk factors for 28-day mortality were high lactate level (OR, 1.346; 95% CI, 1.083–1.673; P=0.008) and high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (OR, 1.153; 95% CI, 1.029–1.293; P=0.014). Conclusion The risk of mortality of septic shock patients remains high in patients with high lactate levels and acute kidney injury. PMID:27659434

  16. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Mortality From Stroke in Japan: The Takayama Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, Toshiaki; Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Nagata, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Methods Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke). Results During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke) were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16–1.97) and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16–2.35) for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep) was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59–1.01), although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06). The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively). There was a significant risk reduction of hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42–0.98; P for trend = 0.08). The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16–0.64). Conclusions Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men. PMID:26521720

  17. Labour complications remain the most important risk factors for perinatal mortality in rural Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Renay; Ronsmans, Carine; Dorman, Ed; Jilo, Hilton; Muhoro, Anne; Shulman, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify and quantify risk factors for perinatal mortality in a Kenyan district hospital and to assess the proportion of perinatal deaths attributable to labour complications, maternal undernutrition, malaria, anaemia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 910 births was conducted between January 1996 and July 1997 and risk factors for perinatal mortality were analysed. FINDINGS: The perinatal mortality rate was 118 per 1000 births. Complications of labour such as haemorrhage, premature rupture of membranes/premature labour, and obstructed labour/ malpresentation increased the risk of death between 8- and 62-fold, and 53% of all perinatal deaths were attributable to labour complications. Placental malaria and maternal HIV, on the other hand, were not associated with perinatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Greater attention needs to be given to the quality of obstetric care provided in the rural district-hospital setting. PMID:14576887

  18. 77 FR 67657 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service (IHS...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... health care and preventive health services. To support the IHS mission and to provide the product/service... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service (IHS) Sharing What Works--Best Practice, Promising Practice, and Local...

  19. 77 FR 13128 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...'' campaign is a national Public Service Announcement (PSA) campaign that aims to educate, engage and empower... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  20. 78 FR 49280 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Third-Party Documentation Facsimile Transmittal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Third-Party Documentation Facsimile..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette...

  1. 78 FR 52008 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Housing Service Coordinator Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Housing Service..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette...

  2. 78 FR 39002 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request for Withdrawals From Replacements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request for Withdrawals From..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  3. 78 FR 52009 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Utility Allowance Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY... Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard at...

  4. 78 FR 39001 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Uniform Physical Standards and Physical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Uniform Physical Standards and..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  5. 78 FR 52007 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Management Certification and Management Entity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Management Certification and... Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Washington,...

  6. 78 FR 52007 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Financial Statement of Corporate Applicant for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Financial Statement of Corporate..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street,...

  7. 78 FR 52006 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Final Endorsement of Credit Instrument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Final Endorsement of Credit..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette...

  8. 77 FR 39318 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-5513, Supplemental Questionnaire To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ..., Office of Project Management and Operational Support, Program Coordination (CA/PPT/PMO/PC) Form Number... information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for approval in accordance with... to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for up to 30 days from July 2, 2012. ADDRESSES:...

  9. 78 FR 36565 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Standardized Form for Collecting Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Standardized Form for Collecting... Information Collection: Standardized Form for Collecting Information Regarding Race and Ethnic Data. OMB... quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) Ways to minimize the burden...

  10. 77 FR 37407 - Agency Information Collection Request-30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request--30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is.... Proposed Project: New Comprehensive Communication Campaign on Right To Non-Discrimination in Certain...

  11. Enhanced recovery of Phytophthora ramorum from soil following 30 days storage at 4C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlamydospores of Phytophthora ramorum produced by mixing 20 percent V8 juice broth cultures with sand and incubating over a 30 day period were used to infest field soil at densities ranging from 0.2 to 42 chlamydospores per cubic centimeter of soil. Chlamydospore recovery was determined by baiting...

  12. 77 FR 18820 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  13. 78 FR 38070 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing... Marketing (AFHM) Plan. OMB Approval Number: 2529-0013. Type of Request: Extension of a currently approved collection. Form Number: HUD-935.2A Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan (Multifamily),...

  14. 78 FR 1916 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program ACTION: Notice of request... Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP). OMB Control Number: 1405-0152. Type...

  15. 78 FR 64142 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Condominium Project Approval Document Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Condominium Project Approval... submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and... Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20503; fax: 202-395-5806. Email:...

  16. 78 FR 36560 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal, Periodic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal...: Colette Pollard, Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th... Title of Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal, Periodic Updates and...

  17. 78 FR 40309 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Multifamily Project Mortgage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public comment. DATES... sent to: HUD Desk Officer, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building,...

  18. 77 FR 59354 - Removal of 30-Day Residency Requirement for Per Diem Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... reasons other than hospital care, such as when a veteran travels to visit family members. This proposed... payments, stating: ``We believe that 30 days is a minimal amount of time for demonstrating that a veteran... State home within a specific period of time, or communicates that he or she will not be returning....

  19. 77 FR 59318 - Removal of 30-Day Residency Requirement for Per Diem Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... reasons other than hospital care, such as when a veteran travels to visit family members. This rule also... 30 days is a minimal amount of time for demonstrating that a veteran intends to be a resident at the... State home within a specific period of time, or communicates that he or she will not be returning....

  20. 78 FR 75366 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and Utility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and... Audits and Utility Allowances. OMB Approval Number: 2577-062. Type of Request: Reinstatement, with change... information and proposed use: 24 CFR 965.301, Subpart C, Energy Audit and Energy Conservation...

  1. 76 FR 59129 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... to send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-3 - Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments. 31.3406(d)-3 Section 31.3406(d)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... account. (b) Sale of an instrument for a customer by electronic transmission or by mail. The special...

  3. 78 FR 39305 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: OSHC Progress Report Template

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    2013-07-01

    ... Doc No: 2013-15689] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5683-N-54] 30-Day... Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard at Colette.Pollard@hud.gov or... proposed use: The Appropriations Act, provided a total of $100,000,000 to HUD for a Sustainable...

  4. 77 FR 32638 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is...) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) the...

  5. 78 FR 52964 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 8 Management Assessment Program (SEMAP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 8 Management Assessment..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  6. 78 FR 65695 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette...

  7. 78 FR 66042 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 3 Business Registry Pilot Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 3 Business Registry Pilot..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  8. 75 FR 50791 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Recording, Reporting, and Data Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... following information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for approval in... Office: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Designation, ECA/EC/D. Form Number: Forms...: Submit comments to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for up to 30 days from August 17,...

  9. 76 FR 79683 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... new AIDS cases. As one strategy to address this disparity, the U.S. Department of Health and...

  10. 78 FR 79474 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Father's Day

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...HUD has submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public...

  11. 78 FR 79475 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: The Impact of Housing and Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...HUD has submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public...

  12. 78 FR 75365 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard... Number: 2528-0288. Type of Request: Revision of a currently approved collection. Form Number:...

  13. 78 FR 79703 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Application Process for Clinical Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Application Process for Clinical Research Training and Medical... contact: Robert M. Lembo, MD, Deputy Director, Office of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education... Process for Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center and its Impact...

  14. 76 FR 6794 - 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status AGENCY... ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) status. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 300jj-11. DATES: The 30-day submission... a notice in the Federal Register to announce the 30-day period during which requests for...

  15. Coronary artery surgery in women compared with men: analysis of coronary risk factors and in-hospital mortality in a single centre.

    PubMed Central

    Barbir, M.; Lazem, F.; Ilsley, C.; Mitchell, A.; Khaghani, A.; Yacoub, M.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine differences in coronary risk factors between women and men and their relation to in-hospital mortality associated with coronary artery bypass grafting. DESIGN--Prospective observational study. SETTING--A regional cardiothoracic centre. PATIENTS--482 (362 (75%) men and 120 (25%) women) consecutive patients who had primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. RESULTS--The women were on average three years older than the men (63 v 60 years, P < 0.001). Women more frequently had hypertension (47% v 33%, P < 0.01), diabetes mellitus (21% v 10%, P < 0.005), hypothyroidism (9% v 2%, P < 0.003), and a family history of premature coronary heart disease (49% v 31%, P < 0.0006). More of the men were cigarette smokers (67% v 45%, P > 0.00001). Many of the women and men had dyslipidaemia. Postmenopausal women had a higher concentration of serum total cholesterol than men of a comparable age, (7.3 mmol/l v 6.5 mmol/l, P = 0.0002). Although arterial grafts were often used in both sexes, they were more often used in men than in women (91% v 78% respectively, P = 0.0003). In-hospital mortality was 2.1% (1.4% in men and 4.2% in women, P = 0.14). The estimated one year probability of survival in men who had survived 30 days was 0.99 with 95% confidence interval 0.98 to approximately 1 while that for women was 0.97 with 95% confidence interval 0.91 to approximately 1. Univariate analysis showed that preoperative history of diabetes mellitus was a predictor of mortality (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION--There were differences in the incidence and type of risk factors in men and women who had coronary artery bypass grafting. Preoperative diabetes mellitus was a predictor of in-hospital mortality. PMID:8011402

  16. A biological approach to the interspecies prediction of radiation-induced mortality risk

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, B.A.; Grahn, D.; Olshansky, S.J.

    1997-08-01

    Evolutionary explanations for why sexually reproducing organisms grow old suggest that the forces of natural selection affect the ages when diseases occur that are subject to a genetic influence (referred to here as intrinsic diseases). When extended to the population level for a species, this logic leads to the general prediction that age-specific death rates from intrinsic causes should begin to rise as the force of selection wanes once the characteristic age of sexual maturity is attained. Results consistent with these predictions have been found for laboratory mice, beagles, and humans where, after adjusting for differences in life span, it was demonstrated that these species share a common age pattern of mortality for intrinsic causes of death. In quantitative models used to predict radiation-induced mortality, risks are often expressed as multiples of those observed in a control population. A control population, however, is an aging population. As such, mortality risks related to exposure must be interpreted relative to the age-specific risk of death associated with aging. Given the previous success in making interspecies predictions of age-related mortality, the purpose of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced mortality observed in one species could also be predicted quantitatively from a model used to describe the mortality consequences of exposure to radiation in a different species. Mortality data for B6CF{sub 1} mice and beagles exposed to {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays for the duration of life were used for analysis.

  17. Assessment of the Association between Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 Mutation and Mortality Risk of Glioblastoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuting; Ning, Xianbin; Han, Guoqian; Li, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies showed that isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation might be a prognostic biomarker of prognosis in glioblastoma (GBM) patients, but the outcomes were various. A meta-analysis of published studies was carried out to reach a reliable assessment of the association between IDH1 mutation and mortality of GBM patients. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were pooled using meta-analysis to assess risk of mortality in patients with IDH1 mutation. A total of 20 studies (3 prospective cohort and 17 retrospective cohort studies) were finally included into the meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of total included studies suggested that GBM patients with IDH1 mutation had decreased risk of mortality compared those patients without IDH1 mutation (RR = 0.43, 95%CI 0.35-0.54, P < 0.001). GBM patients with IDH1 mutation from European countries had also decreased mortality risk compared with those patients without IDH1 mutation (RR = 0.35, 95%CI 0.25-0.49, P < 0.001), but GBM patients with IDH1 mutation from Asians only dad 32% decrease of mortality risk compared with those patients without IDH1 mutation (RR = 0.68, 95%CI 0.49-0.94, P = 0.018). The findings from the meta-analysis provide strong evidence for the association between IDH1 mutation and decreased mortality risk of GBM patients. In addition, there is an obvious difference in the mortality risk of GBM patients with IDH1 mutation between western and eastern countries.

  18. Risks associated with preweaning mortality in 855 litters on 39 commercial outdoor pig farms in England

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A prospective longitudinal study was carried out on 39 outdoor breeding pig farms in England to investigate the risks associated with mortality in preweaning piglets. Risk factor data were collected from a questionnaire with the farmer and observations of the farm made by the researcher. Prospectiv...

  19. Community Level Association between Home Health and Nursing Home Performance on Quality and Hospital 30-day Readmissions for Medicare Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Pandolfi, Michelle M; Fine, Jonathan; Metersky, Mark L; Wang, Changqin; Ho, Shih-Yieh; Galusha, Deron; Nuti, Sudhakar V; Murugiah, Karthik; Spenard, Ann; Elwell, Timothy; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated whether community-level home health agencies and nursing home performance is associated with community-level hospital 30-day all-cause risk-standardized readmission rates for Medicare patients used data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service from 2010 to 2012. Our final sample included 2,855 communities that covered 4,140 hospitals with 6,751,713 patients, 13,060 nursing homes with 1,250,648 residents, and 7,613 home health agencies providing services to 35,660 zipcodes. Based on a mixed effect model, we found that increasing nursing home performance by one star for all of its 4 measures and home health performance by 10 points for all of its 6 measures is associated with decreases of 0.25% (95% CI 0.17-0.34) and 0.60% (95% CI 0.33-0.83), respectively, in community-level risk-standardized readmission rates.

  20. Rising educational gradients in mortality: the role of behavioral risk factors.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Lange, Fabian; Meara, Ellen; Richards-Shubik, Seth; Ruhm, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    The long-standing inverse relationship between education and mortality strengthened substantially at the end of the 20th century. This paper examines the reasons for this increase. We show that behavioral risk factors are not of primary importance. Smoking declined more for the better educated, but not enough to explain the trend. Obesity rose at similar rates across education groups, and control of blood pressure and cholesterol increased fairly uniformly as well. Rather, our results show that the mortality returns to risk factors, and conditional on risk factors, the return to education, have grown over time.

  1. Effect modification of ozone-related mortality risks by temperature in 97 US cities.

    PubMed

    Jhun, Iny; Fann, Neal; Zanobetti, Antonella; Hubbell, Bryan

    2014-12-01

    Many time-series studies have characterized the relationship between short-term ozone exposure and adverse health outcomes, controlling for temperature as a confounder. Temperature may also modify ozone effects, though this has been largely under-investigated. In this study, we explored whether temperature modifies the effect of short-term ozone exposure on mortality. We used the database developed for the National Morbidity and Mortality Air Pollution Study to estimate ozone mortality risks in 97 US cities in May through September, 1987-2000. We treated temperature as a confounder as well as an effect modifier by estimating risks at low, moderate, and high temperature categories. When temperature was treated as a confounder, a 10-ppb increase in daily 24-h ozone was associated with a 0.47% (95% CI: 0.19%-0.76%) increase in mortality. When we assessed effect modification by temperature, the interaction between ozone and temperature was not statistically significant. However, there was a U-shaped pattern in mortality risk, which was greater at the low (<25th percentile) and high (>75th percentile) temperature levels than moderate temperature levels. At the high temperature category, a 10% increase in AC prevalence mitigated mortality risk associated with 10-ppb of ozone exposure by -0.18% (95% CI: -0.35%, -0.02%). Furthermore, ozone mortality risk in the high temperature category increased as we restricted our analyses to hotter days. On days where temperatures exceeded the 75th, 90th, and 95th percentile temperatures, a 10-ppb increase in ozone was associated with a 0.65% (95% CI: 0.20%-1.09%), 0.83% (95% CI: 0.17%-1.48%), and 1.35% (95% CI: 0.44%-2.27%) increase in mortality, respectively. These results suggested that high temperatures may exacerbate physiological responses to short-term ozone exposure.

  2. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: Identifying risk and preventing mortality.

    PubMed

    Lhatoo, Samden; Noebels, Jeffrey; Whittemore, Vicky

    2015-11-01

    Premature death among individuals with epilepsy is higher than in the general population, and sudden unexpected death is the most common cause of this mortality. A new multisite collaborative research consortium, the Center for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) Research (CSR), has received major funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to examine the possible biologic mechanisms underlying this potentially preventable comorbidity and develop predictive biomarkers for interventions that could lower SUDEP incidence. This inaugural report describes the structure of the CSR, its priorities for human and experimental research, and the strategic collaborations and advanced tools under development to reduce this catastrophic outcome of epilepsy. The CSR Partners Program will work closely with committed volunteer agencies, industry, and academic institutions to accelerate and communicate these advances to the professional and lay community.

  3. The Impact of Extreme-Risk Cases on Hospitals’ Risk-Adjusted Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Mortality Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Matthew W.; Brennan, J. Matthew; Ho, Kalon K.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Messenger, John C.; Weaver, W. Douglas; Dai, David; Peterson, Eric D.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The goal of this study was to examine the calibration of a validated risk-adjustment model in very high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) cases and assess whether sites’ case mix affects their performance ratings. BACKGROUND There are concerns that treating PCI patients with particularly high-risk features such as cardiogenic shock or prior cardiac arrest may adversely impact hospital performance ratings. However, there is little investigation on the validity of these concerns. METHODS We examined 624,286 PCI procedures from 1,168 sites that participated in the CathPCI Registry in 2010. Procedural risk was estimated using the recently published Version 4 National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) PCI risk-adjusted mortality (RAM) model. We calculated observed/expected mortality using several risk classification methods, and simulated hospital performance after combining their highest risk cases over 2 years into a single year. RESULTS In 2010, crude in-hospital PCI mortality was 1.4%. The NCDR model was generally well calibrated among high risk, however there was slight overprediction of risk in extreme cases. Hospitals treating the highest overall expected risk PCI patients or those treating the top 20% of high-risk cases had lower (better) RAM ratings than centers treating lower-risk cases (1.25% vs. 1.51%). The observed/expected ratio for top-risk quintile versus low-risk quintile was 0.91 (0.87 to 0.96) versus 1.10 (1.03 to 1.17). Combining all the high-risk patients over a 2-year period into a single year also did not negatively impact the site’s RAM ratings. CONCLUSIONS Evaluation of a contemporary sample of PCI cases across the United States showed no evidence that treating high-risk PCI cases adversely affects hospital RAM rates. PMID:25499301

  4. Are Our Buildings Safe Enough for Controlling Earthquake Mortality Risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Hing-Ho; Wenzel, Friedemann; Daniell, James

    2016-04-01

    Structural engineers design buildings strictly according to the earthquake actions (demand) specified in code of practice, whilst the rationale behind such requirement is commonly untold. In fact, even if a structure is designed strictly in accordance to the best standard and practice in the world, there is still a (small) chance of failure or collapse in an extreme earthquake event, due to the uncertainties in material properties and actual ground motion characteristics. This is called the residual risk, which is unavoidable, and should be taken as a governing parameter for determining the performance goals of seismic design. Eurocode 8 is not a risk targeted code as its design requirements refer to return periods of ground motion rather than to collapse probabilities and/or probability of fatalities. The US International Building Code (IBC 2012) and the 2010 structural design standards of ASCE 7-10 target collapse probabilities for all levels of ground motion and accept a 1% collapse probability in 50 years as acceptable for design. Consequently, the input ground motion to design is no longer a hazard map for a uniform return period. However, we show that this risk target is not generally compatible with the intention to keep the fatality risk below the 10-6 per year threshold in code-compliant buildings. Moreover, the metric of individual fatality risk may not be appropriate as for (technological) incidents many regulations define requirements for the F-N curve so that loss events with, for instance, 100 fatalities in one event should occur much less frequently than events with 10 or more fatalities.

  5. A review of methods to estimate cause-specific mortality in presence of competing risks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisey, Dennis M.; Patterson, Brent R.

    2006-01-01

    Estimating cause-specific mortality is often of central importance for understanding the dynamics of wildlife populations. Despite such importance, methodology for estimating and analyzing cause-specific mortality has received little attention in wildlife ecology during the past 20 years. The issue of analyzing cause-specific, mutually exclusive events in time is not unique to wildlife. In fact, this general problem has received substantial attention in human biomedical applications within the context of biostatistical survival analysis. Here, we consider cause-specific mortality from a modern biostatistical perspective. This requires carefully defining what we mean by cause-specific mortality and then providing an appropriate hazard-based representation as a competing risks problem. This leads to the general solution of cause-specific mortality as the cumulative incidence function (CIF). We describe the appropriate generalization of the fully nonparametric staggered-entry Kaplan–Meier survival estimator to cause-specific mortality via the nonparametric CIF estimator (NPCIFE), which in many situations offers an attractive alternative to the Heisey–Fuller estimator. An advantage of the NPCIFE is that it lends itself readily to risk factors analysis with standard software for Cox proportional hazards model. The competing risks–based approach also clarifies issues regarding another intuitive but erroneous "cause-specific mortality" estimator based on the Kaplan–Meier survival estimator and commonly seen in the life sciences literature.

  6. Work capacity during 30 days of bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Trowbridge, T. S.; Wade, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from a study to determine whether or not short-term variable intensity isotonic and intermittent high-intensity isokinetic short-duration leg exercise is effective for the maintenance of peak O2 (VO2) uptake and muscular strength and endurance, respectively, during 30 days of -6 deg head-down bed rest deconditioning. The results show no significant changes in leg peak torque, leg mean total work, arm total peak torque, or arm mean total work for members of the isotonic, isokinetic, and controls groups. Changes are observed, however, in peak VO2 levels. The results suggest that near-peak variabile intensity, isotonic leg excercise maintains peak VO2 during 30 days of bed rest, while peak intermittent, isokinetic leg excercise protocol does not.

  7. Long Term Mortality and Cancer Risk in Irradiated Rhesus Monkeys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    higher surface doses to induce lethality during the acute radiation sickness phase (within 100 days postirradiation); however, the relationship of...similar to the human disease (18), irradiated females have a higher incidence than the controls. Whether it is spontaneous or radiation - induced ...due to cancer. If the same genetic factors that predispose individuals to radiation - induced cancer are also associated with increased risk of

  8. Occupational risks for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis mortality in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Germania A; Antao, Vinicius C; Wood, John M; Wassell, James T

    2008-01-01

    Metal and wood dust exposures have been identified as possible occupational risk factors for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We analyzed mortality data using ICD-10 code J84.1--"Other interstitial pulmonary diseases with fibrosis," derived age-adjusted mortality rates for 1999-2003, and assessed occupational risks for 1999, by calculating proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) and mortality odds ratios (MORs) using a matched case-control approach. We identified 84,010 IPF deaths, with an age-adjusted mortality rate of 75.7 deaths/million. Mortality rates were highest among males, whites, and those aged 85 and older. Three industry categories with potential occupational exposures recognized as risk factors for IPF were identified: "Wood buildings and mobile homes" (PMR = 4.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-11.6 and MOR = 5.3, 95% CI 1.2-23.8), "Metal mining" (PMR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.0 and MOR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.1-4.4), and "Fabricated structural metal products" (PMR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1 and MOR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.1). Workers in these industry categories may benefit from toxicological studies and improved surveillance for this disease.

  9. Nutritional risk screening 2002 and ASA score predict mortality after elective liver resection for malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Nelio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate whether Nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS 2002) at hospital admission may predict postoperative mortality and complications within 90 days after elective liver resection for malignancy. Material and methods A retrospective cohort study of a prospective database was performed. Two-hundred and three patients with elective liver resection for malignancy between 9 November 2007 and 27 May 2014 were included. Clinical data, NRS 2002, surgical procedures and histology were recorded. The primary endpoint was 90-day mortality. Complications were registered within 90 days postoperatively according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. Results The 90-day mortality was 5.9% and the overall complication rate was 59.1%. Multivariate analysis identified NRS 2002 score ≥ 4 (odds ratio (OR) = 9.24; p = 0.005) and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score ≥ 3 (OR = 6.20; p = 0.009) as predictors of 90-day mortality. The 90-day mortality was 27.6% (8/29) for patients with both risk factors (NRS 2002 score ≥ 4 and ASA score ≥ 3) vs. 2.3% (4/174) for patients without or with only one risk factor (p < 0.001). Conclusions In the present study NRS 2002 score ≥ 4 and ASA score ≥ 3 were predictors of 90-day mortality after elective liver resection for malignancy. PMID:28261289

  10. The effect of outdoor air pollution on mortality risk: an ecological study from Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Salinas, M; Vega, J

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this ecological study was to investigate the effect of outdoor air pollution on the mortality risk of metropolitan inhabitants in Santiago de Chile. Cause-specific deaths by the day for the years 1988-1991 in Santiago de Chile were extracted from mortality data tapes of the National Center for Statistics. Deaths from accidents were excluded. Total and some specific respiratory diseases deaths were compared calculating the risk of death by municipality and month of the year using age-adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) controlling for socioeconomic level. Daily counts of deaths were regressed using a Poisson model on the total and fine suspended particles, SO2, CO and ozone on the preceding day, controlling for temperature and humidity. A clear pattern in the geographical distribution of risk of death, both for general mortality and specific respiratory causes (pneumonia, COPD and asthma) was found using SMR, with higher values in the most polluted areas regardless of socioeconomic and living conditions. A highly significant positive association was found between total mortality and both fine suspended particles and CO level. The association remained significant for those days with fine suspended particles levels below 150 micrograms/dl suggesting a no-threshold effect for the total number of deaths. These results are in agreement with previously reported associations, and they add to the body of evidence showing that particulate pollution is associated with increases daily mortality.

  11. Use of Life Course Work–Family Profiles to Predict Mortality Risk Among US Women

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, Ivan Mejía; Glymour, M. Maria; Berkman, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined relationships between US women’s exposure to midlife work–family demands and subsequent mortality risk. Methods. We used data from women born 1935 to 1956 in the Health and Retirement Study to calculate employment, marital, and parenthood statuses for each age between 16 and 50 years. We used sequence analysis to identify 7 prototypical work–family trajectories. We calculated age-standardized mortality rates and hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality associated with work–family sequences, with adjustment for covariates and potentially explanatory later-life factors. Results. Married women staying home with children briefly before reentering the workforce had the lowest mortality rates. In comparison, after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, and education, HRs for mortality were 2.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.58, 2.90) among single nonworking mothers, 1.48 (95% CI = 1.06, 1.98) among single working mothers, and 1.36 (95% CI = 1.02, 1.80) among married nonworking mothers. Adjustment for later-life behavioral and economic factors partially attenuated risks. Conclusions. Sequence analysis is a promising exposure assessment tool for life course research. This method permitted identification of certain lifetime work–family profiles associated with mortality risk before age 75 years. PMID:25713976

  12. Risk factors for mortality in postoperative peritonitis in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Launey, Yoann; Duteurtre, Benjamin; Larmet, Raphaëlle; Nesseler, Nicolas; Tawa, Audrey; Mallédant, Yannick; Seguin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify the risk factors for mortality in intensive care patients with postoperative peritonitis (POP). METHODS This was a retrospective analysis using a prospective database that includes all patients hospitalized in a surgical intensive care unit for POP from September 2006 to August 2011. The data collected included demographics, comorbidities, postoperative severity parameters, bacteriological findings, adequacy of antimicrobial therapy and surgical treatments. Adequate source control was defined based on a midline laparotomy, infection source control and intraoperative peritoneal lavage. The number of reoperations needed was also recorded. RESULTS A total of 201 patients were included. The overall mortality rate was 31%. Three independent risk factors for mortality were identified: The Simplified Acute Physiological II Score (OR = 1.03; 95%CI: 1.02-1.05, P < 0.001), postoperative medical complications (OR = 6.02; 95%CI: 1.95-18.55, P < 0.001) and the number of reoperations (OR = 2.45; 95%CI: 1.16-5.17, P = 0.015). Surgery was considered as optimal in 69% of the cases, but without any significant effect on mortality. CONCLUSION The results from the large cohort in this study emphasize the role of the initial postoperative severity parameters in the prognosis of POP. No predefined criteria for optimal surgery were significantly associated with increased mortality, although the number of reoperations appeared as an independent risk factor of mortality. PMID:28224107

  13. Skeletal muscle adaptations following blood flow-restricted training during 30 days of muscular unloading.

    PubMed

    Cook, Summer B; Brown, Kimberly A; Deruisseau, Keith; Kanaley, Jill A; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow restriction (LL(BFR)) to attenuate muscle loss and weakness after 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Sixteen subjects (ages 18-50 yr) underwent 30 days of ULLS. Measurements of muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and endurance on the knee extensors and plantar flexors were collected before and after ULLS. Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were also assessed. During ULLS, eight subjects (5 males, 3 females) participated in LL(BFR) three times per week (ULLS + Exercise) while eight subjects (4 males, 4 females) did not exercise (ULLS). The blood flow-restricted exercise consisted of dynamic knee extension at 20% of the subject's isometric maximum voluntary contraction coupled with a suprasystolic blood flow restriction. After 30 days of limb suspension, the ULLS + Exercise group experienced minimal and insignificant losses in knee extensor cross-sectional area and strength (1.2% and 2.0%, respectively; P 0.05). Muscular endurance in the knee extensors improved 31% in the ULLS + Exercise group, while it decreased 24% in the ULLS group (P = 0.01). No changes were seen in hormone concentrations throughout the study. In conclusion, LL(BFR) of the knee extensors is effective in maintaining muscle strength and size during 30 days of ULLS and results in improved knee extensor muscular endurance.

  14. Preoperative risk score predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Su, Yu-Chieh; Wei, Chang-Kao; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Juang, Shiun-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2014-09-01

    The impact of important preexisting comorbidities, such as liver and renal disease, on the outcome of liver resection remains unclear. Identification of patients at risk of mortality will aid in improving preoperative preparations. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a population-based score based on available preoperative and predictable parameters predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection using data from a hepatitis endemic country.We identified 13,159 patients who underwent liver resection between 2002 and 2006 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In a randomly selected half of the total patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop a prediction score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by patient demographics, preoperative liver disease and comorbidities, indication for surgery, and procedure type. The score was validated with the remaining half of the patients.Overall 90-day mortality was 3.9%. Predictive characteristics included in the model were age, preexisting cirrhosis-related complications, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, malignancy, and procedure type. Four risk groups were stratified by mortality scores of 1.1%, 2.2%, 7.7%, and 15%. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications were the strongest predictors. The score discriminated well in both the derivation and validation sets with c-statistics of 0.75 and 0.75, respectively.This population-based score could identify patients at risk of 90-day mortality before liver resection. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications had the strongest influence on mortality. This score enables preoperative risk stratification, decision-making, quality assessment, and counseling for individual patients.

  15. Diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer mortality: time-related factors in exposure and risk.

    PubMed

    Moolgavkar, Suresh H; Chang, Ellen T; Luebeck, Georg; Lau, Edmund C; Watson, Heather N; Crump, Kenny S; Boffetta, Paolo; McClellan, Roger

    2015-04-01

    To develop a quantitative exposure-response relationship between concentrations and durations of inhaled diesel engine exhaust (DEE) and increases in lung cancer risks, we examined the role of temporal factors in modifying the estimated effects of exposure to DEE on lung cancer mortality and characterized risk by mine type in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) cohort, which followed 12,315 workers through December 1997. We analyzed the data using parametric functions based on concepts of multistage carcinogenesis to directly estimate the hazard functions associated with estimated exposure to a surrogate marker of DEE, respirable elemental carbon (REC). The REC-associated risk of lung cancer mortality in DEMS is driven by increased risk in only one of four mine types (limestone), with statistically significant heterogeneity by mine type and no significant exposure-response relationship after removal of the limestone mine workers. Temporal factors, such as duration of exposure, play an important role in determining the risk of lung cancer mortality following exposure to REC, and the relative risk declines after exposure to REC stops. There is evidence of effect modification of risk by attained age. The modifying impact of temporal factors and effect modification by age should be addressed in any quantitative risk assessment (QRA) of DEE. Until there is a better understanding of why the risk appears to be confined to a single mine type, data from DEMS cannot reliably be used for QRA.

  16. Frequency of nut consumption and mortality risk in the PREDIMED nutrition intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies in non-Mediterranean populations have consistently related increasing nut consumption to lower coronary heart disease mortality. A small protective effect on all-cause and cancer mortality has also been suggested. To examine the association between frequency of nut consumption and mortality in individuals at high cardiovascular risk from Spain, a Mediterranean country with a relatively high average nut intake per person. Methods We evaluated 7,216 men and women aged 55 to 80 years randomized to 1 of 3 interventions (Mediterranean diets supplemented with nuts or olive oil and control diet) in the PREDIMED (‘PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea’) study. Nut consumption was assessed at baseline and mortality was ascertained by medical records and linkage to the National Death Index. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression and multivariable analyses with generalized estimating equation models were used to assess the association between yearly repeated measurements of nut consumption and mortality. Results During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 323 total deaths, 81 cardiovascular deaths and 130 cancer deaths occurred. Nut consumption was associated with a significantly reduced risk of all-cause mortality (P for trend <0.05, all). Compared to non-consumers, subjects consuming nuts >3 servings/week (32% of the cohort) had a 39% lower mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.61; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.83). A similar protective effect against cardiovascular and cancer mortality was observed. Participants allocated to the Mediterranean diet with nuts group who consumed nuts >3 servings/week at baseline had the lowest total mortality risk (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.22 to 0.66). Conclusions Increased frequency of nut consumption was associated with a significantly reduced risk of mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/11/165. Trial registration Clinicaltrials

  17. Elder Self-neglect and Abuse and Mortality Risk in a Community-Dwelling Population

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa; de Leon, Carlos Mendes; Fulmer, Terry; Beck, Todd; Hebert, Liesi; Dyer, Carmel; Paveza, Gregory; Evans, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Context Both elder self-neglect and abuse have become increasingly prominent public health issues. The association of either elder self-neglect or abuse with mortality remains unclear. Objective To examine the relationship of elder self-neglect or abuse reported to social services agencies with all-cause mortality among a community-dwelling elderly population. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective, population-based cohort study (conducted from 1993 to 2005) of residents living in a geographically defined community of 3 adjacent neighborhoods in Chicago, Illinois, who were participating in the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP; a longitudinal, population-based, epidemiological study of residents aged ≥65 years). A subset of these participants had suspected elder self-neglect or abuse reported to social services agencies. Main Outcome Measures Mortality ascertained during follow-up and by use of the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess independent associations of self-neglect or elder abuse reporting with the risk of all-cause mortality using time-varying covariate analyses. Results Of 9318 CHAP participants, 1544 participants were reported for elder self-neglect and 113 participants were reported for elder abuse from 1993 to 2005. All CHAP participants were followed up for a median of 6.9 years (interquartile range, 7.4 years), during which 4306 deaths occurred. In multivariable analyses, reported elder self-neglect was associated with a significantly increased risk of 1-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 5.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.20–6.51). Mortality risk was lower but still elevated after 1 year (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.67–2.14). Reported elder abuse also was associated with significantly increased risk of overall mortality (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.07–1.84). Confirmed elder self-neglect or abuse also was associated with mortality. Increased mortality risks associated with either elder self-neglect or

  18. The 10-30-day intraseasonal variation of the East Asian winter monsoon: The temperature mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Suxiang; Sun, Qingfei; Huang, Qian; Chu, Peng

    2016-09-01

    East Asia is known for its monsoon characteristics, but little research has been performed on the intraseasonal time scale of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). In this paper, the extended reanalysis (ERA)-Interim sub-daily data are used to study the surface air temperature intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) of the EAWM. The results show that the air temperature (2-m level) of the EAWM has a dominant period of 10-30 days. Lake Baikal and south China are the centers of the air temperature ISO. An anomalous low frequency (10-30-day filtered) anticyclone corresponds to the intraseasonal cold air. The 10-30-day filtered cold air spreads from Novaya Zemlya to Lake Baikal and even to South China. The ISO of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index influences the temperature of the EAWM by stimulating Rossby waves in middle latitude, causing meridional circulation, and eventually leads to the temperature ISO of the EAWM. RegCM4 has good performance for the simulation of the air temperature ISO. The simulated results indicate that the plateau is responsible for the southward propagation of the intraseasonal anticyclone. The anticyclone could not reach South China when there was no plateau in western China and its upper reaches.

  19. [Elevated coronary mortality in Mauritius: risk factors and genetic analyses].

    PubMed

    Baligadoo, Soorianarain

    2012-10-01

    In 1986, early mortality by acute myocardial infarction was found to be much higher in Mauritius than in the United States, among both males and females. For example, among 40-to-44 year olds there were 109 deaths/100,000 males per year in Mauritius, compared to only 34.5/100,000 in the U S. A study comparing two non hospital populations of Mauritian and U S. residents showed a higher prevalence of diabetes and glucose intolerance in Mauritius. Likewise, a case-control study comparing 60 young patients who had MI before age 45 years and age-matched Mauritian residents showed statistically significant differences in terms of abnormal glucose metabolism (P<0.001), LDL cholesterol (P<0.02), total cholesterol (P<0.04), HDL cholesterol (p<10-9), and triglycerides (P<0.01) in the patients with early MI. A genome-wide scan of Mauritian patients of North Indian origin (Francke et al) who had MI before age 52 years and patients with coronary heart disease occurring before age 60 years showed a significant relation between coronary heart disease and loci in chromosome regions 16p-13 (LOD 3.06), 10q23 (LOD 2,03; also linked to HDL cholesterol and the LDL/HDL ratio), and 3q27 (LOD 2.37). Genomic studies of Indo-Mauritian patients confirm the important role of the metabolic syndrome in the high prevalence of coronary heart disease in Mauritius, and show the polygenic nature of the disease.

