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Sample records for 30-day postoperative pause

  1. [Postoperative 30-day mortality may underestimate the risk of esophagectomy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Chuan; Yang, Yongbo; Yan, Wanpu; Dai, Liang; Kang, Xiaozheng; Chen, Keneng

    2015-09-01

    To summarize the mortality of esophagectomy in our series and compare the different mortalities based on 30-day deaths and 90-day deaths postoperatively. A total of 954 patients undergoing esophagectomy by single-surgeon-team between January 2000 and December 2012 from our prospective database were enrolled. The mortalities based on 30-day and 90-day deaths postoperatively were compared, and the causes of deaths within 30 days and 90 days were analyzed. Among all these 954 patients, a total of 20 postoperative deaths(2.1%) were observed: 11 within 30 days(1.1%) and 9 between 30 and 90 days after surgery(1.0%). The reasons for deaths within 30 days were as follows: 3 for respiratory failure related to anastomotic leakage,1 for bleeding after stenting due to anastomotic fistula, 1 for sepsis, 3 for respiratory failure from presenting preoperative respiratory morbidities, 2 for cardiac arrest caused by preoperative heart disorder, and 1 for multiple organ failure caused by early adjuvant chemotoxicity. The reasons for deaths between 30 and 90 days were as follows: 1 for respiratory failure related to anastomotic leakage, 1 for cardiac arrest from preoperative heart disorder, 1 for cerebrovascular accident, 1 for liver failure from liver cirrhosis presenting preoperatively, 1 for renal failure after operation, 1 for tumor progression and 2 for unknown reasons. Since postoperative mortality calculated based on 30 days deaths postoperatively may underestimate the risk of esophagectomy, mortality calculated based on 90 days may be a better option.

  2. The Fifth Vital Sign: Postoperative Pain Predicts 30-day Readmissions and Subsequent Emergency Department Visits.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Graham, Laura A; Desai, Karishma; Wahl, Tyler S; Aucoin, Elise; Richman, Joshua S; Morris, Melanie S; Itani, Kamal M; Telford, Gordon L; Hawn, Mary T

    2017-09-01

    We hypothesized that inpatient postoperative pain trajectories are associated with 30-day inpatient readmission and emergency department (ED) visits. Surgical readmissions have few known modifiable predictors. Pain experienced by patients may reflect surgical complications and/or inadequate or difficult symptom management. National Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement data on inpatient general, vascular, and orthopedic surgery from 2008 to 2014 were merged with laboratory, vital sign, health care utilization, and postoperative complications data. Six distinct postoperative inpatient patient-reported pain trajectories were identified: (1) persistently low, (2) mild, (3) moderate or (4) high trajectories, and (5) mild-to-low or (6) moderate-to-low trajectories based on postoperative pain scores. Regression models estimated the association between pain trajectories and postdischarge utilization while controlling for important patient and clinical variables. Our sample included 211,231 surgeries-45.4% orthopedics, 37.0% general, and 17.6% vascular. Overall, the 30-day unplanned readmission rate was 10.8%, and 30-day ED utilization rate was 14.2%. Patients in the high pain trajectories had the highest rates of postdischarge readmissions and ED visits (14.4% and 16.3%, respectively, P < 0.001). In multivariable models, compared with the persistently low pain trajectory, there was a dose-dependent increase in postdischarge ED visits and readmission for pain-related diagnoses, but not postdischarge complications (χ trend P < 0.001). Postoperative pain trajectories identify populations at risk for 30-day readmissions and ED visits, and do not seem to be mediated by postdischarge complications. Addressing pain control expectations before discharge may help reduce surgical readmissions in high pain categories.

  3. Postoperative 30-day Readmission: Time to Focus on What Happens Outside the Hospital.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melanie S; Graham, Laura A; Richman, Joshua S; Hollis, Robert H; Jones, Caroline E; Wahl, Tyler; Itani, Kamal M F; Mull, Hillary J; Rosen, Amy K; Copeland, Laurel; Burns, Edith; Telford, Gordon; Whittle, Jeffery; Wilson, Mark; Knight, Sara J; Hawn, Mary T

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the relative contribution of preoperative patient factors, operative characteristics, and postoperative hospital course on 30-day postoperative readmissions. Determining the risk of readmission after surgery is difficult. Understanding the most important contributing factors is important to improving prediction of and reducing postoperative readmission risk. National Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program data on inpatient general, vascular, and orthopedic surgery from 2008 to 2014 were merged with laboratory, vital signs, prior healthcare utilization, and postoperative complications data. Variables were categorized as preoperative, operative, postoperative/predischarge, and postdischarge. Logistic models predicting 30-day readmission were compared using adjusted R and c-statistics with cross-validation to estimate predictive discrimination. Our study sample included 237,441 surgeries: 43% orthopedic, 39% general, and 18% vascular. Overall 30-day unplanned readmission rate was 11.1%, differing by surgical specialty (vascular 15.4%, general 12.9%, and orthopedic 7.6%, P < 0.001). Most common readmission reasons were wound complications (30.7%), gastrointestinal (16.1%), bleeding (4.9%), and fluid/electrolyte (7.5%) complications. Models using information available at the time of discharge explained 10.4% of the variability in readmissions. Of these, preoperative patient-level factors contributed the most to predictive models (R 7.0% [c-statistic 0.67]); prediction was improved by inclusion of intraoperative (R 9.0%, c-statistic 0.69) and postoperative variables (R 10.4%, c-statistic 0.71). Including postdischarge complications improved predictive ability, explaining 19.6% of the variation (R 19.6%, c-statistic 0.76). Postoperative readmissions are difficult to predict at the time of discharge, and of information available at that time, preoperative factors are the most important.

  4. Minimally invasive surgery and its impact on 30-day postoperative complications, unplanned readmissions and mortality.

    PubMed

    Sood, A; Meyer, C P; Abdollah, F; Sammon, J D; Sun, M; Lipsitz, S R; Hollis, M; Weissman, J S; Menon, M; Trinh, Q-D

    2017-09-01

    A critical appraisal of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is needed, but is lacking. This study examined the associations between MIS and 30-day postoperative outcomes including complications graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification, unplanned readmissions, hospital stay and mortality for five common surgical procedures. Patients undergoing appendicectomy, colectomy, inguinal hernia repair, hysterectomy and prostatectomy were identified in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Non-parsimonious propensity score methods were used to construct procedure-specific matched-pair cohorts that reduced baseline differences between patients who underwent MIS and those who did not. Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was applied and P < 0·006 was considered significant. Of the 532 287 patients identified, 53·8 per cent underwent MIS. Propensity score matching yielded an overall sample of 327 736 patients (appendicectomy 46 688, colectomy 152 114, inguinal hernia repair 59 066, hysterectomy 59 066, prostatectomy 10 802). Within the procedure-specific matched pairs, MIS was associated with significantly lower odds of Clavien-Dindo grade I-II, III and IV complications (P ≤ 0·004), unplanned readmissions (P < 0·001) and reduced hospital stay (P < 0·001) in four of the five procedures studied, with the exception of inguinal hernia repair. The odds of death were lower in patients undergoing MIS colectomy (P < 0·001), hysterectomy (P = 0·002) and appendicectomy (P = 0·002). MIS was associated with significantly fewer 30-day postoperative complications, unplanned readmissions and deaths, as well as shorter hospital stay, in patients undergoing colectomy, prostatectomy, hysterectomy or appendicectomy. No benefits were noted for inguinal hernia repair. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Infection among adult small bowel and multivisceral transplant recipients in the 30-day postoperative period.

    PubMed

    Primeggia, J; Matsumoto, C S; Fishbein, T M; Karacki, P S; Fredette, T M; Timpone, J G

    2013-10-01

    Intestinal transplantation is a potential option for patients with short gut syndrome (SGS), and infection is common in the postoperative period. The aim of our study was to identify the incidence and characteristics of bacterial and fungal infections of adult small bowel or multivisceral (SB/MV) transplantation recipients in the 30-day postoperative period. This retrospective chart review assessed the incidence and characteristics of bacterial and fungal infections in patients who underwent SB/MV transplant at our center between April 2004 and November 2008. Patient data were retrieved from computerized databases, flow-charts, and medical records. A total of 40 adult patients with a mean age of 38.7 ± 13.4 years received transplants during this period: 27 patients received isolated SB, 12 received MV, and 1 received SB and kidney. Our immunosuppressive regimen included basiliximab for induction, and tacrolimus, sirolimus, and methylprednisolone for maintenance therapy. The most common indications for transplant were SGS, intestinal ischemia, Crohn's disease, trauma, motility disorders, and Gardner's syndrome. We report a 30-day postoperative infection rate of 57.5% and mean time to first infection of 10.78 ± 8.99 days. A total of 36 infections were documented in 23 patients. Of patients who developed infections, 56.5% developed 1 infection, 30.4% developed 2 infections, and 13% developed 3 infections. The most common site of infection was the abdomen, followed by blood, urine, lung, and wound infection. The isolates were gram-negative bacteria in 49.3%, gram-positive bacteria in 39.4%, and 11.3% were fungi. The most common organisms were Pseudomonas (19%), Enterococcus (15%), and Escherichia coli (13%). Overall, 47% of infections were due to drug-resistant pathogens; 31% of E. coli and Klebsiella species were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms, 36% of Pseudomonas was multidrug resistant (MDR), 75% of Enterococcus was vancomycin resistant

  6. Association of Postoperative High-Sensitivity Troponin Levels With Myocardial Injury and 30-Day Mortality Among Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Devereaux, P J; Biccard, Bruce M; Sigamani, Alben; Xavier, Denis; Chan, Matthew T V; Srinathan, Sadeesh K; Walsh, Michael; Abraham, Valsa; Pearse, Rupert; Wang, C Y; Sessler, Daniel I; Kurz, Andrea; Szczeklik, Wojciech; Berwanger, Otavio; Villar, Juan Carlos; Malaga, German; Garg, Amit X; Chow, Clara K; Ackland, Gareth; Patel, Ameen; Borges, Flavia Kessler; Belley-Cote, Emilie P; Duceppe, Emmanuelle; Spence, Jessica; Tandon, Vikas; Williams, Colin; Sapsford, Robert J; Polanczyk, Carisi A; Tiboni, Maria; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Faruqui, Atiya; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Lamy, Andre; Whitlock, Richard; LeManach, Yannick; Roshanov, Pavel S; McGillion, Michael; Kavsak, Peter; McQueen, Matthew J; Thabane, Lehana; Rodseth, Reitze N; Buse, Giovanna A Lurati; Bhandari, Mohit; Garutti, Ignacia; Jacka, Michael J; Schünemann, Holger J; Cortes, Olga Lucía; Coriat, Pierre; Dvirnik, Nazari; Botto, Fernando; Pettit, Shirley; Jaffe, Allan S; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2017-04-25

    Little is known about the relationship between perioperative high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) measurements and 30-day mortality and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). To determine the association between perioperative hsTnT measurements and 30-day mortality and potential diagnostic criteria for MINS (ie, myocardial injury due to ischemia associated with 30-day mortality). Prospective cohort study of patients aged 45 years or older who underwent inpatient noncardiac surgery and had a postoperative hsTnT measurement. Starting in October 2008, participants were recruited at 23 centers in 13 countries; follow-up finished in December 2013. Patients had hsTnT measurements 6 to 12 hours after surgery and daily for 3 days; 40.4% had a preoperative hsTnT measurement. A modified Mazumdar approach (an iterative process) was used to determine if there were hsTnT thresholds associated with risk of death and had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 3.0 or higher and a risk of 30-day mortality of 3% or higher. To determine potential diagnostic criteria for MINS, regression analyses ascertained if postoperative hsTnT elevations required an ischemic feature (eg, ischemic symptom or electrocardiography finding) to be associated with 30-day mortality. Among 21 842 participants, the mean age was 63.1 (SD, 10.7) years and 49.1% were female. Death within 30 days after surgery occurred in 266 patients (1.2%; 95% CI, 1.1%-1.4%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that compared with the reference group (peak hsTnT <5 ng/L), peak postoperative hsTnT levels of 20 to less than 65 ng/L, 65 to less than 1000 ng/L, and 1000 ng/L or higher had 30-day mortality rates of 3.0% (123/4049; 95% CI, 2.6%-3.6%), 9.1% (102/1118; 95% CI, 7.6%-11.0%), and 29.6% (16/54; 95% CI, 19.1%-42.8%), with corresponding adjusted HRs of 23.63 (95% CI, 10.32-54.09), 70.34 (95% CI, 30.60-161.71), and 227.01 (95% CI, 87.35-589.92), respectively. An absolute hsTnT change of 5 ng/L or higher was associated

  7. Nursing home status is an independent risk factor for adverse 30-day postoperative outcomes after common, nonemergent inpatient procedures.

    PubMed

    Caldararo, Mario D; Stein, David E; Poggio, Juan L

    2016-08-01

    Nursing home residents undergoing surgery have a higher rate of postoperative adverse outcomes than nonnursing home patients. This study seeks to determine what contribution nursing home status makes to theses occurrences, independent of comorbid conditions. Using the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database, the 30-day postoperative outcomes of the 5 commonest nonemergent inpatient procedures performed on nursing home residents were compared with those in nonnursing home residents using logistic regression analysis. Nursing home status was found to be an independent risk factor for septic complications in all procedures, for blood transfusion requirement after lower leg amputation, for pneumonia and stroke/cerebrovascular accident after thromboendarterectomy, and for mortality after partial colectomy with primary anastomosis. These data suggest that, in addition to serving as a surrogate indicator of health status and current morbidity, residence in a nursing home makes an independent contribution to adverse postoperative outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The importance of the Edmonton Obesity Staging System in predicting postoperative outcome and 30-day mortality after metabolic surgery.

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Sonja; Stier, Christine; Squillante, Simone; Theodoridou, Sophia; Weiner, Rudolf A

    2016-12-01

    The Edmonton Obesity Staging System (EOSS) is a more comprehensive measure of obesity-related diseases and predictor of mortality than body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Its application for the selection of obese patients for obesity surgery has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether the EOSS can also be used in predicting postoperative outcome and 30-day mortality after metabolic surgery. Center of maximum care in Germany METHODS: We collected data prospectively for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), or laparoscopic omega-loop gastric bypass (LOLGB). The data collected included preoperative EOSS score, gender, age, BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, co-morbidities, early postoperative complications, and 30-day mortality. A total of 534 patients were included. The mean BMI was 45.57 kg/m(2) (range 35-64.5) for LRYGB patients (n = 168), 53.27 kg/m(2) (range 35.1-82.1) for LSG patients (n = 282), and 49.42 kg/m(2) (range 36-73.1) for LOLGB patients (n = 84). The total postoperative complication rate was 8.99%. The most common EOSS stage was 2 (70.6% of patients), followed by stages 3 (12.55%), 1 (11.61%), and 0 (5.06%). The postoperative complication rates after LRYGB, LSG, and LOLGB were 0% for EOSS 0 and 1.61% for EOSS 1. The postoperative complication rates were 8.22% for EOSS 2 and 22.39% for EOSS 3. Patients with EOSS≥3 have a higher risk of postoperative complications. Our data confirm that the EOSS is useful as a scoring system for the selection of obese patients before surgery and suggest that it may also be useful for presurgical stratification and risk assessment in clinical practice. Patients should be recommended for obesity surgery when their EOSS stage is 2 to prevent impairments associated with metabolic disease and to reduce the risk of postoperative complications. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by

  9. Risk Factors for 30-Day Postoperative Complications Following Open Reduction Internal Fixation of Proximal Ulna Fractures.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Nikunj N; Cohn, Matthew R; Trehan, Samir K; Daluiski, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    Fractures of the proximal ulna are common injuries in the elderly population. These fractures can be managed nonsurgically or with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). Whereas nonsurgical management may lead to a relative loss of elbow extension and to nonunion, ORIF carries a risk of complications. Although complications specific to the orthopedic intervention have been reported, few studies have identified postoperative systemic complications in this higher-risk group. The purposes of this study were to determine the rate of systemic complications in patients undergoing surgical fixation of proximal ulna fractures and to determine risk factors for complications. We queried the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for all cases of proximal ulna fracture ORIF between 2005 and 2013. Demographic, historical, and preoperative laboratory data and 30-day postoperative complications were recorded. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors for complications. A total of 650 patients met inclusion criteria. Within the 30-day postoperative period, 61 complications occurred in 45 patients (6.9%). Return to the operating room, which occurred in 19 patients (2.9%), was the most common major morbidity. American Society of Anesthesiologists class III or IV and dialysis dependence were independent risk factors for any complication. Proximal ulna fracture ORIF has a low rate of systemic complications. The most common morbidities are return to the operating room, blood transfusion, and urinary tract infections. Dialysis and American Society of Anesthesiologists class III or IV are independent risk factors for complications. These complications may be nonspecific and related more to the patient population than procedure. We believe that the relatively low risk of short-term complications makes operative treatment a suitable option even in elderly patients with multiple morbidities

  10. Patient-Based and Surgical Risk Factors for 30-Day Postoperative Complications and Mortality After Ankle Fracture Fixation.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Philip J; Davey, Shaunette; Rensing, Nicholas; Bader, Julia O; Waterman, Brian R; Orr, Justin D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to calculate the incidence rates and determine risk factors for 30-day postoperative mortality and morbidity after ankle fracture open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The NSQIP database was queried to identify patients undergoing ankle fracture ORIF from 2006 to 2011, with extraction patient-based or surgical variables and a 30-day clinical course. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified significant predictors on outcome measures. Mean age was 50.3 (±18.2) years while diabetes mellitus (12.8%) and body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2) (9.2%) were documented from a total of 3328 patients identified. The 30-day mortality rate was 0.30%, and complications occurred in 5.1%. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [odds ratio (OR): 4.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-15.06] and a nonindependent functional status before surgery (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.13-4.51) were the sole independent predictors of mortality and major local complications, respectively. Major local complications occurred in 2.2% of patients, and significant predictors were peripheral vascular disease (OR: 6.14; 95% CI: 1.95-19.35), open wound (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.25-11.27), nonclean wound classification (OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 1.31-6.93), and smoking (OR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.42-5.70). Independent predictors of hospital stay >3 days were cardiac disease, age 70 years or older, open wound, partially/totally dependent functional status, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification ≥3, body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2), bimalleolar or trimalleolar ankle fracture pattern, female sex, and diabetes. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease increased the risk of mortality after ankle fracture ORIF. Risk factors for postoperative complications included peripheral vascular disease, open wound, nonclean wound classification, age 70 years or older, and ASA classification ≥3. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Safety and postoperative adverse events in pediatric airway reconstruction: Analysis of ACS-NSQIP-P 30-day outcomes.

    PubMed

    Roxbury, Christopher R; Jatana, Kris R; Shah, Rahul K; Boss, Emily F

    2017-02-01

    Prior research has shown that airway reconstructive procedures comprise significant composite morbidity compared to the whole of pediatric otolaryngologic cases evaluated in the American College of Surgeon's National Surgery Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (ACS-NSQIP-P) platform. We describe postoperative sequelae of pediatric airway reconstructive procedures and identify predictive factors for adverse events. Current procedural terminology (CPT) codes were used to identify children undergoing included procedures in the 2012 to 2014 ACS-NSQIP-P public use files (PUF). Targeted variables included patient demographics and 30-day postoperative events (reoperation, readmission, and complications). Event rates were determined and compared within subgroups. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictive factors for major adverse events. In 3 years of PUF data (183,283 total cases), 198 cases (0.11%) were airway reconstructive procedures. The most common was laryngoplasty (CPT 31580, 31582; n = 111, 56.1%), followed by cervical tracheoplasty (CPT 31750; n = 47, 23.7%), tracheal resection (CPT 31780; n = 24, 12.1%), and cricoid split (CPT 31587, n = 16, 8.1%). There were 131 premature children (66.2%) and 94 children (47.5%) with history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Thirty-day postoperative sequelae included readmissions (n = 42, 21.2%), complications (n = 27, 13.6%), and reoperations (n = 14, 7.1%). On univariate analysis, children less than 3 years of age were more likely to undergo an unplanned reoperation. There were no significant predictive factors for readmission or complication. On multivariate analysis, there was a trend toward higher rates of unplanned reoperations in children less than 3 years of age. The 30-day adverse event rate in pediatric airway surgery is high, with no identifiable predictors noted in the analysis of these data. Findings imply that systematic collection of variables and outcomes specific to pediatric airway

  12. Risk factors for 30-day postoperative complications and mortality following open reduction internal fixation of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Schick, Cameron W; Koehler, Daniel M; Martin, Christopher T; Gao, Yubo; Pugely, Andrew J; Shah, Apurva; Adams, Brian D

    2014-12-01

    To identify the incidence and risk factors for 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality following operative treatment of distal radius fractures in a multicenter cohort. We retrospectively queried the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for the years 2005-2011 for cases of closed distal radius fractures treated operatively with internal fixation. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and operative characteristics were analyzed. Thirty-day postoperative complications were identified and separated into categories of major morbidity or mortality, minor morbidity, and any complication. Risk factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. We identified 1,673 cases of closed distal radius fractures managed with internal fixation. The overall incidence of having any early complication was 3%. Major morbidity was 2.1%, which included 4 patient deaths, and minor morbidity was 1%. The most common major morbidity was a return to the operating room (16 patients). The most common minor morbidity was urinary tract infection (6 patients). The multivariate analysis demonstrated ASA class III or IV, dependent functional status, hypertension, and myocardial infarction/congestive heart failure to be significant risk factors for any early complication. There was a 10.0% complication rate in the inpatient group and a 1.3% complication rate in the outpatient group. The incidence of early complications following internal fixation for closed distal radius fractures was low, especially in the outpatient group. In the setting of an isolated injury to the distal radius, the data presented here can provide prognostic information for patients during informed consent for what is considered to be an elective procedure. Surgeons should consider risk of morbidity and mortality when considering surgery for patients with noteworthy cardiopulmonary disease, increased ASA class, or poor functional status. Prognostic II. Copyright

  13. Perception of Safety of Surgical Practice Among Operating Room Personnel From Survey Data Is Associated With All-cause 30-day Postoperative Death Rate in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Molina, George; Berry, William R; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Edmondson, Lizabeth; Li, Zhonghe; Neville, Bridget A; Moonan, Aunyika T; Gibbons, Lorri R; Gawande, Atul A; Singer, Sara J; Haynes, Alex B

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate whether the perception of safety of surgical practice among operating room (OR) personnel is associated with hospital-level 30-day postoperative death. The relationship between improvements in the safety of surgical practice and benefits to postoperative outcomes has not been demonstrated empirically. As part of the Safe Surgery 2015: South Carolina initiative, a baseline survey measuring the perception of safety of surgical practice among OR personnel was completed. We evaluated the relationship between hospital-level mean item survey scores and rates of all-cause 30-day postoperative death using binomial regression. Models were controlled for multiple patient, hospital, and procedure covariates using supervised principal components regression. The overall survey response rate was 38.1% (1793/4707) among 31 hospitals. For every 1 point increase in the hospital-level mean score for respect [adjusted relative risk (aRR) 0.78, 95% CI 0.65-0.93, P = 0.0059], clinical leadership (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74-0.9932, P = 0.0401), and assertiveness (aRR 0.71, 95% CI 0.54-0.93, P = 0.01) among all survey respondents, there were associated decreases in the hospital-level 30-day postoperative death rate after inpatient surgery ranging from 14% to 29%. Higher hospital-level mean scores for the statement, "I would feel safe being treated here as a patient," were associated with significantly lower hospital-level 30-day postoperative death rates (aRR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70-0.97, P = 0.02). Although most findings seen among all OR personnel were seen among nurses, they were often absent among surgeons. Perception of OR safety of surgical practice was associated with hospital-level 30-day postoperative death rates.

  14. Postoperative High-Sensitivity Troponin and Its Association With 30-Day and 12-Month, All-Cause Mortality in Patients Undergoing On-Pump Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mauermann, Eckhard; Bolliger, Daniel; Fassl, Jens; Grapow, Martin; Seeberger, Esther E; Seeberger, Manfred D; Filipovic, Miodrag; Lurati Buse, Giovanna A L

    2017-10-01

    Troponin T is a predictor of cardiac morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery with most data examining fourth generational troponin T assays. We hypothesize that postoperative high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) measured in increments of the upper limit of the norm independently predicts 30-day all-cause mortality. We included consecutive patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery from February 2010 to March 2012 in a prospective cohort that measured hsTnT at 0600 of the first and second postoperative day. Our primary end point was 30-day, all-cause mortality. The secondary end point was 12-month, all-cause mortality in patients surviving the first 30 days. We divided hsTnT into 5 predetermined categorizes based on the upper limit of the norm (ULN). We used Cox regression to examine an association of hsTnT independent of the EuroSCORE II at both 30 days as well as at 12 months in patients surviving the first 30 days. We assessed the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve and the net reassignment improvement for examining the benefit of adding of hsTnT to the EuroSCORE II for prognostication and restratification of 30-day, all-cause mortality. We included 1122 of 1155 eligible patients (75% male; mean age 66 ± 11 years). We observed 58 (5.2%) deaths at 30 days and another 35 (3.4%) deaths at 12 months in patients surviving 30 days. HsTnT categorized by ULN exhibited a graded response for the mortality. Furthermore, hsTnT remained an independent predictor of all-cause mortality at 30 days (adjusted hazard ratio 1.019 [1.014-1.024] per 10-fold increase in ULN) as well as at 12 months (adjusted hazard ratio 1.019 [1.007-1.032]) in patients surviving the first 30 days. The addition of hsTnT to the EuroSCORE II significantly increased the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (area under curve: 0.816 [95% confidence interval, 0.754-0.878] versus area under curve: 0.870 [95% confidence interval, 0.822-0.917], respectively; P

  15. The utility of preoperative level of erythrocytosis in the prediction of postoperative blood loss and 30-day mortality in patients with tetralogy of fallot.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Jhon Harold; Zorrilla-Vaca, Andres; Silva-Gordillo, Gloria C

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative major bleeding is a relatively common complication of patients undergoing corrective surgery of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Life-threatening blood losses can lead to aggressive transfusions or reoperation. Little is known about the risk factors associated with a bleeding tendency in TOF patients. This study aimed to establish predictive models for postoperative blood loss and mortality in TOF patients. We conducted a retrospective observational study involving patients with TOF who were posted for corrective cardiac surgery in a single hospital between 2010 and 2015. Hospital records including sociodemographic, pre- and intra-operative characteristics were extracted. Postoperative blood loss (within 24 and 48 h) and 30-day mortality were the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to identify determinants of outcomes. A total of 60 patients were included in this study. The median age was 1 year (interquartile range = 0.62-5) and the male to female ratio of 1.7:1. Mean postoperative blood loss within 24 h was 283 ± 212 mL. In multivariate linear regression, preoperative hematocrit (β = 6.63, P = 0.042) and duration of intraoperative oxygenator with CPB (β = 5.16, P = 0.025) were significantly correlated with postoperative blood loss within 24 h. After adjusting for sociodemographic, intra- and post-operative characteristics, preoperative hematocrit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.21), and postoperative red blood cell transfusions (OR = 3.88, 95% CI = 1.16-12.9) showed statistically significant association with 30-day mortality. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the multivariable model was 0.863. Preoperative levels of erythrocytosis appear to predict postoperative blood loss and short-term mortality in TOF patients undergoing corrective surgery.

  16. Safety and postoperative adverse events in pediatric otologic surgery: analysis of American College of Surgeons NSQIP-P 30-Day outcomes.

    PubMed

    Roxbury, Christopher R; Yang, Jingyan; Salazar, Jose; Shah, Rahul K; Boss, Emily F

    2015-05-01

    Describe safety and postoperative sequelae of pediatric otologic surgery and identify predictive factors for postoperative events. Retrospective cohort study of the American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) database. Data pooled from the 2012 NSQIP-P public use file (50 institutions). Current procedural terminology codes were used to identify children who underwent otologic surgery. Variables of interest included demographics and 30-day postoperative events grouped as reoperation, readmission, and complication. Event rates were determined and prevalence of events compared by procedure type and within patient subgroups according to chi-square analysis. Multivariate logistic regression evaluated predictive factors for postoperative events. Of 37,319 pediatric operations, 2556 (6.8%) were otologic procedures. The most common procedure was tympanoplasty (n = 893, 34.9%), followed by myringoplasty (n = 741, 30.0%), cochlear implantation (n = 464, 18.2%), and tympanomastoidectomy (n = 458, 17.9%). There were 9 reoperations (0.4%), 32 readmissions (1.3%), and 18 complications (0.7%). Children undergoing tympanomastoidectomy or cochlear implantation were more likely to be readmitted irrespective of other factors (odds ratio = 5.5, P = .010; odds ratio = 3.5, P = .083). Children <3 years old were 4 times more likely to be readmitted than older children (odds ratio = 4.4, P < .001). Pediatric otologic procedures are common and have low rates of global 30-day postoperative events. Tympanomastoidectomy and cochlear implantation have the highest risk of 30-day readmission. Young children (<3 years) are more likely to be readmitted following these procedures. Further optimization of the NSQIP-P to include specialty and procedure-specific variables is necessary to assess complete, actionable outcomes of pediatric otologic surgery, however the present study provides a foundation to build upon for safety and quality improvement

  17. Risk factors for 30-day postoperative complications and mortality after below-knee amputation: a study of 2,911 patients from the national surgical quality improvement program.

    PubMed

    Belmont, Philip J; Davey, Shaunette; Orr, Justin D; Ochoa, Leah M; Bader, Julia O; Schoenfeld, Andrew J

    2011-09-01

    This investigation sought to evaluate risk factors for morbidity and mortality from a large series of below-knee amputees prospectively entered in a national database. All patients undergoing below-knee amputations in the years 2005-2008 were identified in the database of the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). Demographic data, medical comorbidities, and medical history were obtained. Mortality and postoperative complications within 30 days of the below-knee amputation were also documented. Chi-square test, univariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of specific risk factors on mortality, as well as the likelihood of developing major, minor, or any complications developing. Below-knee amputations were performed in 2,911 patients registered in the NSQIP database between 2005 and 2008. The average age of patients was 65.8 years old and 64.3% were male. There was a 7.0% 30-day mortality rate and 1,627 complications occurred in 1,013 patients (34.4%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified renal insufficiency, cardiac issues, history of sepsis, steroid use, COPD, and increased patient age as independent predictors of mortality. The most common major complications were return to the operating room (15.6%), wound infection (9.3%), and postoperative sepsis (9.3%). History of sepsis, alcohol use, steroid use, cardiac issues, renal insufficiency, and contaminated/infected wounds were independent predictors of one or more complications developing. Renal disease, cardiac issues, history of sepsis, steroid use, COPD, and increased patient age were identified as predictors of mortality after below-knee amputation. Renal disease, cardiac issues, history of sepsis, steroid use, contaminated/infected wounds, and alcohol use were also found to be predictors of postoperative complications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Intermediate-Acting Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Agents and Risk of Postoperative 30-Day Morbidity and Mortality, and Long-term Survival.

    PubMed

    Bronsert, Michael R; Henderson, William G; Monk, Terri G; Richman, Joshua S; Nguyen, Jennifer D; Sum-Ping, John T; Mangione, Michael P; Higley, Binh; Hammermeister, Karl E

    2017-05-01

    Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs (NNMBDs) are commonly used as an adjunct to general anesthesia. Residual blockade is common, but its potential adverse effects are incompletely known. This study was designed to assess the association between NNMBD use with or without neostigmine reversal and postoperative morbidity and mortality. This is a retrospective observational study of 11,355 adult patients undergoing general anesthesia for noncardiac surgery at 5 Veterans Health Administration (VA) hospitals. Of those, 8984 received NNMBDs, and 7047 received reversal with neostigmine. The primary outcome was a composite of respiratory complications (failure to wean from the ventilator, reintubation, or pneumonia), which was "yes" if a patient had any of the 3 component events and "no" if they had none. Secondary outcomes were nonrespiratory complications, 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality. We adjusted for differences in patient risk using propensity matched (PM) followed by assessment of the association of interest by logistic regression between the matched pairs as our primary analysis and multivariable logistic regression (MLR) as a sensitivity analysis. Our primary aim was to assess the adverse outcomes in the patients who had received NNMBDs with and without neostigmine. Administration of an NNMBD without neostigmine reversal compared with NNMBD with neostigmine reversal was associated with increased odds of respiratory complications (PM odds ratio [OR], 1.75 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.50]; MLR OR, 1.71 [CI, 1.24-2.37]) and a marginal increase in 30-day mortality (PM OR, 1.83 [CI, 0.99-3.37]; MLR OR, 1.78 [CI, 1.02-3.13]). However, there were no statistically significant associations with nonrespiratory complications or long-term mortality. Patients who were administered an NNMBD followed by neostigmine had no differences in outcomes compared with patients who had general anesthesia without an NNMBD. The use of NNMBDs without neostigmine

  19. Post-operative delirium is an independent predictor of 30-day hospital readmission after spine surgery in the elderly (≥65years old): A study of 453 consecutive elderly spine surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Wang, Timothy Y; Back, Adam G; Lydon, Emily; Reddy, Gireesh B; Karikari, Isaac O; Gottfried, Oren N

    2017-07-01

    In the last decade, costs of U.S. healthcare expenditures have been soaring, with billions of dollars spent on hospital readmissions. Identifying causes and risk factors can reduce soaring readmission rates and help lower healthcare costs. The aim of this is to determine if post-operative delirium in the elderly is an independent risk factor for 30-day hospital readmission after spine surgery. The medical records of 453 consecutive elderly (≥65years old) patients undergoing spine surgery at Duke University Medical Center from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed. We identified 17 (3.75%) patients who experienced post-operative delirium according to DSM-V criteria. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and post-operative complication rates were collected for each patient. Elderly patients experiencing post-operative delirium had an increased length of hospital stay (10.47days vs. 5.70days, p=0.009). Complication rates were similar between the cohorts with the post-operative delirium patients having increased UTI and superficial surgical site infections. In total, 12.14% of patients were re-admitted within 30-days of discharge, with post-operative delirium patients experiencing approximately a 4-fold increase in 30-day readmission rates (Delirium: 41.18% vs. No Delirium: 11.01%, p=0.002). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, post-operative delirium is an independent predictor of 30-day readmission after spine surgery in the elderly (p=0.03). Elderly patients experiencing post-operative delirium after spine surgery is an independent risk factor for unplanned readmission within 30-days of discharge. Preventable measures and early awareness of post-operative delirium in the elderly may help reduce readmission rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preventing 30-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sherri

    2015-03-01

    Preventing 30-day readmissions to hospitals is a top priority in the era of health care reform. New regulations will be costly to health care facilities because of payment guidelines. The most frequently readmitted medical conditions are acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The transition from the hospital and into the home has been classified as a vulnerable time for many patients. During this time of transition patients may fail to fully understand their discharge instructions. Ineffective communication, low health literacy, and compliance issues contribute to readmissions. Telehealth and the use of technology may be used to prevent some readmissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction Effects of Acute Kidney Injury, Acute Respiratory Failure, and Sepsis on 30-Day Postoperative Mortality in Patients Undergoing High-Risk Intraabdominal General Surgical Procedures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjae; Brady, Joanne E; Li, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI), acute respiratory failure, and sepsis are distinct but related pathophysiologic processes. We hypothesized that these 3 processes may interact to synergistically increase the risk of short-term perioperative mortality in patients undergoing high-risk intraabdominal general surgery procedures. We performed a retrospective, observational cohort study of data (2005-2011) from the American College of Surgeons-National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, a high-quality surgical outcomes data set. High-risk procedures were those with a risk of AKI, acute respiratory failure, or sepsis greater than the average risk in all intraabdominal general surgery procedures. The effects of AKI, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis on 30-day mortality were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Additive interactions were assessed with the relative excess risk due to interaction. Of 217,994 patients, AKI, acute respiratory failure, and sepsis developed in 1.3%, 3.7%, and 6.8%, respectively. The 30-day mortality risk with sepsis, acute respiratory failure, and AKI were 11.4%, 24.1%, and 25.1%, respectively, compared with 0.85% without these complications. The adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for a single complication (versus no complication) on mortality were 7.24 (6.46-8.11), 10.8 (8.56-13.6), and 14.2 (12.8-15.7) for sepsis, AKI, and acute respiratory failure, respectively. For 2 complications, the adjusted hazard ratios were 30.8 (28.0-33.9), 42.6 (34.3-52.9), and 65.2 (53.9-78.8) for acute respiratory failure/sepsis, AKI/sepsis, and acute respiratory failure/AKI, respectively. Finally, the adjusted hazard ratio for all 3 complications was 105 (92.8-118). Positive additive interactions, indicating synergism, were found for each combination of 2 complications. The relative excess risk due to interaction for all 3 complications was not statistically significant. In high-risk general surgery patients, the development of AKI

  2. Pediatric Emergency Appendectomy and 30-Day Postoperative Outcomes in District General Hospitals and Specialist Pediatric Surgical Centers in England, April 2001 to March 2012: Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Stefano; Cecil, Elizabeth V; Apelt, Nadja; Sharland, Michael; Saxena, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    To compare trends in pediatric emergency appendectomy and adverse surgical outcomes between district general hospitals (DGHs) and specialist pediatric centers (SPCs). In the past decades in England, a significant reduction in the number of children operated by adult general surgeons has raised concerns about their surgical outcomes compared with specialist pediatric surgeons. Using Hospital Episode Statistics, we analyzed patient-level data between April 2001 and March 2012. Main inclusion criteria were children younger than 16 years admitted to NHS-England hospitals for an emergency appendectomy. Main outcomes were annual age-sex adjusted appendectomy rates and postoperative risk of readmission, complication, and reintervention. A total of 83,679 emergency pediatric appendectomies were performed in 21 SPCs and 183 DGHs in England. SPCs performed only 18% of these operations (15,002). Annual age-sex standardized appendectomy rates fell from 87 to 68 per 100,000 population at an estimated 2% (rate ratio, 0.98) fall per annum. This was accompanied by a national annual increased risk of negative appendectomy, complication, reintervention, and readmission (adjusted odds ratio: 1.02, 1.03, 1.04, and 1.06, respectively). Children who had appendectomies in DGHs had 28% more negative appendectomies, 11% more complications, and 11% more readmissions than those in SPCs. Postoperative length of stay was double in SPCs compared with DGHs (median, 4 vs 2 days). Major reductions in the number of pediatric emergency appendectomies in England over the past decade were associated with an overall increase in adverse surgical outcomes. Children operated in DGHs have more reinterventions, complications, and negative appendectomy rates than those operated in SPCs.

  3. Ares I-X 30 Day Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Bob; Smith, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation represents the 30 day report on the Ares I-X test flight. Included in the review is information on the following areas: (1) Ground Systems, (2) Guidance, Navigation and Control, (3) Roll Response, (4) Vehicle Response, (5) Control System Performance, (6) Structural Damping, (7) Thrust Oscillation, (8) Stage Separation, (9) Connector Assessment, (10) USS Splashdown, (11) Data Recorder and (12) FS Hardware Assessment.

  4. Unplanned 30-day readmissions in orthopaedic trauma.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, David; Olufajo, Olubode A; Zogg, Cheryl K; Rios-Diaz, Arturo; Harris, Mitchel; Weaver, Michael J; Haider, Adil H; Salim, Ali

    2016-08-01

    30-day readmission is increasingly used as a hospital quality metric. The objective of this study was to describe the patient factors associated with unplanned 30-day hospital readmission of orthopaedic trauma patients. A statewide observational study was undertaken using data from all acute hospitals in California. All hospital inpatients with a primary diagnosis of fracture or dislocation (ICD-9-CM codes 800-829) were included, except for those with isolated injuries to the skull, face, or ribs. The primary outcome measure was unplanned 30-day readmission to any hospital in California. 416,568 trauma admissions were available for analysis. The overall readmission rate was 6.5%, and 27.3% of readmitted patients presented to a different hospital. Factors significantly associated with readmission were male sex (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.19-1.27), age 46-65 (2.61 [2.27-2.99]), black race (1.19 [1.11-1.27]), entitlement to publicly funded healthcare (1.38 [1.25-1.52]), Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥2 (1.84 [1.79-1.90]), discharge against medical advice (3.13 [2.67-3.68]), and spinal fracture (1.42 [1.34-1.49]). Major reasons for readmission included: cardiopulmonary disease (25.6%), infections (20.1%), musculoskeletal problems (18.1%), and procedural complications (12.0%). Many orthopaedic trauma readmissions are potentially unrelated to the initial hospitalization. Penalties for unplanned readmissions risk penalizing hospitals that serve disadvantaged communities and treat a high proportion of trauma patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advancing Age and 30-Day Adverse Outcomes Following Non-Emergent General Surgical Operations

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Csaba; Kile, Deidre; Hawn, Mary T.; Finlayson, Emily; Henderson, William G.; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Background While some single center studies have demonstrated that major surgical operations are safe to perform in older adults, most multicenter database studies find advancing age to independently predict adverse postoperative outcomes. We hypothesized that thirty-day postoperative mortality, complications, failure to rescue rates and postoperative length of stay will increase with advancing age. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) Participants Patients undergoing non-emergent major general surgical operations between 2005 and 2008 were studied. Measures Postoperative outcomes of interest were complications occurring within 30 days of the index operation, return to OR within 30 days, failure to rescue after a postoperative complication, post-surgical length of stay and 30 day mortality. Results A total of 165,600 patients were studied. The rates of postoperative mortality, overall morbidity, and each type of postoperative complication increased as age increased. The rates of failure to rescue after each type of postoperative complication also increased with age. Mortality rates in patients ≥80 following renal insufficiency (43.3%), stroke (36.5%), myocardial infarction (35.6%), and pulmonary complications (25-39%) were particularly high. Median postoperative length of stay increased with age following surgical site infection, UTI, pneumonia, return to OR, and overall morbidity, but not after venous thromboembolism, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency, failure to wean from the ventilator or reintubations. Conclusion Thirty-day mortality, complications and failure to rescue rates increase with advancing age following non-emergent general surgical operations. Patients over 80 years of age have especially high mortality following renal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary complications. As patient age advances, surgeons need to be

  6. 30-Day morbidity after augmentation enterocystoplasty and appendicovesicostomy: A NSQIP pediatric analysis.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Erin R; Kurtz, Michael P; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Logvinenko, Tanya; Nelson, Caleb P

    2015-08-01

    Augmentation enterocystoplasty and appendicovesicostomy are complex pediatric urologic procedures. Although there is literature identifying long-term outcomes in these patients, the reporting of short-term postoperative outcomes has been limited by small numbers of cases and lack of prospective data collection. Here we report 30-day outcomes from the first nationally based, prospectively assembled cohort of pediatric patients undergoing these procedures. To determine 30-day complication, readmission and reoperation after augmentation enterocystoplasty and appendicovesicostomy in a large national sample of pediatric patients, and to explore the association between preoperative and intraoperative characteristics and occurrence of any 30-day event. We queried the 2012 and 2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric database (ACS-NSQIPP) for all patients undergoing augmentation enterocystoplasty and/or appendicovesicostomy. Surgical risk score was classified on a linear scale using a validated pediatric-specific comorbidity score. Intraoperative characteristics and postoperative 30-day events were reported from prospectively collected data. A composite measure of complication, readmission and/or reoperation was used as primary outcome for the multivariate logistic regression. There were 461 patients included in the analysis: 245 had appendicovesicostomy, 97 had augmentation enterocystoplasty and 119 had both procedures. There were a total of 110 NSQIP complications seen in 87 patients. The most common complication was urinary tract infection (see Table for 30-day outcomes by patient). The composite measure of any 30-day event was seen in 27.8% of the cohort and this was associated with longer operative time, increased number of procedures done at time of primary surgical procedure and higher surgical risk score. The ACS-NSQIPP provides a tool to examine short-term outcomes for these complex urologic procedures that has not

  7. Morbidity associated with 30-day surgical site infection following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Sherrod, Brandon A; Rocque, Brandon G

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Morbidity associated with surgical site infection (SSI) following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgical procedures is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze acute morbidity and mortality associated with SSI after nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide cohort. METHODS The authors reviewed data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric (NSQIP-P) 2012-2014 database, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients. Procedures were categorized by Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. CSF shunts were excluded. Deep and superficial SSIs occurring within 30 days of an index procedure were identified. Deep SSIs included deep wound infections, intracranial abscesses, meningitis, osteomyelitis, and ventriculitis. The following outcomes occurring within 30 days of an index procedure were analyzed, along with postoperative time to complication development: sepsis, wound disruption, length of postoperative stay, readmission, reoperation, and death. RESULTS A total of 251 procedures associated with a 30-day SSI were identified (2.7% of 9296 procedures). Superficial SSIs were more common than deep SSIs (57.4% versus 42.6%). Deep SSIs occurred more frequently after epilepsy or intracranial tumor procedures. Superficial SSIs occurred more frequently after skin lesion, spine, Chiari decompression, craniofacial, and myelomeningocele closure procedures. The mean (± SD) postoperative length of stay for patients with any SSI was 9.6 ± 14.8 days (median 4 days). Post-SSI outcomes significantly associated with previous SSI included wound disruption (12.4%), sepsis (15.5%), readmission (36.7%), and reoperation (43.4%) (p < 0.001 for each). Post-SSI sepsis rates (6.3% vs 28.0% for superficial versus deep SSI, respectively; p < 0.001), wound disruption rates (4.9% vs 22.4%, p < 0.001), and reoperation rates (23.6% vs 70.1%, p < 0.001) were significantly greater for patients

  8. Morbidity associated with 30-day surgical site infection following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Sherrod, Brandon A.; Rocque, Brandon G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Morbidity associated with surgical site infection (SSI) following nonshunt pediatric neurosurgical procedures is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze acute morbidity and mortality associated with SSI after nonshunt pediatric neurosurgery using a nationwide cohort. Methods The authors reviewed data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric (NSQIP-P) 2012–2014 database, including all neurosurgical procedures performed on pediatric patients. Procedures were categorized by Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. CSF shunts were excluded. Deep and superficial SSIs occurring within 30 days of an index procedure were identified. Deep SSIs included deep wound infections, intracranial abscesses, meningitis, osteomyelitis, and ventriculitis. The following outcomes occurring within 30 days of an index procedure were analyzed, along with postoperative time to complication development: sepsis, wound disruption, length of postoperative stay, readmission, reoperation, and death. Results A total of 251 procedures associated with a 30-day SSI were identified (2.7% of 9296 procedures). Superficial SSIs were more common than deep SSIs (57.4% versus 42.6%). Deep SSIs occurred more frequently after epilepsy or intracranial tumor procedures. Superficial SSIs occurred more frequently after skin lesion, spine, Chiari decompression, craniofacial, and myelomeningocele closure procedures. The mean (± SD) postoperative length of stay for patients with any SSI was 9.6 ± 14.8 days (median 4 days). Post-SSI outcomes significantly associated with previous SSI included wound disruption (12.4%), sepsis (15.5%), readmission (36.7%), and reoperation (43.4%) (p < 0.001 for each). Post-SSI sepsis rates (6.3% vs 28.0% for superficial versus deep SSI, respectively; p < 0.001), wound disruption rates (4.9% vs 22.4%, p < 0.001), and reoperation rates (23.6% vs 70.1%, p < 0.001) were significantly greater for

  9. Unintended Consequences of the 30-Day Mortality Metric: Fact or Fiction.

    PubMed

    Mehtsun, Winta T; Lillemoe, Keith D; Zheng, Jie; Orav, E John; Jha, Ashish K

    2016-11-15

    To assess if an incongruous increase in mortality occurs after postoperative day 30. In the current climate of public reporting and pay-for-performance, 30-day mortality after inpatient surgery has become a key metric to assess performance. Whereas the intent is to improve quality, there has been increasing concern that reporting 30-day mortality may influence providers' timing of treatment withdrawal. We used national Medicare data to identify beneficiaries who underwent 1 of 19 major surgical procedures. We performed a survival analysis and calculated an adjusted daily hazard rate using all-cause mortality, accounting for patient comorbidities and case-mix. We ran linear regression models to examine discontinuity points around the 30-day mark, and conducted subgroup analyses for hospitals participating in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, which focuses on 30-day mortality reporting. We identified 872,968 patients who underwent 1 of 19 surgical procedures of interest; 71,583 of these patients (8.2%) died within 60 days of their index operation. We did not observe any statistically significant increases in mortality in the immediate period after day 30 compared with the immediate period before day 30. In fact, in each model, mortality rates tended to fall in the days after day 30, consistent with a general decreasing risk of death over time. These findings were similar among National Surgical Quality Improvement Program hospitals. We found no evidence of an increase in postoperative mortality after day 30. As payers move towards incorporating 30-day surgical mortality into pay-for-performance programs, these findings serve as a benchmark for measuring potential future unintended consequences of the metric.

  10. Did the Preflood Earth Have a 30-Day Lunar Month

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    altered the Moon’s orbit, resulting in the orbit we see today. At the end of the creation week, “ God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very...Did the Preflood Earth Have a 30-Day Lunar Month? 1 Did the Preflood Earth Have a 30-Day Lunar Month? Robert B. Brown, PhD Department of...Astronautics United States Air Force Academy Colorado, USA Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night

  11. 78 FR 18373 - Paperwork Reduction Act; 30-Day Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... CONTROL POLICY Paperwork Reduction Act; 30-Day Notice AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ] The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) proposes the collection of information concerning... of the President, Office of National Drug Control Policy, Research & Data Analysis, Washington,...

  12. 75 FR 160 - Paperwork Reduction Act; 30-Day Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 1 (Monday, January 4, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 160] [FR Doc No: E9-31132] OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Paperwork Reduction Act; 30-Day Notice AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) proposes...

  13. Discharge Outcomes in Seniors Hospitalized for More than 30 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozyrskyj, Anita; Black, Charlyn; Chateau, Dan; Steinbach, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    Hospitalization is a sentinel event that leads to loss of independence for many seniors. This study of long-stay hospitalizations (more than 30 days) in seniors was undertaken to identify risk factors for not going home, to characterize patients with risk factors who did go home and to describe one year outcomes following home discharge. Using…

  14. 78 FR 29147 - 30-Day Notice and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... SECURITY United States Secret Service 30-Day Notice and Request for Comments SUMMARY: The Department of... United States Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security, and sent via electronic mail to oira... additional information or copies of the form(s) and instructions should be directed to: United States...

  15. Worse Prognosis in Heart Failure Patients with 30-Day Readmission

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Ying-Chang; Chou, Shing-Hsien; Liu, Kuan-Liang; Hsieh, I-Chang; Wu, Lung-Sheng; Lin, Chia-Pin; Wen, Ming-Shien; Chu, Pao-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) readmission results in substantial expenditure on HF management. This study aimed to evaluate the readmission rate, outcome, and predictors of HF readmission. Methods Patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF < 40%) who were admitted for acute decompensation of de novo HF were enrolled to analyze readmission rate, mortality and predictors of readmission. Results A total of 433 de novo HF patients with LVEF < 40% were enrolled during the period August 2013 to December 2014. The in-hospital and 6-month mortality rates were 3.9% and 15.2%, respectively. In those patients surviving the index HF hospitalization, the 30-day and 6-month readmission rates were 10.9% and 27%, respectively. At the end of the 6-month follow-up, the readmission group had higher mortality than the non-readmission group (27.66% vs. 10.36%; p = 0.001). The survivors of the 30-day readmission had similar mortality rates at 6 months, regardless of the cause of readmission (cardiovascular vs. non-cardiovascular: 25% vs. 30.43%, p = 0.677). Among all the parameters, prescription of beta blockers independently reduced the risk of 30-day readmission (odds ratio 0.15; 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.99; p = 0.049). Conclusions Those HF patients who suffered from 30-day readmission had worse prognosis at the 6-month follow-up. Regardless of the readmission causes, the patients surviving the 30-day readmission had similar mortality rates at 6-month follow-up. These results underscored the importance of reducing readmission as a means to improve HF outcome. PMID:27899857

  16. Coated-platelets predict stroke at 30 days following TIA.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Angelia C; Vincent, Andrea S; Dale, George L; Prodan, Calin I

    2017-07-11

    To examine the potential for coated-platelets, a subset of highly procoagulant platelets observed on dual agonist stimulation with collagen and thrombin, for predicting stroke at 30 days in patients with TIA. Consecutive patients with TIA were enrolled and followed up prospectively. ABCD2 scores were obtained for each patient. Coated-platelet levels, reported as percent of cells converted to coated-platelets, were determined at baseline. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of stroke at 30 days. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate area under the curve (AUC) values for a model including coated-platelets to predict incident stroke at 30 days. A total of 171 patients with TIA were enrolled, and 10 strokes were observed at 30 days. A cutoff of 51.1% for coated-platelet levels yielded a sensitivity of 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-1.0), specificity of 0.73 (95% CI 0.66-0.80), positive predictive value of 0.16 (95% CI 0.06-0.26), and negative predictive value of 0.98 (95% CI 0.96-1.0). The adjusted hazard ratio of incident stroke in patients with coated-platelet levels ≥51.1% was 10.72 compared to those with levels <51.1%. ROC analysis showed significant improvement in the predictive ability of the coated-platelet model compared to ABCD2 score (AUC 0.78 ± 0.07 vs 0.54 ± 0.07, p = 0.01). These findings suggest a role for coated-platelets in risk stratification for stroke at 30 days after TIA. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Climate science: The 'pause' unpacked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risbey, James S.; Lewandowsky, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Short-term climate trends are sensitive to definitions, data and testing. This sensitivity underlies an alleged pause in global warming, and highlights the need for meaningful definitions to sustain claims that it was real. See Analysis p.41

  18. Risk Factors and Indications for 30-Day Readmission After Primary Surgery for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    AlHilli, Mariam; Langstraat, Carrie; Tran, Christine; Martin, Janice; Weaver, Amy; McGree, Michaela; Mariani, Andrea; Cliby, William; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify patients at risk for postoperative morbidities, we evaluated indications and factors associated with 30-day readmission after epithelial ovarian cancer surgery. Methods Patients undergoing primary surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer between January 2, 2003, and December 29, 2008, were evaluated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with 30-day readmission. A parsimonious multivariable model was identified using backward and stepwise variable selection. Results In total, 324 (60.2%) patients were stage III and 91 (16.9%) were stage IV. Of all 538 eligible patients, 104 (19.3%) were readmitted within 30 days. Cytoreduction to no residual disease was achieved in 300 (55.8%) patients, and 167 (31.0%) had measurable disease (≤1 cm residual disease). The most common indications for readmission were surgical site infection (SSI; 21.2%), pleural effusion/ascites management (14.4%), and thromboembolic events (12.5%). Multivariate analysis identified American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher (odds ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–2.89; P = 0.007), ascites [1.76 (1.11–2.81); P = 0.02], and postoperative complications during initial admission [grade 3–5 vs none, 2.47 (1.19–5.16); grade 1 vs none, 2.19 (0.98–4.85); grade 2 vs none, 1.28 (0.74–2.21); P = 0.048] to be independently associated with 30-day readmission (c-index = 0.625). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the sole predictor of readmission for SSI (odds ratio, 3.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–4.33; P = 0.04). Conclusions Clinically significant risk factors for 30-day readmission include American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher, ascites and postoperative complications at initial admission. The SSI and pleural effusions/ascites are common indications for readmission. Systems can be developed to predict patients needing outpatient management, improve care, and reduce

  19. Health literacy and 30-day postdischarge hospital utilization.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Suzanne E; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Jack, Brian W; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2012-01-01

    Low health literacy is associated with higher mortality, higher rates of hospitalization, and poor self-management skills for chronic disease. Early, unplanned hospital reutilization after discharge is a common and costly occurrence in U.S. hospitals. Still, few studies have examined the relation between health literacy and 30-day hospital reutilization rates. The authors examined the association between health literacy and 30-day reutilization of hospital services (readmission or return to the emergency department) in an urban safety net hospital, and conducted a secondary analysis of data from the control arm subjects of the Project RED and the RED-LIT trials. Health literacy was measured using the REALM tool. The primary outcome was rate of 30-day reutilization. The authors used multivariate Poisson regression analysis to control for potential confounding. Of the 703 subjects, 20% had low health literacy, 29% had marginal health literacy, and 51% had adequate health literacy. Sixty-two percent of subjects had a 12th-grade education or less. Subjects with low health literacy were more likely to be insured by Medicaid (p < .001); Black non-Hispanic (p < .001); unemployed, disabled, or retired (p < .001); low income (p < .001); and less educated (high school education or less, p < .001). The fully adjusted incidence rate ratio for low health literacy compared with adequate health literacy was 1.46 (CI [1.04, 2.05]). Low health literacy is a significant, independent, and modifiable risk factor for 30-day hospital reutilization after discharge. Interventions designed to reduce early, unplanned, hospital utilization after discharge should include activities to mitigate the effect of patients' low health literacy.

  20. Perception of Silent Pauses in Continuous Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duez, Danielle

    1985-01-01

    Investigates the silent pauses in continuous speech in three genres: political speeches, political interviews, and casual interviews in order to see how the semantic-syntactic information of the message, the duration of silent pauses, and the acoustic environment of these pauses interact to produce the listener's perception of pauses. (Author/SED)

  1. Discharge to a rehabilitation facility is associated with decreased 30-day readmission in elective spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Abt, Nicholas B; McCutcheon, Brandon A; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Murphy, Meghan; Rinaldo, Lorenzo; Fogelson, Jeremy; Nassr, Ahmad; Currier, Bradford L; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-02-01

    The aim of our study was to determine independent predictors of discharge disposition to rehabilitation or skilled care (SC) facilities and investigate whether discharge location is associated with unplanned readmission and/or reoperation rates. All elective spinal surgery patients in a national surgical registry were analyzed using between 2011 and 2012. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess for predictors of discharge to rehabilitation or SC facilities versus home as well as to determine whether discharge disposition was significantly associated with the 30-day unplanned readmission or reoperation. Of 34,023 elective spinal surgery patients, the distribution of discharge locations was as follows: 30,606 (90.0%) discharged home, 1674 (4.9%) discharged to rehabilitation, and 1743 (5.1%) discharged to SC. Patients discharged home were associated with the lowest complication rate relative to rehabilitation and SC facilities. Following multivariable regression analysis, there was a significant increase in the odds of discharge to rehabilitation associated with age, male gender, current smoking, ASA class three and four, history of diabetes, operative time, total hospital length of stay, preoperative neurologic morbidity and having at least one postoperative morbidity event. Moreover, there were 804 (4.06%) 30-day unplanned readmissions and 822 (2.45%) unplanned reoperations. After risk adjustment, discharge to rehabilitation was independently associated with decreased odds of 30-day unplanned readmission (OR=0.41; p=0.008) but not reoperation.

  2. U.S. Pediatric Burn Patient 30-Day Readmissions.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Krista K; Shi, Junxin; Nordin, Andrew B; Xiang, Henry; Groner, Jonathan I; Fabia, Renata; Thakkar, Rajan K

    2017-08-18

    The objectives of the study were to determine unscheduled 30-day readmission rates for pediatric burn patients and to identify readmission reasons. We used the 2013-2014 National Readmission Database to produce 30-day all-cause unscheduled readmission rates by patient and hospital characteristics. Readmission risk factors were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression. An estimated 11,940 U.S. pediatric burn patients were discharged in January through November 2013 and 2014, and 325 had unscheduled readmissions within 30 days (2.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-3.9). This rate is higher than that seen in pediatric trauma patients (1.7%; P = 0.04]. Higher rates were seen in children with TBSA burned ≥ 10% (4.1%; 95% CI, 2.3-6.0) and patients with third-degree burns (5.5%; 95% CI, 1.4-9.6). The majority (86%) had index admissions in hospitals treating 100 or more burn patients annually, and 98% returned to the same hospital. Over two-thirds had an operating room procedure during their readmission; 15% had infections. The highest adjusted odds of readmission (AOR = 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.2) was for patients with third-degree burns. When compared with patients with lengths of stay (LOS) of 1 day, those with LOS of 2 to 3 days had a higher odds (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.03-2.9), but the AOR was not different for those with LOS > 3 days. TBSA, index operating room procedure, and patient residence were associated with readmission. This national dataset enhances our ability to predict patients at risk for unscheduled readmission and to plan for appropriate patient discharge, potentially reducing readmissions.