  20. Occupational career and risk of mortality among US Civil War veterans.

    PubMed

    Su, Dejun

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies have extended the traditional framework on occupational disparities in health by examining mortality differentials from a career perspective. Few studies, however, have examined the relation between career and mortality in a historical U.S. population. This study explores the relation between occupational career and risk of mortality in old age among 7096 Union Army veterans who fought the American Civil War in the 1860s. Occupational mobility was commonplace among the veterans in the postbellum period, with 54% of them changing occupations from the time of enlistment to 1900. Among veterans who were farmers at enlistment, 46% of them changed to a non-farming occupation by the time of 1900. Results from the Cox Proportional Hazard analysis suggest that relative to the average mortality risk of the sample, being a farmer at enlistment or circa 1900 are both associated with a lower risk of mortality in old age, although the effect is more salient for veterans who were farmers at enlistment. Occupational immobility for manual labors poses a serious threat to chance of survival in old age. These findings still hold after adjusting for the effects of selected variables characterizing risk exposures during early life, wartime, and old age. The robustness of the survival advantage associated with being a farmer at enlistment highlights the importance of socioeconomic conditions early in life in chance of survival at older ages.

  1. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index Independently Predicts Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcers Patients Undergoing Amputations

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hailing; Ye, Tingting; Ge, Shengjie; Zhuo, Ruyi

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Patients with diabetic foot ulcers undergoing amputations have poor prognosis. Malnutrition usually occurs in this population and is associated with increased risk of mortality. The geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) is a widely used, simple, and well-established tool to assess nutritional risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between GNRI and all-cause mortality in diabetic foot ulcers patients undergoing minor or major amputations. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study including 271 adult patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to a GNRI cutoff value of 92, and characteristics and mortality were compared between the two groups. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to explore the association between GNRI and mortality. Result. GNRI (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001), and eGFR (p = 0.002) were independent predictors of mortality. Among a subgroup of 230 patients with minor amputation, increased age (p < 0.001), coronary artery disease (p = 0.030), and increased GNRI (p < 0.001) were major risk factors. Conclusion. GNRI on admission might be a novel clinical predictor for the incidence of death in patients with diabetic foot ulcers who were undergoing amputations. PMID:28164133

  2. Familial risk of premature cardiovascular mortality and the impact of intergenerational occupational class mobility.

    PubMed

    Tiikkaja, Sanna; Olsson, Marita; Malki, Ninoa; Modin, Bitte; Sparén, Pär

    2012-11-01

    The negative impact of low social class on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality has been consistently documented. However, less scientific consistency exists in terms of whether a unique health effect of social mobility from childhood to adulthood prevails. This study explored how childhood and adult social class and the transition between them (social mobility), are related to premature CVD mortality when familial aggregation of CVD among siblings is also considered. The study includes nearly 1.9 million Swedish residents born 1939-1959 distributed over 1,044,725 families, of whom 14,667 died prematurely from CVD in 1990-2003. Information on parental class (1960) and own mid-life occupational class (1990) was retrieved from the respective censuses. Odds ratios for premature CVD mortality according to trajectory-specific social mobility, along with pairwise mean odds ratios for sibling resemblance of premature CVD mortality, were calculated by means of alternating logistic regression. This model calculates the remaining dependency of CVD mortality within sibships after accounting for available risk factors (like parental and adult social class) in the population mean model. Results showed that premature CVD mortality was associated with both parental and own adult social class. A clear tendency for the downwardly mobile to have increased, and for the upwardly mobile to experience a decreased risk of premature CVD mortality was found, as well as a corresponding unique effect of social mobility per se among the manual and non-manual classes. This effect was verified for men, but not for women, when they were analysed separately. The pairwise mean odds ratios for premature CVD mortality among full siblings were 1.78 (95% CI: 1.52-2.08), and were independent of parental CVD mortality and parental or adult occupational class.

  3. Dietary intake of vitamin K is inversely associated with mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Juanola-Falgarona, Martí; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emili; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Basora, Josep; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Fernández-Ballart, Joan; Bulló, Mònica

    2014-05-01

    Vitamin K has been related to cardiovascular disease and cancer risk. However, data on total mortality are scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between the dietary intake of different types of vitamin K and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. A prospective cohort analysis was conducted in 7216 participants from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study (median follow-up of 4.8 y). Energy and nutrient intakes were evaluated using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Dietary vitamin K intake was calculated annually using the USDA food composition database and other published sources. Deaths were ascertained by an end-point adjudication committee unaware of the dietary habits of participants after they had reviewed medical records and linked up to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to assess the RR of mortality. Energy-adjusted baseline dietary phylloquinone intake was inversely associated with a significantly reduced risk of cancer and all-cause mortality after controlling for potential confounders (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.96; and HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.90, respectively). In longitudinal assessments, individuals who increased their intake of phylloquinone or menaquinone during follow-up had a lower risk of cancer (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.95; and HR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.64, respectively) and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.73; and HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.73, respectively) than individuals who decreased or did not change their intake. Also, individuals who increased their intake of dietary phylloquinone had a lower risk of cardiovascular mortality risk (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.86). However, no association between changes in menaquinone intake and cardiovascular mortality was observed (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.44, 1.29). An increase in dietary intake of vitamin K is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular

  4. Low educational status is a risk factor for mortality among diabetic people.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, P M; Johansson, S E; Sundquist, J

    1998-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus and its complications are an important cause of mortality in Western populations. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between self-reported diabetes mellitus, gender, attained level of education, and socio-economic resources to all-cause mortality risk in a simple random sample of 39055 subjects, aged 25 to 74 years. Follow-up data were obtained for a maximum of 16 years, from baseline (1979-1985) to 31 December 1995. Diabetic males (2.2% of the male study group) had a relative risk (RR) for total mortality of 2.24 (CI = 1.96-2.57), adjusted for age, education, marital status, housing tenure, and car ownership, compared with non-diabetic males. The corresponding figure for females with diabetes (1.9%) was RR = 3.67 (CI = 3.16-4.27). Diabetic women had the highest age-adjusted mortality risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) of 8 compared with non-diabetic women. The corresponding RR for men was just below 3 (p<0.0001). Males and females (with and without diabetes) of low attained educational level had a RR = 1.26 (CI = 1.15-1.39) and RR = 1.54 (CI = 1.31-1.81), respectively. When analysing all people with diabetes separately, adjusting for sex and age, low-educated subjects had a 40% excess all-cause mortality compared with high-educated subjects. We conclude that diabetic women have a very high relative risk for CHD mortality compared to non-diabetic women. Furthermore, diabetic people with a low attained level of education, have an increased vulnerability to, and a higher total mortality.

  5. The MDS Mortality Risk Index: The evolution of a method for predicting 6-month mortality in nursing home residents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate prognosis is vital to the initiation of advance care planning particularly in a vulnerable, at risk population such as care home residents. The aim of this paper is to report on the revision and simplification of the MDS Mortality Rating Index (MMRI) for use in clinical practice to predict the probability of death in six months for care home residents. Methods The design was a secondary analysis of a US Minimum Data Set (MDS) for long term care residents using regression analysis to identify predictors of mortality within six months. Results Using twelve easy to collect items, the probability of mortality within six months was accurately predicted within the MDS database. The items are: admission to the care home within three months; lost weight unintentionally in past three months; renal failure; chronic heart failure; poor appetite; male; dehydrated; short of breath; active cancer diagnosis; age; deteriorated cognitive skills in past three months; activities of daily living score. Conclusion A lack of recognition of the proximity of death is often blamed for inappropriate admission to hospital at the end of an older person's life. An accurate prognosis for older adults living in a residential or nursing home can facilitate end of life decision making and planning for preferred place of care at the end of life. The original MMRI was derived and validated from a large database of long term care residents in the USA. However, this simplification of the revised index (MMRI-R) may provide a means for facilitating prognostication and end of life discussions for application outside the USA where the MDS is not in use. Prospective testing is needed to further test the accuracy of the MMRI-R and its application in the UK and other non-MDS settings. PMID:20637076

  6. The effects of 3 environmental risks on mortality disparities across Mexican communities.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gretchen A; Dias, Rodrigo H; Ezzati, Majid

    2008-11-04

    The disparities in the burden of ill health caused by environmental risks should be an important consideration beyond their aggregate population effects. We used comparative risk assessment methods to calculate the mortality effects of unsafe water and sanitation, indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use, and ambient urban particulate matter pollution in Mexico. We also estimated the disparities in mortality caused by each risk factor, across municipios (counties) of residence and by municipio socioeconomic status (SES). Data sources for the analysis were the national census, population-representative health surveys, and air quality monitoring for risk factor exposure; systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies for risk factor effects; and vital statistics for disease-specific mortality. During 2001-2005, unsafe water and sanitation, household solid fuel use, and urban particulate matter pollution were responsible for 3,000, 3,600, and 7,600 annual deaths, respectively. Annual child mortality rates would decrease by 0.2, 0.1, and 0.1 per 1,000 children, and life expectancy would increase by 1.0, 1.2, and 2.4 months, respectively, in the absence of these environmental exposures. Together, these risk factors caused 10.6% of child deaths in the lowest-SES communities (0.9 deaths per 1,000 children), but only 4.0% in communities in the highest-SES ones (0.1 per 1,000). In the 50 most-affected municipios, these 3 exposures were responsible for 3.2 deaths per 1,000 children and a 10-month loss of life expectancy. The large disparities in the mortality effects of these 3 environmental risks should form the basis of interventions and environmental monitoring programs.

  7. The effects of 3 environmental risks on mortality disparities across Mexican communities

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Gretchen A.; Dias, Rodrigo H.; Ezzati, Majid

    2008-01-01

    The disparities in the burden of ill health caused by environmental risks should be an important consideration beyond their aggregate population effects. We used comparative risk assessment methods to calculate the mortality effects of unsafe water and sanitation, indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use, and ambient urban particulate matter pollution in Mexico. We also estimated the disparities in mortality caused by each risk factor, across municipios (counties) of residence and by municipio socioeconomic status (SES). Data sources for the analysis were the national census, population-representative health surveys, and air quality monitoring for risk factor exposure; systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies for risk factor effects; and vital statistics for disease-specific mortality. During 2001–2005, unsafe water and sanitation, household solid fuel use, and urban particulate matter pollution were responsible for 3,000, 3,600, and 7,600 annual deaths, respectively. Annual child mortality rates would decrease by 0.2, 0.1, and 0.1 per 1,000 children, and life expectancy would increase by 1.0, 1.2, and 2.4 months, respectively, in the absence of these environmental exposures. Together, these risk factors caused 10.6% of child deaths in the lowest-SES communities (0.9 deaths per 1,000 children), but only 4.0% in communities in the highest-SES ones (0.1 per 1,000). In the 50 most-affected municipios, these 3 exposures were responsible for 3.2 deaths per 1,000 children and a 10-month loss of life expectancy. The large disparities in the mortality effects of these 3 environmental risks should form the basis of interventions and environmental monitoring programs. PMID:18974224

  8. Trends in cerebrovascular mortality and in its risk factors in Finland during the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Sarti, C; Vartiainen, E; Torppa, J; Tuomilehto, J; Puska, P

    1994-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970s, the mortality rates from cerebrovascular disease in Finland were among the highest in the world. In addition, the levels of the main known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol level and cigarette smoking, were by international comparisons very high. Within Finland, higher mortality from both stroke and ischemic heart disease was observed in the eastern part of the country, where the levels of the risk factors mentioned were higher than in the western regions. Official mortality statistics show that deaths from stroke in Finland declined steeply in the 1970s, and continued to decline, although at a slower pace, during the 1980s. Furthermore, the decline in stroke mortality was greater in eastern Finland than in the western part of the country, such that the gap observed between east and west Finland in stroke mortality has now almost disappeared. These findings are supported by the trends observed from the North Karelia stroke register and from the FINMONICA stroke register. A cohort study has demonstrated that high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol level and cigarette smoking are risk factors for fatal stroke in the male population of eastern Finland. In women, only high blood pressure was found to be a risk factor for fatal stroke, while for cigarette smoking and high blood cholesterol levels the risk, though increased, was not statistically significant. A national strategy has been developed to control and reduce the main cardiovascular risk factors in Finland. The North Karelia project, started in Finland in 1972, was the first program of its type aimed at the reduction of risk factors in a whole population. Arterial blood pressure and total blood cholesterol levels have decreased significantly during the last 20 years in both men and women. The prevalence of cigarette smoking has been reduced only in men. The changes in risk factors that have occurred parallel the

  9. Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether individuals at high cardiovascular risk sustain a benefit in cardiovascular disease from increased olive oil consumption. The aim was to assess the association between total olive oil intake, its varieties (extra virgin and common olive oil) and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 7,216 men and women at high cardiovascular risk, aged 55 to 80 years, from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Participants were randomized to one of three interventions: Mediterranean Diets supplemented with nuts or extra-virgin olive oil, or a control low-fat diet. The present analysis was conducted as an observational prospective cohort study. The median follow-up was 4.8 years. Cardiovascular disease (stroke, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death) and mortality were ascertained by medical records and National Death Index. Olive oil consumption was evaluated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between baseline and yearly repeated measurements of olive oil intake, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Results During follow-up, 277 cardiovascular events and 323 deaths occurred. Participants in the highest energy-adjusted tertile of baseline total olive oil and extra-virgin olive oil consumption had 35% (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.89) and 39% (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.85) cardiovascular disease risk reduction, respectively, compared to the reference. Higher baseline total olive oil consumption was associated with 48% (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.93) reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. For each 10 g/d increase in extra-virgin olive oil consumption, cardiovascular disease and mortality risk decreased by 10% and 7%, respectively. No significant

  10. Cheese Consumption and Risk of All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xing; Chen, Guo-Chong; Zhang, Zheng; Wei, Yu-Lu; Xu, Jia-Ying; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The association between cheese consumption and risk for major health endpoints has been investigated in many epidemiologic studies, but findings are inconsistent. As all-cause mortality can be viewed as the final net health effect of dietary intakes, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the long-term association of cheese consumption with all-cause mortality. Relevant studies were identified by a search of the PubMed database through May 2016. Reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. Summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. Pre-specified stratified and dose-response analyses were also performed. The final analysis included nine prospective cohort studies involving 21,365 deaths. The summary RR of all-cause mortality for the highest compared with the lowest cheese consumption was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.06), and little evidence of heterogeneity was observed. The association between cheese consumption and risk of all-cause mortality did not significantly differ by study location, sex, age, number of events, study quality score or baseline diseases excluded. There was no dose-response relationship between cheese consumption and risk of all-cause mortality (RR per 43 g/day = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.99–1.07). No significant publication bias was observed. Our findings suggest that long-term cheese consumption was not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. PMID:28098767

  11. [Mortality and risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Russia: Specific features, trends, and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Boytsov, S A; Deev, A D; Shalnova, S A

    2017-01-01

    In the Russian Federation, the increase in all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality began in the 1960s and lasted almost continuously until 2003. In our country, the characteristics of mortality are its substantially higher rates among men and a large regional variability, which is associated with economic, climatic, and geographic factors. Urbanization coupled with dietary changes and the higher prevalence of hypertension is the most likely initial impetus to the rise in mortality rates. The subsequent increase in mortality can be explained by the higher prevalence of behavioral and biological risk factors, alcoholism, and, since the 1990s, by heavy and protracted socioeconomic upheavals and lifestyle changes. The mortality decline since 2006 has been linked to the strengthening of the health system and to the reduction in the prevalence of smoking among men and hypertension in women. The slowing down of the pace of mortality decline may be due to the increase in the prevalence of hypertension and obesity among men. The modelling data show that by 2025, reductions in smoking prevalence rates by 23% among men and by 12% among women and increases in the efficiency of hypertension treatment by 17.2% in men and by 11.2% in women will reduce cardiovascular mortality rates by 15%.

  12. [Injuries, accidents and mortality in epilepsy: a review of its prevalence risk factors and prevention].

    PubMed

    Téllez-Zenteno, José Francisco; Nguyen, Rita; Hernádez-Ronquillo, Lizbeth

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is intense clinical research into various aspects of the medical risks relating to epilepsy, including total and cause-specific mortality, accidents and injuries in patients with epilepsy and mortality related with seizures. Submersion injuries, motor vehicle accidents, burns, and head injuries are among the most feared epilepsy-related injuries. Published risk factors for injuries include the number of antiepileptic drugs, history of generalized seizures, and seizure frequency. In general, studies focusing on populations with more severe forms of epilepsy tend to report substantially higher risks of injuries than those involving less selected populations. On the other hand, studies based in non selected populations of people with epilepsy have not shown an increase frequency of injuries in people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Some studies have shown that patients with epilepsy are more frequently admitted to the hospital following an injury. Possible explanations include are more cautious attitude of clinicians toward injuries occurring in the setting of seizures; hospitalization required because of seizures and not to the injuries themselves; and hospitalization driven by other issues, such as comorbidities, which are highly prevalent in patients with epilepsy. This article reviews information about specific type of injuries such as fractures, burns, concussions, dislocations, etc. Finally this article review in a comprehensive way information of mortality in patients with epilepsy. Aspects of mortality discussed in this review are: epidemiology, causes of mortality, sudden death in epilepsy and prevention measures.

  13. External assessment of the Early Mortality Risk Score in patients with adenocarcinoma undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Joliat, Gaëtan-Romain; Petermann, David; Demartines, Nicolas; Schäfer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background Pancreaticoduodenectomies (PD) still have a substantial mortality rate. Recently, different scores have been published to predict the mortality risk pre-operatively after PD. This retrospective study was designed to perform an external assessment of an Early Mortality Risk Score (EMRS). Methods From 2000 to 2012, all PD cases performed at our institution were documented. Only patients treated for pancreatic head adenocarcinomas were included. Survival time and EMRS (based on age, tumour size, tumour differentiation and comorbidities) were calculated for every patient. Relative risks (RR) of early death 9 and 12 months after PD were then calculated. Results Of 270 PD for various aetiologies, 120 PD for adenocarcinomas were included. The median follow-up was 37 months, and the overall median survival was 19 months. EMRS of 4 showed a mortality RR of 5.1 at 9 months (P = 0.048) and of 4.5 at 12 months (P = 0.020). Conclusions EMRS of 4 is a predictor of tumour-related mortality at 9 and 12 months after PD for adenocarcinoma. The EMRS was externally assessed in our patient cohort and can be implemented in clinical practice. Clinical implications of this score still need to be studied. PMID:25906918

  14. Pre-operative and anaesthesia-related risk factors for mortality in equine colic cases.

    PubMed

    Proudman, C J; Dugdale, A H A; Senior, J M; Edwards, G B; Smith, J E; Leuwer, M L; French, N P

    2006-01-01

    Mortality rates for horses that have undergone emergency abdominal surgery are higher than for other procedures. Here, multivariable modelling of data from 774 surgical colic cases is used to identify pre-operative and anaesthesia-related variables associated with intra- and post-operative mortality. Intra-operative mortality was significantly (P<0.05), and positively associated with heart rate and packed cell volume (PCV) at admission, and negatively associated with the severity of pain. Post-operative mortality increased with increasing age and PCV at admission. Draught horses, Thoroughbreds and Thoroughbred-cross horses carried a significantly worse prognosis. We detected a small but significant variability in the risk of intra-operative death amongst referring veterinary surgeons. Different anaesthetic induction agents, inhalation maintenance agents and the use, or not, of intermittent positive pressure ventilation had no significant effect on risk of death. We conclude that cardiovascular compromise, level of pain, age, and breed are all associated with the risk of mortality in equine surgical colic cases.

  15. Time-dependent changes in mortality and transformation risk in MDS.

    PubMed

    Pfeilstöcker, Michael; Tuechler, Heinz; Sanz, Guillermo; Schanz, Julie; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Solé, Francesc; Bennett, John M; Bowen, David; Fenaux, Pierre; Dreyfus, Francois; Kantarjian, Hagop; Kuendgen, Andrea; Malcovati, Luca; Cazzola, Mario; Cermak, Jaroslav; Fonatsch, Christa; Le Beau, Michelle M; Slovak, Marilyn L; Levis, Alessandro; Luebbert, Michael; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Machherndl-Spandl, Sigrid; Magalhaes, Silvia M M; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Stauder, Reinhard; Tauro, Sudhir; Valent, Peter; Vallespi, Teresa; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A; Germing, Ulrich; Haase, Detlef; Greenberg, Peter L

    2016-08-18

    In myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), the evolution of risk for disease progression or death has not been systematically investigated despite being crucial for correct interpretation of prognostic risk scores. In a multicenter retrospective study, we described changes in risk over time, the consequences for basal prognostic scores, and their potential clinical implications. Major MDS prognostic risk scoring systems and their constituent individual predictors were analyzed in 7212 primary untreated MDS patients from the International Working Group for Prognosis in MDS database. Changes in risk of mortality and of leukemic transformation over time from diagnosis were described. Hazards regarding mortality and acute myeloid leukemia transformation diminished over time from diagnosis in higher-risk MDS patients, whereas they remained stable in lower-risk patients. After approximately 3.5 years, hazards in the separate risk groups became similar and were essentially equivalent after 5 years. This fact led to loss of prognostic power of different scoring systems considered, which was more pronounced for survival. Inclusion of age resulted in increased initial prognostic power for survival and less attenuation in hazards. If needed for practicability in clinical management, the differing development of risks suggested a reasonable division into lower- and higher-risk MDS based on the IPSS-R at a cutoff of 3.5 points. Our data regarding time-dependent performance of prognostic scores reflect the disparate change of risks in MDS subpopulations. Lower-risk patients at diagnosis remain lower risk whereas initially high-risk patients demonstrate decreasing risk over time. This change of risk should be considered in clinical decision making.

  16. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 240.3a55-2 Section 240.3a55-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of... the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(55)) for the first 30 days of trading, if: (1) Such index would not...

  17. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 240.3a55-2 Section 240.3a55-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of... the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(55)) for the first 30 days of trading, if: (1) Such index would not...

  18. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 240.3a55-2 Section 240.3a55-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of... the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(55)) for the first 30 days of trading, if: (1) Such index would not...

  19. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 240.3a55-2 Section 240.3a55-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of... the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(55)) for the first 30 days of trading, if: (1) Such index would not...

  20. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 240.3a55-2 Section 240.3a55-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of... the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(55)) for the first 30 days of trading, if: (1) Such index would not...

  1. Local avian density influences risk of mortality from window strikes

    PubMed Central

    Sabo, Ann M.; Hagemeyer, Natasha D.G.; Lahey, Ally S.

    2016-01-01

    Up to a billion birds die per year in North America as a result of striking windows. Both transparent and reflective glass panes are a cause for concern, misleading birds by either acting as invisible, impenetrable barriers to desired resources, or reflecting those resources over a large surface area. A high number of window strikes occur during migration, but little is known about the factors of susceptibility, or whether particular avian taxa are more vulnerable than others. We report on a study of window strikes and mist-netting data at the Virginia Zoological Park (Norfolk, Virginia, USA), conducted in the autumn of 2013 and 2014. We focused on three factors likely to contribute to an individual’s predisposition to collide with windows: (i) taxonomic classification, (ii) age, and (iii) migrant vs. resident status. Thrushes, dominated by the partial migrant American Robin (Turdus migratorius), were significantly less likely to strike glass than be sampled in mist nets (χ2 = 9.21, p = 0.002), while wood-warblers (Parulidae) were more likely to strike than expected (χ2 = 13.55, p < 0.001). The proportion of juveniles striking windows (45.4%) was not significantly different (χ2 = 0.05, p = 0.827) than the population of juvenile birds naturally occurring at the zoo (48.8%). Migrants, however, were significantly more susceptible to window strikes than residents (χ2 = 6.35, p = 0.012). Our results suggest that resident birds are able to learn to avoid and thus reduce their likelihood of striking windows; this intrinsic risk factor may help explain the apparent susceptibility of certain taxa to window strikes. PMID:27366656

  2. Low serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of 30 day hospital readmission in patients 65 years of age or older.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge is a target for health care cost savings through the medicare Value Based Purchasing initiative. Because of this focus, hospitals and health systems are investing considerable resources into the identification of patients at risk of hospital readmission and designing interventions to reduce the rate of hospital readmission. Malnutrition is a known risk factor for hospital readmission. Materials and Methods. All medical patients 65 years of age or older discharged from Memorial Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2012 who had a determination of serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count on hospital admission were studied retrospectively. Admission serum albumin levels and total lymphocyte counts were used to classify the nutritional status of all patients in the study. Patients with a serum albumin less than 3.5 grams/dL and/or a TLC less than 1,500 cells per mm3 were classified as having protein energy malnutrition. The primary outcome investigated in this study was hospital readmission for any reason within 30 days of discharge. Results. The study population included 1,683 hospital discharges with an average age of 79 years. The majority of the patients were female (55.9%) and had a DRG weight of 1.22 (0.68). 219 patients (13%) were readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge. Protein energy malnutrition was common in this population. Low albumin was found in 973 (58%) patients and a low TLC was found in 1,152 (68%) patients. Low albumin and low TLC was found in 709 (42%) of patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis shows any laboratory evidence of PEM is a significant (p < 0.001) predictor of hospital readmission. Low serum albumin (p < 0.001) and TLC (p = 0.018) show similar trends. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed low serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 3.27, 95% CI [2.30-4.63]) and higher DRG weight (Hazard Ratio 1.19, 95% CI [1.03-1.38]) to be significant independent

  3. Low serum albumin and total lymphocyte count as predictors of 30 day hospital readmission in patients 65 years of age or older

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge is a target for health care cost savings through the medicare Value Based Purchasing initiative. Because of this focus, hospitals and health systems are investing considerable resources into the identification of patients at risk of hospital readmission and designing interventions to reduce the rate of hospital readmission. Malnutrition is a known risk factor for hospital readmission. Materials and Methods. All medical patients 65 years of age or older discharged from Memorial Medical Center from January 1, 2012 to March 31, 2012 who had a determination of serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count on hospital admission were studied retrospectively. Admission serum albumin levels and total lymphocyte counts were used to classify the nutritional status of all patients in the study. Patients with a serum albumin less than 3.5 grams/dL and/or a TLC less than 1,500 cells per mm3 were classified as having protein energy malnutrition. The primary outcome investigated in this study was hospital readmission for any reason within 30 days of discharge. Results. The study population included 1,683 hospital discharges with an average age of 79 years. The majority of the patients were female (55.9%) and had a DRG weight of 1.22 (0.68). 219 patients (13%) were readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge. Protein energy malnutrition was common in this population. Low albumin was found in 973 (58%) patients and a low TLC was found in 1,152 (68%) patients. Low albumin and low TLC was found in 709 (42%) of patients. Kaplan–Meier analysis shows any laboratory evidence of PEM is a significant (p < 0.001) predictor of hospital readmission. Low serum albumin (p < 0.001) and TLC (p = 0.018) show similar trends. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed low serum albumin (Hazard Ratio 3.27, 95% CI [2.30–4.63]) and higher DRG weight (Hazard Ratio 1.19, 95% CI [1.03–1.38]) to be significant independent

  4. Prediction of risk of diabetic retinopathy for all-cause mortality, stroke and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yong-Peng; Bai, Lu; Zhang, Xue-Lian; Zhou, Jian-Bo; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To examine and quantify the potential relation between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and risk of all-cause mortality, stroke and heart failure (HF). The resources of meta-analysis of epidemiological observational studies were from Pub-med, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, conference, and proceedings. Random/fixed effects models were used to calculate pooled subgroup analysis stratified by different grades of DR was performed to explore the potential source of heterogeneity. Statistical manipulations were undertaken using program STATA. Of the included 25 studies, comprising 142,625 participants, 19 studies were concluded to find the relation of DR to all-cause mortality, 5 for stroke, and 3 for HF. Risk ratio (RR) for all-cause mortality with the presence of DR was 2.33 (95% CI 1.92–2.81) compared with diabetic individuals without DR. Evidences showed a higher risk of all-cause mortality associated with DR in patients with T2D or T1D (RR 2.25, 95% CI 1.91–2.65. RR 2.68, 95% CI 1.34–5.36). According to different grades of DR in patients with T2D, RR for all-cause mortality varied, the risk of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) was 1.38 (1.11–1.70), while the risk of proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was 2.32 (1.75–3.06). There was no evidence of significant heterogeneity (Cochran Q test P = 0.29 vs 0.26, I2 = 19.6% vs 22.6%, respectively). Data from 5 studies in relation to DR and the risk of stroke showed that DR was significantly associated with increased risk of stroke (RR = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.35–2.24), compared with patients without DR. Furthermore, DR (as compared with individuals without DR) was associated with a marginal increased risk of HF in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) (n = 3 studies; RR 2.24, 95% CI 0.98–5.14, P = 0.056). Our results showed that DR increased the risk of all-cause mortality, regardless of the different stages, compared with the diabetic individuals without DR. DR predicted

  5. Rat brain pro-oxidant effects of peripherally administered 5 nm ceria 30 days after exposure.

    PubMed

    Hardas, Sarita S; Sultana, Rukhsana; Warrier, Govind; Dan, Mo; Florence, Rebecca L; Wu, Peng; Grulke, Eric A; Tseng, Michael T; Unrine, Jason M; Graham, Uschi M; Yokel, Robert A; Butterfield, D Allan

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual pro-or anti-oxidant effects in rat brain 30 days after systemic administration of a 5 nm citrate-stabilized ceria dispersion. A ∼4% aqueous ceria dispersion was iv-infused (0 or 85 mg/kg) into rats which were terminated 30 days later. Ceria concentration, localization, and chemical speciation in the brain was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), light and electron microscopy (EM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), respectively. Pro- or anti-oxidant effects were evaluated by measuring levels of protein carbonyls (PC), 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT), and protein-bound-4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. Glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase levels and activity were measured in addition to levels of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), and heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70). The blood brain barrier (BBB) was visibly intact and no ceria was seen in the brain cells. Ceria elevated PC and Hsp70 levels in hippocampus and cerebellum, while 3NT and iNOS levels were elevated in the cortex. Whereas glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity were decreased in the hippocampus, GR levels were decreased in the cortex, and GPx and catalase levels were decreased in the cerebellum. The GSH:GSSG ratio, an index of cellular redox status, was decreased in the hippocampus and cerebellum. The results are in accordance with the observation that this nanoscale material remains in this mammal model up to 30 days after its administration and the hypothesis that it exerts pro-oxidant effects on the brain without crossing the BBB. These results have important implications on the potential use of ceria ENM as therapeutic agents.

  6. Do fall-risk-increasing drugs have an impact on mortality in older hip fracture patients? A population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kragh Ekstam, Annika; Elmståhl, Sölve

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the mortality in hip fracture patients with regard to use of fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs), by comparing survival in exposed and nonexposed individuals. Design This was a general population-based cohort study. Settings Data on hip fracture patients were retrieved from three national databases. Participants All hip fracture patients aged 60 years or older in a Swedish county in 2006 participated in this study. Measurements We studied the mortality in hip fracture patients by comparing those exposed to FRIDs, combinations of FRIDs, and polypharmacy to nonexposed patients, adjusting for age and sex. For survival estimates in patients using four or more FRIDs, a Cox regression analysis was used, adjusting for age, sex, and use of any four or more drugs. Results First-year all-cause mortality was 24.6% (N=503) in 2,043 hip fracture patients aged 60 years or older, including 170 males (33.8%) and 333 females (66.2%). Patients prescribed four or more FRIDs, five or more drugs (polypharmacy), psychotropic drugs, and cardiovascular drugs showed significantly increased first-year mortality. Exposure to four or more FRIDs (518 patients, 25.4%) was associated with an increased mortality at 30 days with odds ratios (ORs) 2.01 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–2.79), 90 days with OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.19–2.04), 180 days with OR 1.54 (95% CI 1.20–1.97), and 365 days with OR 1.43 (95% CI 1.13–1.80). Cox regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and use of any four or more drugs showed a significantly higher mortality in patients treated with four or more FRIDs at 90 days (P=0.015) and 180 days (P=0.012) compared to patients treated with three or less FRIDs. Conclusion First-year all-cause mortality was significantly higher in older hip fracture patients exposed before the fracture to FRIDs, in particular to four or more FRIDs, polypharmacy, psychotropic, and cardiovascular drugs. Interventions aiming to optimize both safety

  7. Comparison of mortality risk: a score for very low birthweight infants

    PubMed Central

    Maier, R; Rey, M; Metze, B; Obladen;, M; TARNOW-MORDI, W.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—To develop and evaluate a score which quantifies mortality risk in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants (birthweight below 1500 g) at admission to the neonatal intensive care unit.
METHODS—Five hundred and seventy two VLBW infants admitted from 1978 to 1987 were randomly assigned to a cohort (n = 396) for score development and a cohort (n = 176) for score validation. Two hundred and ninety four VLBW infants admitted from 1988 to 1991 were used to compare risk adjusted mortality between the two eras.
RESULTS—Using multiple regression analysis, birthweight, Apgar score at 5 minutes, base excess at admission, severity of respiratory distress syndrome, and artificial ventilation were predictive of death in the development cohort. According to regression coefficients, a score ranging from 3 to 40 was developed. At a cutoff of 21, it predicted death in the validation cohort with a sensitivity of 0.85, a specificity of 0.73, and a correct classification rate of 0.76. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.86. There was no significant difference in risk severity and in risk adjusted mortality between the eras 1978-87 and 1988-91.
CONCLUSION—The present score is robust, easily obtainable at admission, and permits early randomisation based on mortality risk.

 Keywords: mortality risk; scoring system; very low birthweight PMID:9175942

  8. Increased risk of lung cancer mortality among residents near an asbestos product manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shinji; Kurumatani, Norio; Tsuda, Toshihide; Yorifuji, Takashi; Suzuki, Etsuji

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether individuals exposed to asbestos by living near an asbestos-manufacturing facility experienced increased lung cancer mortality. We studied a neighborhood around such a plant in the central Japanese city of Hashima. From 1943 to 1991 this plant produced insulation and packing material using amosite- and chrysotile-type asbestos fibers. The study group was comprised of 577 households. We obtained demographic information by a questionnaire and determined the underlying cause of death for deceased household members from death certificates. Using hourly meteorological data from local observatories, we estimated relative asbestos concentrations in the plant's vicinity, determined the quartile boundaries, and designated each study subject's quartile of ambient exposure. Finally, we calculated standardized mortality ratios to evaluate the association of residential asbestos with lung cancer risk. Our findings strongly suggest that neighborhood asbestos exposure can increase the risk of lung cancer mortality in men and probably in women.

  9. The association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan

    PubMed Central

    GOTO, Akira; NAKADA, Ken; KATAMOTO, Hiromu

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of peripartum disorders in dairy herds negatively influences productivity and reproductive performance. Concrete data from local areas are helpful for explaining the importance of peripartum management to dairy farmers. This study was conducted to clarify the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in 179 dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan. A database was compiled from the records of the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan, the Dairy Cooperative Association and the Federation of Agricultural Mutual Relief Association. In this study, we created a comprehensive database of dairy farm production data for epidemiological analysis and used a general linear mixed model to analyze the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with milk production or reproductive performance. The database can be used to describe, analyze and predict the risk of production. A cross-sectional analysis with contrasts was applied to investigate the association of cows served by AI/all cows, pregnant cows/cows served by AI, days open, milk yield and somatic cell counts with culling and death rate within 30 days after calving. The days open value significantly increased with increasing rate of culling and death within 30 days after calving (P for trend <0.001). No significant differences were found for the other comparisons. Our data suggest that proper feeding and management in the dry period may lead to improved postpartum reproductive performance in this dairy cow cohort. PMID:26666177

  10. Changes in size and compliance of the calf after 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Stein, Stewart L.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that reducing muscle compartment by a long-term exposure to microgravity would cause increased leg venous compliance was tested in eight men who were assessed for vascular compliance and for serial circumferences of the calf before and after 30 days of continuous 6-deg head-down bed rest. It was found that head-down bed rest caused decreases in the calculated calf volume and the calf-muscle compartment, as well as increases in calf compliance. The percent increases in calf compliance correlated significantly with decreases in calf muscle compartment.

  11. Race, Rehabilitation, and 30-Day Readmission After Elective Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, Erik S.; Richardson, Diane M.; Thomasson, Arwin M.; Nelson, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To examine racial variations in access to postacute care (PAC) and rehabilitation (Rehab) services following elective total knee arthroplasty and whether where patients go after surgery for PAC/Rehab is associated with 30-day readmission to acute care facility. Materials and Methods: Sample consisted of 129 522 patients discharged from 169 hospitals in the State of Pennsylvania between fiscal years 2008 and 2012. We used multinomial regression models to assess the relationship between patient race and discharge destination after surgery, for patients aged 18 to 64 years and for those aged 65 and older. We used multivariable (MV) regression and propensity score (PS) approaches to examine the relationship between patient discharge destination after surgery for PAC/Rehab and 30-day readmission, controlling for key individual- and facility-level factors. Results: Lower proportions of younger patients compared to those older than 65 were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs; 5.8% vs 12.6%, respectively) and skilled nursing facilities (SNFs; 15.2% vs 32.7%, respectively) compared to home-based Rehab (self-care; 23.3% vs 14.2%, respectively). Compared to whites, African American patients had significantly higher odds of discharge to IRF (age < 65, odds ratio = 2.04; age ≥ 65, odds ratio = 1.64) and to SNF (age < 65, odds ratio = 2.86; age ≥ 65, odds ratio = 2.19) and discharge to home care in patients younger than 65 years (odds ratio = 1.31). The odds of 30-day readmission among patients discharged to an IRF (MV odds ratio = 7.76; PS odds ratio = 8.34) and SNF (MV odds ratio = 2.01; PS odds ratio = 1.83) were significantly higher in comparison to patients discharged home with self-care. Conclusion: African American patients with knee replacement are more likely to be discharged to inpatient Rehab settings following surgery. Inpatient Rehab is significantly associated with 30-day readmission to acute care facility. PMID:26623166

  12. Identification of patients at risk for early out-of-hospital mortality after redocoronary artery surgery

    PubMed Central

    van Eck, F.M.; Noyez, L.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Brouwer, R.M.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective Analyse risk factors and construct a predictive model for identification of patients at risk of early out-of-hospital mortality after coronary reoperations (RECABG). Methods 505 patients, discharged from hospital after a RECABG (1987-1998), were studied by univariate and multivariate analysis. A stepwise selective procedure (p<0.05) was used to identify a subset of variables with prognostic value for early out-of-hospital mortality. This subset was used to calculate a prognostic score 'S' and a predicted probability 'p' for early out-of-hospital mortality, p=1/1+ e-s. Sensitivity analysis was used for evaluation. Results The best predictive variables for early out-of-hospital mortality were diabetes (p=0.002), lung disease (p=0.05), emergency operation (p=0.0001) and a perioperative myocardial infarction (p=0.0001). Emergency operation (p=0.001) and antegrade/retrograde cardioplegia (p<0.0000) were independent predictors of a perioperative myocardial infarction. The prognostic accuracy (ROC area) was 86%. Patients were classified into low risk (5%), intermediate risk (15%), high risk (30%) and very high risk (≥40%). A predicted probability of ≥0.40 was used as cut-off point. The specificity of this test was 99%, sensitivity 33%, predictive value of a positive test 79%, and 95% for a negative test. Conclusion The results show that patients discharged from hospital after RECABG can be stratified according to their early out-of-hospital risk. A perioperative myocardial infarction is the major independent risk factor and can be affected by use of retrograde cardioplegia. PMID:25696148

  13. AKI and Long-Term Risk for Cardiovascular Events and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Odutayo, Ayodele; Wong, Christopher X; Farkouh, Michael; Altman, Douglas G; Hopewell, Sally; Emdin, Connor A; Hunn, Benjamin H

    2017-01-01

    AKI associates with increased long-term risk of mortality, but the prognostic significance of AKI in terms of long-term cardiovascular disease remains unconfirmed. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether AKI associates with long-term cardiovascular disease. We included cohort studies that examined adults with and without AKI and reported a multivariable-adjusted relative risk (RR) for the association between AKI and cardiovascular mortality, major cardiovascular events, and disease-specific events: congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke. Twenty-five studies involving 254,408 adults (55,150 with AKI) were included. AKI associated with an 86% and a 38% increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and major cardiovascular events, respectively ([RR 1.86; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.72 to 2.01] and [RR 1.38; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.55], respectively). For disease-specific events, AKI associated with a 58% increased risk of heart failure (RR 1.58; 95% CI, 1.46 to 1.72) and a 40% increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (RR 1.40; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.59). The elevated risk of heart failure and acute myocardial infarction persisted in subgroup analyses on the basis of AKI severity and the proportion of adults with baseline ischemic heart disease. Finally, AKI was associated with a 15% increased risk of stroke (RR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.28). In conclusion, AKI associates with an elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality and major cardiovascular events, particularly heart failure and acute myocardial infarction.

  14. Admission Risk Score to Predict Inpatient Pediatric Mortality at Four Public Hospitals in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mpimbaza, Arthur; Sears, David; Sserwanga, Asadu; Kigozi, Ruth; Rubahika, Denis; Nadler, Adam; Yeka, Adoke; Dorsey, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Mortality rates among hospitalized children in many government hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa are high. Pediatric emergency services in these hospitals are often sub-optimal. Timely recognition of critically ill children on arrival is key to improving service delivery. We present a simple risk score to predict inpatient mortality among hospitalized children. Between April 2010 and June 2011, the Uganda Malaria Surveillance Project (UMSP), in collaboration with the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP), set up an enhanced sentinel site malaria surveillance program for children hospitalized at four public hospitals in different districts: Tororo, Apac, Jinja and Mubende. Clinical data collected through March 2013, representing 50249 admissions were used to develop a mortality risk score (derivation data set). One year of data collected subsequently from the same hospitals, representing 20406 admissions, were used to prospectively validate the performance of the risk score (validation data set). Using a backward selection approach, 13 out of 25 clinical parameters recognizable on initial presentation, were selected for inclusion in a final logistic regression prediction model. The presence of individual parameters was awarded a score of either 1 or 2 based on regression coefficients. For each individual patient, a composite risk score was generated. The risk score was further categorized into three categories; low, medium, and high. Patient characteristics were comparable in both data sets. Measures of performance for the risk score included the receiver operating characteristics curves and the area under the curve (AUC), both demonstrating good and comparable ability to predict deathusing both the derivation (AUC =0.76) and validation dataset (AUC =0.74). Using the derivation and validation datasets, the mortality rates in each risk category were as follows: low risk (0.8% vs. 0.7%), moderate risk (3.5% vs. 3.2%), and high risk (16.5% vs. 12.6%), respectively. Our

  15. Increased Risk of Post-Transplant Malignancy and Mortality in Transplant Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mu-Chi; Wu, Ming-Ju; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Yu, Tung-Min; Ho, Hao-Chung; Shu, Kuo-Hsiung; Chung, Chi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Information on post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk in kidney transplant tourists remains controversial and is an important concern. The present study aimed to evaluate the incidence of post-transplant malignancy and mortality risk between tourists and domestic transplant recipients using the claims data from Taiwan's universal health insurance. A retrospective study was performed on 2394 tourists and 1956 domestic recipients. Post-transplant malignancy and mortality were defined from the catastrophic illness patient registry by using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision. Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan–Meier curves were used for the analyses. The incidence for post-transplant de novo malignancy in the tourist group was 1.8-fold higher than that of the domestic group (21.8 vs 12.1 per 1000 person-years). The overall cancer recurrence rate was approximately 11%. The top 3 post-transplant malignancies, in decreasing order, were urinary tract, kidney, and liver cancers, regardless of the recipient type. Compared with domestic recipients, there was significant higher mortality risk in transplant tourists (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–1.5). In addition, those with either pre-transplant or post-transplant malignancies were associated with increased mortality risk. We suggest that a sufficient waiting period for patients with pre-transplant malignancies should be better emphasized to eliminate recurrence, and transplant tourists should be discouraged because of the possibility of higher post-transplant de novo malignancy occurrence and mortality. PMID:25546686

  16. Socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease risk and mortality: A population-based prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Johansson, Anna L V; Pedersen, Nancy L; Fang, Fang; Gatz, Margaret; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about the role of socioeconomic status in relation to Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, and no study has investigated whether the impact of socioeconomic status on all-cause mortality differs between individuals with and without PD.In this population-based prospective study, over 4.6 million Swedish inhabitants who participated in the Swedish census in 1980 were followed from 1981 to 2010. The incidence rate of PD and incidence rate ratio were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and PD risk. Age-standardized mortality rate and hazard ratio (HR) were estimated for the association between socioeconomic status and all-cause mortality for individuals with and without PD.During follow-up, 66,332 incident PD cases at a mean age of 76.0 years were recorded. Compared to individuals with the highest socioeconomic status (high nonmanual workers), all other socioeconomic groups (manual or nonmanual and self-employed workers) had a lower PD risk. All-cause mortality rates were higher in individuals with lower socioeconomic status compared with high nonmanual workers, but relative risks for all-cause mortality were lower in PD patients than in non-PD individuals (e.g., for low manual workers, HR: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.15 for PD patients; HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.35-1.36 for non-PD individuals).Individuals with lower socioeconomic status had a lower PD incidence compared to the highest socioeconomic group. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with higher all-cause mortality among individuals with and without PD, but such impact was weaker among PD patients.

  17. Meta-analysis of digoxin use and risk of mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ai-Jun; Lv, Yan-Ni; Zhong, Hai-Li; Wen, Jin-Hua; Wei, Xiao-Hua; Peng, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Li-Li

    2015-04-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the safety of digoxin use in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). To address this issue, the investigators assembled a synthesis of the available evidence on the relation between digoxin and all-cause mortality in patients with AF. PubMed and the Embase database were systematically searched to identify all eligible studies examining the association between digoxin use and the mortality risk in AF. Overall hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the random-effects model. Eleven observational studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria, 5 of which additionally used propensity score matching for statistical adjustment. In total, 318,191 patients were followed up for a mean of 2.8 years. Overall, digoxin use was associated with a 21% increased risk for mortality (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.30). Sensitivity analyses found the results to be robust. In the propensity score-matched AF patients, digoxin use was associated with a 17% greater risk for mortality (hazard ratio 1.17, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 1.22). When the AF cohort was grouped into patients with and without heart failure, the use of digoxin was associated with an increase in mortality in patients with and those without heart failure, and no significant heterogeneity was seen between the groups (p >0.10). In conclusion, the results suggest that digoxin use was associated with a greater risk for mortality in patients with AF, regardless of concomitant heart failure. A well-powered randomized trial is necessary to reveal the true effect of digoxin.

  18. Early post-surgical cognitive dysfunction is a risk factor for mortality among hip fracture hospitalized older persons.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, C; Bonamassa, L; Pelini, L; Prioletta, I; Cianferotti, L; Metozzi, A; Benvenuti, E; Brandi, G; Guazzini, A; Santoro, G C; Mecocci, P; Black, D; Brandi, M L

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the relationship between cognitive dysfunction or delirium detected in the early post-surgical phase and the 1-year mortality among 514 hip fracture hospitalized older persons. Patients with early cognitive dysfunction or delirium experienced a 2-fold increased mortality risk. Early post-operative cognitive dysfunction and delirium are negative prognostic factors for mortality.

  19. Volunteering by older adults and risk of mortality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Okun, Morris A; Yeung, Ellen WanHeung; Brown, Stephanie

    2013-06-01

    Organizational volunteering has been touted as an effective strategy for older adults to help themselves while helping others. Extending previous reviews, we carried out a meta-analysis of the relation between organizational volunteering by late-middle-aged and older adults (minimum age = 55 years old) and risk of mortality. We focused on unadjusted effect sizes (i.e., bivariate relations), adjusted effect sizes (i.e., controlling for other variables such as health), and interaction effect sizes (e.g., the joint effect of volunteering and religiosity). For unadjusted effect sizes, on average, volunteering reduced mortality risk by 47%, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 38% to 55%. For adjusted effect sizes, on average, volunteering reduced mortality risk by 24%, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 16% to 31%. For interaction effect sizes, we found preliminary support that as public religiosity increases, the inverse relation between volunteering and mortality risk becomes stronger. The discussion identifies several unresolved issues and directions for future research.

  20. Alcohol's Collateral Damage: Childhood Exposure to Problem Drinkers and Subsequent Adult Mortality Risk.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Richard G; Lawrence, Elizabeth M; Montez, Jennifer Karas

    2016-12-07

    The importance of childhood circumstances, broadly defined, for shaping adult health and longevity is well-established. But the significance of one of the most prevalent childhood adversities-exposure to problem drinkers-has been understudied from a sociological perspective and remains poorly understood. We address this gap by drawing on cumulative inequality theory, using data from the 1988-2011 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files, and estimating Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relationship between exposure to problem drinkers in childhood and adult mortality risk. Childhood exposure to problem drinkers is common (nearly 1 in 5 individuals were exposed) and elevates adult overall and cause-specific mortality risk. Compared to individuals who had not lived with a problem drinker during childhood, those who had done so suffered 17 percent higher risk of death (p<.001) over the follow-up period, net of age, sex, and race/ethnicity. We find compelling evidence that the duration, source, and intensity of exposure to problem drinkers in childhood contributes to inequality in adult mortality risk. Favorable socioeconomic status in adulthood does not ameliorate the consequences of childhood exposure to problem drinkers. The primary intervening mechanisms are risky behaviors, including adult drinking and smoking. The findings-which reveal that the influence of problem drinking is far-reaching and long-term-should inform policies to improve childhood circumstances, reduce detrimental effects of problem drinking, and increase life expectancy.

  1. Life span decrements in fluid intelligence and processing speed predict mortality risk.

    PubMed

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    We examined life span changes in 5 domains of cognitive performance as predictive of mortality risk. Data came from the Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition, a 20-plus-year investigation of 6,203 individuals ages 42-97 years. Cognitive domains were general crystallized intelligence, general fluid intelligence, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and processing speed. Life span decrements were evident across these domains, controlling for baseline performance at age 70 and adjusting for retest effects. Survival analyses stratified by sex and conducted independently by cognitive domain showed that lower baseline performance levels in all domains-and larger life span decrements in general fluid intelligence and processing speed-were predictive of increased mortality risk for both women and men. Critically, analyses of the combined predictive power of cognitive performance variables showed that baseline levels of processing speed (in women) and general fluid intelligence (in men), and decrements in processing speed (in women and in men) and general fluid intelligence (in women), accounted for most of the explained variation in mortality risk. In light of recent evidence from brain-imaging studies, we speculate that cognitive abilities closely linked to cerebral white matter integrity (such as processing speed and general fluid intelligence) may represent particularly sensitive markers of mortality risk. In addition, we presume that greater complexity in cognition-survival associations observed in women (in analyses incorporating all cognitive predictors) may be a consequence of longer and more variable cognitive declines in women relative to men.

  2. World-wide, mortality is a high risk soon after initiation of hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Bruce; Zhang, Jinyao; Morgenstern, Hal; Bradbury, Brian D.; Ng, Leslie J.; McCullough, Keith; Gillespie, Brenda; Hakim, Raymond; Rayner, Hugh; Fort, Joan; Akizawa, Tadao; Tentori, Francesca; Pisoni, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Mortality rates for maintenance hemodialysis patients are much higher than the general population and are even greater soon after starting dialysis. Here we analyzed mortality patterns in 86,886 patients in 11 countries focusing on the early dialysis period using data from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study; a prospective cohort study of in-center hemodialysis. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, using time-dependent Cox regression, stratified by study phase adjusted for age, sex, race, and diabetes. The main predictor was time since dialysis start as divided into early (up to 120 days), intermediate (121–365 days), and late (over 365 days) periods. Mortality rates (deaths/100 patient-years) were 26.7 (95% confidence intervals 25.6, 27.9), 16.9 (16.2, 17.6), and 13.7 (13.5, 14.0) in the early, intermediate, and late periods, respectively. In each country, mortality was higher in the early compared to the intermediate period with an adjusted range from 3.10 (2.22, 4.32) in Japan to 1.15 (0.87, 1.53) in the United Kingdom. Adjusted mortality rates were similar for intermediate and late periods. The ratio of elevated mortality rates in the early to the intermediate period increased with age. Within each period, mortality was higher in the United States than in most other countries. Thus, internationally, the early hemodialysis period is a high-risk time for all countries studied, with substantial differences in mortality between countries. Efforts to improve outcomes should focus on the transition period and first few months of dialysis. PMID:23802192

  3. Increased 10-year cardiovascular disease and mortality risk scores in asymptomatic patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Hasan; Yencilek, Faruk; Erihan, Ismet Bilger; Okan, Binnur; Sarica, Kemal

    2011-12-01

    Both the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and event rate are increased in patients with urolithiasis. Screening is recommended to all patients who have high cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to document 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in asymptomatic patients with urolithiasis. Consecutive 200 patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis were compared with 200 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Ten-year cardiovascular disease risk was calculated with the Framingham Risk Score and mortality risk with SCORE risk score. Calcium, oxalate, and citrate excretion were studied as urinary stone risk factors. The results indicate that patients with urolithiasis had higher total cholesterol (p < 0.0001), lower HDL-cholesterol (p < 0.0001), and higher systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001) and hsCRP (p < 0.0001) compared with controls. Patients with urolithiasis had a higher Framingham Risk Scores [OR 8.36 (95% CI 3.81-18.65), p = 0.0001] and SCORE risk score [OR 3.02 (95% CI 1.30-7.02), p = 0.0006] compared with controls. The Framingham and SCORE risk score were significantly correlated with urinary calcium (p = 0.0001, r = 0.460, and p = 0.005, r = 0.223, respectively) and oxalate excretion (p = 0.0001, r = 0.516, p = 0.001, r = 0.290, respectively). In multiple linear regression analysis, urinary calcium and oxalate excretion, age, sex, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, hsCRP and smoking were the independent predictors of 10-year cardiovascular disease risk and urinary calcium and oxalate excretion, age, sex, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose for 10-year cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, patients with calcium oxalate urolithiasis carry high risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. All patients should be screened at the initial diagnosis of urolithiasis for the risk factors.

  4. Strict blood pressure control associates with decreased mortality risk by APOL1 genotype.

    PubMed

    Ku, Elaine; Lipkowitz, Michael S; Appel, Lawrence J; Parsa, Afshin; Gassman, Jennifer; Glidden, David V; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Although APOL1 high-risk genotype partially accounts for the increased susceptibility of blacks to chronic kidney disease (CKD), whether APOL1 associates differentially with mortality risk remains controversial. Here we evaluate the association between APOL1 genotype and risk of death and determine whether APOL1 status modifies the association between strict versus usual blood pressure control and mortality risk. We performed a retrospective analysis of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension trial that randomized black participants with CKD to strict versus usual blood pressure control from 1995 to 2001. This included 682 participants with known APOL1 genotype (157 with high-risk genotype) previously assigned to either strict (mean arterial pressure [MAP] 92 mm Hg or less) versus usual blood pressure control (MAP 102-107 mm Hg) during the trial. During a median follow-up of 14.5 years, risk of death did not differ between individuals with high- versus low-risk APOL1 genotypes (unadjusted hazard ratio 1.00 [95% confidence interval 0.76-1.33]). However, a significant interaction was detected between the APOL1 risk group and blood pressure control strategy. In the APOL1 high-risk group, the risk of death was 42% lower comparing strict versus usual blood pressure control (0.58 [0.35-0.97]). In the APOL1 low-risk group, the risk of death comparing strict versus usual blood pressure control was not significantly different (1.09 [0.84-1.43]). Thus, strict blood pressure control during CKD associates with a lower risk of death in blacks with the high-risk CKD APOL1 genotype. Knowledge of APOL1 status could inform selection of blood pressure treatment targets in black CKD patients.

  5. A Prediction Rule to Stratify Mortality Risk of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Helder Novais; Osório, Nuno S; Castro, António Gil; Ramos, Angélica; Carvalho, Teresa; Meira, Leonor; Araújo, David; Almeida, Leonor; Boaventura, Rita; Fragata, Patrícia; Chaves, Catarina; Costa, Patrício; Portela, Miguel; Ferreira, Ivo; Magalhães, Sara Pinto; Rodrigues, Fernando; Sarmento-Castro, Rui; Duarte, Raquel; Guimarães, João Tiago; Saraiva, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis imposes high human and economic tolls, including in Europe. This study was conducted to develop a severity assessment tool for stratifying mortality risk in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. A derivation cohort of 681 PTB cases was retrospectively reviewed to generate a model based on multiple logistic regression analysis of prognostic variables with 6-month mortality as the outcome measure. A clinical scoring system was developed and tested against a validation cohort of 103 patients. Five risk features were selected for the prediction model: hypoxemic respiratory failure (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.8-7.9), age ≥50 years (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7-4.8), bilateral lung involvement (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.4), ≥1 significant comorbidity-HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, liver failure or cirrhosis, congestive heart failure and chronic respiratory disease-(OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-3.8), and hemoglobin <12 g/dL (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.1). A tuberculosis risk assessment tool (TReAT) was developed, stratifying patients with low (score ≤2), moderate (score 3-5) and high (score ≥6) mortality risk. The mortality associated with each group was 2.9%, 22.9% and 53.9%, respectively. The model performed equally well in the validation cohort. We provide a new, easy-to-use clinical scoring system to identify PTB patients with high-mortality risk in settings with good healthcare access, helping clinicians to decide which patients are in need of closer medical care during treatment.

  6. Socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mortality risk: Analysis of SEER data.

    PubMed

    Knoble, Naomi B; Alderfer, Melissa A; Hossain, Md Jobayer

    2016-10-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a complex construct of multiple indicators, known to impact cancer outcomes, but has not been adequately examined among pediatric AML patients. This study aimed to identify the patterns of co-occurrence of multiple community-level SES indicators and to explore associations between various patterns of these indicators and pediatric AML mortality risk. A nationally representative US sample of 3651 pediatric AML patients, aged 0-19 years at diagnosis was drawn from 17 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database registries created between 1973 and 2012. Factor analysis, cluster analysis, stratified univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used. Four SES factors accounting for 87% of the variance in SES indicators were identified: F1) economic/educational disadvantage, less immigration; F2) immigration-related features (foreign-born, language-isolation, crowding), less mobility; F3) housing instability; and, F4) absence of moving. F1 and F3 showed elevated risk of mortality, adjusted hazards ratios (aHR) (95% CI): 1.07(1.02-1.12) and 1.05(1.00-1.10), respectively. Seven SES-defined cluster groups were identified. Cluster 1 (low economic/educational disadvantage, few immigration-related features, and residential-stability) showed the minimum risk of mortality. Compared to Cluster 1, Cluster 3 (high economic/educational disadvantage, high-mobility) and Cluster 6 (moderately-high economic/educational disadvantages, housing-instability and immigration-related features) exhibited substantially greater risk of mortality, aHR(95% CI)=1.19(1.0-1.4) and 1.23 (1.1-1.5), respectively. Factors of correlated SES-indicators and their pattern-based groups demonstrated differential risks in the pediatric AML mortality indicating the need of special public-health attention in areas with economic-educational disadvantages, housing-instability and immigration-related features.

  7. A Prediction Rule to Stratify Mortality Risk of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Nuno S.; Castro, António Gil; Ramos, Angélica; Carvalho, Teresa; Meira, Leonor; Araújo, David; Almeida, Leonor; Boaventura, Rita; Fragata, Patrícia; Chaves, Catarina; Costa, Patrício; Portela, Miguel; Ferreira, Ivo; Magalhães, Sara Pinto; Rodrigues, Fernando; Sarmento-Castro, Rui; Duarte, Raquel; Guimarães, João Tiago; Saraiva, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis imposes high human and economic tolls, including in Europe. This study was conducted to develop a severity assessment tool for stratifying mortality risk in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients. A derivation cohort of 681 PTB cases was retrospectively reviewed to generate a model based on multiple logistic regression analysis of prognostic variables with 6-month mortality as the outcome measure. A clinical scoring system was developed and tested against a validation cohort of 103 patients. Five risk features were selected for the prediction model: hypoxemic respiratory failure (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.8–7.9), age ≥50 years (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7–4.8), bilateral lung involvement (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4–4.4), ≥1 significant comorbidity—HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, liver failure or cirrhosis, congestive heart failure and chronic respiratory disease–(OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–3.8), and hemoglobin <12 g/dL (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.1). A tuberculosis risk assessment tool (TReAT) was developed, stratifying patients with low (score ≤2), moderate (score 3–5) and high (score ≥6) mortality risk. The mortality associated with each group was 2.9%, 22.9% and 53.9%, respectively. The model performed equally well in the validation cohort. We provide a new, easy-to-use clinical scoring system to identify PTB patients with high-mortality risk in settings with good healthcare access, helping clinicians to decide which patients are in need of closer medical care during treatment. PMID:27636095

  8. The Relationship Between Nurse Staffing and 30-Day Readmission for Adults With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Karen K.; Danesh, Valerie; Funk, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between nurse staffing and 30-day excess readmission ratios for patients with heart failure in the top US adult cardiology and heart surgery hospitals. BACKGROUND Heart failure is the most common cause of hospitalization for patients older than 65 years and is the most frequent diagnosis associated with 30-day hospital readmission in the United States. METHODS A secondary data analysis was conducted using nurse staffing data from 661 cardiology and heart surgery hospitals from the 2013 US News & World Report “Best Hospitals” survey. These data were combined with excess readmission ratios from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hospital Compare database from 2013. An independent-samples t test was used to compare staffing (low/high) and excess hospital readmissions rates. RESULTS A significant difference (P = .021) was found between the low nurse staffing group (n = 358) and the high nurse staffing group (n = 303). Hospitals with a lower nurse staffing index had a significantly higher excess readmission rate. CONCLUSION These data provide further support to the body of research showing a positive relationship between nurse staffing and positive outcomes. PMID:26579974

  9. Emotion Suppression and Mortality Risk Over a 12-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Fiscella, Kevin; Kawachi, Ichiro; Duberstein, Paul; Muennig, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective Suppression of emotion has long been suspected to have a role in health, but empirical work has yielded mixed findings. We examined the association between emotion suppression and all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality over 12 years of follow-up in a nationally representative US sample. Methods We used the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index (NDI) cohort, which included an emotion suppression scale administered to 729 people in 1996. Prospective mortality follow up between 1996 and 2008 of 111 deaths (37 by cardiovascular disease, 34 by cancer) was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, gender, education, and minority race/ethnicity. Results The 75th vs. 25th percentile on the emotional suppression score was associated with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.35 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] = 1.00, 1.82; p = .049) for all-cause mortality. For cancer and cardiovascular disease mortality, the HRs were 1.70 (95% CI = 1.01, 2.88, p = 0.049) and 1.47 (95% CI = .87, 2.47, p = 0.148) respectively. Conclusions Emotion suppression may convey risk for earlier death, including death from cancer. Further work is needed to better understand the biopsychosocial mechanisms for this risk, as well as the nature of associations between suppression and different forms of mortality. PMID:24119947

  10. Immunologic Risk Factors for Early Mortality After Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Zambian Children

    PubMed Central

    Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Nkamba, Hope C.; Mubiana-Mbewe, Mwangelwa; Moore, Carolyn Bolton

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To explore immunologic risk factors for death within 90 days of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets were measured by flow cytometry and characterized by logistic regression in 149 Zambian children between 9 months and 10 years of age enrolled in a prospective, observational study of the impact of HAART on measles immunity. Of 21 children who died during follow-up, 17 (81%) had known dates of death and 16 (76%) died within 90 days of initiating HAART. Young age and low weight-for-age z-scores were associated with increased risks of mortality within 90 days of starting HAART, whereas CD4+ T cell percentage was not associated with mortality. After adjusting for these factors, each 10% increase in CD8+ effector T cells increased the odds of overall mortality [OR=1.43 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.90)] and was marginally associated with early mortality [OR=1.29 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.72)]. Conversely, each 10% increase in CD4+ central memory T cells decreased the odds of overall [OR=0.06 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.59)] and early mortality [OR=0.09 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.97)]. Logistic regression prediction models demonstrated areas under the receiver-operator characteristic curves of ≥85% for early and overall mortality, with bootstrapped sensitivities of 82–85% upon validation, supporting the predictive accuracy of the models. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets may be more accurate predictors of early mortality than CD4+ T cell percentages and could be used to identify children who would benefit from more frequent clinical monitoring after initiating HAART. PMID:23025633

  11. Adult Mortality Attributable to Preventable Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Diseases and Injuries in Japan: A Comparative Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Nayu; Inoue, Manami; Iso, Hiroyasu; Ikeda, Shunya; Satoh, Toshihiko; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Imano, Hironori; Saito, Eiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Naghavi, Mohsen; Ezzati, Majid; Shibuya, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Background The population of Japan has achieved the longest life expectancy in the world. To further improve population health, consistent and comparative evidence on mortality attributable to preventable risk factors is necessary for setting priorities for health policies and programs. Although several past studies have quantified the impact of individual risk factors in Japan, to our knowledge no study has assessed and compared the effects of multiple modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries using a standard framework. We estimated the effects of 16 risk factors on cause-specific deaths and life expectancy in Japan. Methods and Findings We obtained data on risk factor exposures from the National Health and Nutrition Survey and epidemiological studies, data on the number of cause-specific deaths from vital records adjusted for ill-defined codes, and data on relative risks from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. We applied a comparative risk assessment framework to estimate effects of excess risks on deaths and life expectancy at age 40 y. In 2007, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure accounted for 129,000 deaths (95% CI: 115,000–154,000) and 104,000 deaths (95% CI: 86,000–119,000), respectively, followed by physical inactivity (52,000 deaths, 95% CI: 47,000–58,000), high blood glucose (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 26,000–43,000), high dietary salt intake (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 27,000–39,000), and alcohol use (31,000 deaths, 95% CI: 28,000–35,000). In recent decades, cancer mortality attributable to tobacco smoking has increased in the elderly, while stroke mortality attributable to high blood pressure has declined. Life expectancy at age 40 y in 2007 would have been extended by 1.4 y for both sexes (men, 95% CI: 1.3–1.6; women, 95% CI: 1.2–1.7) if exposures to multiple cardiovascular risk factors had been reduced to their optimal levels as determined by a theoretical-minimum-risk exposure distribution. Conclusions

  12. 78 FR 58318 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: The Framingham Heart Study (FHS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... studying the determinants of cardiovascular disease. Morbidity and mortality follow-up will continue to... data collection plans and instruments, contact Dr. Gina Wei, Division of Cardiovascular Sciences,...

  13. Risk factors for early mortality in haematological malignancy patients with pulmonary mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Russell E; Georgiadou, Sarah P; Sampsonas, Fotis; Chamilos, George; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary mucormycosis (PM) is a life-threatening opportunistic mycosis with a variable clinical evolution and few prognostic markers for outcome assessment. Several clinical risk factors for poor outcome present at the diagnosis of PM were analyzed in 75 consecutive hematology patients from 2000-2012. Significant variables (P < 0.1) were entered into a multivariate Cox-proportional hazard regression model adjusting for baseline APACHE II to identify independent risk factors for mortality within 28 days. Twenty-eight of 75 patients died within 4-week follow up. A lymphocyte count < 100/mm³ at the time of diagnosis (adjusted hazard ratio 4.0, 1.7-9.4, P = 0.01) and high level of lactate dehydrogenase (AHR 3.7, 1.3-10.2, P = 0.015) were independent predictors along with APACHE II score for 28-day mortality. A weighted risk score based on these 3 baseline variables accurately identified non-surviving patients at 28 days (area under the receiver-operator curve of 0.87, 0.77-0.93, P < 0.001). A risk score > 22 was associated with 8-fold high rates of mortality (P < 0.0001) within 28 days of diagnosis and median survival of 7 days versus ≥28 days in patients with risk scores ≤22. We found that APACHE II score, severe lymphocytopenia and high LDH levels at the time of PM diagnosis were independent markers for rapid disease progression and death.

  14. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of hexavalent chromium based on updated mortality for Painesville chromate production workers

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, Deborah M; Suh, Mina; Mittal, Liz; Hirsch, Shawn; Valdes Salgado, Raydel; Bartlett, Chris; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Rohr, Annette; Crump, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    The exposure-response for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI))-induced lung cancer among workers of the Painesville Ohio chromate production facility has been used internationally for quantitative risk assessment of environmental and occupational exposures to airborne Cr(VI). We updated the mortality of 714 Painesville workers (including 198 short-term workers) through December 2011, reconstructed exposures, and conducted exposure-response modeling using Poisson and Cox regressions to provide quantitative lung cancer risk estimates. The average length of follow-up was 34.4 years with 24,535 person-years at risk. Lung cancer was significantly increased for the cohort (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=186; 95% confidence interval (CI) 145–228), for those hired before 1959, those with >30-year tenure, and those with cumulative exposure >1.41 mg/m3-years or highest monthly exposures >0.26 mg/m3. Of the models assessed, the linear Cox model with unlagged cumulative exposure provided the best fit and was preferred. Smoking and age at hire were also significant predictors of lung cancer mortality. Adjusting for these variables, the occupational unit risk was 0.00166 (95% CI 0.000713–0.00349), and the environmental unit risk was 0.00832 (95% CI 0.00359–0.0174), which are 20% and 15% lower, respectively, than values developed in a previous study of this cohort. PMID:26669850

  15. Risk Prediction of One-Year Mortality in Patients with Cardiac Arrhythmias Using Random Survival Forest.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fen; Cai, Yun-Peng; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Li, Ye; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Existing models for predicting mortality based on traditional Cox proportional hazard approach (CPH) often have low prediction accuracy. This paper aims to develop a clinical risk model with good accuracy for predicting 1-year mortality in cardiac arrhythmias patients using random survival forest (RSF), a robust approach for survival analysis. 10,488 cardiac arrhythmias patients available in the public MIMIC II clinical database were investigated, with 3,452 deaths occurring within 1-year followups. Forty risk factors including demographics and clinical and laboratory information and antiarrhythmic agents were analyzed as potential predictors of all-cause mortality. RSF was adopted to build a comprehensive survival model and a simplified risk model composed of 14 top risk factors. The built comprehensive model achieved a prediction accuracy of 0.81 measured by c-statistic with 10-fold cross validation. The simplified risk model also achieved a good accuracy of 0.799. Both results outperformed traditional CPH (which achieved a c-statistic of 0.733 for the comprehensive model and 0.718 for the simplified model). Moreover, various factors are observed to have nonlinear impact on cardiac arrhythmias prognosis. As a result, RSF based model which took nonlinearity into account significantly outperformed traditional Cox proportional hazard model and has great potential to be a more effective approach for survival analysis.