  3. Nursing home medical staff organization and 30-day rehospitalizations.

    PubMed

    Lima, Julie C; Intrator, Orna; Karuza, Jurgis; Wetle, Terrie; Mor, Vincent; Katz, Paul

    2012-07-01

    To examine the relationship between features of nursing home (NH) medical staff organization and residents' 30-day rehospitalizations. Cross-sectional study combining primary data collected from a survey of medical directors, NH resident assessment data (minimum data set), Medicare claims, and the Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) database. A total of 202 freestanding US nursing homes. Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries who were hospitalized and subsequently admitted to a study nursing home. Medical staff organization dimensions derived from the survey, NH residents' characteristics derived from minimum data set data, hospitalizations obtained from Part A Medicare claims, and NH characteristics from the OSCAR database and from www.ltcfocus.org. Study outcome defined within a 30-day window following an index hospitalization: rehospitalized, otherwise died, otherwise survived and not rehospitalized. Thirty-day rehospitalizations occurred for 3788 (20.3%) of the 18,680 initial hospitalizations. Death was observed for 884 (4.7%) of residents who were not rehospitalized. Adjusted by hospitalization, resident, and NH characteristics, nursing homes having a more formal appointment process for physicians were less likely to have 30-day rehospitalization (b = -0.43, SE = 0.17), whereas NHs in which a higher proportion of residents were cared for by a single physician were more likely to have rehospitalizations (b = 0.18, SE = 0.08). This is the first study to show a direct relationship between features of NH medical staff organization and resident-level process of care. The relationship of a more strict appointment process and rehospitalizations might be a consequence of more formalized and dedicated medical practice with a sense of ownership and accountability. A higher volume of patients per physician does not appear to improve quality of care. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nursing Home Medical Staff Organization and 30-Day Rehospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Julie C.; Intrator, Orna; Karuza, Jurgis; Wetle, Terrie; Mor, Vincent; Katz, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between features of nursing home (NH) medical staff organization and residents’ 30-day rehospitalizations. Design Cross-sectional study combining primary data collected from a survey of medical directors, NH resident assessment data (minimum data set), Medicare claims, and the Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) database. Setting A total of 202 freestanding US nursing homes. Participants Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries who were hospitalized and subsequently admitted to a study nursing home. Measurements Medical staff organization dimensions derived from the survey, NH residents’ characteristics derived from minimum data set data, hospitalizations obtained from Part A Medicare claims, and NH characteristics from the OSCAR database and from www.ltcfocus.org. Study outcome defined within a 30-day window following an index hospitalization: rehospitalized, otherwise died, otherwise survived and not rehospitalized. Results Thirty-day rehospitalizations occurred for 3788 (20.3%) of the 18,680 initial hospitalizations. Death was observed for 884 (4.7%) of residents who were not rehospitalized. Adjusted by hospitalization, resident, and NH characteristics, nursing homes having a more formal appointment process for physicians were less likely to have 30-day rehospitalization (b = −0.43, SE = 0.17), whereas NHs in which a higher proportion of residents were cared for by a single physician were more likely to have rehospitalizations (b = 0.18, SE = 0.08). Conclusion This is the first study to show a direct relationship between features of NH medical staff organization and resident-level process of care. The relationship of a more strict appointment process and rehospitalizations might be a consequence of more formalized and dedicated medical practice with a sense of ownership and accountability. A higher volume of patients per physician does not appear to improve quality of care. PMID:22682694

  5. Hospital performance measures and 30-day readmission rates.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Mihaela S; Pekow, Penelope S; Nsa, Wato; Priya, Aruna; Miller, Lauren E; Bratzler, Dale W; Rothberg, Michael B; Goldberg, Robert J; Baus, Kristie; Lindenauer, Peter K

    2013-03-01

    Lowering hospital readmission rates has become a primary target for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, but studies of the relationship between adherence to the recommended hospital care processes and readmission rates have provided inconsistent and inconclusive results. To examine the association between hospital performance on Medicare's Hospital Compare process quality measures and 30-day readmission rates for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure and pneumonia, and for those undergoing major surgery. We assessed hospital performance on process measures using the 2007 Hospital Inpatient Quality Reporting Program. The process measures for each condition were aggregated in two separate measures: Overall Measure (OM) and Appropriate Care Measure (ACM) scores. Readmission rates were calculated using Medicare claims. Risk-standardized 30-day all-cause readmission rate was calculated as the ratio of predicted to expected rate standardized by the overall mean readmission rate. We calculated predicted readmission rate using hierarchical generalized linear models and adjusting for patient-level factors. Among patients aged ≥ 66 years, the median OM score ranged from 79.4 % for abdominal surgery to 95.7 % for AMI, and the median ACM scores ranged from 45.8 % for abdominal surgery to 87.9 % for AMI. We observed a statistically significant, but weak, correlation between performance scores and readmission rates for pneumonia (correlation coefficient R = 0.07), AMI (R = 0.10), and orthopedic surgery (R = 0.06). The difference in the mean readmission rate between hospitals in the 1st and 4th quartiles of process measure performance was statistically significant only for AMI (0.25 percentage points) and pneumonia (0.31 percentage points). Performance on process measures explained less than 1 % of hospital-level variation in readmission rates. Hospitals with greater adherence to recommended care processes did not achieve

  6. The impact of obesity on the 30-day morbidity and mortality after surgery for endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Mahdi, Haider; Jernigan, Amelia M; Aljebori, Qataralnada; Lockhart, David; Moslemi-Kebria, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on postoperative 30-day morbidity and mortality after surgery to treat endometrial cancer. Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Patients with endometrial cancer who underwent surgery from 2005 to 2011. Women were grouped according to weight, as follows: normal weight (BMI 18 to <30), obese (BMI 30 to <40), and morbidly obese (BMI ≥ 40). Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were analyzed. Of 3947 patients, 38% were of normal weight, 38% were obese, and 24% were morbidly obese. Of these, 48% underwent laparoscopy and 52% underwent laparotomy. Overall 30-day morbidity and mortality were 13% and 0.7%, respectively. Obesity and morbid obesity were associated with a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists class, diabetes, and hypertension. Preoperatively, elevated serum creatinine concentration, hypoalbuminemia, and leukocytosis were more common in morbidly obese women than those of normal weight. Laparoscopic surgery was performed less frequently in morbidly obese women than in those of normal weight (42.5% vs 50%; p = .001). Morbidly obese patients were more likely to develop postoperative complications (morbidly obese 16% vs normal weight 13% vs obese 11%; p = .001), in particular surgical (morbidly obese 14% vs normal weight 11% vs obese 9%; p < .001) and infectious complications (morbidly obese 10% vs normal weight 5% vs obese 5%; p = .01). After laparotomy, morbidly obese women demonstrated a higher rate of any complication (normal weight 21%, obese 18%, morbidly obese 25%; p = .002), surgical complications (normal weight 18%, obese 14%, morbidly obese 22%; p = .002) and infectious complications (normal weight 6%, obese 10%, morbidly obese 16%; p < .001). After laparoscopy there was no difference in complication rates according to BMI group. The 30-day mortality was not significantly different according to BMI

  7. US pediatric trauma patient unplanned 30-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Krista K; Shi, Junxin; Xiang, Henry; Thakkar, Rajan K; Groner, Jonathan I

    2017-08-07

    We sought to determine readmission rates and risk factors for acutely injured pediatric trauma patients. We produced 30-day unplanned readmission rates for pediatric trauma patients using the 2013 National Readmission Database (NRD). In US pediatric trauma patients, 1.7% had unplanned readmissions within 30days. The readmission rate for patients with index operating room procedures was no higher at 1.8%. Higher readmission rates were seen in patients with injury severity scores (ISS)=16-24 (3.4%) and ISS ≥25 (4.9%). Higher rates were also seen in patients with LOS beyond a week, severe abdominal and pelvic region injuries (3.0%), crushing (2.8%) and firearm injuries (4.5%), and in patients with fluid and electrolyte disorders (3.9%). The most common readmission principal diagnoses were injury, musculoskeletal/integumentary diagnoses and infection. Nearly 39% of readmitted patients required readmission operative procedures. Most common were operations on the musculoskeletal system (23.9% of all readmitted patients), the integumentary system (8.6%), the nervous system (6.6%), and digestive system (2.5%). Overall, the readmission rate for pediatric trauma patients was low. Measures of injury severity, specifically length of stay, were most useful in identifying those who would benefit from targeted care coordination resources. This is a Level III retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk Factors for Unscheduled 30-day Readmission after Benign Hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Catanzarite, Tatiana; Vieira, Brittany; Qin, Charles; Milad, Magdy P

    2015-09-01

    Readmission rates after hysterectomy have been reported, but specific risk factors for readmission have not been fully delineated. We aimed to determine risk factors for and implications of 30-day unscheduled readmission after benign hysterectomy using data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. We identified benign hysterectomy procedures recorded at all participating National Surgical Quality Improvement Program institutions between 2011 and 2012. Outcomes of interest were 30-day unscheduled readmission rates, variables associated with readmission, and complication and mortality rates associated with readmission. Bivariate analyses were performed using Pearson χ(2) and independent t tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with readmission. In total, 21,228 hysterectomies were identified during the study period. Thirty-day readmission rates were 3.8% for abdominal hysterectomy, 2.7% for laparoscopic hysterectomy, 2.9% for laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy, and 3.0% for vaginal hysterectomy. Readmission was associated with increased perioperative complications (49.2% vs 6.1%, P < 0.001), return to the operating room (26.3% vs 0.6%, P < 0.001), and mortality (0.3% vs 0.01%, P < 0.001). The most common complications in patients requiring readmission were surgical site infections (28.4%), sepsis (12.8%), urinary tract infection (9.7%), and blood transfusion (6.7%). Variables that were independently associated with 30-day readmission after multivariable regression analysis included younger age (odds ratio [OR] 0.98/year, P < 0.001), smoking (OR 1.28, P = 0.01), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.47, P = 0.008), dyspnea (OR 1.48, P = 0.04), bleeding disorders (OR 1.82, P = 0.04), American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥ 3 (OR 1.32, P = 0.009), prior surgery within 30 days (OR 3.60, P = 0.04), longer

  9. Hospital-based, acute care use among patients within 30-days of discharge after coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Justin P.; Suter, Lisa G.; Wang, Karen; Wang, Yongfei; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Ross, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in how frequently patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery require hospital readmission within 30-days of discharge. Readmissions, however, may not capture all hospital-based, acute care needs after discharge. The purpose of this study is to describe the frequency of and diagnoses associated with emergency department (ED) visits and hospital readmissions within 30-days of discharge following CABG surgery and to compare outcomes across hospitals. Methods Using the California State Inpatient and Emergency Department Databases, we identified all adults who underwent isolated CABG surgery between January 2005 and June 2009. We then calculated hospital's 30-day, risk-standardized readmission and ED visit rates using hierarchical generalized linear models. The correlation between hospital readmission and ED visit rates was estimated, weighting for hospital volume. Results We identified 63,911 adults who underwent isolated CABG surgery at 114 hospitals. Hospital 30-day, risk-standardized ED visit without readmission rates (median ED visit rate = 11.9%, 25th-75th percentile, 10.5%-13.7%) nearly equaled the hospital 30-day risk-standardized readmission rates (median readmission rate = 15.0%, 25th-75th percentile, 13.5%-16.5%). Both outcomes varied widely among hospitals. A composite of these outcomes, the median 30-day risk-standardized hospital-based, acute care rate was 23.9% (25th-75th percentile, 22.2%-25.5%). Post-operative infections, congestive heart failure, and chest discomfort were among the most common reasons for both readmissions and ED visits. Hospitals' 30-day risk-standardized ED visit and readmission rates were not significantly correlated (weighted correlation coefficient = -0.07, p = 0.44). Conclusions Patients discharged after CABG surgery frequently experienced ED visits and hospital readmissions within 30 days, often for similar diagnoses. Monitoring both hospital readmissions and ED visits

  10. Metabolic Syndrome and 30-Day Outcomes in Elective Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Andrew S; Campbell, David; Waldrop, Robert; Crandall, Dennis

    2017-08-29

    Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the effect of MetS on 30-day morbidity and mortality following elective lumbar spinal fusion SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a variable combination of hypertension, obesity, elevated fasting plasma glucose, and dyslipidemia.MetS has been associated with an increased risk of post-operative morbidity and mortality in multiple surgical settings. To our knowledge, the effect of MetS on 30-day outcomes following elective lumbar spinal fusion has not been well studied. An analysis of ACS-NSQIP data was performed between 2006-2013. Patients undergoing elective posterior lumbar fusion were identified. Emergency procedures, infections, tumor cases, and revision surgeries were excluded. Patients were defined as having MetS if they had a history of hypertension requiring medication, diabetes, and a BMI ≥ 30. 1,590 (10.2%) patients with MetS were identified. A mild increase in major (p = 0.040) and minor complications (p = 0.003) in patients with MetS was noted. MetS was associated with increased rates of pulmonary complications (1.9% compared to 1.0%; p = 0.001), sepsis (1.7% compared to 0.9%; p = 0.005), and acute post-op renal failure (0.4% compared to 0%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis confirmed MetS to be an independent predictor of pulmonary complications (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.00 - 2.27; p = 0.048), sepsis (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.42; p = 0.039), and acute post-operative renal failure (OR 6.95; 95% CI 2.23 to 21.67; p = 0.001). MetS status was associated with a mild increase in total hospital length of stay (4.38 days compared to 3.81 days; p < 0.001). While MetS is a predictor of post-operative acute renal failure, it only slightly increases the risk of overall complications and is not associated with increased rates of 30-day re-operations or re-admissions following elective lumbar fusion. 3.

  11. Vitamin D Status Predicts 30 Day Mortality in Hospitalised Cats

    PubMed Central

    Titmarsh, Helen; Kilpatrick, Scott; Sinclair, Jennifer; Boag, Alisdair; Bode, Elizabeth F.; Lalor, Stephanie M.; Gaylor, Donna; Berry, Jacqueline; Bommer, Nicholas X.; Gunn-Moore, Danielle; Reed, Nikki; Handel, Ian; Mellanby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52) for cats with a serum 25(OH)D concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OH)D concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats. PMID:25970442

  12. Simplification of the HOSPITAL score for predicting 30-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Carole E; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Williams, Mark V; Robinson, Edmondo J; Zimlichman, Eyal; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Kripalani, Sunil; Metlay, Joshua P; Wallington, Tamara; Fletcher, Grant S; Auerbach, Andrew D; Aujesky, Drahomir; D Donzé, Jacques

    2017-10-01

    The HOSPITAL score has been widely validated and accurately identifies high-risk patients who may mostly benefit from transition care interventions. Although this score is easy to use, it has the potential to be simplified without impacting its performance. We aimed to validate a simplified version of the HOSPITAL score for predicting patients likely to be readmitted. Retrospective study in 9 large hospitals across 4 countries, from January through December 2011. We included all consecutively discharged medical patients. We excluded patients who died before discharge or were transferred to another acute care facility. The primary outcome was any 30-day potentially avoidable readmission. We simplified the score as follows: (1) 'discharge from an oncology division' was replaced by 'cancer diagnosis or discharge from an oncology division'; (2) 'any procedure' was left out; (3) patients were categorised into two risk groups (unlikely and likely to be readmitted). The performance of the simplified HOSPITAL score was evaluated according to its overall accuracy, its discriminatory power and its calibration. Thirty-day potentially avoidable readmission rate was 9.7% (n=11 307/117 065 patients discharged). Median of the simplified HOSPITAL score was 3 points (IQR 2-5). Overall accuracy was very good with a Brier score of 0.08 and discriminatory power remained good with a C-statistic of 0.69 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.69). The calibration was excellent when comparing the expected with the observed risk in the two risk categories. The simplified HOSPITAL score has good performance for predicting 30-day readmission. Prognostic accuracy was similar to the original version, while its use is even easier. This simplified score may provide a good alternative to the original score depending on the setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. 30-Day Potentially Avoidable Readmissions Due to Adverse Drug Events.

    PubMed

    Dalleur, Olivia; Beeler, Patrick E; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Donzé, Jacques

    2017-03-17

    To analyze the patterns of potentially avoidable readmissions due to adverse drug events (ADEs) to identify the most appropriate risk reduction interventions. In this observational study, we analyzed a random sample of 534 potentially avoidable 30-day readmissions from 10,275 consecutive discharges from the medical department of an academic hospital. Readmissions due to ADEs were reviewed to identify the causative drugs and the severity and interventions to prevent them. Seventy cases (13.1%) of readmission were partially or predominantly due to ADEs, of which, 58 (82.9%) were serious ADEs. Overall, 65 (92.9%) of the ADEs have been confirmed to be preventable. Inappropriate prescribing was identified as the cause of ADE in 34 cases (48.6%) mainly involving diuretics, analgesics, or antithrombotics: misprescribing n = 19 (27.1%), underprescribing n = 8 (11.4%), and overprescribing n = 7 (10.0%). The remaining half of preventable ADEs (n = 36; 51.4%) were related to suboptimal patient monitoring/education, such as adherence issues (n = 6; 8.6%) or lack of monitoring (n = 31; 44.3%). In 64 cases (91.4%), the readmission could have been potentially prevented by better monitoring for drug efficacy/disease control, or for predictable side effect. Thirty-three (97.1%) of the 34 ADEs due to inappropriate prescribing could have also been prevented by better monitoring. Adverse drug events accounted for approximately 13% of 30-day preventable readmissions. A half were due to prescription errors involving mainly diuretics, analgesics, or antithrombotics, and the other half were due to suboptimal patient monitoring/education, most frequently with antineoplastics. Both these avoidable causes may represent opportunities to reduce the total drug-related adverse events.

  14. The Seattle spine score: Predicting 30-day complication risk in adult spinal deformity surgery.

    PubMed

    Buchlak, Quinlan D; Yanamadala, Vijay; Leveque, Jean-Christophe; Edwards, Alicia; Nold, Kellen; Sethi, Rajiv

    2017-09-01

    Complication rates in complex spine surgery range from 25% to 80% in published studies. Numerous studies have shown that surgeons are not able to accurately predict whether patients are likely to face post-operative complications, in part due to biases based on individual experience. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a predictive risk model and decision support system that could accurately predict the likelihood of 30-day postoperative complications in complex spine surgery based on routinely measured preoperative variables. Preoperative and postoperative data were collected for 136 patients by reviewing medical records. Logistic regression analysis (LRA) was applied to develop the predictive algorithm based on patient demographic parameters, including age, gender, and co-morbidities, including obesity, diabetes, hypertension and anemia. We additionally compared the performance of the predictive model to a spine surgeon's ability to predict patient complications using signal detection theory statistics representing sensitivity and response bias (A' and B″ respectively). We developed a decision support system tool, based on the LRA predictive algorithm, that was able to provide a numeric probabilistic likelihood statistic representing an individual patient's risk of developing a complication within the first 30days after surgery. The predictive model was significant (χ(2)=16.242, p<0.05), showed good fit, and was calibrated by using area under the receiver operating characteristics curve analysis (AUROC=0.712, p<0.01). The model yielded a predictive accuracy of 75.0%. It was validated by splitting the data set, comparing subset models, and testing them with unknown data. Validation also involved comparing the classification of cases by experts with the classification of cases by the model. The model significantly improved the classification accuracy of physicians involved in the delivery of complex spine surgical care. The application of

  15. Complications Within 30 Days of Hand Surgery: An Analysis of 10,646 Patients.

    PubMed

    Lipira, Angelo B; Sood, Ravi F; Tatman, Philip D; Davis, Jeffrey I; Morrison, Shane D; Ko, Jason H

    2015-09-01

    The American College of Surgeons Surgical Quality Improvement Program database collects detailed and validated data on demographics, comorbidities, and 30-day postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing operations in most subspecialties. This dataset has been previously used to quantify complications and identify risk factors in other surgical subspecialties. We sought to determine the incidence of postoperative complications following hand surgery and to identify factors associated with increased risk of complications in order to focus preventive strategies. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data from 2006 to 2011 were queried using 302 hand-specific Current Procedural Technology codes. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the population, and potential risk factors and patient characteristics were analyzed for their association with complications in the 30-day postoperative period using both univariate and multivariate analyses. There were 208 hand-specific Current Procedural Technology codes represented in the data, and of these, 84 were associated with at least 1 complication. The overall incidence of complications within 30 days of hand surgery was 2.5% (95% confidence interval, 2.2%-2.8%). In univariate analysis, older age, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, steroids, bleeding disorder, increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists class, increasing wound class, emergency procedure, longer operative time, and preoperative transfusion were associated with significantly higher risk of complications, and local anesthesia and outpatient surgery were associated with lower risk. In the multivariate model, male sex, increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists class, wound class 4, and preoperative transfusion were associated with significantly higher risk, and outpatient surgery was associated with significantly lower risk. The most common complication was surgical-site infection (1

  16. Evaluation of Preoperative Predictors of 30-Day Mortality in Patients with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ha Nee; Park, Hyun Oh; Yang, Jun Ho; Yang, Tae Won; Byun, Joung Hun; Moon, Seong Ho; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Chung Eun

    2017-09-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) is a rare, extremely dangerous condition. Previous studies have published preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data; however, there are not enough studies on the preoperative factors alone. Here we studied the preoperative predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with RAAA. We conducted a retrospective, consecutive review of the medical records of 57 patients who received management for RAAA between February 2005 and December 2016. We analyzed the association between preoperative predictors and 30-day mortality in patients with RAAA. The initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and hemoglobin level (HbL), which were proven as significant predictors by multivariate logistic regression analysis, were compared using receiver operating characteristic curves. Overall, early mortality was 29.8%. Results of logistic regression analysis found that 30-day mortality in patients with RAAA was associated with the initial SBP (odds ratio [OR], 0.922; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.874-0.973; P=0.003) and initial HbL (OR, 0.513; 95% CI, 0.289-0.91; P=0.023). Area under the curves were 0.89 for the initial SBP and 0.78 for the initial HbL. The initial SBP with a cut-off value of 90 mmHg had a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 88.2%. At a cut-off of 10.5, the sensitivity and specificity of HbL for death were 75% and 70.6%, respectively. The initial SBP and HbL are independent preoperative predictors of early mortality in patients with RAAA.

  17. Unplanned 30-Day Readmissions after Parathyroidectomy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferrandino, Rocco; Roof, Scott; Ma, Yue; Chan, Lili; Poojary, Priti; Saha, Aparna; Chauhan, Kinsuk; Coca, Steven G; Nadkarni, Girish N; Teng, Marita S

    2017-09-01

    Objective To examine rates of readmission after parathyroidectomy in patients with chronic kidney disease and determine primary etiologies, timing, and risk factors for these unplanned readmissions. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Nationwide Readmissions Database. Subjects and Methods The Nationwide Readmissions Database was queried for parathyroidectomy procedures performed in patients with chronic kidney disease between January 2013 and November 2013. Patient-, admission-, and hospital-level characteristics were compared for patients with and without at least 1 unplanned 30-day readmission. Outcomes of interest included rates, etiology, and timing of readmission. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of 30-day readmission. Results There were 2756 parathyroidectomies performed in patients with chronic kidney disease with an unplanned readmission rate of 17.2%. Hypocalcemia/hungry bone syndrome accounted for 40% of readmissions. Readmissions occurred uniformly throughout the 30 days after discharge, but readmissions for hypocalcemia/hungry bone syndrome peaked in the first 10 days and decreased over time. Weight loss/malnutrition at time of parathyroidectomy and length of stay of 5 to 6 days conferred increased risk of readmission with adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of 3.31 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55-7.05; P = .002) and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.10-3.19; P = .02), respectively. Relative to primary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroidectomies performed for secondary hyperparathyroidism (aOR, 2.53; 95% CI, 1.07-5.95; P = .03) were associated with higher risk of readmission. Conclusion Postparathyroidectomy readmission rates for patients with chronic kidney disease are nearly 5 times that of the general population. Careful consideration of postoperative care and electrolyte management is crucial to minimize preventable readmissions in this vulnerable population.

  18. Complications and 30-day Outcomes Associated With Venous Thromboembolism in the Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgical Population

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Dustin; Sherrod, Brandon; McGwin, Gerald; Ponce, Brent; Gilbert, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The risk of morbidity associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) after pediatric orthopaedic surgery remains unclear despite increased use of thromboprophylaxis measures. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, Pediatric database was queried for patients undergoing an orthopaedic surgical procedure between 2012 and 2013. Upper extremity and skin/subcutaneous surgeries were excluded. Associations between VTE and procedure, demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and 30-day postoperative outcomes were evaluated. Results Of 14,776 cases, 15 patients (0.10%) experienced postoperative VTE. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurred in 13 patients (0.09%), and pulmonary embolism developed in 2 patients (0.01%). The procedure with the highest VTE rate was surgery for infection (1.2%). Patient factors associated with the development of VTE included hyponatremia (P = 0.003), abnormal partial thromboplastin time (P = 0.046), elevated aspartate transaminase level (P = 0.004), and gastrointestinal (P = 0.011), renal (P = 0.016), and hematologic (P = 0.019) disorders. Nearly half (46.2%) of DVTs occurred postdischarge. Complications associated with VTE included prolonged hospitalization (P = <0.001), pneumonia (P = <0.001), unplanned intubation (P = 0.003), urinary tract infection (P = 0.003), and central line-associated bloodstream infection (P = <0.001). Most of the postoperative complications (66.7%) occurred before VTE diagnosis, and no patients with VTE died. Conclusion In the absence of specified risk factors, thromboprophylaxis may be unnecessary for this population. PMID:26855119

  19. Two transcription pause elements underlie a σ70-dependent pause cycle.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Eric J; Roberts, Jeffrey W

    2015-08-11

    The movement of RNA polymerase (RNAP) during transcription elongation is modulated by DNA-encoded elements that cause the elongation complex to pause. One of the best-characterized pause sequences is a binding site for the σ(70) initiation factor that induces pausing at a site near lambdoid phage late-gene promoters. An essential component of this σ(70)-dependent pause is the elemental pause site (EPS), a sequence that itself induces transcription pausing throughout the Escherichia coli genome and underlies other complex regulatory pause elements, such as the ops and his operon pauses. Here, we identify and provide a detailed kinetic analysis of a transcription cycle analogous to abortive cycling that underlies the σ(70)-dependent pause. We show that, in σ(70)-dependent pausing, the elemental pause acts primarily to modulate the rate at which complexes attempt to disengage the σ(70):DNA interaction. Our findings establish the σ(70)-dependent pause-encoding region as a multipartite element in which several pause-inducing components make distinct mechanistic contributions to the induction and maintenance of a regulatory transcription pause.

  20. Rates and risk factors of unplanned 30-day readmission following general and thoracic pediatric surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Polites, Stephanie F; Potter, Donald D; Glasgow, Amy E; Klinkner, Denise B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B; Habermann, Elizabeth B

    2017-08-01

    Postoperative unplanned readmissions are costly and decrease patient satisfaction; however, little is known about this complication in pediatric surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine rates and predictors of unplanned readmission in a multi-institutional cohort of pediatric surgical patients. Unplanned 30-day readmissions following general and thoracic surgical procedures in children <18 were identified from the 2012-2014 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program- Pediatric. Time-dependent rates of readmission per 30 person-days were determined to account for varied postoperative length of stay (pLOS). Patients were randomly divided into 70% derivation and 30% validation cohorts which were used for creation and validation of a risk model for readmission. Readmission occurred in 1948 (3.6%) of 54,870 children for a rate of 4.3% per 30 person-days. Adjusted predictors of readmission included hepatobiliary procedures, increased wound class, operative duration, complications, and pLOS. The predictive model discriminated well in the derivation and validation cohorts (AUROC 0.710 and 0.701) with good calibration between observed and expected readmission events in both cohorts (p>.05). Unplanned readmission occurs less frequently in pediatric surgery than what is described in adults, calling into question its use as a quality indicator in this population. Factors that predict readmission including type of procedure, complications, and pLOS can be used to identify at-risk children and develop prevention strategies. III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Arthroscopic Versus Open Rotator Cuff Repair: Which Has a Better Complication and 30-Day Readmission Profile?

    PubMed

    Baker, Dustin K; Perez, Jorge L; Watson, Shawna L; McGwin, Gerald; Brabston, Eugene W; Hudson, Parke W; Ponce, Brent A

    2017-10-01

    To provide a comparative 30-day postoperative analysis of complications and unplanned readmission rates, using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, after open or arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (RCR). The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was reviewed for postoperative complications after open or arthroscopic RCR over an 8-year period, from 2007 through 2014. Patients were identified by use of Current Procedural Terminology codes. The open group contained 3,590 cases (21.8%) and the arthroscopic group had 12,882 cases (78.2%), for a total of 16,472 patients undergoing RCR. The risk of complications was compared between the 2 groups, along with patient demographic characteristics, operative time, length of stay, and unplanned readmission within 30 days. We compared dichotomous variables using the Fisher exact test and continuous variables with 1-way analysis of variance. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated when appropriate. The open RCR group had a higher prevalence of patients aged 65 years or older and comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, smoking, and alcoholism (P < .05). Patients undergoing open RCR had a higher risk of any adverse event when compared with arthroscopic RCR patients (1.48% vs 0.84%; RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.30; P = .0010). They were also at higher risk of return to the operating room within 30 days (0.70% vs 0.26%; RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.09-1.69; P = .0004). Open RCR was associated with a longer average hospital stay (0.48 ± 2.7 days vs 0.23 ± 4.2 days, P = .0007), whereas arthroscopic RCR had a longer average operative time (90 ± 45 minutes vs 79 ± 45 minutes, P < .0001). Although both open and arthroscopic approaches to RCR had low morbidity, arthroscopy was associated with lower risks of any adverse event and return to the operating room during the initial 30-day postoperative

  2. Comparison of 30-day readmission rates and risk factors between carotid artery stenting and endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Dakour Aridi, Hanaa; Locham, Satinderjit; Nejim, Besma; Malas, Mahmoud B

    2017-08-30

    The aim of this study was to analyze the rates, reasons, and risk factors of 30-day readmission, both planned and unplanned, after carotid revascularization as well as to evaluate major outcomes associated with those readmissions. Using the Premier Healthcare database, we retrospectively identified patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) between 2009 and 2015. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause readmission. Secondary outcomes included mortality and overall cost associated with readmissions. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used and further validated using coarsened exact matching on baseline differences between CEA and CAS patients. A total of 95,687 patients underwent carotid revascularization, 13.5% of whom underwent CAS. Crude 30-day readmission rates were 6.5% after CEA vs 6.1% after CAS (P = .10). Stroke, bleeding, pneumonia, and respiratory failure were the most common reasons for readmission after both CEA and CAS (6.7% vs 8.3%, 6.9% vs 5.3%, 3.4% vs 2.4%, and 4.4% vs 3.9%; all P > .05). Myocardial infarction and wound complications were more likely to be an indication for readmission after CEA (4.1% vs 2.5% and 4.1% vs 1.5%, respectively; P < .05). On the other hand, readmissions due to vascular or stent-related complications were more likely after CAS compared with CEA (5.8% vs 3.8%; P = .003). On multivariate analysis, CEA was found to be associated with 41% higher odds of readmission than CAS (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.54; P < .001). Age, female gender, emergency/urgent procedures, concomitant cardiac procedures, rural hospitals, and Midwest region were significantly associated with 30-day readmission. Other risk factors included major preoperative comorbidities (diabetes, congestive heart failure, renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, and history of cancer) as well as the occurrence of postoperative stroke and renal

  3. Relationship Between ASA Scores and 30-Day Readmissions in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Kim, Jun S; Lee, Nathan J; Kothari, Parth; Cho, Samuel K

    2017-01-15

    Retrospective study of prospectively collected data. To assess the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)score as an independent predictor of 30-readmissions after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). The ASA classification scheme was introduced in 1941 to establish a scoring system to evaluate the overall health status and comorbidities of patients before surgery10-12. Although the score was designed to predict postoperative complications, it may also be used as a predictor of perioperative risk. Data collected for the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database in the period 2005 to 2012 were used in the present analysis. Current Procedural Terminology codes were used to identify elective ACDF cases (CPT codes: 22551, 22554, and 63075). The primary study outcome was 30-day readmission rates after elective ACDF in adults. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to determine whether any of age, sex, race, body mass index, comorbidities, operative variables, or ASA class were predictors of 30-day readmission rates after ACDF. From the ACS-NSQIP database, 1701 elective ACDF cases were included for analysis, including 92 (5.5%) ASA class 1,955 (56.1%) ASA class 2,618 (36.3%) ASA class 3 and 34 (2.0%) ASA class 4 patients. Using ASA class 1 as a reference, significant independent predictors included being in ASA class 4 [odds ratio (OR) 5.7; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58-56.7; P = 0.039], having cardiac comorbidities (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-4.2; P = 0.017), and prior strokes (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.4-10.1; P = 0.0086). In conclusion, the unplanned readmission rate for patients undergoing ACDF was 3.2%. There was a significant and independent association between a high ASA class (class 4), cardiac comorbidities and prior strokes with 30-day unplanned readmissions after ACDF. The ASA score may be a valuable tool for the preoperative assessment of ACDF patients for risk of unplanned

  4. The effect of adding functional classification to ASA status for predicting 30-day mortality.

    PubMed

    Visnjevac, Ognjen; Davari-Farid, Sina; Lee, Jun; Pourafkari, Leili; Arora, Pradeep; Dosluoglu, Hasan H; Nader, Nader D

    2015-07-01

    The functional capacity to perform the activities of daily living is identified as an independent predictor of perioperative mortality but is not formally incorporated in the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification. Our primary objective was to assess whether functional capacity is an independent predictor of 30-day and long-term mortality in a general population and, if so, to define how it may formally be incorporated into the routine preoperative ASA classification assessment. This retrospective, observational cohort study was conducted using 1998 to 2009 data extracted from the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program of Western New York, a perioperative prospectively maintained database. Mortality follow-up was performed for all records in 2013. This population-based sample included all patients undergoing any noncardiac surgery (n = 12,324). Each patient's ASA class (assigned preoperatively) was appended with subclasses A or B, with A representing patients who were functionally independent and B representing partially or fully dependent patients. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality during the follow-up period. Secondary outcomes included 30-day postoperative complications and mortality. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for mortality. The likelihood for mortality was significantly lower for A patients than B patients within each ASA class. The odds ratios for mortality for group A patients significantly favored survival over group B within each ASA class (0.14, 0.29, and 0.50, for ASA class II, III, and IV, respectively, each P < 0.0001). The odds ratio for mortality of IIB over IIIA patients was 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-3.11; P = 0.01); 1.29 (95% CI, 1.04-1.60; P = 0.03) for IIIB over IVA patients; and 2.03 (95% CI, 0.99-4.12, P=0.11) for IVB over ASA V patients, despite each higher class carrying a greater disease burden, by definition. The area under the

  5. 7 CFR 27.58 - Postponed classification; must be within 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. 27... Classification § 27.58 Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. If thereafter the classification of the cotton be desired, notice thereof shall be filed not later than the expiration of 30 days after the...

  6. 17 CFR 41.12 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 41.12 Section 41.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of... narrow-based security index under section 1a(35) of the Act (7 U.S.C. 1a(35)) for the first 30 days...

  7. 43 CFR 4.1186 - Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement... Expedited Review of Section 521(a)(2) Or 521(a)(3) Orders of Cessation § 4.1186 Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement. (a) Any person qualified to receive a 30-day decision may waive that right— (1)...

  8. 7 CFR 27.58 - Postponed classification; must be within 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. 27... Classification § 27.58 Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. If thereafter the classification of the cotton be desired, notice thereof shall be filed not later than the expiration of 30 days after the...

  9. 43 CFR 4.1186 - Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement... Expedited Review of Section 521(a)(2) Or 521(a)(3) Orders of Cessation § 4.1186 Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement. (a) Any person qualified to receive a 30-day decision may waive that right— (1)...

  10. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-3 - Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Special 30-day rules for certain reportable... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(d)-3 Special 30-day rules for... certification of notified payee underreporting) within 30 days after the establishment or acquisition...

  11. 43 CFR 4.1186 - Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement... Expedited Review of Section 521(a)(2) Or 521(a)(3) Orders of Cessation § 4.1186 Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement. (a) Any person qualified to receive a 30-day decision may waive that right— (1)...

  12. 9 CFR 96.12 - Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 30 days; disposition. 96.12 Section 96.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... STATES § 96.12 Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition. Foreign animal casings... period of 30 days after arrival in the United States, subject to the ability of Division inspectors...

  13. 43 CFR 4.1186 - Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement... Expedited Review of Section 521(a)(2) Or 521(a)(3) Orders of Cessation § 4.1186 Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement. (a) Any person qualified to receive a 30-day decision may waive that right— (1)...

  14. 7 CFR 27.58 - Postponed classification; must be within 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. 27... Classification § 27.58 Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. If thereafter the classification of the cotton be desired, notice thereof shall be filed not later than the expiration of 30 days after the...

  15. 9 CFR 96.12 - Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 30 days; disposition. 96.12 Section 96.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... STATES § 96.12 Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition. Foreign animal casings... period of 30 days after arrival in the United States, subject to the ability of Division inspectors...

  16. 7 CFR 27.58 - Postponed classification; must be within 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. 27... Classification § 27.58 Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. If thereafter the classification of the cotton be desired, notice thereof shall be filed not later than the expiration of 30 days after the...

  17. 43 CFR 4.1186 - Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement... Expedited Review of Section 521(a)(2) Or 521(a)(3) Orders of Cessation § 4.1186 Waiver of the 30-day decision requirement. (a) Any person qualified to receive a 30-day decision may waive that right— (1)...

  18. 7 CFR 27.58 - Postponed classification; must be within 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. 27... Classification § 27.58 Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. If thereafter the classification of the cotton be desired, notice thereof shall be filed not later than the expiration of 30 days after the...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-3 - Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special 30-day rules for certain reportable... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(d)-3 Special 30-day rules for... certification of notified payee underreporting) within 30 days after the establishment or acquisition...

  20. 9 CFR 96.12 - Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 30 days; disposition. 96.12 Section 96.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... STATES § 96.12 Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition. Foreign animal casings... period of 30 days after arrival in the United States, subject to the ability of Division inspectors...

  1. 9 CFR 96.12 - Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 30 days; disposition. 96.12 Section 96.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... STATES § 96.12 Uncertified casings not disinfected in 30 days; disposition. Foreign animal casings... period of 30 days after arrival in the United States, subject to the ability of Division inspectors...

  2. 17 CFR 41.12 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 41.12 Section 41.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of sale for... U.S.C. 1a(25)) for the first 30 days of trading, if: (1) Such index would not have been a...

  3. Pauses and Communication Strategies in Second Language Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone

    A study of silent and filled pauses in second language speech analyzes (1) which types of pause are produced, (2) which are the functions of non-juncture pauses, (3) whether pauses co-occur with other hesitation phenomena, and (4) whether the occurrence of pauses is associated with second language proficiency. Subjects were 15 intermediate and…

  4. Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery: a large, international, prospective cohort study establishing diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes.

    PubMed

    Botto, Fernando; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Chan, Matthew T V; Villar, Juan Carlos; Xavier, Denis; Srinathan, Sadeesh; Guyatt, Gordon; Cruz, Patricia; Graham, Michelle; Wang, C Y; Berwanger, Otavio; Pearse, Rupert M; Biccard, Bruce M; Abraham, Valsa; Malaga, German; Hillis, Graham S; Rodseth, Reitze N; Cook, Deborah; Polanczyk, Carisi A; Szczeklik, Wojciech; Sessler, Daniel I; Sheth, Tej; Ackland, Gareth L; Leuwer, Martin; Garg, Amit X; Lemanach, Yannick; Pettit, Shirley; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Luratibuse, Giovanna; Walsh, Michael; Sapsford, Robert; Schünemann, Holger J; Kurz, Andrea; Thomas, Sabu; Mrkobrada, Marko; Thabane, Lehana; Gerstein, Hertzel; Paniagua, Pilar; Nagele, Peter; Raina, Parminder; Yusuf, Salim; Devereaux, P J; Devereaux, P J; Sessler, Daniel I; Walsh, Michael; Guyatt, Gordon; McQueen, Matthew J; Bhandari, Mohit; Cook, Deborah; Bosch, Jackie; Buckley, Norman; Yusuf, Salim; Chow, Clara K; Hillis, Graham S; Halliwell, Richard; Li, Stephen; Lee, Vincent W; Mooney, John; Polanczyk, Carisi A; Furtado, Mariana V; Berwanger, Otavio; Suzumura, Erica; Santucci, Eliana; Leite, Katia; Santo, Jose Amalth do Espirirto; Jardim, Cesar A P; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Guimaraes, Helio Penna; Jacka, Michael J; Graham, Michelle; McAlister, Finlay; McMurtry, Sean; Townsend, Derek; Pannu, Neesh; Bagshaw, Sean; Bessissow, Amal; Bhandari, Mohit; Duceppe, Emmanuelle; Eikelboom, John; Ganame, Javier; Hankinson, James; Hill, Stephen; Jolly, Sanjit; Lamy, Andre; Ling, Elizabeth; Magloire, Patrick; Pare, Guillaume; Reddy, Deven; Szalay, David; Tittley, Jacques; Weitz, Jeff; Whitlock, Richard; Darvish-Kazim, Saeed; Debeer, Justin; Kavsak, Peter; Kearon, Clive; Mizera, Richard; O'Donnell, Martin; McQueen, Matthew; Pinthus, Jehonathan; Ribas, Sebastian; Simunovic, Marko; Tandon, Vikas; Vanhelder, Tomas; Winemaker, Mitchell; Gerstein, Hertzel; McDonald, Sarah; O'Bryne, Paul; Patel, Ameen; Paul, James; Punthakee, Zubin; Raymer, Karen; Salehian, Omid; Spencer, Fred; Walter, Stephen; Worster, Andrew; Adili, Anthony; Clase, Catherine; Cook, Deborah; Crowther, Mark; Douketis, James; Gangji, Azim; Jackson, Paul; Lim, Wendy; Lovrics, Peter; Mazzadi, Sergio; Orovan, William; Rudkowski, Jill; Soth, Mark; Tiboni, Maria; Acedillo, Rey; Garg, Amit; Hildebrand, Ainslie; Lam, Ngan; Macneil, Danielle; Mrkobrada, Marko; Roshanov, Pavel S; Srinathan, Sadeesh K; Ramsey, Clare; John, Philip St; Thorlacius, Laurel; Siddiqui, Faisal S; Grocott, Hilary P; McKay, Andrew; Lee, Trevor W R; Amadeo, Ryan; Funk, Duane; McDonald, Heather; Zacharias, James; Villar, Juan Carlos; Cortés, Olga Lucía; Chaparro, Maria Stella; Vásquez, Skarlett; Castañeda, Alvaro; Ferreira, Silvia; Coriat, Pierre; Monneret, Denis; Goarin, Jean Pierre; Esteve, Cristina Ibanez; Royer, Catherine; Daas, Georges; Chan, Matthew T V; Choi, Gordon Y S; Gin, Tony; Lit, Lydia C W; Xavier, Denis; Sigamani, Alben; Faruqui, Atiya; Dhanpal, Radhika; Almeida, Smitha; Cherian, Joseph; Furruqh, Sultana; Abraham, Valsa; Afzal, Lalita; George, Preetha; Mala, Shaveta; Schünemann, Holger; Muti, Paola; Vizza, Enrico; Wang, C Y; Ong, G S Y; Mansor, Marzida; Tan, Alvin S B; Shariffuddin, Ina I; Vasanthan, V; Hashim, N H M; Undok, A Wahab; Ki, Ushananthini; Lai, Hou Yee; Ahmad, Wan Azman; Razack, Azad H A; Malaga, German; Valderrama-Victoria, Vanessa; Loza-Herrera, Javier D; De Los Angeles Lazo, Maria; Rotta-Rotta, Aida; Szczeklik, Wojciech; Sokolowska, Barbara; Musial, Jacek; Gorka, Jacek; Iwaszczuk, Pawel; Kozka, Mateusz; Chwala, Maciej; Raczek, Marcin; Mrowiecki, Tomasz; Kaczmarek, Bogusz; Biccard, Bruce; Cassimjee, Hussein; Gopalan, Dean; Kisten, Theroshnie; Mugabi, Aine; Naidoo, Prebashini; Naidoo, Rubeshan; Rodseth, Reitze; Skinner, David; Torborg, Alex; Paniagua, Pilar; Urrutia, Gerard; Maestre, Mari Luz; Santaló, Miquel; Gonzalez, Raúl; Font, Adrià; Martínez, Cecilia; Pelaez, Xavier; De Antonio, Marta; Villamor, Jose Marcial; García, Jesús Alvarez; Ferré, Maria José; Popova, Ekaterina; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Garutti, Ignacio; Cruz, Patricia; Fernández, Carmen; Palencia, Maria; Díaz, Susana; Del Castillo, Teresa; Varela, Alberto; de Miguel, Angeles; Muñoz, Manuel; Piñeiro, Patricia; Cusati, Gabriel; Del Barrio, Maria; Membrillo, Maria José; Orozco, David; Reyes, Fidel; Sapsford, Robert J; Barth, Julian; Scott, Julian; Hall, Alistair; Howell, Simon; Lobley, Michaela; Woods, Janet; Howard, Susannah; Fletcher, Joanne; Dewhirst, Nikki; Williams, C; Rushton, A; Welters, I; Leuwer, M; Pearse, Rupert; Ackland, Gareth; Khan, Ahsun; Niebrzegowska, Edyta; Benton, Sally; Wragg, Andrew; Archbold, Andrew; Smith, Amanda; McAlees, Eleanor; Ramballi, Cheryl; Macdonald, Neil; Januszewska, Marta; Stephens, Robert; Reyes, Anna; Paredes, Laura Gallego; Sultan, Pervez; Cain, David; Whittle, John; Del Arroyo, Ana Gutierrez; Sessler, Daniel I; Kurz, Andrea; Sun, Zhuo; Finnegan, Patrick S; Egan, Cameron; Honar, Hooman; Shahinyan, Aram; Panjasawatwong, Krit; Fu, Alexander Y; Wang, Sihe; Reineks, Edmunds; Nagele, Peter; Blood, Jane; Kalin, Megan; Gibson, David; Wildes, Troy

    2014-03-01

    Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) was defined as prognostically relevant myocardial injury due to ischemia that occurs during or within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. The study's four objectives were to determine the diagnostic criteria, characteristics, predictors, and 30-day outcomes of MINS. In this international, prospective cohort study of 15,065 patients aged 45 yr or older who underwent in-patient noncardiac surgery, troponin T was measured during the first 3 postoperative days. Patients with a troponin T level of 0.04 ng/ml or greater (elevated "abnormal" laboratory threshold) were assessed for ischemic features (i.e., ischemic symptoms and electrocardiography findings). Patients adjudicated as having a nonischemic troponin elevation (e.g., sepsis) were excluded. To establish diagnostic criteria for MINS, the authors used Cox regression analyses in which the dependent variable was 30-day mortality (260 deaths) and independent variables included preoperative variables, perioperative complications, and potential MINS diagnostic criteria. An elevated troponin after noncardiac surgery, irrespective of the presence of an ischemic feature, independently predicted 30-day mortality. Therefore, the authors' diagnostic criterion for MINS was a peak troponin T level of 0.03 ng/ml or greater judged due to myocardial ischemia. MINS was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.87; 95% CI, 2.96-5.08) and had the highest population-attributable risk (34.0%, 95% CI, 26.6-41.5) of the perioperative complications. Twelve hundred patients (8.0%) suffered MINS, and 58.2% of these patients would not have fulfilled the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Only 15.8% of patients with MINS experienced an ischemic symptom. Among adults undergoing noncardiac surgery, MINS is common and associated with substantial mortality.

  5. Impact of Peri-Operative Acute Kidney Injury as a Severity Index for 30-day Readmission After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jeremiah R.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Ross, Cathy S.; Kramer, Robert S.; Magnus, Patrick C.; Chaisson, Kristine; Boss, Richard A.; Helm, Robert E.; Horton, Susan R.; Hofmaster, Patricia; Desaulniers, Helen; Blajda, Pamela; Westbrook, Benjamin M.; Duquette, Dennis; LeBlond, Kelly; Quinn, Reed D.; Jones, Cheryl; DiScipio, Anthony W.; Malenka, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the United States, 15–20% are re-hospitalized within 30-days. Current models to predict readmission have not evaluated the association between severity of post-operative acute kidney injury (AKI) and 30-day readmissions. Methods We collected data from 2,209 consecutive patients who underwent either coronary artery bypass (CABG) or valve surgery at seven member hospitals of the Northern New England Cardiovascular Disease Study Group Cardiac Surgery Registry (NNE) between July 2008 and December 2010. Administrative data at each hospital was searched to identify all patients readmitted to the index hospital within 30 days of discharge. We defined AKI Stages by the AKI Network definition of 0.3 or 50% increase (Stage 1), 2-fold increase (stage 2) and a 3-fold or 0.5 increase if the baseline serum creatinine was at least 4.0 (mg/dL) or new dialysis (stage 3). We evaluate the association between stages of AKI and 30-day readmission using multivariate logistic regression. Results There were 260 patients readmitted within 30-days (12.1%). The median time to readmission was 9 (IQR 4–16) days. Patients not developing AKI following cardiac surgery had a 30-day readmission rate of 9.3% compared to patients developing AKI stage 1 (16.1%), AKI stage 2 (21.8%) and AKI stage 3 (28.6%, p <0.001). Adjusted odds ratios for AKI stage 1 (1.81; 1.35, 2.44), stage 2 (2.39; 1.38, 4.14) and stage 3 (3.47; 1.85–6.50). Models to predict readmission were significantly improved with the addition of AKI stage (c-statistic 0.65, p = 0.001) and net reclassification rate of 14.6% (95%CI: 5.05% to 24.14%, p = .003). Conclusions In addition to more traditional patient characteristics, the severity of post-operative AKI should be used when assessing a patient’s risk for readmission. PMID:24119985

  6. Syllable Timing and Pausing: Evidence from Cantonese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Conrad; Wong, Richard Kwok-Shing; Matthews, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between the acoustic duration of syllables and the silent pauses that follow them in Cantonese. The results showed that at major syntactic junctures, acoustic plus silent pause durations were quite similar for a number of different syllable types whose acoustic durations differed substantially. In addition, it appeared…

  7. Syllable Timing and Pausing: Evidence from Cantonese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Conrad; Wong, Richard Kwok-Shing; Matthews, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between the acoustic duration of syllables and the silent pauses that follow them in Cantonese. The results showed that at major syntactic junctures, acoustic plus silent pause durations were quite similar for a number of different syllable types whose acoustic durations differed substantially. In addition, it appeared…

  8. On Judging Pauses in Spontaneous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James G.

    1970-01-01

    Spectrograms of spontaneous speech revealed that syllables preceding a judged-pause location were usually longer than those following, whether or not a silent interval was present. Most judged-pause locations were junctures, but syllable length governed judgments independently of juncture cues. (Author/FWB)

  9. Structural basis of transcriptional pausing in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weixlbaumer, Albert; Leon, Katherine; Landick, Robert; Darst, Seth A

    2013-01-31

    Transcriptional pausing by multisubunit RNA polymerases (RNAPs) is a key mechanism for regulating gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and is a prerequisite for transcription termination. Pausing and termination states are thought to arise through a common, elemental pause state that is inhibitory for nucleotide addition. We report three crystal structures of Thermus RNAP elemental paused elongation complexes (ePECs). The structures reveal the same relaxed, open-clamp RNAP conformation in the ePEC that may arise by failure to re-establish DNA contacts during translocation. A kinked bridge-helix sterically blocks the RNAP active site, explaining how this conformation inhibits RNAP catalytic activity. Our results provide a framework for understanding how RNA hairpin formation stabilizes the paused state and how the ePEC intermediate facilitates termination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Predictors of 30-day readmission and impact of same-day discharge in laparoscopic hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Ashley J; Spencer, Ryan J; Medlin, Erin; Rice, Laurel W; Uppal, Shitanshu

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the predischarge predictors of 30-day readmission and the impact of same-day discharge after laparoscopic hysterectomy. Patients undergoing only laparoscopic hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy participated in the study. The 30-day readmission rate was 3.1% (277 of 8890). Factors predictive of higher rates of readmission were diabetes (4.4% vs 3.0%; P = .03), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (8.5% vs 3.1%; P = .02), disseminated cancer (20% vs 3.1%; P < .001), chronic steroid use (7.1% vs 3.1%; P = .03), daily alcohol use of more than 2 drinks (12.5% vs 2.5%; P = .04), and bleeding disorder (10.8% vs 3%; P = .001). Operative factors included surgical time of 2 hours or greater (3.5% vs 2.7%; P = .014). After surgery, patients had a higher rate of readmission when they experienced any 1 or more complications prior to discharge, (6.9% vs 3.1%; P = .01) as well as any complication after discharge (3.6% vs 1.6%; P = .01). Infections (35.7%) and surgical complications (24.2%) were the most common reasons of readmissions. Of these patients, 20.9% were discharged the same day (n = 1855) and had a similar rate of readmission (2.6% vs 3.2%; P = n.s.). Laparoscopic hysterectomy readmission score (LHRS) can be calculated by assigning 1 point to diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, disseminated cancer, chronic steroid use, bleeding disorder, length of surgery of 2 hours or longer, and 2 points to any postoperative complication prior to discharge. Readmission rates for the LHRS score were score 1 (2.4%), score 2 (3.3%), score 3 (5.8%), or score 4 (9.5%). The overall readmission rate after laparoscopic hysterectomy is low. Patients discharged the same day have similar rates of readmission. Higher LHRS is indicative of higher rates of readmission and may identify a population not suitable for same-day discharge and in need of higher vigilance to prevent readmissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  11. 78 FR 48178 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request: Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Portfolio Analysis...: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Research Portfolio Analysis, 0925--NEW- National Institute of...

  12. Rheumatoid arthritis patients are not at increased risk for 30-day cardiovascular events, infections, or mortality after total joint arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Serious infection, cardiovascular disease, and mortality are increased in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Whether RA affects the risk for these complications after total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is unknown, we hypothesize that it does. We compared the occurrence of 30-day postoperative complications and mortality in a large cohort of RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients undergoing hip or knee TJA. Methods Analyses included 7-year data from the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program. The 30-day complications were compared by diagnosis by using logistic regression, and long-term mortality was examined by using Cox proportional hazards regression. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and clustering by surgical site. Additional covariates included sociodemographics, comorbidities, health behaviors, and operative risk factors. Results The 34,524 patients (839 RA, 33,685 OA) underwent knee (65.9%) or hip TJA. Patients were 95.7% men with a mean (SD) age of 64.4 (10.7) years and had 3,764 deaths over a mean follow-up of 3.7 (2.3) years. Compared with OA patients, those with RA were significantly more likely to require a return to the operating room (odds ratio (OR), 1.45 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.94), but had similar rates of 30-day postoperative infection, OR 1.02 (0.72 to 1.47), cardiovascular events, OR 0.69 (0.37 to 1.28), and mortality, OR 0.94 (0.38 to 2.33). RA was associated with a significantly higher long-term mortality; hazard ratio (HR), 1.22 (1.00 to 1.49). Conclusion In this study of US veterans, RA patients were not at an increased risk for short-term mortality or other major complications after TJA, although they returned to the operating room more often and had increased long-term mortality. PMID:24252350

  13. Pause & go: from the discovery of RNA polymerase pausing to its functional implications.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andreas; Landry, Heather M; Churchman, L Stirling

    2017-03-28

    The synthesis of nascent RNA is a discontinuous process in which phases of productive elongation by RNA polymerase are interrupted by frequent pauses. Transcriptional pausing was first observed decades ago, but was long considered to be a special feature of transcription at certain genes. This view was challenged when studies using genome-wide approaches revealed that RNA polymerase II pauses at promoter-proximal regions in large sets of genes in Drosophila and mammalian cells. High-resolution genomic methods uncovered that pausing is not restricted to promoters, but occurs globally throughout gene-body regions, implying the existence of key-rate limiting steps in nascent RNA synthesis downstream of transcription initiation. Here, we outline the experimental breakthroughs that led to the discovery of pervasive transcriptional pausing, discuss its emerging roles and regulation, and highlight the importance of pausing in human development and disease.

  14. Drivers and Risk Factors of Unplanned 30-Day Readmission Following Spinal Cord Stimulator Implantation.

    PubMed

    Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Sergesketter, Amanda; Ren, Xinru; Mohammed Qasim Hussaini, Syed; Laarakker, Avra; Rahimpour, Shervin; Ejikeme, Tiffany; Yang, Siyun; Pagadala, Promila; Parente, Beth; Xie, Jichun; Lad, Shivanand P

    2017-09-29

    Unplanned 30-day readmission rates contribute significantly to growing national healthcare expenditures. Drivers of unplanned 30-day readmission after spinal cord stimulator (SCS) implantation are relatively unknown. The aim of this study was to determine drivers of 30-day unplanned readmission following SCS implantation. The National Readmission Database was queried to identify all patients who underwent SCS implantation for the 2013 calendar year. Patients were grouped by readmission status, "No Readmission" and "Unplanned 30-day Readmission." Patient demographics and comorbidities were collected for each patient. The primary outcome of interest was the rate of unplanned 30-day readmissions and associated driving factors. A multivariate analysis was used to determine independent predictors of unplanned 30-day readmission after SCS implantation. We identified 1521 patients who underwent SCS implantation, with 113 (7.4%) experiencing an unplanned readmission within 30 days. Baseline patient demographics, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics were similar between both cohorts. The three main drivers for 30-day readmission after SCS implantation include: 1) infection (not related to SCS device), 2) infection due to device (limited to only hardware infection), and 3) mechanical complication of SCS device. Furthermore, obesity was found to be an independent predictor of 30-day readmission (OR: 1.86, p = 0.008). Our study suggests that infectious and mechanical complications are the primary drivers of unplanned 30-day readmission after SCS implantation, with obesity as an independent predictor of unplanned readmission. Given the technological advancements in SCS, repeated studies are necessary to identify factors associated with unplanned 30-day readmission rates after SCS implantation to improve patient outcomes and reduce associated costs. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  15. Interword and intraword pause threshold in writing

    PubMed Central

    Chenu, Florence; Pellegrino, François; Jisa, Harriet; Fayol, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Writing words in real life involves setting objectives, imagining a recipient, translating ideas into linguistic forms, managing grapho-motor gestures, etc. Understanding writing requires observation of the processes as they occur in real time. Analysis of pauses is one of the preferred methods for accessing the dynamics of writing and is based on the idea that pauses are behavioral correlates of cognitive processes. However, there is a need to clarify what we are observing when studying pause phenomena, as we will argue in the first section. This taken into account, the study of pause phenomena can be considered following two approaches. A first approach, driven by temporality, would define a threshold and observe where pauses, e.g., scriptural inactivity occurs. A second approach, linguistically driven, would define structural units and look for scriptural inactivity at the boundaries of these units or within these units. Taking a temporally driven approach, we present two methods which aim at the automatic identification of scriptural inactivity which is most likely not attributable to grapho-motor management in texts written by children and adolescents using digitizing tablets in association with Eye and Pen© (Chesnet and Alamargot, 2005). The first method is purely statistical and is based on the idea that the distribution of pauses exhibits different Gaussian components each of them corresponding to a different type of pause. After having reviewed the limits of this statistical method, we present a second method based on writing dynamics which attempts to identify breaking points in the writing dynamics rather than relying only on pause duration. This second method needs to be refined to overcome the fact that calculation is impossible when there is insufficient data which is often the case when working with young scriptors. PMID:24723896

  16. Pausing for thought: engagement of left temporal cortex during pauses in speech.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Tilo T J; Brammer, Michael J; Levelt, W; Bartels, Mathias; McGuire, Philip K

    2004-01-01

    Pauses during continuous speech, particularly those that occur within clauses, are thought to reflect the planning of forthcoming verbal output. We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to examine their neural correlates. Six volunteers were scanned while describing seven Rorschach inkblots, producing 3 min of speech per inkblot. In an event-related design, the level of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast during brief speech pauses (mean duration 1.3 s, SD 0.3 s) during overt speech was contrasted with that during intervening periods of articulation. We then examined activity associated with pauses that occurred within clauses and pauses that occurred between grammatical junctions. Relative to articulation during speech, pauses were associated with activation in the banks of the left superior temporal sulcus (BA 39/22), at the temporoparietal junction. Continuous speech was associated with greater activation bilaterally in the inferior frontal (BA 44/45), middle frontal (BA 8) and anterior cingulate (BA 24) gyri, the middle temporal sulcus (BA 21/22), the occipital cortex and the cerebellum. Left temporal activation was evident during pauses that occurred within clauses but not during pauses at grammatical junctions. In summary, articulation during continuous speech involved frontal, temporal and cerebellar areas, while pausing was associated with activity in the left temporal cortex, especially when this occurred within a clause. The latter finding is consistent with evidence that within-clause pauses are a correlate of speech planning and in particular lexical retrieval.