  16. Fatty acids linked to cardiovascular mortality are associated with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ebbesson, Sven O. E.; Voruganti, Venkata S.; Higgins, Paul B.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Ebbesson, Lars O.; Laston, Sandra; Harris, William S.; Kennish, John; Umans, Benjamin D.; Wang, Hong; Devereux, Richard B.; Okin, Peter M.; Weissman, Neil J.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Umans, Jason G.; Howard, Barbara V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although saturated fatty acids (FAs) have been linked to cardiovascular mortality, it is not clear whether this outcome is attributable solely to their effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or whether other risk factors are also associated with FAs. The Western Alaskan Native population, with its rapidly changing lifestyles, shift in diet from unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and dramatic increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD), presents an opportunity to elucidate any associations between specific FAs and known CVD risk factors. Objective We tested the hypothesis that the specific FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality are also associated with individual CVD risk factors. Methods In this community-based, cross-sectional study, relative proportions of FAs in plasma and red blood cell membranes were compared with CVD risk factors in a sample of 758 men and women aged ≥35 years. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze relations between specific FAs and CVD risk factors (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, fasting glucose and fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose and 2-hour insulin). Results The specific saturated FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality, the palmitic and myristic acids, were adversely associated with most CVD risk factors, whereas unsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and the marine n-3 FAs were not associated or were beneficially associated with CVD risk factors. Conclusions The results suggest that CVD risk factors are more extensively affected by individual FAs than hitherto recognized, and that risk for CVD, MI and stroke can be reduced by reducing the intake of palmitate, myristic acid and simple carbohydrates and improved by greater intake of linoleic acid and marine n-3 FAs. PMID:26274054

  17. Obesity Indexes and Total Mortality among Elderly Subjects at High Cardiovascular Risk: The PREDIMED Study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Miguel A.; García-Arellano, Ana; Toledo, Estefanía; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Bulló, Mónica; Corella, Dolores; Fito, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Rekondo, Javier; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Santos-Lozano, Jose Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Eguaras, Sonia; Sáez-Tormo, Guillermo; Pintó, Xavier; Estruch, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Background Different indexes of regional adiposity have been proposed for identifying persons at higher risk of death. Studies specifically assessing these indexes in large cohorts are scarce. It would also be interesting to know whether a dietary intervention may counterbalance the adverse effects of adiposity on mortality. Methods We assessed the association of four different anthropometric indexes (waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI) and height) with all-cause mortality in 7447 participants at high cardiovascular risk from the PREDIMED trial. Forty three percent of them were men (55 to 80 years) and 57% were women (60 to 80 years). All of them were initially free of cardiovascular disease. The recruitment took place in 11 recruiting centers between 2003 and 2009. Results After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, intervention group, family history of coronary heart disease, and leisure-time physical activity, WC and WHtR were found to be directly associated with a higher mortality after 4.8 years median follow-up. The multivariable-adjusted HRs for mortality of WHtR (cut-off points: 0.60, 0.65, 0.70) were 1.02 (0.78–1.34), 1.30 (0.97–1.75) and 1.55 (1.06–2.26). When we used WC (cut-off points: 100, 105 and 110 cm), the multivariable adjusted Hazard Ratios (HRs) for mortality were 1.18 (0.88–1.59), 1.02 (0.74–1.41) and 1.57 (1.19–2.08). In all analyses, BMI exhibited weaker associations with mortality than WC or WHtR. The direct association between WHtR and overall mortality was consistent within each of the three intervention arms of the trial. Conclusions Our study adds further support to a stronger association of abdominal obesity than BMI with total mortality among elderly subjects at high risk of cardiovascular disease. We did not find evidence to support that the PREDIMED intervention was able to counterbalance the harmful effects of increased adiposity on total mortality. Trial

  18. Risk factors associated with increased mortality of farmed Pacific oysters in Ireland during 2011.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Tracy A; Morrissey, Teresa; Geoghegan, Fiona; Martin, S Wayne; Lyons, Kieran; Ashe, Seán; More, Simon J

    2014-02-01

    The Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, plays a significant role in the aquaculture industry in Ireland. Episodes of increased mortality in C. gigas have been described in many countries, and in Ireland since 2008. The cause of mortality events in C. gigas spat and larvae is suspected to be multifactorial, with ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1, in particular OsHV-1μvar) considered a necessary, but not sufficient, cause. The objectives of the current study were to describe mortality events that occurred in C. gigas in Ireland during the summer of 2011 and to identify any associated environmental, husbandry and oyster endogenous factors. A prospective cohort study was conducted during 2010-2012, involving 80 study batches, located at 24 sites within 17 bays. All 17 bays had previously tested positive for OsHV-1μvar. All study farmers were initially surveyed to gather relevant data on each study batch, which was then tracked from placement in the bay to first grading. The outcome of interest was cumulative batch-level mortality (%). Environmental data at high and low mortality sites were compared, and a risk factor analysis, using a multiple linear regression mixed effects model, was conducted. Cumulative batch mortality ranged from 2% to 100% (median=16%, interquartile range: 10-34%). The final multivariable risk factor model indicated that batches imported from French hatcheries had significantly lower mortalities than non-French hatcheries; sites which tested negative for OsHV-1μvar during the study had significantly lower mortalities than sites which tested positive and mortalities increased with temperature until a peak was reached. There were several differences between the seed stocks from French and non-French hatcheries, including prior OsHV-1μvar exposure and ploidy. A range of risk factors relating to farm management were also considered, but were not found significant. The relative importance of prior OsHV-1μvar infection and ploidy will become clearer

  19. Magnesium Levels in Drinking Water and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; He, Pengcheng; Chen, Jiyan; Liu, Yong; Liu, Dehui; Qin, Genggeng; Tan, Ning

    2016-01-02

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated inconsistent associations between drinking water magnesium levels and risk of mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD); thus, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the association between them. Relevant studies were searched by the databases of Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed and Web of Knowledge. Pooled relative risks (RR) with their 95% CI were calculated to assess this association using a random-effects model. Finally, nine articles with 10 studies involving 77,821 CHD cases were used in this study. Our results revealed an inverse association between drinking water magnesium level and CHD mortality (RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.79-0.99, I² = 70.6). Nine of the 10 studies came from Europe, and the association was significant between drinking water magnesium level and the risk of CHD mortality (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69-0.98). In conclusion, drinking water magnesium level was significantly inversely associated with CHD mortality.

  20. Chronic arsenic exposure and risk of infant mortality in two areas of Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Hopenhayn-Rich, C; Browning, S R; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Ferreccio, C; Peralta, C; Gibb, H

    2000-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure has been associated with a range of neurologic, vascular, dermatologic, and carcinogenic effects. However, limited research has been directed at the association of arsenic exposure and human reproductive health outcomes. The principal aim of this study was to investigate the trends in infant mortality between two geographic locations in Chile: Antofagasta, which has a well-documented history of arsenic exposure from naturally contaminated water, and Valparaíso, a comparable low-exposure city. The arsenic concentration in Antofagasta's public drinking water supply rose substantially in 1958 with the introduction of a new water source, and remained elevated until 1970. We used a retrospective study design to examine time and location patterns in infant mortality between 1950 and 1996, using univariate statistics, graphical techniques, and Poisson regression analysis. Results of the study document the general declines in late fetal and infant mortality over the study period in both locations. The data also indicate an elevation of the late fetal, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality rates for Antofagasta, relative to Valparaíso, for specific time periods, which generally coincide with the period of highest arsenic concentration in the drinking water of Antofagasta. Poisson regression analysis yielded an elevated and significant association between arsenic exposure and late fetal mortality [rate ratio (RR) = 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-1.9], neonatal mortality (RR = 1.53; CI, 1.4-1.7), and postneonatal mortality (RR = 1.26; CI, 1.2-1.3) after adjustment for location and calendar time. The findings from this investigation may support a role for arsenic exposure in increasing the risk of late fetal and infant mortality. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10903622

  1. Differential risk of mortality among pensioners after retirement in the state of Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Saxena, P C; Kumar, D

    1997-01-01

    The authors investigate the adverse effects of mandatory retirement on the health and mortality patterns of civil government employees in India. "This study focuses on pensioners who left the service at the normal retirement age and uses a new set of data compiled from Pension Payment Orders (PPOs) [of] Government Treasury records. The results of survival analysis revealed that the risk of mortality was relatively high after retirement for those who retired from police service, followed by occupations which involved dealing with the public and administration, as compared to retired from clerical and other similar occupations." (EXCERPT)

  2. 78 FR 70958 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Recordkeeping for HUD's Continuum of Care Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Recordkeeping for HUD's Continuum of Care Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD has... allow for an additional 30 days of public comment. DATES: Comments Due Date: December 27,...

  3. Mendelian randomization suggests non-causal associations of testosterone with cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality.

    PubMed

    Haring, R; Teumer, A; Völker, U; Dörr, M; Nauck, M; Biffar, R; Völzke, H; Baumeister, S E; Wallaschofski, H

    2013-01-01

    Prospective studies showed that low serum testosterone concentrations are associated with various cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality. However, the causal nature of these associations is controversial. We studied 1 882 men aged 20-79 years with serum testosterone concentrations and genotyping data from the longitudinal population-based Study of Health in Pomerania. Testosterone concentrations were cross-sectionally associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, including anthropometric, lipid, blood pressure and glycaemic parameters; and prospectively with all-cause mortality (277 deaths, 14.7%) during the 10-year follow-up. To overcome problems of residual confounding, reverse causation, or regression dilution bias in the investigated testosterone-outcome associations, we used two-stage least square regression models with previously identified polymorphisms at the SHBG gene (rs12150660) and X chromosome (rs5934505) as multiple genetic instruments in an instrumental variable (IV) approach, also known as Mendelian randomization. In standard regression analyses, testosterone was robustly associated with a wide range of cardiometabolic risk factors. In subsequent IV analyses, no such significant associations were observed. Similarly, prospective analyses showed a consistent association of low testosterone concentrations with increased all-cause mortality risk, which was not apparent in subsequent IV analyses. The present Mendelian randomization analyses did not detect any evidence for causal associations of testosterone concentrations with cardiometabolic risk factors and mortality, suggesting that previously reported associations might largely result from residual confounding or reverse causation. Although testosterone assessment might improve risk prediction, implementation of testosterone replacement therapy requires further evidence of a direct effect on cardiometabolic outcomes from double-blinded randomized controlled trials and large-scale Mendelian

  4. Risk of mortality during four years after substance detoxification in urban adults.

    PubMed

    Saitz, Richard; Gaeta, Jessie; Cheng, Debbie M; Richardson, Jessica M; Larson, Mary Jo; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess the mortality rate and risk factors in adults, with substance dependence, who are not receiving primary medical care (PC). Date and cause of death were identified using the National Death Index data and death certificates for 470 adults without PC over a period of almost 4 years after detailed clinical assessment after detoxification. Factors associated with risk of mortality were determined using stepwise Cox proportional hazards models. Subjects were 76% male, 47% homeless, and 47% with chronic medical illness; 40% reported alcohol, 27% heroin, and 33% cocaine as substance of choice. Median age was 35. During a period of up to 4 years, 27 (6%) subjects died. Median age at death was 39. Causes included: poisoning by any substance (40.9% of deaths), trauma (13%), cardiovascular disease (13.6%), and exposure to cold (9.1%). The age adjusted mortality rate was 4.4 times that of the general population in the same city. Among these individuals without PC in a detoxification unit, risk factors associated with death were the following: drug of choice [heroin: hazard ratio (HR) 6.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-31.1]; alcohol: HR 3.7 (95% CI 0.79-16.9) compared to cocaine); past suicide attempt (HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.96-4.5); persistent homelessness (HR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.3); and history of any chronic medical illness (HR 2.1, 95% CI 0.93-4.7). Receipt of primary care was not significantly associated with death (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.34-2.1). Risk of mortality is high in patients with addictions and risk factors identifiable when these patients seek help from the health care system (i.e., for detoxification) may help identify those at highest risk for whom interventions could be targeted.

  5. Application and Validation of a GIS Model for Local Tsunami Vulnerability and Mortality Risk Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbitz, C. B.; Frauenfelder, R.; Kaiser, G.; Glimsdal, S.; Sverdrup-thygeson, K.; Løvholt, F.; Gruenburg, L.; Mc Adoo, B. G.

    2015-12-01

    The 2011 Tōhoku tsunami caused a high number of fatalities and massive destruction. Data collected after the event allow for retrospective analyses. Since 2009, NGI has developed a generic GIS model for local analyses of tsunami vulnerability and mortality risk. The mortality risk convolves the hazard, exposure, and vulnerability. The hazard is represented by the maximum tsunami flow depth (with a corresponding likelihood), the exposure is described by the population density in time and space, while the vulnerability is expressed by the probability of being killed as a function of flow depth and building class. The analysis is further based on high-resolution DEMs. Normally a certain tsunami scenario with a corresponding return period is applied for vulnerability and mortality risk analysis. Hence, the model was first employed for a tsunami forecast scenario affecting Bridgetown, Barbados, and further developed in a forecast study for the city of Batangas in the Philippines. Subsequently, the model was tested by hindcasting the 2009 South Pacific tsunami in American Samoa. This hindcast was based on post-tsunami information. The GIS model was adapted for optimal use of the available data and successfully estimated the degree of mortality.For further validation and development, the model was recently applied in the RAPSODI project for hindcasting the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami in Sendai and Ishinomaki. With reasonable choices of building vulnerability, the estimated expected number of fatalities agree well with the reported death toll. The results of the mortality hindcast for the 2011 Tōhoku tsunami substantiate that the GIS model can help to identify high tsunami mortality risk areas, as well as identify the main risk drivers.The research leading to these results has received funding from CONCERT-Japan Joint Call on Efficient Energy Storage and Distribution/Resilience against Disasters (http://www.concertjapan.eu; project RAPSODI - Risk Assessment and design of

  6. Canopy foliation and area as predictors of mortality risk from episodic drought for individual trees of Ashe juniper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought is killing an increasing number of trees globally, yet mortality risk remains difficult to predict at fine spatial scales. We sought to identify readily-measureable metrics of living individuals that could be used to estimate mortality risk of Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) trees under episo...

  7. Risk of Mortality According to Body Mass Index and Body Composition Among Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Nicholas, J. Skye; Ernst, Kacey C.; Hu, Chengcheng; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Cauley, Jane A.; Lewis, Cora E.; Caan, Bette; Roe, Denise J.; Chen, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, often defined as a body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) of 30 or higher, has been associated with mortality, but age-related body composition changes can be masked by stable BMI. A subset of Women's Health Initiative participants (postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years) enrolled between 1993 and 1998 who had received dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans for estimation of total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM) (n = 10,525) were followed for 13.6 (standard deviation, 4.6) years to test associations between BMI, body composition, and incident mortality. Overall, BMI ≥35 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.82), while TBF and LBM were not. However, an interaction between age and body composition (P < 0.001) necessitated age stratification. Among women aged 50–59 years, higher %TBF increased risk of death (HR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.38, 4.34) and higher %LBM decreased risk of death (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.74), despite broad-ranging BMIs (16.4–69.1). However, the relationships were reversed among women aged 70–79 years (P < 0.05). BMI did not adequately capture mortality risk in this sample of postmenopausal women. Our data suggest the clinical utility of evaluating body composition by age group to more robustly assess mortality risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:26350478

  8. Second cancer risk and mortality in men treated with radiotherapy for stage I seminoma

    PubMed Central

    Horwich, A; Fossa, S D; Huddart, R; Dearnaley, D P; Stenning, S; Aresu, M; Bliss, J M; Hall, E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with stage I testicular seminoma are typically diagnosed at a young age and treatment is associated with low relapse and mortality rates. The long-term risks of adjuvant radiotherapy in this patient group are therefore particularly relevant. Methods: We identified patients and obtained treatment details from 12 cancer centres (11 United Kingdom, 1 Norway) and ascertained second cancers and mortality through national registries. Data from 2629 seminoma patients treated with radiotherapy between 1960 and 1992 were available, contributing 51 151 person-years of follow-up. Results: Four hundred and sixty-eight second cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) were identified. The standardised incidence ratio (SIR) was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–1.76, P<0.0001). The SIR was 1.53 (95% CI: 1.39–1.68, P<0.0001) when the 32 second testicular cancers were also excluded. This increase was largely due to an excess risk to organs in the radiation field; for pelvic–abdominal sites the SIR was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.43–1.83), with no significant elevated risk of cancers in organs elsewhere. There was no overall increase in mortality with a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.06 (95% CI: 0.98–1.14), despite an increase in the cancer-specific mortality (excluding testicular cancer deaths) SMR of 1.46 (95% CI: 1.30–1.65, P<0.0001). Conclusion: The prognosis of stage I seminoma is excellent and it is important to avoid conferring long-term increased risk of iatrogenic disease such as radiation-associated second cancers. PMID:24263066

  9. Risk factors for outbreaks of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) and associated mortality in Norwegian salmonid farming.

    PubMed

    Bang Jensen, Britt; Kristoffersen, Anja B

    2015-06-03

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) has for many years been considered one of the most important restraints to the production of salmonids in European aquaculture. In Norway, the disease is responsible for high losses in post-smolts in the first few weeks after sea transfer. Despite the importance of IPN, there are few epidemiological studies on risk factors and mitigation strategies. In this paper, we present analyses of data from all cohorts put to sea in 2009 to 2012 on Norwegian marine salmonid farms. The data used were obtained from national registers on salmonid production and disease outbreaks. The results showed that the risk of IPN outbreak was higher for spring versus autumn cohorts, Atlantic salmon versus rainbow trout and for cohorts on farms with previous history of IPN. The risk increased with increasing cohort size and infection pressure, whereas increasing temperature and weight at sea transfer decreased the risk. Estimations from a model of cumulative mortality within the first 6 mo after sea transfer showed that mortality in cohorts with IPN increased to approximately 7.2% as compared to a 'baseline' cohort with a mortality of 3.4%. If the cohort had both IPN and pancreas disease (PD), the estimated mortality increased to 12.9%, and cohorts with both IPN, PD and heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) had an estimated mortality of 16.6%, when all other significant factors were kept constant (these were cohort type, year, temperature at sea transfer and weight at sea transfer). Our results provide valuable inputs for mitigation strategies and for economic modelling of consequences of disease.

  10. Polyphenol intake and mortality risk: a re-analysis of the PREDIMED trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polyphenols may lower the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other chronic diseases due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as their beneficial effects on blood pressure, lipids and insulin resistance. However, no previous epidemiological studies have evaluated the relationship between the intake of total polyphenols intake and polyphenol subclasses with overall mortality. Our aim was to evaluate whether polyphenol intake is associated with all-cause mortality in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We used data from the PREDIMED study, a 7,447-participant, parallel-group, randomized, multicenter, controlled five-year feeding trial aimed at assessing the effects of the Mediterranean Diet in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from repeated food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) with the Phenol-Explorer database on the polyphenol content of each reported food. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between polyphenol intake and mortality were estimated using time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models. Results Over an average of 4.8 years of follow-up, we observed 327 deaths. After multivariate adjustment, we found a 37% relative reduction in all-cause mortality comparing the highest versus the lowest quintiles of total polyphenol intake (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.63; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.97; P for trend = 0.12). Among the polyphenol subclasses, stilbenes and lignans were significantly associated with reduced all-cause mortality (HR =0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.91; P for trend = 0.04 and HR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.97; P for trend = 0.03, respectively), with no significant associations apparent in the rest (flavonoids or phenolic acids). Conclusions Among high-risk subjects, those who reported a high polyphenol intake, especially of stilbenes and lignans, showed a reduced risk of overall mortality compared to those

  11. Etiologies, Trends, and Predictors of 30-Day Readmission in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shilpkumar; Patel, Prashant; Lahewala, Sopan; Patel, Nilay; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Thakore, Kosha; Amin, Aditi; Tripathi, Byomesh; Kumar, Varun; Shah, Harshil; Shah, Mahek; Panaich, Sidakpal; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Badheka, Apurva; Gidwani, Umesh; Gopalan, Radha

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the most common discharge diagnosis across the United States, and these patients are particularly vulnerable to readmissions, increasing attention to potential ways to address the problem. The study cohort was derived from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Readmission Data 2013, sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. HF was identified using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Readmission was defined as a subsequent hospital admission within 30 days after discharge day of index admission. Readmission causes were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes in primary diagnosis filed. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission. Hierarchical 2-level logistic models were used to evaluate study outcomes. From a total 301,892 principal admissions (73.4% age ≥65 years and 50.6% men), 55,857 (18.5%) patients were readmitted with a total of 64,264 readmissions during the study year. Among the etiologies of readmission, cardiac causes (49.8%) were most common (HF being most common followed by coronary artery disease and arrhythmias), whereas pulmonary causes were responsible for 13.1% and renal causes for 8.9% of the readmissions. Significant predictors of increased 30-day readmission included diabetes (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, p value: 1.06, 1.03 to 1.08, p <0.001), chronic lung disease (1.13, 1.11 to 1.16, p <0.001), renal failure/electrolyte imbalance (1.12, 1.10 to 1.15, p <0.001), discharge to facilities (1.07, 1.04 to 1.09, p <0.001), lengthier hospital stay, and transfusion during index admission. In conclusion, readmission after a hospitalization for HF is common. Although it may be necessary to readmit some patients, the striking rate of readmission demands efforts to further clarify the determinants of readmission and develop strategies in terms of quality of care and care transitions to

  12. Influence of second- and third-degree heart block on 30-day outcome following acute myocardial infarction in the drug-eluting stent era.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Seo, Jae-Bin; Chung, Woo-Young; Zo, Joo-Hee; Kim, Myung-A; Park, Kyung-Woo; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Chae, In-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Kim, Young-Jo; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prognostic value of heart block among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated with drug-eluting stents. A total of 13,862 patients with AMI, registered in the nation-wide AMI database from January 2005 to June 2013, were analyzed. Second- (Mobitz type I or II) and third-degree atrioventricular block were considered as heart block in this study. Thirty-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including all causes of death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and revascularization were evaluated. Percutaneous coronary intervention with implantation of drug-eluting stent was performed in 89.8% of the patients. Heart block occurred in 378 patients (2.7%). Thirty-day MACE occurred in 1,144 patients (8.2%). Patients with heart block showed worse clinical parameters at initial admission, and the presence of heart block was associated with 30-day MACE in univariate analyses. However, the prognostic impact of heart block was not significant after adjustment of potential confounders (p = 0.489). Among patients with heart block, patients with a culprit in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery had worse clinical outcomes than those of patients with a culprit in the left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD culprit was a significant risk factor for 30-day MACE even after controlling for confounders (odds ratio 5.28, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 22.81, p = 0.026). In conclusion, despite differences in clinical parameters at the initial admission, heart block was not an independent risk factor for 30-day MACE in adjusted analyses. However, a LAD culprit was an independent risk factor for 30-day MACE among patients with heart block.

  13. The Gravity of LBNP Exercise: Lessons Learned from Identical Twins in Bed for 30 Days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Groppo, Eli R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Watenpaugh, Donald; Schneider, Suzanne; O'Leary, Deborah; Smith, Scott M.; Steinbach, Gregory C.; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Kimura, Shinji; Meyer, R. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Microgravity leads to cardiovascular deconditioning in humans, which is manifested by post-flight reduction of orthostatic tolerance and upright exercise capacity. During upright posture on Earth, blood pressures are greater in the feet than at heart or head levels due to gravity's effects on columns of blood in the body. During exposure to Microgravity, all gravitational blood pressures disappear. Presently, there is no exercise hardware available for space flight to provide gravitational blood pressures to tissues of the lower body. We hypothesized that 40 minutes of supine treadmill running per day in a LBNP chamber at 1.0 to 1.2 body weight (approximately 50 - 60 mm Hg LBNP) with a 5 min resting, nonexercise LBNP exposure at 50 mm Hg after the exercise session will maintain aerobic fitness orthostatic tolerance, and selected parameters of musculoskeletal function during 30 days of bed rest (simulated microgravity). This paper is an interim report of some of our findings on 16 subjects.

  14. Development of Lightweight Material Composites to Insulate Cryogenic Tanks for 30-Day Storage in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for an MLI system which will meet the design constraints of an ILRV used for 7- to 30-day missions. The ten tasks are briefly described: (1) material survey and procurement, material property tests, and selection of composites to be considered; (2) definition of environmental parameters and tooling requirements, and thermal and structural design verification test definition; (3) definition of tanks and associated hardware to be used, and definition of MLI concepts to be considered; (4) thermal analyses, including purge, evacuation, and reentry repressurization analyses; (5) structural analyses (6) thermal degradation tests of composite and structural tests of fastener; (7) selection of MLI materials and system; (8) definition of a conceptual MLI system design; (9) evaluation of nondestructive inspection techniques and definition of procedures for repair of damaged areas; and (10) preparation of preliminary specifications.

  15. Structural and metabolic characteristics of human skeletal muscle following 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hikida, Robert S.; Gollnick, Philip D.; Dudley, Gary A.; Convertino, Victor A.; Buchanan, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The effects of simulated microgravity (30 days of continuous 6-deg headdown bedrest, BR) on the structural and metabolic characteristics of human skeletal muscle were determined. Percutaneous needle biopsy samples obtained from the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles before and after the headdown BR were analyzed for histochemical, biochemical and ultrastructual changes. It was found that headdown BR led to decreases in both fast-twitch and slow-twitch fiber areas in both muscles, and there was evidence of remodeling of the ultrastructure in both muscles. The activities of beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were reduced during BR, but phosphofructokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities did not change. The results indicate that 30-d exposure to simulated microgravity decreased the capacity for aerobic energy supply of human skeletal muscle and led to a disorganization of the contractile machinery.

  16. Continuous 30-day measurements utilizing the monkey metabolism pod. [study of weightlessness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    A fiberglass system was previously described, using which quantitative physiological measurements could be made to study the effects of weightlessness on 10 to 14 kg adult monkeys maintained in comfortable restraint under space flight conditions. Recent improvements in the system have made it possible to obtain continuous measurements of respiratory gas exchange, cardiovascular function, and mineral balance for periods of up to 30 days on pig-tailed monkeys. It has also been possible to operate two pods which share one set of instrumentation, thereby permitting simultaneous measurements to be made on two animals by commutating signal outputs from the pods. In principle, more than two pods could be operated in this fashion. The system is compatible with Spacelab design. Representative physiological data from ground tests of the system are presented.

  17. Adoption Does Not Increase the Risk of Mortality among Taiwanese Girls in a Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Siobhán M.; Brown, Melissa J.; Floyd, Bruce; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2015-01-01

    Adopted children often experience health and well-being disadvantages compared to biological children remaining in their natal households. The degree of genetic relatedness is thought to mediate the level of parental investment in children, leading to poorer outcomes of biologically unrelated children. We explore whether mortality is related to adoption in a historical Taiwanese population where adoption rarely occurred among kin. Using Cox proportional hazards models in which adoption is included as a time-dependent covariate, we show that adoption of girls does not increase the risk of mortality, as previously suggested; in fact, it is either protective or neutral with respect to mortality. These results suggest that socio-structural variables may produce positive outcomes for adopted children, even compared to biological children who remain in the care of their parents. PMID:25923106

  18. Adoption Does Not Increase the Risk of Mortality among Taiwanese Girls in a Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Siobhán M; Brown, Melissa J; Floyd, Bruce; Feldman, Marcus W

    2015-01-01

    Adopted children often experience health and well-being disadvantages compared to biological children remaining in their natal households. The degree of genetic relatedness is thought to mediate the level of parental investment in children, leading to poorer outcomes of biologically unrelated children. We explore whether mortality is related to adoption in a historical Taiwanese population where adoption rarely occurred among kin. Using Cox proportional hazards models in which adoption is included as a time-dependent covariate, we show that adoption of girls does not increase the risk of mortality, as previously suggested; in fact, it is either protective or neutral with respect to mortality. These results suggest that socio-structural variables may produce positive outcomes for adopted children, even compared to biological children who remain in the care of their parents.

  19. Bone metabolism and nutritional status during 30-day head-down-tilt bed rest.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer L L; Zwart, Sara R; Heer, Martina; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ericson, Karen; Smith, Scott M

    2012-11-01

    Bed rest studies provide an important tool for modeling physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. Markers of bone metabolism and nutritional status were evaluated in 12 subjects (8 men, 4 women; ages 25-49 yr) who participated in a 30-day -6° head-down-tilt diet-controlled bed rest study. Blood and urine samples were collected twice before, once a week during, and twice after bed rest. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects linear regression with a priori contrasts comparing all days to the second week of the pre-bed rest acclimation period. During bed rest, all urinary markers of bone resorption increased ~20% (P < 0.001), and serum parathyroid hormone decreased ~25% (P < 0.001). Unlike longer (>60 days) bed rest studies, neither markers of oxidative damage nor iron status indexes changed over the 30 days of bed rest. Urinary oxalate excretion decreased ~20% during bed rest (P < 0.001) and correlated inversely with urinary calcium (R = -0.18, P < 0.02). These data provide a broad overview of the biochemistry associated with short-duration bed rest studies and provide an impetus for using shorter studies to save time and costs wherever possible. For some effects related to bone biochemistry, short-duration bed rest will fulfill the scientific requirements to simulate spaceflight, but other effects (antioxidants/oxidative damage, iron status) do not manifest until subjects are in bed longer, in which case longer studies or other analogs may be needed. Regardless, maximizing research funding and opportunities will be critical to enable the next steps in space exploration.

  20. Bone metabolism and nutritional status during 30-day head-down-tilt bed rest

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ericson, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Bed rest studies provide an important tool for modeling physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. Markers of bone metabolism and nutritional status were evaluated in 12 subjects (8 men, 4 women; ages 25–49 yr) who participated in a 30-day −6° head-down-tilt diet-controlled bed rest study. Blood and urine samples were collected twice before, once a week during, and twice after bed rest. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects linear regression with a priori contrasts comparing all days to the second week of the pre-bed rest acclimation period. During bed rest, all urinary markers of bone resorption increased ∼20% (P < 0.001), and serum parathyroid hormone decreased ∼25% (P < 0.001). Unlike longer (>60 days) bed rest studies, neither markers of oxidative damage nor iron status indexes changed over the 30 days of bed rest. Urinary oxalate excretion decreased ∼20% during bed rest (P < 0.001) and correlated inversely with urinary calcium (R = −0.18, P < 0.02). These data provide a broad overview of the biochemistry associated with short-duration bed rest studies and provide an impetus for using shorter studies to save time and costs wherever possible. For some effects related to bone biochemistry, short-duration bed rest will fulfill the scientific requirements to simulate spaceflight, but other effects (antioxidants/oxidative damage, iron status) do not manifest until subjects are in bed longer, in which case longer studies or other analogs may be needed. Regardless, maximizing research funding and opportunities will be critical to enable the next steps in space exploration. PMID:22995395

  1. Brain volumes and risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. The SMART-MR study.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, Pieternella H; Muller, Majon; Vincken, Koen L; Mali, Willem P T M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2014-07-01

    Brain atrophy is a strong predictor for cognitive decline and dementia, and these are, in turn, associated with increased mortality in the general population. Patients with cardiovascular disease have more brain atrophy and a higher morbidity and mortality. We investigated if brain volumes on magnetic resonance imaging were associated with the risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with manifest arterial disease (n = 1215; mean age 58 years). Automated brain segmentation was used to quantify intracranial volume, and volumes of total brain, sulcal cerebrospinal fluid, and ventricles. After a median follow-up of 8.3 years, 184 patients died, 49 patients had an ischemic stroke, and 100 patients had an ischemic cardiac complication. Smaller relative brain volumes increased the risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation decrease in total brain volume: 1.58, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.33-1.88), vascular death (HR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.35-2.13), and ischemic stroke (HR 1.96, 95% CI: 1.43-2.69), independent of cardiovascular risk factors. These results suggest that brain volumes are an important determinant of poor outcome in patients with high cardiovascular risk.

  2. Mortality, Rehospitalisation and Violent Crime in Forensic Psychiatric Patients Discharged from Hospital: Rates and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, Seena; Wolf, Achim; Fimińska, Zuzanna; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine rates and risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric services. Method We conducted a historical cohort study of all 6,520 psychiatric patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals between 1973 and 2009 in Sweden. We calculated hazard ratios for mortality, rehospitalisation, and violent crime using Cox regression to investigate the effect of different psychiatric diagnoses and two comorbidities (personality or substance use disorder) on outcomes. Results Over mean follow-up of 15.6 years, 30% of patients died (n = 1,949) after discharge with an average age at death of 52 years. Over two-thirds were rehospitalised (n = 4,472, 69%), and 40% violently offended after discharge (n = 2,613) with a mean time to violent crime of 4.2 years. The association between psychiatric diagnosis and outcome varied—substance use disorder as a primary diagnosis was associated with highest risk of mortality and rehospitalisation, and personality disorder was linked with the highest risk of violent offending. Furthermore comorbid substance use disorder typically increased risk of adverse outcomes. Conclusion Violent offending, premature mortality and rehospitalisation are prevalent in patients discharged from forensic psychiatric hospitals. Individualised treatment plans for such patients should take into account primary and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses. PMID:27196309

  3. A Hazard Analysis of Risk Factors of Mortality in Individuals Who Inject Drugs in Denver CO

    PubMed Central

    Suleta, Katie; Corsi, Karen F.; Booth, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Despite multiple risk factors for mortality among People Who Inject Drugs (PWID), more research is warranted that examines sub-populations within PWID. Mortality data from PWID participating in longitudinal HIV prevention research in Denver were obtained from The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. Risk factors for both all-cause and acute-toxicity related mortality were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Two-thousand seven individuals were interviewed at baseline. Eighty-six individuals died during the time frame of the study, 58 of which were due to acutetoxicity. Disabled (HR = 3.3, p < 0.001), gay/lesbian-identified (HR = 2.6, p = 0.03), white race/ethnicity (HR = 2.4, p = 0.003), and use of a shared cooker (HR = 2.1, p = 0.01) were important adjusted risk factors. These suggest that drug and HIV interventions should utilize techniques that can address the needs of marginalized populations in addition to HIV drug risk behaviors. PMID:28063072

  4. [Psychosis, cardiovascular risk and associated mortality: are we on the right track?].

    PubMed

    Castillo Sánchez, Miguel; Fàbregas Escurriola, Mireia; Bergè Baquero, Daniel; Goday Arno, Albert; Vallès Callol, Joan Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Patients with psychotic disorders have a higher risk of early mortality. In addition to unnatural causes (accidents, suicide), death due to cardiovascular (CV) reasons is two to four times more prevalent in these patients than in the general population. This non-systematic review of MEDLINE aims to clarify the role of all the determining factors are involved. Psychotic disorders are related to unhealthy life habits such as smoking, poor diet and physical inactivity. Neuroleptic drugs have also been studied as triggers of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, psychotic patients seem predisposed to suffer from several of the «classic» CV risk factors. It is not surprising that their scores on the CV risk scales (Framingham, SCORE) are higher than the general population. We also found publications that showed poorer management of primary and secondary prevention of CV disease. In addition, some biochemical factors (plasma levels of cortisol, ACTH, homocysteine, PCR) may indicate a vulnerability in psychosis per se, as well as the findings on hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in psychotic "drug naive" patients. These "non-classical" factors could alter the validity of CV risk scales designed for the general population. Furthermore, antipsychotic drugs could control intrinsic factors of psychosis (they have shown to reduce global mortality), and their role in CV mortality is not clear.

  5. Elevated Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 is a Risk Factor for Kidney Transplant Loss and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Miklos Z.; Amaral, Ansel P.; Czira, Maria E.; Rudas, Anna; Ujszaszi, Akos; Kiss, Istvan; Rosivall, Laszlo; Kosa, Janos; Lakatos, Peter; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mucsi, Istvan

    2011-01-01

    An increased circulating level of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is an independent risk factor for mortality, cardiovascular disease, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but its role in transplant allograft and patient survival is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased FGF23 is an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality and allograft loss in a prospective cohort of 984 stable kidney transplant recipients. At enrollment, estimated GFR (eGFR) was 51 ± 21 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and median C-terminal FGF23 was 28 RU/ml (interquartile range, 20 to 43 RU/ml). Higher FGF23 levels independently associated with increased risk of the composite outcome of all-cause mortality and allograft loss (full model hazard ratio: 1.46 per SD increase in logFGF23, 95% confidence interval: 1.28 to 1.68, P < 0.001). The results were similar for each component of the composite outcome and in all sensitivity analyses, including prespecified analyses of patients with baseline eGFR of 30 to 90 ml/min per 1.73 m2. In contrast, other measures of phosphorus metabolism, including serum phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, did not consistently associate with outcomes. We conclude that a high (or elevated) FGF23 is an independent risk factor for death and allograft loss in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:21436289

  6. Risk factors associated with the different categories of piglet perinatal mortality in French farms.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, F; Edwards, S A; Robert, F; Kyriazakis, I

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to identify mortality patterns and to establish risk factors associated with different categories of piglet perinatal mortality in French farms. At farm level, the analyses were performed on data from 146 farms that experienced perinatal mortality problems. At piglet level, the analyses were performed on data from 155 farms (7761 piglets). All data were collected over a period of 10 years (2004-14) by a consulting company, using a non-probability sampling at farm level and a random sampling at sow level. Six main categories of mortality, determined by standardised necropsy procedure, represented 84.5% of all the perinatal deaths recorded. These six categories were, in order of significance: Death during farrowing, Non- viable, Early sepsis, Mummified, Crushing and Starvation. At farm level, the percentage of deaths due to starvation was positively correlated to the percentage of deaths due to crushing and the percentage of deaths during farrowing (r>0.30, P<0.05) .The percentage of deaths due to crushing was negatively correlated to the percentage of deaths due to early sepsis (r<-0.30, P<0.05) and positively correlated to the deaths due to acute disease (r>0.30, P<0.05). Patterns of perinatal mortality at farm level were identified using a principal component analysis. Based on these, the farms could be classified, using ascending hierarchical classification, into three different clusters, highlighting issues that underlie farm differences. Risk factors were compared at piglet level for the different categories of death. Compared to other categories of death, deaths during farrowing were significantly fewer during the night than during the day. Compared to other categories of death, the likelihood of non-viable piglets tended to be higher in summer than other seasons. A smaller number of deaths in the litter was also identified for the piglets classified as non-viable or mummified. For the six main categories of perinatal mortality, the piglets which died

  7. Underestimating the Alcohol Content of a Glass of Wine: The Implications for Estimates of Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie; O’Neill, Darragh; Bell, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Aims Increases in glass sizes and wine strength over the last 25 years in the UK are likely to have led to an underestimation of alcohol intake in population studies. We explore whether this probable misclassification affects the association between average alcohol intake and risk of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Methods Self-reported alcohol consumption in 1997–1999 among 7010 men and women in the Whitehall II cohort of British civil servants was linked to the risk of mortality until mid-2015. A conversion factor of 8 g of alcohol per wine glass (1 unit) was compared with a conversion of 16 g per wine glass (2 units). Results When applying a higher alcohol content conversion for wine consumption, the proportion of heavy/very heavy drinkers increased from 28% to 41% for men and 15% to 28% for women. There was a significantly increased risk of very heavy drinking compared with moderate drinking for deaths from all causes and cancer before and after change in wine conversion; however, the hazard ratios were reduced when a higher wine conversion was used. Conclusions In this population-based study, assuming higher alcohol content in wine glasses changed the estimates of mortality risk. We propose that investigator-led cohorts need to revisit conversion factors based on more accurate estimates of alcohol content in wine glasses. Prospectively, researchers need to collect more detailed information on alcohol including serving sizes and strength. Short summary The alcohol content in a wine glass is likely to be underestimated in population surveys as wine strength and serving size have increased in recent years. We demonstrate that in a large cohort study, this underestimation affects estimates of mortality risk. Investigator-led cohorts need to revisit conversion factors based on more accurate estimates of alcohol content in wine glasses. PMID:27261472

  8. Sleep duration and risk of stroke mortality among Chinese adults: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, An; De Silva, Deidre Anne; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prospective relation between sleep duration and stroke risk is less studied, particularly in Asians. We examined the association between sleep duration and stroke mortality among Chinese adults. Methods The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45-74 years enrolled during 1993 through 1998. Sleep duration at baseline was assessed via in-person interview, and death information during follow-up was ascertained via record linkage with the death registry up to December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with adjustment for other comorbidities and lifestyle risk factors of stroke mortality. Results During 926,752 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,381 stroke deaths (322 from hemorrhagic and 1,059 from ischemic or non-specified strokes). Compared to individuals with 7 hours/day of sleep, the multivariate-adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) of total stroke mortality was 1.25 (1.05-1.50) for ≤5 hours/day (short duration), 1.01 (0.87-1.18) for 6 hours/day, 1.09 (0.95-1.26) for 8 hours/day, and 1.54 (1.28-1.85) for ≥9 hours/day (long duration). The increased risk of stroke death with short (1.54; 1.16-2.03) and long duration of sleep (1.95; 1.48-2.57) was seen among subjects with a history of hypertension, but not in those without hypertension. These findings were limited to risk of death from ischemic or non-specified stroke, but not observed for hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions Both short and long sleep durations are associated with increased risk of stroke mortality in a Chinese population, particularly among those with a history of hypertension. PMID:24743442

  9. Normal weight obesity: a risk factor for cardiometabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular mortality

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Corral, Abel; Somers, Virend K.; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Korenfeld, Yoel; Boarin, Simona; Korinek, Josef; Jensen, Michael D.; Parati, Gianfranco; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Aims We hypothesized that subjects with a normal body mass index (BMI), but high body fat (BF) content [normal weight obesity (NWO)], have a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic dysregulation and are at higher risk for cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Methods and results We analysed 6171 subjects >20 years of age from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and the NHANES III mortality study, whose BMI was within the normal range (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), and who underwent a complete evaluation that included body composition assessment, blood measurements, and assessment of CV risk factors. Survival information was available for >99% of the subjects after a median follow-up of 8.8 years. We divided our sample using sex-specific tertiles of BF%. The highest tertile of BF (>23.1% in men and >33.3% in women) was labelled as NWO. When compared with the low BF group, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with NWO was four-fold higher (16.6 vs. 4.8%, P < 0.0001). Subjects with NWO also had higher prevalence of dyslipidaemia, hypertension (men), and CV disease (women). After adjustment, women with NWO showed a significant 2.2-fold increased risk for CV mortality (HR = 2.2; 95% CI, 1.03–4.67) in comparison to the low BF group. Conclusion Normal weight obesity, defined as the combination of normal BMI and high BF content, is associated with a high prevalence of cardiometabolic dysregulation, metabolic syndrome, and CV risk factors. In women, NWO is independently associated with increased risk for CV mortality. PMID:19933515

  10. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Nathália Mota de Faria; Bastos, Meire Cardoso da Mota; Marins, Renata Magliano; Barbosa, Aline Alves; Soares, Luiz Clóvis Parente; de Abreu, Annelise Maria de Oliveira Wilken; Souto Filho, João Tadeu Damian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment included male gender (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.15–3.65) and nonadherence to previous treatment (OR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.96–5.96). In addition, the presence of extrapulmonary TB was a protective factor (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14–0.76). The following risk factors were associated with mortality: age over 40 years (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.76–3.85), coinfection with HIV (OR = 6.01, 95% CI = 3.78–9.56), illiteracy (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.27–2.75), the presence of severe extrapulmonary TB (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.24–4.38), and retreatment after relapse (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.01–3.75). Conclusions. Male gender and retreatment after abandonment were independent risk factors for nonadherence to TB treatment. Furthermore, age over 40 years, coinfection with HIV, illiteracy, severe extrapulmonary TB, and retreatment after relapse were associated with higher TB mortality. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of direct measures that will control the identified risk factors to reduce the rates of treatment failure and TB-associated mortality. PMID:26600948

  11. Breast-feeding patterns, time to initiation, and mortality risk among newborns in southern Nepal.

    PubMed

    Mullany, Luke C; Katz, Joanne; Li, Yue M; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Tielsch, James M

    2008-03-01

    Initiation of breast-feeding within 1 h after birth has been associated with reduced neonatal mortality in a rural Ghanaian population. In South Asia, however, breast-feeding patterns and low birth weight rates differ and this relationship has not been quantified. Data were collected during a community-based randomized trial of the impact of topical chlorhexidine antisepsis interventions on neonatal mortality and morbidity in southern Nepal. In-home visits were conducted on d 1-4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 21, and 28 to collect longitudinal information on timing of initiation and pattern of breast-feeding. Multivariable regression modeling was used to estimate the association between death and breast-feeding initiation time. Analysis was based on 22,838 breast-fed newborns surviving to 48 h. Within 1 h of birth, 3.4% of infants were breast-fed and 56.6% were breast-fed within 24 h of birth. Partially breast-fed infants (72.6%) were at higher mortality risk [relative risk (RR) = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.32-2.39] than those exclusively breast-fed. There was a trend (P = 0.03) toward higher mortality with increasing delay in breast-feeding initiation. Mortality was higher among late (> or = 24 h) compared with early (< 24 h) initiators (RR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.08-1.86) after adjustment for low birth weight, preterm birth, and other covariates. Improvements in breast-feeding practices in this setting may reduce neonatal mortality substantially. Approximately 7.7 and 19.1% of all neonatal deaths may be avoided with universal initiation of breast-feeding within the first day or hour of life, respectively. Community-based breast-feeding promotion programs should remain a priority, with renewed emphasis on early initiation in addition to exclusiveness and duration of breast-feeding.

  12. Nut consumption and risk of mortality in the Physicians’ Health Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Hshieh, Tammy T; Petrone, Andrew B; Gaziano, J Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have suggested that nut consumption is associated with beneficial cardiovascular outcomes. However, limited data are available on the association between nut intake and all-cause mortality. Objective: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that nut consumption is inversely associated with the risk of all-cause mortality. Design: In this prospective cohort study in 20,742 male physicians, we assessed nut intake between 1999 and 2002 via a food-frequency questionnaire and ascertained deaths through an endpoint committee. We used Cox regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs for death according to nut consumption. In secondary analyses, we evaluated associations of nut consumption with cause-specific mortality. Results: During a mean follow-up of 9.6 y, there were 2732 deaths. The mean (±SD) age at baseline was 66.6 ± 9.3 y. Median nut consumption was 1 serving/wk. Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 1.0 (reference), 0.92 (0.83, 1.01), 0.85 (0.76, 0.96), 0.86 (0.75, 0.98), and 0.74 (0.63, 0.87) for nut consumption of never or <1 serving/mo, 1–3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, 2–4 servings/wk, and ≥5 servings/wk, respectively (P-linear trend < 0.0001), after adjustment for age, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, exercise, prevalent diabetes and hypertension, and intakes of energy, saturated fat, fruit and vegetables, and red meat. In a secondary analysis, results were consistent for cardiovascular disease mortality but only suggestive and non–statistically significant for coronary artery disease and cancer mortality. Conclusion: Our data are consistent with an inverse association between nut consumption and the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in US male physicians. PMID:25646339

  13. Small Increases in Plasma Sodium Are Associated with Higher Risk of Mortality in a Healthy Population

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Se Won; Baek, Seon Ha; An, Jung Nam; Goo, Ho Suk; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong Wan; Kim, Suhnggwon

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP) is the most common cause of cardiovascular disease. Salt intake has a strong influence on BP, and plasma sodium (pNa) is increased with progressive increases in salt intake. However, the associations with pNa and BP had been reported inconsistently. We evaluated the association between pNa and BP, and estimated the risks of all-cause-mortality according to pNa levels. On the basis of data collected from health checkups during 1995-2009, 97,009 adult subjects were included. Positive correlations between pNa and systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure (PP) were noted in participants with pNa ≥138 mM/L (P<0.001). In participants aged ≥50 yr, SBP, DBP, and PP were positively associated with pNa. In participants with metabolic syndrome components, the differences in SBP and DBP according to pNa were greater (P<0.001). A cumulative incidence of mortality was increased with increasing pNa in women aged ≥50 yr during the median 4.2-yr-follow-up (P<0.001). In women, unadjusted risks for mortality were increased according to sodium levels. After adjustment, pNa ≥145 mM/L was related to mortality. The positive correlation between pNa and BP is stronger in older subjects, women, and subjects with metabolic syndrome components. The incidence and adjusted risks of mortality increase with increasing pNa in women aged ≥50 yr. PMID:23853486

  14. Seatbelt legislation in Japan: high risk driver mortality and seatbelt use

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, S; Ichikawa, M; Wakai, S

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To clarify why seatbelt legislation did not achieve the expected reduction in mortality in Japan. Location and background: Seatbelt legislation was enacted in Japan in September 1985 and penalties were introduced in November 1986. Methods: The driver deaths per vehicle km traveled (D/VKT) were calculated to adjust for changes in traffic volume. Decreases in D/VKT were compared with the reduction expected after legislation. The association between percentage changes of driver D/VKT, seatbelt use rate, and seatbelt non-use rate were explored. Deaths of passengers, pedestrians, and cyclists were also examined. Mortality data were obtained from vital statistics, traffic volume figures from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport, and seatbelt use rates from the National Police Agency. Results: Although the decrease in D/VKT after the law was enforced was larger than the absolute number of deaths, it was far less than predicted. The percentage decrease in seatbelt non-use rate showed the strongest correlation with the percentage decrease in driver mortality. Mortality did not increase among other road users after the law was enacted. Conclusion: Accurate evaluation of the effect of seatbelt legislation must take into account changes in traffic volume. The selective recruitment hypothesis—that high risk drivers were less responsive to seatbelt legislation—fits well with the findings. There was no conclusive evidence supporting risk compensation—that is, an increase in injuries among other road users. PMID:12642555

  15. A frailty index to predict the mortality risk in a population of senior mexican adults

    PubMed Central

    García-González, José Juan; García-Peña, Carmen; Franco-Marina, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Background Frailty in the elderly can be regarded as nonspecific vulnerability to adverse health outcomes, caused by multiple factors. The aim was to analyze the relationships between the frailty index, age and mortality in a two year follow up study of Mexican elderly. Methods A frailty index was developed using 34 variables. To obtain the index, the mean of the total score for each individual was obtained. Survival analyses techniques were used to examine the risk ratios for the different levels of the frailty index. Kaplan-Meier estimates were obtained, adjusted for age and gender. Cox proportional hazards models were also built to obtain hazard ratio estimates. Results A total of 4082 participants was analyzed. Participants had an average age of 73 years and 52.5% were women. On average, participants were followed-up for 710 days (standard deviation = 111 days) and 279 of them died. Mortality increased with the frailty index level, especially in those with levels between .21 to .65, reaching approximately 17% and 21%, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models showed that participants with frailty index levels associated to increased mortality (.21 and higher) represent 24.0% of those aged 65-69 years and 47.6% of those 85 and older. Conclusion The frailty index shows the properties found in the other studies, it allows stratifying older Mexican into several groups different by the degree of the risk of mortality, and therefore the frailty index can be used in assessing health of elderly. PMID:19887005

  16. Antibiotic treatment and mortality in patients with Listeria monocytogenes meningitis or bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Thønnings, S; Knudsen, J D; Schønheyder, H C; Søgaard, M; Arpi, M; Gradel, K O; Østergaard, C

    2016-08-01

    Invasive Listeria monocytogenes infections carry a high mortality despite antibiotic treatment. The rareness of the infection makes it difficult to improve antibiotic treatment through randomized clinical trials. This observational study investigated clinical features and outcome of invasive L. monocytogenes infections including the efficacy of empiric and definitive antibiotic therapies. Demographic, clinical and biochemical findings, antibiotic treatment and 30-day mortality for all episodes of L. monocytogenes bacteraemia and/or meningitis were collected by retrospective medical record review in the North Denmark Region and the Capital Region of Denmark (17 hospitals) from 1997 to 2012. Risk factors for 30-day all-cause mortality were assessed by logistic regression. The study comprised 229 patients (median age: 71 years), 172 patients had bacteraemia, 24 patients had meningitis and 33 patients had both. Significant risk factors for 30-day mortality were septic shock (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.4), altered mental state (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.7-7.6) and inadequate empiric antibiotic therapy (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.1). Cephalosporins accounted for 90% of inadequately treated cases. Adequate definitive antibiotic treatment was administered to 195 patients who survived the early period (benzylpenicillin 72, aminopenicillin 84, meropenem 28, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim 6, and piperacillin/tazobactam 5). Definitive antibiotic treatment with benzylpenicillin or aminopenicillin resulted in a lower 30-day mortality in an adjusted analysis compared with meropenem (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.8). In conclusion, inadequate empiric antibiotic therapy and definitive therapy with meropenem were both associated with significantly higher 30-day mortality.

  17. [Reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality with preoperative risk evaluation and with refined perioperative medical care].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kanji

    2012-05-01

    Reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality is important not only for patients' outcome but for reduction of financial burden on society. Precise and accurate preoperative evaluation of surgical risk factors is crucial to plan appropriate postoperative allocation of medical resources. American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status is a traditional measure to describe preoperative risk of patients undergoing surgery. In the last decade, several scoring systems with better sensitivity and specificity were reported and validated. Charlson Age-comorbidity Index, Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the Enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM) are frequently used scoring systems. Several lines of evidence indicate that negligence of medical caregivers cause substantial numbers of errors to patients and often leads to severe complications or deaths. Full compliances to surgical checklists and implementation of medical team will help reduce these errors and lead to better patients' postoperative outcomes.

  18. An evolving understanding of modifiable risk factors for post-transplant mortality.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, S; Horne, J; Madill, J

    2017-02-20

    With great interest, we read the recently published article in Transplant International by Upala et al. entitled Underweight and obesity increase the risk of mortality after lung transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis [1]. To-date, lung transplant clinical practice guidelines have been based on expert opinions or site-specific experiences. The authors should be commended for recognizing the need to assess articles with rigorous study designs in order to guide evidence-based practice. In their recent work, Upala et al. concluded that both pre-transplant obese and underweight body mass indices are associated with significant risk of post-transplant mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Hormone Replacement Therapy: An Increased Risk of Recurrence and Mortality for Breast Cancer Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Molly; Dains, Joyce E.; Madsen, Lydia T.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown an increased risk of recurrence and mortality among women who have used primarily oral HRT after breast cancer. However, many of these studies have had design flaws that may impact the findings. Numerous investigators have concluded that additional RCTs should be performed, but because of ethical issues and logistic challenges, large-scale RCTs are unlikely. Thus, the authors conducted an integrative review investigating recurrence and mortality data among breast cancer survivors who have used hormone replacement therapy (HRT). They recommend a stepwise algorithm for treating vaginal symptoms in breast cancer survivors: (1) start with nonhormonal treatments; (2) progress to a detailed discussion among patients and health-care professionals about the current known risks and benefits of vaginal estrogen; and (3) conclude with mutual decision-making between health-care providers and patients regarding the use of vaginal estrogen treatment. PMID:26705493

  20. Risk factors for mortality during antiretroviral therapy in older populations in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Daniel; Spelman, Tim; Greig, Jane; McMahon, James; Ssonko, Charles; Casas, Esther; Mesic, Anita; Du Cros, Philipp; Ford, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An increasing proportion of adult patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings are aged >50 years. Older populations on ART appear to have heightened risk of death, but little is known about factors influencing mortality in this population. Methods We performed a retrospective observational multisite cohort study including all adult patients (≥15 years) initiating ART between 2003 and 2013 in programmes supported by Médecins Sans Frontières across 12 countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. Patients were stratified into two age groups, >50 years and 15 to 50 years. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore factors associated with mortality. Results The study included 41,088 patients: 2591 (6.3%) were aged >50 years and 38,497 (93.7%) were aged 15 to 50 years. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the age group >50 years [367 (14.2%) deaths; mortality rate 7.67 deaths per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval, CI: 6.93 to 8.50)] compared to the age group 15 to 50 years [3788 (9.8%) deaths; mortality rate 4.18 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI: 4.05 to 4.31)], p<0.0001. Higher CD4 levels at baseline were associated with significantly reduced mortality rates in the 15 to 50 age group but this association was not seen in the >50 age group. WHO Stage 4 conditions were more strongly associated with increased mortality rates in the 15 to 50 age group compared to populations >50 years. WHO Stage 3 conditions were associated with an increased mortality rate in the 15 to 50 age group but not in the >50 age group. Programme region did not affect mortality rates in the >50 age group; however being in an Asian programme was associated with a 36% reduced mortality rate in populations aged 15 to 50 years compared to being in an African programme. There was a higher overall incidence of Stage 3 WHO conditions in people >50 years (12.8/100 person-years) compared to those 15 to 50 years (8.1/100 person

  1. Initial antifungal strategy does not correlate with mortality in patients with candidemia.

    PubMed

    Murri, R; Scoppettuolo, G; Ventura, G; Fabbiani, M; Giovannenze, F; Taccari, F; Milozzi, E; Posteraro, B; Sanguinetti, M; Cauda, R; Fantoni, M

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of Candida bloodstream infections (BSIs) has increased over time, especially in medical wards. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different antifungal treatment strategies on 30-day mortality in patients with Candida BSI not admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at disease onset. This prospective, monocentric, cohort study was conducted at an 1100-bed university hospital in Rome, Italy, where an infectious disease consultation team was implemented. All cases of Candida BSIs observed in adult patients from November 2012 to April 2014 were included. Patients were grouped according to the initial antifungal strategy: fluconazole, echinocandin, or liposomal amphotericin B. Cox regression analysis was used to identify risk factors significantly associated with 15-day and 30-day mortality. During the study period, 130 patients with candidemia were observed (58 % with C. albicans, 7 % with C. glabrata, and 23 % with C. parapsilosis). The first antifungal drug was fluconazole for 40 % of patients, echinocandin for 57.0 %, and liposomal amphotericin B for 4 %. During follow-up, 33 % of patients died. The cumulative mortality 30 days after the candidemia episode was 30.8 % and was similar among groups. In the Cox regression analysis, clinical presentation was the only independent factor associated with 15-day mortality, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score and clinical presentation were the independent factors associated with 30-day mortality. No differences in 15-day and 30-day mortality were observed between patients with and without C. albicans candidemia. In patients with candidemia admitted to medical or surgical wards, clinical severity but not the initial antifungal strategy were significantly correlated with mortality.

  2. Symptomatic Atherosclerotic Disease and Decreased Risk of Cancer-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Benito-León, Julián; de la Aleja, Jesús González; Martínez-Salio, Antonio; Louis, Elan D.; Lichtman, Judith H.; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The few studies that have assessed the association between symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and risk of cancer have had conflicting results. In addition, these studies ascertained participants either from treatment settings (ie, service-based studies) or by using a records linkage system (ie, medical records of patients evaluated at clinics or hospitals) and, therefore, were prone to selection bias. Our purpose was to estimate the risk of cancer mortality in a large population-based sample of elderly people, comparing participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (atherosclerotic stroke and coronary disease) to their counterparts without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (ie, controls) in the same population. In this population-based, prospective study (Neurological Disorders of Central Spain, NEDICES), 5262 elderly community-dwelling participants with and without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease were identified and followed for a median of 12.1 years, after which the death certificates of those who died were reviewed. A total of 2701 (53.3%) of 5262 participants died, including 314 (68.6%) of 458 participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and 2387 (49.7%) of 4804 controls. Cancer mortality was reported significantly less often in those with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (15.6%) than in controls (25.6%) (P < 0.001). In an unadjusted Cox model, risk of cancer-specific mortality was decreased in participants with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (HR = 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55−0.98, P = 0.04) vs. those without symptomatic atherosclerotic disease (reference group). In an adjusted Cox model, HR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38−0.89; P = 0.01. This population-based, prospective study suggests that there is an inverse association between symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and risk of cancer mortality. PMID:26266364

  3. Risk Factors for Recurrence, Complications and Mortality in Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Abou Chakra, Claire Nour; Pepin, Jacques; Sirard, Stephanie; Valiquette, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can lead to complications, recurrence, and death. Numerous studies have assessed risk factors for these unfavourable outcomes, but systematic reviews or meta-analyses published so far were limited in scope or in quality. Methods A systematic review was completed according to PRISMA guidelines. An electronic search in five databases was performed. Studies published until October 2013 were included if risk factors for at least one CDI outcome were assessed with multivariate analyses. Results 68 studies were included: 24 assessed risk factors for recurrence, 18 for complicated CDI, 8 for treatment failure, and 30 for mortality. Most studies accounted for mortality in the definition of complicated CDI. Important variables were inconsistently reported, such as previous episodes and use of antibiotics. Substantial heterogeneity and methodological limitations were noted, mainly in the sample size, the definition of the outcomes and periods of follow-up, precluding a meta-analysis. Older age, use of antibiotics after diagnosis, use of proton pump inhibitors, and strain type were the most frequent risk factors for recurrence. Older age, leucocytosis, renal failure and co-morbidities were frequent risk factors for complicated CDI. When considered alone, mortality was associated with age, co-morbidities, hypo-albuminemia, leucocytosis, acute renal failure, and infection with ribotype 027. Conclusion Laboratory parameters currently used in European and American guidelines to define patients at risk of a complicated CDI are adequate. Strategies for the management of CDI should be tailored according to the age of the patient, biological markers of severity, and underlying co-morbidities. PMID:24897375

  4. Spatial impacts of heat waves in mortality. Evaluating current risks and future threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, H.; Canario, P.; Nogueira, H.

    2009-09-01

    Impacts of heat waves in morbidity and mortality are largely known. Climate Change is expected to increase the climate health impacts in summer while the winter will be probably favored. The health impacts of extreme thermal events are mainly studied at a national or regional level, considering macro or mesoscale thermal features. But it can be assumed that local variations in mortality must exist, associated, in one hand, with local climatic differences, due to features such as land use and urbanization and, in other hand, with vulnerability factors (depending on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of populations). A model of hazard - vulnerability - risk was developed, to analyze the spatial variations of mortality in extreme thermal events, at the level of city district, in the Lisbon metropolitan area (Portugal). In that model, risk is considered as the product of hazard and vulnerability. Daily mortality data by sex, age and cause of death was supplied by the Health National Authority. The research is yet on-going. In our model, hazard is represented mainly by temperature and air pollution (the influence of other atmospheric variables that affect the human energy balance, such as solar radiation and wind speed should be tested too). Small scale variation of meteorological features, in extreme thermal events, were simulated with a Regional Atmospheric Model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System) and the results were validated and calibrated using observation data from an urban network of termo-higrometers placed in sites with different urban characteristics. Vulnerability is a result on personal sensitivity and exposure. Personal sensitivity is assessed considering individual constitutional and demographic factors as well as socio, cultural and economic variables. Daily mobility determines the population exposure to heat. Since many of these variables are redundant, a set of indicators, including a multiple deprivation index, was used. A

  5. Age- and Gender-Normalized Coronary Incidence and Mortality Risks in Primary and Secondary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Iannetta, Loredana; Schiariti, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiologic differences in ischemic heart disease incidence between women and men remain largely unexplained. The reasons of women’s “protection” against coronary artery disease (CAD) are not still clear. However, there are subsets more likely to die of a first myocardial infarction. The purpose of this review is to underline different treatment strategies between genders and describe the role of classical and novel factors defined to evaluate CAD risk and mortality, aimed at assessing applicability and relevance for primary and secondary prevention. Women and men present different age-related risk patterns: it should be important to understand whether standard factors may index CAD risk, including mortality, in different ways and/or whether specific factors might be targeted gender-wise. Take home messages include: HDL-cholesterol levels, higher in pre-menopausal women than in men, are more strictly related to CAD. The same is true for high triglycerides and Lp(a). HDL-cholesterol levels are inversely related to incidence and mortality. In primary prevention the role of statins is not completely ascertained in women although in secondary prevention these agents are equally effective in both genders. Weight and glycemic control are effective to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women from middle to older age. Blood pressure is strongly and directly related to CVD mortality, from middle to older age, particularly in diabetic and over weighted women. Kidney dysfunction, defined using UAE and eGFR predicts primary CVD incidence and risk in both genders. In secondary prediction, kidney dysfunction predicts sudden death in women in conjunction with left ventricular ejection fraction evaluation. Serum uric acid does not differentiate gender-related CVD incidences, although it increases with age. Age-related differences between genders have been related to loss of ovarian function traditionally and to lower iron stores more recently. QT interval

  6. Lung cancer mortality in a cohort of workers in a petrochemical plant: occupational or residential risk?

    PubMed

    Pasetto, Roberto; Comba, Pietro; Pirastu, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the role of environmental (non occupational) exposures in lung cancer risk among petrochemical workers at a large petrochemical plant built on the Sicilian coast in the immediate vicinity of the town of Gela, Italy in 1960. The cohort included workers employed in the Gela petrochemical plant in 1960-1993. We looked at mortality rates for the period 1960-2002. An internal comparison was performed between two categories of workers with different likelihood of residence in Gela during the period of employment. The rate ratio of mortality from lung cancer comparing "probable residents" with "possible non residents," adjusted for age, calendar period, andjob classification (only blue collar, only white collar and both), was 1.66 (90% Confidence Interval 1.07-2.58). Although the information collected is quite sparse and no inferences can be made about risk sources, the results show a possible excess of residential/environmental risk from lung cancer mortality for those workers more likely to have been residents in Gela.

  7. Geostatistical analysis of disease data: estimation of cancer mortality risk from empirical frequencies using Poisson kriging

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Background Cancer mortality maps are used by public health officials to identify areas of excess and to guide surveillance and control activities. Quality of decision-making thus relies on an accurate quantification of risks from observed rates which can be very unreliable when computed from sparsely populated geographical units or recorded for minority populations. This paper presents a geostatistical methodology that accounts for spatially varying population sizes and spatial patterns in the processing of cancer mortality data. Simulation studies are conducted to compare the performances of Poisson kriging to a few simple smoothers (i.e. population-weighted estimators and empirical Bayes smoothers) under different scenarios for the disease frequency, the population size, and the spatial pattern of risk. A public-domain executable with example datasets is provided. Results The analysis of age-adjusted mortality rates for breast and cervix cancers illustrated some key features of commonly used smoothing techniques. Because of the small weight assigned to the rate observed over the entity being smoothed (kernel weight), the population-weighted average leads to risk maps that show little variability. Other techniques assign larger and similar kernel weights but they use a different piece of auxiliary information in the prediction: global or local means for global or local empirical Bayes smoothers, and spatial combination of surrounding rates for the geostatistical estimator. Simulation studies indicated that Poisson kriging outperforms other approaches for most scenarios, with a clear benefit when the risk values are spatially correlated. Global empirical Bayes smoothers provide more accurate predictions under the least frequent scenario of spatially random risk. Conclusion The approach presented in this paper enables researchers to incorporate the pattern of spatial dependence of mortality rates into the mapping of risk values and the quantification of the

  8. All-cause mortality risk in elderly individuals with disabilities: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Chiang, Sheng-Ta; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chan, James Yi-Hsin; Kao, Tung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Disability is considered an important issue that affects the elderly population. This study aimed to explore the relationship between disability and all-cause mortality in US elderly individuals. Design Retrospective and longitudinal designs. Setting Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Participants A total of 1834 participants in the age range 60–84 years from NHANES 1999–2002. Main outcome measures We acquired five major domains of disability (activities of daily living (ADL), general physical activities (GPA), instrumental ADL (IADL), lower extremity mobility (LEM) and leisure and social activities (LSA)) through self-reporting. We applied an extended-model approach with Cox (proportional hazards) regression analysis to investigate the relationship between different features of disability and all-cause mortality risk in the study population. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 77 deaths occurred. An increased risk of all-cause mortality was identified in elderly individuals with disability after adjustment for potential confounders (HR 2.23; 95% CI 1.29 to 3.85; p=0.004). Participants with more than one domain of disability were associated with a higher risk of mortality (ptrend=0.047). Adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for each domain of disability were 2.53 (1.49 to 4.31), 1.99 (0.93 to 4.29), 1.74 (0.72 to 4.16), 1.57 (0.76 to 3.27) and 1.52 (0.93 to 2.48) for LEM, LSA, ADL, IADL and GPA, respectively. Conclusions The results of this study support an increased association between disability and all-cause mortality in the elderly in the USA. Disability in LEM may be a good predictor of high risk of all-cause mortality in elderly subjects. PMID:27625055

  9. A High Dietary Glycemic Index Increases Total Mortality in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Schröder, Helmut; Álvarez-Pérez, Jacqueline; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Artacho, Reyes; Ros, Emilio; Bulló, Mónica; Covas, María-Isabel; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Pintó, Xavier; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa María; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    Objective Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study. Material and Methods The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures. Results We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths). As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15–4.04); P for trend  = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years. Conclusions High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25250626

  10. Dying in their prime: determinants and space-time risk of adult mortality in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Sartorius, Kurt; Tollman, Stephen M

    2013-05-01

    A longitudinal dataset was used to investigate adult mortality in rural South Africa in order to determine location, trends, high impact determinants and policy implications. Adult (15-59 years) mortality data for the period 1993-2010 were extracted from the health and demographic surveillance system in the rural sub-district of Agincourt. A Bayesian geostatistical frailty survival model was used to quantify significant associations between adult mortality and various multilevel (individual, household and community) variables. It was found that adult mortality significantly increased over time with a reduction observed late in the study period. Non-communicable disease mortality appeared to increase and decrease in parallel with communicable mortality, whilst deaths due to external causes remained constant. Male gender, unemployment, circular (labour) migrant status, age and gender of household heads, partner and/or other household death, low education and low household socio-economic status were identified as significant and highly attributable determinants of adult mortality. Health facility remoteness was a risk for adult mortality and households falling outside a critical buffering zone were identified. Spatial foci of higher adult mortality risk were observed, indicating a strong non-random pattern. Communicable diseases differed from non-communicable diseases with respect to spatial distribution of mortality. Areas with significant excess mortality risk (hot spots) were found to be part of a complex interaction of highly attributable factors that continues to drive differential space-time risk patterns of communicable (HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) mortality in Agincourt. The impact of HIV mortality and its subsequent lowering due to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy was found to be clearly evident in this rural population.

  11. Burden of cancer mortality and differences attributable to demographic aging and risk factors in Argentina, 1986-2011.

    PubMed

    Pou, Sonia Alejandra; Tumas, Natalia; Coquet, Julia Becaria; Niclis, Camila; Román, María Dolores; Díaz, María Del Pilar

    2017-03-09

    The world faces an aging population that implies a large number of people affected with chronic diseases. Argentina has reached an advanced stage of demographic transition and presents a comparatively high rate of cancer mortality within Latin America. The objectives of this study were to examine cancer mortality trends in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, between 1986 and 2011, and to analyze the differences attributable to risk variations and demographic changes. Longitudinal series of age-standardized mortality rates for overall, breast and prostate cancers were modeled by Joinpoint regression to estimate the annual percent change. The Bashir & Estève method was used to split crude mortality rate variation into three components: mortality risk, population age structure and population size. A decreasing cancer age-standardized mortality rates trend was observed (1986-2011 annual percent change: -1.4, 95%CI: -1.6, -1.2 in men; -0.8, 95%CI: -1.0, -0.6 in women), with a significant shift in 1996. There were positive crude mortality rate net changes for overall female cancer, breast and prostate cancers, which were primarily attributable to demographic changes. Inversely, overall male cancer crude mortality rate showed a 9.15% decrease, mostly due to mortality risk. Despite favorable age-standardized mortality rates trends, the influence of population aging reinforces the challenge to control cancer in populations with an increasingly aged demographic structure.

  12. Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit.

    PubMed

    Kripke, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA). Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills). This review includes new information on the growing USA overdose epidemic, eight new epidemiologic studies of hypnotics' mortality not available for previous compilations, and new emphasis on risks of short-term hypnotic prescription. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia. The short-term use of one-two prescriptions is associated with greater risk per dose than long-term use. Hypnotics are usually prescribed without approved indication, most often with specific contraindications, but even when indicated, there is little or no benefit. The recommended doses objectively increase sleep little if at all, daytime performance is often made worse, not better, and the lack of general health benefits is commonly misrepresented in advertising. Treatments such as the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia and bright light treatment of circadian rhythm disorders might offer safer and more effective alternative approaches to insomnia.

  13. Cerebrovascular Diseases in Workers at Mayak PA: The Difference in Radiation Risk between Incidence and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Simonetto, Cristoforo; Schöllnberger, Helmut; Azizova, Tamara V.; Grigoryeva, Evgenia S.; Pikulina, Maria V.; Eidemüller, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A detailed analysis of cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) for the cohort of workers at Mayak Production Association (PA) is presented. This cohort is especially suitable for the analysis of radiation induced circulatory diseases, due to the detailed medical surveillance and information on several risk factors. The risk after external, typically protracted, gamma exposure is analysed, accounting for potential additional internal alpha exposure. Three different endpoints have been investigated: incidence and mortality from all cerebrovascular diseases and incidence of stroke. Particular emphasis was given to the form of the dose-response relationship and the time dependence of the radiation induced risk. Young attained age was observed to be an important, aggravating modifier of radiation risk for incidence of CeVD and stroke. For incidence of CeVD, our analysis supports a dose response sub-linear for low doses. Finally, the excess relative risk per dose was confirmed to be significantly higher for incidence of CeVD compared to CeVD mortality and incidence of stroke. Arguments are presented for this difference to be based on a true biological effect. PMID:25933038

  14. Hypnotic drug risks of mortality, infection, depression, and cancer: but lack of benefit

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    This is a review of hypnotic drug risks and benefits, reassessing and updating advice presented to the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration (United States FDA). Almost every month, new information appears about the risks of hypnotics (sleeping pills). This review includes new information on the growing USA overdose epidemic, eight new epidemiologic studies of hypnotics’ mortality not available for previous compilations, and new emphasis on risks of short-term hypnotic prescription. The most important risks of hypnotics include excess mortality, especially overdose deaths, quiet deaths at night, infections, cancer, depression and suicide, automobile crashes, falls, and other accidents, and hypnotic-withdrawal insomnia. The short-term use of one-two prescriptions is associated with greater risk per dose than long-term use. Hypnotics are usually prescribed without approved indication, most often with specific contraindications, but even when indicated, there is little or no benefit. The recommended doses objectively increase sleep little if at all, daytime performance is often made worse, not better, and the lack of general health benefits is commonly misrepresented in advertising. Treatments such as the cognitive behavioral treatment of insomnia and bright light treatment of circadian rhythm disorders might offer safer and more effective alternative approaches to insomnia. PMID:27303633

  15. CIBMTR Chronic GVHD Risk Score Predicts Mortality in an Independent Validation Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Mukta; Hemmer, Michael T.; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Klein, John P.; Cutler, Corey S.; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Couriel, Daniel R.; Alousi, Amin M.; Gale, Robert Peter; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Li, Peigang; Antin, Joseph H.; Bolwell, Brian J.; Boyiadzis, Michael; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Isola, Luis M.; Jacobsohn, David A.; Jagasia, Madan; Klumpp, Thomas R.; Petersdorf, Effie W.; Santarone, Stella; Schouten, Harry C.; Wingard, John R.; Spellman, Stephen R.; Pavletic, Steven Z.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Flowers, Mary E.D.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported a risk score that predicted mortality in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (CGVHD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) between 1995–2004 and reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Registry (CIBMTR). We sought to validate this risk score in an independent CIBMTR cohort of 1128 patients with CGVHD transplanted between 2005–2007 using the same inclusion criteria and risk-score calculations. According to the sum of the overall risk score (range 1 to 12), patients were assigned to 4 risk-groups (RGs): RG1 (0–2), RG2 (3–6), RG3 (7–8) and RG4 (9–10). RG3 and 4 were combined as RG4 comprised only 1% of the total cohort. Cumulative incidences of non relapse mortality (NRM) and probability of overall survival (OS) were significantly different between each RG (all p<0.01). NRM and OS at five years after CGVHD for each RG were 17% and 72% in RG1, 26% and 53% in RG2, and 44% and 25% in RG 3, respectively (all p<0.01). Our study validates the prognostic value of the CIBMTR CGVHD RGs for OS and NRM in a contemporary transplant population. The CIBMTR CGVHD RGs can be used to predict major outcomes, tailor treatment planning, and enrollment in clinical trials. PMID:25528390

  16. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Esophageal Cancer Mortality: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Okada, Emiko; Nakamura, Koshi; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Sakata, Kiyomi; Date, Chigusa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Several case-control studies have associated dietary patterns with esophageal cancer (EC) risk, but prospective studies are scarce. We investigated dietary pattern and EC mortality risk associations by smoking status. Participants were 26,562 40- to 79-yr-old Japanese men, who enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study between 1988 and 1990. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for EC mortality in nonsmokers and smokers were estimated using Cox proportional models. During follow-up (1988-2009), 132 participants died of EC. Using a baseline food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis, vegetable, animal, and dairy product food patterns were identified. EC risk decreased significantly with a higher factor score for the dairy product pattern (Ptrend = 0.042) and was more pronounced in smokers [multivariable HR (4th vs. 1st quartiles) = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.30, 1.09; Ptrend = 0.021]. Neither vegetable nor animal food patterns were significant overall; however, EC risk increased with a higher factor score for the animal food pattern in nonsmokers [multivariable HR (4th vs. 1st quartiles) = 6.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 30.88; Ptrend = 0.021], although the small number of events was a limitation. Our findings suggest a dairy product pattern may reduce EC risk in Japanese men, especially smokers.