  17. 78 FR 52005 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Project Construction Contract...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... August 21, 2013 Part IV Department of Housing and Urban Development 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily... Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard at...

  18. 17 CFR 41.12 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 41.12 Section 41.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SECURITY FUTURES PRODUCTS Narrow-Based Security Indexes § 41.12 Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of sale...

  19. 43 CFR 4.1187 - Procedure if 30-day decision requirement is not waived.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedure if 30-day decision requirement...-day decision requirement is not waived. If the applicant does not waive the 30-day decision... a response to the application for review shall file a written response within 5 working days...

  20. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  1. 43 CFR 4.1187 - Procedure if 30-day decision requirement is not waived.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure if 30-day decision requirement...-day decision requirement is not waived. If the applicant does not waive the 30-day decision... a response to the application for review shall file a written response within 5 working days...

  2. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  3. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry... days after entry. Allowance in duties for merchandise abandoned to the Government in accordance with... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  4. 43 CFR 4.1187 - Procedure if 30-day decision requirement is not waived.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Procedure if 30-day decision requirement is...-day decision requirement is not waived. If the applicant does not waive the 30-day decision... a response to the application for review shall file a written response within 5 working days...

  5. 77 FR 58437 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: Two Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 30-Day... Collections: ``Request To Change End-User, End-Use, and/or Destination of Hardware'' and ``Request for... organizations. The purpose of this Notice is to allow 30 days for public comment. DATES: Submit comments to the...

  6. Use of the modified frailty index to predict 30-day morbidity and mortality from spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna; Schwalb, Jason M; Nerenz, David R; Antoine, Heath J; Rubinfeld, Ilan

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Limited tools exist to stratify perioperative risk in patients undergoing spinal procedures. The modified frailty index (mFI) based on the Canadian Study of Health and Aging Frailty Index (CSHA-FI), constructed from standard demographic variables, has been applied to various other surgical populations for risk stratification. The authors hypothesized that it would be predictive of postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing spine surgery. METHODS The 2006-2010 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data set was accessed for patients undergoing spine surgeries based on Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. Sixteen preoperative clinical NSQIP variables were matched to 11 CSHA-FI variables (changes in daily activities, gastrointestinal problems, respiratory problems, clouding or delirium, hypertension, coronary artery and peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, and so on). The outcomes assessed were 30-day occurrences of adverse events. These were then summarized in groups: any infection, wound-related complication, Clavien IV complications (life-threatening, requiring ICU admission), and mortality. RESULTS A total of 18,294 patients were identified. In 8.1% of patients with an mFI of 0 there was at least one morbid complication, compared with 24.3% of patients with an mFI of ≥ 0.27 (p < 0.001). An mFI of 0 was associated with a mortality rate of 0.1%, compared with 2.3% for an mFI of ≥ 0.27 (p < 0.001). Patients with an mFI of 0 had a 1.7% rate of surgical site infections and a 0.8% rate of Clavien IV complications, whereas patients with an mFI of ≥ 0.27 had rates of 4.1% and 7.1% for surgical site infections and Clavien IV complications, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Multivariate analysis showed that the preoperative mFI and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of ≥ III had a significantly increased risk of leading to Clavien IV complications and death. CONCLUSIONS A higher m

  7. Prospective evaluation of post-implantation inflammatory response after EVAR for AAA: influence on patients' 30 day outcome.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutoglou, E; Kouvelos, G; Papa, N; Kallinteri, A; Milionis, H; Koulouras, V; Matsagkas, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to prospectively evaluate post-implantation syndrome (PIS) after elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and to investigate its association with clinical and laboratory parameters and the clinical outcome of the patients. From January 2010 till June 2013, 214 consecutive patients treated electively by EVAR for AAA were prospectively included. PIS was defined according to systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria. Adverse events included any major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), acute renal failure, re-admission and death from any cause. PIS was diagnosed in 77 (34%) patients. Pre-operative white blood cell (WBC) count values (p < .001), endograft material (polyester) (p < .001), and heart failure (p = .03) were independent predictors of PIS. Mean post-operative temperature (p < .001), length of hospital (p < .001) and intensive care unit (p = .008) stay, as well as maximum post-operative WBC count (p < .001) and hs-CRP values (p < .001) were significantly higher in the PIS group. Post-operative hs-CRP (p = .001) and duration of fever (p = .02) independently predicted the occurrence of MACE. Post-operative hs-CRP (p = .004), maximum temperature (p = .03), and the presence of PIS (p = .01) were independent predictors of an adverse event during the first 30 days. A threshold of post-operative hs-CRP value of 125 mg/L was highly associated with the occurrence of MACE, with a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 75%. A systematic inflammatory response is observed in a significant number of patients after EVAR. The type of endograft material seems to play a significant role in this inflammatory process. The intensity of inflammation, as assessed mainly by the post-operative hs-CRP values, correlates with the presence of a cardiovascular or any other adverse event during the first 30 days after the procedure. Copyright © 2014 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by

  8. Pauses in Written Composition: On the Importance of Where Writers Pause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medimorec, Srdan; Risko, Evan F.

    2017-01-01

    Much previous research has conceptualized pauses during writing as indicators of the engagement of higher-level cognitive processes. In the present study 101 university students composed narrative or argumentative essays, while their key logging was recorded. We investigated the relation between pauses within three time intervals (300-999,…

  9. Nonclinical Factors Associated with 30-Day Mortality after Lung Cancer Resection: An Analysis of 215,000 Patients Using the National Cancer Data Base.

    PubMed

    Melvan, John N; Sancheti, Manu S; Gillespie, Theresa; Nickleach, Dana C; Liu, Yuan; Higgins, Kristin; Ramalingam, Suresh; Lipscomb, Joseph; Fernandez, Felix G

    2015-08-01

    Clinical variables associated with 30-day mortality after lung cancer surgery are well known. However, the effects of nonclinical factors, including insurance coverage, household income, education, type of treatment center, and area of residence, on short-term survival are less appreciated. We studied the National Cancer Data Base, a joint endeavor of the Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society, to identify disparities in 30-day mortality after lung cancer resection based on these nonclinical factors. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients undergoing lung cancer resection from 2003 to 2011 using the National Cancer Data Base. Data were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model to identify risk factors for 30-day mortality. During our study period, 215,645 patients underwent lung cancer resection. We found that clinical variables, such as age, sex, comorbidity, cancer stage, preoperative radiation, extent of resection, positive surgical margins, and tumor size were associated with 30-day mortality after resection. Nonclinical factors, including living in lower-income neighborhoods with a lesser proportion of high school graduates, and receiving cancer care at a nonacademic medical center were also independently associated with increased 30-day postoperative mortality. This study represents the largest analysis of 30-day mortality for lung cancer resection to date from a generalizable national cohort. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to known clinical risk factors, several nonclinical factors are associated with increased 30-day mortality after lung cancer resection. These disparities require additional investigation to improve lung cancer patient outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Nonclinical Factors Associated with 30-Day Mortality after Lung Cancer Resection: An Analysis of 215,000 Patients Using the National Cancer Data Base

    PubMed Central

    Melvan, John N; Sancheti, Manu S; Gillespie, Theresa; Nickleach, Dana C; Liu, Yuan; Higgins, Kristin; Ramalingam, Suresh; Lipscomb, Joseph; Fernandez, Felix G

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical variables associated with 30-day mortality after lung cancer surgery are well known. However, the effects of non-clinical factors, including insurance coverage, household income, education, type of treatment center, and area of residence, on short term survival are less appreciated. We studied the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), a joint endeavor of the Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society, to identify disparities in 30-day mortality after lung cancer resection based on these non-clinical factors. Study Design We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients undergoing lung cancer resection from 2003-2011, using the NCDB. Data were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model to identify risk factors for 30-day mortality. Results 215,645 patients underwent lung cancer resection during our study period. We found that clinical variables such as age, gender, comorbidity, cancer stage, preoperative radiation, extent of resection, positive surgical margins, and tumor size were associated with 30-day mortality after resection. Non-clinical factors including living in lower income neighborhoods with a lesser proportion of high school graduates, and receiving cancer care at a non-academic medical center were also independently associated with increased 30-day postoperative mortality. Conclusions This study represents the largest analysis of 30-day mortality for lung cancer resection to date from a generalizable national cohort. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to known clinical risk factors, several non-clinical factors are associated with increased 30-day mortality after lung cancer resection. These disparities require further investigation to improve lung cancer patient outcomes. PMID:26206651

  11. 78 FR 37834 - Submission for OMB review; 30-Day Comment Request; Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB review; 30-Day Comment Request; Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research (FITBIR) Informatics System Data Access Request SUMMARY: Under the... Collection: Federal Interagency Traumatic Brain Injury Research (FITBIR) Informatics System Data...

  12. 78 FR 44579 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fellowship Placement Pilot Program.... A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Fellowship Placement Pilot.... Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The Fellowship Placement Program places...

  13. 78 FR 69103 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental... Information Collection: Quality Control for Rental Assistance Subsidy Determinations. OMB Approval Number... Quality Control process involves selecting a nationally representative sample of assisted households...

  14. [Tinea caused by Microsporum canis in children under 30 days of age].

    PubMed

    Zaror, L; Moreno, M I; Bilbao, M T

    1985-02-01

    Six cases of ringworm due to Microsporum canis are reported in infants no more than 30 days old. The infections came from cats. The patients responded to therapy with griseofulvin and tolnaftate, miconazole or iodine.

  15. 78 FR 59046 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  16. 78 FR 40314 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fair Housing Initiatives Program Grant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fair Housing Initiatives Program..., 2012. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Fair Housing Initiatives... approved information collection used to select applicants for the Fair Housing Initiatives Program (FHIP...

  17. 78 FR 64143 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Contractor's Requisition-Project Mortgages

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Contractor's Requisition--Project..., 2013. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Contractor's...

  18. 78 FR 36561 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: The Housing Counseling Federal Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: The Housing Counseling Federal... Information Collection: The Housing Counseling Federal Advisory Committee Membership Application. OMB Approval... for the information and proposed use: The Housing Counseling Federal Advisory Committee (HCFAC)...

  19. Effect of feeding in 30-day bioaccumulation assays using Hyalella azteca in fluoranthene-dosed sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Harkey, G.A.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Current protocols for conducting freshwater sediment bioaccumulation tests require that food be added to exposures. To determine effects of adding food, 30-day bioaccumulation assays were conducted with H. azteca exposed to sediment dosed with four concentrations (0.05 to 1,267 nmol/g dry weight) of fluoranthene. Accumulation was significantly greater in fed versus non-fed animals at all dose levels after 96 and 240 hours of exposure and continued to be greater after 30 days in the low dose levels. At sediment concentrations above 634 nmol/g dw, survival of unfed animals dropped to 34% after 30 days, However, after 30 days, reproduction was observed in fed animals exposed to sediment concentrations > 16 times the expected LC50 calculated for fluoranthene in sediment. These data raise questions concerning the interpretation of standard toxicity and bioaccumulation tests when food is routinely added.

  20. The impact of socioeconomic factors on 30-day mortality following elective colorectal cancer surgery: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, H; Ladelund, Steen; Jørgensen, T

    2009-05-01

    We investigated postoperative mortality in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in electively operated colorectal cancer patients, and evaluated whether social inequalities were explained by factors related to patient, disease or treatment. Data from the nationwide database of Danish Colorectal Cancer Group were linked to individual socioeconomic information in Statistics Denmark. Patients born before 1921 and those having local surgical or palliative procedures were excluded. A total of 7160 patients, operated on in the period 2001-2004, were included, of whom 342 (4.8%) died within 30 days of surgery. Postoperative mortality was significantly lower in patients with high income (odds ratio (OR)=0.82 (0.70-0.95) for each increase in annual income of EUR 13,500), higher education versus short education (OR)=0.60 (0.41-0.87), and owner-occupied versus rental housing (OR)=0.73 (0.58-0.93). Differences in comorbidity and to a lesser extent lifestyle characteristics accounted for the excess risk of postoperative death among low-SES patients.

  1. Avoidable 30-Day Readmissions Among Patients With Stroke and Other Cerebrovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nahab, Fadi; Takesaka, Jennifer; Mailyan, Eugene; Judd, Lilith; Culler, Steven; Webb, Adam; Frankel, Michael; Choi, Dennis; Helmers, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on factors associated with 30-day readmissions and the frequency of avoidable readmissions among patients with stroke and other cerebrovascular disease. Methods: University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) database records were used to identify patients discharged with a diagnosis of stroke or other cerebrovascular disease at a university hospital from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2009 and readmitted within 30 days to the index hospital. Logistic regression models were used to identify patient and clinical characteristics associated with 30-day readmission. Two neurologists performed chart reviews on readmissions to identify avoidable cases. Results: Of 2706 patients discharged during the study period, 174 patients had 178 readmissions (6.4%) within 30 days. The only factor associated with 30-day readmission was the index length of stay >10 days (vs <5 days; odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% CI [1.4, 3.7]). Of 174 patients readmitted within 30 days (median time to readmission 10 days), 92 (53%) were considered avoidable readmissions including 38 (41%) readmitted for elective procedures within 30 days of discharge, 27 (29%) readmitted after inadequate outpatient care coordination, 15 (16%) readmitted after incomplete initial evaluations, 8 (9%) readmitted due to delayed palliative care consultation, and 4 (4%) readmitted after being discharged with inadequate discharge instructions. Only 5% of the readmitted patients had outpatient follow-up recommended within 1 week. Conclusions: More than half of the 30-day readmissions were considered avoidable. Coordinated timing of elective procedures and earlier outpatient follow-up may prevent the majority of avoidable readmissions among patients with stroke and other cerebrovascular disease. PMID:23983857

  2. Adverse Events in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Infectious Orbital Complications of Sinusitis: 30-Day NSQIP Pediatric Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jeffrey; Liu, Beiyu; Farjat, Alfredo E; Jang, David W

    2017-10-01

    Objective Identify predictors of adverse events for children who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for treatment of orbital complications associated with sinusitis. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis of a US national database. Setting American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), pediatric version (2012-2015). Subjects and Methods Patients were identified with a combination of codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and 2014 Current Procedural Terminology. Our primary outcome measure was adverse events, which were compared with clinical risk factors to examine for any associations. Results A total of 57 patients were included for analysis. No significant relationship was identified between 30-day postoperative adverse events and age, sex, race, body mass index, prematurity, history of asthma, steroid use (within 30 days), and preoperative white blood cell count. There was a statistically significant increase in adverse events for those patients who underwent delayed surgery ( P < .0001). No serious adverse events related to death, sepsis, nerve injury (eg, visual loss), or other organ space infections (eg, intracranial infection) were identified. After controlling for age group and race, delayed operative intervention was a significant clinical predictor of adverse events (odds ratio = 25.65; 95% CI, 3.86-170.45; P = .0008). We observed unplanned reoperation and readmission rates of 5.3% and 7%, respectively. Conclusions Endoscopic surgical drainage for infectious orbital complications of sinusitis in children appears to be safe. Serious or significant adverse events were uncommon. Areas for improvement include limiting and reducing unplanned reoperations and readmissions.

  3. Predicting 30-day mortality of aortic valve replacement by the AVR score.

    PubMed

    Swinkels, B M; Vermeulen, F E E; Kelder, J C; van Boven, W J; Plokker, H W M; Ten Berg, J M

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a simple risk score to predict 30-day mortality of aortic valve replacement (AVR). In a development set of 673 consecutive patients who underwent AVR between 1990 and 1993, four independent predictors for 30-day mortality were identified: body mass index (BMI) ≥30, BMI <20, previous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and recent myocardial infarction. Based on these predictors, a 30-day mortality risk score-the AVR score-was developed. The AVR score was validated on a validation set of 673 consecutive patients who underwent AVR almost two decennia later in the same hospital. Thirty-day mortality in the development set was ≤2% in the absence of any predictor (class I, low risk), 2-5% in the solitary presence of BMI ≥30 (class II, mild risk), 5-15% in the solitary presence of previous CABG or recent myocardial infarction (class III, moderate risk), and >15% in the solitary presence of BMI <20, or any combination of BMI ≥30, previous CABG or recent myocardial infarction (class IV, high risk). The AVR score correctly predicted 30-day mortality in the validation set: observed 30-day mortality in the validation set was 2.3% in 487 class I patients, 4.4% in 137 class II patients, 13.3% in 30 class III patients and 15.8% in 19 class IV patients. The AVR score is a simple risk score validated to predict 30-day mortality of AVR.

  4. Predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Safatli, Diaa A.; Günther, Albrecht; Schlattmann, Peter; Schwarz, Falko; Kalff, Rolf; Ewald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a life threatening entity, and an early outcome assessment is mandatory for optimizing therapeutic efforts. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 342 patients with spontaneous primary ICH to evaluate possible predictors of 30-day mortality considering clinical, radiological, and therapeutical parameters. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. Results: From 342 patients (mean age: 67 years, mean Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] on admission: 9, mean ICH volume: 62.19 ml, most common hematoma location: basal ganglia [43.9%]), 102 received surgical and 240 conservative treatment. The 30-day mortality was 25.15%. In a multivariate analysis, GCS (Odds ratio [OR] =0.726, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.661–0.796, P < 0.001), bleeding volume (OR = 1.012 per ml, 95% CI = 1.007 – 1.017, P < 0.001), and infratentorial hematoma location (OR = 5.381, 95% CI = 2.166-13.356, P = 0.009) were significant predictors for the 30-day mortality. After receiver operating characteristics analysis, we defined a “high-risk group” for an unfavorable short-term outcome with GCS <11 and ICH volume >32 ml supratentorially or 21 ml infratentorially. Using Pearson correlation, we found a correlation of 0.986 between ICH score and 30-day mortality (P < 0.001), 0.853 between FUNC score and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001), and 0.924 between ICH-GS and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001). Conclusions: GCS score on admission together with the baseline volume and localization of the hemorrhage are strong

  5. Predictors of 30-day readmission following hysterectomy for benign and malignant indications at a tertiary care academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Lee, Malinda S; Venkatesh, Kartik K; Growdon, Whitfield B; Ecker, Jeffrey L; York-Best, Carey M

    2016-05-01

    associated with a higher odds of readmission; however, women who underwent a laparoscopic hysterectomy (AOR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.12-0.86; P = .02) and who were discharged on postoperative day 1 (AOR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.82; P = .02) were at a decreased risk of readmission. Physician and operative characteristics were not significant predictors of readmission. This study found that malignancy, perioperative complications, and prior open abdominal surgery, including cesarean delivery, are significant risk factors for consequent 30-day readmission following index hysterectomy. It may be possible to identify patients at highest risk for readmission at the time of hysterectomy, which can assist in developing interventions to reduce such events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ASA score as a predictor of 30-day perioperative readmission in patients with orthopaedic trauma injuries: an NSQIP analysis.

    PubMed

    Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Molina, Cesar S; Thakore, Rachel V; Obremskey, William T; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-03-01

    Our purpose was to identify the impact of the physical status of the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) on the 30-day readmission of patients receiving operative management of orthopaedic fractures using the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database. We analyzed all patients with orthopaedic trauma injuries in the American College of Surgeons NSQIP database from 2005 to 2011. A total of 8761 patients representing 91 orthopaedic trauma procedures were identified and included in analysis after selection. Logistic regressions were conducted to identify the predictive ability of ASA on the likelihood of readmission for patients in each anatomic category (upper extremity, pelvis/acetabulum, lower extremity) and the combined study population. The ASA physical status proved the strongest predictor of 30-day readmission for the selected orthopaedic trauma procedures. After controlling for age, gender, race, and medical comorbidities that were shown to be significant independent risk factors for readmission, ASA score continued to have a significant association on 30-day readmissions in the combined population (odds ratio = 1.45, 95% confidence interval = 1.13-1.88, P = 0.001). For the combined analysis, compared with patients with an ASA score of 1, patients with an ASA score of 2 were 1.04 times as likely to have a readmission (P = 0.001), patients with an ASA score of 3 were 3.77 times as likely to have a readmission (P = 0.001), and patients with an ASA score of 4 were 13.7 times as likely to have a readmission (P = 0.001). ASA classification is an indicator for variance in readmission for patients receiving operative treatment of orthopaedic fractures. Given that ASA classification is a universally collected data point, this method can be used in almost any hospital system and for any operative service. This model may be used to more accurately predict a patient's postoperative course and the expected risk for readmission, such that

  7. Low platelet activity predicts 30 days mortality in patients undergoing heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Kuliczkowski, Wiktor; Sliwka, Joanna; Kaczmarski, Jacek; Zysko, Dorota; Zembala, Michal; Steter, Dawid; Zembala, Marian; Gierlotka, Marek; Kim, Moo Hyun; Serebruany, Victor

    2016-03-01

    Despite advanced techniques and improved clinical outcomes, patient survival following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is still a major concern. Therefore, predicting future CABG mortality represents an unmet medical need and should be carefully explored. The objective of this study is to assess whether pre-CABG platelet activity corresponds with 30 days mortality post-CABG. Retrospective analyses of platelet biomarkers and death at 30 days in 478 heart surgery patients withdrawn from aspirin or/and clopidogrel. Platelet activity was assessed prior to CABG for aspirin (ASPI-test) with arachidonic acid and clopidogrel (ADP-test) utilizing Multiplate impedance aggregometer. Most patients (n = 198) underwent conventional CABG, off-pump (n = 162), minimally invasive (n = 30), artificial valve implantation (n = 48) or valves in combination with CABG (n = 40). There were 22 deaths at 30 days, including 10 in-hospital fatalities. With the cut-off value set below 407 area under curve (AUC) for the ASPI-test, the 30-day mortality was 5.90% for the lower cohort and 2.66% for patients with significantly higher platelet reactivity (P = 0.038). For the ADP-test with a cut-off at 400AUC, the 30-day mortality was 9.68% for the lower cohort and 3.66% for patients with higher platelet reactivity, representing a borderline significant difference (P = 0.046). Aside from the platelet indices, patients who received red blood cell (RBC) concentrate had a highly significant (P < 0.0001) risk of death at 30 days. Both aspirin and clopidogrel tests were useful in predicting 30 days mortality following heart surgery, suggesting the danger of diminished platelet activity prior to CABG in such high-risk patients. These preliminary evidence supports early discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy for elective CABG and requires adequately powered randomized trials to test the hypothesis and potentially improve survival.

  8. Relationships between in-hospital and 30-day standardized hospital mortality: implications for profiling hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, G. E.; Baker, D. W.; Norris, D. G.; Way, L. E.; Harper, D. L.; Snow, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates and the association between in-hospital mortality and hospital discharge practices. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: A secondary analysis of data for 13,834 patients with congestive heart failure who were admitted to 30 hospitals in northeast Ohio in 1992-1994. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and clinical data were collected from patients' medical records and were used to develop multivariable models that estimated the risk of in-hospital and 30-day (post-admission) mortality. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for in-hospital and 30-day mortality were determined by dividing observed death rates by predicted death rates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-hospital SMRs ranged from 0.54 to 1.42, and six hospitals were classified as statistical outliers (p <.05); 30-day SMRs ranged from 0.63 to 1.73, and seven hospitals were outliers. Although the correlation between in-hospital SMRs and 30-day SMRs was substantial (R = 0.78, p < .001), outlier status changed for seven of the 30 hospitals. Nonetheless, changes in outlier status reflected relatively small differences between in-hospital and 30-day SMRs. Rates of discharge to nursing homes or other inpatient facilities varied from 5.4 percent to 34.2 percent across hospitals. However, relationships between discharge rates to such facilities and in-hospital SMRs (R = 0.08; p = .65) and early post-discharge mortality rates (R = 0.23; p = .21) were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: SMRs based on in-hospital and 30-day mortality were relatively similar, although classification of hospitals as statistical outliers often differed. However, there was no evidence that in-hospital SMRs were biased by differences in post-discharge mortality or discharge practices. PMID:10737447

  9. Measuring hospital mortality rates: are 30-day data enough? Ischemic Heart Disease Patient Outcomes Research Team.

    PubMed Central

    Garnick, D W; DeLong, E R; Luft, H S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We compare 30-day and 180-day postadmission hospital mortality rates for all Medicare patients and those in three categories of cardiac care: coronary artery bypass graft surgery, acute myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. DATA SOURCES/COLLECTION. Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) hospital mortality data for FY 1989. STUDY DESIGN. Using hospital level public use files of actual and predicted mortality at 30 and 180 days, we constructed residual mortality measures for each hospital. We ranked hospitals and used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to compare 0-30, 31-180, and 0-180-day postadmission mortality. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. For the admissions we studied, we found a broad range of hospital performance when we ranked hospitals using the 30-day data; some hospitals had much lower than predicted 30-day mortality rates, while others had much higher than predicted mortality rates. Data from the time period 31-180 days postadmission yield results that corroborate the 0-30 day postadmission data. Moreover, we found evidence that hospital performance on one condition is related to performance on the other conditions, but that the correlation is much weaker in the 31-180-day interval than in the 0-30-day period. Using ROC curves, we found that the 30-day data discriminated the top and bottom fifths of the 180-day data extremely well, especially for AMI outcomes. CONCLUSIONS. Using data on cumulative hospital mortality from 180 days postadmission does not yield a different perspective from using data from 30 days postadmission for the conditions we studied. PMID:7860319

  10. Impact of Accurate 30-Day Status on Operative Mortality: Wanted Dead or Alive, Not Unknown.

    PubMed

    Ring, W Steves; Edgerton, James R; Herbert, Morley; Prince, Syma; Knoff, Cathy; Jenkins, Kristin M; Jessen, Michael E; Hamman, Baron L

    2017-08-28

    Risk-adjusted operative mortality is the most important quality metric in cardiac surgery for determining The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Composite Score for star ratings. Accurate 30-day status is required to determine STS operative mortality. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of unknown or missing 30-day status on risk-adjusted operative mortality in a regional STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database cooperative and demonstrate the ability to correct these deficiencies by matching with an administrative database. STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database data were submitted by 27 hospitals from five hospital systems to the Texas Quality Initiative (TQI), a regional quality collaborative. TQI data were matched with a regional hospital claims database to resolve unknown 30-day status. The risk-adjusted operative mortality observed-to-expected (O/E) ratio was determined before and after matching to determine the effect of unknown status on the operative mortality O/E. TQI found an excessive (22%) unknown 30-day status for STS isolated coronary artery bypass grafting cases. Matching the TQI data to the administrative claims database reduced the unknowns to 7%. The STS process of imputing unknown 30-day status as alive underestimates the true operative mortality O/E (1.27 before vs 1.30 after match), while excluding unknowns overestimates the operative mortality O/E (1.57 before vs 1.37 after match) for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. The current STS algorithm of imputing unknown 30-day status as alive and a strategy of excluding cases with unknown 30-day status both result in erroneous calculation of operative mortality and operative mortality O/E. However, external validation by matching with an administrative database can improve the accuracy of clinical databases such as the STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Incidence and risk factors of 30-day readmission in neurosurgical patients].

    PubMed

    Vargas López, Antonio José; Fernández Carballal, Carlos

    The 30-day readmission rate has become an important indicator of health care quality. This study focuses on the incidence of 30-day readmission in neurosurgical patients and related risk factors. A retrospective review was performed on patients treated in a neurosurgery department between 1 January 2012 and the 31 December 2013. Patients requiring readmission within 30 days of discharge and the readmission diagnosis were identified, and the factors related to their readmission were analysed. A total of 1,854 interventions were carried out on 1,739 patients during the aforementioned (study) period. Of the remaining patients, 174 (10.2%) required readmission within 30 days of discharge. The main causes of readmission were problems related to the surgical wound (21.2% of all readmissions), followed by respiratory processes (18.8%). A total of 73.9% of readmissions occurred in patients who had undergone cranial surgery. Multiple comorbidities estimated by Charlson comorbidity index and length of hospital stay were identified as factors related to a higher readmission rate. The 30-day readmission rate observed in our series was 10.2%. Multiple comorbidity expressed by the Charlson comorbidity index and length of hospital stay were related to readmission. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Half of 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among HIV-Infected Patients Are Potentially Preventable

    PubMed Central

    Kitchell, Ellen; Etherton, Sarah Shelby; Duarte, Piper; Halm, Ethan A.; Jain, Mamta K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirty-day readmission rates, a widely utilized quality metric, are high among HIV-infected individuals. However, it is unknown how many 30-day readmissions are preventable, especially in HIV patients, who have been excluded from prior potentially preventable readmission analyses. We used electronic medical records to identify all readmissions within 30 days of discharge among HIV patients hospitalized at a large urban safety net hospital in 2011. Two independent reviewers assessed whether readmissions were potentially preventable using both published criteria and detailed chart review, how readmissions might have been prevented, and the phase of care deemed suboptimal (inpatient care, discharge planning, post-discharge). Of 1137 index admissions, 213 (19%) resulted in 30-day readmissions. These admissions occurred among 930 unique HIV patients, with 130 individuals (14%) experiencing 30-day readmissions. Of these 130, about half were determined to be potentially preventable using published criteria (53%) or implicit chart review (48%). Not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) greatly increased the odds of a preventable readmission (OR 5.9, CI:2.4–14.8). Most of the preventable causes of readmission were attributed to suboptimal care during the index hospitalization. Half of 30-day readmission in HIV patients are potentially preventable. Increased focus on early ART initiation, adherence counseling, management of chronic conditions, and appropriate timing of discharge may help reduce readmissions in this vulnerable population. PMID:26154066

  13. Hyperkalemia is Associated with Increased 30-Day Mortality in Hip Fracture Patients.

    PubMed

    Norring-Agerskov, Debbie; Madsen, Christian Medom; Abrahamsen, Bo; Riis, Troels; Pedersen, Ole B; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Bathum, Lise; Lauritzen, Jes Bruun; Jørgensen, Henrik L

    2017-02-17

    Abnormal plasma concentrations of potassium in the form of hyper- and hypokalemia are frequent among hospitalized patients and have been linked to poor outcomes. In this study, we examined the prevalence of hypo- and hyperkalemia in patients admitted with a fractured hip as well as the association with 30-day mortality in these patients. A total of 7293 hip fracture patients (aged 60 years or above) with admission plasma potassium measurements were included. Data on comorbidity, medication, and death was retrieved from national registries. The association between plasma potassium and mortality was examined using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities. The prevalence of hypo- and hyperkalemia on admission was 19.8% and 6.6%, respectively. The 30-day mortality rates were increased for patients with hyperkalemia (21.0%, p < 0.0001) compared to normokalemic patients (9.5%), whereas hypokalemia was not significantly associated with mortality. After adjustment for age, sex, and individual comorbidities, hyperkalemia was still associated with increased risk of death 30 days after admission (HR = 1.93 [1.55-2.40], p < 0.0001). After the same adjustments, hypokalemia remained non-associated with increased risk of 30-day mortality (HR = 1.06 [0.87-1.29], p = 0.6). Hyperkalemia, but not hypokalemia, at admission is associated with increased 30-day mortality after a hip fracture.

  14. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of transcriptional pausing.

    PubMed

    Tadigotla, Vasisht R; O Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid; Sengupta, Anirvan M; Epshtein, Vitaly; Ebright, Richard H; Nudler, Evgeny; Ruckenstein, Andrei E

    2006-03-21

    We present a statistical mechanics approach for the prediction of backtracked pauses in bacterial transcription elongation derived from structural models of the transcription elongation complex (EC). Our algorithm is based on the thermodynamic stability of the EC along the DNA template calculated from the sequence-dependent free energy of DNA-DNA, DNA-RNA, and RNA-RNA base pairing associated with (i) the translocational and size fluctuations of the transcription bubble; (ii) changes in the associated DNA-RNA hybrid; and (iii) changes in the cotranscriptional RNA secondary structure upstream of the RNA exit channel. The calculations involve no adjustable parameters except for a cutoff used to discriminate paused from nonpaused complexes. When applied to 100 experimental pauses in transcription elongation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase on 10 DNA templates, the approach produces statistically significant results. We also present a kinetic model for the rate of recovery of backtracked paused complexes. A crucial ingredient of our model is the incorporation of kinetic barriers to backtracking resulting from steric clashes of EC with the cotranscriptionally generated RNA secondary structure, an aspect not included explicitly in previous attempts at modeling the transcription elongation process.

  15. Thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of transcriptional pausing

    PubMed Central

    Tadigotla, Vasisht R.; Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid Ó; Sengupta, Anirvan M.; Epshtein, Vitaly; Ebright, Richard H.; Nudler, Evgeny; Ruckenstein, Andrei E.

    2006-01-01

    We present a statistical mechanics approach for the prediction of backtracked pauses in bacterial transcription elongation derived from structural models of the transcription elongation complex (EC). Our algorithm is based on the thermodynamic stability of the EC along the DNA template calculated from the sequence-dependent free energy of DNA–DNA, DNA–RNA, and RNA–RNA base pairing associated with (i) the translocational and size fluctuations of the transcription bubble; (ii) changes in the associated DNA–RNA hybrid; and (iii) changes in the cotranscriptional RNA secondary structure upstream of the RNA exit channel. The calculations involve no adjustable parameters except for a cutoff used to discriminate paused from nonpaused complexes. When applied to 100 experimental pauses in transcription elongation by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase on 10 DNA templates, the approach produces statistically significant results. We also present a kinetic model for the rate of recovery of backtracked paused complexes. A crucial ingredient of our model is the incorporation of kinetic barriers to backtracking resulting from steric clashes of EC with the cotranscriptionally generated RNA secondary structure, an aspect not included explicitly in previous attempts at modeling the transcription elongation process. PMID:16537373

  16. Morbidity after intracranial tumor surgery: sensitivity and specificity of retrospective review of medical records compared with patient-reported outcomes at 30 days.

    PubMed

    Drewes, Christina; Sagberg, Lisa Millgård; Jakola, Asgeir Store; Gulati, Sasha; Solheim, Ole

    2015-10-01

    Published outcome reports in neurosurgical literature frequently rely on data from retrospective review of hospital records at discharge, but the sensitivity and specificity of retrospective assessments of surgical morbidity is not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the sensitivity and specificity of retrospective assessment of morbidity after intracranial tumor surgery by comparing it to patient-reported outcomes at 30 days. In 191 patients who underwent surgery for the treatment of intracranial tumors, we evaluated newly acquired neurological deficits within the motor, language, and cognitive domains. Traditional retrospective discharge data were collected by review of hospital records. Patient-reported data were obtained by structured phone interviews at 30 days after surgery. Data on perioperative medical and surgical complications were obtained from both hospital records and patient interviews conducted 30 days postoperatively. Sensitivity values for retrospective review of hospital records as compared with patient-reported outcomes were 0.52 for motor deficits, 0.4 for language deficits, and 0.07 for cognitive deficits. According to medical records, 158 patients were discharged with no new or worsened deficits, but only 117 (74%) of these patients confirmed this at 30 days after surgery. Specificity values were high (0.97-0.99), indicating that new deficits were unlikely to be found by retrospective review of hospital records at discharge when the patients did not report any at 30 days. Major perioperative complications were all identified through retrospective review of hospital records. Retrospective assessment of medical records at discharge from hospital may greatly underestimate the incidence of new neurological deficits after brain tumor surgery when compared with patient-reported outcomes after 30 days.

  17. Characteristics of pausing in normal, fast and cluttered speech.

    PubMed

    Bóna, Judit

    2016-06-24

    One of the main symptoms of cluttering is atypical pausing. However, there is little information about what this atypical pausing means, because typical speakers also have pauses not only at syntactic boundaries, but also within syntactic structures, and even within words. The aim of this study is to analyse how pausing strategies of persons who clutter differ from pausing strategies of normal speakers and speakers with exceptionally rapid speech (ERSs). Results show that there is a difference between the groups in the frequency and/or duration of pauses and the place of their occurrences. ERSs have less and longer pauses than persons who clutter (PWCs) and control speakers. There is difference between PWCs and control speakers only in the duration of pauses. The results contribute to the assessment, diagnosis, and therapy of cluttering.

  18. Characteristics of older adults rehospitalized within 7 and 30 days of discharge: implications for nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Hain, Debra J; Tappen, Ruth; Diaz, Sanya; Ouslander, Joseph G

    2012-08-01

    Rehospitalization within 30 days consumes a significant portion of health care costs; therefore, interventions aimed at reducing the risk of rehospitalization are needed. A retrospective study was conducted examining rehospitalization rates and diagnoses according to discharge location and comparing characteristics of older adults within 7 and 30 days of discharge from a community hospital. Data on rehospitalization for Medicare fee-for-service patients (75 and older) over a 12-month period were obtained from the information technology department of a not-for-profit community hospital. A total of 6,809 patients were discharged, with 12% rehospitalized within 30 days. Skilled nursing facilities had the highest rehospitalization rates (15%), followed by home with home health care (13%) and then home with self-care (8%). The highest rehospitalization rates were in areas where nursing has a strong presence, suggesting that nurses can play an important role in the development of interventions aimed at reducing rehospitalizations.

  19. [Differences between immediate and 30-day deaths due to traffic injuries according to forensic sources].

    PubMed

    Barbería, Eneko; Suelves, Josep M; Xifró, Alexandre; Medallo, Jordi

    2015-09-01

    To study immediate (same day of the collision) and delayed (within 30 days of the collision) deaths due to traffic injuries in Catalonia (Spain) according to forensic sources and to assess the differences between the two kinds of deaths. An observational study was conducted of all the traffic accident deaths registered in the Institute of Legal Medicine of Catalonia between January 1(st) 2005 and December 31(st) 2014. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS v.18.0 statistical package. Comparisons of proportions were based on the χ(2) test. During the study period, 4044 deaths due to traffic injuries were recorded. Deaths within 30 days included more women, minors, elderly people, and pedestrians than immediate deaths. Traffic injury deaths in the 30 days following a crash differ from immediate deaths. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. All-Payer Analysis of Heart Failure Hospitalization 30-Day Readmission: Comorbidities Matter.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathan D; Olsen, Margaret A; Bommarito, Kerry; LaRue, Shane J; Saeed, Mohammed; Rich, Michael W; Vader, Justin M

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-day readmission following heart failure hospitalization impacts hospital performance measures and reimbursement. We investigated readmission characteristics and the magnitude of 30-day hospital readmissions after hospital discharge for heart failure using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases (SID). Adults aged ≥ 40 years hospitalized with a primary discharge diagnosis of heart failure from 2007-2011 were identified in the California, New York, and Florida SIDs. Characteristics of patients with and without 7-, 8 to 30-, and 30-day readmission, and primary readmission diagnoses and risk factors for readmission were examined. We identified 547,068 patients with mean age 74.7 years; 50.7% were female, and 65.4% were White. Of 117,123 patients (21.4%) readmitted within 30 days (median 12 days), 69.7% had a non-heart failure primary readmission diagnosis. Patients with 30-day readmissions more frequently had a history of previous admission with heart failure as a secondary diagnosis, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and chronic deficiency anemia. There were no significant clinical differences at baseline between those patients whose first readmission was in the first 7 days after discharge vs in the next 23 days. The most common primary diagnoses for 30-day non-heart failure readmissions were other cardiovascular conditions (14.9%), pulmonary disease (8.5%), and infections (7.7%). In this large all-payer cohort, ∼70% of 30-day readmissions were for non-heart failure causes, and the median time to readmission was 12 days. Future interventions to reduce readmissions should focus on common comorbid conditions that contribute to readmission burden. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex and racial/ethnic differences in the reason for 30-day readmission after COPD hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tadahiro; Faridi, Mohammad Kamal; Gibo, Koichiro; Camargo, Carlos A; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2017-10-01

    Reduction of 30-day readmissions in patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a national objective. However, there is a dearth of research on sex and racial/ethnic differences in the reason for 30-day readmission. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 2006-2012 data from the State Inpatient Database of eight geographically-diverse US states (Arkansas, California, Florida, Iowa, Nebraska, New York, Utah, and Washington). After identifying all hospitalizations for COPD made by patients aged ≥40 years, we investigated the primary diagnostic code for all-cause readmissions within 30 days after the original COPD hospitalization, among the overall group and by sex and race/ethnicity strata. Between 2006 and 2012, there was a total of 845,465 COPD hospitalizations at risk for 30-day readmissions in the eight states. COPD was the leading diagnostic for 30-day readmission after COPD hospitalization, both overall (28%) and across all sex and race/ethnicity strata. The proportion of respiratory diseases (COPD, pneumonia, respiratory failure, and asthma) as the readmission diagnosis was higher in non-Hispanic black (55%), compared to non-Hispanic white (52%) and Hispanics (51%) (p < 0.001). The proportion of asthma as the readmission diagnosis differed significantly by sex (6% in men and 9% in women; p < 0.001). Similarly, the proportion of asthma also differed significantly by race/ethnicity (5% in non-Hispanic white, 16% in non-Hispanic black, 15% in Hispanics, 13% in others; p < 0.001). In this analysis of all-payer population-based data, we found sex and racial/ethnic differences in the reason for 30-day readmission in patients hospitalized for COPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Better Nurse Autonomy Decreases the Odds of 30-Day Mortality and Failure to Rescue.

    PubMed

    Rao, Aditi D; Kumar, Aparna; McHugh, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Autonomy is essential to professional nursing practice and is a core component of good nurse work environments. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between nurse autonomy and 30-day mortality and failure to rescue (FTR) in a hospitalized surgical population. This study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data. It included data from three sources: patient discharge data from state administrative databases, a survey of nurses from four states, and the American Hospital Association annual survey from 2006-2007. Survey responses from 20,684 staff nurses across 570 hospitals were aggregated to the hospital level to assess autonomy measured by a standardized scale. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the relationship between nurse autonomy and 30-day mortality and FTR. Patient comorbidities, surgery type, and other hospital characteristics were included as controls. Greater nurse autonomy at the hospital level was significantly associated with lower odds of 30-day mortality and FTR for surgical patients even after accounting for patient risk and structural hospital characteristics. Each additional point on the nurse autonomy scale was associated with approximately 19% lower odds of 30-day mortality (p < .001) and 17% lower odds of failure to rescue (p < .01). Hospitals with lower levels of nurse autonomy place their surgical patients at an increased risk for mortality and FTR. Patients receiving care within institutions that promote high levels of nurse autonomy have a lower risk for death within 30 days and complications leading to death within 30 days. Hospitals can actively take steps to encourage nurse autonomy to positively influence patient outcomes. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and 30-day mortality among patients with pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Ghiasi, Farzin; Ahmadpoor, Amin; Amra, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the most life-threatening form of venous thrombosis which causes the majority of mortalities in this category. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been indicated as one of the risk factors for thromboembolism because of hemostatic alterations. The present study was designed to seek for the relationship between OSA and 30-day mortality of patients with PE. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted among 137 consecutive patients referred to hospital with symptoms of PE and preliminary stable hemodynamic. Confirmation of PE was made by multislice computed tomography pulmonary angiography and in the case of contraindication; V/Q lung scan and Doppler sonography were done. A STOP-Bang Questionnaire was used to determine patients with high- and low-risk of OSA. Patients were followed up for 1-month, and their survivals were recorded. Results: This study showed that there was no relationship between OSA and 30-day mortality (P = 0.389). Chronic kidney disease (P = 0.004), hypertension (P = 0.003), main thrombus (P = 0.004), and segmental thrombus (P = 0.022) were associated with 30-day mortality. In the logistic regression analysis, history of chronic kidney disease was diagnosed as a risk factor for 30-day mortality among the PE patients (P = 0.029, odds ratio = 4.93). Conclusion: Results of this study showed 30-day mortality was not affected by OSA directly. In fact, it was affected by complications of OSA such as hypertension and thrombus. Also, positive history of chronic kidney disease increased the risk of 30-day mortality. PMID:26622255

  4. Readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge among children receiving chronic dialysis.

    PubMed

    Springel, Tamar; Laskin, Benjamin; Furth, Susan

    2014-03-01

    The hospital admission rate for children receiving chronic dialysis has been increasing over the last decade. Approximately one third of patients with ESRD age 0-19 years are readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of discharge. The objective of this study was to examine hospital readmissions among a cohort of children receiving chronic dialysis to identify factors associated with higher rates of 30-day readmission. A retrospective cohort of index admissions was developed among chronic dialysis patients age 3 months to 17 years at free-standing children's hospitals reporting information to the Pediatric Hospital Information System between January 2006 and November 30, 2010, and followed until December 31, 2010. The primary outcome was any-cause 30-day readmission, and the secondary outcome was 30-day readmission for a cause similar to that of the index hospitalization. In this cohort, 25% of hospital admissions were followed by a readmission within 30 days. Children older than 2 years of age had a lower odds of readmission (odds ratio [OR], 0.6; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.5 to 0.8). Those receiving hemodialysis had a higher risk of readmission (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.4), and admissions >14 days were also more likely to be followed by a readmission (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.0). Approximately 50% of the readmissions were for a similar diagnosis as the index admission; however, the specific admitting diagnosis was not associated with readmission. A significant number of admissions among children receiving long-term dialysis are followed by readmission within 30 days. Further investigation is required to reduce the high rate of readmissions in these children.

  5. Automatic Method of Pause Measurement for Normal and Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Kristin; Murdoch, Bruce; Folker, Joanne; Vogel, Adam; Cahill, Louise; Delatycki, Martin; Corben, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes an automatic method for the detection of pauses and identification of pause types in conversational speech for the purpose of measuring the effects of Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) on speech. Speech samples of [approximately] 3 minutes were recorded from 13 speakers with FRDA and 18 healthy controls. Pauses were measured from the…

  6. Automatic Method of Pause Measurement for Normal and Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Kristin; Murdoch, Bruce; Folker, Joanne; Vogel, Adam; Cahill, Louise; Delatycki, Martin; Corben, Louise

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes an automatic method for the detection of pauses and identification of pause types in conversational speech for the purpose of measuring the effects of Friedreich's Ataxia (FRDA) on speech. Speech samples of [approximately] 3 minutes were recorded from 13 speakers with FRDA and 18 healthy controls. Pauses were measured from the…

  7. Using habit reversal to decrease filled pauses in public speaking.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of awareness training and competing response training. During postintervention assessments, all 6 participants exhibited an immediate decrease in filled pauses.

  8. A 30-day forecast experiment with the GISS model and updated sea surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spar, J.; Atlas, R.; Kuo, E.

    1975-01-01

    The GISS model was used to compute two parallel global 30-day forecasts for the month January 1974. In one forecast, climatological January sea surface temperatures were used, while in the other observed sea temperatures were inserted and updated daily. A comparison of the two forecasts indicated no clear-cut beneficial effect of daily updating of sea surface temperatures. Despite the rapid decay of daily predictability, the model produced a 30-day mean forecast for January 1974 that was generally superior to persistence and climatology when evaluated over either the globe or the Northern Hemisphere, but not over smaller regions.

  9. Myelinated fibers of the mouse spinal cord after a 30-day space flight.

    PubMed

    Povysheva, T V; Rezvyakov, P N; Shaimardanova, G F; Nikolskii, E E; Islamov, R R; Chelyshev, Yu A; Grygoryev, A I

    2016-07-01

    Myelinated fibers and myelin-forming cells in the spinal cord at the L3-L5 level were studied in C57BL/6N mice that had spent 30 days in space. Signs of destruction of myelin in different areas of white matter, reduction of the thickness of myelin sheath and axon diameter, decreased number of myelin-forming cells were detected in "flight" mice. The stay of mice in space during 30 days had a negative impact on the structure of myelinated fibers and caused reduced expression of the markers myelin-forming cells. These findings can complement the pathogenetic picture of the development of hypogravity motor syndrome.

  10. Factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Marcelo Felipe; Kozak, Ana Carolina Leiroz Ferreira Botelho Maisano; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; Hassem Sobrinho Junior, Sirio; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Moscardini, Airton Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Left atrioventricular valve regurgitation is the most concerning residual lesion after surgical correction of atrioventricular septal defects. Objective To determine factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect. Methods We assessed the results of 53 consecutive patients 3 years-old and younger presenting with complete atrioventricular septal defect that were operated on at our practice between 2002 and 2010. The following variables were considered: age, weight, absence of Down syndrome, grade of preoperative atrioventricular valve regurgitation, abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve and the use of annuloplasty. Median age was 6.7 months; median weight was 5.3 Kg; 86.8% had Down syndrome. At the time of preoperative evaluation, there were 26 cases with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (49.1%). Abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve were found in 11.3%; annuloplasty was performed in 34% of the patients. Results At the time of postoperative evaluation, there were 21 cases with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (39.6%). After performing a multivariate analysis, the only significant factor associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation was the absence of Down syndrome (P=0.03). Conclusion Absence of Down syndrome was associated with moderate or severe postoperative left atrioventricular valve regurgitation after surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect at our practice. PMID:26313720

  11. 78 FR 40309 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application for Multifamily Project Mortgage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public comment. DATES... sent to: HUD Desk Officer, Office of Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building,...

  12. 78 FR 49280 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Third-Party Documentation Facsimile Transmittal...

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    2013-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Third-Party Documentation Facsimile..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette...

  13. 78 FR 52008 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Housing Service Coordinator Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Housing Service..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette...

  14. 78 FR 39002 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request for Withdrawals From Replacements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Request for Withdrawals From..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  15. 78 FR 52009 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Utility Allowance Adjustments

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    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Utility Allowance Adjustments AGENCY... Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard at...

  16. 78 FR 39001 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Uniform Physical Standards and Physical...

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    2013-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Uniform Physical Standards and..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  17. 78 FR 52007 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Management Certification and Management Entity...

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Management Certification and... Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Washington,...

  18. 78 FR 52007 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Financial Statement of Corporate Applicant for...

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    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Financial Statement of Corporate..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street,...

  19. 78 FR 52006 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Final Endorsement of Credit Instrument

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    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Final Endorsement of Credit..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette...

  20. 77 FR 13128 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

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    2012-03-05

    ...'' campaign is a national Public Service Announcement (PSA) campaign that aims to educate, engage and empower... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  1. 78 FR 79474 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Father's Day

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...HUD has submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public...

  2. 78 FR 36198 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Medical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Medical Staff Credentials and Privileges Files AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS...

  3. 78 FR 49532 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Application for Participation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Application for Participation in the IHS Scholarship Program AGENCY: Indian Health Service, HHS. ACTION...

  4. 75 FR 20369 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Application for Participation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Indian Health Service (IHS) has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection...

  5. 77 FR 37407 - Agency Information Collection Request-30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request--30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is.... Proposed Project: New Comprehensive Communication Campaign on Right To Non-Discrimination in Certain Health...

  6. 78 FR 75365 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard... Number: 2528-0288. Type of Request: Revision of a currently approved collection. Form Number:...

  7. 77 FR 32639 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology to minimize the...

  8. 77 FR 50157 - Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... National Park Service Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request... to repatriation. The summaries are general descriptions of the museum's Native American collection... collection of information. Description of Respondents: Museums that receive Federal funds and have possession...

  9. 78 FR 1916 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program ACTION: Notice of request... Information Collection: Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP). OMB Control Number: 1405-0152. Type...

  10. 78 FR 64142 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Condominium Project Approval Document Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Condominium Project Approval... submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and... Management and Budget, New Executive Office Building, Washington, DC 20503; fax: 202-395-5806. Email:...

  11. 77 FR 59318 - Removal of 30-Day Residency Requirement for Per Diem Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... reasons other than hospital care, such as when a veteran travels to visit family members. This rule also... 30 days is a minimal amount of time for demonstrating that a veteran intends to be a resident at the... State home within a specific period of time, or communicates that he or she will not be returning. With...

  12. 77 FR 59354 - Removal of 30-Day Residency Requirement for Per Diem Payments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... reasons other than hospital care, such as when a veteran travels to visit family members. This proposed... payments, stating: ``We believe that 30 days is a minimal amount of time for demonstrating that a veteran... State home within a specific period of time, or communicates that he or she will not be returning. With...

  13. 78 FR 75366 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and Utility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and... Audits and Utility Allowances. OMB Approval Number: 2577-062. Type of Request: Reinstatement, with change... information and proposed use: 24 CFR 965.301, Subpart C, Energy Audit and Energy Conservation...

  14. 78 FR 42796 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD Standard Grant Application Forms: Detailed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of... telephone 202-402-3400. Persons with hearing or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by... against each individual grant program submission under the Paperwork Reduction Act; number of respondents...

  15. Enhanced recovery of Phytophthora ramorum from soil following 30 days storage at 4C

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chlamydospores of Phytophthora ramorum produced by mixing 20 percent V8 juice broth cultures with sand and incubating over a 30 day period were used to infest field soil at densities ranging from 0.2 to 42 chlamydospores per cubic centimeter of soil. Chlamydospore recovery was determined by baiting...

  16. 77 FR 29348 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

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    2012-05-17

    ... information to prevent misuse of Federal funds and to protect the public interest. Estimated Annualized Burden... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of...

  17. 76 FR 59129 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... to send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of...

  18. 77 FR 18820 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

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    2012-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  19. 75 FR 50791 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Recording, Reporting, and Data Collection...

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    ... following information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for approval in... Office: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Designation, ECA/EC/D. Form Number: Forms...: Submit comments to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for up to 30 days from August 17,...

  20. 76 FR 79683 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... new AIDS cases. As one strategy to address this disparity, the U.S. Department of Health and...

  1. 78 FR 36565 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Standardized Form for Collecting Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Standardized Form for Collecting... Information Collection: Standardized Form for Collecting Information Regarding Race and Ethnic Data. OMB... quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; and (4) Ways to minimize the burden...

  2. 78 FR 52964 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 8 Management Assessment Program (SEMAP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 8 Management Assessment..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  3. 78 FR 65695 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette...

  4. 78 FR 66042 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 3 Business Registry Pilot Program...

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    2013-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Section 3 Business Registry Pilot..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  5. Evaluation of instant desensitization after a single topical application over 30 days: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Samuel, S R; Khatri, S G; Acharya, S; Patil, S T

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ProArgin(™) (8% arginine), Gluma(®) and NovaMin(®) (5% calcium phosphosilicate) in relieving dentinal hypersensitivity immediately and over 30 days following a single topical application. A three-cell, parallel group randomized trial was conducted among 56 patients exhibiting dentinal hypersensitivity with tooth as the unit of study. ProArgin(™) paste, Gluma(®) Desensitizer and NovaMin(®) paste were applied on randomly assigned teeth in each participant. Three stimuli were tested: tactile stimulated by running an explorer and measured using VAS (1-10 scale); air blast and cold water stimulated hypersensitivity measured using the Schiff Sensitivity Scale at baseline, immediately, 15 days and 30 days after application. Friedman test and Wilcoxon test were used for within group comparisons. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for between group comparisons. All three groups showed significant reductions in hypersensitivity from baseline at all time points (p < 0.05). ProArgin(™) paste elicited a significantly higher reduction in hypersensitivity (p < 0.016) compared to Gluma(®) and NovaMin(®) for all stimuli at the end of 30 days. A single topical application of ProArgin(™) paste is significantly more effective than both a single topical application of Gluma(®) and NovaMin(®) paste in relieving dentinal hypersensitivity immediately and over 30 days. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  6. 78 FR 39305 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: OSHC Progress Report Template

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    2013-07-01

    ... Doc No: 2013-15689] DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5683-N-54] 30-Day... Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard at Colette.Pollard@hud.gov or... proposed use: The Appropriations Act, provided a total of $100,000,000 to HUD for a Sustainable...

  7. 26 CFR 31.3406(d)-3 - Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special 30-day rules for certain reportable payments. 31.3406(d)-3 Section 31.3406(d)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... account. (b) Sale of an instrument for a customer by electronic transmission or by mail. The special...

  8. 75 FR 63478 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology to minimize the...

  9. Within-Hospital Variation in 30-Day Adverse Events: Implications for Measuring Quality.

    PubMed

    Burke, Robert E; Glorioso, Thomas; Barón, Anna K; Kaboli, Peter J; Ho, P Michael

    2017-08-21

    Novel measures of hospital quality are needed. Because quality improvement efforts seek to reduce variability in processes and outcomes, hospitals with higher variability in adverse events may be delivering poorer quality care. We sought to evaluate whether within-hospital variability in adverse events after a procedure might function as a quality metric that is correlated with facility-level mortality rates. We analyzed all percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) performed in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system from 2007 to 2013 to evaluate the correlation between within-hospital variability in 30-day postdischarge adverse events (readmission, emergency department visit, and repeat revascularization), and facility-level mortality rates, after adjustment for patient demographics, comorbidities, PCI indication, and PCI urgency. The study cohort included 47,567 patients at 48 VHA hospitals. The overall 30-day adverse event rate was 22.0% and 1-year mortality rate was 4.9%. The most variable sites had relative changes of 20% in 30-day rates of adverse events period-to-period. However, within-hospital variability in 30-day events was not correlated with 1-year mortality rates (correlation coefficient = .06; p = .66). Thus, measuring within-hospital variability in postdischarge adverse events may not improve identification of low-performing hospitals. Evaluation in other conditions, populations, and in relationship with other quality metrics may reveal stronger correlations with care quality.

  10. 76 FR 10034 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY..., OMB number, to Ed.Calimag@hhs.gov , or call the Reports Clearance Office on (202) 205- 1193. Send... notice directly to the Grants.gov OMB Desk Officer; faxed to OMB at 202-395-6974. Proposed Project: The...

  11. 76 FR 10033 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY..., OMB number, to Ed.Calimag@hhs.gov , or call the Reports Clearance Office on (202) 690- 7569. Send... notice directly to the Grants.gov OMB Desk Officer; faxed to OMB at 202-395-6974. Proposed Project: SF...

  12. 76 FR 10035 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY..., OMB number, to Ed.Calimag@hhs.gov , or call the Reports Clearance Office on (202) 205- 1193. Send... notice directly to the Grants.gov OMB Desk Officer; faxed to OMB at 202-395-6974. Proposed Project: The...

  13. 76 FR 10364 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY..., OMB number, to Ed.Calimag@hhs.gov , or call the Reports Clearance Office on (202) 205- 1193. Send... notice directly to the Grants.gov OMB Desk Officer; faxed to OMB at 202-395-6974. Proposed Project: The...

  14. 75 FR 57955 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... UDS into a system that improves OMH's ability to comply with Federal reporting requirements and...

  15. 75 FR 57954 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... UDS into a system that improves OMH's ability to comply with Federal reporting requirements and...

  16. 78 FR 79703 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Application Process for Clinical Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Application Process for Clinical Research Training and Medical... contact: Robert M. Lembo, MD, Deputy Director, Office of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education... Process for Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center and its Impact...