  17. Epidemiological studies of oats consumption and risk of cancer and overall mortality.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Thies, Frank; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    A review of epidemiological studies on the intake of oats and oat-based products and its effect on the risk of chronic disease and deaths was performed. Seven studies were identified of cancer risk (two each on prostate and colorectal cancer, and one each on pancreatic, breast and endometrial cancer), and one study on overall mortality. With the exception of a case-control study of pancreatic cancer, all studies were of cohort design: five studies were based on a single cohort from Denmark. The results of most cohort studies suggest a weak protective effect of a high intake of oats on cancer risk (relative risks in the order of 0·9). Potential limitations of the studies are dietary exposure misclassification, low statistical power because of limited exposure contrast and residual confounding. Despite the evidence from experimental and mechanistic studies of a protective effect of oats intake on CVD and diabetes, no epidemiological studies have been conducted on these conditions.

  18. Serum albumin level as a risk factor for mortality in burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Alejandra Aguayo-Becerra, Olivia; Torres-Garibay, Carlos; Dassaejv Macías-Amezcua, Michel; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; de Guadalupe Chávez-Tostado, Mariana; Andalón-Dueñas, Elizabeth; Espinosa Partida, Arturo; Álvarez-Villaseñor, Andrea Del Socorro; Cortés-Flores, Ana Olivia; Alejandro González-Ojeda

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hypoalbuminemia is a common clinical deficiency in burn patients and is associated with complications related to increased extravascular fluid, including edema, abnormal healing, and susceptibility to sepsis. Some prognostic scales do not include biochemical parameters, whereas others consider them together with comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether serum albumin can predict mortality in burn patients. METHODS: We studied burn patients ≥16 years of age who had complete clinical documentation, including the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index, serum albumin, globulin, and lipids. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed to determine the cut-off level of albumin that predicts mortality. RESULTS: In our analysis of 486 patients, we found that mortality was higher for burns caused by flame (p = 0.000), full-thickness burns (p = 0.004), inhalation injuries (p = 0.000), burns affecting >30% of the body surface area (p = 0.001), and burns associated with infection (p = 0.008). Protein and lipid levels were lower in the patients who died (p<0.05). Albumin levels showed the highest sensitivity and specificity (84% and 83%, respectively), and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (0.869) had a cut-off of 1.95 g/dL for mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients with albumin levels <2 g/dL had a mortality risk of >80%, with 84% sensitivity and 83% specificity. At admission, the albumin level could be used as a sensitive and specific marker of burn severity and an indicator of mortality. PMID:23917657

  19. A predictive risk model for electroshock-induced mortality of the endangered Cape Fear shiner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holliman, F.M.; Reynolds, J.B.; Kwak, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of a single electroshock on injury and mortality of hatchery-reared Cape Fear shiners Notropis mekistocholas (N = 517), an endangered cyprinid. Groups of 18-22 Cape Fear shiners were exposed to DC, 120-Hz pulsed DC (PDC), or 60-Hz PDC at voltage gradients of 1.1, 1.9, or 2.7 V/cm for 3 s. Mortality occurred only among fish exposed to 120-Hz PDC (25%) and DC (38%) applied at 2.7 V/cm. Because no mortality occurred in Cape Fear shiners exposed to 60-Hz PDC, this waveform was selected for further study of electroshock duration (3, 6, 12, 24, or 48 s) and voltage gradient (0.9, 1.6, or 2.3 V/cm). Most fish electroshocked in the experiments were immobilized (ceased swimming motion). No physical injury was detected by necropsy or radiography in any fish. Electroshock-induced mortality of Cape Fear shiners showed a strong multivariable relationship to voltage gradient, electroshock duration, and fish length. Fish subjected to 60-Hz PDC at 0.9 or 1.6 V/cm for 6 s experienced low mortality (<10%). Our results demonstrate that Cape Fear shiners can be immobilized by 60-Hz PDC electroshock without injury or significant risk of mortality. We propose that electrofishing may be safely used to sample similar small cyprinids, imperiled or otherwise, when electrofishers select an appropriate waveform (DC pulsed at 60-Hz or less) and use it judiciously (minimal exposure at, or below, the immobilization threshold).

  20. Information bias and lifetime mortality risks of radiation-induced cancer: Low LET radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, L.E.; Schull, W.J.; Davis, B.R.; Buffler, P.A.

    1994-04-01

    Additive and multiplicative models of relative risk were used to measure the effect of cancer misclassification and DS86 random errors on lifetime risk projections in the Life Span Study (LSS) of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The true number of cancer deaths in each stratum of the cancer mortality cross-classification was estimated using sufficient statistics from the EM algorithm. Average survivor doses in the strata were corrected for DS86 random error ({sigma}=0.45) by use of reduction factors. Poisson regression was used to model the corrected and uncorrected mortality rates with risks in RERF Report 11 (Part 2) and the BEIR-V Report. Bias due to DS86 random error typically ranged from {minus}15% to {minus}30% for both sexes, and all sites and models. The total bias, including diagnostic misclassification, of excess risk of nonleukemia for exposure to 1 Sv from age 18 to 65 under the non-constant relative project model was {minus}37.1% for males and {minus}23.3% for females. Total excess risks of leukemia under the relative projection model were biased {minus}27.1% for males and {minus}43.4% for females. Thus, nonleukemia risks for 1 Sv from ages 18 to 65 (DRREF=2) increased from 1.91%/Sv to 2.68%/Sv among males and from 3.23%/Sv to 4.92%/Sv among females. Leukemia excess risk increased from 0.87%/Sv to 1.10/Sv among males and from 0.73%/Sv to 1.04/Sv among females. Bias was dependent on the gender, site, correction method, exposure profile and projection model considered. Future studies that use LSS data for US nuclear workers may be downwardly biased if lifetime risk projections are not adjusted for random and systematic errors.

  1. Thirty-day mortality after percutaneous gastrostomy by endoscopic versus radiologic placement: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Joo Hyun; Choi, Seung Ho; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kang, Hae Yeon; Yang, Jong In; Chung, Su Jin; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims A percutaneous gastrostomy can be placed either endoscopically (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, PEG) or radiologically (radiologically-inserted gastrostomy, RIG). However, there is no consistent evidence of the safety and efficacy of PEG compared to RIG. Recently, 30-day mortality has become considered as the most important surrogate index for evaluating the safety and efficacy of percutaneous gastrostomy. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the 30-day mortality rates between PEG and RIG. Methods Major electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library) were queried for comparative studies on the two insertion techniques of gastrostomy among adults with swallowing disturbance. The primary outcome was the 30-day mortality rate after gastrostomy insertion. Forest and funnel plots were generated for outcomes using STATA version 14.0. Results Fifteen studies (n=2,183) met the inclusion criteria. PEG was associated with a lower risk of 30-day mortality after tube placement compared with RIG (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38–0.94; P=0.026). The pooled prevalence of 30-day mortality of PEG was 5.5% (95% CI, 4.0%–6.9%) and that of RIG was 10.5% (95% CI, 6.8%–14.3%). No publication bias was noted. Conclusions The present meta-analysis demonstrated that PEG is associated with a lower probability of 30-day mortality compared to RIG, suggesting that PEG should be considered as the first choice for long-term enteral tube feeding. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to evaluate and compare the safety of these two different methods of gastrostomy. PMID:27799884

  2. Nurse-led risk assessment/management clinics reduce predicted cardiac morbidity and mortality in claudicants.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Josephine; Gulati, Sumit; Abdul Rahman, Morhisham N A; Coughlin, Patrick A; Chetter, Ian C

    2008-12-01

    Nurse-led assessment/management of risk factors is effective in many chronic medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate whether this finding was true for patients with intermittent claudication and to analyze its impact on patient-reported quality of life and predicted mortality due to coronary heart disease. We prospectively studied a series of 78 patients (51 men; median age, 65 years [IQR: 56-74 years]), diagnosed with intermittent claudication and referred to a nurse-led risk assessment/management clinic (NLC) from a consultant-led vascular surgical clinic. The NLC used clinical care pathways to manage antiplatelet medication, smoking cessation, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes and to provide exercise advice. All patients were reassessed at a 3 months. Medication compliance, smoking status, fasting lipid profiles, blood pressure, and HbA1c were recorded. Disease-specific quality of life was assessed using King's College VascuQoL and predicted cardiac morbidity and mortality were calculated using the PROCAM and Framingham risk scores. We found that NLC enrollment produced an antiplatelet and a statin compliance of 100%, a smoking cessation rate of 17% (9 patients) and significant improvements in total cholesterol (median, 5.2-4.5 mmol/l), LDL (median, 3.1-2.5 mmol/l) and triglyceride (median, 1.7-1.4 mmol/l) levels. Significant disease-specific quality of life improvements and significant reduction in both the PROCAM (14% to 10%) and Framingham (14% to 11%) coronary risk scores were observed. Providing care at NLCs for claudicants is effective in assessing and managing risk factors, improves disease-specific quality of life and reduces predicted morbidity and mortality due to coronary heart disease.

  3. Prospective Imaging Assessment of Mortality Risk After Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Benjamin J.; Rana, Vishal; Cannon, Blake A.; Williams, Michelle D.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Macapinlac, Homer A.; Lee, J. Jack; Ang, K. Kian; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Chronowski, Gregory M.; Frank, Steven J.; Morrison, William H.; Rosenthal, David I.; Weber, Randal S.; Garden, Adam S.; Lippman, Scott M.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: The optimal roles for imaging-based biomarkers in the management of head-and-neck cancer remain undefined. Unresolved questions include whether functional or anatomic imaging might improve mortality risk assessment for this disease. We addressed these issues in a prospective institutional trial. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight patients with locally advanced pharyngolaryngeal squamous cell cancer were enrolled. Each underwent pre- and post-chemoradiotherapy contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Imaging parameters were correlated with survival outcomes. Results: Low post-radiation primary tumor FDG avidity correlated with improved survival on multivariate analysis; so too did complete primary tumor response by CT alone. Although both imaging modalities lacked sensitivity, each had high specificity and negative predictive value for disease-specific mortality risk assessment. Kaplan-Meier estimates confirmed that both CT and FDG-PET/CT stratify patients into distinct high- and low-probability survivorship groups on the basis of primary tumor response to radiotherapy. Subset analyses demonstrated that the prognostic value for each imaging modality was primarily derived from patients at high risk for local treatment failure (human papillomavirus [HPV]-negative disease, nonoropharyngeal primary disease, or tobacco use). Conclusions: CT alone and FDG-PET/CT are potentially useful tools in head-and-neck cancer-specific mortality risk assessment after radiotherapy, particularly for selective use in cases of high-risk HPV-unrelated disease. Focus should be placed on corroboration and refinement of patient selection for imaging-based biomarkers in future studies.

  4. The HOSPITAL score and LACE index as predictors of 30 day readmission in a retrospective study at a university-affiliated community hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hudali, Tamer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Hospital readmissions are common, expensive, and a key target of the Medicare Value Based Purchasing (VBP) program. Validated risk assessment tools such as the HOSPITAL score and LACE index have been developed to identify patients at high risk of hospital readmission so they can be targeted for interventions aimed at reducing the rate of readmission. This study aims to evaluate the utility of HOSPITAL score and LACE index for predicting hospital readmission within 30 days in a moderate-sized university affiliated hospital in the midwestern United States. Materials and Methods All adult medical patients who underwent one or more ICD-10 defined procedures discharged from the SIU-SOM Hospitalist service from Memorial Medical Center (MMC) from October 15, 2015 to March 16, 2016, were studied retrospectively to determine if the HOSPITAL score and LACE index were a significant predictors of hospital readmission within 30 days. Results During the study period, 463 discharges were recorded for the hospitalist service. The analysis includes data for the 432 discharges. Patients who died during the hospital stay, were transferred to another hospital, or left against medical advice were excluded. Of these patients, 35 (8%) were readmitted to the same hospital within 30 days. A receiver operating characteristic evaluation of the HOSPITAL score for this patient population shows a C statistic of 0.75 (95% CI [0.67–0.83]), indicating good discrimination for hospital readmission. The Brier score for the HOSPITAL score in this setting was 0.069, indicating good overall performance. The Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness of fit test shows a χ2 value of 3.71 with a p value of 0.59. A receiver operating characteristic evaluation of the LACE index for this patient population shows a C statistic of 0.58 (95% CI [0.48–0.68]), indicating poor discrimination for hospital readmission. The Brier score for the LACE index in this setting was 0.082, indicating good overall performance

  5. Utility of models to predict 28-day or 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions: an updated systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip R; Roberts, Pamela; Goh, Louise; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update previous systematic review of predictive models for 28-day or 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions. Design Systematic review. Setting/data source CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE from 2011 to 2015. Participants All studies of 28-day and 30-day readmission predictive model. Outcome measures Characteristics of the included studies, performance of the identified predictive models and key predictive variables included in the models. Results Of 7310 records, a total of 60 studies with 73 unique predictive models met the inclusion criteria. The utilisation outcome of the models included all-cause readmissions, cardiovascular disease including pneumonia, medical conditions, surgical conditions and mental health condition-related readmissions. Overall, a wide-range C-statistic was reported in 56/60 studies (0.21–0.88). 11 of 13 predictive models for medical condition-related readmissions were found to have consistent moderate discrimination ability (C-statistic ≥0.7). Only two models were designed for the potentially preventable/avoidable readmissions and had C-statistic >0.8. The variables ‘comorbidities’, ‘length of stay’ and ‘previous admissions’ were frequently cited across 73 models. The variables ‘laboratory tests’ and ‘medication’ had more weight in the models for cardiovascular disease and medical condition-related readmissions. Conclusions The predictive models which focused on general medical condition-related unplanned hospital readmissions reported moderate discriminative ability. Two models for potentially preventable/avoidable readmissions showed high discriminative ability. This updated systematic review, however, found inconsistent performance across the included unique 73 risk predictive models. It is critical to define clearly the utilisation outcomes and the type of accessible data source before the selection of the predictive model. Rigorous validation of the predictive models with moderate-to-high discriminative

  6. 78 FR 65697 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing, Contracting With Resident-Owned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing, Contracting With...: Colette Pollard, Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451...

  7. 77 FR 73731 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application Under the Hague Convention on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Notice is to allow 30 days for public comment. DATES: Submit comments directly to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) up to January 10, 2013. ADDRESSES: Direct comments to the Department of...

  8. Analysis of rat testicular proteome following 30-day exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field radiation.

    PubMed

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed

    2014-12-01

    The use of electromagnetic field (EMF) generating apparatuses such as cell phones is increasing, and has caused an interest in the investigations of its effects on human health. We analyzed proteome in preparations from the whole testis in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that were exposed to 900 MHz EMF radiation for 1, 2, or 4 h/day for 30 consecutive days, simulating a range of possible human cell phone use. Subjects were sacrificed immediately after the end of the experiment and testes fractions were solubilized and separated via high-resolution 2D electrophoresis, and gel patterns were scanned, digitized, and processed. Thirteen proteins, which were found only in sham or in exposure groups, were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Among them, heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin-1, and other proteins related to misfolding of proteins and/or stress were identified. These results demonstrate significant effects of radio frequency modulated EMFs exposure on proteome, particularly in protein species in the rodent testis, and suggest that a 30-day exposure to EMF radiation induces nonthermal stress in testicular tissue. The functional implication of the identified proteins was discussed.

  9. Herd-level risk factors associated with cow mortality in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Alvåsen, K; Jansson Mörk, M; Hallén Sandgren, C; Thomsen, P T; Emanuelson, U

    2012-08-01

    An increase in on-farm mortality (euthanasia and death) in dairy herds has been reported in several countries in the last decade. This does not only imply possible problems with animal welfare, but it also causes economic losses to the farmer. The objective of this study was to evaluate time trends in on-farm dairy cow mortality in Sweden and identify potential herd-level risk factors. Data were retrieved on all Swedish dairy herds enrolled in the milk recording scheme between 2002 and 2010. Herds with a herd size of <20 cows or a mortality rate (MR) of >40 dead or euthanized cows per 100 cow-years were excluded. Two different models were used: 1 multiple-year analysis, which included 6,898 herds during the period 2002 to 2010 and 1 single-year analysis including 4,252 herds for the year 2010, where other variables that were not present during the entire multiple year study were analyzed. The outcome variable was the number of euthanized and dead cows per year and season. A negative binomial regression model, adjusted for clustering within herd, was applied to both models. Fixed effects in the multiple-year analysis were breed, calving interval, herd size, milk yield, region, season, pasture period, and year. The fixed effects in the single-year analysis were breed, calving interval, conventional versus organic farming, herd size, housing system, milk yield, region, and season. The results demonstrated that MR gradually increased from 5.1 to 6.6 events per 100 cow-years during the study period. Swedish MR are consequently on par with, or even greater than, MR among dairy herds in other comparable countries. Higher mortality was associated with larger herd size, longer calving intervals, and herds that had Swedish Holstein as the predominant breed. Lower mortality was observed in herds with a higher herd average milk yield, during the fall and winter, and in organically managed herds. There were regional differences in mortality. An interaction between herd size and

  10. Renal Function and All-Cause Mortality Risk Among Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Li, Hui-Yan; Zhou, Qian; Peng, Zhen-Wei; An, Xin; Li, Wei; Xiong, Li-Ping; Yu, Xue-Qing; Jiang, Wen-Qi; Mao, Hai-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Renal dysfunction predicts all-cause mortality in general population. However, the prevalence of renal insufficiency and its relationship with mortality in cancer patients are unclear.We retrospectively studied 9465 patients with newly diagnosed cancer from January 2010 to December 2010. Renal insufficiency was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. The hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality associated with baseline eGFR was assessed by Cox regression.Three thousand sixty-nine patients (32.4%) exhibited eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m and 3% had abnormal serum creatinine levels at the time of diagnosis. Over a median follow-up of 40.5 months, 2705 patients (28.6%) died. Compared with the reference group (eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m), an elevated all-cause mortality was observed among patients with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m stratified by cancer stage in the entire cohort, the corresponding hazard ratios were 1.87 (95% CI, 1.41-2.47) and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.01-1.62) for stage I to III and stage IV, respectively. However, this relationship was not observed after multivariate adjustment. Subgroup analysis found that eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m independently predicted death among patients with hematologic (adjusted HR 2.93, 95% CI [1.36-6.31]) and gynecological cancer (adjusted HR 2.82, 95% CI [1.19-6.70]), but not in those with other cancer. Five hundred fifty-seven patients (6%) had proteinuria. When controlled for potential confounding factors, proteinuria was a risk factor for all-cause mortality among patients in the entire cohort, regardless of cancer stage and eGFR values. When patients were categorized by specific cancer type, the risk of all-cause death was only significant in patients with digestive system cancer (adjusted HR, 1.85 [1.48-2.32]).The prevalence of renal dysfunction was common in patients with newly diagnosed cancer. Patients with eGFR < 60 m

  11. Dietary soy intake is not associated with risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in Singapore Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Talaei, Mohammad; Koh, Woon-Puay; van Dam, Rob M; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pan, An

    2014-06-01

    Although soy food has been recommended because of its presumed cardiovascular benefits, the long-term prospective association between habitual soy food intake and cardiovascular disease mortality remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the relation of soy protein and isoflavone intake with the risk of cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged and older Chinese adults residing in Singapore. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based study that recruited 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45-74 y from 1993 to 1998. Usual diet was measured at recruitment by using a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and mortality information was identified via registry linkage until 31 December 2011. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs, with adjustment for potential confounders. The median intake was 5.2 g/d for soy protein, 15.8 mg/d for soy isoflavones, and 87.4 g/d for soy expressed as tofu equivalents. We documented 4780 cardiovascular deaths during 890,473 person-years of follow-up. After adjustment for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other dietary factors, soy protein intake was not significantly associated with cardiovascular disease mortality: HRs (95% CIs) were 1.00 (reference), 1.02 (0.94, 1.11), 1.02 (0.93, 1.11), and 1.06 (0.97, 1.17) for increasing quartiles of soy protein (P-trend = 0.24). Similarly, no significant association was observed for soy isoflavones and total tofu equivalents and when deaths from coronary heart disease (n = 2697) and stroke (n = 1298) were considered separately. When stratified by sex, HRs for cardiovascular disease mortality across quartiles of soy protein were 1.00, 1.00, 1.05, and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.31) in men (P-trend = 0.02) and 1.00, 1.01, 0.96, and 0.95 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.10) in women (P-trend = 0.31), although the interaction was not significant (P-interaction = 0.12). In conclusion, soy intake was not significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular disease mortality

  12. [Activity of various oxidases and transaminases in the rat liver in the readaptation period after hypokinesia up to 30 days].

    PubMed

    Potapov, P P

    1990-01-01

    The activity of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinic dehydrogenase in readaptation after 15-day hypokinesia was within normal limits, whereas following 30-day hypokinesia it was enhanced on days 11-15. Pyruvate dehydrogenase exhibited hyperactivity in the end of readaptation week 2 both in 15- and 30-day hypokinesia which resulted in rat liver hyperactivity of glutamate dehydrogenase and transaminases. Normal levels of the latter were recorded on readaptation day 12-19.

  13. Impact of malnutrition on pediatric risk of mortality score and outcome in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Nangalu, Romi; Pooni, Puneet Aulakh; Bhargav, Siddharth; Bains, Harmesh Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was done to determine the effect of malnutrition on mortality in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and on the pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) scoring. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective study done over 1 year. There were total 400 patients (1 month 14 years), who were divided into cases with weight for age <3rd centile and controls with ≥3rd centile of WHO charts. Cases were subdivided into mild/moderate (61–80% of expected weight for age) and severe malnutrition (<60%). Results: Out of total, 38.5% patients were underweight, and malnutrition was more in infancy, 61/104, i.e. 58.5% (P - 0.003). There was no significant difference in vitals at admission. Cases needed prolonged mechanical ventilation (P - 0.0063) and hospital stay (P - 0.0332) compared to controls. Mean and median PRISM scores were comparable in both the groups, but mortality was significantly higher in severely malnourished (P value 0.027). Conclusion: Severe malnutrition is independently associated with higher mortality even with similar PRISM score. There is need to give an additional score to children with weight for age <60% of expected. PMID:27555691

  14. Copeptin Predicts Mortality in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Krychtiuk, Konstantin A.; Honeder, Maria C.; Lenz, Max; Maurer, Gerald; Wojta, Johann; Heinz, Gottfried; Huber, Kurt; Speidl, Walter S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Critically ill patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit exhibit a high mortality rate irrespective of the cause of admission. Besides its role in fluid and electrolyte balance, vasopressin has been described as a stress hormone. Copeptin, the C-terminal portion of provasopressin mirrors vasopressin levels and has been described as a reliable biomarker for the individual’s stress level and was associated with outcome in various disease entities. The aim of this study was to analyze whether circulating levels of copeptin at ICU admission are associated with 30-day mortality. Methods In this single-center prospective observational study including 225 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary medical ICU at a university hospital, blood was taken at ICU admission and copeptin levels were measured using a commercially available automated sandwich immunofluorescent assay. Results Median acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score was 20 and 30-day mortality was 25%. Median copeptin admission levels were significantly higher in non-survivors as compared with survivors (77.6 IQR 30.7–179.3 pmol/L versus 45.6 IQR 19.6–109.6 pmol/L; p = 0.025). Patients with serum levels of copeptin in the third tertile at admission had a 2.4-fold (95% CI 1.2–4.6; p = 0.01) increased mortality risk as compared to patients in the first tertile. When analyzing patients according to cause of admission, copeptin was only predictive of 30-day mortality in patients admitted due to medical causes as opposed to those admitted after cardiac surgery, as medical patients with levels of copeptin in the highest tertile had a 3.3-fold (95% CI 1.66.8, p = 0.002) risk of dying independent from APACHE II score, primary diagnosis, vasopressor use and need for mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Circulating levels of copeptin at ICU admission independently predict 30-day mortality in patients admitted to a medical ICU. PMID:28118414

  15. Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities.

    PubMed

    Vanos, Jennifer K; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Sabit

    2014-02-01

    Synoptic weather and ambient air quality synergistically influence human health. We report the relative risk of mortality from all non-accidental, respiratory-, and cardiovascular-related causes, associated with exposure to four air pollutants, by weather type and season, in 10 major Canadian cities for 1981 through 1999. We conducted this multi-city time-series study using Poisson generalized linear models stratified by season and each of six distinctive synoptic weather types. Statistically significant relationships of mortality due to short-term exposure to carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and ozone were found, with significant modifications of risk by weather type, season, and mortality cause. In total, 61% of the respiratory-related mortality relative risk estimates were significantly higher than for cardiovascular-related mortality. The combined effect of weather and air pollution is greatest when tropical-type weather is present in the spring or summer.

  16. Risk of Cancer Mortality in Spanish Towns Lying in the Vicinity of Pollutant Industries

    PubMed Central

    Ramis, Rebeca; Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo; Garcia-Perez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Gomez-Barroso, Diana; Lopez-Abente, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Spatial aggregation of different industrial facilities leads to simultaneous release of pollutant emissions. Our objective is to study cancer mortality risk associated with residence in the vicinity of pollutant factories. We used data on industries for year 2007 (3458 facilities). For the 8,098 Spanish towns, we defined a factor with 4 levels based on the number of factories in a radius of 2.5 km from the centroid of each town (industrial factor). We also used data of land cover use to approximate the percentage of municipal land used for industrial activities in each Spanish town (land-used variable). For both variables we fitted Poisson models with random terms to account for spatial variation. We estimated risk trends related with increasing number of factories or percentage of land used for industrial activities. We studied 33 cancer causes. For the industrial factor, 11 causes showed trend associated with increasing factor level. For the land use variable, 8 causes showed statistically significant risks. Almost all tumours related to the digestive system and the respiratory system showed increased risks. Thus mortality by these tumours could be associated to residence in towns nearby industrial areas with positive trend linked to increasing levels of industrial activity. PMID:23193486

  17. GIS as a community engagement tool: developing a plan to reduce infant mortality risk factors.

    PubMed

    Detres, Maridelys; Lucio, Robert; Vitucci, Judi

    2014-07-01

    This article describes how a community coalition focusing on maternal and child health engages community participation through the use of geographic information systems (GIS) mapping, developing strategies that culminate in the implementation of a service delivery plan to improve birth outcomes. Vital statistics data from 2007 to 2009 was analyzed by zip code in Pinellas County Florida to produce choropleth thematic maps using ArcGIS for 3 year rolling average infant deaths and single year percentages for prematurity. The maps were presented at the organization's annual coalition meeting to discuss risk areas, changes over time in the selected indicators and solicit community feedback on how to best target issues addressing infant mortality and prematurity. The maps identified new zip codes of concern for prematurity in addition to known high risk zip codes for both infant mortality and prematurity. The community identified changes in demographic composition and changes in housing patterns, such as new mobile home areas, in the high risk areas. In response, the community assisted the Coalition in developing a holistic plan addressing risk factors affecting birth outcomes by expanding current services, hiring a nutritionist, and contracting a health navigator. When compared to tables and charts, a visual depiction of a neighborhood by recognizable zip codes is a useful tool to help community decision makers better visualize public health concerns and interpret trends based on local knowledge. Public health professionals should use this community knowledge to interpret research results and implement strategies to improve birth outcomes.

  18. New algorithm of mortality risk prediction for cardiovascular patients admitted in intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Moridani, Mohammad Karimi; Setarehdan, Seyed Kamaledin; Nasrabadi, Ali Motie; Hajinasrollah, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Recognizing and managing of admitted patients in intensive care unit (ICU) with high risk of mortality is important for maximizing the patient’s outcomes and minimizing the costs. This study is based on linear and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) to design a classifier for mortality prediction of cardio vascular patients admitted to ICU. Methods: In this study we evaluated 90 cardiovascular ICU patients (45 males and 45 females). Linear and nonlinear features of HRV include SDNN, NN50, low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), correlation dimension, approximate entropy; detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and Poincaré plot were analyzed. Paired sample t-test was used for statistical comparison. Finally, we fed these features to the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to find a robust classification method to classify the patients with low risk and high risk of death. Results: Almost all HRV features measuring heart rate complexity were significantly decreased in the episode of half-hour before death. The results generated based on SVM and MLP classifiers show that SVM classifier is enable to distinguish high and low risk episodes with the total classification sensitivity, specificity, positive productivity and accuracy rate of 97.3%, 98.1%, 92.5% and 99.3%, respectively. Conclusions: The results of the current study suggest that nonlinear features of the HRV signals could be show nonlinear dynamics. PMID:26309114

  19. BP Control and Long-Term Risk of ESRD and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Ku, Elaine; Gassman, Jennifer; Appel, Lawrence J; Smogorzewski, Miroslaw; Sarnak, Mark J; Glidden, David V; Bakris, George; Gutiérrez, Orlando M; Hebert, Lee A; Ix, Joachim H; Lea, Janice; Lipkowitz, Michael S; Norris, Keith; Ploth, David; Pogue, Velvie A; Rostand, Stephen G; Siew, Edward D; Sika, Mohammed; Tisher, C Craig; Toto, Robert; Wright, Jackson T; Wyatt, Christina; Hsu, Chi-Yuan

    2017-02-01

    We recently showed an association between strict BP control and lower mortality risk during two decades of follow-up of prior participants in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) trial. Here, we determined the risk of ESRD and mortality during extended follow-up of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) trial. We linked 1067 former AASK participants with CKD previously randomized to strict or usual BP control (mean arterial pressure ≤92 mmHg or 102-107 mmHg, respectively) to the US Renal Data System and Social Security Death Index; 397 patients had ESRD and 475 deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 14.4 years from 1995 to 2012. Compared with the usual BP arm, the strict BP arm had unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of ESRD of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.12) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.16; P=0.64), respectively, and unadjusted and adjusted relative risks of death of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.10) and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.98; P=0.03), respectively. In meta-analyses of individual-level data from the MDRD and the AASK trials, unadjusted relative risk of ESRD was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.78 to 1.00) and unadjusted relative risk of death was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76 to 0.99) for strict versus usual BP arms. Our findings suggest that, during long-term follow-up, strict BP control does not delay the onset of ESRD but may reduce the relative risk of death in CKD.

  20. Cholesterol lowering and mortality: the importance of considering initial level of risk.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G D; Song, F; Sheldon, T A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the level of risk of death from coronary heart disease above which cholesterol lowering treatment produces net benefits. DESIGN--Meta-analysis of results of randomised controlled trials of cholesterol lowering treatments. METHODS--Published and unpublished data from all identified randomised controlled trials of cholesterol lowering treatments with six months or more follow up and with at least one death were included in the meta-analysis. The analyses were stratified by the rate of death from coronary heart disease in the control arms of the trials. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Death from all causes, from coronary heart disease, and from causes other than coronary heart disease. RESULTS--In the pooled analysis, net benefit in terms of total mortality from cholesterol lowering was seen only for trials including patients at very high initial risk of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.74; 95% confidence interval 0.60 to 0.92). In a medium risk group no net effect was seen, and in the low risk group there were adverse treatment effects (1.22; 1.06 to 1.42). In a weighted regression analysis a significant (p < 0.001) trend of increasing benefit with increasing initial risk of coronary heart disease was shown. Raised mortality from causes other than coronary heart disease was seen in trials of drug treatment (1.21; 1.05 to 1.39) but not in the trials of non-drug treatments (1.02; 0.88 to 1.19). Cumulative meta-analysis showed that these results seem to have been stable as new trials appeared. CONCLUSION--Currently evaluated cholesterol lowering drugs seem to produce mortality benefits in only a small proportion of patients at very high risk of death from coronary heart disease. Population cholesterol screening could waste resources and even result in net harm in substantial groups of patients. Overall risk of coronary heart disease should be the main focus of clinical guidelines, and a cautious approach to the use of cholesterol lowering drugs

  1. 77 FR 2601 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-4164 OMB Control #1405-XXXX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... Collection: Risk Analysis and Management. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New Collection... in the FY 2011 Continuing Resolution, is implementing a Risk Analysis and Management Program to...

  2. Examining the effects of air pollution composition on within region differences in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-city population-based epidemiological studies have observed significant heterogeneity in both the magnitude and direction of city-specific risk estimates, but tended to focus on regional differences in PM2.5 mortality risk estimates. Interpreting differences in risk estimat...

  3. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality

    PubMed Central

    LeRoith, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  4. How Can Inequalities in Mortality Be Reduced? A Quantitative Analysis of 6 Risk Factors in 21 European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Eikemo, Terje A.; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kulik, Margarete C.; Kulhánová, Ivana; Toch-Marquardt, Marlen; Menvielle, Gwenn; Looman, Caspar; Jasilionis, Domantas; Martikainen, Pekka; Lundberg, Olle; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are one of the greatest challenges for health policy in all European countries, but the potential for reducing these inequalities is unclear. We therefore quantified the impact of equalizing the distribution of six risk factors for mortality: smoking, overweight, lack of physical exercise, lack of social participation, low income, and economic inactivity. Methods We collected and harmonized data on mortality and risk factors by educational level for 21 European populations in the early 2000s. The impact of the risk factors on mortality in each educational group was determined using Population Attributable Fractions. We estimated the impact on inequalities in mortality of two scenarios: a theoretical upward levelling scenario in which inequalities in the risk factor were completely eliminated, and a more realistic best practice scenario, in which inequalities in the risk factor were reduced to those seen in the country with the smallest inequalities for that risk factor. Findings In general, upward levelling of inequalities in smoking, low income and economic inactivity hold the greatest potential for reducing inequalities in mortality. While the importance of low income is similar across Europe, smoking is more important in the North and East, and overweight in the South. On the basis of best practice scenarios the potential for reducing inequalities in mortality is often smaller, but still substantial in many countries for smoking and physical inactivity. Interpretation Theoretically, there is a great potential for reducing inequalities in mortality in most European countries, for example by equity-oriented tobacco control policies, income redistribution and employment policies. Although it is necessary to achieve substantial degrees of upward levelling to make a notable difference for inequalities in mortality, the existence of best practice countries with more favourable distributions for some of these risk

  5. Risk of mortality from circulatory diseases in Mayak workers cohort following occupational radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Azizova, T V; Grigorieva, E S; Hunter, N; Pikulina, M V; Moseeva, M B

    2015-09-01

    Mortality from circulatory diseases (CD) (ICD-9 codes 390-459) was studied in an extended Mayak worker cohort, which included 22,377 workers first employed at the Mayak Production Association in 1948-1982 and followed up to the end of 2008. The enlarged cohort and extended follow-up as compared to the previous analyses provided an increased number of deaths from CD and improved statistical power of this mortality study. The analyses were based on dose estimates provided by a new Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008 (MWDS-2008). For the first time in the study of non-cancer effects in this cohort quantitative smoking data (smoking index) were taken into account. A significant increasing trend for CD mortality with increasing dose from external gamma-rays was found after having adjusted for non-radiation factors; the excess relative risk per unit dose (ERR/Gy) was 0.05 (95% confidence interval (CI):  >0, 0.11). Inclusion of an additional adjustment for dose from internal alpha-radiation to the liver resulted in a two-fold increase of ERR/Gy = 0.10 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.21). A significant increasing trend in CD mortality with increasing dose from internal alpha-radiation to the liver was observed (ERR/Gy = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.48). However the ERR/Gy decreased and lost its significance after adjusting for dose from external gamma-rays. Results of the current study are in good agreement with risk estimates obtained for the Japanese LSS cohort as well as other studies of cohorts of nuclear workers.

  6. Mortality Risk and Survival in the Aftermath of the Medieval Black Death

    PubMed Central

    DeWitte, Sharon N.