  17. PRE-PUBERTAL BIPOLAR DISORDER WITH 30-DAY SPONTANEOUS, CLASSIC, RAPID CYCLES

    PubMed Central

    Patkar, A.A.; Pradhan, P.V.; Shah, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY An 11 year old boy presented with 30 day continuous cycles of bipolar illness occurring regularly for 9 months without any genetic predisposition for affective illness. The patient was refractory to Lithium but Carbamazepine proved to be highly effective. The various unusual features of the case are highlighted and discussed. PMID:21927435

  18. Health literacy and 30-day hospital readmission after acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Fang, Gang; Annis, Izabela E; O'Conor, Rachel; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the validity of a predictive model of health literacy, and to examine the relationship between derived health literacy estimates and 30-day hospital readmissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting and participants A National Institute of Aging (NIA) study cohort of 696 adult, English-speaking primary care patients, aged 55–74 years, was used to assess the validity of derived health literacy estimates. Claims from 7733 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalised for AMI in 2008 in North Carolina and Illinois were used to investigate the association between health literacy estimates and 30-day hospital readmissions. Measures The NIA cohort was administered 3 common health literacy assessments (Newest Vital Sign, Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, and Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine). Health literacy estimates at the census block group level were derived via a predictive model. 30-day readmissions were measured from Medicare claims data using a validated algorithm. Results Fair agreement was found between derived estimates and in-person literacy assessments (Pearson Correlation coefficients: 0.38–0.51; κ scores: 0.38–0.40). Medicare enrollees with above basic literacy according to derived health literacy estimates had an 18% lower risk of a 30-day readmission (RR=0.82, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.92) and 21% lower incidence rate of 30-day readmission (IRR=0.79, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.87) than patients with basic or below basic literacy. After adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, the risk of 30-day readmission was 12% lower (p=0.03), and the incidence rate 16% lower (p<0.01) for patients with above basic literacy. Conclusions Health literacy, as measured by a predictive model, was found to be a significant, independent predictor of 30-day readmissions. As a modifiable risk factor with evidence-based solutions, health literacy should be considered in readmission reduction

  19. Association of Discharge Home with Home Health Care and 30-day Readmission after Pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Dominic E; Olsen, Margaret A; Bommarito, Kerry M; Shah, Manish; Fields, Ryan C; Hawkins, William G; Jaques, David P; Linehan, David C

    2014-01-01

    Background We sought to determine if discharge home with home health care (HHC) is an independent predictor of increased readmission following pancreatectomy. Study Design We examined 30-day readmissions in patients undergoing pancreatectomy using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database for California from 2009 to 2011. Readmissions were categorized as severe or non-severe using the Modified Accordion Severity Grading System. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the association of discharge home with HHC and 30-day readmission using discharge home without HHC as the reference group. Propensity score matching was used as an additional analysis to compare the rate of 30-day readmission between patients discharged home with HHC to patients discharged home without HHC. Results 3,573 patients underwent pancreatectomy and 752 (21.0%) were readmitted within 30 days of discharge. In a multivariable logistic regression model, discharge home with HHC was an independent predictor of increased 30-day readmission (OR=1.37; 95%CI=1.11-1.69, p=0.004). Using propensity score matching, patients who received HHC had a significantly increased rate of 30-day readmission compared to patients discharged home without HHC (24.3% vs 19.8%, p<0.001). Patients discharged home with HHC had a significantly increased rate of non-severe readmission compared to those discharged home without HHC by univariate comparison (19.2% vs 13.9%, p<0.001), but not severe readmission (6.4% vs 4.7%, p= 0.08). In multivariable logistic regression models, excluding patients discharged to facilities, discharge home with HHC was an independent predictor of increased non-severe readmissions (OR=1.41; 95%CI=1.11-1.79, p=0.005), but not severe readmissions (OR=1.31; 95%CI=0.88-1.93, p=0.18). Conclusions Discharge home with HHC following pancreatectomy is an independent predictor of increased 30-day readmission; specifically, these services are associated with

  20. Mild cognitive impairment predicts death and readmission within 30days of discharge for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Quan L; Negishi, Kazuaki; Blizzard, Leigh; Saito, Makoto; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Hare, James L; Leung, Dominic; Stanton, Tony; Sanderson, Kristy; Venn, Alison J; Marwick, Thomas H

    2016-10-15

    Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent in heart failure (HF), and may be associated with short-term readmission. This study investigated the role of cognition, incremental to other clinical and non-clinical factors, independent of depression and anxiety, in predicting 30-day readmission or death in HF. This study followed 565 patients from an Australia-wide HF longitudinal study. Cognitive function (MoCA score) together with standard clinical and non-clinical factors, mental health and 2D echocardiograms were collected before hospital discharge. The study outcomes were death and readmission within 30days of discharge. Logistic regression, Harrell's C-statistic, integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) and net reclassification index were used for analysis. Among 565 patients, 255 (45%) had at least mild cognitive impairment (MoCA≤22). Death (n=43, 8%) and readmission (n=122, 21%) within 30days of discharge were more likely to occur among patients with mild cognitive impairment (OR=2.00, p=0.001). MoCA score was also negatively associated with 30-day readmission or death (OR=0.91, p<0.001) independent of other risk factors. Adding MoCA score to an existing prediction model of 30-day readmission significantly improved discrimination (C-statistic=0.715 vs. 0.617, IDI estimate 0.077, p<0.001). From prediction models developed from our study, adding MoCA score (C-statistic=0.83) provided incremental value to that of standard clinical and non-clinical factors (C-statistic=0.76) and echocardiogram parameters (C-statistic=0.81) in predicting 30-day readmission or death. Reclassification analysis suggests that addition of MoCA score improved classification for a net of 12% of patients with 30-day readmission or death and of 6% of patients without (p=0.002). Mild cognitive impairment predicts short-term outcomes in HF, independent of clinical and non-clinical factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A spatial-temporal projection model for 10-30 day rainfall forecast in South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pang-Chi; Li, Tim; You, Lijun; Gao, Jianyun; Ren, Hong-Li

    2015-03-01

    Extended-range (10-30 days) forecast, lying between well-developed short-range weather and long-range (monthly and seasonal) climate predictions, is one of the most challenging forecast currently faced by operational meteorological centers around the world. In this study, a set of spatial-temporal projection (STP) models was developed to predict low-frequency rainfall events at lead times of 5-30 days. We focused on early monsoon rainy season (mid April-mid July) in South China. To ensure that the model developed can be used for real-time forecast, a non-filtering method was developed to extract the low-frequency atmospheric signals of 10-60 days without using a band-pass filter. The empirical models were built based on 12-year (1996-2007) data, and independent forecast was then conducted for a 5 year (2008-2012) period. The assessment of the 5-year forecast of rainfall over South China indicates that the ensemble prediction of the STP models achieved a useful skill (with a temporal correlation coefficient exceeding 95 % confidence level) at a lead time of 20 days. The amplitude error was generally less than one standard deviation at all lead times of 5-30 days. Furthermore, the STP models provided useful probabilistic forecasts with the ranked probability skill score between 0.3-0.5 up to 30-day forecast in advance. The evaluation demonstrated that the STP models exhibited useful 10-30 days forecast skills for real-time extended-range rainfall prediction in South China.

  2. Ethnic Comparison of 30-Day Potentially Preventable Readmissions After Stroke in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Taira, Deborah A; Miyamura, Jill; Sentell, Tetine L

    2016-10-01

    Ethnic disparities in readmission after stroke have been inadequately studied. We sought to compare potentially preventable readmissions (PPR) among a multiethnic population in Hawaii. Hospitalization data in Hawaii from 2007 to 2012 were assessed to compare ethnic differences in 30-day PPR after stroke-related hospitalizations. Multivariable models using logistic regression were performed to assess the impact of ethnicity on 30-day PPR after controlling for age group (<65 and ≥65 years), sex, insurance, county of residence, substance use, history of mental illness, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Thirty-day PPR was seen in 840 (8.4%) of 10 050 any stroke-related hospitalizations, 712 (8.7%) of 8161 ischemic stroke hospitalizations, and 128 (6.8%) of 1889 hemorrhagic stroke hospitalizations. In the multivariable models, only the Chinese ethnicity, compared with whites, was associated with 30-day PPR after any stroke hospitalizations (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval {CI}], 1.40 [1.05-1.88]) and ischemic stroke hospitalizations (OR, 1.42 [CI, 1.04-1.96]). When considering only one hospitalization per individual, the impact of Chinese ethnicity on PPR after any stroke hospitalization (OR, 1.22 [CI, 0.89-1.68]) and ischemic stroke hospitalization (OR, 1.21 [CI, 0.86-1.71]) was attenuated. Other factors associated with 30-day PPR after any stroke hospitalizations were Charlson Comorbidity Index (per unit increase) (OR, 1.21 [CI, 1.18-1.24]), Medicaid (OR, 1.42 [CI, 1.07-1.88]), Hawaii county (OR, 0.78 [CI, 0.62-0.97]), and mental illness (OR, 1.37 [CI, 1.10-1.70]). In Hawaii, Chinese may have a higher risk of 30-day PPR after stroke compared with whites. However, this seems to be driven by the high number of repeated PPR within the Chinese ethnic group. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. A Population-Based Study of 30-day Incidence of Ischemic Stroke Following Surgical Neck Dissection

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, S. Danielle; Liu, Kuan; Garg, Amit X.; Tam, Samantha; Palma, David; Thind, Amardeep; Winquist, Eric; Yoo, John; Nichols, Anthony; Fung, Kevin; Hall, Stephen; Shariff, Salimah Z.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the 30-day incidence of ischemic stroke following neck dissection compared to matched patients undergoing non-head and neck surgeries. A surgical dissection of the neck is a common procedure performed for many types of cancer. Whether such dissections increase the risk of ischemic stroke is uncertain. A retrospective cohort study using data from linked administrative and registry databases (1995–2012) in the province of Ontario, Canada was performed. Patients were matched 1-to-1 on age, sex, date of surgery, and comorbidities to patients undergoing non-head and neck surgeries. The primary outcome was ischemic stroke assessed in hospitalized patients using validated database codes. A total of 14,837 patients underwent surgical neck dissection. The 30-day incidence of ischemic stroke following the dissection was 0.7%. This incidence decreased in recent years (1.1% in 1995 to 2000; 0.8% in 2001 to 2006; 0.3% in 2007 to 2012; P for trend <0.0001). The 30-day incidence of ischemic stroke in patients undergoing neck dissection is similar to matched patients undergoing thoracic surgery (0.5%, P = 0.26) and colectomy (0.5%, P = 0.1). Factors independently associated with a higher risk of stroke in 30 days following neck dissection surgery were of age ≥75 years (odds ratio (OR) 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–2.53), and a history of diabetes (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02–2.49), hypertension (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.64–4.25), or prior stroke (OR 4.06, 95% CI 2.29–7.18). Less than 1% of patients undergoing surgical neck dissection will experience an ischemic stroke in the following 30 days. This incidence of stroke is similar to thoracic surgery and colectomy. PMID:26287406

  4. A population study of stroke in West Ukraine: incidence, stroke services, and 30-day case fatality.

    PubMed

    Mihálka, L; Smolanka, V; Bulecza, B; Mulesa, S; Bereczki, D

    2001-10-01

    According to World Health Organization statistics, Ukraine has extremely high stroke mortality. No population-based prospective studies of stroke incidence have been performed yet in this European country with approximately 50 million inhabitants. High reported rates of stroke mortality in official statistics conflict with some locally published incidence data in Ukraine. To obtain accurate data, we evaluated stroke incidence and 30-day case fatality in a prospective population study in the West Ukrainian city of Uzhgorod with a population of 126 000 inhabitants. Case certification by neurologists and follow-up at 30 days after stroke for all patients identified by any level of the health service system were performed for a 12-month period. We identified 352 stroke cases. The age-standardized incidence was 341 and 238 of 100 000 and mortality was 83 and 69 of 100 000 with the use of the European or world standard population for standardization. Mean age of stroke patients was 63.4+/-12.5 years. Rate of hospitalization was 66%. Hospitalized patients were >10 years younger than those treated in their homes. The 30-day case fatality rates were 15.4% among hospitalized patients and 36.8% among those treated at home. Overall 30-day case fatality was 23.3%. Stroke incidence and 30-day case fatality in this West Ukrainian city were similar to those of some West European countries and were much lower than what could be expected from World Health Organization statistics. The relatively low incidence rate seems accurate; because of the organization of local stroke services, it is not probable that a considerable proportion of patients with acute stroke could bypass all levels of the acute care health system. Local health statistics reported a much lower number of stroke cases and stroke deaths than found in our survey; thus, further study is needed to clarify the reason for the discrepancy between local data and the high reported stroke mortality in Ukraine.

  5. Is 30-Day Mortality after Admission for Heart Failure an Appropriate Metric for Quality?

    PubMed

    Faillace, Robert T; Yost, Gregory W; Chugh, Yashasvi; Adams, Jeffrey; Verma, Beni R; Said, Zaid; Sayed, Ibrahim Ismail; Honushefsky, Ashley; Doddamani, Sanjay; Berger, Peter B

    2017-09-20

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) model for publicly reporting national 30-day-risk-adjusted mortality rates for patients admitted with heart failure fails to include clinical variables known to impact total mortality or take into consideration the culture of end-of-life care. We sought to determine if those variables were related to the 30-day mortality of heart failure patients at Geisinger Medical Center. Electronic records were searched for patients with a diagnosis of heart failure who died from any cause during hospitalization or within 30-days of admission. There were 646 heart-failure related admissions amongst 530 patients (1.2 admissions/patient). Sixty-seven of the 530 (13%) patients died: 35 (52%) died during their hospitalization and 32 (48%) died after discharge but within 30-days of admission; of these 27 (40%) had been transferred in for higher acuity care. Fifty-one (76%) died from heart failure, and 16 (24%) from other causes. Fifty-five (82%) patients were classified as AHA Stage-D, 58(87%) as NYHA Class-IV and 30 (45%) had right-ventricular systolic dysfunction. None of the 32 patients who died after discharge met recommendations for beta blockers. Criteria for prescribing ACE-I, ARB, and MRA were not met by 33 (97%) of the 34 patients with heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction not on one of those drugs. Fifty-seven patients (85%) had a DNR status. A majority of heart failure related mortality was amongst patients who opted for a DNR status with end-stage heart failure, limiting the appropriateness of administering evidence based therapies. No care gaps were identified that contributed to mortality at our institution. The CMS 30-day model fails to take important variables into consideration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Post-Discharge Follow-up Characteristics Associated with 30-Day Readmission After Heart Failure Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keane K.; Yang, Jingrong; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Steimle, Anthony E.; Go, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Readmission within 30 days after hospitalization for heart failure is a major public health problem. Objective To examine whether timing and type of post-discharge follow-up impacts risk of 30-day readmission in adults hospitalized for heart failure. Design Nested matched case-control study (January 1, 2006 to June 30, 2013). Setting A large, integrated healthcare delivery system in Northern California. Participants Hospitalized adults with a primary diagnosis of heart failure discharged to home without hospice care. Measurements Outpatient visits and telephone calls with cardiology and general medicine providers in non-emergency department and non-urgent care settings were counted as follow-up care. Statistical adjustments were made for differences in patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, acute severity of illness, hospitalization characteristics and post-discharge medication changes and laboratory testing. Results Among 11,985 eligible adults, early initial outpatient contact within 7 days after discharge was associated with lower odds of readmission (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70–0.94), whereas later outpatient contact between 8 and 30 days after hospital discharge was not significantly associated with readmission (adjusted OR 0.99, 95% CI: 0.82–1.19). Initial contact by telephone was associated with lower adjusted odds of 30-day readmission (adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.69–1.06) but was not statistically significant. Conclusions In adults discharged to home after hospitalization for heart failure, outpatient follow-up with a cardiology or general medicine provider within 7 days was associated with a lower chance of 30-day readmission. PMID:26978568

  7. Post-discharge Follow-up Characteristics Associated With 30-Day Readmission After Heart Failure Hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keane K; Yang, Jingrong; Hernandez, Adrian F; Steimle, Anthony E; Go, Alan S

    2016-04-01

    Readmission within 30 days after hospitalization for heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem. To examine whether timing and type of post-discharge follow-up impacts risk of 30-day readmission in adults hospitalized for HF. Nested matched case-control study (January 1, 2006-June 30, 2013). A large, integrated health care delivery system in Northern California. Hospitalized adults with a primary diagnosis of HF discharged to home without hospice care. Outpatient visits and telephone calls with cardiology and general medicine providers in non-emergency department and non-urgent care settings were counted as follow-up care. Statistical adjustments were made for differences in patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, acute severity of illness, hospitalization characteristics, and post-discharge medication changes and laboratory testing. Among 11,985 eligible adults, early initial outpatient contact within 7 days after discharge was associated with lower odds of readmission [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.94], whereas later outpatient contact between 8 and 30 days after hospital discharge was not significantly associated with readmission (adjusted OR=0.99; 95% CI, 0.82-1.19). Initial contact by telephone was associated with lower adjusted odds of 30-day readmission (adjusted OR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.69-1.06) but was not statistically significant. In adults discharged to home after hospitalization for HF, outpatient follow-up with a cardiology or general medicine provider within 7 days was associated with a lower chance of 30-day readmission.

  8. National Estimates of 30-Day Unplanned Readmissions of Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lili; Chauhan, Kinsuk; Poojary, Priti; Saha, Aparna; Hammer, Elizabeth; Vassalotti, Joseph A; Jubelt, Lindsay; Ferket, Bart; Coca, Steven G; Nadkarni, Girish N

    2017-10-06

    Patients on hemodialysis have high 30-day unplanned readmission rates. Using a national all-payer administrative database, we describe the epidemiology of 30-day unplanned readmissions in patients on hemodialysis, determine concordance of reasons for initial admission and readmission, and identify predictors for readmission. This is a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Readmission Database from the year 2013 to identify index admissions and readmission in patients with ESRD on hemodialysis. The Clinical Classification Software was used to categorize admission diagnosis into mutually exclusive clinically meaningful categories and determine concordance of reasons for admission on index hospitalizations and readmissions. Survey logistic regression was used to identify predictors of at least one readmission. During 2013, there were 87,302 (22%) index admissions with at least one 30-day unplanned readmission. Although patient and hospital characteristics were statistically different between those with and without readmissions, there were small absolute differences. The highest readmission rate was for acute myocardial infarction (25%), whereas the lowest readmission rate was for hypertension (20%). The primary reasons for initial hospitalization and subsequent 30-day readmission were discordant in 80% of admissions. Comorbidities that were associated with readmissions included depression (odds ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.05 to 1.15; P<0.001), drug abuse (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.31 to 1.51; P<0.001), and discharge against medical advice (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.70; P<0.001). A group of high utilizers, which constituted 2% of the population, was responsible for 20% of all readmissions. In patients with ESRD on hemodialysis, nearly one quarter of admissions were followed by a 30-day unplanned readmission. Most readmissions were for primary diagnoses that were different from initial hospitalization. A small proportion of

  9. New consensus definition for acute kidney injury accurately predicts 30-day mortality in cirrhosis with infection

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Florence; O’Leary, Jacqueline G; Reddy, K Rajender; Patton, Heather; Kamath, Patrick S; Fallon, Michael B; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Subramanian, Ram M.; Malik, Raza; Maliakkal, Benedict; Thacker, Leroy R; Bajaj, Jasmohan S

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims A consensus conference proposed that cirrhosis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) be defined as an increase in serum creatinine by >50% from the stable baseline value in <6 months or by ≥0.3mg/dL in <48 hrs. We prospectively evaluated the ability of these criteria to predict mortality within 30 days among hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and infection. Methods 337 patients with cirrhosis admitted with or developed an infection in hospital (56% men; 56±10 y old; model for end-stage liver disease score, 20±8) were followed. We compared data on 30-day mortality, hospital length-of-stay, and organ failure between patients with and without AKI. Results 166 (49%) developed AKI during hospitalization, based on the consensus criteria. Patients who developed AKI had higher admission Child-Pugh (11.0±2.1 vs 9.6±2.1; P<.0001), and MELD scores (23±8 vs17±7; P<.0001), and lower mean arterial pressure (81±16mmHg vs 85±15mmHg; P<.01) than those who did not. Also higher amongst patients with AKI were mortality in ≤30 days (34% vs 7%), intensive care unit transfer (46% vs 20%), ventilation requirement (27% vs 6%), and shock (31% vs 8%); AKI patients also had longer hospital stays (17.8±19.8 days vs 13.3±31.8 days) (all P<.001). 56% of AKI episodes were transient, 28% persistent, and 16% resulted in dialysis. Mortality was 80% among those without renal recovery, higher compared to partial (40%) or complete recovery (15%), or AKI-free patients (7%; P<.0001). Conclusions 30-day mortality is 10-fold higher among infected hospitalized cirrhotic patients with irreversible AKI than those without AKI. The consensus definition of AKI accurately predicts 30-day mortality, length of hospital stay, and organ failure. PMID:23999172

  10. Sinus Pause in Association with Lyme Carditis

    PubMed Central

    Dibs, Samer R.; Friedman, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the United States. It is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cardiac involvement is seen in 4% to 10% of patients with Lyme disease. The principal manifestation of Lyme carditis is self-limited conduction system disease, with predominant involvement of the atrioventricular node. On rare occasions, Lyme carditis patients present with other conduction system disorders such as bundle branch block, intraventricular conduction delay, and supraventricular or ventricular tachycardia. We report the unusual case of a 59-year-old man who presented with new-onset symptomatic sinus pauses one month after hiking in upstate New York. To our knowledge, this is the first case report from North America that describes the relationship between symptomatic sinus pause and Lyme carditis. PMID:26175640

  11. Sinus pause in association with Lyme carditis.

    PubMed

    Oktay, A Afsin; Dibs, Samer R; Friedman, Harvey

    2015-06-01

    Lyme disease is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in the United States. It is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Cardiac involvement is seen in 4% to 10% of patients with Lyme disease. The principal manifestation of Lyme carditis is self-limited conduction system disease, with predominant involvement of the atrioventricular node. On rare occasions, Lyme carditis patients present with other conduction system disorders such as bundle branch block, intraventricular conduction delay, and supraventricular or ventricular tachycardia. We report the unusual case of a 59-year-old man who presented with new-onset symptomatic sinus pauses one month after hiking in upstate New York. To our knowledge, this is the first case report from North America that describes the relationship between symptomatic sinus pause and Lyme carditis.

  12. CDK9-dependent RNA polymerase II pausing controls transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Gressel, Saskia; Schwalb, Björn; Decker, Tim Michael; Qin, Weihua; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Eick, Dirk; Cramer, Patrick

    2017-10-10

    Gene transcription can be activated by decreasing the duration of RNA polymerase II pausing in the promoter-proximal region, but how this is achieved remains unclear. Here we use a 'multi-omics' approach to demonstrate that the duration of polymerase pausing generally limits the productive frequency of transcription initiation in human cells ('pause-initiation limit'). We further engineer a human cell line to allow for specific and rapid inhibition of the P-TEFb kinase CDK9, which is implicated in polymerase pause release. CDK9 activity decreases the pause duration but also increases the productive initiation frequency. This shows that CDK9 stimulates release of paused polymerase and activates transcription by increasing the number of transcribing polymerases and thus the amount of mRNA synthesized per time. CDK9 activity is also associated with long-range chromatin interactions, suggesting that enhancers can influence the pause-initiation limit to regulate transcription.

  13. 76 FR 6794 - 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status AGENCY... ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) status. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 300jj-11. DATES: The 30-day submission... a notice in the Federal Register to announce the 30-day period during which requests for ONC-AA...

  14. Models of illusory pausing and sticking.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D M; Pomerantz, J R

    1982-08-01

    When identical dots moving at equal velocities but in opposite directions become coincident, a striking illusion occurs. The dots appear to pause momentarily, despite no objective change in velocity. Three models for the illusion were examined: A vector averaging model best accounts for the data. According to this model a motion system maps visual space and assigns motion vectors to each position on the map. When identical objects traveling at equal velocities but in opposite directions become coincident, they lose their phenomenal identity and a form system detects a single object. The motion system, however, has two vectors mapped onto the same position occupied by a now-single object. Since an object cannot move in two directions at the same time, the motion system averages the vector and assigns the resultant to the object, thus resolving the ambiguity. With equal but opposite vectors, averaging yields a zero resultant (null vector), and thus pausing is perceived. With unequal vectors, averaging yields a nonzero resultant and something other than pausing is perceived. Velocity and number of collisions strongly affect the magnitude of the illusion, but in all cases in which the illusion is perceived, the objects appear to stick together and move at a velocity near the average of the component velocities.

  15. Comparison of 30-Day Morbidity and Mortality After Arthroscopic Bankart, Open Bankart, and Latarjet-Bristow Procedures: A Review of 2864 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Bokshan, Steven L.; DeFroda, Steven F.; Owens, Brett D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Surgical intervention for anterior shoulder instability is commonly performed and is highly successful in reducing instances of recurrent instability. Purpose: To determine and compare the incidence of 30-day complications and patient and surgical risk factors for complications for arthroscopic Bankart, open Bankart, and Latarjet-Bristow procedures. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: All arthroscopic Bankart, open Bankart, and Latarjet-Bristow procedures from 2005 to 2014 from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) prospective database were analyzed. Baseline patient variables were assessed, including the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Outcomes measures included length of operation, length of hospital stay, need for hospital admission, 30-day readmission, and 30-day return to the operating room. Binary logistic regression was performed for the presence of any complications after all 3 procedures. Results: There were 2864 surgical procedures (410 open Bankart, 163 Latarjet-Bristow, and 2291 arthroscopic Bankart) included. There was no significant difference with regard to age (P = .11), body mass index (P = .17), American Society of Anesthesiologists class (P = .423), or CCI (P = .479) for each group. The Latarjet-Bristow procedure had the highest overall complication rate (5.5%) compared with open (1.0%) and arthroscopic (0.6%) Bankart repairs. The Latarjet-Bristow procedure had significantly longer mean operative times (P < .001) in addition to the highest 30-day return rate to the operating room (4.3%; 95% confidence interval, 1.2%-7.4%). Smoking status was an independent predictor of a postoperative complication (P = .05; odds ratio, 8.0) after Latarjet-Bristow. Conclusion: Surgical intervention for anterior shoulder instability has a low rate of complication (arthroscopic Bankart, 0.6%; open Bankart, 1.0%; Latarjet-Bristow, 5.5%) in the early postoperative period, with

  16. Comparison of 30-Day Morbidity and Mortality After Arthroscopic Bankart, Open Bankart, and Latarjet-Bristow Procedures: A Review of 2864 Cases.

    PubMed

    Bokshan, Steven L; DeFroda, Steven F; Owens, Brett D

    2017-07-01

    Surgical intervention for anterior shoulder instability is commonly performed and is highly successful in reducing instances of recurrent instability. To determine and compare the incidence of 30-day complications and patient and surgical risk factors for complications for arthroscopic Bankart, open Bankart, and Latarjet-Bristow procedures. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All arthroscopic Bankart, open Bankart, and Latarjet-Bristow procedures from 2005 to 2014 from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) prospective database were analyzed. Baseline patient variables were assessed, including the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Outcomes measures included length of operation, length of hospital stay, need for hospital admission, 30-day readmission, and 30-day return to the operating room. Binary logistic regression was performed for the presence of any complications after all 3 procedures. There were 2864 surgical procedures (410 open Bankart, 163 Latarjet-Bristow, and 2291 arthroscopic Bankart) included. There was no significant difference with regard to age (P = .11), body mass index (P = .17), American Society of Anesthesiologists class (P = .423), or CCI (P = .479) for each group. The Latarjet-Bristow procedure had the highest overall complication rate (5.5%) compared with open (1.0%) and arthroscopic (0.6%) Bankart repairs. The Latarjet-Bristow procedure had significantly longer mean operative times (P < .001) in addition to the highest 30-day return rate to the operating room (4.3%; 95% confidence interval, 1.2%-7.4%). Smoking status was an independent predictor of a postoperative complication (P = .05; odds ratio, 8.0) after Latarjet-Bristow. Surgical intervention for anterior shoulder instability has a low rate of complication (arthroscopic Bankart, 0.6%; open Bankart, 1.0%; Latarjet-Bristow, 5.5%) in the early postoperative period, with the most common being surgical site infection, deep vein thrombosis

  17. 30-Day Survival Probabilities as a Quality Indicator for Norwegian Hospitals: Data Management and Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hassani, Sahar; Lindman, Anja Schou; Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Tomic, Oliver; Helgeland, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Background The Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (NOKC) reports 30-day survival as a quality indicator for Norwegian hospitals. The indicators have been published annually since 2011 on the website of the Norwegian Directorate of Health (www.helsenorge.no), as part of the Norwegian Quality Indicator System authorized by the Ministry of Health. Openness regarding calculation of quality indicators is important, as it provides the opportunity to critically review and discuss the method. The purpose of this article is to describe the data collection, data pre-processing, and data analyses, as carried out by NOKC, for the calculation of 30-day risk-adjusted survival probability as a quality indicator. Methods and Findings Three diagnosis-specific 30-day survival indicators (first time acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and hip fracture) are estimated based on all-cause deaths, occurring in-hospital or out-of-hospital, within 30 days counting from the first day of hospitalization. Furthermore, a hospital-wide (i.e. overall) 30-day survival indicator is calculated. Patient administrative data from all Norwegian hospitals and information from the Norwegian Population Register are retrieved annually, and linked to datasets for previous years. The outcome (alive/death within 30 days) is attributed to every hospital by the fraction of time spent in each hospital. A logistic regression followed by a hierarchical Bayesian analysis is used for the estimation of risk-adjusted survival probabilities. A multiple testing procedure with a false discovery rate of 5% is used to identify hospitals, hospital trusts and regional health authorities with significantly higher/lower survival than the reference. In addition, estimated risk-adjusted survival probabilities are published per hospital, hospital trust and regional health authority. The variation in risk-adjusted survival probabilities across hospitals for AMI shows a decreasing trend over time: estimated

  18. Predictors of 30-Day Hospital Readmission among Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: A Hospital's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Flythe, Jennifer E; Katsanos, Suzanne L; Hu, Yichun; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V; Falk, Ronald J; Moore, Carlton R

    2016-06-06

    Over 35% of patients on maintenance dialysis are readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of hospital discharge. Outpatient dialysis facilities often assume responsibility for readmission prevention. Hospital care and discharge practices may increase readmission risk. We undertook this study to elucidate risk factors identifiable from hospital-derived data for 30-day readmission among patients on hemodialysis. Data were taken from patients on maintenance hemodialysis discharged from University of North Carolina Hospitals between May of 2008 and June of 2013 who received in-patient hemodialysis during their index hospitalizations. Multivariable logistic regression models with 30-day readmission as the dependent outcome were used to identify readmission risk factors. Models considered variables available at hospital admission and discharge separately. Among 349 patients, 112 (32.1%) had a 30-day hospital readmission. The discharge (versus admission) model was more predictive of 30-day readmission. In the discharge model, malignancy comorbid condition (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.04 to 3.11), three or more hospitalizations in the prior year (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.06 to 3.64), ≥10 outpatient medications at hospital admission (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.88), catheter vascular access (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.65), outpatient dialysis at a nonuniversity-affiliated dialysis facility (OR, 3.59; 95% CI, 2.03 to 6.36), intradialytic hypotension (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.45 to 6.61), weekend discharge day (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.31), and serum albumin <3.3 g/dl (OR, 4.28; 95% CI, 2.37 to 7.73) were associated with higher readmission odds. A decrease in prescribed medications from admission to discharge (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.51) was associated with lower readmission odds. Findings were robust across different model-building approaches. Models containing discharge day data had greater predictive capacity of 30-day readmission than

  19. Educational level and 30-day outcomes after hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cafagna, Gianluca; Seghieri, Chiara

    2017-01-09

    There is a growing interest in the factors that influence short-term mortality and readmission after hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) since such outcomes are commonly considered as hospital performance measures. Socioeconomic status (SES) is one of the factors contributing to healthcare outcomes after hospitalization for AMI. However, no study has been published on education and 30-day readmission in Europe. The objective of this study is to examine the association between educational level and 30-day mortality and readmission among patients hospitalized for AMI in Tuscany (Italy). A retrospective cohort study using data from hospital discharge records was conducted. The analysis included all patients discharged with a principal diagnosis of AMI between January 1, 2011, and November 30, 2014, from all hospitals in Tuscany. Educational level was categorized as low (no middle school diploma), mid (middle school diploma) and high (high school diploma or more). Three multilevel models were developed, sequentially controlling for patient-level socio-demographic and clinical variables and hospital-level variables. Patients were stratified by age (≤75 and >75 years). Mortality analysis included 23,402 patients, readmission analysis included 22,181 patients. In both unadjusted and full-adjusted models, patients with a high education had lower odds of 30-day mortality compared to those patients with low education (OR age ≤ 75 years 0.67, 95% CI:0.47-0.94; OR age > 75 years 0.72, 95% CI:0.54-0.95). With regard to 30-day readmission, only patients aged over 75 years with a high education had lower odds of short-term readmission compared to those patients with low education (OR age > 75 0.73, 95% CI:0.58-0.93). Among patients hospitalized in Tuscany for AMI, low levels of education were associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality for both age groups and increased odds of 30-day readmission only for patients aged over 75

  20. 30-Day Survival Probabilities as a Quality Indicator for Norwegian Hospitals: Data Management and Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Sahar; Lindman, Anja Schou; Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Tomic, Oliver; Helgeland, Jon

    2015-01-01

    The Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services (NOKC) reports 30-day survival as a quality indicator for Norwegian hospitals. The indicators have been published annually since 2011 on the website of the Norwegian Directorate of Health (www.helsenorge.no), as part of the Norwegian Quality Indicator System authorized by the Ministry of Health. Openness regarding calculation of quality indicators is important, as it provides the opportunity to critically review and discuss the method. The purpose of this article is to describe the data collection, data pre-processing, and data analyses, as carried out by NOKC, for the calculation of 30-day risk-adjusted survival probability as a quality indicator. Three diagnosis-specific 30-day survival indicators (first time acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and hip fracture) are estimated based on all-cause deaths, occurring in-hospital or out-of-hospital, within 30 days counting from the first day of hospitalization. Furthermore, a hospital-wide (i.e. overall) 30-day survival indicator is calculated. Patient administrative data from all Norwegian hospitals and information from the Norwegian Population Register are retrieved annually, and linked to datasets for previous years. The outcome (alive/death within 30 days) is attributed to every hospital by the fraction of time spent in each hospital. A logistic regression followed by a hierarchical Bayesian analysis is used for the estimation of risk-adjusted survival probabilities. A multiple testing procedure with a false discovery rate of 5% is used to identify hospitals, hospital trusts and regional health authorities with significantly higher/lower survival than the reference. In addition, estimated risk-adjusted survival probabilities are published per hospital, hospital trust and regional health authority. The variation in risk-adjusted survival probabilities across hospitals for AMI shows a decreasing trend over time: estimated survival probabilities for AMI in

  1. Quality of Acute Myocardial Infarction Care in Canada: A 10-Year Review of 30-Day In-Hospital Mortality and 30-Day Hospital Readmission.

    PubMed

    Tran, Dat T; Welsh, Robert C; Ohinmaa, Arto; Thanh, Nguyen X; Bagai, Akshay; Kaul, Padma

    2017-10-01

    The recently released Canadian cardiac care quality indicators include 30-day in-hospital mortality and readmission rates after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We examined long-term trends and provincial variations in these outcomes among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. We included patients aged 18 years and older who were hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of AMI between 2004 and 2013 in all Canadian provinces except Quebec. We calculated 30-day in-hospital death and readmission rates after PCI as well as isolated CABG. We used logistic regressions to evaluate baseline-adjusted temporal trends and provincial variations in mortality and readmission. Among 341,001 AMI episodes in 323,862 unique patients, 43.1% and 7% received PCI and CABG, respectively. Mortality after PCI (2.8%) remained stable (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; P = 0.399), whereas mortality after isolated CABG (2.5%) decreased over time (OR, 0.96; P = 0.017). Readmission after PCI (8.8%) increased (OR, 1.06; P < 0.001), whereas readmission after isolated CABG (11.4%) remained stable over time (OR, 0.99; P = 0.116). Compared with Alberta, mortality and readmission after PCI were highest in Saskatchewan (mortality: OR, 1.32; P = 0.001; readmission: OR, 1.24; P < 0.001), whereas mortality after isolated CABG was highest in Newfoundland and Labrador (OR, 2.05; P = 0.010) and readmission after isolated CABG was highest in New Brunswick (OR, 1.49; P = 0.001). There was no change in mortality, and a slight increase in readmission rates after PCI, and modest improvements in mortality and readmission rates after CABG among AMI patients during the study period. Significant interprovincial variations remained. A stronger focus on pan-Canadian coordination in AMI care and a set of standard benchmarks for AMI-specific PCI- and CABG-related quality indicators are needed. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by

  2. Analysis of weekend effect on 30-day mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Noad, Rebecca; Stevenson, Michael; Herity, Niall A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Several publications have demonstrated increased 30-day mortality in patients admitted on Saturdays or Sundays compared with weekdays. We sought to determine whether this was true for two different cohorts of patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results Thirty-day mortality data were obtained for 3757 patients who had been admitted to the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust with acute MI between 2009 and 2015. They were subdivided into those presenting with ST elevation MI (n=2240) and non-ST elevation MI (n= 1517). We observed no excess 30-day mortality in those admitted over weekends. Conclusion Excess mortality in patients admitted at weekends is not a universal finding. This may mean that that there are patient subgroups with proportionately greater weekend hazard and points to the need for more detailed understanding of the weekend effect. PMID:28409006

  3. Long-term (30 days) toxicity of NiO nanoparticles for adult zebrafish Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A.; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide in the form of nanoparticles (NiO NPs) is extensively used in different industrial branches. In a test on adult zebrafish, the acute toxicity of NiO NPs was shown to be low, however longlasting contact with this compound can lead to its accumulation in the tissues and to increased toxicity. In this work we determined the 30-day toxicity of NiO NPs using a static test for zebrafish Danio rerio. We found the 30-day LC50 value to be 45.0 mg/L, LC100 (minimum concentration causing 100% mortality) was 100.0 mg/L, and LC0 (maximum concentration causing no mortality) was 6.25 mg/L for adult individuals of zebrafish. Considering a broad use of Ni in the industry, NiO NPs chronic toxicity may have a negative impact on the population of aquatic organisms and on food web dynamics in aquatic systems. PMID:26038672

  4. Work capacity during 30 days of bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Trowbridge, T. S.; Wade, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from a study to determine whether or not short-term variable intensity isotonic and intermittent high-intensity isokinetic short-duration leg exercise is effective for the maintenance of peak O2 (VO2) uptake and muscular strength and endurance, respectively, during 30 days of -6 deg head-down bed rest deconditioning. The results show no significant changes in leg peak torque, leg mean total work, arm total peak torque, or arm mean total work for members of the isotonic, isokinetic, and controls groups. Changes are observed, however, in peak VO2 levels. The results suggest that near-peak variabile intensity, isotonic leg excercise maintains peak VO2 during 30 days of bed rest, while peak intermittent, isokinetic leg excercise protocol does not.

  5. Work capacity during 30 days of bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Trowbridge, T. S.; Wade, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from a study to determine whether or not short-term variable intensity isotonic and intermittent high-intensity isokinetic short-duration leg exercise is effective for the maintenance of peak O2 (VO2) uptake and muscular strength and endurance, respectively, during 30 days of -6 deg head-down bed rest deconditioning. The results show no significant changes in leg peak torque, leg mean total work, arm total peak torque, or arm mean total work for members of the isotonic, isokinetic, and controls groups. Changes are observed, however, in peak VO2 levels. The results suggest that near-peak variabile intensity, isotonic leg excercise maintains peak VO2 during 30 days of bed rest, while peak intermittent, isokinetic leg excercise protocol does not.

  6. Incidence, Causes and Predictors of 30-Day Readmission After Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W; Anthony, Chris A.; Duchman, Kyle R.; Pugely, Andrew J.; Gao, Yubo; Hettrich, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service has identified several quality metrics, including unplanned readmission within 30 days of surgery, to assess and compare surgeons and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence, causes and risk factors for unplanned 30-day readmission after total shoulder arthroplasty. Methods We identified patients undergoing primary elective shoulder arthroplasty performed at American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) participating hospitals in 2013. Cases were stratified by readmission status. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to assess patient demographics, comorbidities and operative variables predicting unplanned readmission. Results 2779 patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty were identified, with 74 (2.66%) requiring unplanned readmissions within 30 days of surgery. The most common surgical causes for unplanned readmission were surgical site infections (18.6%), dislocations (16.3%) and venous thromboembolism (14.0%). Medical causes for readmission were responsible for 51% of unplanned readmissions. Multivariate analysis identified patient age >75 (OR 2.62, 95% CI: 1.27 - 5.41), and ASA class of 3 (OR 1.79, 95% CI: 1.01 - 3.18) or 4 (OR 3.63, 95% CI: 1.31 - 10.08) as independent risk factors for unplanned readmission. Predictive modeling estimated that patients with ASA class of 4 and age >75 are 17.4 times more likely (95% CI 1.77-171.09) to be readmitted within 30 days of shoulder arthroplasty. Conclusion Unplanned readmission after shoulder arthroplasty is infrequent and medical complications account for more than 50% of occurrences. The risk of readmission exponentially increases when age and preoperative comorbidity burden are increased. PMID:27528839

  7. Hyponatremia and hypernatremia are associated with increased 30-day mortality in hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Madsen, C M; Jantzen, C; Lauritzen, J B; Abrahamsen, B; Jorgensen, H L

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the Danish national registries on 7317 patients, this study shows that abnormal plasma sodium levels, in the form of hyponatremia and hypernatremia, are prevalent and associated with increased 30-day mortality in hip fracture patients. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of hyponatremia and hypernatremia in patients admitted with a fractured hip as well as the association with 30-day in mortality in these patients. A total of 7317 hip fracture patients (aged 60 years or above) with admission plasma sodium measurements were included. Data on comorbidity, medication, and death was retrieved from Danish national registries. The association between plasma sodium and mortality was examined using Cox proportional hazard models. The prevalence of hyponatremia and hypernatremia on admission was 19.0 and 1.7 %, respectively. Thirty-day mortality was increased for patients with hyponatremia (12.2 %, p = 0.005) and hypernatremia (15.5 %, p = 0.03) compared to normonatremic patients (9.6 %). After adjustment for possible confounding factors, hyponatremia (1.38 [1.16-1.64], p = 0.0003) and hypernatremia (1.71 [1.08-2.70], p = 0.02) were still associated with increased risk of death by 30 days. Looking at the association between changes in plasma sodium during admission and mortality, there was no difference between patients with normalized and persistent hyponatremia (10.4 vs 11.3 %, p = 0.6) while a lower mortality was found for normalized hypernatremia compared to persistent hypernatremia (12.4 vs 33.3 %, p = 0.03). This study shows that abnormal plasma sodium levels are prevalent in patients admitted with a fractured hip and that both hyponatremia and hypernatremia are associated with increased risk of death within 30 days of admission.

  8. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Causes and Predictors of 30-Day Mortality Following Hip Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Fahad Siddique; Aqil, Adeel; Akinbamijo, Babawande; Mushtaq, Vhaid; Kapoor, Harish

    2017-01-01

    Background A fracture neck of femur is the leading cause of injury-related mortality in the elderly population. The 30-day mortality figure is a well utilised marker of clinical outcome following a fracture neck of femur. Current studies fail to analyse all patient demographic, biochemical and comorbid parameters associated with increased 30-day mortality. We aimed to assess medical risk factors for mortality, which are easily identifiable on admission for patients presenting with a fractured neck of femur. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively populated database was undertaken to identify all consecutive patients with a fracture neck of femur between October 2008 and March 2011. All factors related to the patient, injury and surgery were identified. The primary outcome of interest was 30-day mortality. Univariate and subsequent multivariate analyses using a backward stepwise likelihood ratio Cox regression model were performed in order to establish all parameters that significantly increased the risk of death. Results A total of 1,356 patients were included in the study. The 30-day mortality was 8.7%. The most common causes of death included pneumonia, sepsis and acute myocardial infarction. Multiple regression analysis revealed male gender, increasing age, admission source other than the patient's own home, admission haemoglobin of less than 10 g/dL, a history of myocardial infarction, concomitant chest infection during admission, increasing Charlson comorbidity score and liver disease to be significant predictors of mortality. Conclusions This study has elucidated risk factors for mortality using clinical and biochemical information which are easily gathered at the point of hospitalization. These results allow for identification of vulnerable patients who may benefit from a prioritisation of resources. PMID:28261422

  9. Acute Graft Pyelonephritis Occurring up to 30 Days After Kidney Transplantation: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Survival.

    PubMed

    Kroth, L V; Barreiro, F F; Saitovitch, D; Traesel, M A; d'Avila, D O L; Poli-de-Figueiredo, C E

    2016-09-01

    Acute graft pyelonephritis is a very common infection in renal transplantation. The impact of acute graft pyelonephritis (AGPN) on graft and patient outcome has not yet been established. Eight hundred seventy kidney and kidney-pancreas transplants were retrospectively studied, over last 13 years, to verify occurrence of AGPN in the first 30 days post-transplantation. We found that 112 patients (15.8%) presented post-transplantatiom AGPN up to 30 days after a kidney transplantation. The occurrence was higher in older patients (P = .005) and in those with ureteral stents (P = .06). Escherichia coli was the most frequent microorganism in urine cultures (32%). Ureteral stent (relative risk = 1.7; confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.5; P = .018) was a major risk factor for AGPN as well as older ages (RR = 1.02; CI 1.01-1.04; P = .001), length of hospitalization stay (RR = 1.01; CI, 1.01-1.02; P < .001), and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) induction (RR = 1.6; CI, 1.022-2.561; P = .04). Long-term graft and patient survival was significantly lower in patients with pyelonephritis in the first 30 days after transplantation (OR 1.43; 95% CI, 0.95-2.16; P = .024 and OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.12-2.80; P = .006, respectively). Acute pyelonephritis in the first 30 days after transplantation is therefore associated with a lower long-term graft and patient survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of Psychological Disorders With 30-Day Readmission Rates in Patients With COPD.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurinder; Zhang, Wei; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Sharma, Gulshan

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing understanding of the prevalence and impact of psychological disorders on COPD. However, the role of these disorders in early readmission is unclear. We analyzed data from 5% fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with COPD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code, 491.xx, 492.xx, 493.xx, and 496.xx) between 2001 and 2011 who were hospitalized with a primary discharge diagnosis of COPD or a primary discharge diagnosis of respiratory failure (518.xx and 799.1) with secondary diagnosis of COPD. We hypothesized that such psychological disorders as depression, anxiety, psychosis, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse are independently associated with an increased risk of 30-day readmission in patients hospitalized for COPD. Between 2001 and 2011, 135,498 hospitalizations occurred for COPD in 80,088 fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries. Of these, 30,218 (22.30%) patients had one or more psychological disorders. In multivariate analyses, odds of 30-day readmission were higher in patients with COPD who had depression (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.29-1.39), anxiety (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.37-1.50), psychosis (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.10-1.27), alcohol abuse (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.15-1.47), and drug abuse (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.11-1.50) compared with those who did not have these disorders. These psychological disorders increased amount of variation in 30-day readmission attributed to patient characteristics by 37%. Psychological disorders like depression, anxiety, psychosis, alcohol abuse, and drug abuse are independently associated with higher all-cause 30-day readmission rates for Medicare beneficiaries with COPD. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Skeletal muscle adaptations following blood flow-restricted training during 30 days of muscular unloading.

    PubMed

    Cook, Summer B; Brown, Kimberly A; Deruisseau, Keith; Kanaley, Jill A; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of low-load resistance training with a blood flow restriction (LL(BFR)) to attenuate muscle loss and weakness after 30 days of unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Sixteen subjects (ages 18-50 yr) underwent 30 days of ULLS. Measurements of muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and endurance on the knee extensors and plantar flexors were collected before and after ULLS. Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 were also assessed. During ULLS, eight subjects (5 males, 3 females) participated in LL(BFR) three times per week (ULLS + Exercise) while eight subjects (4 males, 4 females) did not exercise (ULLS). The blood flow-restricted exercise consisted of dynamic knee extension at 20% of the subject's isometric maximum voluntary contraction coupled with a suprasystolic blood flow restriction. After 30 days of limb suspension, the ULLS + Exercise group experienced minimal and insignificant losses in knee extensor cross-sectional area and strength (1.2% and 2.0%, respectively; P 0.05). Muscular endurance in the knee extensors improved 31% in the ULLS + Exercise group, while it decreased 24% in the ULLS group (P = 0.01). No changes were seen in hormone concentrations throughout the study. In conclusion, LL(BFR) of the knee extensors is effective in maintaining muscle strength and size during 30 days of ULLS and results in improved knee extensor muscular endurance.

  12. CT pulmonary angiography findings that predict 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Nansalmaa, Baasai; Kranz, Johanna; Taute, Bettina-Maria; Wienke, Andreas; Schramm, Dominik; Surov, Alexey

    2015-02-01

    Standard computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) can be used to diagnose acute pulmonary embolism. In addition, multiple findings at CTPA have been proposed as potential tools for risk stratification. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the prognostic value of (I) thrombus distribution, (II) morphometric parameters of right ventricular dysfunction, and (III) contrast reflux in inferior vena cava on 30-day mortality. In a retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 365 consecutive patients were included. Inclusion criteria were: presence of acute pulmonary embolism, and availability of 30-day follow-up. A review of patient charts and images was performed. There were no significant differences between the group of 326 survivors and 39 non-survivors in (I) thrombus distribution, and (II) morphometric measurements of right ventricular dysfunction. However, (III) contrast reflux in inferior vena cava was significantly stronger in non-survivors (odds ratio 3.29; p<0.001). Results were independent from comorbidities like heart insufficiency and pulmonary hypertension. Measurement of contrast reflux is a new and robust method for predicting 30-day mortality in patients with acute pulmonary embolism. Obstruction scores and morphometric measurements of right ventricular dysfunction perform poor as risk stratification tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The 10-30-day intraseasonal variation of the East Asian winter monsoon: The temperature mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Suxiang; Sun, Qingfei; Huang, Qian; Chu, Peng

    2016-09-01

    East Asia is known for its monsoon characteristics, but little research has been performed on the intraseasonal time scale of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). In this paper, the extended reanalysis (ERA)-Interim sub-daily data are used to study the surface air temperature intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) of the EAWM. The results show that the air temperature (2-m level) of the EAWM has a dominant period of 10-30 days. Lake Baikal and south China are the centers of the air temperature ISO. An anomalous low frequency (10-30-day filtered) anticyclone corresponds to the intraseasonal cold air. The 10-30-day filtered cold air spreads from Novaya Zemlya to Lake Baikal and even to South China. The ISO of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index influences the temperature of the EAWM by stimulating Rossby waves in middle latitude, causing meridional circulation, and eventually leads to the temperature ISO of the EAWM. RegCM4 has good performance for the simulation of the air temperature ISO. The simulated results indicate that the plateau is responsible for the southward propagation of the intraseasonal anticyclone. The anticyclone could not reach South China when there was no plateau in western China and its upper reaches.

  14. Surgeon volume and 30 day mortality for brain tumours in England

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Matt; Treasure, Peter; Greenberg, David; Brodbelt, Andrew; Collins, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that surgeons who perform more operations have better outcomes. However, in patients with brain tumours, all of the evidence comes from the USA. Methods: We examined all English patients with an intracranial neoplasm who had an intracranial resection in 2008–2010. We included surgeons who performed at least six operations over 3 years, and at least one operation in the first and last 6 months of the period. Results: The analysis data set comprised 9194 operations, 163 consultant neurosurgeons and 30 centres. Individual surgeon volumes varied widely (7–272; median=46). 72% of operations were on the brain, and 30 day mortality was 3%. A doubling of surgeon load was associated with a 20% relative reduction in mortality. Thirty day mortality varied between centres (0·95–8·62%) but was not related to centre workload. Conclusions: Individual surgeon volumes correlated with patient 30 day mortality. Centres and surgeons in England are busier than surgeons and centres in the USA. There is no relationship between centre volume and 30 day mortality in England. Services in the UK appear to be adequately arranged at a centre level, but would benefit from further surgeon sub-specialisation. PMID:27764843

  15. [Prognostic factors of early 30-day mortality in elderly patients admitted to an emergency department].

    PubMed

    Morales Erazo, Alexander; Cardona Arango, Doris

    The main aim of this study was to identify the variables related to early mortality in the elderly at the time of admission to the emergency department. Using probability sampling, the study included patients 60 years old or older of both genders who were admitted for observation to the emergency department of the University Hospital of Nariño, ¿Colombia? in 2015. Using a questionnaire designed for this study, some multidimensional features that affect the health of the elderly were collected (demographic, clinical, psychological, functional, and social variables). The patients were then followed-up for 30 days in order to determine the mortality rate during this time. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions and survival analysis were performed. Data were collected from 246 patients, with a mean age of 75.27 years and the majority female. The 30-day mortality rate was 15%. The variables most associated with death were: being female, temperature problems, initial diagnosis of neoplasia, and unable to walk independently in the emergency department. It is possible to determine the multidimensional factors present in the older patient admitted to an emergency department that could affect their 30-day mortality prognosis. and which should be intervened. Copyright © 2017 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A Predictive Risk Index for 30-day Readmissions Following Surgical Treatment of Pediatric Scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Minhas, Shobhit V; Chow, Ian; Feldman, David S; Bosco, Joseph; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2016-03-01

    Pediatric scoliosis often requires operative treatment, yet few studies have examined readmission rates in this patient population. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence, reasons, and independent risk factors for 30-day unplanned readmissions following scoliosis surgery. A retrospective analysis of the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement-Pediatric database from 2012 to 2013 was performed. Patients undergoing spinal arthrodesis for progressive infantile scoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis, or scoliosis due to other medical conditions were identified and divided between 2 groups: patients with unplanned 30-day readmissions (Readmitted) and patients with no unplanned readmissions (Non-Readmitted). Multivariate logistic regression models were created to determine independent risk factors for readmissions. A total of 3482 children were identified, of which 120 (3.4%) had an unplanned readmission. A majority of patients had a readmission due to a surgical site complication regardless of scoliosis etiology. Risk factors for readmission included obesity (P<0.001) and posterior fusion of 13 or more vertebrae (P=0.029) for idiopathic scoliosis, impaired cognition (P=0.009) for progressive infantile scoliosis, and pelvic fixation (P=0.025) and American Society of Anesthesiologist ≥3 (P=0.048) for scoliosis due to other conditions. We present 30-day readmissions risk factors based on independent patient and procedural risk factors. This may be useful in the clinical management of patients following scoliosis surgery, specifically for the role of preoperative and predischarge risk stratification.

  17. Identifying children at risk of death within 30 days of surgery at an NSQIP pediatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Langham, Max R; Walter, Arianne; Boswell, Timothy C; Beck, Robert; Jones, Tamekia L

    2015-12-01

    Informed consent for operative procedures performed on children relies on the ability of the surgeon to estimate and describe accurately the risks and benefits of the planned operation to the parents. Understanding patient-specific risks is also an important prerequisite for surgeons and hospital administrators who wish to change hospital processes and improve patient safety. This study tests the feasibility of estimating the risk of death within 30 days of surgery using National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP)-Pediatric data from a single children's hospital. Patient data submitted to NSQIP-Pediatric from our hospital were analyzed to identify variables predictive of death within 30 days of operation. A multiple logistic regression model was constructed using 3 years of data and validated using data submitted the following year. The model was then tested using the participant use file provided by NSQIP-Pediatric for 2012. The model identified 7 variables predictive of death: neonatal status, respiratory support, inotropic support, having a blood disorder, cerebrovascular injury, previous cardiac intervention, and the work relative value unit for the procedure. The resulting final model had a c statistic = 0.97. It is possible for a participating children's hospital to use NSQIP-Pediatric data to develop risk models for patient mortality occurring within 30 days of operation at their institution. The model presented may be generalizable to other institutions, but needs further testing and refining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association Between Medicare Hospital Readmission Penalties and 30-Day Combined Excess Readmission and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Aziz, Ahmad A; Hayward, Rodney A; Aaronson, Keith D; Hummel, Scott L

    2017-02-01

    US hospitals receive financial penalties for excess risk-standardized 30-day readmissions and mortality in Medicare patients. Under current policy, readmission prevention is incentivized over 10-fold more than mortality reduction. To determine how penalties for US hospitals would change if policy equally weighted 30-day readmissions and mortality. Publicly available hospital-level data for fiscal year 2014 was obtained, including excess readmission ratio (ERR; risk-standardized predicted over expected 30-day readmissions) and 30-day mortality rates for heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction, as well as readmission penalties (as percent of Medicare Diagnosis Group payments). An excess mortality ratio (EMR) was calculated by dividing the risk-standardized predicted mortality by the national average mortality. Case-weighted aggregate ERR (ERRAGG) and EMR (EMRAGG) were calculated, and an excess combined outcome ratio (ECORAGG) was created by averaging ERRAGG and EMRAGG. We examined associations between readmission penalties, ERRAGG, EMRAGG, and ECORAGG. Analysis of variance was used to compare readmission penalties in hospitals with concordant (both ratios >1 or <1) and discordant performance by ERRAGG and ECORAGG. The primary outcome investigated was the association between readmission penalties and the calculated excess combined outcome ratio (ECORAGG). In 1963 US hospitals with complete data, readmission penalties closely tracked excess readmissions (r = 0.81; P < .001), but were minimally and inversely related with excess mortality (r = -0.12; P < .001) and only modestly correlated with excess combined readmission and mortality (r = 0.36; P < .001). Using hospitals with concordant ERRAGG and ECORAGG as the reference group, 17% of hospitals had an ECORAGG ratio less than 1 (ie, superior combined mortality/readmission outcome) with an ERRAGG ratio greater than 1, and received higher mean (SD) readmission penalties (0.41% [0

  19. Indications, risk factors, and outcomes of 30-day readmission after infrarenal abdominal aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Dakour Aridi, Hanaa N; Locham, Satinderjit; Nejim, Besma; Ghajar, Nasr S; Alshaikh, Husain; Malas, Mahmoud B

    2017-09-22

    Reducing readmissions is an important target for improving patient care and enhancing health care quality and cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to assess rates, risk factors, and indications of 30-day readmission after open aortic repair (OAR) and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). A retrospective analysis of the Premier Healthcare Database from 2009 to 2015 was performed. Indications for readmission after the index procedure, risk factors, and outcomes of the index admission and rehospitalization were evaluated. Multivariate logistic models were used to assess the association between 30-day readmission and different patient and hospital factors. A total of 33,332 AAA repair procedures were identified: 27,483 (82.5%) EVAR and 5849 (17.5%) OAR. The overall rate of 30-day readmission was 8.1%, and it was greater after OAR (12.9% vs 7.1% in EVAR; P < .001). In general, the most common specific readmission diagnoses were infectious complications (16.1%), followed by respiratory and cardiac complications (11.8% and 11.3%, respectively). After multivariate adjustment, OAR was associated with higher 30-day readmission compared with EVAR (adjusted odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.2; P = .04). Other risk factors of 30-day readmission included female gender, emergency and urgent procedures, certain patient comorbidities (dyslipidemia, congestive heart failure, history of transient ischemic attack, previous cardiac surgery, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, chronic kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, and history of malignant disease), and hemorrhage/shock/bleeding occurring during the index admission as well as nonhome discharge. Readmitted patients had an overall in-hospital mortality of 3.6% and paid a median rehospitalization cost of $7757. Our study shows that around 8.1% of patients undergoing infrarenal AAA repair were readmitted within 30 days. Because many

  20. Effect of body mass index and device type on infection in left ventricular assist device support beyond 30 days.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stanley I; Wellington, Linda; Stevenson, Kurt B; Mangino, Julie E; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B; Firstenberg, Michael S; Blais, Danielle; Sun, Benjamin C

    2010-07-01

    Infection as a complication of long-term left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support leads to significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity, a possible risk factor for other postoperative cardiovascular surgical site infections, is an increasingly prevalent condition among recipients of LVAD devices. We retrospectively analyzed 145 LVADs that remained in place beyond 30 days over a nine-year period at a single medical institution. Statistical analysis was carried out using univariate and multivariable logistic regression and chi(2)-testing where indicated. Body mass index (BMI) had no effect on the incidence of infectious outcomes regardless of age, gender, underlying pathogen or device type. This included the morbidly obese population as well (BMI >or=40). Independent of BMI, device type did have an effect, with the HeartMate XVE increasing the risk for infections [odds ratio (OR) 4.3 with 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-8.8, P=0.0001] and the HeartMate II reducing the risk (OR 0.21 with 95% CI 0.09-0.50, P=0.0001). The risk for infection after LVAD placement for long-term support is likely to be a multi-factorial phenomenon. BMI, including morbid obesity, does not appear to be a statistically significant relevant factor in determining that risk. Device type may have an effect, however, on risk of infection in long-term support.

  1. Rotational dynamics of cargos at pauses during axonal transport

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Yan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Gufeng; Jeftinija, Ksenija; Jeftinija, Srdija; Fang, Ning

    2012-08-28

    Direct visualization of axonal transport in live neurons is essential for our understanding of the neuronal functions and the working mechanisms of microtubule-based motor proteins. Here we use the high-speed single particle orientation and rotational tracking technique to directly visualize the rotational dynamics of cargos in both active directional transport and pausing stages of axonal transport, with a temporal resolution of 2 ms. Both long and short pauses are imaged, and the correlations between the pause duration, the rotational behaviour of the cargo at the pause, and the moving direction after the pause are established. Furthermore, the rotational dynamics leading to switching tracks are visualized in detail. These first-time observations of cargo's rotational dynamics provide new insights on how kinesin and dynein motors take the cargo through the alternating stages of active directional transport and pause.

  2. Long-term effects of suppressing the preratio pause.

    PubMed

    Derenne, Adam; Richardson, Joseph V; Baron, Alan

    2006-03-01

    The preratio pause is a characteristic feature of performances under fixed-ratio schedules of reinforcement, even though the pause is not required by the schedule and it reduces the reinforcement rate. To investigate the reduction of pausing, five rats trained on fixed-ratio schedules were exposed to timeout punishment of pauses that exceeded a specified duration. After a series of 30 punishment sessions, most of the longest pauses were eliminated. For some subjects punishment was withdrawn abruptly, whereas for others a fading procedure was employed. Postpunishment observations then were continued for an additional 60 sessions. The reduced pausing was accompanied by reductions in the positive skew of the baseline distribution of pause durations, and by substantial increases in reinforcement rates. However, the results did not indicate differences as a function of the method of withdrawing the punishment contingency. Although postpunishment performances indicated some degree of recovery in the number of long pauses, performances had stabilized below prepunishment levels when the experiment ended. The results suggest the possibility that reduced pause durations can be self-maintained by the resulting increase in reinforcement rates.

  3. Different types of pausing modes during transcription initiation.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Eitan; Ingargiola, Antonino; Lee, Jookyung J; Borukhov, Sergei; Michalet, Xavier; Weiss, Shimon

    2017-08-08

    In many cases, initiation is rate limiting to transcription. This due in part to the multiple cycles of abortive transcription that delay promoter escape and the transition from initiation to elongation. Pausing of transcription in initiation can further delay promoter escape. The previously hypothesized pausing in initiation was confirmed by two recent studies from Duchi et al. (1) and from Lerner, Chung et al. (2) In both studies, pausing is attributed to a lack of forward translocation of the nascent transcript during initiation. However, the two works report on different pausing mechanisms. Duchi et al. report on pausing that occurs during initiation predominantly on-pathway of transcript synthesis. Lerner, Chung et al. report on pausing during initiation as a result of RNAP backtracking, which is off-pathway to transcript synthesis. Here, we discuss these studies, together with additional experimental results from single-molecule FRET focusing on a specific distance within the transcription bubble. We show that the results of these studies are complementary to each other and are consistent with a model involving two types of pauses in initiation: a short-lived pause that occurs in the translocation of a 6-mer nascent transcript and a long-lived pause that occurs as a result of 1-2 nucleotide backtracking of a 7-mer transcript.

  4. Comparison of Long-run Trends in 30-day Readmission by Degrees of Medicare Payment Cuts.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu-Chu; Wu, Vivian Y

    2016-09-01

    The Affordable Care Act enacted significant Medicare payment reductions to providers, yet long-term effects of such major reductions on patient outcomes remain uncertain. Using the 1997 Balanced Budget Act (BBA) as an experiment, we compare long-run trends in 30-day readmission across hospitals with different amount of payment cuts. Using 100% Medicare claims between 1995 and 2011 and instrumental variable hospital fixed-effects regression models, we compared changes in 30-day readmission trends for 5 leading Medicare conditions between urban hospitals facing small, moderate, and large BBA payment reductions across 4 periods [1995-1997 (pre-BBA period), 1998-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2001]. Patient sample includes Medicare patients who were admitted to general, acute, urban, short-stay hospitals in the United States 1995-2011. Sample size ranges from 1.4 million patients for acute myocardial infarction to 3 million for pneumonia. We found that 30-day readmission trends diverged post-BBA (2001-2005) between hospitals facing small and large payment cuts, where large-cut hospitals experience slower improvement in readmission rates relative to small-cut hospitals. The gap between small-cut and large-cut hospitals readmission trend was 6% for acute myocardial infarction, 4% for congestive heart failure and pneumonia (all P<0.01) in the 2001-2005 period. The gaps between hospitals were eliminated by the 2006-2011 period as the effect of BBA naturally dissipated over time. Although payment-cut differences are associated with widening gaps in readmission rates across hospitals, the negative association appears to dissipate in the long run.

  5. Risk Factor Analysis for 30-Day Mortality After Primary THA in a Single Institution.

    PubMed

    Comba, Fernando; Alonso Hidalgo, Ignacio; Buttaro, Martín; Piccaluga, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and associated risk factors for, 30-day perioperative death following primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Data of all the patients were compiled from the computerized total joint registry at a single institution. Between May 1993 and May 2006, 3,232 consecutive primary THA (2,453 elective and 779 nonelective) were performed. Eleven deaths occurred during the first month after surgery (0.34 %). Thirty-day mortality rate after elective THA was 0.08 % (two of 2,453 IC 95 %(0-0.4)). The 30-day mortality rate after nonelective THA was 1.15 % (nine of 779 IC 95 %(0.7-2.4). To analyze the factors that could have contributed with death, we conducted a 4-to-1 nested case-control study. Control cases were strictly matched by sex, age, surgeon, prosthesis fixation mode, and date of surgery. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of risk factors with mortality. Elective surgery was associated with a lower risk of mortality with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.07 (95 % CI 0.008-0.6);p = 0.015. American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score III-IV increased the mortality risk 13 times (OR 13.7; 95 % CI 1.6-114.8). Cardiovascular disease increased the risk for mortality eight times (OR 8.83 (95 % CI 1.78-43.6). Time delay before surgery showed a trend towards significance (p = 0.06). Aggressive vs. nonaggressive thromboembolism prophylaxis and the amount of blood transfusions required were not associated with a higher risk of death. Patients undergoing a THA due to fractures, patients with high ASA score, and those with cardiovascular disease were the highest risk factors for 30-day mortality after primary THA.

  6. Evaluation of a pharmacy-driven inpatient discharge counseling service: impact on 30-day readmission rates.

    PubMed

    Still, Kimberly L; Davis, Azizza K; Chilipko, Allison A; Jenkosol, Aroonjit; Norwood, Daryn K

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of a pharmacy-driven inpatient discharge counseling service on 30-day readmission rates. A retrospective electronic chart review was performed comparing internal medicine patients who received pharmacy discharge counseling with those who received the standard discharge process between May 1, 2011, and March 28, 2012. A community teaching hospital's internal medicine service. A total of 1,536 patients discharged from the internal medicine service were eligible for study inclusion. A total of 228 of these patients received pharmacy discharge counseling. Patients were screened for readmission risk. For those patients who scored as high risk, an attempt was made to provide pharmacy counseling and a discharge medication list. The primary endpoint was to evaluate whether pharmacy discharge counseling had an impact on readmission rates. An additional outcome was to measure the quantity of pharmacy interventions. Out of the 228 patients who received pharmacy discharge counseling, 18.9% were readmitted within 30 days of hospital discharge, which was similar to the readmission rate for high- and moderate-risk patients who did not receive counseling (18.8% and 18.9%, respectively). But, after stratification based on readmission risk, the moderate-risk, pharmacy-counseled group had a significantly lower readmission rate than the moderate-risk control group (3.8% vs. 18.9%; P=0.033). Overall, 915 pharmacist interventions were made, averaging 4 interventions per patient. Pharmacy discharge counseling was associated with reduced 30-day readmission rates in those patients at moderate risk for readmission.

  7. Origin, Clinical Characteristics and 30-Day Outcomes of Severe Hematochezia in Cirrhotics and Non-cirrhotics.

    PubMed

    Camus, Marine; Khungar, Vandana; Jensen, Dennis M; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S

    2016-09-01

    The sites of origin, causes and outcomes of severe hematochezia have not been compared between cirrhotics and non-cirrhotics. In cirrhotics versus non-cirrhotics presenting with severe hematochezia, we aimed at (1) identifying the site and etiology of gastro-intestinal bleeding and independent predictors of bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract versus small bowel or the colon, (2) comparing 30-day clinical outcomes, and (3) proposing an algorithm for management of severe hematochezia. In this cohort study from two university-based medical centers, 860 consecutive patients with severe hematochezia admitted from 1995 to 2011 were prospectively enrolled with 160 (18.6 %) cirrhotics. We studied (a) general clinical and laboratory characteristics of cirrhotics versus non-cirrhotics, (b) predictors of bleeding sites in each patient group by multiple variable regression analysis, and compared (c) 30-day outcomes, including rebleeding, surgery and deaths. Cirrhosis independently predicted an upper gastrointestinal source of bleeding (OR 3.47; 95 % CI 2.01-5.96) as well as history of hematemesis, melena in the past 30 days, positive nasogastric aspirate, prior upper gastrointestinal bleeding or use of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory. The most prevalent diagnoses were esophageal varices (20 %) in cirrhotics and colon diverticular bleeding (27.1 %) in non-cirrhotics. Thirty-day rates of rebleeding, surgical interventions and deaths were 23.1 versus 15 % (P = 0.01), 14.4 versus 6.4 % (P < 0.001), and 17.5 versus 4.1 % (P < 0.001), in cirrhotics versus non-cirrhotics, respectively. Cirrhosis predicted an upper gastrointestinal site of bleeding in patients presenting with severe hematochezia. The 30-day rates of rebleeding, surgery, and death were significantly higher in cirrhotics than in non-cirrhotics.

  8. Structural, Nursing, and Physician Characteristics and 30-Day Mortality for Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery in Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Lane-Fall, Meghan B; Ramaswamy, Tara S; Brown, Sydney E S; He, Xu; Gutsche, Jacob T; Fleisher, Lee A; Neuman, Mark D

    2017-09-01

    Cardiac surgery ICU characteristics and clinician staffing patterns have not been well characterized. We sought to describe Pennsylvania cardiac ICUs and to determine whether ICU characteristics are associated with mortality in the 30 days after cardiac surgery. From 2012 to 2013, we conducted a survey of cardiac surgery ICUs in Pennsylvania to assess ICU structure, care practices, and clinician staffing patterns. ICU data were linked to an administrative database of cardiac surgery patient discharges. We used logistic regression to measure the association between ICU variables and death in 30 days. Cardiac surgery ICUs in Pennsylvania. Patients having coronary artery bypass grafting and/or cardiac valve repair or replacement from 2009 to 2011. None. Of the 57 cardiac surgical ICUs in Pennsylvania, 43 (75.4%) responded to the facility survey. Rounds included respiratory therapists in 26 of 43 (60.5%) and pharmacists in 23 of 43 (53.5%). Eleven of 41 (26.8%) reported that at least 2/3 of their nurses had a bachelor's degree in nursing. Advanced practice providers were present in most of the ICUs (37/43; 86.0%) but residents (8/42; 18.6%) and fellows (7/43; 16.3%) were not. Daytime intensivists were present in 21 of 43 (48.8%) responding ICUs; eight of 43 (18.6%) had nighttime intensivists. Among 29,449 patients, there was no relationship between mortality and nurse ICU experience, presence of any intensivist, or absence of residents after risk adjustment. To exclude patients who may have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement, we conducted a subgroup analysis of patients undergoing only coronary artery bypass grafting, and results were similar. Pennsylvania cardiac surgery ICUs have variable structures, care practices, and clinician staffing, although none of these are statistically significantly associated with mortality in the 30 days following surgery after adjustment.

  9. Is telemedicine an answer to reducing 30-day readmission rates post-acute myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Ben-Assa, Eyal; Shacham, Yacov; Golovner, Michal; Malov, Nomi; Leshem-Rubinow, Eran; Zatelman, Avivit; Oren Shamir, Ayelet; Rogowski, Ori; Roth, Arie

    2014-09-01

    Patients hospitalized for an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are at risk for early readmission. Readmission rates in the community reportedly reach approximately 20%, and 30-day readmission rates have become a quality-of-care marker. Telemedicine is one strategy for improving clinical outcomes by offering real-time biometrics tracking and rapid intervention. We retrospectively assessed the 30-day readmission rate of post-AMI members of a telemedicine system. All "SHL"-Telemedicine subscribers who sustained an AMI and those who became subscribers within 10 days from discharge post-AMI between 2009 and 2012 were assessed. Their files were reviewed for demographics, coronary risk factors, reasons for readmission, and discharge diagnoses. In total, 897 suitable patients (mean age, 62±14 years; 81% males) were included. They had made 3,318 calls to the monitor center for consultation. A mobile intensive care unit was dispatched for 158 patients, 64 were transported to the hospital, and 52 (5.8%) were readmitted (10 patients were readmitted twice). Thirty-five readmissions were for noncardiac reasons. Twelve patients had acute coronary syndrome (11 were revascularized). Readmission rates were higher in patients with repeat AMIs (11.9% versus 5.3% among those with no AMI history) and in females (9.6% versus 4.9% among males). Unlike published figures for the general population, there were no significant differences between readmitted and non-readmitted patients regarding diabetes, hypertension, or congestive heart failure. Telemedicine technology shows considerable promise for reducing 30-day readmission rates of post-AMI patients.

  10. Rat brain pro-oxidant effects of peripherally administered 5 nm ceria 30 days after exposure.

    PubMed

    Hardas, Sarita S; Sultana, Rukhsana; Warrier, Govind; Dan, Mo; Florence, Rebecca L; Wu, Peng; Grulke, Eric A; Tseng, Michael T; Unrine, Jason M; Graham, Uschi M; Yokel, Robert A; Butterfield, D Allan

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual pro-or anti-oxidant effects in rat brain 30 days after systemic administration of a 5 nm citrate-stabilized ceria dispersion. A ∼4% aqueous ceria dispersion was iv-infused (0 or 85 mg/kg) into rats which were terminated 30 days later. Ceria concentration, localization, and chemical speciation in the brain was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), light and electron microscopy (EM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), respectively. Pro- or anti-oxidant effects were evaluated by measuring levels of protein carbonyls (PC), 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT), and protein-bound-4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. Glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase levels and activity were measured in addition to levels of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), and heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70). The blood brain barrier (BBB) was visibly intact and no ceria was seen in the brain cells. Ceria elevated PC and Hsp70 levels in hippocampus and cerebellum, while 3NT and iNOS levels were elevated in the cortex. Whereas glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity were decreased in the hippocampus, GR levels were decreased in the cortex, and GPx and catalase levels were decreased in the cerebellum. The GSH:GSSG ratio, an index of cellular redox status, was decreased in the hippocampus and cerebellum. The results are in accordance with the observation that this nanoscale material remains in this mammal model up to 30 days after its administration and the hypothesis that it exerts pro-oxidant effects on the brain without crossing the BBB. These results have important implications on the potential use of ceria ENM as therapeutic agents.

  11. Derivation and validation of a 30-day heart failure readmission model.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lisa M; Gavin, Michael; Piatkowski, Gail; Chang, James D; Mukamal, Kenneth J

    2014-11-01

    In 2006, there were >1 million hospital admissions for heart failure (HF), and the estimated cost to the United States in 2009 was >$37.2 billion. Better models to target aggressive therapy to patients at the highest risk for readmission are clearly needed. We studied 3,413 consecutive admissions for HF based on discharge diagnosis codes from October 2007 to August 2011 from a single academic center. We randomly generated derivation and validation sets in a 3:1 ratio. We used generalized estimating equations to develop our models, accounting for repeated hospitalizations and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test to examine model calibration. The 30-day readmission rate was 24.2% in the derivation set. Of 25 candidate variables, the best fitting model included creatinine, troponin, hematocrit, and hyponatremia at discharge; race; zip code of residence; discharge hour; and number of hospitalizations in the previous year. Insignificant variables included intravenous diuretic use on day of discharge, discharge service, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, age, and gender. The risk of 30-day readmission increased with increasing decile of predicted risk in both the validation and derivation cohorts. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the model was 0.69 in the derivation set and 0.66 in the validation set. In conclusion, we derived and validated a simple model relating discharge-specific characteristics at risk of 30-day readmission. Application of this approach may facilitate targeted intervention to reduce the burden of rehospitalization in patients with HF, but our results suggest that the best readmission models may require incorporation of both clinical and local system factors for optimal prediction.

  12. The predictors of 3- and 30-day mortality in 660 MERS-CoV patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anwar E

    2017-09-11

    The mortality rate of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) patients is a major challenge in all healthcare systems worldwide. Because the MERS-CoV risk-standardized mortality rates are currently unavailable in the literature, the author concentrated on developing a method to estimate the risk-standardized mortality rates using MERS-CoV 3- and 30-day mortality measures. MERS-CoV data in Saudi Arabia is publicly reported and made available through the Saudi Ministry of Health (SMOH) website. The author studied 660 MERS-CoV patients who were reported by the SMOH between December 2, 2014 and November 12, 2016. The data gathered contained basic demographic information (age, gender, and nationality), healthcare worker, source of infection, pre-existing illness, symptomatic, severity of illness, and regions in Saudi Arabia. The status and date of mortality were also reported. Cox-proportional hazard (CPH) models were applied to estimate the hazard ratios for the predictors of 3- and 30-day mortality. 3-day, 30-day, and overall mortality were found to be 13.8%, 28.3%, and 29.8%, respectively. According to CPH, multivariate predictors of 3-day mortality were elderly, non-healthcare workers, illness severity, and hospital-acquired infections (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) =1.7; 8.8; 6.5; and 2.8, respectively). Multivariate predictors of 30-day mortality were elderly, non-healthcare workers, pre-existing illness, severity of illness, and hospital-acquired infections (aHR =1.7; 19.2; 2.1; 3.7; and 2.9, respectively). Several factors were identified that could influence mortality outcomes at 3 days and 30 days, including age (elderly), non-healthcare workers, severity of illness, and hospital-acquired infections. The findings can serve as a guide for healthcare practitioners by appropriately identifying and managing potential patients at high risk of death.

  13. Propofol Use in the Elderly Population: Prevalence of Overdose and Association With 30-Day Mortality.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Adam T; Deiner, Stacie; Mo Lin, Hung; Andreopoulos, Evie; Silverstein, Jeffrey; Levin, Matthew A

    2015-12-01

    Geriatric patients are more sensitive to the anesthetic effects of propofol and its adverse effects, such as hypotension, than is the general population; thus, a reduced dose (1-1.5 mg/kg) is recommended for the induction of anesthesia. The extent to which clinicians follow established dosing guidelines has not been well described. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of propofol overdose in the elderly population to determine whether propofol overdose occurs and is associated with increased hypotension and 30-day mortality. In this retrospective study in patients who received propofol for the induction of general anesthesia, data on demographic characteristics, preoperative medications, intraoperative management, and 30-day mortality were collected. The dose of propofol used for the induction of anesthesia and the median blood pressure in the pre- and immediate postinduction periods were determined. Hypotension was defined as either: (1) a decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) of >40% concurrent with a MAP of <70 mm Hg; or (2) a MAP of <60 mm Hg. A total of 17,540 patients were included in the analysis; 4033 (23.0%) were aged >65 years. The median (interquartile range) propofol dose in the group aged >65 years was 1.8 (1.4-2.2) mg/kg, above the recommended dose, in comparison to 2.2 (1.9-2.5) mg/kg in younger patients. On multivariate analysis, increased propofol dose was associated with increased postinduction hypotension, especially in patients over 70 years of age, but not 30-day mortality. Older patients received greater-than-recommended doses of propofol for induction, which may have led to significant dose-dependent hypotension. Despite this finding, the dose of propofol for induction was not independently associated with a greater 30-day mortality rate. More education regarding geriatric concerns is needed for encouraging anesthesiologists to tailor the plan for anesthesia in geriatric patients. However, overall postsurgical mortality is a function

  14. Changes in size and compliance of the calf after 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Stein, Stewart L.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that reducing muscle compartment by a long-term exposure to microgravity would cause increased leg venous compliance was tested in eight men who were assessed for vascular compliance and for serial circumferences of the calf before and after 30 days of continuous 6-deg head-down bed rest. It was found that head-down bed rest caused decreases in the calculated calf volume and the calf-muscle compartment, as well as increases in calf compliance. The percent increases in calf compliance correlated significantly with decreases in calf muscle compartment.

  15. Race, Rehabilitation, and 30-Day Readmission After Elective Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Jorgenson, Erik S.; Richardson, Diane M.; Thomasson, Arwin M.; Nelson, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To examine racial variations in access to postacute care (PAC) and rehabilitation (Rehab) services following elective total knee arthroplasty and whether where patients go after surgery for PAC/Rehab is associated with 30-day readmission to acute care facility. Materials and Methods: Sample consisted of 129 522 patients discharged from 169 hospitals in the State of Pennsylvania between fiscal years 2008 and 2012. We used multinomial regression models to assess the relationship between patient race and discharge destination after surgery, for patients aged 18 to 64 years and for those aged 65 and older. We used multivariable (MV) regression and propensity score (PS) approaches to examine the relationship between patient discharge destination after surgery for PAC/Rehab and 30-day readmission, controlling for key individual- and facility-level factors. Results: Lower proportions of younger patients compared to those older than 65 were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs; 5.8% vs 12.6%, respectively) and skilled nursing facilities (SNFs; 15.2% vs 32.7%, respectively) compared to home-based Rehab (self-care; 23.3% vs 14.2%, respectively). Compared to whites, African American patients had significantly higher odds of discharge to IRF (age < 65, odds ratio = 2.04; age ≥ 65, odds ratio = 1.64) and to SNF (age < 65, odds ratio = 2.86; age ≥ 65, odds ratio = 2.19) and discharge to home care in patients younger than 65 years (odds ratio = 1.31). The odds of 30-day readmission among patients discharged to an IRF (MV odds ratio = 7.76; PS odds ratio = 8.34) and SNF (MV odds ratio = 2.01; PS odds ratio = 1.83) were significantly higher in comparison to patients discharged home with self-care. Conclusion: African American patients with knee replacement are more likely to be discharged to inpatient Rehab settings following surgery. Inpatient Rehab is significantly associated with 30-day readmission to acute care facility. PMID:26623166

  16. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 240.3a55-2 Section 240.3a55-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of... the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(55)) for the first 30 days of trading, if: (1) Such index would not...

  17. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 240.3a55-2 Section 240.3a55-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of... the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(55)) for the first 30 days of trading, if: (1) Such index would not...

  18. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 240.3a55-2 Section 240.3a55-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of... the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(55)) for the first 30 days of trading, if: (1) Such index would not...

  19. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 240.3a55-2 Section 240.3a55-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of... the Act (15 U.S.C. 78c(a)(55)) for the first 30 days of trading, if: (1) Such index would not...

  20. The Relationship Between Nurse Staffing and 30-Day Readmission for Adults With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Karen K; Danesh, Valerie; Funk, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between nurse staffing and 30-day excess readmission ratios for patients with heart failure in the top US adult cardiology and heart surgery hospitals. Heart failure is the most common cause of hospitalization for patients older than 65 years and is the most frequent diagnosis associated with 30-day hospital readmission in the United States. A secondary data analysis was conducted using nurse staffing data from 661 cardiology and heart surgery hospitals from the 2013 US News & World Report "Best Hospitals" survey. These data were combined with excess readmission ratios from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hospital Compare database from 2013. An independent-samples t test was used to compare staffing (low/high) and excess hospital readmissions rates. A significant difference (P = .021) was found between the low nurse staffing group (n = 358) and the high nurse staffing group (n = 303). Hospitals with a lower nurse staffing index had a significantly higher excess readmission rate. These data provide further support to the body of research showing a positive relationship between nurse staffing and positive outcomes.

  1. Construction of tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts in fibrin scaffolds in 30 days.

    PubMed

    Gui, Liqiong; Boyle, Michael J; Kamin, Yishai M; Huang, Angela H; Starcher, Barry C; Miller, Cheryl A; Vishnevetsky, Michael J; Niklason, Laura E

    2014-05-01

    Tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts have been developed as a promising alternative to native veins or arteries for replacement therapy. However, there is still a crucial need to improve the current approaches to render the tissue-engineered blood vessels more favorable for clinical applications. A completely biological blood vessel (3-mm inner diameter) was constructed by culturing a 50:50 mixture of bovine smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with neonatal human dermal fibroblasts in fibrin gels. After 30 days of culture under pulsatile stretching, the engineered blood vessels demonstrated an average burst pressure of 913.3±150.1 mmHg (n=6), a suture retention (53.3±15.4 g) that is suitable for implantation, and a compliance (3.1%±2.5% per 100 mmHg) that is comparable to native vessels. These engineered grafts contained circumferentially aligned collagen fibers, microfibrils and elastic fibers, and differentiated SMCs, mimicking a native artery. These promising mechanical and biochemical properties were achieved in a very short culture time of 30 days, suggesting the potential of co-culturing SMCs with fibroblasts in fibrin gels to generate functional small-diameter vascular grafts for vascular reconstruction surgery.

  2. Development and implementation of a real-time 30-day readmission predictive model.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Patrick R; Greenwald, Jeffrey L; Crevensten, Gwen C; Chueh, Henry C; Zai, Adrian H

    2014-01-01

    Hospitals are under great pressure to reduce readmissions of patients. Being able to reliably predict patients at increased risk for rehospitalization would allow for tailored interventions to be offered to them. This requires the creation of a functional predictive model specifically designed to support real-time clinical operations. A predictive model for readmissions within 30 days of discharge was developed using retrospective data from 45,924 MGH admissions between 2/1/2012 and 1/31/2013 only including factors that would be available by the day after admission. It was then validated prospectively in a real-time implementation for 3,074 MGH admissions between 10/1/2013 and 10/31/2013. The model developed retrospectively had an AUC of 0.705 with good calibration. The real-time implementation had an AUC of 0.671 although the model was overestimating readmission risk. A moderately discriminative real-time 30-day readmission predictive model can be developed and implemented in a large academic hospital.

  3. Impact of body mass index on 30-day outcomes after spinopelvic fixation surgery.

    PubMed

    Bhashyam, Niketh; De la Garza Ramos, Rafael; Nakhla, Jonathan; Jacob, Jane; Echt, Murray; Ammar, Adam; Nasser, Rani; Yassari, Reza; Kinon, Merritt D

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases associated with degenerative spinal disease. There is limited evidence regarding the short-term outcome of patients with elevated BMI following spinopelvic fixation surgery. We used the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database from 2013 to 2014. Inclusion criteria included: adults, aged 18 and older, who underwent all-cause spinopelvic fixation surgery. Primary outcome measures were 30-day readmission, reoperation, and major complication rates. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of elevated body mass index (BMI) on 30-day outcome. A total of 618 patients met inclusion criteria stratified into levels of BMI: 11.2% were Class 2 obese and 10.3% were Class 3 obese. Significant differences were found between the classes for the incidence of revision surgery, reoperations, and deep wound infections. However, there were no significant increases in readmissions and major complications rates, and only Class 3 obese patients had significantly higher odds of reoperation than those who were not obese. Significant differences between all classes of obesity regarding revision surgery, reoperation, and deep wound infection rates were found. Class 3 obese patients had significantly higher odds of reoperation, most likely attributed to the greater number/severity of preoperative comorbidities.

  4. The Relationship Between Nurse Staffing and 30-Day Readmission for Adults With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Karen K.; Danesh, Valerie; Funk, Marjorie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between nurse staffing and 30-day excess readmission ratios for patients with heart failure in the top US adult cardiology and heart surgery hospitals. BACKGROUND Heart failure is the most common cause of hospitalization for patients older than 65 years and is the most frequent diagnosis associated with 30-day hospital readmission in the United States. METHODS A secondary data analysis was conducted using nurse staffing data from 661 cardiology and heart surgery hospitals from the 2013 US News & World Report “Best Hospitals” survey. These data were combined with excess readmission ratios from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hospital Compare database from 2013. An independent-samples t test was used to compare staffing (low/high) and excess hospital readmissions rates. RESULTS A significant difference (P = .021) was found between the low nurse staffing group (n = 358) and the high nurse staffing group (n = 303). Hospitals with a lower nurse staffing index had a significantly higher excess readmission rate. CONCLUSION These data provide further support to the body of research showing a positive relationship between nurse staffing and positive outcomes. PMID:26579974

  5. Administrative data measured surgical site infection probability within 30 days of surgery in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    van Walraven, Carl; Jackson, Timothy D; Daneman, Nick

    2016-09-01

    Elderly patients are inordinately affected by surgical site infections (SSIs). This study derived and internally validated a model that used routinely collected health administrative data to measure the probability of SSI in elderly patients within 30 days of surgery. All people exceeding 65 years undergoing surgery from two hospitals with known SSI status were linked to population-based administrative data sets in Ontario, Canada. We used bootstrap methods to create a multivariate model that used health administrative data to predict the probability of SSI. Of 3,436 patients, 177 (5.1%) had an SSI. The Elderly SSI Risk Model included six covariates: number of distinct physician fee codes within 30 days of surgery; presence or absence of a postdischarge prescription for an antibiotic; presence or absence of three diagnostic codes; and a previously derived score that gauged SSI risk based on procedure codes. The model was highly explanatory (Nagelkerke's R(2), 0.458), strongly discriminative (C statistic, 0.918), and well calibrated (calibration slope, 1). Health administrative data can effectively determine 30-day risk of SSI risk in elderly patients undergoing a broad assortment of surgeries. External validation is necessary before this can be routinely used to monitor SSIs in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Construction of Tissue-Engineered Small-Diameter Vascular Grafts in Fibrin Scaffolds in 30 Days

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Liqiong; Boyle, Michael J.; Kamin, Yishai M.; Huang, Angela H.; Starcher, Barry C.; Miller, Cheryl A.; Vishnevetsky, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-engineered small-diameter vascular grafts have been developed as a promising alternative to native veins or arteries for replacement therapy. However, there is still a crucial need to improve the current approaches to render the tissue-engineered blood vessels more favorable for clinical applications. A completely biological blood vessel (3-mm inner diameter) was constructed by culturing a 50:50 mixture of bovine smooth muscle cells (SMCs) with neonatal human dermal fibroblasts in fibrin gels. After 30 days of culture under pulsatile stretching, the engineered blood vessels demonstrated an average burst pressure of 913.3±150.1 mmHg (n=6), a suture retention (53.3±15.4 g) that is suitable for implantation, and a compliance (3.1%±2.5% per 100 mmHg) that is comparable to native vessels. These engineered grafts contained circumferentially aligned collagen fibers, microfibrils and elastic fibers, and differentiated SMCs, mimicking a native artery. These promising mechanical and biochemical properties were achieved in a very short culture time of 30 days, suggesting the potential of co-culturing SMCs with fibroblasts in fibrin gels to generate functional small-diameter vascular grafts for vascular reconstruction surgery. PMID:24320793

  7. Unplanned 30-day readmission in patients with diabetic foot wounds treated in a multidisciplinary setting.

    PubMed

    Holscher, Courtenay M; Hicks, Caitlin W; Canner, Joseph K; Sherman, Ronald L; Malas, Mahmoud B; Black, James H; Mathioudakis, Nestoras; Abularrage, Christopher J

    2017-10-07

    Readmission rates are known to be high for vascular surgery patients in general, but there are limited data describing the risk of surgical and nonsurgical readmission among patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Our aim was to identify factors associated with unplanned readmission in DFU patients treated in a multidisciplinary setting. We studied a single-center cohort of patients enrolled in a multidisciplinary diabetic foot service (July 2012-June 2017). Readmissions were stratified by planned vs unplanned and related vs unrelated to the wound and vascular status. Predictors of unplanned 30-day readmission were examined with univariable and multivariable logistic regression models including all covariates with P ≤ .10. There were 460 admissions in 206 patients during the study period, including 99 total readmissions (21.5%). Readmissions were categorized as planned (n = 18 [18.2%]) or unplanned (n = 81 [81.8%]) and as related (n = 67 [67.7%]) or unrelated (n = 32 [32.3%]) to the wound and vascular status. The most frequent reasons for unplanned 30-day readmission were deterioration of the foot wound (41%), vascular complications (15%), gastrointestinal complications (10%), cardiac complications (8%), and acute kidney injury (8%). The average length of stay for the initial admission was 9.0 ± 7.1 days, whereas the average unplanned readmission length of stay was 8.6 ± 9.1 days (P = .38). On univariable analysis, hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-6.59), peripheral arterial disease (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.09-2.99), and exposure to an open vascular operation (OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.34-5.17) were associated with a higher risk of 30-day unplanned readmission (P ≤ .02). Private, military, or self-pay insurance was protective (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.28-0.97). Wound duration, location, and Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification were not associated with readmission (P ≥ .22). After risk adjustment, only

  8. A multicenter study of 30 days complications after deceased donor liver transplantation in the model for end-stage liver disease score era.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Anup; Washburn, Kenneth W; Matsuoka, Lea; Pandit, Urvashi; Kim, Jennifer E; Almeda, Jose; Mora-Esteves, Cesar; Halff, Glenn; Genyk, Yuri; Holland, Bart; Wilson, Dorian J; Sher, Linda; Koneru, Baburao

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of risk factors for posttransplant complications is likely to improve patient outcomes. Few large studies of all early postoperative complications after deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) exist. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective, cohort study of 30-day complications, their risk factors, and the impact on outcomes after DDLT. Three centers contributed data for 450 DDLTs performed from January 2005 through December 2009. Data included donor, recipient, transplant, and outcome variables. All 30-day postoperative complications were graded by the Clavien-Dindo system. Complications per patient and severe (≥ grade III) complications were primary outcomes. Death within 30 days, complication occurrence, length of stay (LOS), and graft and patient survival were secondary outcomes. Multivariate associations of risk factors with complications and complications with LOS, graft survival, and patient survival were examined. Mean number of complications/patient was 3.3 ± 3.9. At least 1 complication occurred in 79.3%, and severe complications occurred in 62.8% of recipients. Mean LOS was 16.2 ± 22.9 days. Graft and patient survival rates were 84% and 86%, respectively, at 1 year and 74% and 76%, respectively, at 3 years. Hospitalization, critical care, ventilatory support, and renal replacement therapy before transplant and transfusions during transplant were the significant predictors of complications (not the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score). Both number and severity of complications had a significant impact on LOS and graft and patient survival. Structured reporting of risk-adjusted complications rates after DDLT is likely to improve patient care and transplant center benchmarking. Despite the accomplished reductions in transfusions during DDLT, opportunities exist for further reductions. With increasing transplantation of sicker patients, reduction in complications would require multidisciplinary efforts and institutional commitment

  9. Risk model of thoracic aortic surgery in 4707 cases from a nationwide single-race population through a web-based data entry system: the first report of 30-day and 30-day operative outcome risk models for thoracic aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Noboru; Miyata, Hiroaki; Tsukihara, Hiroyuki; Takamoto, Shinichi

    2008-09-30

    The objective of this study was to collect integrated data from nationwide hospitals using a web-based national database system to build up our own risk model for the outcome from thoracic aortic surgery. The Japan Adult Cardiovascular Surgery Database was used; this involved approximately 180 hospitals throughout Japan through a web-based data entry system. Variables and definitions are almost identical to the STS National Database. After data cleanup, 4707 records were analyzed from 97 hospitals (between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005). Mean age was 66.5 years. Preoperatively, the incidence of chronic lung disease was 11%, renal failure was 9%, and rupture or malperfusion was 10%. The incidence of the location along the aorta requiring replacement surgery (including overlapping areas) was: aortic root, 10%; ascending aorta, 47%; aortic arch, 44%; distal arch, 21%; descending aorta, 27%; and thoracoabdominal aorta, 8%. Raw 30-day and 30-day operative mortality rates were 6.7% and 8.6%, respectively. Postoperative incidence of permanent stroke was 6.1%, and renal failure requiring dialysis was 6.7%. OR for 30-day operative mortality was as follows: emergency or salvage, 3.7; creatinine >3.0 mg/dL, 3.0; and unexpected coronary artery bypass graft, 2.6. As a performance metric of the risk model, C-index of 30-day and 30-day operative mortality was 0.79 and 0.78, respectively. This is the first report of risk stratification on thoracic aortic surgery using a nationwide surgical database. Although condition of these patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery was much more serious than other procedures, the result of this series was excellent.

  10. Using Habit Reversal to Decrease Filled Pauses in Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of…

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Pausing in Child and Adult Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redford, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the current study were (a) to assess differences in child and adult pausing and (b) to determine whether characteristics of child and adult pausing can be explained by the same language variables. Spontaneous speech samples were obtained from 10 5-year-olds and their accompanying parent using a storytelling/retelling task. Analyses of…

  12. Using Habit Reversal to Decrease Filled Pauses in Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of…

  13. Pausing Patterns: Differences between L2 Learners and Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavakoli, Parvaneh

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of pauses made by L2 learners and native speakers of English while narrating picture stories. The comparison is based on the number of pauses and total amount of silence in the middle and at the end of clauses in the performance of 40 native speakers and 40 L2 learners of English. The results of the…

  14. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  15. Phonetic Pause Unites Phonology and Semantics against Morphology and Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakarna, Ahmad Khalaf; Mobaideen, Adnan

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the phonological effect triggered by the different types of phonetic pause used in Quran on morphology, syntax, and semantics. It argues that Quranic pause provides interesting evidence about the close relation between phonology and semantics, from one side, and semantics, morphology, and syntax, from the other…

  16. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  17. Incidence And Risk Factors For 30-Day Readmissions After Hip Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christopher T; Gao, Yubo; Pugely, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unplanned hospital readmission following orthopedic procedures results in significant expenditures for the Medicare population. In order to reduce expenditures, hospital readmission has become an important quality metric for Medicare patients. The purpose of the present study is to determine the incidence and risk factors for 30-day readmissions after hip fracture surgery. Methods Patients over the age of 18 years who underwent hip fracture surgery, including open reduction internal fixation (ORIF), intramedullary nailing, hemi-arthroplasty, or total hip arthroplasty, between the years 2012 and 2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Overall, 17,765 patients were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to determine patient and surgical factors associated with 30-day readmission. Results There were 1503 patients (8.4%) readmitted within 30-days of their index procedure. Of the patients with a reason listed for readmission, 27.4% were for procedurally related reasons, including wound complications (16%), peri-prosthetic fractures (4.5%) and prosthetic dislocations (6%). 72.6% of readmissions were for medical reasons, including sepsis (7%), pneumonia (14%), urinary tract infection (6.3%), myocardial infarction (2.7%), renal failure (2.7%), and stroke (2.3%). In the subsequent multivariate analysis, pre-operative dyspnea, COPD, hypertension, disseminated cancer, a bleeding disorder, pre-operative hematocrit of <36, pre-operative creatinine of >1.2, an ASA class of 3 or 4, and the operative procedure type were each independently associated with readmissions risk (p<0.05 for each). Conclusions The overall rate of readmission following hip fracture surgery was moderate. Surgeons should consider discharge optimization in the at risk cohorts identified here, particularly patients with multiple medical comorbidities or an elevated ASA class, and

  18. Etiologies, Trends, and Predictors of 30-Day Readmission in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shilpkumar; Patel, Prashant; Lahewala, Sopan; Patel, Nilay; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Thakore, Kosha; Amin, Aditi; Tripathi, Byomesh; Kumar, Varun; Shah, Harshil; Shah, Mahek; Panaich, Sidakpal; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Badheka, Apurva; Gidwani, Umesh; Gopalan, Radha

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the most common discharge diagnosis across the United States, and these patients are particularly vulnerable to readmissions, increasing attention to potential ways to address the problem. The study cohort was derived from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Readmission Data 2013, sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. HF was identified using appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Readmission was defined as a subsequent hospital admission within 30 days after discharge day of index admission. Readmission causes were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes in primary diagnosis filed. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission. Hierarchical 2-level logistic models were used to evaluate study outcomes. From a total 301,892 principal admissions (73.4% age ≥65 years and 50.6% men), 55,857 (18.5%) patients were readmitted with a total of 64,264 readmissions during the study year. Among the etiologies of readmission, cardiac causes (49.8%) were most common (HF being most common followed by coronary artery disease and arrhythmias), whereas pulmonary causes were responsible for 13.1% and renal causes for 8.9% of the readmissions. Significant predictors of increased 30-day readmission included diabetes (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, p value: 1.06, 1.03 to 1.08, p <0.001), chronic lung disease (1.13, 1.11 to 1.16, p <0.001), renal failure/electrolyte imbalance (1.12, 1.10 to 1.15, p <0.001), discharge to facilities (1.07, 1.04 to 1.09, p <0.001), lengthier hospital stay, and transfusion during index admission. In conclusion, readmission after a hospitalization for HF is common. Although it may be necessary to readmit some patients, the striking rate of readmission demands efforts to further clarify the determinants of readmission and develop strategies in terms of quality of care and care transitions to

  19. Impact of Critical Care Nursing on 30-Day Mortality of Mechanically Ventilated Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Deena M.; Kutney-Lee, Ann; McHugh, Matthew D.; Sloane, Douglas M.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The mortality rate for mechanically ventilated older adults in ICUs is high. A robust research literature shows a significant association between nurse staffing, nurses’ education, and the quality of nurse work environments and mortality following common surgical procedures. A distinguishing feature of ICUs is greater investment in nursing care. The objective of this study is to determine the extent to which variation in ICU nursing characteristics—staffing, work environment, education, and experience—is associated with mortality, thus potentially illuminating strategies for improving patient outcomes. Design Multistate, cross-sectional study of hospitals linking nurse survey data from 2006 to 2008 with hospital administrative data and Medicare claims data from the same period. Logistic regression models with robust estimation procedures to account for clustering were used to assess the effect of critical care nursing on 30-day mortality before and after adjusting for patient, hospital, and physician characteristics. Setting Three hundred and three adult acute care hospitals in California, Florida, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Patients The patient sample included 55,159 older adults on mechanical ventilation admitted to a study hospital. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Patients in critical care units with better nurse work environments experienced 11% lower odds of 30-day mortality than those in worse nurse work environments. Additionally, each 10% point increase in the proportion of ICU nurses with a bachelor’s degree in nursing was associated with a 2% reduction in the odds of 30-day mortality, which implies that the odds on patient deaths in hospitals with 75% nurses with a bachelor’s degree in nursing would be 10% lower than in hospitals with 25% nurses with a bachelor’s degree in nursing. Critical care nurse staffing did not vary substantially across hospitals. Staffing and nurse experience were not associated with

  20. Impact of Frailty and Disability on 30-Day Mortality in Older Patients With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Rodríguez-Adrada, Esther; Vidan, Maria Teresa; Llopis García, Guillermo; González Del Castillo, Juan; Rizzi, Miguel Alberto; Alquezar, Aitor; Piñera, Pascual; Lázaro Aragues, Paula; Llorens, Pere; Herrero, Pablo; Jacob, Javier; Gil, Víctor; Fernández, Cristina; Bueno, Héctor; Miró, Òscar

    2017-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the impact of frailty and disability on 30-day mortality and whether the addition of these variables to HFRSS EFFECT risk score (FBI-EFFECT model) improves the short-term mortality predictive capacity of both HFRSS EFFECT and BI-EFFECT models in older patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) atended in the emergency department. We performed a retrospective analysis of OAK Registry including all consecutive patients ≥65 years old with ADHF attended in 3 Spanish emergency departments over 4 months. FBI-EFFECT model was developed by adjusting probabilities of HFRSS EFFECT risk categories according to the 6 groups (G1: non frail, no or mildly dependent; G2: frail, no or mildly dependent; G3: non frail, moderately dependent; G4: frail, moderately dependent; G5: severely dependent; G6: very severely dependent).We included 596 patients (mean age: 83 [SD7]; 61.2% females). The 30-day mortality was 11.6% with statistically significant differences in the 6 groups (p < 0.001). After adjusting for HFRSS EFFECT risk categories, we observed a progressive increase in hazard ratios from groups G2 to G6 compared with G1 (reference). FBI-EFFECT had a better prognostic accuracy than did HFRSS EFFECT (log-rank p < 0.001; Net Reclassification Improvement [NRI] = 0.355; p < 0.001; Integrated Discrimination Improvement [IDI] = 0.052; p ;< 0.001) and BI-EFFECT (log-rank p = 0.067; NRI = 0.210; p = 0.033; IDI = 0.017; p = 0.026). In conclusion, severe disability and frailty in patients with moderate disability are associated with 30-day mortality in ADHF, providing additional value to HFRSS EFFECT model in predicting short-term prognosis and establishing a care plan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early inpatient calculation of laboratory-based 30-day readmission risk scores empowers clinical risk modification during index hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Horne, Benjamin D; Budge, Deborah; Masica, Andrew L; Savitz, Lucy A; Benuzillo, José; Cantu, Gabriela; Bradshaw, Alejandra; McCubrey, Raymond O; Bair, Tami L; Roberts, Colleen A; Rasmusson, Kismet D; Alharethi, Rami; Kfoury, Abdallah G; James, Brent C; Lappé, Donald L

    2017-03-01

    Improving 30-day readmission continues to be problematic for most hospitals. This study reports the creation and validation of sex-specific inpatient (i) heart failure (HF) risk scores using electronic data from the beginning of inpatient care for effective and efficient prediction of 30-day readmission risk.

  2. 76 FR 34122 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: NEA/PI Online Performance Reporting System (PRS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...: Notice of request for public comments. SUMMARY: The Department of State is seeking Office of Management... is to allow 30 days for public comment in the Federal Register preceding submission to OMB. We are... from the public up to 30 days from June 10, 2011. ADDRESSES: Direct comments to the Department of State...

  3. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 240.3a55-2 Section 240.3a55-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of sale for future delivery is trading on a designated contract market, registered derivatives...

  4. 78 FR 70958 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Recordkeeping for HUD's Continuum of Care Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Recordkeeping for HUD's Continuum of Care Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HUD has... allow for an additional 30 days of public comment. DATES: Comments Due Date: December 27,...

  5. Deficiency in 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 30-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Hunsaker, Todd; Rodriguez, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    Vitamin D has immunomodulating properties. To determine if vitamin D deficiency within 30 days of admission to the intensive care unit in patients with sepsis might be associated with increased all-cause 30-day mortality. In a retrospective cohort study at a large, tertiary, urban, academic medical center, records of patients who had 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels measured within 30 days of admission for severe sepsis or septic shock from June 2006 to April 2011 were examined. Patients were considered deficient in vitamin D if its serum concentration was 15 ng/mL or less. The primary outcome of interest was 30-day mortality. Among the 121 patients in the sample, 65 (54%) were vitamin D deficient. Baseline demographics were similar between vitamin D deficient and nondeficient groups, except that the vitamin D deficient group had more African Americans (P = .01). All-cause 30-day mortality was significantly higher in patients deficient in vitamin D (37% vs 20%; P = .04) and remained higher at 90 days (51% vs 25%, P = .005). In multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07; P = .01) and vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.39-18.8; P = .02) were independently associated with increased 30-day mortality. Patients deficient in vitamin D within 30 days of hospital admission for severe sepsis or septic shock may be at increased risk for all-cause 30-day mortality. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  6. PBMA Pause and Learn Video Nuggets Transcript

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Ed

    2006-01-01

    This document is a transcript for a video about a practice practiced at Goddard Space Flight Center called Pause and Learn (PaL). The PaL process is intended to, first of all, help the team learn. So, the team that was involved in the activity, the group that actually did the work, that handled the review, or ran the tests, or developed the piece of equipment, they sit down and actually say, "What did we learn from this exercise?" The idea is to create a learning environment at various key milestones in the execution of a process, rather than wait until the end of the given process, be it a launch or a mission.

  7. Assessing Risk and Preventing 30-Day Readmissions in Decompensated Heart Failure: Opportunity to Intervene?

    PubMed

    Dunbar-Yaffe, Richard; Stitt, Audra; Lee, Joseph J; Mohamed, Shanas; Lee, Douglas S

    2015-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients are at high risk of hospital readmission, which contributes to substantial health care costs. There is great interest in strategies to reduce rehospitalization for HF. However, many readmissions occur within 30 days of initial hospital discharge, presenting a challenge for interventions to be instituted in a short time frame. Potential strategies to reduce readmissions for HF can be classified into three different forms. First, patients who are at high risk of readmission can be identified even before their initial index hospital discharge. Second, ambulatory remote monitoring strategies may be instituted to identify early warning signs before acute decompensation of HF occurs. Finally, strategies may be employed in the emergency department to identify low-risk patients who may not need hospital readmission. If symptoms improve with initial therapy, low-risk patients could be referred to specialized, rapid outpatient follow-up care where investigations and therapy can occur in an outpatient setting.

  8. The Gravity of LBNP Exercise: Lessons Learned from Identical Twins in Bed for 30 Days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Groppo, Eli R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Watenpaugh, Donald; Schneider, Suzanne; O'Leary, Deborah; Smith, Scott M.; Steinbach, Gregory C.; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Kimura, Shinji; Meyer, R. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Microgravity leads to cardiovascular deconditioning in humans, which is manifested by post-flight reduction of orthostatic tolerance and upright exercise capacity. During upright posture on Earth, blood pressures are greater in the feet than at heart or head levels due to gravity's effects on columns of blood in the body. During exposure to Microgravity, all gravitational blood pressures disappear. Presently, there is no exercise hardware available for space flight to provide gravitational blood pressures to tissues of the lower body. We hypothesized that 40 minutes of supine treadmill running per day in a LBNP chamber at 1.0 to 1.2 body weight (approximately 50 - 60 mm Hg LBNP) with a 5 min resting, nonexercise LBNP exposure at 50 mm Hg after the exercise session will maintain aerobic fitness orthostatic tolerance, and selected parameters of musculoskeletal function during 30 days of bed rest (simulated microgravity). This paper is an interim report of some of our findings on 16 subjects.

  9. Structural and metabolic characteristics of human skeletal muscle following 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hikida, Robert S.; Gollnick, Philip D.; Dudley, Gary A.; Convertino, Victor A.; Buchanan, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The effects of simulated microgravity (30 days of continuous 6-deg headdown bedrest, BR) on the structural and metabolic characteristics of human skeletal muscle were determined. Percutaneous needle biopsy samples obtained from the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles before and after the headdown BR were analyzed for histochemical, biochemical and ultrastructual changes. It was found that headdown BR led to decreases in both fast-twitch and slow-twitch fiber areas in both muscles, and there was evidence of remodeling of the ultrastructure in both muscles. The activities of beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were reduced during BR, but phosphofructokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities did not change. The results indicate that 30-d exposure to simulated microgravity decreased the capacity for aerobic energy supply of human skeletal muscle and led to a disorganization of the contractile machinery.

  10. Continuous 30-day measurements utilizing the monkey metabolism pod. [study of weightlessness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    A fiberglass system was previously described, using which quantitative physiological measurements could be made to study the effects of weightlessness on 10 to 14 kg adult monkeys maintained in comfortable restraint under space flight conditions. Recent improvements in the system have made it possible to obtain continuous measurements of respiratory gas exchange, cardiovascular function, and mineral balance for periods of up to 30 days on pig-tailed monkeys. It has also been possible to operate two pods which share one set of instrumentation, thereby permitting simultaneous measurements to be made on two animals by commutating signal outputs from the pods. In principle, more than two pods could be operated in this fashion. The system is compatible with Spacelab design. Representative physiological data from ground tests of the system are presented.

  11. Analyzing 30-Day Readmission Rate for Heart Failure Using Different Predictive Models.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Satish; Burman, Prabir; Hogarth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Medicare and Medical Services in the United States compares hospital's readmission performance to the facilities across the nation using a 30-day window from the hospital discharge. Heart Failure (HF) is one of the conditions included in the comparison, as it is the most frequent and the most expensive diagnosis for hospitalization. If risk stratification for readmission of HF patients could be carried out at the time of discharge from the index hospitalization, corresponding appropriate post-discharge interventions could be arranged. We, therefore, sought to compare two different risk prediction models using 48 clinical predictors from electronic health records data of 1037 HF patients from one hospital. We used logistic regression and random forest as methods of analyses and found that logistic regression with bagging approach produced better predictive results (C-Statistics: 0.65) when compared to random forest (C-Statistics: 0.61).

  12. Development of Lightweight Material Composites to Insulate Cryogenic Tanks for 30-Day Storage in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for an MLI system which will meet the design constraints of an ILRV used for 7- to 30-day missions. The ten tasks are briefly described: (1) material survey and procurement, material property tests, and selection of composites to be considered; (2) definition of environmental parameters and tooling requirements, and thermal and structural design verification test definition; (3) definition of tanks and associated hardware to be used, and definition of MLI concepts to be considered; (4) thermal analyses, including purge, evacuation, and reentry repressurization analyses; (5) structural analyses (6) thermal degradation tests of composite and structural tests of fastener; (7) selection of MLI materials and system; (8) definition of a conceptual MLI system design; (9) evaluation of nondestructive inspection techniques and definition of procedures for repair of damaged areas; and (10) preparation of preliminary specifications.

  13. Orthostatic responses following 30-day bed rest deconditioning with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Wade, C. E.; Leftheriotis, G.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of intensive exercise training on tilt tolerance following deconditioning of astronauts were investigated by studying orthostatic responses of 19 subjects who underwent two intensive exercise-training regimens during 30 days of -6-deg head-down bed rest (BR). Subjects were divided into no-exercise control group, and two exercise groups, one performing isotonic (Quinton ergometer) exercises, the other doing isokinetic (Lido ergometer) exercises. A 60-deg head-up tilt test was administered on the control day 1 and BR day 30; the test was terminated at 60 min or when presyncopal signs and/or symptoms occurred. It was found that exercise training did not affect tilt tolerance significantly.

  14. Continuous 30-day measurements utilizing the monkey metabolism pod. [study of weightlessness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    A fiberglass system was previously described, using which quantitative physiological measurements could be made to study the effects of weightlessness on 10 to 14 kg adult monkeys maintained in comfortable restraint under space flight conditions. Recent improvements in the system have made it possible to obtain continuous measurements of respiratory gas exchange, cardiovascular function, and mineral balance for periods of up to 30 days on pig-tailed monkeys. It has also been possible to operate two pods which share one set of instrumentation, thereby permitting simultaneous measurements to be made on two animals by commutating signal outputs from the pods. In principle, more than two pods could be operated in this fashion. The system is compatible with Spacelab design. Representative physiological data from ground tests of the system are presented.

  15. Bone metabolism and nutritional status during 30-day head-down-tilt bed rest.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer L L; Zwart, Sara R; Heer, Martina; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ericson, Karen; Smith, Scott M

    2012-11-01

    Bed rest studies provide an important tool for modeling physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. Markers of bone metabolism and nutritional status were evaluated in 12 subjects (8 men, 4 women; ages 25-49 yr) who participated in a 30-day -6° head-down-tilt diet-controlled bed rest study. Blood and urine samples were collected twice before, once a week during, and twice after bed rest. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects linear regression with a priori contrasts comparing all days to the second week of the pre-bed rest acclimation period. During bed rest, all urinary markers of bone resorption increased ~20% (P < 0.001), and serum parathyroid hormone decreased ~25% (P < 0.001). Unlike longer (>60 days) bed rest studies, neither markers of oxidative damage nor iron status indexes changed over the 30 days of bed rest. Urinary oxalate excretion decreased ~20% during bed rest (P < 0.001) and correlated inversely with urinary calcium (R = -0.18, P < 0.02). These data provide a broad overview of the biochemistry associated with short-duration bed rest studies and provide an impetus for using shorter studies to save time and costs wherever possible. For some effects related to bone biochemistry, short-duration bed rest will fulfill the scientific requirements to simulate spaceflight, but other effects (antioxidants/oxidative damage, iron status) do not manifest until subjects are in bed longer, in which case longer studies or other analogs may be needed. Regardless, maximizing research funding and opportunities will be critical to enable the next steps in space exploration.

  16. The risk of cardiorespiratory deaths persists beyond 30 days after proximal femoral fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sameer K; Rushton, Stephen P; Shields, David W; Corsar, Kenneth G; Refaie, Ramsay; Gray, Andrew C; Deehan, David J

    2015-02-01

    30-day mortality is routinely used to assess proximal femoral fracture care, though patients might remain at risk for poor outcome for longer. This work has examined the survivorship out to one year of a consecutive series of patients admitted for proximal femoral fracture to a single institution. We wished to quantify the temporal impact of fracture upon mortality, and also the influence of patient age, gender, surgical delay and length of stay on mortality from both cardiorespiratory and non-cardiorespiratory causes. Data were analysed for 561 consecutive patients with 565 fragility type proximal femoral fractures treated surgically at our trauma unit. Dates and causes of death were obtained from death certificates and also linked to data from the Office of National Statistics. Mortality rates and causes were collated for two time periods: day 0-30, and day 31-365. Cumulative incidence analysis showed that mortality due to cardiorespiratory causes (pneumonia, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure) rose steeply to around 100 days after surgery and then flattened reaching approximately 12% by 1 year. Mortality from non-cardiorespiratory causes (kidney failure, stroke, sepsis etc.) was more progressive, but with a rate half of that of cardiorespiratory causes. Progressive modelling of mortality risks revealed that cardiorespiratory deaths were associated with advancing age and male gender (p<0.001 for both), but the effect of age declined after 100 days. Non-cardiorespiratory deaths were not time-dependent. We believe this analysis extends our understanding of the temporal impact of proximal femoral fracture and its surgical management upon outcome beyond the previously accepted standard (30 days) and supports the use of a new, more relevant timescale for this high risk group of patients. It also highlights the need for planning and continuing physiotherapy, respiratory exercises and other chest-protective measures from 31 to 100 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  17. An observational study: associations between nurse-reported hospital characteristics and estimated 30-day survival probabilities

    PubMed Central

    Tvedt, Christine; Sjetne, Ingeborg Strømseng; Helgeland, Jon; Bukholm, Geir

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a growing body of evidence for associations between the work environment and patient outcomes. A good work environment may maximise healthcare workers’ efforts to avoid failures and to facilitate quality care that is focused on patient safety. Several studies use nurse-reported quality measures, but it is uncertain whether these outcomes are correlated with clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between hospital-aggregated, nurse-assessed quality and safety, and estimated probabilities for 30-day survival in and out of hospital. Methods In a multicentre study involving almost all Norwegian hospitals with more than 85 beds (sample size=30, information about nurses’ perceptions of organisational characteristics were collected. Subscales from this survey were used to describe properties of the organisations: quality system, patient safety management, nurse–physician relationship, staffing adequacy, quality of nursing and patient safety. The average scores for these organisational characteristics were aggregated to hospital level, and merged with estimated probabilities for 30-day survival in and out of hospital (survival probabilities) from a national database. In this observational, ecological study, the relationships between the organisational characteristics (independent variables) and clinical outcomes (survival probabilities) were examined. Results Survival probabilities were correlated with nurse-assessed quality of nursing. Furthermore, the subjective perception of staffing adequacy was correlated with overall survival. Conclusions This study showed that perceived staffing adequacy and nurses’ assessments of quality of nursing were correlated with survival probabilities. It is suggested that the way nurses characterise the microsystems they belong to, also reflects the general performance of hospitals. PMID:24728887

  18. The contribution of hospital nursing leadership styles to 30-day patient mortality.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Greta G; Midodzi, William K; Wong, Carol A; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2010-01-01

    Nursing work environment characteristics, in particular nurse and physician staffing, have been linked to patient outcomes (adverse events and patient mortality). Researchers have stressed the need for nursing leadership to advance change in healthcare organizations to create safer practice environments for patients. The relationship between styles of nursing leadership in hospitals and patient outcomes has not been well examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of hospital nursing leadership styles to 30-day mortality after controlling for patient demographics, comorbidities, and hospital factors. Ninety acute care hospitals in Alberta, Canada, were categorized into five styles of nursing leadership: high resonant, moderately resonant, mixed, moderately dissonant, and high dissonant. In the secondary analysis, existing data from three sources (nurses, patients, and institutions) were used to test a hypothesis that the styles of nursing leadership at the hospital level contribute to patient mortality rates. Thirty-day mortality was 7.8% in the study sample of 21,570 medical patients; rates varied across hospital categories: high resonant (5.2%), moderately resonant (7.4%), mixed (8.1%), moderately dissonant (8.8%), and high dissonant (4.3%). After controlling for patient demographics, comorbidities, and institutional and hospital nursing characteristics, nursing leadership styles explained 5.1% of 72.2% of total variance in mortality across hospitals, and high-resonant leadership was related significantly to lower mortality. Hospital nursing leadership styles may contribute to 30-day mortality of patients. This relationship may be moderated by homogeneity of leadership styles, clarity of communication among leaders and healthcare providers, and work environment characteristics.

  19. BION-M 1: First continuous blood pressure monitoring in mice during a 30-day spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Popova, Anfisa; Lloret, Jean-Christophe; Aubry, Patrick; Borovik, Anatoliy; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vinogradova, Olga; Ilyin, Eugeniy; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2017-05-01

    Animals are an essential component of space exploration and have been used to demonstrate that weightlessness does not disrupt essential physiological functions. They can also contribute to space research as models of weightlessness-induced changes in humans. Animal research was an integral component of the 30-day automated Russian biosatellite Bion-M 1 space mission. The aim of the hemodynamic experiment was to estimate cardiovascular function in mice, a species roughly 3000 times smaller than humans, during prolonged spaceflight and post-flight recovery, particularly, to investigate if mice display signs of cardiovascular deconditioning. For the first time, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were continuously monitored using implantable telemetry during spaceflight and recovery. Decreased HR and unchanged BP were observed during launch, whereas both HR and BP dropped dramatically during descent. During spaceflight, BP did not change from pre-flight values. However, HR increased, particularly during periods of activity. HR remained elevated after spaceflight and was accompanied by increased levels of exercise-induced tachycardia. Loss of three of the five mice during the flight as a result of the hardware malfunction (unrelated to the telemetry system) and thus the limited sample number constitute the major limitation of the study. For the first time BP and HR were continuously monitored in mice during the 30-day spaceflight and 7-days of post-flight recovery. Cardiovascular deconditioning in these tiny quadruped mammals was reminiscent of that in humans. Therefore, the loss of hydrostatic pressure in space, which is thought to be the initiating event for human cardiovascular adaptation in microgravity, might be of less importance than other physiological mechanisms. Further experiments with larger number of mice are needed to confirm these findings.