    2014-01-01

    The medieval Black Death (c. 1347-1351) was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. It killed tens of millions of Europeans, and recent analyses have shown that the disease targeted elderly adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. Following the epidemic, there were improvements in standards of living, particularly in dietary quality for all socioeconomic strata. This study investigates whether the combination of the selective mortality of the Black Death and post-epidemic improvements in standards of living had detectable effects on survival and mortality in London. Samples are drawn from several pre- and post-Black Death London cemeteries. The pre-Black Death sample comes from the Guildhall Yard (n = 75) and St. Nicholas Shambles (n = 246) cemeteries, which date to the 11th–12th centuries, and from two phases within the St. Mary Spital cemetery, which date to between 1120-1300 (n = 143). The St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 133) was in use from 1350–1538 and thus represents post-epidemic demographic conditions. By applying Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Gompertz hazard model to transition analysis age estimates, and controlling for changes in birth rates, this study examines differences in survivorship and mortality risk between the pre- and post-Black Death populations of London. The results indicate that there are significant differences in survival and mortality risk, but not birth rates, between the two time periods, which suggest improvements in health following the Black Death, despite repeated outbreaks of plague in the centuries after the Black Death. PMID:24806459

  7. Mortality risk and survival in the aftermath of the medieval Black Death.

    PubMed

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2014-01-01

    The medieval Black Death (c. 1347-1351) was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. It killed tens of millions of Europeans, and recent analyses have shown that the disease targeted elderly adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. Following the epidemic, there were improvements in standards of living, particularly in dietary quality for all socioeconomic strata. This study investigates whether the combination of the selective mortality of the Black Death and post-epidemic improvements in standards of living had detectable effects on survival and mortality in London. Samples are drawn from several pre- and post-Black Death London cemeteries. The pre-Black Death sample comes from the Guildhall Yard (n = 75) and St. Nicholas Shambles (n = 246) cemeteries, which date to the 11th-12th centuries, and from two phases within the St. Mary Spital cemetery, which date to between 1120-1300 (n = 143). The St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 133) was in use from 1350-1538 and thus represents post-epidemic demographic conditions. By applying Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Gompertz hazard model to transition analysis age estimates, and controlling for changes in birth rates, this study examines differences in survivorship and mortality risk between the pre- and post-Black Death populations of London. The results indicate that there are significant differences in survival and mortality risk, but not birth rates, between the two time periods, which suggest improvements in health following the Black Death, despite repeated outbreaks of plague in the centuries after the Black Death.

  8. Home Monitoring Program Reduces Mortality in High-Risk Sociodemographic Single-Ventricle Patients.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Daniel Alexander; Herrington, Cynthia; Adler, Stacey; Haas, Karen; Ram Kumar, S; Kung, Grace C

    2016-12-01

    A clinician-driven home monitoring program can improve interstage outcomes in single-ventricle patients. Sociodemographic factors have been independently associated with mortality in interstage patients. We hypothesized that even in a population with high-risk sociodemographic characteristics, a home monitoring program is effective in reducing interstage mortality. We defined interstage period as the time period between discharge following Norwood palliation and second-stage surgery. We reviewed the charts of patients for the three-year period before (group 1) and after (group 2) implementation of the home monitoring program. Clinical variables around Norwood palliation, during the interstage period, and at the time of second-stage surgery were analyzed. There were 74 patients in group 1 and 52 in group 2. 59 % patients were Hispanic, and 84 % lived in neighborhoods where over 5 % families lived below poverty line. There was no significant difference in pre-Norwood variables, Norwood discharge variables, age at second surgery, or outcomes at second surgery. There were more Sano shunts performed at the Norwood procedure as the source of pulmonary blood flow in group 2 (p value <0.05). There were more unplanned hospital admissions and percutaneous re-interventions in group 2. Patients in group 2 whose admission criteria included desaturation had a 45 % likelihood of having an unplanned re-intervention. Group 2 noted an 80 % relative reduction in interstage mortality (p < 0.01). In a multiple regression analysis, after accounting for ethnicity, socio-economic status, and source of pulmonary blood flow, enrollment in a home monitoring program independently predicted improved interstage survival (p < 0.01). A clinician-driven home monitoring program reduces interstage mortality even when the majority of patients has high-risk sociodemographic characteristics.

  9. Serum Fructosamine and Glycated Albumin and Risk of Mortality and Clinical Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shafi, Tariq; Sozio, Stephen M.; Plantinga, Laura C.; Jaar, Bernard G.; Kim, Edward T.; Parekh, Rulan S.; Steffes, Michael W.; Powe, Neil R.; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assays for serum total glycated proteins (fructosamine) and the more specific glycated albumin may be useful indicators of hyperglycemia in dialysis patients, either as substitutes or adjuncts to standard markers such as hemoglobin A1c, as they are not affected by erythrocyte turnover. However, their relationship with long-term outcomes in dialysis patients is not well described. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured fructosamine and glycated albumin in baseline samples from 503 incident hemodialysis participants of a national prospective cohort study, with enrollment from 1995–1998 and median follow-up of 3.5 years. Outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and morbidity (first CVD event and first sepsis hospitalization) analyzed using Cox regression adjusted for demographic and clinical characteristics, and comorbidities. RESULTS Mean age was 58 years, 64% were white, 54% were male, and 57% had diabetes. There were 354 deaths (159 from CVD), 302 CVD events, and 118 sepsis hospitalizations over follow-up. Both fructosamine and glycated albumin were associated with all-cause mortality; adjusted HR per doubling of the biomarker was 1.96 (95% CI 1.38–2.79) for fructosamine and 1.40 (1.09–1.80) for glycated albumin. Both markers were also associated with CVD mortality [fructosamine 2.13 (1.28–3.54); glycated albumin 1.55 (1.09–2.21)]. Higher values of both markers were associated with trends toward a higher risk of hospitalization with sepsis [fructosamine 1.75 (1.01–3.02); glycated albumin 1.39 (0.94–2.06)]. CONCLUSIONS Serum fructosamine and glycated albumin are risk factors for mortality and morbidity in hemodialysis patients. PMID:23250799

  10. Urine matrix metalloproteinase-7 and risk of kidney disease progression and mortality in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Afkarian, Maryam; Zelnick, Leila R; Ruzinski, John; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; de Boer, Ian H; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2017-01-01

    Aims The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and WNT pathways are dysregulated in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Urine excretion of angiotensinogen, gremlin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), components of the RAAS, BMP and WNT pathways, respectively, is increased in DKD. We asked if this increase is associated with subsequent progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death. Methods Using time-to-event analyses, we examined the association of baseline urine concentration of these proteins with progression to ESRD or death in a predominantly Mexican-American cohort with type 2 diabetes and proteinuric DKD (n=141). Results Progression to ESRD occurred for 38 participants over a median follow-up of 3.0 years; 39 participants died over a median follow-up of 3.6 years. Urine MMP-7 and gremlin-1 were associated with increased risk of ESRD after adjustment for demographic and clinical covariates. Angiotensinogen showed a U-shaped relationship with ESRD, with the middle tertile associated with lowest risk of ESRD. After additional adjustment for glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria, all associations with ESRD lost significance. Only urine MMP-7 was associated with mortality, and this association remained robust in the fully adjusted model with a Hazard ratio of 3.59 (95% confidence interval 1.31 to 9.85) for highest vs. lowest tertile. Serum MMP-7 was not associated with mortality and did not attenuate the association of urine MMP-7 with mortality (HR 4.03 for highest vs. lowest urine MMP-7 tertile). Conclusions Among people with type 2 diabetes and proteinuric DKD, urine MMP-7 concentration was strongly associated with subsequent mortality. PMID:26412030

  11. Cancer mortality risk among military participants of a 1958 atmospheric nuclear weapons test.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, K K; Kang, H K; Dalager, N A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was undertaken to determine if Navy veterans who participated in an atmospheric nuclear test in 1958 were at increased risk of death from certain cancers. METHODS. Cancer mortality risk of 8554 Navy veterans who participated in an atmospheric nuclear test in the Pacific was compared with that of 14,625 Navy veterans who did not participate in any test. Radiation dosage information was obtained from film badges for 88% of the test participants. RESULTS. The median radiation dose for the test participants was 388 mrem (3.88 millisieverts [mSv]). Among participants who received the highest radiation dose (> 1000 mrem, or 10 mSv), an increased mortality risk for all causes (relative risk [RR] = 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04, 1.45), all cancers (RR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.96), and liver cancer (RR = 6.42; 95% CI = 1.17, 35.3) was observed. The risk for cancer of the digestive organs was elevated among test participants (rate ratio = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.04) but with no significant dose-response trend. Many of the cancers of a priori interest were not significantly elevated in the overall test participant group or in the group that received the highest radiation dose. CONCLUSIONS. Most of the cancers suspected of being radiogenic were not significantly elevated among the test participants. Nevertheless, increased risks for certain cancers cannot be ruled out at this time. Veterans who participated in the nuclear weapons tests should continue to be monitored. PMID:7702116

  12. Perceived Social Support Trajectories and the All-Cause Mortality Risk of Older Mexican American Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Terrence D.; Uchino, Bert N.; Eckhardt, Jessica L.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies of non-Hispanic whites and blacks show that social integration and social support tend to favor longevity, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to the Mexican American population. Building on previous research, we employed seven waves of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to examine the association between perceived social support trajectories and the all-cause mortality risk of older Mexican Americans. Growth mixture estimates revealed three latent classes of support trajectories: high, moderate, and low. Cox regression estimates indicated that older Mexican American men in the low support trajectory tend to exhibit a higher mortality risk than their counterparts in the high support trajectory. Social support trajectories were unrelated to the mortality risk of older Mexican American women. A statistically significant interaction term confirmed that social support was more strongly associated with the mortality risk of men. PMID:26966256

  13. Perceived Social Support Trajectories and the All-Cause Mortality Risk of Older Mexican American Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Hill, Terrence D; Uchino, Bert N; Eckhardt, Jessica L; Angel, Jacqueline L

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks show that social integration and social support tend to favor longevity, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to the Mexican American population. Building on previous research, we employed seven waves of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to examine the association between perceived social support trajectories and the all-cause mortality risk of older Mexican Americans. Growth mixture estimates revealed three latent classes of support trajectories: high, moderate, and low. Cox regression estimates indicated that older Mexican American men in the low support trajectory tend to exhibit a higher mortality risk than their counterparts in the high support trajectory. Social support trajectories were unrelated to the mortality risk of older Mexican American women. A statistically significant interaction term confirmed that social support was more strongly associated with the mortality risk of men.

  14. Age- and gender-specific population attributable risks of metabolic disorders on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The extent of attributable risks of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components on mortality remains unclear, especially with respect to age and gender. We aimed to assess the age- and gender-specific population attributable risks (PARs) for cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality and all-cause mortality for public health planning. Methods A total of 2,092 men and 2,197 women 30 years of age and older, who were included in the 2002 Taiwan Survey of Hypertension, Hyperglycemia, and Hyperlipidemia (TwSHHH), were linked to national death certificates acquired through December 31, 2009. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios and PARs for mortality, with a median follow-up of 7.7 years. Results The respective PAR percentages of MetS for all-cause and CVD-related mortality were 11.6 and 39.2 in men, respectively, and 18.6 and 44.4 in women, respectively. Central obesity had the highest PAR for CVD mortality in women (57.5%), whereas arterial hypertension had the highest PAR in men (57.5%). For all-cause mortality, younger men and post-menopausal women had higher PARs related to Mets and its components; for CVD mortality, post-menopausal women had higher overall PARs than their pre-menopausal counterparts. Conclusions MetS has a limited application to the PAR for all-cause mortality, especially in men; its PAR for CVD mortality is more evident. For CVD mortality, MetS components have higher PARs than MetS itself, especially hypertension in men and waist circumference in post-menopausal women. In addition, PARs for diabetes mellitus and low HDL-cholesterol may exceed 20%. We suggest differential control of risk factors in different subpopulation as a strategy to prevent CVD-related mortality. PMID:22321049

  15. Neonatal mortality, risk factors and causes: a prospective population-based cohort study in urban Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Imtiaz; Harris, Hillary; Salat, Sohail; Zeb, Amna; Mobeen, Naushaba; Pasha, Omrana; Moore, Janet; Wright, Linda L; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the prevalence, sex distribution and causes of neonatal mortality, as well as its risk factors, in an urban Pakistani population with access to obstetric and neonatal care. Methods Study area women were enrolled at 20–26 weeks’ gestation in a prospective population-based cohort study that was conducted from 2003 to 2005. Physical examinations, antenatal laboratory tests and anthropometric measures were performed, and gestational age was determined by ultrasound to confirm eligibility. Demographic and health data were also collected on pretested study forms by trained female research staff. The women and neonates were seen again within 48 hours postpartum and at day 28 after the birth. All neonatal deaths were reviewed using the Pattinson et al. system to assign obstetric and final causes of death; the circumstances of the death were determined by asking the mother or family and by reviewing hospital records. Frequencies and rates were calculated, and 95% confidence intervals were determined for mortality rates. Relative risks were calculated to evaluate the associations between potential risk factors and neonatal death. Logistic regression models were used to compute adjusted odds ratios. Findings Birth outcomes were ascertained for 1280 (94%) of the 1369 women enrolled. The 28-day neonatal mortality rate was 47.3 per 1000 live births. Preterm birth, Caesarean section and intrapartum complications were associated with neonatal death. Some 45% of the deaths occurred within 48 hours and 73% within the first week. The primary obstetric causes of death were preterm labour (34%) and intrapartum asphyxia (21%). Final causes were classified as immaturity-related (26%), birth asphyxia or hypoxia (26%) and infection (23%). Neither delivery in a health facility nor by health professionals was associated with fewer neonatal deaths. The Caesarean section rate was 19%. Almost all (88%) neonates who died received treatment and 75% died in the

  16. Pain and Mortality Risk in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Persons with Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Debbie M.; Quinn, Emily; Bridden, Carly; Merlin, Jessica S.; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Pain has been associated with increased risk for mortality in some studies. We analyzed data from a cohort study [HIV-longitudinal interrelationships of viruses and ethanol (HIV-LIVE)] of HIV-infected persons with alcohol use disorders enrolled 2001–2003 to explore whether reporting moderate or greater pain interference was associated with mortality. The main independent variable was pain that at least moderately interfered with work based on a single question from the SF-12. Primary analyses dichotomized at “moderately” or above. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between pain interference and death adjusting for demographics, substance use, CD4 count, HIV viral load and co-morbidities. Although significant in unadjusted models (HR = 1.58 (95 % CI 1.03–2.41; p value = 0.04)), after adjusting for confounders, ≥moderate pain interference was not associated with an increased risk of death [aHR = 1.30 (95 % CI 0.81–2.11, p value = 0.28)]. Among HIV-infected persons with alcohol use disorders, we did not detect a statistically significant independent association between pain interference and risk of death after adjustment for potential confounders. PMID:26438486

  17. Necrotizing soft tissue infections. Risk factors for mortality and strategies for management.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, D C; Kufera, J A; Myers, R A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluate in a retrospective fashion the factors influencing outcome in a large group of patients presenting with necrotizing soft tissue infections, and, based on this analysis, propose a plan for optimal care of such patients. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In many smaller series of patients with necrotizing soft tissue infections, similar analyses of risk factors for mortality have been performed, producing conflicting conclusions regarding optimal care. In particular, debate exists regarding the impact of concurrent physiologic derangements, type and extent of infection, and the role of hyperbaric oxygen in treatment. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 198 consecutive patients with documented necrotizing soft tissue infections, treated at a single institution during an 8-year period, was conducted. Using a model for logistic regression analysis, characteristics of each patient and his/her clinical course were tested for impact on outcome. RESULTS: The mortality rate among the 198 patients was 25.3%. The most common sites of origin of infection were the perineum (Fournier's disease; 36% of cases) and the foot (in diabetics; 15.2%). By logistic regression analysis, risk factors for death included age, female gender, extent of infection, delay in first debridement, elevated serum creatinine level, elevated blood lactate level, and degree of organ system dysfunction at admission. Diabetes mellitus did not predispose patients to death, except in conjunction with renal dysfunction or peripheral vascular disease. Myonecrosis, noted in 41.4% of the patients who underwent surgery, did not influence mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Necrotizing soft tissue infections represent a group of highly lethal infections best treated by early and repeated extensive debridement and broad-spectrum antibiotics. Hyperbaric oxygen appears to offer the advantage of early wound closure. Certain markers predict those individuals at increased risk for multiple-organ failure

  18. Short-term mortality risk of serum potassium levels in acute heart failure following myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Krogager, Maria Lukács; Eggers-Kaas, Lotti; Aasbjerg, Kristian; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Køber, Lars; Gislason, Gunnar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Søgaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Aims Diuretic treatment is often needed in acute heart failure following myocardial infarction (MI) and carries a risk of abnormal potassium levels. We examined the relation between different levels of potassium and mortality. Methods and results From Danish national registries we identified 2596 patients treated with loop diuretics after their first MI episode where potassium measurement was available within 3 months. All-cause mortality was examined according to seven predefined potassium levels: hypokalaemia <3.5 mmol/L, low normal potassium 3.5–3.8 mmol/L, normal potassium 3.9–4.2 mmol/L, normal potassium 4.3–4.5 mmol/L, high normal potassium 4.6–5.0 mmol/L, mild hyperkalaemia 5.1–5.5 mmol/L, and severe hyperkalaemia: >5.5 mmol/L. Follow-up was 90 days and using normal potassium 3.9–4.2 mmol/L as a reference, we estimated the risk of death with a multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard model. After 90 days, the mortality rates in the seven potassium intervals were 15.7, 13.6, 7.3, 8.1, 10.6, 15.5, and 38.3%, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted risk for death was statistically significant for patients with hypokalaemia [hazard ratio (HR): 1.91, confidence interval (95%CI): 1.14–3.19], and mild and severe hyperkalaemia (HR: 2, CI: 1.25–3.18 and HR: 5.6, CI: 3.38–9.29, respectively). Low and high normal potassium were also associated with increased mortality (HR: 1.84, CI: 1.23–2.76 and HR: 1.55, CI: 1.09–2.22, respectively). Conclusion Potassium levels outside the interval 3.9–4.5 mmol/L were associated with a substantial risk of death in patients requiring diuretic treatment after an MI. PMID:27418967

  19. Radiation risk and cancer mortality in exposed populations living near the Techa River in Southern Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Kossenko, M.M.; Degteva, M.O.

    1992-06-01

    The appropriateness of applying risk coefficients calculated from short-term exposures at high doses for the assessment of radiation effects at low doses is currently much debated. The problem can be resolved on the basis of the data obtained from a long-term follow-up of the population exposed in the early 1950s when discharges of radioactive wastes from a radiochemical plant into the Techa River (southern Urals) occurred. This paper discusses the results of an analysis of cancer mortality during the period 1950-82. 10 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Mortality Risk After Cardiac Surgery: Application of Inscor in a University Hospital in Brazil's Northeast

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, João Vyctor Silva; Silva, Mayara Gabrielle Barbosa e; Baldez, Thiago Eduardo Pereira; Costa, Marina de Albuquerque Gonçalves; da Silva, Luan Nascimento; Pinheiro, Renata Silva; Fecks, Zullma Sampaio; Borges, Daniel Lago

    2016-01-01

    Objective To apply the InsCor in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a university hospital in Brazil's northeast. Methods It is a retrospective, quantitative and analytical study, carried out at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Maranhão. InsCor is a remodeling of two risk score models. It evaluates the prediction of mortality through variables such as gender, age, type of surgery or reoperation, exams, and preoperative events. Data from January to December 2015 were collected, using a Physical Therapy Evaluation Form and medical records. Quantitative variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation and qualitative variables as absolute and relative frequencies. Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied, considering significant differences when P value was < 0.05. Calibration was performed by Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results One hundred and forty-eight patients were included. Thirty-six percent were female, with mean age of 54.7±15.8 years and mean body mass index (BMI) equal to 25.6 kg/m2. The most frequent surgery was coronary artery bypass grafting (51.3%). According to InsCor, 73.6% of the patients had low risk, 20.3% medium risk, and only 6.1% high risk. In this sample, 11 (7.4%) patients died. The percentage of death in patients classified as low, medium and high risk was 6.3, 7.1% and 11.1%, respectively. Conclusion InsCor presented easy applicability due to the reduced number of variables analyzed and it showed satisfactory prediction of mortality in this sample of cardiac surgery patients. PMID:27982349

  1. Association between anesthesiologist experience and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Ira; Spivack, John; Yaport, Miguel; Zerillo, Jeron; Reich, David L; Wax, David; DeMaria, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The anesthesiologist has been recognized as an integral member of the liver transplant team, and previous studies have demonstrated that inter-anesthesiologist variability can be a driver of outcomes for high-risk patients. We hypothesized that anesthesiologist experience, defined as the number of previous liver transplants performed at our institution, the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, would be independently associated with outcomes for liver transplant patients. Eight hundred forty-nine liver transplants performed between January 2003 and January 2013 with a total of 22 anesthesiologists were analyzed. Each transplant was assigned an incremental case number that corresponded to the number of transplants that the attending anesthesiologist had already performed at our institution. Several perioperative covariates were controlled for in the context of a generalized linear mixed effects model to detail the influence of threshold levels of the incremental case number on the primary outcome, 30-day mortality, and a secondary outcome, 30-day graft failure. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to confirm the robustness of these findings. An incremental case number ≤ 5 was associated with a significantly greater risk of 30-day mortality (odds ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.11-4.54, P = 0.025), and there was evidence suggestive of a greater risk of 30-day graft failure (odds ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence interval = 0.95-3.93, P = 0.071). Sensitivity analyses ruled out threats to the validity of these findings, including dropout effects and time trends in the overall performance of the transplantation unit. In conclusion, this study shows that an anesthesiologist's level of experience has a significant effect on outcomes for liver transplant recipients, with increased mortality and possibly graft failure during a provider's first 5 cases. These findings may indicate the need for increased training and supervision for

  2. Monitoring and Modeling the Fluctuations in Apparent Groundwater Age During a 30-Day Pumping Test.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perle, M. E.; Zhang, Y.; Fogg, G. E.

    2004-12-01

    Recent research shows that dispersion due to geologic heterogeneity can cause large (10's to 100's of yrs) variations in actual groundwater age within individual samples drawn from a well, even if well bore mixing is not significant. We hypothesize that the presence of such large ranges in groundwater age may cause the mean apparent age as estimated from environmental tracers such as CFC's, SF&_{6}, and ^{3}H-^{3}He to drift measurably during long-term, continuous pumping. This hypothesis was confirmed by 3-D numerical experiments wherein variation in groundwater ages under high-rate (\\sim0.06 m^{3}/s; 1,000 gpm) long-term pumping was modeled using backward-time random walk particle tracking techniques combined with geostatistical simulations of hydrofacies heterogeneity. Results indicate that the age distribution within a water sample and the mean apparent age implied by environmental tracers is strongly influenced by historical atmospheric concentrations of environmental tracers and subsurface heterogeneity. As a partial implementation of this same experiment in the field, an abandoned well was pumped at a low rate (\\sim0.005 m^{3}/s; 75 gpm) during 53 days. Water samples were collected from the top and bottom of a 25 foot well screen at 12 hour intervals for the first 30 days and were analyzed for CFC's, SF&6, and 3H-3He. The measured tracer ages indicate that 1) CFC-11 apparent ages increased with time within the first five days of pumping and then remained constant for the remainder of the pump test; 2) trends in CFC-12, CFC-113 and SF&_{6}$ indicate a discrepancy in apparent ages with CFC-11, 3) water reaching the top interval is younger than water reaching the bottom interval. Gas samples were collected from the unsaturated zone to investigate possible CFC contamination and tracer concentration spatial variations in the pumping well recharge zone. Potential effects of heterogeneity and local CFC contamination on the monitoring results will be discussed.

  3. Bion M1. Peculiarities of life activities of microbes in 30-day spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis; Morozova, Julia; Voeikova, Tatiana; Tyaglov, Boris; Novikova, Liudmila; Krestyanova, Irina; Emelyanova, Lydia

    The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of space flight factors ( SFF) to microorganism strains , exposed inside unmanned spacecraft Bion M-1 during the 30- day space flight. Objectives of the work - the study of the influence of the SFF exchange chromosomal DNA in crosses microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces; the level of spontaneous phage induction of lysogenic strains fS31 from Streptomyces lividans 66 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) on the biosynthesis of the antibiotic tylosin strain of Streptomyces fradiae; survival electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR- 1 is used in the microbial fuel cell As a result of this work it was found that the SFF affect the exchange of chromosomal DNA by crossing strains of Streptomyces. Was detected polarity crossing , expressed in an advantageous contribution chromosome fragment of one of the parent strains in recombinant offspring. This fact may indicate a more prolonged exposure of cells in microgravity and , as a consequence, the transfer of longer fragments of chromosomal DNA This feature is the transfer of genetic material in microgravity could lead to wider dissemination and horizontal transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA of symbiotic microflora astronauts and other strains present in the spacecraft. It was shown no effect on the frequency of recombination PCF and the level of mutation model reversion of auxotrophic markers to prototrophy It was demonstrated that PCF increase the level of induction of cell actinophage fS31 lysogenic strain of S. lividans 66, but did not affect the level of induction of this phage cells S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). It is shown that the lower the level of synthesis PCF antibiotic aktinorodina (actinorhodin) in lysogenic strain S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). 66 Strains of S. lividans and S. coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) can be used as a biosensor for studying the effect on microorganisms PCF It is shown that the effect of the PCF reduces synthesis of tylosin and desmicosyn S. fradiae at

  4. Brachytherapy boost and cancer-specific mortality in favorable high-risk versus other high-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Muralidhar, Vinayak; Xiang, Michael; Orio, Peter F.; Martin, Neil E.; Beard, Clair J.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent retrospective data suggest that brachytherapy (BT) boost may confer a cancer-specific survival benefit in radiation-managed high-risk prostate cancer. We sought to determine whether this survival benefit would extend to the recently defined favorable high-risk subgroup of prostate cancer patients (T1c, Gleason 4 + 4 = 8, PSA < 10 ng/ml or T1c, Gleason 6, PSA > 20 ng/ml). Material and methods We identified 45,078 patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database with cT1c-T3aN0M0 intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed 2004-2011 treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) only or EBRT plus BT. We used multivariable competing risks regression to determine differences in the rate of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) after EBRT + BT or EBRT alone in patients with intermediate-risk, favorable high-risk, or other high-risk disease after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results EBRT + BT was not associated with an improvement in 5-year PCSM compared to EBRT alone among patients with favorable high-risk disease (1.6% vs. 1.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]: 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21-1.52, p = 0.258), and intermediate-risk disease (0.8% vs. 1.0%, AHR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, p = 0.270). Others with high-risk disease had significantly lower 5-year PCSM when treated with EBRT + BT compared with EBRT alone (3.9% vs. 5.3%; AHR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.95; p = 0.022). Conclusions Brachytherapy boost is associated with a decreased rate of PCSM in some men with high-risk prostate cancer but not among patients with favorable high-risk disease. Our results suggest that the recently-defined “favorable high-risk” category may be used to personalize therapy for men with high-risk disease. PMID:26985191

  5. Quality of Disease Management and Risk of Mortality in English Primary Care Practices

    PubMed Central

    Dusheiko, Mark; Gravelle, Hugh; Martin, Stephen; Smith, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether better management of chronic conditions by family practices reduces mortality risk. Data Two random samples of 5 million patients registered with over 8,000 English family practices followed up for 4 years (2004/5–2007/8). Measures of the quality of disease management for 10 conditions were constructed for each family practice for each year. The outcome measure was an indicator taking the value 1 if the patient died during a specified year, 0 otherwise. Study Design Cross-section and multilevel panel data multiple logistic regressions were estimated. Covariates included age, gender, morbidity, hospitalizations, attributed socio-economic characteristics, and local health care supply measures. Principal Findings Although a composite measure of the quality of disease management for all 10 conditions was significantly associated with lower mortality, only the quality of stroke care was significant when all 10 quality measures were entered in the regression. Conclusions The panel data results suggest that a 1 percent improvement in the quality of stroke care could reduce the annual number of deaths in England by 782 [95 percent CI: 423, 1140]. A longer study period may be necessary to detect any mortality impact of better management of other conditions. PMID:25597263

  6. Where does distance matter? Distance to the closest maternity unit and risk of foetal and neonatal mortality in France

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Béatrice; Drewniak, Nicolas; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background: The number of maternity units has declined in France, raising concerns about the possible impact of increasing travel distances on perinatal health outcomes. We investigated impact of distance to closest maternity unit on perinatal mortality. Methods: Data from the French National Vital Statistics Registry were used to construct foetal and neonatal mortality rates over 2001–08 by distance from mother’s municipality of residence and the closest municipality with a maternity unit. Data from French neonatal mortality certificates were used to compute neonatal death rates after out-of-hospital birth. Relative risks by distance were estimated, adjusting for individual and municipal-level characteristics. Results: Seven percent of births occurred to women residing at ≥30 km from a maternity unit and 1% at ≥45 km. Foetal and neonatal mortality rates were highest for women living at <5 km from a maternity unit. For foetal mortality, rates increased at ≥45 km compared with 5–45 km. In adjusted models, long distance to a maternity unit had no impact on overall mortality but women living closer to a maternity unit had a higher risk of neonatal mortality. Neonatal deaths associated with out-of-hospital birth were rare but more frequent at longer distances. At the municipal-level, higher percentages of unemployment and foreign-born residents were associated with increased mortality. Conclusion: Overall mortality was not associated with living far from a maternity unit. Mortality was elevated in municipalities with social risk factors and located closest to a maternity unit, reflecting the location of maternity units in deprived areas with risk factors for poor outcome. PMID:24390464

  7. Excess mortality in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: Temporal changes and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Puhan, Milo A.; Van Natta, Mark L.; Palella, Frank J.; Addessi, Adrienne; Meinert, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Background Excess mortality has declined among HIV infected patients but without evidence of a decline in patients with AIDS. We assessed temporal changes in excess mortality and elucidated risk factors for excess mortality in patients with AIDS diagnosed in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods We included 1,188 patients of the Longitudinal Study of Ocular Complications in AIDS who were between 25-64 years old at enrollment and diagnosed with AIDS after 1995. We calculated excess mortality as the age-, year- and sex-adjusted difference in mortality rates between patients with AIDS and persons in the US general population, between 1999 and 2007, and used a relative survival model to identify risk factors for excess mortality. Results There were an average of 50 excess deaths (95% CI 44-57) per 1,000 person years between 1999 and 2007. Excess mortality almost halved with an annual decline of 8.0% per year (3.0-12.7 p=0.002) but remained high at 36 excess deaths per 1,000 person years in 2007. Viral load >400 vs. ≤400 copies/mL (risk ratio 3.4 [2.3-5.0]), CD4+ count <200 vs. ≥200 cells/μL (2.7 [1.9-3.9]) and cytomegalovirus retinitis (1.6 [1.2-2.1]) were the strongest risk factors for excess mortality. Conclusions Excess mortality among patients with AIDS was nearly halved in the HAART era and most strongly linked to stage of HIV disease. These results reflect the continuing improvements in AIDS management but also highlight that excess mortality remains about five times higher in patients with AIDS than in patients with HIV-infection but no AIDS. PMID:20825306

  8. 75 FR 45116 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    .... Proposed Project: Girls at Greater Risk for Juvenile Delinquency and HIV Prevention Program--OMB No. 0990-New--Office on Women's Health (OWH). Abstract: The Office on Women's Health (OWH) is seeking a new... Risk for Juvenile Delinquency and HIV Prevention Program''. The evaluation is designed to...

  9. Cruciferous vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of total and cardiovascular disease mortality1234

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Gao, Jing; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Background: Asian populations habitually consume a large amount of cruciferous vegetables and other plant-based foods. Few epidemiologic investigations have evaluated the potential health effects of these foods in Asian populations. Objective: We aimed to examine the associations of cruciferous vegetables, noncruciferous vegetables, total vegetables, and total fruit intake with risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Design: The analysis included 134,796 Chinese adults who participated in 2 population-based, prospective cohort studies: the Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study. Dietary intakes were assessed at baseline through in-person interviews by using validated food-frequency questionnaires. Deaths were ascertained by biennial home visits and linkage with vital statistics registries. Results: We identified 3442 deaths among women during a mean follow-up of 10.2 y and 1951 deaths among men during a mean follow-up of 4.6 y. Overall, fruit and vegetable intake was inversely associated with risk of total mortality in both women and men, and a dose-response pattern was particularly evident for cruciferous vegetable intake. The pooled multivariate hazard ratios (95% CIs) for total mortality across increasing quintiles of intake were 1 (reference), 0.91 (0.84, 0.98), 0.88 (0.77, 1.00), 0.85 (0.76, 0.96), and 0.78 (0.71, 0.85) for cruciferous vegetables (P < 0.0001 for trend) and 0.88 (0.79, 0.97), 0.88 (0.79, 0.98), 0.76 (0.62, 0.92), and 0.84 (0.69, 1.00) for total vegetables (P = 0.03 for trend). The inverse associations were primarily related to cardiovascular disease mortality but not to cancer mortality. Conclusion: Our findings support recommendations to increase consumption of vegetables, particularly cruciferous vegetables, and fruit to promote cardiovascular health and overall longevity. PMID:21593509

  10. Pre-transplant diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for non-relapse mortality, especially infection-related mortality, after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT.

    PubMed

    Takano, K; Fuji, S; Uchida, N; Ogawa, H; Ohashi, K; Eto, T; Sakamaki, H; Morishima, Y; Kato, K; Suzuki, R; Fukuda, T

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a factor in the hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index. However, the impact of pre-transplant DM on morbidity and cause-specific non-relapse mortality (NRM) remains unclear. We performed a retrospective study with registry data that included a total of 7626 patients who underwent their first allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) between 2007 and 2010. The median age was 44 years (range 0-88). Compared with patients without pre-transplant DM (non-DM group, n=7248), patients with pre-transplant DM (DM group, n=378) were older and were more likely to have high-risk disease, a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen and GVHD prophylaxis using tacrolimus. Multivariate analyses showed that pre-transplant DM was associated with increased risks of NRM (hazard ratio (HR)1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-1.76, P<0.01) and infection-related NRM (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.58-2.73, P<0.01). The presence of pre-transplant DM was associated with an increased risk of overall mortality in a multivariate analysis (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.35-1.78, P<0.01). In conclusion, pre-transplant DM was a risk factor for NRM, particularly infection-related mortality, after allogeneic HSCT. To improve the clinical outcome in patients with DM, the benefits of strict infection control and appropriate glycemic control should be explored in future trials.

  11. Workplace risk factors for cancer in the German rubber industry: Part 1. Mortality from respiratory cancers

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, S. K.; Straif, K.; Chambless, L.; Werner, B.; Mundt, K. A.; Bucher, A.; Birk, T.; Keil, U.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the cancer specific mortality by work area among active and retired male workers in the German rubber industry. METHODS: A cohort of 11,663 male German workers was followed up for mortality from 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1991. Cohort members were classified as active (n = 7536) or retired (n = 4127) as of 1 January 1981 and had been employed for at least one year in one of five study plants producing tyres or technical rubber goods. Work histories were reconstructed with routinely documented "cost centre codes" which were classified into six categories: I preparation of materials; II production of technical rubber goods; III production of tyres; IV storage and dispatch; V maintenance; and VI others. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for age and calendar year and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), stratified by work area (employment in respective work area for at least one year) and time related variables (year of hire, lagged years of employment in work area), were calculated from national reference rates. RESULTS: SMRs for laryngeal cancer were highest in work area I (SMR 253; 95% CI 93 to 551) and were significant among workers who were employed for > 10 years in this work area (SMR 330; 95% CI 107 to 779). Increased mortality rates from lung cancer were identified in work areas I (SMR 162; 95% CI 129 to 202), II (SMR 134; 95% CI 109 to 163), and V (SMR 131; 95% CI 102 to 167). Mortality from pleural cancer was increased in all six work areas, and significant excesses were found in work areas I (SMR 448; 95% CI 122 to 1146), II (SMR 505; 95% CI 202 to 1040), and V (SMR 554; 95% CI 179 to 1290). CONCLUSION: A causal relation between the excess of pleural cancer and exposure to asbestos among rubber workers is plausible and likely. In this study, the pattern of excess of lung cancer parallels the pattern of excess of pleural cancer. This points to asbestos as one risk factor for the excess deaths from lung cancer among

  12. An analysis program for occupational cohort mortality and update cancer risk in copper miners.

    PubMed

    Chen, R

    1996-01-01

    Author has developed a computer analysis system to deal with data from occupational follow-up studies, including: (1) input and administration of data; (2) calculation of person-years at risk and follow-up rate; (3) standardised mortality ratios for all cause-of-death categories; (4) the differences and trends of the cancer risks among subcategories defined by variables such as year and age at death, year and age at start of exposure, duration of exposure and time since first exposure, and job titles; and (5) life expectancy analysis. It is explained and applied in an updated cohort of copper miners. The computed results showed that the SMR for all cancer was elevated to 129 (95% CI 117-142). The SMR increased with calendar periods and a higher risk of cancer deaths was found in the miners employed in the 1950s. The miners who were exposed at a younger age had more chance of developing cancer. The risk of cancer deaths increased with the time since first exposure and more strongly with the duration of exposure. The SMR of cancer in underground miners reached up to 137 significantly. All analysis suggests that the occupational exposure (possibly silica dust) could be considered as a risk factor of cancer among the copper miners. The analysis of life expectancy indicated that deaths from circulatory system disease shorten more life expectancy for the miners.