  20. Comparison of 30-Day Readmission Rates After Hospitalization for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Men Versus Women.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Cashel; Valsdottir, Linda; Wasfy, Jason H; Strom, Jordan B; Secemsky, Eric A; Wang, Yun; Yeh, Robert W

    2017-10-01

    Readmission after hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) significantly contributes to preventable morbidity and health-care costs. Outcomes after AMI vary by sex but the relationship of sex to readmissions warrants further exploration. Using the 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database, we identified patients with a principal discharge diagnosis of AMI and stratified all-cause 30-day readmissions by sex and age. Of 214,824 patients, 44% were 18 to 64 years of age, 56% were ≥65 years, and 28% and 45%, respectively, were female. For patients 18 to 64 years, the readmission rate was 14% for women and 10% for men (p <0.001). For patients ≥65 years, the readmission rate was 18% for women and 16% for men (p <0.001). After adjusting for co-morbidities, women had a significantly higher risk of 30-day readmission compared with men, an effect that was strongest in younger women (odds ratio [OR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06 to 1.39, for ages 18 to 44; OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.18, for ages 45 to 64; OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19, for ages 65 to 74, interaction p <0.001). The procedure rates during the index hospitalization were significantly lower for women. The most common readmission diagnoses were recurrent AMI, ischemic heart disease, and heart failure. Costs associated with readmissions after AMI totaled $447,506,740, of which $176,743,622 were attributed to readmissions of women. In conclusion, women are at higher risk of short-term readmission after an AMI hospitalization than men, particularly younger women. Sex-specific strategies to reduce these readmissions may be warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Vaccination and 30-Day Mortality Risk in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Natalie L; Gee, Julianne; Sukumaran, Lakshmi; Weintraub, Eric; Duffy, Jonathan; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Baxter, Roger; Irving, Stephanie; King, Jennifer; Daley, Matthew F; Hechter, Rulin; McNeil, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluates the potential association of vaccination and death in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). The study cohort included individuals ages 9 to 26 years with deaths between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011. We implemented a case-centered method to estimate a relative risk (RR) for death in days 0 to 30 after vaccination.Deaths due to external causes (accidents, homicides, and suicides) were excluded from the primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we included all deaths regardless of cause. A team of physicians reviewed available medical records and coroner's reports to confirm cause of death and assess the causal relationship between death and vaccination. Of the 1100 deaths identified during the study period, 76 (7%) occurred 0 to 30 days after vaccination. The relative risks for deaths after any vaccination and influenza vaccination were significantly lower for deaths due to nonexternal causes (RR 0.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0.83, and RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.80, respectively) and deaths due to all causes (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.56-0.91, and RR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.65). No other individual vaccines were significantly associated with death. Among deaths reviewed, 1 cause of death was unknown, 25 deaths were due to nonexternal causes, and 34 deaths were due to external causes. The causality assessment found no evidence of a causal association between vaccination and death. Risk of death was not increased during the 30 days after vaccination, and no deaths were found to be causally associated with vaccination. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Effects of Acute-Postacute Continuity on Community Discharge and 30-Day Rehospitalization Following Inpatient Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Graham, James E; Prvu Bettger, Janet; Middleton, Addie; Spratt, Heidi; Sharma, Gulshan; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2017-10-01

    To examine the effects of facility-level acute-postacute continuity on probability of community discharge and 30-day rehospitalization following inpatient rehabilitation. We used national Medicare enrollment, claims, and assessment data to study 541,097 patients discharged from 1,156 inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs) in 2010-2011. We calculated facility-level continuity as the percentages of an IRF's patients admitted from each contributing acute care hospital. Patients were categorized into three groups: low continuity (<26 percent from same hospital that discharged the patient), medium continuity (26-75 percent from same hospital), or high continuity (>75 percent from same hospital). The multivariable models included an interaction term to examine the potential moderating effects of facility type (freestanding facility vs. hospital-based rehabilitation unit) on the relationships between facility-level continuity and our two outcomes: community discharge and 30-day rehospitalization. Medicare beneficiaries in hospital-based rehabilitation units were more likely to be referred from a high-contributing hospital compared to those in freestanding facilities. However, the association between higher acute-postacute continuity and desirable outcomes is significantly better in freestanding rehabilitation facilities than in hospital-based units. Improving continuity is a key premise of health care reform. We found that both observed referral patterns and continuity-related benefits differed markedly by facility type. These findings provide a starting point for health systems establishing or strengthening acute-postacute relationships to improve patient outcomes in this new era of shared accountability and public quality reporting programs. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Integrated systems of stroke care and reduction in 30-day mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Aravind; Lindsay, Patrice; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K.; Côté, Robert; Joiner, Ian; Hakim, Antoine M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the association between the presence of integrated systems of stroke care and stroke case-fatality across Canada. Methods: We used the Canadian Institute of Health Information's Discharge Abstract Database to retrospectively identify a cohort of stroke/TIA patients admitted to all acute care hospitals, excluding the province of Quebec, in 11 fiscal years from 2003/2004 to 2013/2014. We used a modified Poisson regression model to compute the adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of 30-day in-hospital mortality across time for provinces with stroke systems compared to those without, controlling for age, sex, stroke type, comorbidities, and discharge year. We conducted surveys of stroke care resources in Canadian hospitals in 2009 and 2013, and compared resources in provinces with integrated systems to those without. Results: A total of 319,972 patients were hospitalized for stroke/TIA. The crude 30-day mortality rate decreased from 15.8% in 2003/2004 to 12.7% in 2012/2013 in provinces with stroke systems, while remaining 14.5% in provinces without such systems. Starting with the fiscal year 2009/2010, there was a clear reduction in relative mortality in provinces with stroke systems vs those without, sustained at aIRR of 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.79–0.92) in the 2011/2012, 2012/2013, and 2013/2014 fiscal years. The surveys indicated that facilities in provinces with such systems were more likely to care for patients on a stroke unit, and have timely access to a stroke prevention clinic and telestroke services. Conclusion: In this retrospective study, the implementation of integrated systems of stroke care was associated with a population-wide reduction in mortality after stroke. PMID:26850979

  4. Inpatient Unit Heart Failure Discharge Volume Predicts All-cause 30-Day Hospital Readmission.

    PubMed

    Dordunoo, Dzifa; Thomas, Sue A; Friedmann, Erika; Russell, Stuart D; Newhouse, Robin P; Akintade, Bim

    All-cause 30-day hospital readmission is a heart failure (HF) quality of care metric. Readmission costs the healthcare system $30.7 million annually. Specific structure, process, or patient factors that predispose patients to readmission are unclear. The aim of this study is to determine whether the addition of unit-level structural factors (attending medical service, patient-to-nurse ratio, and unit HF volume) predicts readmission beyond patient factors. A retrospective chart review of 425 patients who resided in Maryland and were discharged home in 2011 with the primary diagnosis of HF from a large, urban academic center was conducted. The patients were predominately (66.6%) black/African American, with mean (SD) age of 62.2 (14.8) years. Men represented 48.2% of the sample; 32% had nonischemic HF, 31.3% had preserved ejection fractions, 25.4% had implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and 15.3% had permanent pacemakers. Average length of stay was 6.0 days. All-cause 30-day hospital readmission rate was 20.2%. Inpatient unit HF discharge volume significantly predicted readmission after controlling for patient factors. The study found that discharge from inpatient units with higher HF discharge volume was associated with increased risk of readmission. The findings suggest that in caring for patients with severe HF, inpatient unit HF discharge volume may negatively impact care processes, increasing the odds of hospital readmission. It is unclear what specific care processes are responsible. The discharge period is a vulnerable point in care transition that warrants further investigation.

  5. National estimates of 30-day readmissions among children hospitalized for asthma in the United States.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sreenivas P; Ohabughiro, Michael U; Moran, Jacob; Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Ameredes, Bill T; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Calhoun, William J

    2017-08-24

    Objective Previous single-center studies have reported that up to 40% of children hospitalized for asthma will be readmitted. The study objectives are to investigate the prevalence and timing of 30-day readmissions in children hospitalized with asthma, and to identify factors associated with 30-day readmissions. Methods Data (n = 12,842) for children aged 6-18 years hospitalized for asthma were obtained from the 2013 Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD). The primary study outcome was time to readmission within 30 days after discharge attributable to any cause. Several predictors associated with risk of admission were included: patient (age, sex, median household income, insurance type, county location, pediatric chronic complex condition), admission (type, day, emergency services utilization, length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition) and hospital (ownership, bed size, teaching status). Cox's Proportional Hazards model was used to identify predictors. Results Of 12,842 asthma-related index hospitalizations, 2.5% were readmitted within 30 days post discharge. Time to event models identified significantly higher risk of readmission among asthmatic children aged 12-18 years, those who resided in in micropolitan counties, those with >4 days LOS during index hospitalization, those who were hospitalized in urban hospital, who had unfavorable discharge (HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.33-4.79), and those who were diagnosed with PCCC, respectively than children in respective referent categories. Conclusion A multi-dimensional approach including effective asthma discharge action plans and follow-up processes, home-based asthma education, and neighborhood/community-level efforts to address disparities should be integrated into routine clinical care of asthma children.

  6. BION-M 1: First continuous blood pressure monitoring in mice during a 30-day spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Popova, Anfisa; Lloret, Jean-Christophe; Aubry, Patrick; Borovik, Anatoliy; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vinogradova, Olga; Ilyin, Eugeniy; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Custaud, Marc-Antoine

    2017-05-01

    Animals are an essential component of space exploration and have been used to demonstrate that weightlessness does not disrupt essential physiological functions. They can also contribute to space research as models of weightlessness-induced changes in humans. Animal research was an integral component of the 30-day automated Russian biosatellite Bion-M 1 space mission. The aim of the hemodynamic experiment was to estimate cardiovascular function in mice, a species roughly 3000 times smaller than humans, during prolonged spaceflight and post-flight recovery, particularly, to investigate if mice display signs of cardiovascular deconditioning. For the first time, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were continuously monitored using implantable telemetry during spaceflight and recovery. Decreased HR and unchanged BP were observed during launch, whereas both HR and BP dropped dramatically during descent. During spaceflight, BP did not change from pre-flight values. However, HR increased, particularly during periods of activity. HR remained elevated after spaceflight and was accompanied by increased levels of exercise-induced tachycardia. Loss of three of the five mice during the flight as a result of the hardware malfunction (unrelated to the telemetry system) and thus the limited sample number constitute the major limitation of the study. For the first time BP and HR were continuously monitored in mice during the 30-day spaceflight and 7-days of post-flight recovery. Cardiovascular deconditioning in these tiny quadruped mammals was reminiscent of that in humans. Therefore, the loss of hydrostatic pressure in space, which is thought to be the initiating event for human cardiovascular adaptation in microgravity, might be of less importance than other physiological mechanisms. Further experiments with larger number of mice are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR). Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bone metabolism and nutritional status during 30-day head-down-tilt bed rest

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ericson, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Bed rest studies provide an important tool for modeling physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. Markers of bone metabolism and nutritional status were evaluated in 12 subjects (8 men, 4 women; ages 25–49 yr) who participated in a 30-day −6° head-down-tilt diet-controlled bed rest study. Blood and urine samples were collected twice before, once a week during, and twice after bed rest. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects linear regression with a priori contrasts comparing all days to the second week of the pre-bed rest acclimation period. During bed rest, all urinary markers of bone resorption increased ∼20% (P < 0.001), and serum parathyroid hormone decreased ∼25% (P < 0.001). Unlike longer (>60 days) bed rest studies, neither markers of oxidative damage nor iron status indexes changed over the 30 days of bed rest. Urinary oxalate excretion decreased ∼20% during bed rest (P < 0.001) and correlated inversely with urinary calcium (R = −0.18, P < 0.02). These data provide a broad overview of the biochemistry associated with short-duration bed rest studies and provide an impetus for using shorter studies to save time and costs wherever possible. For some effects related to bone biochemistry, short-duration bed rest will fulfill the scientific requirements to simulate spaceflight, but other effects (antioxidants/oxidative damage, iron status) do not manifest until subjects are in bed longer, in which case longer studies or other analogs may be needed. Regardless, maximizing research funding and opportunities will be critical to enable the next steps in space exploration. PMID:22995395

  8. Incidence, trends, and predictors of ischemic stroke 30 days after an acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kajermo, Ulf; Ulvenstam, Anders; Modica, Angelo; Jernberg, Tomas; Mooe, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Ischemic stroke is a known complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Treatment of AMI has undergone great changes in recent years. We aimed to investigate whether changes in treatment corresponded to a lower incidence of ischemic stroke and which factors predicted ischemic stroke after AMI. Data were taken from the Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions. Patients with their first registered AMI between 1998 and 2008 were included. To identify ischemic strokes, we used the Swedish national patient register. To study a potential trend in the incidence of ischemic stroke after AMI over time, we divided the patient population into 5 time periods. Event-free survival was studied by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify stroke predictors. Of 173,233 patients with AMI, 3571 (2.1%) developed ischemic stroke within 30 days. The incidence of ischemic stroke was significantly lower during the years 2007 to 2008 compared with 1998 to 2000, with respective rates of 2.0% and 2.2% (P=0.02). Independent predictors of an increased risk of stroke were age, female sex, prior stroke, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, clinical signs of heart failure in hospital, ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment at discharge. Percutaneous coronary intervention, fibrinolysis, acetylsalicylic acid, statins, and P2Y12 inhibitors were predictors of reduced risk of stroke. The incidence of ischemic stroke within 30 days of an AMI has decreased during the period 1998 to 2008. This decrease is associated with increased use of acetylsalicylic acid, P2Y12 inhibitors, statins, and percutaneous coronary intervention.

  9. Evaluation of American Society of Anesthesiologists classification as 30-day morbidity predictor after single-level elective anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seokchun; Carabini, Louanne M; Kim, Robert B; Khanna, Ryan; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Smith, Zachary A

    2017-03-01

    Higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification is a known predictor of postoperative complication in diverse surgical settings. However, its predictive value is not established in single-level elective anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (SLE-ACDF). This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of ASA classification system on 30-day morbidity following SLE-ACDF. Patients who underwent SLE-ACDF between 2011 and 2013 were selected from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. A total of 6,148 patients were selected from the 2011-2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. All outcomes are self-report measures as tracked by dedicated clinical reviewers via prospective review of inpatient charts, outpatient clinic visits, and direct contact with the surgical team. Propensity score matching and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate ASA classification as 30-day morbidity predictor. This study has no financial conflict and has no potential conflict of interest to disclose. A total of 6,148 patients were analyzed in this study. Patients in the ASA >II cohort had higher incidence of comorbidities and postoperative complications (overall complication, pneumonia, unplanned intubation, ventilator dependent >48 hours, cerebrovascular accident or stroke, catastrophic outcome, and airway complication). Propensity score matching yielded 1,628 pairs of well-matched patients. Multivariable analyses with the propensity score matched dataset revealed the following associations between ASA class >II and 30-day outcomes: any complication (odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-1.41), pneumonia (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.33-4.56), unplanned intubation (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.41-5.36), ventilator >48 hours (OR 5.92, 95% CI 0.69-50.96), catastrophic outcome (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.39-2.71), and airway complication (OR 2.21, 95% CI 0

  10. Comparison of 30-day outcomes after emergency general surgery procedures: potential for targeted improvement.

    PubMed

    Ingraham, Angela M; Cohen, Mark E; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Raval, Mehul V; Ko, Clifford Y; Nathens, Avery B; Hall, Bruce L

    2010-08-01

    Patients who undergo emergency operations represent a high-risk population and have been shown to have a high risk of poor outcomes. Little is known, however, about the variability in the quality of emergency general surgical care across hospitals or within hospitals across different procedures. The objectives of this study were to identify risk factors associated with adverse events, to compare 30-day outcomes after 3 common emergency general surgery procedures within and across hospitals, and thus, to determine whether the quality of emergency surgical care is procedure-dependent or intrinsic to other aspects of the hospital environment. Patients who underwent emergency appendectomy, cholecystectomy, or colorectal resection at 95 hospitals that submitted at least 20 of each procedure were identified in the 2005-2008 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Project database. Outcomes of interest included 30-day overall morbidity and serious morbidity/mortality. Step-wise logistic regression generated patient-level predicted probabilities of an outcome. Based on the expected probabilities, observed to expected (O/E) ratios for each outcome, after each of the 3 procedures, were calculated for each hospital. Hospitals were divided into terciles based on O/E ratios. The agreement on hospital outcomes performance for overall morbidity and serious morbidity/mortality after appendectomy, cholecystectomy, and colorectal resection was assessed using weighted kappa statistics. Of the 30,788 appendectomies, 1,984 (6.44%) patients had any morbidity, and 1,140 (3.70%) patients had a serious morbidity or died. Of the 5,824 cholecystectomies, 503 (8.64%) patients had any morbidity, and 371 (6.37%) patients had a serious morbidity or died. Of the 8,990 colorectal resections, 4,202 (46.74%) patients had any morbidity, and 3,736 (41.56%) patients had a serious morbidity or died. For overall morbidity, O/E ratios for appendectomy ranged from 0.26 to 2.36; O

  11. A preoperative risk prediction model for 30-day mortality following cardiac surgery in an Australian cohort.

    PubMed

    Billah, Baki; Reid, Christopher Michael; Shardey, Gilbert C; Smith, Julian A

    2010-05-01

    Population-specific risk models are required to build consumer and provider confidence in clinical service delivery, particularly when the risks may be life-threatening. Cardiac surgery carries such risks. Currently, there is no model developed on the Australian cardiac surgery population and this article presents a novel risk prediction model for the Australian cohort with the aim to provide a guide for the surgeons and patients in assessing preoperative risk factors for cardiac surgery. This study aims to identify preoperative risk factors associated with 30-day mortality following cardiac surgery for an Australian population and to develop a preoperative model for risk prediction. All patients (23016) undergoing cardiac surgery between July 2001 and June 2008 recorded in the Australian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ASCTS) database were included in this analysis. The data were divided randomly into model creation (13810, 60%) and model validation (9206, 40%) sets. The model was developed on the creation set and then validated on the validation set. The bootstrap sampling and automated variable selection methods were used to develop several candidate models. The final model was selected from this group of candidate models by using prediction mean square error (MSE) and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC). Using a multifold validation, the average receiver operating characteristic (ROC), p-value for Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-squared test and MSE were obtained. Risk thresholds for low-, moderate- and high-risk patients were defined. The expected and observed mortality for various risk groups were compared. The multicollinearity and first-order interaction effect between clinically meaningful risk factors were investigated. A total of 23016 patients underwent cardiac surgery and the 30-day mortality rate was 3.2% (728 patients). Independent predictors of mortality in the model were: age, sex, the New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, urgency of procedure

  12. Pausing and Backtracking in Transcription Under Dense Traffic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    RNA polymerases transcribe the genetic information from DNA to RNA. They move along the DNA by stochastic single-nucleotide steps that are interrupted by pauses. Here we use a variant of driven lattice gas models or exclusion processes to study the effects of these pauses under conditions, where many RNA polymerases transcribe the same gene. We consider elemental pauses, where RNA polymerases are inactive and immobile, and backtracking pauses, during which RNA polymerases translocate backwards in a diffusive fashion. Under single-molecule conditions, backtracking can lead to complex dynamics due to a power-law distribution of the pause durations. Under conditions of dense RNA polymerase traffic, as in the highly transcribed genes coding for ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA, backtracking pauses are strongly suppressed because the trailing active RNA polymerase restricts the space available for backward translocation and ratchets the leading backtracked RNA polymerase forward. We characterize this effect quantitatively using extensive computer simulations. Furthermore, we show that such suppression of pauses may have a regulatory role and lead to highly cooperative control functions when coupled to transcription termination.

  13. Microbial succession in an inflated lunar/Mars analog habitat during a 30-day human occupation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Teresa; Blachowicz, Adriana; Probst, Alexander J; Vaishampayan, Parag; Checinska, Aleksandra; Swarmer, Tiffany; de Leon, Pablo; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-06-02

    For potential future human missions to the Moon or Mars and sustained presence in the International Space Station, a safe enclosed habitat environment for astronauts is required. Potential microbial contamination of closed habitats presents a risk for crewmembers due to reduced human immune response during long-term confinement. To make future habitat designs safer for crewmembers, lessons learned from characterizing analogous habitats is very critical. One of the key issues is that how human presence influences the accumulation of microorganisms in the closed habitat. Molecular technologies, along with traditional microbiological methods, were utilized to catalog microbial succession during a 30-day human occupation of a simulated inflatable lunar/Mars habitat. Surface samples were collected at different time points to capture the complete spectrum of viable and potential opportunistic pathogenic bacterial population. Traditional cultivation, propidium monoazide (PMA)-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were employed to estimate the cultivable, viable, and metabolically active microbial population, respectively. Next-generation sequencing was used to elucidate the microbial dynamics and community profiles at different locations of the habitat during varying time points. Statistical analyses confirm that occupation time has a strong influence on bacterial community profiles. The Day 0 samples (before human occupation) have a very different microbial diversity compared to the later three time points. Members of Proteobacteria (esp. Oxalobacteraceae and Caulobacteraceae) and Firmicutes (esp. Bacillaceae) were most abundant before human occupation (Day 0), while other members of Firmicutes (Clostridiales) and Actinobacteria (esp. Corynebacteriaceae) were abundant during the 30-day occupation. Treatment of samples with PMA (a DNA-intercalating dye for selective detection of viable microbial population) had a

  14. Mastectomy with or without immediate implant reconstruction has similar 30-day perioperative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fischer, John P; Wes, Ari M; Tuggle, Charles T; Nelson, Jonas A; Tchou, Julia C; Serletti, Joseph M; Kovach, Stephen J; Wu, Liza C

    2014-11-01

    Immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) using implants remains a favorable reconstructive option in breast cancer. Understanding the added risk associated with IBR continues to enhance the risk counseling process and management of these patients. Women undergoing mastectomy alone and mastectomy with tissue expander (TE) were identified in the ACS-NSQIP datasets. Specific complications examined included any, wound, medical complications, and deep infections. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of outcomes, and propensity-matching was used to compare cohorts. A total of 42,823 patients who underwent either mastectomy alone (N = 30,440) or mastectomy with immediate TE placement (N = 12,383) were identified. Notable independently associated perioperative differences between mastectomy and TE patients included: race (P < 0.001), comorbidity burden (P < 0.001), year of surgery (P < 0.001), ASA physical status (P < 0.001), functional status (P < 0.001), inpatient procedures (P < 0.001), bilateral procedures (P < 0.001), BMI (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001), and lymphadenectomy (P < 0.001). IBR using TE was not found to be associated with greater risk of wound (3.3% vs. 3.2%, P = 0.855), medical (1.7% vs. 1.6%, P = 0.751), or overall (9.6% vs. 10.0%, P = 0.430) complications. TE placement was associated with higher rates of deep wound infections (2.0% vs. 1.0%, P < 0.001) and unplanned reoperations (6.9% vs. 6.1%, P = 0.025). Additionally, the rate of 30-day device loss was 0.8% in patients receiving reconstruction. Multivariate conditional (fixed-effects) logistic regression analysis failed to demonstrate significantly associated independent risk of wound, medical, or overall complications with the addition of TE. Undergoing IBR with TE placement does not confer added risk of wound, medical, or overall morbidity relative to mastectomy alone based upon propensity-matched 30-day complication rates in 15,238 patients from the 2005-2011 ACS

  15. The Athens TAVR Registry of newer generation transfemoral aortic valves: 30-day outcomes.

    PubMed

    Spargias, Konstantinos; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Chrissoheris, Michael; Synetos, Andreas; Halapas, Antonis; Paizis, Ioannis; Latsios, Georgios; Stathogiannis, Konstantinos; Stathogianni, Konstantinos; Papametzelopoulos, Spyridon; Zanos, Stavros; Pavlides, Gregory; Zacharoulis, Achileas; Antoniades, Aias; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a documented treatment for patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis who are at very high or prohibitive operative risk. We sought to investigate the outcomes of transfemoral procedures with the newer generation valves in four TAVR centres in Athens, Greece. The ATHENS TAVR Registry included all patients who underwent transfemoral implantation of the newer generation valves in 4 Athens TAVR centres (self-expanding valve 67 patients, balloon-expandable valve 59 patients). We present the procedural and echocardiographic data and the 30-day clinical outcomes according to valve type. A total of 126 patients underwent 126 procedures (67 CoreValve, Medtronic; 59 SAPIEN XT, Edwards Lifesciences). The mean age and logistic EuroSCORE were 80 ± 8 years and 25 ± 13%. The procedural and device success rates were 100% and 98%, respectively. The 30-day mortality was 1% (n=1), the major vascular event rates 9% (similar for both valve types), and a new permanent pacemaker was implanted more often during the same hospitalisation after CoreValve (33% vs. 9%, p=0.001). The mean effective aortic valve area increased and the mean transvalvular pressure gradient declined post implantation (from 0.66 ± 0.15 cm(2) to 1.61 ± 0.43 cm(2), p<0.001; from 51 ± 14 mm Hg to 10 ± 3 mm Hg, p<0.001). The mean grade of aortic insufficiency increased after CoreValve (from 1.2 ± 0.6 to 1.5 ± 0.7, p=0.03) but remained stable after SAPIEN XT (1.0 ± 0.8 and 1.0 ± 0.6, p=0.88) implantation. TAVR outcomes with both the newer generation transfemoral valves in the ATHENS Registry were excellent. We observed a greater need for a new permanent pacemaker and a greater degree of aortic valve insufficiency after CoreValve implantation.

  16. Etiologies, Trends, and Predictors of 30-Day Readmissions in Patients With Diastolic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shilpkumar; Lahewala, Sopan; Hassan Virk, Hafeez Ul; Setareh-Shenas, Saman; Patel, Prashant; Kumar, Varun; Tripathi, Byomesh; Shah, Harshil; Patel, Viralkumar; Gidwani, Umesh; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Badheka, Apurva; Gopalan, Radha

    2017-08-15

    An estimated half of all heart failure (HF) populations has been categorized to have diastolic HF (DHF), but sparse data are available describing etiologies and predictors of 30-day readmission in DHF population. The study cohort was derived from the National Readmission Database 2013 to 2014, a subset of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. DHF was identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code 428.3x in primary diagnosis field. Readmission etiologies were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision code in primary diagnosis field. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders. In total, 192,394 patients with DHF were included, of which 40,927 (21.27%) patients were readmitted with total readmissions of 47,056 within 30 days. Predictors of increased readmissions were age (odds ratio [OR] 1.002, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.001 to 1.0003, p <0.001), diabetes (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.11, p <0.001), chronic pulmonary disease (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.21, p <0.001), renal failure (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.25, p <0.001), peripheral vascular disease (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.09, p = 0.002), anemia (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.15, p <0.001), transfusion during index admission (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.23, p <0.001), discharge to the facility (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.16, p <0.001), length of stay >2 days, and Charlson comorbidity index ≥3, whereas obesity (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.85, p <0.001), elective admissions (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.94, p <0.001), and non-Medicare/Medicaid primary payer were predictors of lower readmission rate. Most common etiologies of readmission were acute HF (28.01%), infections (9.54%), acute kidney injury (5.35%), acute respiratory failure (4.86%), and pneumonia (3.92%). In conclusion, DHF population with higher comorbidity

  17. Predicting all-cause risk of 30-day hospital readmission using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Jamei, Mehdi; Nisnevich, Aleksandr; Wetchler, Everett; Sudat, Sylvia; Liu, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Avoidable hospital readmissions not only contribute to the high costs of healthcare in the US, but also have an impact on the quality of care for patients. Large scale adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) has created the opportunity to proactively identify patients with high risk of hospital readmission, and apply effective interventions to mitigate that risk. To that end, in the past, numerous machine-learning models have been employed to predict the risk of 30-day hospital readmission. However, the need for an accurate and real-time predictive model, suitable for hospital setting applications still exists. Here, using data from more than 300,000 hospital stays in California from Sutter Health's EHR system, we built and tested an artificial neural network (NN) model based on Google's TensorFlow library. Through comparison with other traditional and non-traditional models, we demonstrated that neural networks are great candidates to capture the complexity and interdependency of various data fields in EHRs. LACE, the current industry standard, showed a precision (PPV) of 0.20 in identifying high-risk patients in our database. In contrast, our NN model yielded a PPV of 0.24, which is a 20% improvement over LACE. Additionally, we discussed the predictive power of Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) data, and presented a simple cost analysis to assist hospitalists in implementing helpful and cost-effective post-discharge interventions.

  18. Predicting all-cause risk of 30-day hospital readmission using artificial neural networks

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Avoidable hospital readmissions not only contribute to the high costs of healthcare in the US, but also have an impact on the quality of care for patients. Large scale adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) has created the opportunity to proactively identify patients with high risk of hospital readmission, and apply effective interventions to mitigate that risk. To that end, in the past, numerous machine-learning models have been employed to predict the risk of 30-day hospital readmission. However, the need for an accurate and real-time predictive model, suitable for hospital setting applications still exists. Here, using data from more than 300,000 hospital stays in California from Sutter Health’s EHR system, we built and tested an artificial neural network (NN) model based on Google’s TensorFlow library. Through comparison with other traditional and non-traditional models, we demonstrated that neural networks are great candidates to capture the complexity and interdependency of various data fields in EHRs. LACE, the current industry standard, showed a precision (PPV) of 0.20 in identifying high-risk patients in our database. In contrast, our NN model yielded a PPV of 0.24, which is a 20% improvement over LACE. Additionally, we discussed the predictive power of Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) data, and presented a simple cost analysis to assist hospitalists in implementing helpful and cost-effective post-discharge interventions. PMID:28708848

  19. PRISMA Analysis of 30 Day Readmissions to a Tertiary Cancer Hospital.

    PubMed

    Cooksley, Tim; Merten, Hanneke; Kellett, John; Brabrand, Mikkel; Kidney, Rachel; Nickel, Christian H; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B; Subbe, Chris P

    2015-01-01

    Hospital readmissions are increasingly used as a quality indicator. Patients with cancer have an increased risk of readmission. The purpose of this study was to develop an in depth understanding of the causes of readmissions in patients undergoing cancer treatment using PRISMA methodology and was subsequently used to identify any potentially preventable causes of readmission in this cohort. 50 consecutive 30 day readmissions from the 1st November 2014 to the medical admissions unit (MAU) at a specialist tertiary cancer hospital in the Northwest of England were analysed retrospectively. Q25(50%) of the patients were male with a median age of 59 years (range 19-81). PRISMA analysis showed that active (human) factors contributed to the readmission of 4 (8%) of the readmissions, which may have been potentially preventable. All of the readmissions were driven by a medical condition related to the patient's underlying cancer and ongoing cancer treatment. The majority of readmissions of patients undergoing cancer treatment appear to be related to the underlying condition and, as such, are predictable but not preventable. This suggests that hospital readmission is not a good quality indicator in this cohort of patients.

  20. Reliability of quantitative EEG (qEEG) measures and LORETA current source density at 30 days.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Rex L; Baldwin, Debora R; Shaw, Tiffany L; Diloreto, Dominic J; Phillips, Sherman M; Scruggs, Annie M; Riehl, Timothy C

    2012-06-14

    There is a growing interest for using quantitative EEG and LORETA current source density in clinical and research settings. Importantly, if these indices are to be employed in clinical settings then the reliability of these measures is of great concern. Neuroguide (Applied Neurosciences) is sophisticated software developed for the analyses of power, and connectivity measures of the EEG as well as LORETA current source density. To date there are relatively few data evaluating topographical EEG reliability contrasts for all 19 channels and no studies have evaluated reliability for LORETA calculations. We obtained 4 min eyes-closed and eyes-opened EEG recordings at 30-day intervals. The EEG was analyzed in Neuroguide and FFT power, coherence and phase was computed for traditional frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha and beta) and LORETA current source density was calculated in 1 Hz increments and summed for total power in eight regions of interest (ROI). In order to obtain a robust measure of reliability we utilized a random effects model with an absolute agreement definition. The results show very good reproducibility for total absolute power and coherence. Phase shows lower reliability coefficients. LORETA current source density shows very good reliability with an average 0.81 for ECB and 0.82 for EOB. Similarly, the eight regions of interest show good to very good agreement across time. Implications for future directions and use of qEEG and LORETA in clinical populations are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of 30-Day Postdischarge Morbidity and Readmission after Radical Gastrectomy for Gastric Carcinoma: A Single-Center Study of 2107 Patients With Prospective Data

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Oh; Kyu Park, Young; Ran Jung, Mi; Yeop Ryu, Seong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract PD morbidity and readmission pose a substantial clinical and economic burden to the healthcare system. Comprehensive PD complications and readmission data are essential for developing initiatives to improve patient care. No previous studies have extensively investigated PD complications after gastric cancer surgery. We investigated the incidence, types, treatment, and risk factors of 30-day postdischarge (PD) complications after gastric cancer surgery. Between 2010 and 2013, data concerning complications and readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge were prospectively collected in 2107 patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery. In total, 1642 patients (77.9%) underwent distal gastrectomy, 418 (19.8%) total gastrectomy, and 47 (2.3%) other procedures. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were 17.4% and 0.6%, respectively, with a mean 8.8-day hospital stay. Sixty-one patients (2.9%) developed 30-day PD morbidity (58 local and 3 systemic complications), accounting for 16.6% of overall morbidity; 47 (2.2%) were readmitted; and 7 (0.3%) underwent a reoperation. The mean time to PD complications was 9.5 days after index hospital discharge. The most common complication was intra-abdominal abscess (n = 14), followed by wound, ascites, and anastomosis leakage. No mortality occurred resulting from PD complications. In the univariate and multivariate analyses, underlying comorbidity (hypertension and liver cirrhosis) and obesity were independent risk factors for developing PD complications. The early PD period is a vulnerable time for surgical patients with substantial risk of complication and readmission. Tailored discharge plans along with appropriate PD patient support are essential for improving the quality of patient care. PMID:25789945

  2. 78 FR 65697 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing, Contracting With Resident-Owned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing, Contracting With...: Colette Pollard, Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451...

  3. Examination of hospital characteristics and patient quality outcomes using four inpatient quality indicators and 30-day all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Carretta, Henry J; Chukmaitov, Askar; Tang, Anqi; Shin, Jihyung

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to examine hospital mortality outcomes and structure using 2008 patient-level discharges from general community hospitals. Discharges from Florida administrative files were merged to the state mortality registry. A cross-sectional analysis of inpatient mortality was conducted using Inpatient Quality Indicators (IQIs) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, pneumonia, and all-payer 30-day postdischarge mortality. Structural characteristics included bed size, volume, ownership, teaching status, and system affiliation. Outcomes were risk adjusted using 3M APR-DRG. Volume was inversely correlated with AMI, CHF, stroke, and 30-day mortality. Similarities and differences in the direction and magnitude of the relationship of structural characteristics to 30-day postdischarge and IQI mortality measures were observed. Hospital volume was inversely correlated with inpatient mortality outcomes. Other hospital characteristics were associated with some mortality outcomes. Further study is needed to understand the relationship between 30-day postdischarge mortality and hospital quality.

  4. 78 FR 71624 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request; Data Collection To Understand How NIH Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... intervention, organizational design, process improvement, leadership development, performance management, and... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request; Data... understanding the usefulness of a range of methodologies that are employed to increase organizational...

  5. 77 FR 73731 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application Under the Hague Convention on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Notice is to allow 30 days for public comment. DATES: Submit comments directly to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) up to January 10, 2013. ADDRESSES: Direct comments to the Department of...

  6. Digoxin and 30-day all-cause hospital admission in older patients with chronic diastolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Taimoor; Elbaz, Shereen; Patel, Kanan; Morgan, Charity J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Fleg, Jerome L; McGwin, Gerald; Cutter, Gary R; Allman, Richard M; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Zile, Michael R; Bourge, Robert C; Ahmed, Ali

    2014-02-01

    In the main Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) trial, digoxin reduced the risk of 30-day all-cause hospitalization in older systolic heart failure patients. However, this effect has not been studied in older diastolic heart failure patients. In the ancillary DIG trial, of the 988 patients with chronic heart failure and preserved (> 45%) ejection fraction, 631 were age ≥ 65 years (mean age 73 years, 45% women, 12% non-whites), of whom 311 received digoxin. All-cause hospitalization 30-day post randomization occurred in 4% of patients in the placebo group and 9% each among those in the digoxin group receiving 0.125 mg and ≥ 0.25 mg a day dosage (P = .026). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for digoxin use overall for 30-day, 3-month, and 12-month all-cause hospitalizations were 2.46 (1.25-4.83), 1.45 (0.96-2.20) and 1.14 (0.89-1.46), respectively. There was one 30-day death in the placebo group. Digoxin-associated HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day hospitalizations due to cardiovascular, heart failure, and unstable angina causes were 2.82 (1.18-6.69), 0.51 (0.09-2.79), and 6.21 (0.75-51.62), respectively. Digoxin had no significant association with 30-day all-cause hospitalization among younger patients (6% vs 7% for placebo; HR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.36-1.79). In older patients with chronic diastolic heart failure, digoxin increased the risk of 30-day all-cause hospital admission, but not during longer follow-up. Although chance finding due to small sample size is possible, these data suggest that unlike in systolic heart failure, digoxin may not reduce 30-day all-cause hospitalization in older diastolic heart failure patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. [Activity of various oxidases and transaminases in the rat liver in the readaptation period after hypokinesia up to 30 days].

    PubMed

    Potapov, P P

    1990-01-01

    The activity of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinic dehydrogenase in readaptation after 15-day hypokinesia was within normal limits, whereas following 30-day hypokinesia it was enhanced on days 11-15. Pyruvate dehydrogenase exhibited hyperactivity in the end of readaptation week 2 both in 15- and 30-day hypokinesia which resulted in rat liver hyperactivity of glutamate dehydrogenase and transaminases. Normal levels of the latter were recorded on readaptation day 12-19.

  8. Sequence-Dependent Pausing of Single Lambda Exonuclease Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Thomas T.; Dalal, Ravindra V.; Mitsis, Paul G.; Block, Steven M.

    2003-09-01

    Lambda exonuclease processively degrades one strand of duplex DNA, moving 5'-to-3' in an ATP-independent fashion. When examined at the single-molecule level, the speeds of digestion were nearly constant at 4 nanometers per second (12 nucleotides per second), interspersed with pauses of variable duration. Long pauses, occurring at stereotypical locations, were strand-specific and sequence-dependent. Pause duration and probability varied widely. The strongest pause, GGCGATTCT, was identified by gel electrophoresis. Correlating single-molecule dwell positions with sequence independently identified the motif GGCGA. This sequence is found in the left lambda cohesive end, where exonuclease inhibition may contribute to the reduced recombination efficiency at that end.

  9. Daily minority stress and affect among gay and bisexual men: A 30-day diary study.

    PubMed

    Eldahan, Adam I; Pachankis, John E; Jonathon Rendina, H; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-01-15

    This study examined the time-variant association between daily minority stress and daily affect among gay and bisexual men. Tests of time-lagged associations allow for a stronger causal examination of minority stress-affect associations compared with static assessments. Multilevel modeling allows for comparison of associations between minority stress and daily affect when minority stress is modeled as a between-person factor and a within-person time-fluctuating state. 371 gay and bisexual men in New York City completed a 30-day daily diary, recording daily experiences of minority stress and positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and anxious affect (AA). Multilevel analyses examined associations between minority stress and affect in both same-day and time-lagged analyses, with minority stress assessed as both a between-person factor and a within-person state. Daily minority stress, modeled as both a between-person and within-person construct, significantly predicted lower PA and higher NA and AA. Daily minority stress also predicted lower subsequent-day PA and higher subsequent-day NA and AA. Self-report assessments and the unique sample may limit generalizability of this study. The time-variant association between sexual minority stress and affect found here substantiates the basic tenet of minority stress theory with a fine-grained analysis of gay and bisexual men's daily experience. Time-lagged effects suggest a potentially causal pathway between minority stress as a social determinant of mood and anxiety disorder symptoms among gay and bisexual men. When modeled as both a between-person factor and within-person state, minority stress demonstrated expected patterns with affect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Daily Minority Stress and Affect among Gay and Bisexual Men: A 30-day Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Eldahan, Adam I.; Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the time-variant association between daily minority stress and daily affect among gay and bisexual men. Tests of time-lagged associations allow for a stronger causal examination of minority stress-affect associations compared with static assessments. Multilevel modeling allows for comparison of associations between minority stress and daily affect when minority stress is modeled as a between-person factor and a within-person time-fluctuating state. Methods 371 gay and bisexual men in New York City completed a 30-day daily diary, recording daily experiences of minority stress and positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and anxious affect (AA). Multilevel analyses examined associations between minority stress and affect in both same-day and time-lagged analyses, with minority stress assessed as both a between-person factor and a within-person state. Results Daily minority stress, modeled as both a between-person and within-person construct, significantly predicted lower PA and higher NA and AA. Daily minority stress also predicted lower subsequent-day PA and higher subsequent-day NA and AA. Limitations Self-report assessments and the unique sample may limit generalizability of this study. Conclusions The time-variant association between sexual minority stress and affect found here substantiates the basic tenet of minority stress theory with a fine-grained analysis of gay and bisexual men’s daily experience. Time-lagged effects suggest a potentially causal pathway between minority stress as a social determinant of mood and anxiety disorder symptoms among gay and bisexual men. When modeled as both a between-person factor and within-person state, minority stress demonstrated expected patterns with affect. PMID:26625095

  11. Unplanned 30-Day Readmissions in a General Internal Medicine Hospitalist Service at a Comprehensive Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Joanna-Grace M.; Gadiraju, Sahitya; Hiremath, Adarsh; Lin, Heather Yan; Farroni, Jeff; Halm, Josiah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hospital readmissions are considered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid as a metric for quality of health care delivery. Robust data on the readmission profile of patients with cancer are currently insufficient to determine whether this measure is applicable to cancer hospitals as well. To address this knowledge gap, we estimated the unplanned readmission rate and identified factors influencing unplanned readmissions in a hospitalist service at a comprehensive cancer center. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed unplanned 30-day readmission of patients discharged from the General Internal Medicine Hospitalist Service at a comprehensive cancer center between April 1, 2012, and September 30, 2012. Multiple independent variables were studied using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models, with generalized estimating equations to identify risk factors associated with readmissions. Results: We observed a readmission rate of 22.6% in our cohort. The median time to unplanned readmission was 10 days. Unplanned readmission was more likely in patients with metastatic cancer and those with three or more comorbidities. Patients discharged to hospice were less likely to be readmitted (all P values < .01). Conclusion: We observed a high unplanned readmission rate among our population of patients with cancer. The risk factors identified appear to be related to severity of illness and open up opportunities for improving coordination with primary care physicians, oncologists, and other specialists to manage comorbidities, or perhaps transition appropriate patients to palliative care. Our findings will be instrumental for developing targeted interventions to help reduce readmissions at our hospital. Our data also provide direction for appropriate application of readmission quality measures in cancer hospitals. PMID:26152375

  12. Hospital strategies associated with 30-day readmission rates for patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Curry, Leslie; Horwitz, Leora I; Sipsma, Heather; Wang, Yongfei; Walsh, Mary Norine; Goldmann, Don; White, Neal; Piña, Ileana L; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2013-07-01

    Reducing hospital readmission rates is a national priority; however, evidence about hospital strategies that are associated with lower readmission rates is limited. We sought to identify hospital strategies that were associated with lower readmission rates for patients with heart failure. Using data from a Web-based survey of hospitals participating in national quality initiatives to reduce readmission (n=599; 91% response rate) during 2010-2011, we constructed a multivariable linear regression model, weighted by hospital volume, to determine strategies independently associated with risk-standardized 30-day readmission rates (RSRRs) adjusted for hospital teaching status, geographic location, and number of staffed beds. Strategies that were associated with lower hospital RSRRs included the following: (1) partnering with community physicians or physician groups to reduce readmission (0.33% percentage point lower RSRRs; P=0.017), (2) partnering with local hospitals to reduce readmissions (0.34 percentage point; P=0.020), (3) having nurses responsible for medication reconciliation (0.18 percentage point; P=0.002), (4) arranging follow-up appointments before discharge (0.19 percentage point; P=0.037), (5) having a process in place to send all discharge paper or electronic summaries directly to the patient's primary physician (0.21 percentage point; P=0.004), and (6) assigning staff to follow up on test results that return after the patient is discharged (0.26 percentage point; P=0.049). Although statistically significant, the magnitude of the effects was modest with individual strategies associated with less than half a percentage point reduction in RSRRs; however, hospitals that implemented more strategies had significantly lower RSRRs (reduction of 0.34 percentage point for each additional strategy). Several strategies were associated with lower hospital RSRRs for patients with heart failure.

  13. Unplanned 30-Day Readmissions in a General Internal Medicine Hospitalist Service at a Comprehensive Cancer Center.

    PubMed

    Manzano, Joanna-Grace M; Gadiraju, Sahitya; Hiremath, Adarsh; Lin, Heather Yan; Farroni, Jeff; Halm, Josiah

    2015-09-01

    Hospital readmissions are considered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid as a metric for quality of health care delivery. Robust data on the readmission profile of patients with cancer are currently insufficient to determine whether this measure is applicable to cancer hospitals as well. To address this knowledge gap, we estimated the unplanned readmission rate and identified factors influencing unplanned readmissions in a hospitalist service at a comprehensive cancer center. We retrospectively analyzed unplanned 30-day readmission of patients discharged from the General Internal Medicine Hospitalist Service at a comprehensive cancer center between April 1, 2012, and September 30, 2012. Multiple independent variables were studied using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models, with generalized estimating equations to identify risk factors associated with readmissions. We observed a readmission rate of 22.6% in our cohort. The median time to unplanned readmission was 10 days. Unplanned readmission was more likely in patients with metastatic cancer and those with three or more comorbidities. Patients discharged to hospice were less likely to be readmitted (all P values < .01). We observed a high unplanned readmission rate among our population of patients with cancer. The risk factors identified appear to be related to severity of illness and open up opportunities for improving coordination with primary care physicians, oncologists, and other specialists to manage comorbidities, or perhaps transition appropriate patients to palliative care. Our findings will be instrumental for developing targeted interventions to help reduce readmissions at our hospital. Our data also provide direction for appropriate application of readmission quality measures in cancer hospitals. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Adverse events requiring hospitalization within 30 days after outpatient screening and nonscreening colonoscopies.

    PubMed

    Stock, Christian; Ihle, Peter; Sieg, Andreas; Schubert, Ingrid; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of adverse events (AEs) is a crucial factor when colonoscopy is considered for mass screening, but few studies have addressed delayed and non-GI AEs. To investigate the risk of AEs requiring hospitalization after screening and nonscreening colonoscopies compared with control subjects who did not undergo colonoscopy. Retrospective matched cohort. Statutory health insurance fund in Germany. A total of 33,086 individuals who underwent colonoscopy as an outpatient (8658 screening, 24,428 nonscreening) and 33,086 matched controls who did not undergo colonoscopy. Outpatient screening and nonscreening colonoscopies. Risk of AEs (perforation, bleeding, myocardial infarction, stroke, splenic injury, and others) requiring hospitalization within 30 days after colonoscopy/index date and risk differences between the group that underwent colonoscopy and the group that did not. The incidence of perforation was 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-1.7) and 0.7 (95% CI, 0.4-1.1) per 1000 screening and nonscreening colonoscopies, respectively. Hospitalizations because of bleeding occurred in 0.5 (95% CI, 0.1-1.2) and 1.1 (95% CI, 0.8-1.7) per 1000 screening and nonscreening colonoscopies, respectively. The incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, and other non-GI AEs was similar in colonoscopy and control groups. No splenic injury was observed. Those with AEs generally had a higher mean age and comorbidity rate than the overall study population. The analysis relies on health insurance claims data. This study provides further evidence of the safety of colonoscopy in routine practice with regard to delayed and non-GI AEs. Hospitalizations because of the investigated AEs were uncommon or rare for both screening and nonscreening colonoscopies. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 30-Day risk-standardized mortality and readmission rates after ischemic stroke in critical access hospitals.

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Judith H; Leifheit-Limson, Erica C; Jones, Sara B; Wang, Yun; Goldstein, Larry B

    2012-10-01

    The critical access hospital (CAH) designation was established to provide rural residents with local access to emergency and inpatient care. CAHs, however, have poorer short-term outcomes for pneumonia, heart failure, and myocardial infarction compared with other hospitals. We assessed whether 30-day risk-standardized mortality rates (RSMRs) and risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) after ischemic stroke differ between CAHs and non-CAHs. The study included all fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries 65 years of age or older with a primary discharge diagnosis of ischemic stroke (International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision codes 433, 434, 436) in 2006. Hierarchical generalized linear models calculated hospital-level RSMRs and RSRRs, adjusting for patient demographics, medical history, and comorbid conditions. Non-CAHs were categorized by hospital volume quartiles and the RSMR and RSRR posterior probabilities in comparison with CAHs were determined using linear regression with Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. There were 10 267 ischemic stroke discharges from 1165 CAHs and 300 114 discharges from 3381 non-CAHs. The RSMRs of CAHs were higher than non-CAHs (11.9%± 1.4% vs 10.9%± 1.7%; P<0.001), but the RSRRs were comparable (13.7%± 0.6% vs 13.7%± 1.4%; P=0.3). The RSMRs for the 2 higher volume quartiles of non-CAHs were lower than CAHs (posterior probability of RSMRs higher than CAHs=0.007 for quartile 3; P<0.001 for quartile 4), but there were no differences for lower volume hospitals; RSRRs did not vary by annual hospital volume. CAHs had higher RSMRs compared with non-CAHs, but readmission rates were similar. The observed differences may be partly explained by patient characteristics and annual hospital volume.

  16. Risk assessment of comorbidities on 30-day avoidable hospital readmissions among internal medicine patients.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Heba H; Alyahya, Mohammad S; Hammouri, Hanan M; Alshraideh, Hussam A

    2017-04-01

    Reducing the rate of hospital readmissions, particularly avoidable ones, has significant implications on patient outcomes, cost containment, and quality of care. Given that the reason of readmission may differ from the patient's main diagnosis in the index admission, this study aims to assess the influence of index comorbidities on the primary readmission diagnoses and explore the risk of deemed avoidable readmission because of prior comorbidities. A retrospective review of 3962 discharges was conducted at a 527-bed teaching hospital in Jordan, utilizing data related to 2025 internal medicine patients. Among all discharges, 29% were followed by a 30-day readmission, of which 13% were identified as potentially avoidable. Of all readmissions, 36% of patients were readmitted because of one of the comorbidities that had been identified at index admission. In addition, 47% of the potentially avoidable readmissions had a main diagnosis that was one of the index comorbidities. The results also showed an association between readmission for one of the index stay's comorbidities and being avoidable, with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.65-2.72). Overall, the presence of certain diseases, being identified as one of the preceding comorbidities, was found to have a substantial influence on the risk of potentially avoidable readmission. These diseases included digestive, circulatory, respiratory, genitourinary systems, and infectious and parasitic diseases (adjusted relative risks = 1.57, 1.49, 1.36, 1.30, and 2.30, respectively). To help reduce the rates of readmission, potential gains seem available if hospitals adopt clinical practices that support the patient's care during the post-discharge transition. This implies that health care providers need to pay more attention to the comorbidities of high-risk patients to be closely monitored after discharge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Pause for thought: response perseveration and personality in gambling.

    PubMed

    Corr, Philip J; Thompson, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    In a sample of normal volunteers, response perseveration (RP) on a computerised gambling task, the card perseveration task, was examined under two conditions: No pause (Standard task) and a 5-s pause (Pause task) following feedback from previous bet. Behavioural outcomes comprised number of cards played (and cash won/lost) and latency of response. Individual differences in these outcomes were conceptualised in terms of the reinforcement sensitivity theory of personality. Results showed that, on the Standard task only, sub-scales of the Carver and White (J Pers Social Psychol 67:319-333, 1994) Behavioural Approach System scale positively correlated with number of cards played and amount of money lost (indicative of impaired RP), but these associations were abolished with the imposition of a 5-s pause between feedback and the opportunity to make the next bet-this pause also had an overall main effect of improving RP and reducing losses. As related research shows that such a pause normalises the RP deficit seen in pathological gamblers, these findings hold potentially valuable implications for informing practice in the prevention and treatment of pathological gambling, and point to the role played by individual differences in approach motivation.

  18. Risk factors for unplanned readmission within 30 days after pediatric neurosurgery: a nationwide analysis of 9799 procedures from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.

    PubMed

    Sherrod, Brandon A; Johnston, James M; Rocque, Brandon G

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Hospital readmission rate is increasingly used as a quality outcome measure after surgery. The purpose of this study was to establish, using a national database, the baseline readmission rates and risk factors for patient readmission after pediatric neurosurgical procedures. METHODS The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric database was queried for pediatric patients treated by a neurosurgeon between 2012 and 2013. Procedures were categorized by current procedural terminology (CPT) code. Patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, operative variables, and postoperative complications were analyzed via univariate and multivariate techniques to find associations with unplanned readmissions within 30 days of the primary procedure. RESULTS A total of 9799 cases met the inclusion criteria, 1098 (11.2%) of which had an unplanned readmission within 30 days. Readmission occurred 14.0 ± 7.7 days postoperatively (mean ± standard deviation). The 4 procedures with the highest unplanned readmission rates were CSF shunt revision (17.3%; CPT codes 62225 and 62230), repair of myelomeningocele > 5 cm in diameter (15.4%), CSF shunt creation (14.1%), and craniectomy for infratentorial tumor excision (13.9%). The lowest unplanned readmission rates were for spine (6.5%), craniotomy for craniosynostosis (2.1%), and skin lesion (1.0%) procedures. On multivariate regression analysis, the odds of readmission were greatest in patients experiencing postoperative surgical site infection (SSI; deep, organ/space, superficial SSI, and wound disruption: OR > 12 and p < 0.001 for each). Postoperative pneumonia (OR 4.294, p < 0.001), urinary tract infection (OR 4.262, p < 0.001), and sepsis (OR 2.616, p = 0.006) also independently increased the readmission risk. Independent patient risk factors for unplanned readmission included Native American race (OR 2.363, p = 0.019), steroid use > 10 days (OR 1.411, p = 0

  19. Risk factors for unplanned readmission within 30 days after pediatric neurosurgery: a nationwide analysis of 9799 procedures from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program

    PubMed Central

    Sherrod, Brandon A.; Johnston, James M.; Rocque, Brandon G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Readmission rate is increasingly used as a quality outcome measure after surgery. The purpose of this study was to establish, using a national database, the baseline readmission rates and risk factors for readmission after pediatric neurosurgical procedures. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program–Pediatric database was queried for pediatric patients treated by a neurosurgeon from 2012 to 2013. Procedures were categorized by current procedural terminology code. Patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, operative variables, and postoperative complications were analyzed via univariate and multivariate techniques to find associations with unplanned readmission within 30 days of the primary procedure. Results A total of 9799 cases met the inclusion criteria, 1098 (11.2%) of which had an unplanned readmission within 30 days. Readmission occurred 14.0 ± 7.7 days postoperatively (mean ± standard deviation). The 4 procedures with the highest unplanned readmission rates were CSF shunt revision (17.3%), repair of myelomeningocele > 5 cm in diameter (15.4%), CSF shunt creation (14.1%), and craniectomy for infratentorial tumor excision (13.9%). Spine (6.5%), craniotomy for craniosynostosis (2.1%), and skin lesion (1.0%) procedures had the lowest unplanned readmission rates. On multivariate regression analysis, the odds of readmission were greatest in patients experiencing postoperative surgical site infection (SSI; deep, organ/space, superficial SSI and wound disruption: OR > 12 and p < 0.001 for each). Postoperative pneumonia (OR 4.294, p < 0.001), urinary tract infection (OR 4.262, p < 0.001), and sepsis (OR 2.616, p = 0.006) also independently increased the readmission risk. Independent patient risk factors for unplanned readmission included Native American race (OR 2.363, p = 0.019), steroid use > 10 days (OR 1.411, p = 0.010), oxygen supplementation (OR 1.645, p = 0.010), nutritional

  20. 30 Day Mortality after Systemic Anticancer Treatment as a Real World, Quality of Care Indicator: The Northland Experience.

    PubMed

    Ang, Edmond; Newton, Los Vincent

    2017-09-05

    Systemic Anticancer Treatment (SACT) at the end of life is considered poor practice due to futility and associated toxicities. Consequently, 30-Day Mortality after SACT is increasingly recognised as a potential real world quality of care indicator in medical oncology. Whangarei Base Hospital (WBH) provides outpatient SACT treatment to all patients living in the Northland region of New Zealand. The goal of this study is to report our 30 Day mortality after SACT and to contribute to the experience of its use in Australasia. Methodology In this retrospective study, WBH electronic database was searched to identify all patients who have received SACT in Whangarei Base Hospital from the 1(st) January 2012 to the 31(st) December 2016. Patients who died within 30 days of their last treatment were shortlisted. Records were reviewed identifying key demographic, disease, treatment and mortality data. Composite 30 day mortality index and that of each tumour stream were calculated. Key findings were described using descriptive statistics. 1103 patients received SACT in WBH over 5 years with 57 patients dying within 30 days of treatment giving a composite 30- day mortality rate of 5.17%. One patient died receiving curative intent SACT. More deaths occurred in SACT-naïve patients and during the first 2 cycles of therapy. 28% of deaths were attributed to SACT, while 59.7% were attributed to cancer progression. 30-day mortality rates were comparable to studies from larger institutions. We demonstrated the feasibility of this index for auditing practice in smaller oncology units, over a longer timeframe. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional Variation in 30-Day Ischemic Stroke Outcomes for Medicare Beneficiaries Treated in Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael P; Zhao, Xin; Bekelis, Kimon; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Schulte, Phillip J; Xian, Ying; Lytle, Barbara L; Schwamm, Lee H; Smith, Eric E; Reeves, Mathew J

    2017-08-01

    We explored regional variation in 30-day ischemic stroke mortality and readmission rates and the extent to which regional differences in patients, hospitals, healthcare resources, and a quality of care composite care measure explain the observed variation. This ecological analysis aggregated patient and hospital characteristics from the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke registry (2007-2011), healthcare resource data from the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care (2006), and Medicare fee-for-service data on 30-day mortality and readmissions (2007-2011) to the hospital referral region (HRR) level. We used linear regression to estimate adjusted HRR-level 30-day outcomes, to identify HRR-level characteristics associated with 30-day outcomes, and to describe which characteristics explained variation in 30-day outcomes. The mean adjusted HRR-level 30-day mortality and readmission rates were 10.3% (SD=1.1%) and 13.1% (SD=1.1%), respectively; a modest, negative correlation (r=-0.17; P=0.003) was found between one another. Demographics explained more variation in readmissions than mortality (25% versus 6%), but after accounting for demographics, comorbidities accounted for more variation in mortality compared with readmission rates (17% versus 7%). The combination of hospital characteristics and healthcare resources explained 11% and 16% of the variance in mortality and readmission rates, beyond patient characteristics. Most of the regional variation in mortality (65%) and readmission (50%) rates remained unexplained. Thirty-day mortality and readmission rates vary substantially across HRRs and exhibit an inverse relationship. While regional variation in 30-day outcomes were explained by patient and hospital factors differently, much of the regional variation in both outcomes remains unexplained. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Monitoring and Modeling the Fluctuations in Apparent Groundwater Age During a 30-Day Pumping Test.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perle, M. E.; Zhang, Y.; Fogg, G. E.

    2004-12-01

    Recent research shows that dispersion due to geologic heterogeneity can cause large (10's to 100's of yrs) variations in actual groundwater age within individual samples drawn from a well, even if well bore mixing is not significant. We hypothesize that the presence of such large ranges in groundwater age may cause the mean apparent age as estimated from environmental tracers such as CFC's, SF&_{6}, and ^{3}H-^{3}He to drift measurably during long-term, continuous pumping. This hypothesis was confirmed by 3-D numerical experiments wherein variation in groundwater ages under high-rate (\\sim0.06 m^{3}/s; 1,000 gpm) long-term pumping was modeled using backward-time random walk particle tracking techniques combined with geostatistical simulations of hydrofacies heterogeneity. Results indicate that the age distribution within a water sample and the mean apparent age implied by environmental tracers is strongly influenced by historical atmospheric concentrations of environmental tracers and subsurface heterogeneity. As a partial implementation of this same experiment in the field, an abandoned well was pumped at a low rate (\\sim0.005 m^{3}/s; 75 gpm) during 53 days. Water samples were collected from the top and bottom of a 25 foot well screen at 12 hour intervals for the first 30 days and were analyzed for CFC's, SF&6, and 3H-3He. The measured tracer ages indicate that 1) CFC-11 apparent ages increased with time within the first five days of pumping and then remained constant for the remainder of the pump test; 2) trends in CFC-12, CFC-113 and SF&_{6}$ indicate a discrepancy in apparent ages with CFC-11, 3) water reaching the top interval is younger than water reaching the bottom interval. Gas samples were collected from the unsaturated zone to investigate possible CFC contamination and tracer concentration spatial variations in the pumping well recharge zone. Potential effects of heterogeneity and local CFC contamination on the monitoring results will be discussed.

  3. Bion M1. Peculiarities of life activities of microbes in 30-day spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis; Morozova, Julia; Voeikova, Tatiana; Tyaglov, Boris; Novikova, Liudmila; Krestyanova, Irina; Emelyanova, Lydia

    The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of space flight factors ( SFF) to microorganism strains , exposed inside unmanned spacecraft Bion M-1 during the 30- day space flight. Objectives of the work - the study of the influence of the SFF exchange chromosomal DNA in crosses microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces; the level of spontaneous phage induction of lysogenic strains fS31 from Streptomyces lividans 66 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) on the biosynthesis of the antibiotic tylosin strain of Streptomyces fradiae; survival electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR- 1 is used in the microbial fuel cell As a result of this work it was found that the SFF affect the exchange of chromosomal DNA by crossing strains of Streptomyces. Was detected polarity crossing , expressed in an advantageous contribution chromosome fragment of one of the parent strains in recombinant offspring. This fact may indicate a more prolonged exposure of cells in microgravity and , as a consequence, the transfer of longer fragments of chromosomal DNA This feature is the transfer of genetic material in microgravity could lead to wider dissemination and horizontal transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA of symbiotic microflora astronauts and other strains present in the spacecraft. It was shown no effect on the frequency of recombination PCF and the level of mutation model reversion of auxotrophic markers to prototrophy It was demonstrated that PCF increase the level of induction of cell actinophage fS31 lysogenic strain of S. lividans 66, but did not affect the level of induction of this phage cells S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). It is shown that the lower the level of synthesis PCF antibiotic aktinorodina (actinorhodin) in lysogenic strain S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). 66 Strains of S. lividans and S. coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) can be used as a biosensor for studying the effect on microorganisms PCF It is shown that the effect of the PCF reduces synthesis of tylosin and desmicosyn S. fradiae at

  4. Impact of Obesity on Complications and 30-Day Readmission Rates After Cranial Surgery: A Single-Institutional Study of 224 Consecutive Craniotomy/Craniectomy Procedures.

    PubMed

    Sergesketter, Amanda; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Gottfried, Oren N

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing at a disparaging rate in the United States. Although previous studies have associated obesity with increased surgical complications and readmission rates, the impact of obesity on surgical outcomes after cranial surgery remains understudied. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of obesity on complication and 30-day readmission rates after cranial surgery. The medical records of 224 consecutive patients (nonobese, n = 164; obese, n = 60) undergoing either craniotomy or craniectomy at a major academic institution in 2011 were reviewed. Preoperative body mass index equal to or greater than 30 kg/m(2) was classified as obese. The primary outcome investigated in this study was the rate of intraoperative and postoperative complications and 30-day readmissions after craniectomy/craniotomy. Baseline patient characteristics and comorbidities were similar between the cohorts. The mean body mass indexes for both cohorts were significantly different (nonobese, 22.8 ± 4.2 kg/m(2) vs. obese, 45.1 ± 15.9 kg/m(2); P < 0.0001). Most patients underwent tumor excision in both cohorts (nonobese, 64.0% vs. obese, 66.7%; P = 0.75). Compared with the nonobese cohort, the obese cohort had significantly higher estimated blood loss (nonobese, 209.9 ± 201.3 mL vs. obese, 284.9 ± 250.0 mL; P = 0.04), but similar length of operation (nonobese, 187.3 ± 89.4 minutes vs. obese, 209.6 ± 100.5; P = 0.14). Length of hospital stay and rate of postoperative complications were similar between both cohorts. Obese patients had increased rate of 30-day readmission, but this was not statistically significant (nonobese, 3.1% vs. obese, 6.7%; P = 0.25). Our study suggests that obesity may not have a significant impact on surgical outcomes after cranial surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hospital Transfers of Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Patients within 48 Hours and 30 Days after SNF Admission

    PubMed Central

    Ouslander, Joseph G.; Naharci, Ilkin; Engstrom, Gabriella; Shutes, Jill; Wolf, David G.; Rojido, Maria; Tappen, Ruth; Newman, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Close to one in 5 patients admitted to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) are readmitted to the acute hospital within 30 days, and a substantial percentage are readmitted within two days of the SNF admission. These rapid returns to the hospital may provide insights for improving care transitions between the acute hospital and the SNF. Objectives To describe the characteristics of SNF to hospital transfers that occur within 48 hours and 30 days of SNF admission based on root cause analyses (RCAs) performed by SNF staff, and identify potential areas of focus for improving transitions between hospitals and SNFs. Design Trained staff from SNFs enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial of the INTERACT (Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers) quality improvement program performed retrospective RCAs on hospital transfers during a 12-month implementation period. Setting SNFs from across the U.S. Participants 64 of 88 SNFs randomized to the intervention group submitted RCAs. Interventions SNFs were implementing the INTERACT quality improvement program. Measures Data were abstracted from the INTERACT Quality Improvement (QI) tool, a structured, retrospective RCA on hospital transfers. Results Among 4,658 transfers for which data on the time between SNF admission and hospital transfer were available, 353 (8%) occurred within 48 hours of SNF admission; 524 (11%) 3–6 days after SNF admission; 1,450 (31%) (7 – 29 days after SNF admission; and 2,331 (50%) occurred 30 days or longer after admission. Comparisons between transfers that occurred within 48 hours and within 30 days of SNF admission to transfers that occurred 30 days or longer after SNF admission revealed several statistically significant differences between patient risk factors for transfer, symptoms and signs precipitating the transfers, and other characteristics of the transfers. Hospitalization in the last 30 days and year was significantly more common among those with rapid returns to

  6. Predictors of 30-day mortality and the risk of recurrent systemic thromboembolism in cancer patients suffering acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jung; An, Sang Joon; Oh, Kyungmi; Mo, Heejung; Kang, Min Kyoung; Han, Moon-Ku; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Ko, Sang-Bae; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke in cancer patients is not rare but is a devastating event with high mortality. However, the predictors of mortality in stroke patients with cancer have not been well addressed. D-dimer could be a useful predictor because it can reflect both thromboembolic events and advanced stages of cancer. Aim In this study, we evaluate the possibility of D-dimer as a predictor of 30-day mortality in stroke patients with active cancer. Methods We included 210 ischemic stroke patients with active cancer. The 30-day mortality data were collected by reviewing medical records. We also collected follow-up D-dimer levels in 106 (50%) participants to evaluate the effects of treatment response on D-dimer levels. Results Of the 210 participants, 30-day mortality occurred in 28 (13%) patients. Higher initial NIHSS scores, D-dimer levels, and CRP levels as well as frequent cryptogenic mechanism, systemic metastasis, multiple vascular territory lesion, hemorrhagic transformation, and larger infarct volume were related to 30-day mortality. In the multivariate analysis, D-dimer [adjusted OR (aOR) = 2.19; 95% CI, 1.46–3.28, P < 0.001] predicted 30-day mortality after adjusting for confounders. The initial NIHSS score (aOR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00–1.14, P = 0.043) and hemorrhagic transformation (aOR = 3.02; 95% CI, 1.10–8.29, P = 0.032) were also significant independent of D-dimer levels. In the analysis of D-dimer changes after treatment, the mortality group showed no significant decrease in D-dimer levels, despite treatment, while the survivor group showed the opposite response. Conclusions D-dimer levels may predict 30-day mortality in acute ischemic stroke patients with active cancer. PMID:28282388

  7. GYM score: 30-day mortality predictive model in elderly patients attended in the emergency department with infection.

    PubMed

    González Del Castillo, Juan; Escobar-Curbelo, Luis; Martínez-Ortíz de Zárate, Mikel; Llopis-Roca, Ferrán; García-Lamberechts, Jorge; Moreno-Cuervo, Álvaro; Fernández, Cristina; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier

    2017-06-01

    To determine the validity of the classic sepsis criteria or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, and leukocyte count) and the modified sepsis criteria (systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria plus glycemia and altered mental status), and the validity of each of these variables individually to predict 30-day mortality, as well as develop a predictive model of 30-day mortality in elderly patients attended for infection in emergency departments (ED). A prospective cohort study including patients at least 75 years old attended in three Spanish university ED for infection during 2013 was carried out. Demographic variables and data on comorbidities, functional status, hemodynamic sepsis diagnosis variables, site of infection, and 30-day mortality were collected. A total of 293 patients were finally included, mean age 84.0 (SD 5.5) years, and 158 (53.9%) were men. Overall, 185 patients (64%) fulfilled the classic sepsis criteria and 224 patients (76.5%) fulfilled the modified sepsis criteria. The all-cause 30-day mortality was 13.0%. The area under the curve of the classic sepsis criteria was 0.585 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.488-0.681; P=0.106], 0.594 for modified sepsis criteria (95% CI: 0.502-0.685; P=0.075), and 0.751 (95% CI: 0.660-0.841; P<0.001) for the GYM score (Glasgow <15; tachYpnea>20 bpm; Morbidity-Charlson index ≥3) to predict 30-day mortality, with statistically significant differences (P=0.004 and P<0.001, respectively). The GYM score showed good calibration after bootstrap correction, with an area under the curve of 0.710 (95% CI: 0.605-0.815). The GYM score showed better capacity than the classic and the modified sepsis criteria to predict 30-day mortality in elderly patients attended for infection in the ED.

  8. Influence of Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696) on 30-Day Readmission After Heart Failure Hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Desai, Akshay S; Claggett, Brian L; Packer, Milton; Zile, Michael R; Rouleau, Jean L; Swedberg, Karl; Shi, Victor; Lefkowitz, Martin; Starling, Randall; Teerlink, John; McMurray, John J V; Solomon, Scott D

    2016-07-19

    Patients with heart failure (HF) are at high risk for hospital readmission in the first 30 days following HF hospitalization. This study sought to determine if treatment with sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) reduces rates of hospital readmission at 30-days following HF hospitalization compared with enalapril. We assessed the risk of 30-day readmission for any cause following investigator-reported hospitalizations for HF in the PARADIGM-HF trial, which randomized 8,399 participants with HF and reduced ejection fraction to treatment with LCZ696 or enalapril. Accounting for multiple hospitalizations per patient, there were 2,383 investigator-reported HF hospitalizations, of which 1,076 (45.2%) occurred in subjects assigned to LCZ696 and 1,307 (54.8%) occurred in subjects assigned to enalapril. Rates of readmission for any cause at 30 days were 17.8% in LCZ696-assigned subjects and 21.0% in enalapril-assigned subjects (odds ratio: 0.74; 95% confidence interval: 0.56 to 0.97; p = 0.031). Rates of readmission for HF at 30-days were also lower in subjects assigned to LCZ696 (9.7% vs. 13.4%; odds ratio: 0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.45 to 0.87; p = 0.006). The reduction in both all-cause and HF readmissions with LCZ696 was maintained when the time window from discharge was extended to 60 days and in sensitivity analyses restricted to adjudicated HF hospitalizations. Compared with enalapril, treatment with LCZ696 reduces 30-day readmissions for any cause following discharge from HF hospitalization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Discharge Hospice Referral and Lower 30-Day All-Cause Readmission in Medicare Beneficiaries Hospitalized for Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kheirbek, Raya E; Fletcher, Ross D; Bakitas, Marie A; Fonarow, Gregg C; Parvataneni, Sridivya; Bearden, Donna; Bailey, Frank A; Morgan, Charity J; Singh, Steven; Blackman, Marc R; Zile, Michael R; Patel, Kanan; Ahmed, Momanna B; Tucker, Rodney O; Brown, Cynthia J; Love, Thomas E; Aronow, Wilbert S; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rich, Michael W; Allman, Richard M; Ahmed, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause for hospital readmission. Hospice care may help palliate HF symptoms but its association with 30-day all-cause readmission remains unknown. Of the 8032 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for HF in 106 Alabama hospitals (1998-2001), 182 (2%) received discharge hospice referrals. Of the 7850 patients not receiving hospice referrals, 1608 (20%) died within 6 months post discharge (the hospice-eligible group). Propensity scores for hospice referral were estimated for each of the 1790 (182+1608) patients and were used to match 179 hospice-referral patients with 179 hospice-eligible patients who were balanced on 28 baseline characteristics (mean age, 79 years; 58% women; 18% non-white). Overall, 22% (1742/8032) died in 6 months, of whom 8% (134/1742) received hospice referrals. Among the 358 matched patients, 30-day all-cause readmission occurred in 5% and 41% of hospice-referral and hospice-eligible patients, respectively (hazard ratio associated with hospice referral, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.24). Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for 30-day all-cause readmission associated with hospice referral among the 126 patients who died and 232 patients who survived 30-day post discharge were 0.03 (0.04-0.21) and 0.17 (0.08-0.36), respectively. Although 30-day mortality was higher in the hospice referral group (43% versus 27%), it was similar at 90 days (64% versus 67% among hospice-eligible patients). A discharge hospice referral was associated with lower 30-day all-cause readmission among hospitalized patients with HF. However, most patients with HF who died within 6 months of hospital discharge did not receive a discharge hospice referral. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Discharge Hospice Referral and Lower 30-Day All-Cause Readmission in Medicare Beneficiaries Hospitalized for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kheirbek, Raya E.; Fletcher, Ross D.; Bakitas, Marie A.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Parvataneni, Sridivya; Bearden, Donna; Bailey, F. Amos; Morgan, Charity J.; Singh, Steven; Blackman, Marc R.; Zile, Michael R.; Patel, Kanan; Ahmed, Momanna B.; Tucker, Rodney O.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Love, Thomas E.; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Roseman, Jeffrey M.; Rich, Michael W.; Allman, Richard M.; Ahmed, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF) is the leading cause for hospital readmission. Hospice care may help palliate HF symptoms but its association with 30-day all-cause readmission remains unknown. Methods and Results Of the 8032 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for HF in 106 Alabama hospitals (1998–2001), 182 (2%) received discharge hospice referrals. Of the 7850 patients not receiving hospice referrals, 1608 (20%) died within 6 months post-discharge (the hospice-eligible group). Propensity scores for hospice referral were estimated for each of the 1790 (182+1608) patients and were used to match 179 hospice-referral patients with 179 hospice-eligible patients who were balanced on 28 baseline characteristics (mean age, 79 years, 58% women, 18% African American). Overall, 22% (1742/8032) died in 6 months, of whom 8% (134/1742) received hospice referrals. Among the 358 matched patients, 30-day all-cause readmission occurred in 5% and 41% of hospice-referral and hospice-eligible patients, respectively (hazard ratio {HR} associated with hospice referral, 0.12; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.06–0.24). HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day all-cause readmission associated with hospice referral among the 126 patients who died and 232 patients who survived 30-day post-discharge were 0.03 (0.04–0.21) and 0.17 (0.08–0.36), respectively. Although 30-day mortality was higher in the hospice referral group (43% vs. 27%), it was similar at 90 days (64% vs. 67% among hospice-eligible patients). Conclusions A discharge hospice referral was associated with lower 30-day all-cause readmission among hospitalized HF patients. However, most HF patients who died within 6 months of hospital discharge did not receive a discharge hospice referral. PMID:26019151

  11. 30-day in-hospital mortality after acute myocardial infarction in Tuscany (Italy): an observational study using hospital discharge data.

    PubMed

    Seghieri, Chiara; Mimmi, Stefano; Lenzi, Jacopo; Fantini, Maria Pia

    2012-11-08

    Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the world. One of the outcome indicators recently used to measure hospital performance is 30-day mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This indicator has proven to be a valid and reproducible indicator of the appropriateness and effectiveness of the diagnostic and therapeutic process for AMI patients after hospital admission. The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of inter-hospital variability on 30-day in-hospital mortality after AMI in Tuscany. This indicator is a proxy of 30-day mortality that includes only deaths occurred during the index or subsequent hospitalizations. The study population was identified from hospital discharge records (HDRs) and included all patients with primary or secondary ICD-9-CM codes of AMI (ICD-9 codes 410.xx) that were discharged between January 1, 2009 and November 30, 2009 from any hospital in Tuscany. The outcome of interest was 30-day all-cause in-hospital mortality, defined as a death occurring for any reason in the hospital within 30 days of the admission date. Because of the hierarchical structure of the data, with patients clustered into hospitals, random-effects (multilevel) logistic regression models were used. The models included patient risk factors and random intercepts for each hospital. The study included 5,832 patients, 61.90% male, with a mean age of 72.38 years. During the study period, 7.99% of patients died within 30 days of admission. The 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher among patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) compared with those with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The multilevel analysis which included only the hospital variance showed a significant inter-hospital variation in 30-day in-hospital mortality. When patient characteristics were added to the model, the hospital variance decreased. The multilevel analysis was then carried out

  12. Impact of Inpatient Versus Outpatient Total Joint Arthroplasty on 30-Day Hospital Readmission Rates and Unplanned Episodes of Care.

    PubMed

    Springer, Bryan D; Odum, Susan M; Vegari, David N; Mokris, Jeffrey G; Beaver, Walter B

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a study comparing 30-day readmission rates between patients undergoing outpatient versus inpatient total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty. A retrospective review of 137 patients undergoing outpatient total joint arthroplasty (TJA) and 106 patients undergoing inpatient (minimum 2-day hospital stay) TJA was conducted. Unplanned hospital readmissions and unplanned episodes of care were recorded. All patients completed a telephone survey. Seven inpatients and 16 outpatients required hospital readmission or an unplanned episode of care following hospital discharge. Readmission rates were higher for TKA than THA. The authors found no statistical differences in 30-day readmission or unplanned care episodes.

  13. Digoxin and 30-Day All-Cause Hospital Admission in Older Patients with Chronic Diastolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, Taimoor; Elbaz, Shereen; Patel, Kanan; Morgan, Charity J.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Fleg, Jerome L.; McGwin, Gerald; Cutter, Gary R.; Allman, Richard M.; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Zile, Michael R.; Bourge, Robert C.; Ahmed, Ali

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND In the main Digitalis Investigation Group (DIG) trial, digoxin reduced the risk of 30-day all-cause hospitalization in older systolic heart failure patients. However, this effect has not been studied in older diastolic heart failure patients. METHODS In the ancillary DIG trial, of the 988 patients with chronic heart failure and preserved (>45%) ejection fraction, 631 were ≥65 years (mean age, 73 years, 45% women, 12% nonwhites), of whom 311 received digoxin. RESULTS All-cause hospitalization 30-day post-randomization occurred in 4% of patients in the placebo group and 9% each among those in the digoxin group receiving 0.125 mg and ≥0.25 mg a day dosage (p=0.026). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for digoxin use overall for 30-day, 3-month, and 12-month all-cause hospitalizations were 2.46 (1.25–4.83), 1.45 (0.96–2.20) and 1.14 (0.89–1.46), respectively. There was one 30-day death in the placebo group. Digoxin-associated HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day hospitalizations due to cardiovascular, heart failure and unstable angina causes were 2.82 (1.18–6.69), 0.51 (0.09–2.79), and 6.21 (0.75–51.62), respectively. Digoxin had no significant association with 30-day all-cause hospitalization among younger patients (6% vs. 7% for placebo; HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.36–1.79). CONCLUSIONS In older patients with chronic diastolic heart failure, digoxin increased the risk of 30-day all-cause hospital admission, but not during longer follow-up. Although chance finding due to small sample size is possible, these data suggest that unlike in systolic heart failure, digoxin may not reduce 30-day all-cause hospitalization in older diastolic heart failure patients. PMID:24067296

  14. Hypotension During Hospitalization for Acute Heart Failure Is Independently Associated With 30-Day Mortality: Findings from ASCEND-HF

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Priyesh A.; Heizer, Gretchen; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Schulte, Phillip J.; Dickstein, Kenneth; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Hasselblad, Vic; Mills, Roger M.; McMurray, John J.; Starling, Randall C.; Wilson Tang, W. H.; Califf, Robert M.; Hernandez, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Outcomes associated with episodes of hypotension while hospitalized are not well understood. Methods and Results Using data from ASCEND-HF, we assessed factors associated with inhospital hypotension and subsequent 30-day outcomes. Patients were classified as having symptomatic or asymptomatic hypotension. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with in-hospital hypotension, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between hypotension and 30-day outcomes. We also tested for treatment interaction with nesiritide on 30-day outcomes and the association between inhospital hypotension and renal function at hospital discharge. Overall, 1555/7141 (21.8%) patients had an episode of hypotension, of which 73.1% were asymptomatic and 26.9% were symptomatic. Factors strongly associated with in-hospital hypotension included randomization to nesiritide (odds ratio [OR] 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.76–2.23; p<0.001), chronic metolazone therapy (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.17–2.60; p<0.001), and baseline orthopnea (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.13–1.52; p=0.001) or S3 gallop (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.06–1.40; p=0.006). In-hospital hypotension was associated with increased hazards of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% CI 1.57–2.61; p<0.001), 30-day heart failure (HF) hospitalization or mortality (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.34–1.86; p<0.001), and 30-day all-cause hospitalization or mortality (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.22–1.61; p<0.001). Nesiritide had no interaction on the relationship between hypotension and 30-day outcomes (interaction p=0.874 for death, p=0.908 for death/HF hospitalization, p=0.238 death/all-cause hospitalization). Conclusions Hypotension while hospitalized for acute decompensated HF is an independent risk factor for adverse 30-day outcomes, and its occurrence highlights the need for modified treatment strategies. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT

  15. Reinforcement magnitude and pausing on progressive-ratio schedules

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Alan; Mikorski, Jeffrey; Schlund, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Rats responded under progressive-ratio schedules for sweetened milk reinforcers; each session ended when responding ceased for 10 min. Experiment 1 varied the concentration of milk and the duration of postreinforcement timeouts. Postreinforcement pausing increased as a positively accelerated function of the size of the ratio, and the rate of increase was reduced as a function of concentration and by timeouts of 10 s or longer. Experiment 2 varied reinforcement magnitude within sessions (number of dipper operations per reinforcer) in conjunction with stimuli correlated with the upcoming magnitude. In the absence of discriminative stimuli, pausing was longer following a large reinforcer than following a small one. Pauses were reduced by a stimulus signaling a large upcoming reinforcer, particularly at the highest ratios, and the animals tended to quit responding when the past reinforcer was large and the stimulus signaled that the next one would be small. Results of both experiments revealed parallels between responding under progressive-ratio schedules and other schedules containing ratio contingencies. Relationships between pausing and magnitude suggest that ratio pausing is under the joint control of inhibitory properties of the past reinforcer and excitatory properties of stimuli correlated with the upcoming reinforcer, rather than under the exclusive control of either factor alone. PMID:16812671

  16. Detection of bursts and pauses in spike trains.

    PubMed

    Ko, D; Wilson, C J; Lobb, C J; Paladini, C A

    2012-10-15

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons in vivo exhibit a wide range of firing patterns. They normally fire constantly at a low rate, and speed up, firing a phasic burst when reward exceeds prediction, or pause when an expected reward does not occur. Therefore, the detection of bursts and pauses from spike train data is a critical problem when studying the role of phasic dopamine (DA) in reward related learning, and other DA dependent behaviors. However, few statistical methods have been developed that can identify bursts and pauses simultaneously. We propose a new statistical method, the Robust Gaussian Surprise (RGS) method, which performs an exhaustive search of bursts and pauses in spike trains simultaneously. We found that the RGS method is adaptable to various patterns of spike trains recorded in vivo, and is not influenced by baseline firing rate, making it applicable to all in vivo spike trains where baseline firing rates vary over time. We compare the performance of the RGS method to other methods of detecting bursts, such as the Poisson Surprise (PS), Rank Surprise (RS), and Template methods. Analysis of data using the RGS method reveals potential mechanisms underlying how bursts and pauses are controlled in DA neurons.

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  5. The ability of renal ultrasound and ureteral jet evaluation to predict 30-day outcomes in patients with suspected nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Fields, J Matthew; Fischer, Jonathan I; Anderson, Kenton L; Mangili, Alessandro; Panebianco, Nova L; Dean, Anthony J

    2015-10-01

    We sought to identify findings on bedside renal ultrasound that predicted need for hospitalization in patients with suspected nephrolithiasis. A convenience sample of patients with suspected nephrolithiasis was prospectively enrolled and underwent bedside ultrasound of the kidneys and bladder to determine the presence and degree of hydronephrosis and ureteral jets. Sonologists were blinded to any other laboratory and imaging data. Patients were followed up at 30 days by phone call and review of medical records. Seventy-seven patients with suspected renal colic were included in the analysis. Thirteen patients were admitted. Reasons for admission included intractable pain, infection, or emergent urologic intervention. All 13 patients requiring admission had hydronephrosis present on initial bedside ultrasound. Patients with moderate hydronephrosis had a higher admission rate (36%) than those with mild hydronephrosis (24%), P<.01. Of patients without hydronephrosis, none required admission within 30 days. The sensitivity and specificity of hydronephrosis for predicting subsequent hospitalization were 100% and 44%, respectively. Loss of the ipsilateral ureteral jet was not significantly associated with subsequent hospital admission and did not improve the predictive value when used in combination with the degree of hydronephrosis. No patients with suspected renal colic and absence of hydronephrosis on bedside ultrasound required admission within 30 days. Ureteral jet evaluation did not help in prediction of 30-day outcomes and may not be useful in the emergency department management of renal colic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 78 FR 67385 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA PowerSaver Pilot Program (Title I Property...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA PowerSaver Pilot Program (Title I Property Improvement and Title II--203(k) Rehabilitation Mortgage Insurance) AGENCY: Office of the... Collection Title of Information Collection: FHA PowerSaver Pilot Program (Title I Property Improvement and...

  7. 31 CFR 538.506 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. 538.506 Section 538.506 Money and Finance: Treasury....506 30-day delayed effective date for pre-November 4, 1997 trade contracts involving Sudan. (a) Pre... of Sudanese origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Sudan, importations under the...

  8. 76 FR 58074 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-7001 and DS-7005, DOS-Sponsored Academic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for approval in accordance with... Collection. Originating Office: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, ECA/A/E/EUR. Form Number: DS-7001... to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for up to 30 days from September 19, 2011....

  9. High blood pressure variability predicts 30-day mortality but not 1-year mortality in hospitalized elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Avraham; Rudman, Yaron; Beloosesky, Yichayaou; Akirov, Amit; Shochat, Tzippy; Grossman, Alon

    2017-10-01

    The association of blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) in hospitalized patients, which represents day-to-day variability, with mortality has been extensively reported in patients with stroke, but poorly defined for other medical conditions. To assess the association of day-to-day blood pressure variability in hospitalized patients, 10 BP measurements were obtained in individuals ≥75 years old hospitalized in a geriatric ward. Day-to-day BPV, measured 3 times a day, was calculated in each patient as the coefficient of variation of systolic BP. Patients were stratified by quartiles of coefficient of variation of systolic BP, and 30-day and 1-year mortality data were compared between those in the highest versus the lowest (reference) group. Overall, 469 patients were included in the final analysis. Mean coefficient of variation of systolic BP was 12.1%. 30-day mortality and 1-year mortality occurred in 29/469 (6.2%) and 95/469 (20.2%) individuals respectively. Patients in the highest quartile of BPV were at a significantly higher risk for 30-day mortality (HR =4.12, CI 1.12-15.10) but not for 1-year mortality compared with the lowest BPV quartile (HR =1.61, CI 0.81-3.23). Day-to-day BPV is associated with 30-day, but not with 1-year mortality in hospitalized elderly patients.

  10. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services (including...

  11. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services (including...

  12. 31 CFR 560.515 - 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. 560.515 Section 560.515 Money and Finance: Treasury....515 30-day delayed effective date for pre-May 7, 1995 trade contracts involving Iran. (a) All... involving Iran (a pre-existing trade contract), including the exportation of goods, services (including...

  13. 78 FR 36562 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application and Re-certification Packages for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application and Re-certification Packages for Approval of Nonprofit Organization in FHA Activities AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information... keeping. HUD uses the information to ensure that a nonprofit organization meets the requirements to...

  14. Superfund reform: US Environmental Protection Agency`s 30-day study and its implication for the US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, M.R.; Friedman, J.R.; Neff, R.W.

    1993-03-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to reform and restructure the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAS) Superfund program, the EPA Administrator on October 21, 1991, announced several key programmatic reforms. These reforms are a result of the Superfund 30-Day Task Force Report (30-Day Study, EPA 1991a), an effort carried out by EPAs office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). The EPA OSWER oversees environmental cleanup activities under a number of statutory authorities, including the Comprehensive Environmental response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, also known as Superfund). CERCLA and its implementing regulation, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), establish a regulatory framework to govern the cleanup of existing, and often abandoned, hazardous waste sites. The purposes of this report are to (1) review the background and recommendations of EPNs 30-Day Study, (2) identify and discuss the initiatives from the 30-Day Study that may impact DOE`s environmental restoration mission, (3) report on EPAs progress in implementing the selected priority initiatives, and (4) describe potentially related DOE activities.

  15. 78 FR 31999 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Young Turkey/Young America Evaluation (YTYA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Young Turkey/ Young America Evaluation (YTYA) Survey ACTION... Collection: Young Turkey/Young America Evaluation (YTYA) Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request...

  16. Predicting 30-Day Readmissions: Performance of the LACE Index Compared with a Regression Model among General Medicine Patients in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lian Leng; Lee, Kheng Hock; Hock Ong, Marcus Eng; Wang, Sijia; Tan, Shu Yun; Thumboo, Julian; Liu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    The LACE index (length of stay, acuity of admission, Charlson comorbidity index, CCI, and number of emergency department visits in preceding 6 months) derived in Canada is simple and may have clinical utility in Singapore to predict readmission risk. We compared the performance of the LACE index with a derived model in identifying 30-day readmissions from a population of general medicine patients in Singapore. Additional variables include patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical and laboratory variables during the index admission, and prior healthcare utilization in the preceding year. 5,862 patients were analysed and 572 patients (9.8%) were readmitted in the 30 days following discharge. Age, CCI, count of surgical procedures during index admission, white cell count, serum albumin, and number of emergency department visits in previous 6 months were significantly associated with 30-day readmission risk. The final logistic regression model had fair discriminative ability c-statistic of 0.650 while the LACE index achieved c-statistic of 0.628 in predicting 30-day readmissions. Our derived model has the advantage of being available early in the admission to identify patients at high risk of readmission for interventions. Additional factors predicting readmission risk and machine learning techniques should be considered to improve model performance. PMID:26682212

  17. 76 FR 20688 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; 30-Day Notices, 135-Day Premarket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; 30- Day Notices, 135-Day Premarket Approval Supplements and 75-Day Humanitarian Device Exemption Supplements for Manufacturing Method or Process Changes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...

  18. 75 FR 32961 - 30-Day Federal Register Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... collection Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Control 1024-0231. The OMB has up to 60 days to approve or... consideration, OMB should receive public comments within 30 days of the date on which this notice is published... were received on this notice. DATES: Public comments on the proposed Information Collection...

  19. 77 FR 47690 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Civilian Response Corps Database In-Processing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Civilian Response Corps Database In-Processing Electronic Form... Database In-Processing Electronic Form. OMB Control Number: 1405-0168. Type of Request: Extension of...

  20. 78 FR 35040 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; Web-Based Media Literacy Parent Training for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; Web-Based Media Literacy Parent Training for Substance Use Prevention in Rural Locations SUMMARY: Under the... Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Services, and Prevention Research, NIDA, NIH, 6001 Executive...

  1. 78 FR 69077 - Notice of 30-Day Public Review Period and Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of 30-Day Public Review Period and Availability of Final Environmental...-day public review period and availability of a Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Draft Finding.... Ostrowski, Director, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Base Realignment and Closure Program Management...

  2. 78 FR 55083 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-day Comment Request; Genomics and Society Public Surveys in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... an additional 30 days for public comment. The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI..., 0925--NEW, National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), National Institutes of Health (NIH). Need and Use of Information Collection: The National Human Genome Research Institute's (NHGRI) strategic...

  3. Language phylogenies reveal expansion pulses and pauses in Pacific settlement.

    PubMed

    Gray, R D; Drummond, A J; Greenhill, S J

    2009-01-23

    Debates about human prehistory often center on the role that population expansions play in shaping biological and cultural diversity. Hypotheses on the origin of the Austronesian settlers of the Pacific are divided between a recent "pulse-pause" expansion from Taiwan and an older "slow-boat" diffusion from Wallacea. We used lexical data and Bayesian phylogenetic methods to construct a phylogeny of 400 languages. In agreement with the pulse-pause scenario, the language trees place the Austronesian origin in Taiwan approximately 5230 years ago and reveal a series of settlement pauses and expansion pulses linked to technological and social innovations. These results are robust to assumptions about the rooting and calibration of the trees and demonstrate the combined power of linguistic scholarship, database technologies, and computational phylogenetic methods for resolving questions about human prehistory.

  4. Cotranslational response to proteotoxic stress by elongation pausing of ribosomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Botao; Han, Yan; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2013-02-07

    Translational control permits cells to respond swiftly to a changing environment. Rapid attenuation of global protein synthesis under stress conditions has been largely ascribed to the inhibition of translation initiation. Here we report that intracellular proteotoxic stress reduces global protein synthesis by halting ribosomes on transcripts during elongation. Deep sequencing of ribosome-protected messenger RNA (mRNA) fragments reveals an early elongation pausing, roughly at the site where nascent polypeptide chains emerge from the ribosomal exit tunnel. Inhibiting endogenous chaperone molecules by a dominant-negative mutant or chemical inhibitors recapitulates the early elongation pausing, suggesting a dual role of molecular chaperones in facilitating polypeptide elongation and cotranslational folding. Our results further support the chaperone "trapping" mechanism in promoting the passage of nascent chains. Our study reveals that translating ribosomes fine tune the elongation rate by sensing the intracellular folding environment. The early elongation pausing represents a cotranslational stress response to maintain the intracellular protein homeostasis.

  5. Trends in 30-day mortality rate and case mix for paediatric cardiac surgery in the UK between 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine L; Crowe, Sonya; Franklin, Rodney; McLean, Andrew; Cunningham, David; Barron, David; Tsang, Victor; Pagel, Christina; Utley, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore changes over time in the 30-day mortality rate for paediatric cardiac surgery and to understand the role of attendant changes in the case mix. Methods, setting and participants Included were: all mandatory submissions to the National Institute of Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR) relating to UK cardiac surgery in patients aged <16 years. The χ2 test for trend was used to retrospectively analyse the proportion of surgical episodes ending in 30-day mortality and with various case mix indicators, in 10 consecutive time periods, from 2000 to 2010. Comparisons were made between two 5-year eras of: 30-day mortality, period prevalence and mean age for 30 groups of specific operations. Main outcome measure 30-day mortality for an episode of surgical management. Results Our analysis includes 36 641 surgical episodes with an increase from 2283 episodes in 2000 to 3939 in 2009 (p<0.01). The raw national 30-day mortality rate fell over the period of review from 4.3% (95% CI 3.5% to 5.1%) in 2000 to 2.6% (95% CI 2.2% to 3.0%) in 2009/2010 (p<0.01). The case mix became more complex in terms of the percentage of patients <2.5 kg (p=0.05), with functionally univentricular hearts (p<0.01) and higher risk diagnoses (p<0.01). In the later time era, there was significant improvement in 30-day mortality for arterial switch with ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair, patent ductus arteriosus ligation, Fontan-type operation, tetralogy of Fallot and VSD repair, and the mean age of patients fell for a range of operations performed in infancy. Conclusions The raw 30-day mortality rate for paediatric cardiac surgery fell over a decade despite a rise in the national case mix complexity, and compares well with international benchmarks. Definitive repair is now more likely at a younger age for selected infants with congenital heart defects. PMID:25893099

  6. Early Postdischarge STOP-HF-Clinic Reduces 30-day Readmissions in Old and Frail Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Pacho, Cristina; Domingo, Mar; Núñez, Raquel; Lupón, Josep; Moliner, Pedro; de Antonio, Marta; González, Beatriz; Santesmases, Javier; Vela, Emili; Tor, Jordi; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2017-08-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with a high rate of readmissions within 30 days postdischarge. Strategies to lower readmission rates generally show modest results. To reduce readmission rates, we developed a STructured multidisciplinary outpatient clinic for Old and frail Postdischarge patients hospitalized for HF (STOP-HF-Clinic). This prospective all-comers study enrolled patients discharged from internal medicine or geriatric wards after HF hospitalization. The intervention involved a face-to-face early visit (within 7 days), HF nurse education, treatment titration, and intravenous medication when needed. Thirty-day readmission risk was calculated using the CORE-HF risk score. We also studied the impact of 30-day readmission burden on regional health care by comparing the readmission rate in the STOP-HF-Clinic Referral Area (∼250000 people) with that of the rest of the Catalan Health Service (CatSalut) (∼7.5 million people) during the pre-STOP-HF-Clinic (2012-2013) and post-STOP-HF-Clinic (2014-2015) time periods. From February 2014 to June 2016, 518 consecutive patients were included (age, 82 years; Barthel score, 70; Charlson index, 5.6, CORE-HF 30-day readmission risk, 26.5%). The observed all-cause 30-day readmission rate was 13.9% (47.5% relative risk reduction) and the observed HF-related 30-day readmission rate was 7.5%. The CatSalut registry included 65131 index HF admissions, with 9267 all-cause and 6686 HF-related 30-day readmissions. The 30-day readmission rate was significantly reduced in the STOP-HF-Clinic Referral Area in 2014-2015 compared with 2012-2013 (P < .001), mainly driven by fewer HF-related readmissions. The STOP-HF-Clinic, an approach that could be promptly implemented elsewhere, is a valuable intervention for reducing the global burden of early readmissions among elder and vulnerable patients with HF. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between Early Physician Follow-Up and 30-Day Readmission after Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Yu-Chi; Chang, Guann-Ming; Chang, Hsien-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Background Thirty-day readmission rates after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure are important patient outcome metrics. Early post-discharge physician follow-up has been promoted as a method of reducing 30-day readmission rates. However, the relationships between early post-discharge follow-up and 30-day readmission for AMI and heart failure are inconclusive. We used nationwide population-based data to examine associations between 7-day physician follow-up and 30-day readmission, and further associations of 7-day same physician (during the index hospitalization and at follow-up) and cardiologist follow-up with 30-day readmission for non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or heart failure. Methods We analyzed all patients 18 years or older with NSTEMI and heart failure and discharged from hospitals in 2010 in Taiwan through Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Cox proportional hazard models with robust sandwich variance estimates and propensity score weighting were performed after adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics to test associations between 7-day physician follow-up and 30-day readmission. Results The study population for NSTEMI and heart failure included 5,008 and 13,577 patients, respectively. Early physician follow-up was associated with a lower hazard ratio of readmission compared with no early physician follow-up for patients with NSTEMI (hazard ratio [HR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.57), and for patients with heart failure (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.48–0.60). Same physician follow-up was associated with a reduced hazard ratio of readmission compared with different physician follow-up for patients with NSTEMI (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.48–0.65), and for patients with heart failure (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.62–0.76). Conclusions For each condition, patients who have an outpatient visit with a physician within 7 days of discharge have a lower risk of 30-day readmission. Moreover

  8. Beta-blocker Use and 30-day All-cause Readmission in Medicare Beneficiaries with Systolic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Vikas; Bajaj, Navkaranbir S; Sanam, Kumar; Hashim, Taimoor; Morgan, Charity J; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Fonarow, Gregg C; Deedwania, Prakash; Butler, Javed; Carson, Peter; Love, Thomas E; Kheirbek, Raya; Aronow, Wilbert S; Anker, Stefan D; Waagstein, Finn; Fletcher, Ross; Allman, Richard M; Ahmed, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Beta-blockers improve outcomes in patients with systolic heart failure. However, it is unknown whether their initial negative inotropic effect may increase 30-day all-cause readmission, a target outcome for Medicare cost reduction and financial penalty for hospitals under the Affordable Care Act. Of the 3067 Medicare beneficiaries discharged alive from 106 Alabama hospitals (1998-2001) with a primary discharge diagnosis of heart failure and ejection fraction <45%, 2202 were not previously on beta-blocker therapy, of which 383 received new discharge prescriptions for beta-blockers. Propensity scores for beta-blocker use, estimated for each of the 2202 patients, were used to assemble a matched cohort of 380 pairs of patients receiving and not receiving beta-blockers who were balanced on 36 baseline characteristics (mean age 73 years, mean ejection fraction 27%, 45% women, 33% African American). Beta-blocker use was not associated with 30-day all-cause readmission (hazard ratio [HR] 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-1.18) or heart failure readmission (HR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.57-1.58), but was significantly associated with lower 30-day all-cause mortality (HR 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12-0.73). During 4-year postdischarge, those in the beta-blocker group had lower mortality (HR 0.81; 95% CI, 0.67-0.98) and combined outcome of all-cause mortality or all-cause readmission (HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.74-0.97), but not with all-cause readmission (HR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76-1.04). Among hospitalized older patients with systolic heart failure, discharge prescription of beta-blockers was associated with lower 30-day all-cause mortality and 4-year combined death or readmission outcomes without higher 30-day readmission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Preadmission use of SSRIs alone or in combination with NSAIDs and 30-day mortality after peptic ulcer bleeding.

    PubMed

    Gasse, Christiane; Christensen, Steffen; Riis, Anders; Mortensen, Preben B; Adamsen, Sven; Thomsen, Reimar W

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increases the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and this risk is amplified by concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The aim of the study was to examine the impact of SSRI use alone or in combination with NSAIDs on 30-day mortality after peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). MATERIAL AND METHODS. A population-based cohort study of patients with a first hospitalization with PUB in three Danish counties was carried out between 1991 and 2005 using medical databases. We calculated 30-day mortality rate ratios (MRRs) associated with the use of SSRIs, alone or in combination with NSAIDs, adjusted for important covariates. RESULTS. Of 7415 patients admitted with PUB, 5.9% used SSRIs only, and 3.8% used SSRIs in combination with NSAIDs, with a 30-day mortality of 11.8% and 11.3%, respectively. Compared with patients who used neither SSRIs nor NSAIDs, the adjusted 30-day MRR was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.76-1.36) for current users of SSRIs and 0.89 (0.62-1.28) for the combined use of SSRIs with NSAIDs. There was a 2.11-fold (95% CI 1.35-3.30) increased risk of death associated with SSRI use starting within 60 days of admission; for those younger than 80 years, the adjusted MRR was 1.54 (0.72-3.29), and 2.57 (1.47-4.49) for those older than 80 years. CONCLUSIONS. Use of SSRIs, alone or in combination with NSAIDs, was not associated with increased 30-day mortality following PUB. However, increased mortality was found in patients who started SSRI therapy, particularly among those older than 80 years. We can only speculate on whether this finding is due to pharmacological action or confounding factors.

  10. Surgical Unit volume and 30-day reoperation rate following primary resection for colorectal cancer in the Veneto Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, S; Chiappetta, A; Giacomazzo, G; Barina, A; Gennaro, N; Rebonato, M; Nitti, D; Saugo, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Surgical Unit volume on the 30-day reoperation rate in patients with CRC. Data were extracted from the regional Hospital Discharge Dataset and included patients who underwent elective resection for primary CRC in the Veneto Region (2005-2013). The primary outcome measure was any unplanned reoperation performed within 30 days from the index surgery. Independent variables were: age, gender, comorbidity, previous abdominal surgery, site and year of the resection, open/laparoscopic approach and yearly Surgical Unit volume for colorectal resections as a whole, and in detail for colonic, rectal and laparoscopic resections. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis was used to evaluate the impact of variables on the outcome measure. During the study period, 21,797 elective primary colorectal resections were performed. The 30-day reoperation rate was 5.5% and was not associated with Surgical Unit volume. In multivariate multilevel analysis, a statistically significant association was found between 30-day reoperation rate and rectal resection volume (intermediate-volume group OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.56-0.99) and laparoscopic approach (high-volume group OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.51-0.96). While Surgical Unit volume is not a predictor of 30-day reoperation after CRC resection, it is associated with an early return to the operating room for patients operated on for rectal cancer or with a laparoscopic approach. These findings suggest that quality improvement programmes or centralization of surgery may only be required for subgroups of CRC patients.

  11. First hospitalization for heart failure in France in 2009: patient characteristics and 30-day follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tuppin, Philippe; Cuerq, Anne; de Peretti, Christine; Fagot-Campagna, Anne; Danchin, Nicolas; Juillière, Yves; Alla, François; Allemand, Hubert; Bauters, Christophe; Drici, Milou-Daniel; Hagège, Albert; Jondeau, Guillaume; Jourdain, Patrick; Leizorovicz, Alain; Paccaud, Fred

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of heart failure (HF) is stable in industrialized countries, but its prevalence continues to increase, especially due to the ageing of the population, and mortality remains high. To estimate the incidence in France and describe the management and short-term outcome of patients hospitalized for HF for the first time. The study population comprised French national health insurance general scheme beneficiaries (77% of the French population) hospitalized in 2009 with a principal diagnosis of HF after exclusion of those hospitalized for HF between 2006 and 2008 or with a chronic disease status for HF. Data were collected from the national health insurance information system (SNIIRAM). A total of 69,958 patients (mean age 78 years; 48% men) were included. The incidence of first hospitalization for HF was 0.14% (≥ 55 years, 0.5%; ≥ 90 years, 3.1%). Compared with controls without HF, patients more frequently presented cardiovascular or other co-morbidities. The hospital mortality rate was 6.4% and the mortality rate during the 30 days after discharge was 4.4% (3.4% without readmission). Among 30-day survivors, all-cause and HF 30-day readmission rates were 18% (< 70 years, 22%; ≥ 90 years, 13%) and 5%, respectively. Reimbursements among 30-day survivors comprised at least a beta-blocker in 54% of cases, diuretics in 85%, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in 67%, a diuretic and ACEI/ARB combination in 23% and a beta-blocker, ACEI/ARB and diuretic combination in 37%. Patients admitted for HF presented high rates of co-morbidity, readmission and death at 30 days, and there remains room for improvement in their drug treatments; these findings indicate the need for improvement in return-home and therapeutic education programmes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. B-type natriuretic peptide predicts 30-day readmission for heart failure but not readmission for other causes.

    PubMed

    Flint, Kelsey M; Allen, Larry A; Pham, Michael; Heidenreich, Paul A

    2014-06-10

    B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a marker for heart failure (HF) severity, but its association with hospital readmission is not well defined. We identified all hospital discharges (n=109 875) with a primary diagnosis of HF in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System from 2006 to 2009. We examined the association between admission (n=53 585), discharge (n=24 326), and change in BNP (n=7187) and 30-day readmission for HF or other causes. Thirty-day HF readmission was associated with elevated admission BNP, elevated discharge BNP, and smaller percent change in BNP from admission to discharge. Patients with a discharge BNP ≥ 1000 ng/L had an unadjusted 30-day HF readmission rate over 3 times as high as patients whose discharge BNP was ≤ 200 ng/L (15% vs. 4.1%). BNP improved discrimination and risk classification for 30-day HF readmission when added to a base clinical model, with discharge BNP having the greatest effect (C-statistic, 0.639 to 0.664 [P<0.0001]; net reclassification improvement, 9% [P<0.0001]). In contrast, 30-day readmission for non-HF causes was not associated with BNP levels during index HF hospitalization. In this study of over 50 000 veterans hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of HF, BNP levels measured during hospitalization were associated with 30-day HF readmission, but not readmissions for other causes. These data may help guide future study aimed at identifying the optimal timing for hospital discharge and help allocate high-intensity, HF-specific transitional care interventions to the patients most likely to benefit. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  13. Which risk-adjustment index performs better in predicting 30-day mortality? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mo; Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Bali, Vishal; Gupta, Parul; Wang, Xin; Johnson, Michael L; Aparasu, Rajender R

    2015-04-01

    Individual comparisons of the performance of risk-adjustment indices have been widely conducted. Few reviews have been conducted to summarize the performance of different risk-adjustment indices. A 30-day mortality rate is widely used to evaluate the quality of care in hospitals by federal agencies like the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. This study examined relative performance of risk-adjustment indices that predict 30-day mortality. Databases including Medline, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for studies that compared risk-adjustment indices. The search protocol included comparative studies in which the performance of risk-adjustment indices were compared across any defined cohort to compare 30-day mortality, including mortality within 30 days and intensive care unit mortality, which lasts less than 30 days. Data were extracted using a structured form and abstract data included author and publication year, population studied (including location, sample size, study time period), comparison indices, outcome studied, results and conclusions from the results. A meta-analytical approach was used to summarize all the studies. Scaled ranking score was used to estimate the relative superiority of any given risk-adjustment indices. A hypergeometric test was carried out to evaluate the performance of risk-adjustment measures. Out of 2805 studies identified, 23 studies met the eligibility criteria. Main risk-adjustment indices used for comparison included Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, Charlson co-morbidity index, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). Based on scaled ranking score, SAPS performed best (score 0.510) among all the risk-adjustment indices. However, based on hypergeometric test, the five measures performed equally well. Although all the selected risk-adjustment indices perform equally well, SAPS seems better than other indices for short

  14. Code-Switching and Pausing: An Interdisciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner-Chloros, Penelope; McEntee-Atalianis, Lisa; Paraskeva, Marilena

    2013-01-01

    This study considers code-switching (CS) and pausing in two sociolinguistically distinct groups in London and Cyprus, bilingual in Greek-Cypriot Dialect (GCD) and English. The characteristics of their speech are examined both in monolingual and bilingual modes (Grosjean, 2001). It was hypothesised that in London Greek-Cypriots, where CS is a…

  15. Recurrent sinus pauses: an atypical presentation of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Amor, Martin Miguel; Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Osofsky, Jeffrey; Holland, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction related to seizures may give rise to a broad spectrum of cardiovascular abnormalities. Among these, ictal bradycardia and conduction delays may be encountered. Failure to recognize these abnormalities may contribute to sudden, unexplained death in epilepsy patients. We report a case of a Haitian female with temporal lobe epilepsy associated with recurrent sinus pauses.

  16. Transient pauses of the bacterial flagellar motor at low load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nord, A. L.; Pedaci, F.; Berry, R. M.

    2016-11-01

    The bacterial flagellar motor (BFM) is the molecular machine responsible for the swimming and chemotaxis of many species of motile bacteria. The BFM is bidirectional, and changes in the rotation direction of the motor are essential for chemotaxis. It has previously been observed that many species of bacteria also demonstrate brief pauses in rotation, though the underlying cause of such events remains poorly understood. We examine the rotation of Escherichia coli under low mechanical load with high spatial and temporal resolution. We observe and characterize transient pauses in rotation in a strain which lacks a functional chemosensory network, showing that such events are a phenomenon separate from a change in rotational direction. Rotating at low load, the BFM of E. coli exhibits about 10 pauses s-1, lasting on average 5 ms, during which time the rotor diffuses with net forwards rotation. Replacing the wild type stators with Na+ chimera stators has no substantial effect on the pausing. We discuss possible causes of such events, which are likely a product of a transient change in either the stator complex or the rotor.

  17. Pause, Prompt, and Praise: The Need for More Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyen, Judith D.; McClelland, David J.

    1994-01-01

    Finds that the effectiveness of the "Pause, Prompt, and Praise" procedure varied according to the method of analysis used: subjective interpretation of gain scores indicated that the procedure was the most effective treatment for both tutees and tutors; the ANOVA indicated that the tutoring experience was effective; whereas the more rigorous…

  18. The Effects of the Pause Procedure on Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korvick, Lynn Marie

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine an instructional strategy intended to enhance engagement in the college classroom. The effects of the pause procedure on classroom engagement and cognitive load were studied. The relationships between levels of classroom engagement and near-term learning outcomes, as well as…

  19. The Effects of the Pause Procedure on Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korvick, Lynn Marie

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine an instructional strategy intended to enhance engagement in the college classroom. The effects of the pause procedure on classroom engagement and cognitive load were studied. The relationships between levels of classroom engagement and near-term learning outcomes, as well as…

  20. Code-Switching and Pausing: An Interdisciplinary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner-Chloros, Penelope; McEntee-Atalianis, Lisa; Paraskeva, Marilena

    2013-01-01

    This study considers code-switching (CS) and pausing in two sociolinguistically distinct groups in London and Cyprus, bilingual in Greek-Cypriot Dialect (GCD) and English. The characteristics of their speech are examined both in monolingual and bilingual modes (Grosjean, 2001). It was hypothesised that in London Greek-Cypriots, where CS is a…

  1. Pause, Prompt, and Praise: The Need for More Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyen, Judith D.; McClelland, David J.

    1994-01-01

    Finds that the effectiveness of the "Pause, Prompt, and Praise" procedure varied according to the method of analysis used: subjective interpretation of gain scores indicated that the procedure was the most effective treatment for both tutees and tutors; the ANOVA indicated that the tutoring experience was effective; whereas the more rigorous…

  2. Particle, Pause and Pattern in American Indian Narrative Verse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymes, Dell

    1980-01-01

    American Indian narrative uses a rhetorical conception of narrative action, following one of two basic types of recurrent formal pattern of lines and verses and sets of verses, in pairs and fours or threes and fives, using pauses and/or syntactic particles to define the patterning, varying between different languages. (MH)

  3. Recurrent Sinus Pauses: An Atypical Presentation of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Eltawansy, Sherif Ali; Osofsky, Jeffrey; Holland, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction related to seizures may give rise to a broad spectrum of cardiovascular abnormalities. Among these, ictal bradycardia and conduction delays may be encountered. Failure to recognize these abnormalities may contribute to sudden, unexplained death in epilepsy patients. We report a case of a Haitian female with temporal lobe epilepsy associated with recurrent sinus pauses. PMID:25328719

  4. 30 Days Wild: Development and Evaluation of a Large-Scale Nature Engagement Campaign to Improve Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Miles; Cormack, Adam; McRobert, Lucy; Underhill, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to increase people’s engagement with and connection to nature, both for human well-being and the conservation of nature itself. In order to suggest ways for people to engage with nature and create a wider social context to normalise nature engagement, The Wildlife Trusts developed a mass engagement campaign, 30 Days Wild. The campaign asked people to engage with nature every day for a month. 12,400 people signed up for 30 Days Wild via an online sign-up with an estimated 18,500 taking part overall, resulting in an estimated 300,000 engagements with nature by participants. Samples of those taking part were found to have sustained increases in happiness, health, connection to nature and pro-nature behaviours. With the improvement in health being predicted by the improvement in happiness, this relationship was mediated by the change in connection to nature. PMID:26890891

  5. 30 Days Wild: Development and Evaluation of a Large-Scale Nature Engagement Campaign to Improve Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Miles; Cormack, Adam; McRobert, Lucy; Underhill, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to increase people's engagement with and connection to nature, both for human well-being and the conservation of nature itself. In order to suggest ways for people to engage with nature and create a wider social context to normalise nature engagement, The Wildlife Trusts developed a mass engagement campaign, 30 Days Wild. The campaign asked people to engage with nature every day for a month. 12,400 people signed up for 30 Days Wild via an online sign-up with an estimated 18,500 taking part overall, resulting in an estimated 300,000 engagements with nature by participants. Samples of those taking part were found to have sustained increases in happiness, health, connection to nature and pro-nature behaviours. With the improvement in health being predicted by the improvement in happiness, this relationship was mediated by the change in connection to nature.

  6. African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-Resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study During the 2006 NAMMA Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Man-Li C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, extended -range (30 -day) high-resolution simulations with the NASA global mesoscale model are conducted to simulate the initiation and propagation of six consecutive African easterly waves (AEWs) from late August to September 2006 and their association with hurricane formation. It is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and 6th AEWs. Remarkable simulations of a mean African easterly jet (AEJ) are also obtained. Nine additional 30 -day experiments suggest that although land surface processes might contribute to the predictability of the AEJ and AEWs, the initiation and detailed evolution of AEWs still depend on the accurate representation of dynamic and land surface initial conditions and their time -varying nonlinear interactions. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is realistically simulated.

  7. No evidence for race and socioeconomic status as independent predictors of 30-day readmission rates following orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Tracey; Yoon, Richard S; Hutzler, Lorraine; Band, Philip; Liublinksa, Victoria; Slover, James; Bosco, Joseph A

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services considers readmissions within 30 days of discharge to be a quality indicator. Hospitals' and eventually physicians' readmission rates will be used to determine payment for services. It is imperative that health care providers understand which patients are at risk for readmission so that they can apply the appropriate preventive interventions. The research team analyzed all orthopedic admissions and readmissions at their institution from September 2008 to April 2011 in this study. Preparing for the next stage in health care reform, identifying any preoperative factors that may place certain patients into a "high-risk" category for readmission following an orthopedic procedure is of paramount importance. This data analysis of more than 13 000 patients noted that race-based and income-based risk factors did not translate into significant risk factors or predictors of 30-day readmission following orthopedic admission.