  13. Living in danger: previous violence, socioeconomic position, and mortality risk among women over a 10-year period.

    PubMed

    Trygged, Sven; Hedlund, Ebba; Kåreholt, Ingemar

    2014-01-01

    Violence against women has many negative consequences. In this short report the authors investigate patterns of mortality among women experiencing violence leading to inpatient care from 1992 to 2006. Do women who are victims of severe violence have an increased mortality risk (a) in general? (b) by violence? (c) by suicide? Does socioeconomic position have any bearing on the mortality risk? The study was based on Swedish national registers, where 6,085 women exposed to violence resulting in inpatient care were compared with a nonexposed population sample of 55,016 women. Women of all social strata previously exposed to severe violence and treated in hospital had a highly increased risk of premature death from all-cause mortality, violence, or suicide. Women previously exposed to severe violence continue to live a life in danger. There is need for a societal response to support and protect these women against further violence after discharge from hospital.

  14. Fifty-Year Trends in Atrial Fibrillation Prevalence, Incidence, Risk Factors, and Mortality in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Renate B.; Yin, Xiaoyan; PhilimonGona; Larson, Martin G.; Beiser, Alexa S.; McManus, David D.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Lubitz, Steven A.; Magnani, Jared W.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; SudhaSeshadri; Wolf, Philip A; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Comprehensive long-term data on atrial fibrillation trends in men and women are scant. Methods We investigated trends in atrial fibrillation incidence, prevalence, and risk factors, and in stroke and mortality following its onset in Framingham Heart Study participants (n=9511) from 1958 to 2007. To accommodate sex differences in atrial fibrillation risk factors and disease manifestations, sex-stratified analyses were performed. Findings During 50 years of observation (202,417 person-years), there were 1,544 new-onset atrial fibrillation cases (46.8% women). We observed about a fourfold increase in the age-adjusted prevalence and more than a tripling in age-adjusted incidence of atrial fibrillation (prevalence 20.4 versus 96.2 per 1000 person-years in men; 13.7 versus 49.4 in women; incidence rates in first versus last decade 3.7 versus 13.4 per 1000 person-years in men; 2.5 versus 8.6 in women, ptrend<0.0001). For atrial fibrillation diagnosed by ECG during routine Framingham examinations, age-adjusted prevalence increased (12.6versus 25.7 per 1000 person-years in men; 8.1 versus 11.8 in women, ptrend<0.0001). The age-adjusted incidence increased, but did not achieve statistical significance. Although the prevalence of most risk factors changed over time, their associated hazards for atrial fibrillation changed little. Multivariable-adjusted proportional hazards models revealed a 73.5% decline in stroke and a 25.4% decline in mortality following atrial fibrillation onset (ptrend=0.0001, ptrend=0.003, respectively). Interpretation Our data suggest that observed trends of increased incidence of atrial fibrillation in the community were partially due to enhanced surveillance. Stroke occurrence and mortality following atrial fibrillation onset declined over the decades, and prevalence increased approximately fourfold. The hazards for atrial fibrillation risk factors remained fairly constant. Our data indicate a need for measures to enhance early

  15. Bleeding Risk and Mortality of Edoxaban: A Pooled Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dachun; Xu, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) Edoxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, is a new oral anticoagulant that has been developed as an alternative to vitamin K antagonists. However, its safety remains unexplored. Methods Medline, Embase and Web of Science were searched to March 8, 2014 for prospective, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the safety profile of edoxaban with warfarin. Safety outcomes examined included bleeding risk and mortality. Results Five trials including 31,262 patients that met the inclusion criteria were pooled. Overall, edoxaban was associated with a significant decrease in major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events [risk ratio (RR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 0.82, p<0.001] and any bleeding events [RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.85, p<0.001]. Edoxaban also showed superiority to warfarin both in all-cause mortality [RR 0.92, 95% CI0.85 to0.99, p = 0.02] and cardiovascular mortality [RR 0.87, 95% CI0.79 to 0.96, p = 0.004]. Subgroup analyses indicated that RRs of edoxaban 30, 60 or 120 mg/d were 0.67 (p<0.001), 0.87 (p<0.001) and 3.3 (p = 0.004) respectively in major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding; 0.71 (p<0.001), 0.89 (p<0.001) and 2.29 (p = 0.002) respectively in any bleeding; as well as 0.86 (p = 0.01), 0.87 (p = 0.01) and 0.28 (p = 0.41) respectively in cardiovascular death… Meanwhile, paramount to note that pooled results other than the largest trial showed edoxaban was still associated with a decrease in the rate of major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding event (p = 0.02) and any bleeding (p = 0.002), but neither in all-cause death (p = 0.66) nor cardiovascular death (p = 0.70). Conclusions Edoxaban, a novel orally available direct factor Xa inhibitor, seems to have a favorable safety profiles with respect to bleeding risk and non-inferior in mortality when compared to warfarin. Further prospective RCTs are urgently needed to confirm the results of this meta

  16. Cryptococcal meningitis in a tertiary hospital in Pretoria, mortality and risk factors - A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hiesgen, J; Schutte, C; Olorunju, S; Retief, J

    2017-04-01

    Aim This retrospective cohort study analyzes the impact of possible risk factors on the survival chance of patients with cryptococcal meningitis. These factors include the patient's socio-economic background, age, gender, presenting symptoms, comorbidities, laboratory findings and, in particular, non-adherence versus adherence to therapy. Methods Data were collected from all adult patients admitted to Kalafong Hospital with laboratory confirmed cryptococcal meningitis over a period of 24 months. We analyzed the data by the presentation of descriptive summary statistics, logistic regression was used to assess factors which showed association between outcome of measure and factor. Furthermore, multivariable logistic regression analysis using all the factors that showed significant association in the cross tabulation was applied to determine which factors had an impact on the patients' mortality risk. Results A total of 87 patients were identified. All except one were HIV-positive, of which 55.2% were antiretroviral therapy naïve. A history of previous tuberculosis was given by 25 patients (28.7%) and 49 (56.3%) were on tuberculosis treatment at admission or started during their hospital stay. In-hospital mortality was 31%. Statistical analysis showed that antiretroviral therapy naïve patients had 9.9 (CI 95% 1.2-81.2, p < 0.0032) times greater odds of dying compared to those on antiretroviral therapy, with 17 from 48 patients (35.4%) dying compared with 1 out of 21 patients (4.8%) on treatment. Defaulters had 14.7 (CI 95% 1.6-131.6, p < 0.016) times greater odds of dying, with 9 from 18 patients dying (50%), compared to the non-defaulters. In addition, patients who presented with nausea and vomiting had a 6.3 (95% CI 1.7-23.1, p < 0.005) times greater odds of dying (18/47, 38.3%); this remained significant when adjusted for antiretroviral therapy naïve patients and defaulters. Conclusion Cryptococcal meningitis is still a common opportunistic infection

  17. Acute kidney injury and the risk of mortality in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kizilbash, Sarah J.; Kashtan, Clifford E.; Chavers, Blanche M.; Cao, Qing; Smith, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-documented complication of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Dialysis after HSCT is associated with a lower overall survival (OS); however, the association between less severe AKI and OS is unclear. Method We retrospectively studied 205 consecutive pediatric HSCT patients to determine the incidence and impact of all stages of AKI on OS in pediatric HSCT recipients. We used the peak pRIFLE grade during the first 100 days to classify AKI (R=risk, I= injury, F= failure, L= loss of function, E= End-stage renal disease) and used the modified Schwartz formula to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Results AKI was observed in 173 of the 205 patients (84%). The 1-year OS decreased significantly with an increasing severity of pRIFLE grades (p < 0.01). There was no difference in the OS between patients without AKI and the R/I group. Regardless of the dialysis status, stages F/L/E had significantly lower OS compared with patients without AKI or R/I (p < 0.01). There was no difference in OS among patients with dialysis and F/L/E without dialysis (p 0.65). Stages F/L/E predicted mortality independent of acute graft versus host disease, gender, and malignancy. Conclusion The OS of children after HSCT decreases significantly with an increasing severity of AKI within the first 100 days posttransplant. While our data did not show an increased risk of mortality with stages R/I, stages F/L/E predicted mortality regardless of dialysis. Prevention and minimization of AKI may improve survival after pediatric HSCT. PMID:27034153

  18. Long-term mortality of hospitalized pneumonia in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    PubMed

    Myint, P K; Hawkins, K R; Clark, A B; Luben, R N; Wareham, N J; Khaw, K-T; Wilson, A M

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about cause-specific long-term mortality beyond 30 days in pneumonia. We aimed to compare the mortality of patients with hospitalized pneumonia compared to age- and sex-matched controls beyond 30 days. Participants were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hospitalized pneumonia cases were identified from record linkage (ICD-10: J12-J18). For this study we excluded people with hospitalized pneumonia who died within 30 days. Each case identified was matched to four controls and followed up until the end June 2012 (total 15 074 person-years, mean 6·1 years, range 0·08-15·2 years). Cox regression models were constructed to examine the all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality using date of pneumonia onset as baseline with binary pneumonia status as exposure. A total of 2465 men and women (503 cases, 1962 controls) [mean age (s.d.) 64·5 (8·3) years] were included in the study. Between a 30-day to 1-year period, hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were 7·3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5·4-9·9] and 5·9 (95% CI 3·5-9·7), respectively (with very few respiratory deaths within the same period) in cases compared to controls after adjusting for age, sex, asthma, smoking status, pack years, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, physical activity, waist-to-hip ratio, prevalent cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. All outcomes assessed also showed increased risk of death in cases compared to controls after 1 year; respiratory cause of death being the most significant during that period (HR 16·4, 95% CI 8·9-30·1). Hospitalized pneumonia was associated with increased all-cause and specific-cause mortality beyond 30 days.

  19. Impact of Inpatient Versus Outpatient Total Joint Arthroplasty on 30-Day Hospital Readmission Rates and Unplanned Episodes of Care.

    PubMed

    Springer, Bryan D; Odum, Susan M; Vegari, David N; Mokris, Jeffrey G; Beaver, Walter B

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study comparing 30-day readmission rates between patients undergoing outpatient versus inpatient total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty. A retrospective review of 137 patients undergoing outpatient total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and 106 patients undergoing inpatient (minimum 2-day hospital stay) TJA was conducted. Unplanned hospital readmissions and unplanned episodes of care were recorded. All patients completed a telephone survey. Seven inpatients and 16 outpatients required hospital readmission or an unplanned episode of care following hospital discharge. Readmission rates were higher for TKA than THA. The authors found no statistical differences in 30-day readmission or unplanned care episodes.

  20. Plasma Biomarkers of Inflammation, the Kynurenine Pathway, and Risks of All-Cause, Cancer, and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Hui; Ueland, Per M.; Ulvik, Arve; Eussen, Simone J. P. M.; Vollset, Stein E.; Nygård, Ottar; Midttun, Øivind; Theofylaktopoulou, Despoina; Meyer, Klaus; Tell, Grethe S.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate 10 biomarkers related to inflammation and the kynurenine pathway, including neopterin, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio, C-reactive protein, tryptophan, and 6 kynurenines, as potential predictors of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a general population sample. The study cohort was participants involved in a community-based Norwegian study, the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK). We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations of the biomarkers with all-cause mortality and competing-risk models for cause-specific mortality. Of the 7,015 participants, 1,496 deaths were recorded after a median follow-up time of 14 years (1998–2012). Plasma levels of inflammatory markers (neopterin, kynurenine:tryptophan ratio, and C-reactive protein), anthranilic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine were positively associated with all-cause mortality, and tryptophan and xanthurenic acid were inversely associated. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for the highest (versus lowest) quartiles of the biomarkers were 1.19–1.60 for positive associations and 0.73–0.87 for negative associations. All of the inflammatory markers and most kynurenines, except kynurenic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, were associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. In this general population, plasma biomarkers of inflammation and kynurenines were associated with risk of all-cause, cancer, and CVD mortality. Associations were stronger for CVD mortality than for mortality due to cancer or other causes. PMID:26823439

  1. Complications Associated with Mortality after Head and Neck Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Carolyn L; Brant, Jason A; Bur, Andrés M; Chen, Jinbo; Fischer, John P; Cannady, Steven B; Newman, Jason G

    2017-03-01

    Objective To determine which complications, as defined by the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database, correlate with 30-day mortality in surgery for malignancies of the head and neck. Study Design Retrospective review of prospectively collected national database. Setting NSQIP. Subjects and Methods NSQIP data from 2005 to 2014 were queried for ICD-9 codes head and neck malignancies. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the correlation of individual complications with 30-day mortality. Results In total, 15,410 cases met criteria with 3499 complications in 2235 cases. After controlling for patient and surgical variables, postoperative pneumonia ( P = .02; odds ratio [OR], 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-4.72), progressive renal insufficiency ( P < .001; OR, 21.28; 95% CI, 4.22-87.94), bleeding requiring transfusion ( P = .02; OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.12-3.84), sepsis ( P = .02; OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.15-6.46), septic shock ( P = .045; OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 0.98-7.81), stroke ( P < .001; OR, 19.81; 95% CI, 6.23-56.03), and cardiac arrest ( P < .001; OR, 135.59; 95% CI, 65.00-286.48) were independently associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality. Conclusion The NSQIP database has been extensively validated and used to examine surgical complications, yet there is little analysis on which complications are associated with death. This study identified complications associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality following head and neck cancer surgery. These associations may be used as a measure of complication severity and should be considered when using the NSQIP database to evaluate outcomes in head and neck surgery.

  2. The effectiveness of BMI, calf circumference and mid-arm circumference in predicting subsequent mortality risk in elderly Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Alan C; Chang, Tsui-Lan

    2011-01-01

    BMI, mid-arm circumference (MAC) and calf circumference (CC) are anthropometric indicators often included in geriatric health measurement scales. However, their relative effectiveness in predicting long-term mortality risk has not been extensively examined. The present study aimed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of these anthropometrics in predicting long-term mortality risk in older adults. The study prospectively analysed the ability of these indicators in predicting 4-year follow-up mortality risk of a population-representative sample of 4191 men and women, 53 years of age or older in the 'Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan'. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association of follow-up mortality risk with low ( < 21 kg/m2) or high ( ≥ 27 kg/m2) BMI, low MAC ( < 23·5/22 cm for men/women) and low CC ( < 30/27 cm) respectively, according to Taiwanese-specific cut-off points. Results showed that low CC and low MAC were more effective than low BMI in predicting follow-up mortality risk in 65-74-year-old elderly. But low CC and low BMI were more effective than low MAC in ≥ 75-year-old elderly, and low BMI was more effective than low MAC or low CC in 53-64-year-old persons. High BMI was not effective in predicting mortality risk in any of these age ranges. These results suggest that in elderly adults, CC is more effective than BMI in predicting long-term mortality risk. Thus, more consideration to CC and MAC in designing geriatric health or nutritional measurement scales is recommended.

  3. Not Just an Urban Phenomenon: Uninsured Rural Trauma Patients at Increased Risk for Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Azeemuddin; Harland, Karisa K.; Hoffman, Bryce; Liao, Junlin; Choi, Kent; Skeete, Dionne; Denning, Gerene

    2015-01-01

    Introduction National studies of largely urban populations showed increased risk of traumatic death among uninsured patients, as compared to those insured. No similar studies have been done for major trauma centers serving rural states. Methods We performed retrospective analyses using trauma registry records from adult, non-burn patients admitted to a single American College of Surgeons-certified Level 1 trauma center in a rural state (2003–2010, n=13,680) and National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) registry records (2002–2008, n=380,182). Risk of traumatic death was estimated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results We found that 9% of trauma center patients and 27% of NTDB patients were uninsured. Overall mortality was similar for both (~4.5%). After controlling for covariates, uninsured trauma center patients were almost five times more likely to die and uninsured NTDB patients were 75% more likely to die than commercially insured patients. The risk of death among Medicaid patients was not significantly different from the commercially insured for either dataset. Conclusion Our results suggest that even with an inclusive statewide trauma system and an emergency department that does not triage by payer status, uninsured patients presenting to the trauma center were at increased risk of traumatic death relative to patients with commercial insurance. PMID:26587084

  4. [The relevance of a decline in renal function for risk of renal failure, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality].

    PubMed

    Bots, Michiel L; Blankestijn, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the presence of impaired renal function is associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Irrespective of the starting level of renal function, a decline in renal function over two years is a relevant and strong risk factor for end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular death and all-cause mortality. Even a decline of 20 to 30 per cent is associated with to a considerable increased risk and requires further attention.

  5. Adjusted Age-Adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index Score as a Risk Measure of Perioperative Mortality before Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Wei, Chang-Kao; Wu, Chin-Chia; Su, Yu-Chieh; Yu, Chia-Hui; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Background Identification of patients at risk of death from cancer surgery should aid in preoperative preparation. The purpose of this study is to assess and adjust the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) to identify cancer patients with increased risk of perioperative mortality. Methods We identified 156,151 patients undergoing surgery for one of the ten common cancers between 2007 and 2011 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Half of the patients were randomly selected, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop an adjusted-ACCI score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by variables from the original ACCI. The score was validated. The association between the score and perioperative mortality was analyzed. Results The adjusted-ACCI score yield a better discrimination on mortality after cancer surgery than the original ACCI score, with c-statics of 0.75 versus 0.71. Over 80 years of age, 70–80 years, and renal disease had the strongest impact on mortality, hazard ratios 8.40, 3.63, and 3.09 (P < 0.001), respectively. The overall 90-day mortality rates in the entire cohort varied from 0.9%, 2.9%, 7.0%, and 13.2% in four risk groups stratifying by the adjusted-ACCI score; the adjusted hazard ratio for score 4–7, 8–11, and ≥ 12 was 2.84, 6.07, and 11.17 (P < 0.001), respectively, in 90-day mortality compared to score 0–3. Conclusions The adjusted-ACCI score helps to identify patients with a higher risk of 90-day mortality after cancer surgery. It might be particularly helpful for preoperative evaluation of patients over 80 years of age. PMID:26848761

  6. The Influence of Mortality and Socioeconomic Status on Risk and Delayed Rewards: A Life History Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M.; Delton, Andrew W.; Robertson, Theresa E.

    2012-01-01

    Why do some people take risks and live for the present, whereas others avoid risks and save for the future? The evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that preferences for risk and delay in gratification should be influenced by mortality and resource scarcity. A series of experiments examined how mortality cues influenced decisions involving risk preference (e.g., $10 for sure vs. 50% chance of $20) and temporal discounting (e.g., $5 now vs. $10 later). The effect of mortality depended critically on whether people grew up in a relatively resource-scarce or resource-plentiful environment. For individuals who grew up relatively poor, mortality cues led them to value the present and gamble for big immediate rewards. Conversely, for individuals who grew up relatively wealthy, mortality cues led them to value the future and avoid risky gambles. Overall, mortality cues appear to propel individuals toward diverging life history strategies as a function of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting important implications for how environmental factors influence economic decisions and risky behaviors. PMID:21299312

  7. Risk factors for perinatal mortality in Murmansk County, Russia: a registry-based study

    PubMed Central

    Usynina, Anna A.; Grjibovski, Andrej M.; Krettek, Alexandra; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Kudryavtsev, Alexander V.; Anda, Erik Eik

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Factors contributing to perinatal mortality (PM) in Northwest Russia remain unclear. This study investigated possible associations between selected maternal and fetal characteristics and PM based on data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry. Objective: This study investigated possible associations between selected maternal and fetal characteristics and PM based on data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry. Methods: The study population consisted of all live- and stillbirths registered in the Murmansk County Birth Registry during 2006–2011 (n = 52,806). We excluded multiple births, births prior to 22 and after 45 completed weeks of gestation, infants with congenital malformations, and births with missing information regarding gestational age (a total of n = 3,666) and/or the studied characteristics (n = 2,356). Possible associations between maternal socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, maternal pre-pregnancy characteristics, pregnancy characteristics, and PM were studied by multivariable logistic regression. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: Of the 49,140 births eligible for prevalence analysis, 338 were identified as perinatal deaths (6.9 per 1,000 births). After adjustment for other factors, maternal low education level, prior preterm delivery, spontaneous or induced abortions, antepartum hemorrhage, antenatally detected or suspected fetal growth retardation, and alcohol abuse during pregnancy all significantly increased the risk of PM. We observed a higher risk of PM in unmarried women, as well as overweight or obese mothers. Maternal underweight reduced the risk of PM. Conclusions: Our results suggest that both social and medical factors are important correlates of perinatal mortality in Northwest Russia. PMID:28156197

  8. Psychotropic drugs and the risk of fall injuries, hospitalisations and mortality among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Jonasdottir Bergman, Gudrun; Fastbom, Johan; Danielsson, Bengt; Borg, Natalia; Salmi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether psychotropics are associated with an increased risk of fall injuries, hospitalizations, and mortality in a large general population of older adults. Methods We performed a nationwide matched (age, sex, and case event day) case–control study between 1 January and 31 December 2011 based on several Swedish registers (n = 1,288,875 persons aged ≥65 years). We used multivariate conditional logistic regression adjusted for education, number of inpatient days, Charlson co‐morbidity index, dementia and number of other drugs. Results Antidepressants were the psychotropic most strongly related to fall injuries (ORadjusted: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.38–1.45) and antipsychotics to hospitalizations (ORadjusted: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.19–1.24) and death (ORadjusted: 2.10; 95% CI: 2.02–2.17). Number of psychotropics was associated with increased the risk of fall injuries, (4 psychotropics vs 0: ORadjusted: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.39–1.68), hospitalization (4 psychotropics vs 0: ORadjusted: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.22–1.33) and death (4 psychotropics vs 0: ORadjusted: 2.50; 95% CI: 2.33–2.69) in a dose–response manner. Among persons with dementia (n = 58,984), a dose–response relationship was found between number of psychotropics and mortality risk (4 psychotropics vs 0: ORadjusted: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.76–2.25). Conclusions Our findings support a cautious prescribing of multiple psychotropic drugs to older patients. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27113813

  9. Superfund reform: US Environmental Protection Agency`s 30-day study and its implication for the US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.R.; Friedman, J.R.; Neff, R.W.

    1993-03-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to reform and restructure the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAS) Superfund program, the EPA Administrator on October 21, 1991, announced several key programmatic reforms. These reforms are a result of the Superfund 30-Day Task Force Report (30-Day Study, EPA 1991a), an effort carried out by EPAs office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). The EPA OSWER oversees environmental cleanup activities under a number of statutory authorities, including the Comprehensive Environmental response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). CERCLA and its implementing regulation, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), establish a regulatory framework to govern the cleanup of existing, and often abandoned, hazardous waste sites. The purposes of this report are to (1) review the background and recommendations of EPNs 30-Day Study, (2) identify and discuss the initiatives from the 30-Day Study that may impact DOE`s environmental restoration mission, (3) report on EPAs progress in implementing the selected priority initiatives, and (4) describe potentially related DOE activities.

  10. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  11. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  12. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  13. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  14. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  15. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services...

  16. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services...

  17. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services...

  18. 76 FR 17734 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Form DS-1998E, Foreign Service Officer Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    .... Originating Office: Human Resources, HR/REE/BEX. Form Number: DS-1998E. Respondents: Registrants for the... information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for ] approval in accordance with... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for up to 30 days from March 30, 2011. ADDRESSES: Direct...

  19. 78 FR 31999 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Young Turkey/Young America Evaluation (YTYA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Young Turkey/ Young America Evaluation (YTYA) Survey ACTION... Collection: Young Turkey/Young America Evaluation (YTYA) Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of...

  20. 78 FR 36562 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application and Re-certification Packages for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...HUD has submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public...

  1. 78 FR 66040 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate-Sales Contract and Addendums

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate--Sales... collection entitled HUD-Owned Real Estate-Sales Contract and Addendums (2502-0306). HUD will republish...

  2. 78 FR 59047 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Semi-Annual Labor Standards Enforcement Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Title of Information Collection: Semi-annual Labor Standards Enforcement Report--Local Contracting... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Semi-Annual Labor Standards Enforcement Report--Local Contracting Agencies (HUD Programs) AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information...

  3. 76 FR 58074 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for approval in accordance with... Collection. Originating Office: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, ECA/A/E/EUR. Form Number: DS-7001... to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for up to 30 days from September 19, 2011....

  4. 77 FR 47690 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Civilian Response Corps Database In-Processing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Civilian Response Corps Database In-Processing Electronic Form... Database In-Processing Electronic Form. OMB Control Number: 1405-0168. Type of Request: Extension of...

  5. 75 FR 32961 - 30-Day Federal Register Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... collection Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control 1024-0231. The OMB has up to 60 days to approve or... consideration, OMB should receive public comments within 30 days of the date on which this notice is published... were received on this notice. DATES: Public comments on the proposed Information Collection...

  6. 78 FR 15799 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Statement Regarding a Lost or Stolen U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Statement Regarding a Lost or Stolen U.S. Passport Book and/or... INFORMATION: Title of Information Collection: Statement Regarding a Lost or Stolen U.S. Passport Book...

  7. 78 FR 35040 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; Web-Based Media Literacy Parent Training for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; Web-Based Media Literacy Parent Training for Substance Use Prevention in Rural Locations SUMMARY: Under the... Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Services, and Prevention Research, NIDA, NIH, 6001 Executive...

  8. Association between Interleukin-6 Promoter Polymorphism (-174 G/C), Serum Interleukin-6 Levels and Mortality in Severe Septic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lorente, Leonardo; Martín, María M.; Pérez-Cejas, Antonia; Barrios, Ysamar; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Ferreres, José; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Jiménez, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The association between interleukin (IL)-6 promoter polymorphism (-174 G/C), circulating IL-6 levels and mortality in septic patients has scarcely been addressed, and then only in studies of small sample size, and a direct association among them has not been previously reported. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to determine whether this association exists. An observational, prospective and multicenter study including severe septic patients was undertaken and serum IL-6 levels at severe sepsis diagnosis and IL-6 promoter polymorphism (-174 G/C) were determined. The end-point of the study was 30-day mortality. The study included 263 patients with the following genotypes of IL-6 promoter polymorphism (-174 G/C): 123 (46.8%) GG, 110 (41.8%) GC and 30 (11.4%) CC. CC homozygous patients showed lower sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, serum IL-6 levels and mortality at 30 days compared to those with other genotypes (GC or GG). On regression analysis, CC homozygous patients showed lower 30-day mortality than those with genotype GG (odds ratio = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.053−0.838; p = 0.03) or GC (hazard ratio = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.074−1.037; p = 0.06). The most important results of our study were that CC might be a favorable genotype in septic patients showing lower serum IL-6 levels and lower risk of death within 30 days. PMID:27834822

  9. Hypocapnia and Hypercapnia Are Predictors for ICU Admission and Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Laserna, Elena; Sibila, Oriol; Aguilar, Patrick R.; Mortensen, Eric M.; Anzueto, Antonio; Blanquer, Jose M.; Sanz, Francisco; Rello, Jordi; Marcos, Pedro J.; Velez, Maria I.; Aziz, Nivin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) the association between abnormal Paco2 and ICU admission and 30-day mortality. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at two tertiary teaching hospitals. Eligible subjects were admitted with a diagnosis of CAP. Arterial blood gas analyses were obtained with measurement of Paco2 on admission. Multivariate analyses were performed using 30-day mortality and ICU admission as the dependent measures. Results: Data were abstracted on 453 subjects with a documented arterial blood gas analysis. One hundred eighty-nine patients (41%) had normal Paco2 (35-45 mm Hg), 194 patients (42%) had a Paco2 < 35 mm Hg (hypocapnic), and 70 patients (15%) had a Paco2 > 45 mm Hg (hypercapnic). In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for severity of illness, hypocapnic patients had greater 30-day mortality (OR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.28-6.30) and a higher need for ICU admission (OR = 2.88; 95% CI, 1.68-4.95) compared with patients with normal Paco2. In addition, hypercapnic patients had a greater 30-day mortality (OR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.38-8.30) and a higher need for ICU admission (OR = 5.35; 95% CI, 2.80-10.23). When patients with COPD were excluded from the analysis, the differences persisted between groups. Conclusion: In hospitalized patients with CAP, both hypocapnia and hypercapnia were associated with an increased need for ICU admission and higher 30-day mortality. These findings persisted after excluding patients with CAP and with COPD. Therefore, Paco2 should be considered for inclusion in future severity stratification criteria to appropriate identified patients who will require a higher level of care and are at risk for increased mortality. PMID:22677348

  10. The independent contribution of diabetic foot ulcer on lower extremity amputation and mortality risk

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Mendes, D.; Monteiro-Soares, M.; Boyko, E. J.; Ribeiro, M.; Barata, P.; Lima, J.; Soares, R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To estimate 3-year risk for diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), lower extremity amputation (LEA) and death; determine predictive variables and assess derived models accuracy. Material and Methods Retrospective cohort study including all subjects with diabetes enrolled in our diabetic foot outpatient clinic from beginning 2002 until middle 2010. Data was collected from clinical records. Results 644 subjects with mean age of 65.1 (±11.2) and diabetes duration of 16.1 (±10.8) years. Cumulative incidence was 26.6% for DFU, 5.8% for LEA and 14.0% for death. In multivariate analysis, physical impairment, peripheral arterial disease complication history, complication count and previous DFU were associated with DFU; complication count, foot pulses and previous DFU with LEA and age, complication count and previous DFU with death. Predictive models’ areas under the ROC curves from 0.80 to 0.83. A simplified model including previous DFU and complication count presented high accuracy. Previous DFU was associated with all outcomes, even when adjusted for complication count, in addition to more complex models. Conclusions DFU seems more than a marker of complication status, having independent impact on LEA and mortality risk. Proposed models may be applicable in healthcare settings to identify patients at higher risk of DFU, LEA and death. PMID:24877985

  11. Diabetes mellitus and extrapulmonary tuberculosis: site distribution and risk of mortality

    PubMed Central

    Magee, M. J.; Foote, M.; Ray, S. M.; Gandhi, N. R.; Kempker, R. R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Scarce data exist on the relationship between diabetes and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). We evaluated whether diabetes impacts site of TB and risk of death in patients with EPTB. We evaluated a cohort of TB cases from the state of Georgia between 2009 and 2012. Patients aged ≥16 years were classified by diabetes status according to medical records. Site of EPTB was determined by culture and/or state TB classification. Death was defined by all-cause mortality. Of 1325 eligible reported TB cases, 369 (27.8%) had any EPTB including 258 (19.5%) with only EPTB and 111 (8.4%) with pulmonary TB and EPTB. Of all TB cases, 158 had diabetes (11.9%). In multivariable analysis, the odds of any EPTB was similar in patients with and without diabetes [adjusted odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70–1.56]. The risk of death was 23.8% in patients with EPTB and diabetes vs. 9.8% in those with no diabetes (P < 0.01); after adjusting for covariates the difference was not significant (aRR 1.19, 95% CI 0.54–2.63). Diabetes was common in patients with EPTB and risk of death was high. Improved understanding of the relationship between diabetes and EPTB is critical to determine the extent that diabetes affects TB diagnosis and clinical management. PMID:26926092

  12. Mortality risk in hemodialysis patients according to anemia control and erythropoietin dosing.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paulo Roberto; Melo, Antonio Danilo Mourão; Lima, Monique Marie Brito Cortez; Negreiros, Idalina Maria A Holanda; Miranda, Jéssica Silva; Pontes, Larissa Salles; Rabelo, Guilherme Menezes; Viana, Ana Carolina Parente; Alexandrino, Mayara Teixeira; Barros, Francisco Anderson; Neto, Benjamin Ramos; Brito, Alana Alcântara; Da Silva Costa, Anderson

    2011-10-01

    There is no consensus about the toxicity of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents among hemodialysis patients. We aimed to calculate the risk of death according to anemia control and erythropoietin (EPO) dosing among end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. We retrospectively studied 156 end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis from a single renal unit during 12 months. Participants were classified according to anemia control into four groups: excellent (A), good (B), moderate (C) and bad (D) control. They were also classified according to EPO dosing into two groups: usual and high EPO dosing. The Cox proportional hazards regression model, adjusted for the difference in age, sex, time on dialysis, comorbidity, albumin, and Kt/V index, was performed to calculate the risk of death according to anemia control and EPO dosing profiles. Multivariate analysis by backward stepwise logistic regression was used to calculate the risk of death according to the variables that differed in the comparison between survivors and nonsurvivors. The hazard ratio of death was not significant according to anemia control profile C/D vs. A/B, but hazard ratio was 2.967 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.132-7.777; P = 0.027) for high EPO dosing profile patients. The multivariate analysis showed comorbidity (odds ratio [OR] = 8.958; 95% CI = 2.843-26.223; P < 0.001], high EPO dosing profile (OR = 5.172; 95% CI = 1.663-16,081; P = 0.005), age (OR = 1.056; 95% CI = 1.020-1.094; P = 0.002), and mean hemoglobin (OR = 0.435; 95% CI = 0.267-0.709; P = 0.001) to be predictive of death. Even though we cannot conclude that mortality risk is due to EPO toxicity, hemodialysis patients using high EPO dosing must be seen as at risk.

  13. The Indirect Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy: Mortality Risk, Mental Health, and HIV-Negative Labor Supply

    PubMed Central

    Baranov, Victoria; Bennett, Daniel; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the burden of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, international donors recently began providing free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. ART dramatically prolongs life and reduces infectiousness for people with HIV. This paper shows that ART availability increases work time for HIV-negative people without caretaker obligations, who do not directly benefit from the medicine. A difference-in-difference design compares people living near and far from ART, before and after treatment becomes available. Next we explore the possible reasons for this pattern. Although we cannot pinpoint the mechanism, we find that ART availability substantially reduces subjective mortality risk and improves mental health. These results show an undocumented economic consequence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and an important externality of medical innovation. They also provide the first evidence of a link between the disease environment and mental health. PMID:26516983

  14. The indirect impact of antiretroviral therapy: Mortality risk, mental health, and HIV-negative labor supply.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Victoria; Bennett, Daniel; Kohler, Hans-Peter

    2015-12-01

    To reduce the burden of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, international donors recently began providing free antiretroviral therapy (ART) in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. ART dramatically prolongs life and reduces infectiousness for people with HIV. This paper shows that ART availability increases work time for HIV-negative people without caretaker obligations, who do not directly benefit from the medicine. A difference-in-difference design compares people living near and far from ART, before and after treatment becomes available. Next we explore the possible reasons for this pattern. Although we cannot pinpoint the mechanism, we find that ART availability substantially reduces subjective mortality risk and improves mental health. These results show an undocumented economic consequence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and an important externality of medical innovation. They also provide the first evidence of a link between the disease environment and mental health.

  15. A systematic review and meta-analysis of nut consumption and incident risk of CVD and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Alexandra J; de Souza, Russell J; Meyre, David; Anand, Sonia S; Mente, Andrew

    2016-01-28

    Dietary patterns containing nuts are associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality, and increased nut consumption has been shown to have beneficial effects on CVD risk factors including serum lipid levels. Recent studies have reported on the relationship between nut intake and CVD outcomes and mortality. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and quantify associations between nut consumption and CVD outcomes and all-cause mortality. Five electronic databases (through July 2015), previous reviews and bibliographies of qualifying articles were searched. In the twenty included prospective cohort studies (n 467 389), nut consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (ten studies; risk ratio (RR) 0·81; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·85 for highest v. lowest quantile of intake, P het=0·04, I 2=43 %), CVD mortality (five studies; RR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·68, 0·78; P het=0·31, I 2=16 %), all CHD (three studies; RR 0·66; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·91; P het=0·0002, I 2=88 %) and CHD mortality (seven studies; RR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·76; P het=0·65, I 2=0 %), as well as a statistically non-significant reduction in the risk of non-fatal CHD (three studies; RR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·03; P het=0·03, I 2=72 %) and stroke mortality (three studies; RR 0·83; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·00; P het=0·54, I 2=0 %). No evidence of association was found for total stroke (two studies; RR 1·05; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·61; P het=0·04, I 2=77 %). Data on total CVD and sudden cardiac death were available from one cohort study, and they were significantly inversely associated with nut consumption. In conclusion, we found that higher nut consumption is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, total CVD, CVD mortality, total CHD, CHD mortality and sudden cardiac death.

  16. The influence of improved air quality on mortality risks in Erfurt, Germany.

    PubMed

    Peters, Annette; Breitner, Susanne; Cyrys, Josef; Stölzel, Matthias; Pitz, Mike; Wölke, Gabriele; Heinrich, Joachim; Kreyling, Wolfgang; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Wi