  8. International Validity of the “HOSPITAL” Score to Predict 30-day Potentially Avoidable Readmissions in Medical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Donzé, Jacques D.; Williams, Mark V.; Robinson, Edmondo J.; Zimlichman, Eyal; Aujesky, Drahomir; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Kripalani, Sunil; Metlay, Joshua P.; Wallington, Tamara; Fletcher, Grant S.; Auerbach, Andrew D.; Schnipper, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Identification of patients at high risk of potentially avoidable readmission allows hospitals to efficiently direct additional care transitions services to the patients most likely to benefit. OBJECTIVE To externally validate the “HOSPITAL” score in an international multicenter study to assess its generalizability. DESIGN International multicenter retrospective cohort study. SETTING 9 large hospitals across 4 different countries. PARTICIPANTS All adult patients consecutively discharged alive from a medical department between January and December, 2011 (117,065 participants). Patients transferred to another acute care facility were excluded. EXPOSURES The “HOSPITAL” score includes the following predictors at discharge: Hemoglobin, discharge from an Oncology service, Sodium level, Procedure during the index admission, Index Type of admission (urgent), number of Admissions during the last 12 months, and Length of stay. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES 30-day potentially avoidable readmission to the index hospital using the SQLape algorithm. RESULTS Of all medical discharges, 14.5% (n=16,992) were followed by a 30-day readmission, and 9.7% (n=11,307) were followed by a 30-day potentially avoidable readmission. The discriminatory power of the “HOSPITAL” score to predict potentially avoidable readmission was good with a C-statistic of 0.72 (95% CI 0.72-0.72). As in the derivation study, patients were classified into 3 risk categories: low (62%), intermediate (24%), and high risk (14%). The estimated proportions of potentially avoidable readmission for each risk category matched the observed proportion, resulting in an excellent calibration (Pearson goodness of fit test P=0.89). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The “HOSPITAL” score identified patients at high risk of 30-day potentially avoidable readmission with moderately high discrimination and excellent calibration when applied to a large international multicenter cohort of medical patients. This score

  9. Using Telehealth to Reduce All-Cause 30-Day Hospital Readmissions among Heart Failure Patients Receiving Skilled Home Health Services

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Melissa; Dempsey, Mary Louise; Huffenberger, Ann; Jost, Sandra; Flynn, Danielle; Norris, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The reduction of all-cause hospital readmission among heart failure (HF) patients is a national priority. Telehealth is one strategy employed to impact this sought-after patient outcome. Prior research indicates varied results on all-cause hospital readmission highlighting the need to understand telehealth processes and optimal strategies in improving patient outcomes. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe how one Medicare-certified home health agency launched and maintains a telehealth program intended to reduce all-cause 30-day hospital readmissions among HF patients receiving skilled home health and report its impact on patient outcomes. Methods Using the Transitional Care Model as a guide, the telehealth program employs a 4G wireless tablet-based system that collects patient vital signs (weight, heart rate, blood pressure and blood oxygenation) via wireless peripherals, and is preloaded with subjective questions related to HF and symptoms and instructional videos. Results Year one all-cause 30-day readmission rate was 19.3%. Fiscal year 2015 ended with an all-cause 30-day readmission rate of 5.2%, a reduction by 14 percentage points (a 73% relative reduction) in three years. Telehealth is now an integral part of the University of Pennsylvania Health System’s readmission reduction program. Conclusions Telehealth was associated with a reduction in all-cause 30-day readmission for one mid-sized Medicare-certified home health agency. A description of the program is presented as well as lessons learned that have significantly contributed to this program’s success. Future expansion of the program is planned. Telehealth is a promising approach to caring for a chronically ill population while improving a patient’s ability for self-care. PMID:27437037

  10. AusSCORE II in predicting 30-day mortality after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Billah, Baki; Huq, Molla M; Smith, Julian A; Sufi, Fahim; Tran, Lavinia; Shardey, Gilbert C; Reid, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    To update the Australian System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (AusSCORE) model for operative estimation of 30-day mortality risk after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in the Australian population. Data were collected by the Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons registry from 2001 to 2011 in 25 hospitals. A total of 31,250 patients underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting and the outcome was 30-day mortality. A total of 2154 (6.9%) patients had 1 or multiple missing values. Missing values were estimated assuming missing completely at random and logistic regression with a generalized estimating equation was used to address within-hospital variance. Bootstrapping methods were used to construct and validate the updated model (AusSCORE II). Also the model was validated on an out-of-creation sample of 4700 patients who underwent bypass surgery in 2012. The average age of the patients was 65.6±12.9 years and 78.6% were male. Thirteen variables were selected in the updated model. The bootstrap discrimination and calibration of the AusSCORE II was very good (receiver operating characteristics [ROC], 82.0%; slope calibration, 0.987). The overall observed/AusSCORE II predicted mortality was 1.63% compared with the original AusSCORE predicted mortality of 1.01%. The validation of the AusSCORE II on the out-of-sample data also showed a high performance of the model (ROC, 84.5%; Hosmer-Lemoshow P value, .7654). The AusSCORE II model provides improved prediction of 30-day mortality and successfully stratifies patient risk. The model will be useful to improve the preoperative consultation regarding risk stratification in terms of 30-day mortality. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predicting 30-Day Readmissions in an Asian Population: Building a Predictive Model by Incorporating Markers of Hospitalization Severity

    PubMed Central

    Low, Lian Leng; Liu, Nan; Wang, Sijia; Thumboo, Julian; Ong, Marcus Eng Hock; Lee, Kheng Hock

    2016-01-01

    Background To reduce readmissions, it may be cost-effective to consider risk stratification, with targeting intervention programs to patients at high risk of readmissions. In this study, we aimed to derive and validate a prediction model including several novel markers of hospitalization severity, and compare the model with the LACE index (Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Charlson comorbidity index, Emergency department visits in past 6 months), an established risk stratification tool. Method This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients ≥ 21 years of age, who were admitted to a tertiary hospital in Singapore from January 1, 2013 through May 31, 2015. Data were extracted from the hospital’s electronic health records. The outcome was defined as unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge from the index hospitalization. Candidate predictive variables were broadly grouped into five categories: Patient demographics, social determinants of health, past healthcare utilization, medical comorbidities, and markers of hospitalization severity. Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the outcome, and receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to compare our model with the LACE index. Results 74,102 cases were enrolled for analysis. Of these, 11,492 patient cases (15.5%) were readmitted within 30 days of discharge. A total of fifteen predictive variables were strongly associated with the risk of 30-day readmissions, including number of emergency department visits in the past 6 months, Charlson Comorbidity Index, markers of hospitalization severity such as ‘requiring inpatient dialysis during index admission, and ‘treatment with intravenous furosemide 40 milligrams or more’ during index admission. Our predictive model outperformed the LACE index by achieving larger area under the curve values: 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77–0.79) versus 0.70 (95% CI: 0.69–0.71). Conclusion Several factors are important for

  12. Usefulness of the Delta Neutrophil Index to Predict 30-Day Mortality in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kong, Taeyoung; In, Sangkook; Park, Yoo Seok; Lee, Hye Sun; Lee, Jong Wook; You, Je Sung; Chung, Hyun Soo; Park, Incheol; Chung, Sung Phil

    2017-10-01

    The delta neutrophil index (DNI), reflecting the fraction of circulating immature granulocytes, is associated with increased mortality in patients with systemic inflammation. It is rapidly and easily measured while performing a complete blood count. This study aimed to determine whether the DNI can predict short-term mortality in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). We retrospectively identified consecutive patients (>18 years old) with UGIH admitted to the ED from January 1, 2015 to February 28, 2016. The diagnosis of UGIH was confirmed using clinical, laboratory, and endoscopic findings. The DNI was determined on each day of hospitalization. The outcome of interest was 30-day mortality. Overall, 432 patients with UGIH met our inclusion criteria. The multivariate Cox regression model demonstrated that higher DNI values on days 0 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.17; P = 0.012) and 1 (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.24; P = 0.001) were strong independent predictors of short-term mortality. Further, a DNI >1% at ED admission was associated with an increased risk (HR, 40.9; 95% CI, 20.8-80.5; P < 0.001) of 30-day mortality. The optimal cut-off value for DNI on day 1 was 2.6%; this was associated with an increased hazard of 30-day mortality following UGIH (HR, 7.85; 95% CI, 3.59-17.15; P < 0.001). The DNI can be measured rapidly and simply at ED admission without additional cost or time burden. Increased DNI values independently predict 30-day mortality in patients with UGIH.

  13. Predicting the risk of unplanned readmission or death within 30 days of discharge after a heart failure hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Au, Anita G; McAlister, Finlay A; Bakal, Jeffrey A; Ezekowitz, Justin; Kaul, Padma; van Walraven, Carl

    2012-09-01

    The accuracy of current models to predict the risk of unplanned readmission or death after a heart failure (HF) hospitalization is uncertain. We linked four administrative databases in Alberta to identify all adults discharged alive after a HF hospitalization between April 1999 and 2009. We randomly selected one episode of care per patient and evaluated the accuracy of five administrative data-based models (4 already published, 1 new) for predicting risk of death or unplanned readmission within 30 days of discharge. Over 10 years, 59652 adults (mean age 76, 50% women) were discharged after a HF hospitalization. Within 30 days of discharge, 11199 (19%) died or had an unplanned readmission. All 5 administrative data models exhibited moderate discrimination for this outcome (c-statistic between 0.57 and 0.61). Neither Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-endorsed model exhibited substantial improvements over the Charlson score for prediction of 30-day post-discharge death or unplanned readmission. However, a new model incorporating length of index hospital stay, age, Charlson score, and number of emergency room visits in the prior 6 months (the LaCE index) exhibited a 20.5% net reclassification improvement (95% CI, 18.4%-22.5%) over the Charlson score and a 19.1% improvement (95% CI, 17.1%-21.2%) over the CMS readmission model. None of the administrative database models are sufficiently accurate to be used to identify which HF patients require extra resources at discharge. Models which incorporate length of stay such as the LaCE appear superior to current CMS-endorsed models for risk adjusting the outcome of "death or readmission within 30 days of discharge". Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Marijuana use motives: concurrent relations to frequency of past 30-day use and anxiety sensitivity among young adult marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bernstein, Amit

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation examined two theoretically relevant aspects of marijuana motives using the Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) [Simons, J., Correia, C. J., Carey, K. B., & Borsari, B. E. (1998). Validating a five-factor marijuana motives measure: Relations with use, problems, and alcohol motives. Journal of Counseling Psychology 45, 265-273] among 141 (78 female) young adults (M(age)=20.17, S.D.=3.34). The first objective was to evaluate the incremental validity of marijuana motives in relation to frequency of past 30-day use after controlling for the theoretically relevant factors of the number of years using marijuana (lifetime), current levels of alcohol, as well as tobacco smoking use. As expected, coping, enhancement, social, and expansion motives each were uniquely and significantly associated with past 30-day marijuana use over and above the covariates; conformity motives were not a significant predictor. A second aim was to explore whether coping, but no other marijuana motive, was related to the emotional vulnerability individual difference factor of anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety). As hypothesized, after controlling for number of years using marijuana (lifetime), past 30-day marijuana use, current levels of alcohol consumption, and cigarettes smoked per day, anxiety sensitivity was incrementally and uniquely related to coping motives for marijuana use, but not other motives. These results are discussed in relation to the clinical implications of better understanding the role of motivation for marijuana use among emotionally vulnerable young adults.

  15. Association between advanced practice nursing and 30-day mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kojiro; Matsui, Hiroki; Yamana, Hayato; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Imamura, Tomoaki; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the association between advanced practice nursing and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of advanced practice nurses (APN), that is, certified nurse (CN) and certified nurse specialist (CNS) in intensive care, is associated with 30-day mortality for mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. Using a Japanese national in-patient database, we identified 45,620 patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) and received mechanical ventilation within 2 days of hospital admission between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2015. We assessed the association between the number of CN/CNSs per 10 adult ICU beds and 30-day mortality. We examined 8955 patients in 134 hospitals without CN/CNSs and 36,665 in 284 hospitals with CN/CNSs. Overall, the number of CN/CNSs per 10 adult ICU beds ranged from 0 to 7.5. In the multivariable analysis, the number of CN/CNSs per 10 adult ICU beds was significantly associated with a reduction in 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.00; P=0.023). Our findings show that APNs may play an important role in improving patient outcome in the adult ICU. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 30-day mortality after systemic anticancer treatment for breast and lung cancer in England: a population-based, observational study.

    PubMed

    Wallington, Michael; Saxon, Emma B; Bomb, Martine; Smittenaar, Rebecca; Wickenden, Matthew; McPhail, Sean; Rashbass, Jem; Chao, David; Dewar, John; Talbot, Denis; Peake, Michael; Perren, Timothy; Wilson, Charles; Dodwell, David

    2016-09-01

    30-day mortality might be a useful indicator of avoidable harm to patients from systemic anticancer treatments, but data for this indicator are limited. The Systemic Anti-Cancer Therapy (SACT) dataset collated by Public Health England allows the assessment of factors affecting 30-day mortality in a national patient population. The aim of this first study based on the SACT dataset was to establish national 30-day mortality benchmarks for breast and lung cancer patients receiving SACT in England, and to start to identify where patient care could be improved. In this population-based study, we included all women with breast cancer and all men and women with lung cancer residing in England, who were 24 years or older and who started a cycle of SACT in 2014 irrespective of the number of previous treatment cycles or programmes, and irrespective of their position within the disease trajectory. We calculated 30-day mortality after the most recent cycle of SACT for those patients. We did logistic regression analyses, adjusting for relevant factors, to examine whether patient, tumour, or treatment-related factors were associated with the risk of 30-day mortality. For each cancer type and intent, we calculated 30-day mortality rates and patient volume at the hospital trust level, and contrasted these in a funnel plot. Between Jan 1, and Dec, 31, 2014, we included 23 228 patients with breast cancer and 9634 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in our regression and trust-level analyses. 30-day mortality increased with age for both patients with breast cancer and patients with NSCLC treated with curative intent, and decreased with age for patients receiving palliative SACT (breast curative: odds ratio [OR] 1·085, 99% CI 1·040-1·132; p<0·0001; NSCLC curative: 1·045, 1·013-1·079; p=0·00033; breast palliative: 0·987, 0·977-0·996; p=0·00034; NSCLC palliative: 0·987, 0·976-0·998; p=0·0015). 30-day mortality was also significantly higher for patients

  17. Outpatient Follow-Up versus 30-day Readmission among General and Vascular Surgery Patients: A Case for Redesigning Transitional Care

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Richard Scott; Fernandes-Taylor, Sara; Rathouz, Paul J.; Saha, Sandeep; Wiseman, Jason T.; Havlena, Jeffrey; Matsumura, Jon; Kent, K. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between early outpatient follow-up and 30-day readmission has not been evaluated in any surgical population. Our study characterizes the relationship between outpatient follow-up and early readmissions among surgical patients. Methods We queried the medical record at a large, tertiary care institution (July 2008-December 2012) to determine rates of 30-day outpatient follow-up and readmission for general or vascular surgical procedures. Results The majority of discharges for general (84% of 7552) and vascular (75% of 2362) surgery had a follow-up visit before readmission or within 30 days of discharge. General surgery patients who were not readmitted had high rates of follow-up (88%) and received follow-up at approximately 2-weeks post-discharge (median time 11 days after discharge). In contrast, readmitted general surgery patients received first follow-up at one week (a median time of 8 days); 49% had follow-up. Vascular surgery patients showed a similar trend. Over half of patients readmitted after follow-up were readmitted within 24 hours of their most recent outpatient visit. Conclusions Current routine follow-up does not occur early enough to detect adverse events and prevent readmission. Early outpatient care may prevent readmission in some patients, but often serves as a conduit for readmission among patients already experiencing complications. PMID:25239351

  18. Patient isolation precautions and 30-day risk of readmission or death after hospital discharge: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Darren; Majumdar, Sumit R; McAlister, Finlay A

    2016-02-01

    Concerns have been raised that isolation precautions may have unintended consequences. The relationship between patient isolation and the 30-day risk of readmission or death among patients discharged from a general medicine ward was examined. A prospective cohort study of adult patients discharged to the community from seven general internal medicine wards in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, from October 2013 to November 2014, was performed. Patients under contact, respiratory, or droplet precautions were considered isolated. Covariates measured at discharge included the Charlson comorbidity score, LACE index, clinical frailty, depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and patient satisfaction. Outcomes were measured at 30 days by telephone follow-up and provincial electronic health record query. Of 495 patients (mean age 62 years, 51% female), 75 (18%) were isolated during their admission. Isolated and non-isolated patients had similar lengths of stay (6.2 vs. 6.2 days), depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and satisfaction scores at discharge (all p-values non-significant). At 30 days, 85 (17.2%) patients had been readmitted or had died (20.0% of isolated patients vs. 16.7% of non-isolated patients; adjusted odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.57-2.18). In-hospital isolation does not appear to have an adverse impact on outcomes once patients are discharged from hospital. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Endovascular or open repair strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: 30 day outcomes from IMPROVE randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Powell, Janet T; Sweeting, Michael J; Thompson, Matthew M; Ashleigh, Ray; Bell, Rachel; Gomes, Manuel; Greenhalgh, Roger M; Grieve, Richard; Heatley, Francine; Hinchliffe, Robert J; Thompson, Simon G; Ulug, Pinar

    2014-01-13

    To assess whether a strategy of endovascular repair (if aortic morphology is suitable, open repair if not) versus open repair reduces early mortality for patients with suspected ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. Randomised controlled trial. 30 vascular centres (29 UK, 1 Canadian), 2009-13. 613 eligible patients (480 men) with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured aneurysm. 316 patients were randomised to the endovascular strategy (275 confirmed ruptures, 174 anatomically suitable for endovascular repair) and 297 to open repair (261 confirmed ruptures). 30 day mortality, with 24 hour and in-hospital mortality, costs, and time and place of discharge as secondary outcomes. 30 day mortality was 35.4% (112/316) in the endovascular strategy group and 37.4% (111/297) in the open repair group: odds ratio 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.28; P=0.62); odds ratio after adjustment for age, sex, and Hardman index 0.94 (0.67 to 1.33). Women may benefit more than men (interaction test P=0.02) from the endovascular strategy: odds ratio 0.44 (0.22 to 0.91) versus 1.18 (0.80 to 1.75). 30 day mortality for patients with confirmed rupture was 36.4% (100/275) in the endovascular strategy group and 40.6% (106/261) in the open repair group (P=0.31). More patients in the endovascular strategy than in the open repair group were discharged directly to home (189/201 (94%) v 141/183 (77%); P<0.001). Average 30 day costs were similar between the randomised groups, with an incremental cost saving for the endovascular strategy versus open repair of £1186 (€1420; $1939) (95% confidence interval -£625 to £2997). A strategy of endovascular repair was not associated with significant reduction in either 30 day mortality or cost. Longer term cost effectiveness evaluations are needed to assess the full effects of the endovascular strategy in both men and women. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN48334791.

  20. Relationship between platelet count and 30-day clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary interventions. Pooled analysis of four ISAR trials.

    PubMed

    Iijima, Raisuke; Ndrepepa, Gjin; Mehilli, Julinda; Bruskina, Olga; Schulz, Stefanie; Schömig, Albert; Kastrati, Adnan

    2007-10-01

    Platelets play an important role in the development of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of platelet count on the outcome of patients undergoing PCI after pre-treatment with clopidogrel is unknown. The study included 5,256 patients enrolled in four randomized trials - ISAR-REACT, ISAR-SMART2, ISAR-SWEET, and ISAR-REACT2 - which assessed the value of abciximab in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI after pre-treatment with 600 mg of clopidogrel. Platelet count was measured at baseline before PCI. Primary endpoint was the 30-day incidence of MACE, secondary endpoint was mortality. The tertiles of platelet counts were: lower tertile (<198 x 10(9)/L; n = 1,726), middle tertile (198-244 x 10(9)/L; n = 1,750) and upper tertile (>244 x 10(9)/L; n = 1,780). The 30-day incidence of MACE was 6.7% (n = 116) among patients of the lower tertile, 6.3% (n = 111) among patients of the middle tertile, and 7.0% (n = 124) among patients of the upper tertile (P = 0.76). The 30-day mortality was 1.2% (n = 22) among patients of the upper tertile, 0.5% (n = 9) among patients of middle tertile and 0.6% (n = 11) among patients of the lower tertile (P = 0.04). Q-wave myocardial infarction occurred in 1.3% of patients (n = 23) in the upper tertile, 0.7% of patients (n = 13) in the middle tertile and 0.5% of patients (n = 8) in the lower tertile (P = 0.02). Platelet count was an independent correlate of 30-day mortality (hazard ratio 2.69, 95% confidence interval 1.08-6.67; P = 0.033 for the third vs. the first tertile). In conclusion, in patients with CAD undergoing PCI after pre-treatment with 600 mg clopidogrel, baseline platelet count predicts 30-day mortality.

  1. Emergency department evaluation and 30-day readmission after craniotomy for primary brain tumor resection in New York State.

    PubMed

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon

    2017-01-06

    OBJECTIVE Fragmentation of care has been recognized as a major contributor to 30-day readmissions after surgical procedures. The authors investigated the association of evaluation in the hospital where the original procedure was performed with the rate of 30-day readmissions for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) after craniotomy for primary brain tumor resection. METHODS A cohort study was conducted, involving patients who were evaluated in the ED within 30 days after discharge following a craniotomy for primary brain tumor resection between 2009 and 2013, and who were registered in the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database of New York State. A propensity score-adjusted model was used to control for confounding, whereas a mixed-effects model accounted for clustering at the hospital level. RESULTS Of the 610 patients presenting to the ED, 422 (69.2%) were evaluated in a hospital different from the one where the original procedure was performed (28.9% were readmitted), and 188 (30.8%) were evaluated at the original hospital (20.3% were readmitted). In a multivariable analysis, the authors demonstrated that being evaluated in the ED of the original hospital was associated with a decreased rate of 30-day readmission (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.41-0.98). Similar associations were found in a mixed-effects logistic regression model (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.40-0.96) and a propensity score-adjusted model (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.41-0.98). This corresponds to one less readmission per 12 patients evaluated in the hospital where the original procedure was performed. CONCLUSIONS Using a comprehensive all-payer cohort of patients in New York State who were evaluated in the ED after craniotomy for primary brain tumor resection, the authors identified an association of assessment in the hospital where the original procedure was performed with a lower rate of 30-day readmissions. This underscores the potential importance of continuity of care in

  2. Factors associated with 30-day mortality in elderly inpatients with community acquired pneumonia during 2 influenza seasons.

    PubMed

    Torner, Núria; Izquierdo, Conchita; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Chamorro, Judith; Espejo, Elena; Fernández-Sierra, Amelia; Domínguez, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia unrelated to hospitals or extended-care facilities. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with 30-day mortality in patients with CAP aged ≥ 65 y admitted to 20 hospitals in 7 Spanish regions during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 influenza seasons. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with 30-day mortality. The adjusted model included variables selected by backward elimination with a cut off of < 0.02. A total of 1928 CAP cases were recorded; 60.7% were male, 46.67% were aged 75-84 years, and 30-day mortality was 7.6% (n = 146). Pneumococcal vaccination had a significant protective effect (OR 0.68, 95% CI, 0.48-0.96; p = 0.03) and influenza vaccination in any 3 preceding seasons slight protective effect against CAP (OR 0.72, 95% CI, 0.51-1.02;p = 0.06). Factors significantly associated with 30-day mortality were having a degree of dependence (aOR 3.67, 95% CI, 2.34-5.75; p < 0,001); age ≥ 85 y (OR 3.01, 95% CI, 1.71-5.30; p < 0.001), liver impairment (aOR 2.41, 95% CI, 1.10-5.31; p = 0.03); solid organ neoplasm (aOR 2.24, 95% CI, 1.46-3.45; p < 0.001), impaired cognitive function (aOR 1.93, 95% CI, 1.22-3.05; p = 0.005), and ICU admittance (aOR2.56, 95% CI, 1.27-5.16; p = 0.009); length of stay (aOR 1.56, 95% CI, 1.02 - 2.40; p = 0.04) and cardio-respiratory resuscitation (aOR 7.75, 95% CI, 1.20 - 49.98; p = 0.03). No association was observed for other comorbidities such as chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) or heart conditions in the adjusted model. Offering both pneumococcal and influenza vaccination to the elderly may improve 30-day mortality in patients with CAP.

  3. Oral Blending in Young Children: Effects of Sound Pauses, Initial Sound, and Word Familiarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisberg, Paul; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Results of two experiments involving kindergarten and first grade students indicate that oral blending of dictated sounds into consonant-vowel-consonant words was markedly and significantly better when no pauses intervened between sounds than when pauses of one or three seconds intervened. Interactions between pause interval and word familiarity…

  4. Responsible gambling tools: pop-up messages and pauses on video lottery terminals.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Martin; Ladouceur, Robert; Sévigny, Serge

    2006-09-01

    The authors examined the effect of messages and pauses, presented on video lottery terminal screens, on erroneous beliefs and persistence to play. At posttest, the strength of erroneous beliefs was lower for participants who received messages conveying information about randomness in gambling as compared to those who received pauses. Pauses also diminished the strength of erroneous beliefs, and there was no difference between the effects of pauses and messages on the number of games played. The authors discuss these results in terms of the use of messages and pauses on video lottery terminals as a strategy for promoting responsible gambling.

  5. Effects of leg strength and bicycle ergometry exercise on cardiovascular deconditioning after 30-day head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Liu, Yusheng; Sun, Hongyi; Zhao, Dongming; Wang, Yue; Wu, Ping; Ni, Chengzhi

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the intermittent leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could attenuate cardiovascular deconditioning induced by prolonged -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR). Fifteen male subjects were randomly allocated into group A ( n=5, 30 days HDBR without exercise), group B ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with leg muscular strength exercise) and group C ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with bicycle ergometry exercise). The orthostatic tolerance (OT) was determined by +75°/20 min head-up tilt (HUT) test and the submaximal exercise capacity was determined by bicycle ergometry before and after HDBR. The results were as follows: (1) Compared with that before HDBR, OT time decreased dramatically by 57.6% ( p<0.001) after HDBR in group A, while it decreased by 36.4% ( p=0.084) in group B and by 34.7% ( p=0.062) in group C. (2) Compared with that before HDBR, the submaximal exercise time decreased significantly by 17.7% ( p<0.05) and 21.1% ( p<0.05) in groups A and B, respectively, after HDBR. However, it had no change (+1.3%, p>0.77) in group C. (3) compared with that before HDBR, the changes of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were slightly improved in group B and C, while deteriorated in group A during orthostatic test and exercise test after HDBR. The results indicate that leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could partially attenuate the cardiovascular deconditioning induced by 30 d HDBR, and the latter exercise training could fully provide the protection for the loss of exercise capacity.

  6. Accuracy of 30-Day Recall for Components of Sexual Function and the Moderating Effects of Gender and Mood

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li; Dombeck, Carrie B.; Broderick, Joan E.; Snyder, Denise C.; Williams, Megan S.; Fawzy, Maria R.; Flynn, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite the ubiquity of 1-month recall periods for measures of sexual function, there is limited evidence for how well recalled responses correspond to individuals’ actual daily experiences. Aim To characterize the correspondence between daily sexual experiences and 1-month recall of those experiences. Methods Following a baseline assessment of sexual functioning, health, and demographic characteristics, 202 adults from the general population (101 women, 101 men) were recruited to complete daily assessments of their sexual function online for 30 days and a single recall measures of sexual function at day 30. Main Outcome Measures At the baseline and 30-day follow-ups, participants answered items asking about sexual satisfaction, sexual activities, interest, interfering factors, orgasm, sexual functioning, and use of therapeutic aids during the previous 30 days. Participants also completed a measure of positive and negative affect at follow-up. The main outcome measures were agreement between the daily and 1-month recall versions of the sexual function items. Results Accuracy of recall varied depending on the item and on the gender and mood of the respondent. Recall was better (low bias and higher correlations) for sexual activities, vaginal discomfort, erectile function, and more frequently used therapeutic aids. Recall was poorer for interest, affectionate behaviors (eg, kissing), and orgasm-related items. Men more than women overestimated frequency of interest and masturbation. Concurrent mood was related to over- or underreporting for 6 items addressing the frequency of masturbation and vaginal intercourse, erectile function, and orgasm. Conclusions A 1-month recall period seems acceptable for many aspects of sexual function in this population, but recall for some items was poor. Researchers should be aware that concurrent mood can have a powerful biasing effect on reports of sexual function. PMID:23802907

  7. Hospital Nursing and 30-Day Readmissions among Medicare Patients with Heart Failure, Acute Myocardial Infarction, and Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Ma, Chenjuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Provisions of the Affordable Care Act that increase hospitals’ financial accountability for preventable readmissions have heightened interest in identifying system-level interventions to reduce readmissions. Objectives To determine the relationship between hospital nursing; i.e. nurse work environment, nurse staffing levels, and nurse education, and 30-day readmissions among Medicare patients with heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and pneumonia. Method and Design Analysis of linked data from California, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that included information on the organization of hospital nursing (i.e., work environment, patient-to-nurse ratios, and proportion of nurses holding a BSN degree) from a survey of nurses, as well as patient discharge data, and American Hospital Association Annual Survey data. Robust logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between nursing factors and 30-day readmission. Results Nearly one-quarter of heart failure index admissions (23.3% [n=39,954]); 19.1% (n=12,131) of myocardial infarction admissions; and 17.8% (n=25,169) of pneumonia admissions were readmitted within 30-days. Each additional patient per nurse in the average nurse’s workload was associated with a 7% higher odds of readmission for heart failure (OR=1.07, [1.05–1.09]), 6% for pneumonia patients (OR=1.06, [1.03–1.09]), and 9% for myocardial infarction patients (OR=1.09, [1.05–1.13]). Care in a hospital with a good versus poor work environment was associated with odds of readmission that were 7% lower for heart failure (OR = 0.93, [0.89–0.97]); 6% lower for myocardial infarction (OR = 0.94, [0.88–0.98]); and 10% lower for pneumonia (OR = 0.90, [0.85–0.96]) patients. Conclusions Improving nurses’ work environments and staffing may be effective interventions for preventing readmissions. PMID:23151591

  8. Digoxin Use and Lower 30-Day All-Cause Readmission for Medicare Beneficiaries Hospitalized for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ali; Bourge, Robert C.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Patel, Kanan; Morgan, Charity J.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Aban, Inmaculada B.; Love, Thomas E.; Yancy, Clyde W.; Deedwania, Prakash; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Filippatos, Gerasimos S.; Anker, Stefan D.; Allman, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Heart failure is the leading cause for hospital readmission, the reduction of which is a priority under the Affordable Care Act. Digoxin reduces 30-day all-cause hospital admission in chronic systolic heart failure. Whether digoxin is effective in reducing readmission after hospitalization for acute decompensation remains unknown. METHODS Of the 5153 Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for acute heart failure and not receiving digoxin, 1054 (20%) received new discharge prescriptions for digoxin. Propensity scores for digoxin use, estimated for each of the 5153 patients, were used to assemble a matched cohort of 1842 (921 pairs) patients (mean age, 76 years; 56% women; 25% African American) receiving and not receiving digoxin, who were balanced on 55 baseline characteristics. RESULTS 30-day all-cause readmission occurred in 17% and 22% of matched patients receiving and not receiving digoxin, respectively (hazard ratio {HR} for digoxin, 0.77; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.63–0.95). This beneficial association was observed only in those with ejection fraction <45% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47–0.83), but not in those with ejection fraction ≥45% (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.60–1.37; p for interaction, 0.145), a difference that persisted throughout first 12-month post-discharge (p for interaction, 0.019). HRs (95% CIs) for 12-month heart failure readmission and all-cause mortality were 0.72 (0.61–0.86) and 0.83 (0.70–0.98), respectively. CONCLUSIONS In Medicare beneficiaries with systolic heart failure, a discharge prescription of digoxin was associated with lower 30-day all-cause hospital readmission, which was maintained at 12 months, and was not at the expense of higher mortality. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24257326

  9. Predicting 30-Day Mortality for Patients With Acute Heart Failure in the Emergency Department: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Miró, Òscar; Rossello, Xavier; Gil, Víctor; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Llorens, Pere; Herrero-Puente, Pablo; Jacob, Javier; Bueno, Héctor; Pocock, Stuart J

    2017-10-03

    Physicians in the emergency department (ED) need additional tools to stratify patients with acute heart failure (AHF) according to risk. To predict mortality using data that are readily available at ED admission. Prospective cohort study. 34 Spanish EDs. The derivation cohort included 4867 consecutive ED patients admitted during 2009 to 2011. The validation cohort comprised 3229 patients admitted in 2014. Eighty-eight candidate risk factors and 30-day mortality. Thirteen independent risk factors were identified in the derivation cohort and were combined into an overall score, the MEESSI-AHF (Multiple Estimation of risk based on the Emergency department Spanish Score In patients with AHF) score. This score predicted 30-day mortality with excellent discrimination (c-statistic, 0.836) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.99) and provided a steep gradient in 30-day mortality across risk groups (<2% for patients in the 2 lowest risk quintiles and 45% in the highest risk decile). These characteristics were confirmed in the validation cohort (c-statistic, 0.828). Multiple sensitivity analyses did not find important amounts of confounding or bias. The study was confined to a single country. Participating EDs were not selected randomly. Many patients had missing data. Measurement of some risk factors was subjective. This tool has excellent discrimination and calibration and was validated in a different cohort from the one that was used to develop it. Physicians can consider using this tool to inform clinical decisions as further studies are done to determine whether the tool enhances physician decision making and improves patient outcomes. Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spanish Ministry of Health; Fundació La Marató de TV3; and Catalonia Govern.

  10. Impact of Public Reporting of 30-day Mortality on Timing of Death after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hua, May; Scales, Damon C; Cooper, Zara; Pinto, Ruxandra; Moitra, Vivek; Wunsch, Hannah

    2017-09-13

    Recent reports have raised concerns that public reporting of 30-day mortality after cardiac surgery may delay decisions to withdraw life-sustaining therapies for some patients. The authors sought to examine whether timing of mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery significantly increases after day 30 in Massachusetts, a state that reports 30-day mortality. The authors used New York as a comparator state, which reports combined 30-day and all in-hospital mortality, irrespective of time since surgery. The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery in hospitals in Massachusetts and New York between 2008 and 2013. The authors calculated the empiric daily hazard of in-hospital death without censoring on hospital discharge, and they used joinpoint regression to identify significant changes in the daily hazard over time. In Massachusetts and New York, 24,864 and 63,323 patients underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery, respectively. In-hospital mortality was low, with 524 deaths (2.1%) in Massachusetts and 1,398 (2.2%) in New York. Joinpoint regression did not identify a change in the daily hazard of in-hospital death at day 30 or 31 in either state; significant joinpoints were identified on day 10 (95% CI, 7 to 15) for Massachusetts and days 2 (95% CI, 2 to 3) and 12 (95% CI, 8 to 15) for New York. In Massachusetts, a state with a long history of publicly reporting cardiac surgery outcomes at day 30, the authors found no evidence of increased mortality occurring immediately after day 30 for patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These findings suggest that delays in withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy do not routinely occur as an unintended consequence of this type of public reporting.

  11. Doubling of 30-Day Mortality by 90 Days After Esophagectomy: A Critical Measure of Outcomes for Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    In, Haejin; Palis, Bryan E; Merkow, Ryan P; Posner, Mitchell C; Ferguson, Mark K; Winchester, David P; Pezzi, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    Our objectives were to (1) compare 30- and 90-day mortality rates after esophagectomy, (2) compare drivers of 30- and 90-day mortality, and (3) examine whether 90-day mortality affects hospital rankings. Operative mortality has traditionally been assessed at 30 days. Ninety-day mortality has been suggested as a more appropriate indicator of quality, particularly after complex cancer surgery. Esophagectomies for nonmetastatic esophageal cancer patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2011 were identified in the National Cancer Data Base. Mortality rates were examined by patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and hospital procedural volume. Risk-adjusted hierarchical logistic regression models examined hospital performance for mortality. A total of 15,796 esophagectomy patients at 977 hospitals were available for analysis. Ninety-day overall mortality was more than double the 30-day mortality (8.9% vs 4.2%; P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, while both 30- and 90-day mortality were associated with patient factors such as age, comorbidity, and hospital volume, only 90-day mortality was influenced by tumor- and management-related variables such as stage, tumor location, and receipt of neoadjuvant therapy. Hospital performance was examined as top 10%, middle 10% to 90%, and lowest 10% as ranked using risk-adjusted odds of mortality. There was moderate correlation between ranking based on 30- and 90-day mortality [weighted κ = 0.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.52)]. Compared with 30-day mortality rankings, nearly 20% of hospitals changed their ranking category when 90-day mortality rankings were used. Examination of 90-day mortality after esophagectomy reflects cancer patient management decisions and may provide actionable targets for quality improvement.

  12. Performance of the PSI and CURB-65 scoring systems in predicting 30-day mortality in healthcare-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Zamora, Efrén; Medina-González, Alfredo; Zamora-Pérez, Liliana; Vázquez-Yáñez, Andrés; Guzmán-Esquivel, José; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín

    2017-08-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is the leading cause of infection in a hospital setting and is associated with a high mortality rate. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, age≥65 (CURB-65) systems in predicting 30-day mortality in HCAP in adult patients. A cross-sectional study took place and data from 109 non-immunocompromised individuals aged>18 years were analyzed. The clinical diagnosis of HCAP included the presence of radiographic infiltrates in patients≥48hours after hospital admission. The PSI and CURB-65 scores were calculated and performance measures were estimated. Summary statistics were used to describe the study sample. The PSI and CURB-65 scores were calculated based on 20 and 5 criteria, respectively, and the performance indicators of the screening tools were estimated. The overall 30-day mortality was 59.6%. At every given threshold, PSI sensitivity was higher, but showed a lower specificity than the CURB-65, and the highest Youden index (0.392) was observed at cut-off V in the PSI. The area under the ROC curve was 0.737 (95% CI: 0.646-0.827) and 0.698 (95% CI: 0.600-0.797) using the PSI and CURB-65 systems, respectively (P=.323). Our findings suggest that the performance of the PSI and CURB-65 is reasonable for predicting 30-day mortality in adult HCAP patients and may be used in healthcare settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. A space maintainability experiment aboard the Ben Franklin submersible during the 30-day Gulf Stream drift mission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; May, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    In the summer of 1969, a deep submersible drifted for 30 days below the surface of the Gulf Stream, while operated by a six man crew. The main purpose of the mission was oceanographic research. The crew's activities and completely self-contained environment resembled those of a space station such as Skylab. Because of these similarities aspects of onboard vehicle maintenance during the actual conduct of a scientific mission were investigated. The maintainability study was accomplished in six distinct phases. Two useful plots of manpower distribution were developed. A maintenance action summary is presented in a table.

  14. Long-acting bronchodilators with or without inhaled corticosteroids and 30-day readmission in patients hospitalized for COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bishwakarma, Raju; Zhang, Wei; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Sharma, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    Background The ability of a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and long-acting beta 2 agonists (LABAs; long-acting bronchodilators, LABDs) with or without inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) to reduce early readmission in hospitalized patients with COPD is unknown. Methods We studied a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare parts A, B and D and hospitalized for COPD in 2011. We examined prescriptions filled for LABDs with or without ICSs (LABDs±ICSs) within 90 days prior to and 30 days after hospitalization. Primary outcome was the 30-day readmission rate between “users” and “nonusers” of LABDs±ICSs. Propensity score matching and sensitivity analysis were performed by limiting analysis to patients hospitalized for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD). Among 6,066 patients hospitalized for COPD, 3,747 (61.8%) used LABDs±ICSs during the specified period. The “user” and “nonuser” groups had similar rates of all-cause emergency room (ER) visits and readmissions within 30 days of discharge date (22.4% vs 20.7%, P-value 0.11; 18.0% vs 17.8%, P-value 0.85, respectively). However, the “users” had higher rates of COPD-related ER visits (5.3% vs 3.4%, P-value 0.0006), higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.47 (95% CI, 1.11–1.93) and readmission (7.8% vs 5.0%, P-value <0.0001 and aOR 1.48 [95% CI, 1.18–1.86]) than “nonusers”. After propensity score matching, the aOR of COPD-related ER visits was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.07–1.96) and that of readmission was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.04–1.73). The results were similar when restricted to patients hospitalized for AECOPD. Conclusion Use of LABDs±ICSs did not reduce 30-day readmissions in patients hospitalized for COPD. PMID:28203071

  15. An Australian risk prediction model for 30-day mortality after isolated coronary artery bypass: the AusSCORE.

    PubMed

    Reid, Christopher; Billah, Baki; Dinh, Diem; Smith, Julian; Skillington, Peter; Yii, Michael; Seevanayagam, Seven; Mohajeri, Morteza; Shardey, Gil

    2009-10-01

    Our objective was to identify risk factors associated with 30-day mortality after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in the Australian context and to develop a preoperative model for 30-day mortality risk prediction. Preoperative risk associated with cardiac surgery can be ascertained through a variety of risk prediction models, none of which is specific to the Australian population. Recently, it was shown that the widely used EuroSCORE model validated poorly for an Australian cohort. Hence, a valid model is required to appropriately guide surgeons and patients in assessing preoperative risk. Data from the Australasian Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons database project was used. All patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting between July 2001 and June 2005 were included for analysis. The data were divided into creation and validation sets. The data in the creation set was used to develop the model and then the model was validated in the validation set. Preoperative variables with a P value of less than .25 in chi(2) analysis were entered into multiple logistic regression analysis to develop a preoperative predictive model. Bootstrap and backward elimination methods were used to identify variables that are truly independent predictors of mortality, and 6 candidate models were identified. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and prediction mean square error were used to select the final model (AusSCORE) from this group of candidate models. The AusSCORE model was then validated by average receiver operating characteristic, the P value for the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, and prediction mean square error obtained from n-fold validation. Over the 4-year period, 11,823 patients underwent cardiac surgery, of whom 65.9% (7709) had isolated coronary bypass procedures. The 30-day mortality rate for this group was 1.74% (134/7709). Factors selected as independent predictors in the preoperative isolated coronary bypass AusSCORE model

  16. Income inequality and 30 day outcomes after acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lindenauer, Peter K; Lagu, Tara; Rothberg, Michael B; Avrunin, Jill; Pekow, Penelope S; Wang, Yongfei; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2013-02-14

    To examine the association between income inequality and the risk of mortality and readmission within 30 days of hospitalization. Retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries in the United States. Hierarchical, logistic regression models were developed to estimate the association between income inequality (measured at the US state level) and a patient's risk of mortality and readmission, while sequentially controlling for patient, hospital, other state, and patient socioeconomic characteristics. We considered a 0.05 unit increase in the Gini coefficient as a measure of income inequality. US acute care hospitals. Patients aged 65 years and older, and hospitalized in 2006-08 with a principal diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia. Risk of death within 30 days of admission or rehospitalization for any cause within 30 days of discharge. The potential number of excess deaths and readmissions associated with higher levels of inequality in US states in the three highest quarters of income inequality were compared with corresponding data in US states in the lowest quarter. Mortality analyses included 555,962 admissions (4348 hospitals) for acute myocardial infarction, 1,092,285 (4484) for heart failure, and 1,146,414 (4520); readmission analyses included 553,037 (4262), 1,345,909 (4494), and 1,345,909 (4524) admissions, respectively. In 2006-08, income inequality in US states (as measured by the average Gini coefficient over three years) varied from 0.41 in Utah to 0.50 in New York. Multilevel models showed no significant association between income inequality and mortality within 30 days of admission for patients with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia. By contrast, income inequality was associated with rehospitalization (acute myocardial infarction, risk ratio 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.15), heart failure 1.07 (1.01 to 1.12), pneumonia 1.09 (1.03 to 1.15)). Further adjustment for individual income

  17. Recent trends in 30-day mortality in patients with blunt splenic injury: A nationwide trauma database study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Chie; Tagami, Takashi; Matsumoto, Hisashi; Matsuda, Kiyoshi; Kim, Shiei; Moroe, Yuta; Fukuda, Reo; Unemoto, Kyoko; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Splenic injury frequently occurs after blunt abdominal trauma; however, limited epidemiological data regarding mortality are available. We aimed to investigate mortality rate trends after blunt splenic injury in Japan. We retrospectively identified 1,721 adults with blunt splenic injury (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma splenic injury scale grades III-V) from the 2004-2014 Japan Trauma Data Bank. We grouped the records of these patients into 3 time phases: phase I (2004-2008), phase II (2009-2012), and phase III (2013-2014). Over the 3 phases, we analysed 30-day mortality rates and investigated their association with the prevalence of certain initial interventions (Mantel-Haenszel trend test). We further performed multiple imputation and multivariable analyses for comparing the characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent TAE or splenectomy/splenorrhaphy, adjusting for known potential confounders and for within-hospital clustering using generalised estimating equation. Over time, there was a significant decrease in 30-day mortality after splenic injury (p < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that mortality significantly decreased over time (from phase I to phase II, odds ratio: 0.39, 95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.67; from phase I to phase III, odds ratio: 0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.62) for the overall cohort. While the 30-day mortality for splenectomy/splenorrhaphy diminished significantly over time (p = 0.01), there were no significant differences regarding mortality for non-operative management, with or without transcatheter arterial embolisation (p = 0.43, p = 0.29, respectively). In Japan, in-hospital 30-day mortality rates decreased significantly after splenic injury between 2004 and 2014, even after adjustment for within-hospital clustering and other factors independently associated with mortality. Over time, mortality rates decreased significantly after splenectomy/splenorrhaphy, but not after non

  18. Effects of Cardiopulmonary Support With a Novel Pediatric Pump-Lung in a 30-Day Ovine Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Sanchez, Pablo G; Wei, Xufeng; Watkins, Amelia C; Niu, Shuqiong; Wu, Zhongjun J; Griffith, Bartley P

    2015-12-01

    The scarcity of donor organs has led to the development of devices that provide optimal long-term respiratory or cardiopulmonary support to bridge recipients as they wait for lung and/or heart transplantation. This study was designed to evaluate the 30-day in vivo performance of the newly developed pediatric pump-lung (PediPL) for cardiopulmonary support using a juvenile sheep model. The PediPL device was placed surgically between the right atrium and descending aorta in eight sheep (25.4-31.2 kg) and evaluated for 30 days. Anticoagulation was maintained with continuous heparin infusion (activated clotting time 150-200 s). The flow rate was measured continually, and gas transfer was measured daily. Plasma free hemoglobin, platelet activation, hematologic data, and blood biochemistry were assessed twice a week. Sheep were euthanized after 30 days. The explanted devices were examined for gross thrombosis. Six sheep survived for 30-32 days. During the study, the oxygen transfer rate of the devices was 54.9 ± 13.2 mL/min at a mean flow rate of 1.14 ± 0.46 L/min with blood oxygen saturation of 95.4% ± 1.7%. Plasma free hemoglobin was 8.2 ± 3.7 mg/dL. Platelet activation was 5.35 ± 2.65%. The animals had normal organ chemistries except for surgery-related transient alterations in kidney and liver function. Although we found some scattered thrombi on the membrane surfaces of some explanted devices during the necropsy, the device function and performance did not degrade. The PediPL device was capable of providing cardiopulmonary support with long-term reliability and good biocompatibility over the 30-day duration and offers the potential option for bridging pediatric patients with end-stage heart or lung disease to heart and/or lung transplantation.

  19. Replication slippage involves DNA polymerase pausing and dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Viguera, Enrique; Canceill, Danielle; Ehrlich, S.Dusko

    2001-01-01

    Genome rearrangements can take place by a process known as replication slippage or copy-choice recombination. The slippage occurs between repeated sequences in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and is invoked to explain microsatellite instability, which is related to several human diseases. We analysed the molecular mechanism of slippage between short direct repeats, using in vitro replication of a single-stranded DNA template that mimics the lagging strand synthesis. We show that slippage involves DNA polymerase pausing, which must take place within the direct repeat, and that the pausing polymerase dissociates from the DNA. We also present evidence that, upon polymerase dissociation, only the terminal portion of the newly synthesized strand separates from the template and anneals to another direct repeat. Resumption of DNA replication then completes the slippage process. PMID:11350948

  20. Prolonging the postcomplex spike pause speeds eyeblink conditioning.

    PubMed

    Maiz, Jaione; Karakossian, Movses H; Pakaprot, Narawut; Robleto, Karla; Thompson, Richard F; Otis, Thomas S

    2012-10-09

    Climbing fiber input to the cerebellum is believed to serve as a teaching signal during associative, cerebellum-dependent forms of motor learning. However, it is not understood how this neural pathway coordinates changes in cerebellar circuitry during learning. Here, we use pharmacological manipulations to prolong the postcomplex spike pause, a component of the climbing fiber signal in Purkinje neurons, and show that these manipulations enhance the rate of learning in classical eyelid conditioning. Our findings elucidate an unappreciated aspect of the climbing fiber teaching signal, and are consistent with a model in which convergent postcomplex spike pauses drive learning-related plasticity in the deep cerebellar nucleus. They also suggest a physiological mechanism that could modulate motor learning rates.

  1. Backtracking dynamics of RNA polymerase: pausing and error correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Mamata; Klumpp, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerases is frequently interrupted by pauses. One mechanism of such pauses is backtracking, where the RNA polymerase translocates backward with respect to both the DNA template and the RNA transcript, without shortening the transcript. Backtracked RNA polymerases move in a diffusive fashion and can return to active transcription either by diffusive return to the position where backtracking was initiated or by cleaving the transcript. The latter process also provides a mechanism for proofreading. Here we present some exact results for a kinetic model of backtracking and analyse its impact on the speed and the accuracy of transcription. We show that proofreading through backtracking is different from the classical (Hopfield-Ninio) scheme of kinetic proofreading. Our analysis also suggests that, in addition to contributing to the accuracy of transcription, backtracking may have a second effect: it attenuates the slow down of transcription that arises as a side effect of discriminating between correct and incorrect nucleotides based on the stepping rates.

  2. Definition of transcriptional pause elements in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Aranda, A; Proudfoot, N J

    1999-02-01

    Downstream elements (DSEs) with transcriptional pausing activity play an important role in transcription termination of RNA polymerase II. We have defined two such DSEs in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, one for the ura4 gene and a new one in the 3'-end region of the nmt2 gene. Although these DSEs do not have sequence homology, both are orientation specific and are composed of multiple and redundant sequence elements that work together to achieve full pausing activity. Previous studies on the nmt1 and nmt2 genes revealed that transcription extends several kilobases past the genes' poly(A) sites. We show that the insertion of either DSE immediately downstream of the nmt1 poly(A) site induces more immediate termination. nmt2 termination efficiency can be increased by moving the DSE closer to the poly(A) site. These results suggest that DSEs may be a common feature in yeast genes.

  3. Prolonging the postcomplex spike pause speeds eyeblink conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Maiz, Jaione; Karakossian, Movses H.; Pakaprot, Narawut; Robleto, Karla; Thompson, Richard F.; Otis, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    Climbing fiber input to the cerebellum is believed to serve as a teaching signal during associative, cerebellum-dependent forms of motor learning. However, it is not understood how this neural pathway coordinates changes in cerebellar circuitry during learning. Here, we use pharmacological manipulations to prolong the postcomplex spike pause, a component of the climbing fiber signal in Purkinje neurons, and show that these manipulations enhance the rate of learning in classical eyelid conditioning. Our findings elucidate an unappreciated aspect of the climbing fiber teaching signal, and are consistent with a model in which convergent postcomplex spike pauses drive learning-related plasticity in the deep cerebellar nucleus. They also suggest a physiological mechanism that could modulate motor learning rates. PMID:22988089

  4. Run-and-pause dynamics of cytoskeletal motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Anne E.; Santen, Ludger; Rieger, Heiko; Shaebani, M. Reza

    2016-11-01

    Cytoskeletal motor proteins are involved in major intracellular transport processes which are vital for maintaining appropriate cellular function. When attached to cytoskeletal filaments, the motor exhibits distinct states of motility: active motion along the filaments, and pause phase in which it remains stationary for a finite time interval. The transition probabilities between motion and pause phases are asymmetric in general, and considerably affected by changes in environmental conditions which influences the efficiency of cargo delivery to specific targets. By considering the motion of individual non-interacting molecular motors on a single filament as well as a dynamic filamentous network, we present an analytical model for the dynamics of self-propelled particles which undergo frequent pause phases. The interplay between motor processivity, structural properties of filamentous network, and transition probabilities between the two states of motility drastically changes the dynamics: multiple transitions between different types of anomalous diffusive dynamics occur and the crossover time to the asymptotic diffusive or ballistic motion varies by several orders of magnitude. We map out the phase diagrams in the space of transition probabilities, and address the role of initial conditions of motion on the resulting dynamics.

  5. A positioned +1 nucleosome enhances promoter-proximal pausing.

    PubMed

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Ceballos-Chávez, María; Reyes, José C

    2015-03-31

    Chromatin distribution is not uniform along the human genome. In most genes there is a promoter-associated nucleosome free region (NFR) followed by an array of nucleosomes towards the gene body in which the first (+1) nucleosome is strongly positioned. The function of this characteristic chromatin distribution in transcription is not fully understood. Here we show in vivo that the +1 nucleosome plays a role in modulating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) promoter-proximal pausing. When a +1 nucleosome is strongly positioned, elongating RNAPII has a tendency to stall at the promoter-proximal region, recruits more negative elongation factor (NELF) and produces less mRNA. The nucleosome-induced pause favors pre-mRNA quality control by promoting the addition of the cap to the nascent RNA. Moreover, the uncapped RNAs produced in the absence of a positioned nucleosome are degraded by the 5'-3' exonuclease XRN2. Interestingly, reducing the levels of the chromatin remodeler ISWI factor SNF2H decreases +1 nucleosome positioning and increases RNAPII pause release. This work demonstrates a function for +1 nucleosome in regulation of transcription elongation, pre-mRNA processing and gene expression.

  6. A positioned +1 nucleosome enhances promoter-proximal pausing

    PubMed Central

    Jimeno-González, Silvia; Ceballos-Chávez, María; Reyes, José C.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin distribution is not uniform along the human genome. In most genes there is a promoter-associated nucleosome free region (NFR) followed by an array of nucleosomes towards the gene body in which the first (+1) nucleosome is strongly positioned. The function of this characteristic chromatin distribution in transcription is not fully understood. Here we show in vivo that the +1 nucleosome plays a role in modulating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) promoter-proximal pausing. When a +1 nucleosome is strongly positioned, elongating RNAPII has a tendency to stall at the promoter-proximal region, recruits more negative elongation factor (NELF) and produces less mRNA. The nucleosome-induced pause favors pre-mRNA quality control by promoting the addition of the cap to the nascent RNA. Moreover, the uncapped RNAs produced in the absence of a positioned nucleosome are degraded by the 5′-3′ exonuclease XRN2. Interestingly, reducing the levels of the chromatin remodeler ISWI factor SNF2H decreases +1 nucleosome positioning and increases RNAPII pause release. This work demonstrates a function for +1 nucleosome in regulation of transcription elongation, pre-mRNA processing and gene expression. PMID:25735750

  7. Run-and-pause dynamics of cytoskeletal motor proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Anne E.; Santen, Ludger; Rieger, Heiko; Shaebani, M. Reza

    2016-01-01

    Cytoskeletal motor proteins are involved in major intracellular transport processes which are vital for maintaining appropriate cellular function. When attached to cytoskeletal filaments, the motor exhibits distinct states of motility: active motion along the filaments, and pause phase in which it remains stationary for a finite time interval. The transition probabilities between motion and pause phases are asymmetric in general, and considerably affected by changes in environmental conditions which influences the efficiency of cargo delivery to specific targets. By considering the motion of individual non-interacting molecular motors on a single filament as well as a dynamic filamentous network, we present an analytical model for the dynamics of self-propelled particles which undergo frequent pause phases. The interplay between motor processivity, structural properties of filamentous network, and transition probabilities between the two states of motility drastically changes the dynamics: multiple transitions between different types of anomalous diffusive dynamics occur and the crossover time to the asymptotic diffusive or ballistic motion varies by several orders of magnitude. We map out the phase diagrams in the space of transition probabilities, and address the role of initial conditions of motion on the resulting dynamics. PMID:27849013

  8. Return periods of global climate fluctuations and the pause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, S.

    2014-07-01

    An approach complementary to General Circulation Models (GCMs), using the anthropogenic CO2 radiative forcing as a linear surrogate for all anthropogenic forcings [Lovejoy], was recently developed for quantifying human impacts. Using preindustrial multiproxy series and scaling arguments, the probabilities of natural fluctuations at time lags up to 125 years were determined. The hypothesis that the industrial epoch warming was a giant natural fluctuation was rejected with 99.9% confidence. In this paper, this method is extended to the determination of event return times. Over the period 1880-2013, the largest 32 year event is expected to be 0.47 K, effectively explaining the postwar cooling (amplitude 0.42-0.47 K). Similarly, the "pause" since 1998 (0.28-0.37 K) has a return period of 20-50 years (not so unusual). It is nearly cancelled by the pre-pause warming event (1992-1998, return period 30-40 years); the pause is no more than natural variability.

  9. Widespread regulation of translation by elongation pausing in heat shock.

    PubMed

    Shalgi, Reut; Hurt, Jessica A; Krykbaeva, Irina; Taipale, Mikko; Lindquist, Susan; Burge, Christopher B

    2013-02-07

    Global repression of protein synthesis is a hallmark of the cellular stress response and has been attributed primarily to inhibition of translation initiation, although this mechanism may not always explain the full extent of repression. Here, using ribosome footprinting, we show that 2 hr of severe heat stress triggers global pausing of translation elongation at around codon 65 on most mRNAs in both mouse and human cells. The genome-wide nature of the phenomenon, its location, and features of protein N termini suggested the involvement of ribosome-associated chaperones. After severe heat shock, Hsp70's interactions with the translational machinery were markedly altered and its association with ribosomes was reduced. Pretreatment with mild heat stress or overexpression of Hsp70 protected cells from heat shock-induced elongation pausing, while inhibition of Hsp70 activity triggered elongation pausing without heat stress. Our findings suggest that regulation of translation elongation in general, and by chaperones in particular, represents a major component of cellular stress responses.

  10. 24h and 30 day outcome of Perclose Proglide suture mediated vascular closure device: An Indian experience.

    PubMed

    Vinayakumar, Desabandhu; Kayakkal, Shajudeen; Rajasekharan, Sandeep; Thottian, Julian Johny; Sankaran, Prasanth; Bastian, Cicy

    Advantages of vascular closure device over manual compression include patient comfort, early mobilisation and discharge, avoidance of interruption of anticoagulation, avoidance of local compression and its sequelae and less time constraint on staff. No published Indian data exist regarding Perclose Proglide suture mediated vascular closure device (SMC). To study the 24h and 30 day outcome of Perclose Proglide SMC retrospectively. Retrospective observational study conducted in the Department of Cardiology, Government Medical College, Calicut, Kerala from June 2013 to June 2015. All consecutive patients with Perclose Proglide SMC deployment done by a single operator for achieving access site haemostasis where 24h and 30 day post-procedure data were available were included. Major and minor complications, procedure success, device failure were predefined. 323 patients were analysed. Procedure success rate was 99.7% (322/323). Transient oozing occurred in 44 patients (13.6%), minor and major complications occurred in 2% and 1.5% of patients respectively. Major complication included one case of retroperitoneal bleed, one access site infection, one pseudo aneurysm formation and two access site arterial stenosis. There was no death or complication requiring limb amputation. "Preclose" technique was used successfully in six patients. Primary device failure occurred in 12 cases which were tackled successfully with second Proglide in all except one. Perclose Proglide SMC is a safe and effective method to achieve haemostasis up to 22F with less complication rate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Utility in Prediction of 30-Day Readmission Rate in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Junhong; Zhu, Xiang; Malhotra, Divyanshu; Li, Shenjing; Virkram, Fnu; Chada, Aditya; Jiang, Haibing

    2016-01-01

    Background. Heart failure (HF) is one of the most common diagnoses associated with hospital readmission. We designed this prospective study to evaluate whether Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) score is associated with 30-day readmission in patients hospitalized with decompensated HF. Methods and Results. We enrolled 240 patients who met the study criteria. Forty-eight (20%) patients were readmitted for decompensated HF within thirty days of hospital discharge, and 192 (80%) patients were not readmitted. Compared to readmitted patients, nonreadmitted patients had a higher average KCCQ score (40.8 versus 32.6, P = 0.019) before discharge. Multivariate analyses showed that a high KCCQ score was associated with low HF readmission rate (adjusted OR = 0.566, P = 0.022). The c-statistic for the base model (age + gender) was 0.617. The combination of home medication and lab tests on the base model resulted in an integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) increase of 3.9%. On that basis, the KCQQ further increased IDI of 2.7%. Conclusions. The KCCQ score determined before hospital discharge was significantly associated with 30-day readmission rate in patients with HF, which may provide a clinically useful measure and could significantly improve readmission prediction reliability when combined with other clinical components. PMID:27872790

  12. Pharmacokinetic and Genomic Effects of Arsenite in Drinking Water on Mouse Lung in a 30-Day Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Chilakapati, Jaya; Wallace, Kathleen; Hernandez-Zavala, Araceli; Moore, Tanya; Ren, Hongzu

    2015-01-01

    The 2 objectives of this subchronic study were to determine the arsenite drinking water exposure dependent increases in female C3H mouse liver and lung tissue arsenicals and to characterize the dose response (to 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm arsenite in drinking water for 30 days and a purified AIN-93M diet) for genomic mouse lung expression patterns. Mouse lungs were analyzed for inorganic arsenic, monomethylated, and dimethylated arsenicals by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy. The total lung mean arsenical levels were 1.4, 22.5, 30.1, 50.9, 105.3, and 316.4 ng/g lung tissue after 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm, respectively. At 85 ppm, the total mean lung arsenical levels increased 14-fold and 131-fold when compared to either the lowest noncontrol dose (0.05 ppm) or the control dose, respectively. We found that arsenic exposure elicited minimal numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 77, 38, 90, 87, and 87 DEGs) after 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm, respectively, which were associated with cardiovascular disease, development, differentiation, apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response. After 30 days of arsenite exposure, this study showed monotonic increases in mouse lung arsenical (total arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid) concentrations but no clear dose-related increases in DEG numbers. PMID:26674514

  13. Pharmacokinetic and Genomic Effects of Arsenite in Drinking Water on Mouse Lung in a 30-Day Exposure.

    PubMed

    Chilakapati, Jaya; Wallace, Kathleen; Hernandez-Zavala, Araceli; Moore, Tanya; Ren, Hongzu; Kitchin, Kirk T

    2015-01-01

    The 2 objectives of this subchronic study were to determine the arsenite drinking water exposure dependent increases in female C3H mouse liver and lung tissue arsenicals and to characterize the dose response (to 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm arsenite in drinking water for 30 days and a purified AIN-93M diet) for genomic mouse lung expression patterns. Mouse lungs were analyzed for inorganic arsenic, monomethylated, and dimethylated arsenicals by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy. The total lung mean arsenical levels were 1.4, 22.5, 30.1, 50.9, 105.3, and 316.4 ng/g lung tissue after 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm, respectively. At 85 ppm, the total mean lung arsenical levels increased 14-fold and 131-fold when compared to either the lowest noncontrol dose (0.05 ppm) or the control dose, respectively. We found that arsenic exposure elicited minimal numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 77, 38, 90, 87, and 87 DEGs) after 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm, respectively, which were associated with cardiovascular disease, development, differentiation, apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response. After 30 days of arsenite exposure, this study showed monotonic increases in mouse lung arsenical (total arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid) concentrations but no clear dose-related increases in DEG numbers.

  14. Psychometric Properties of 7- and 30-Day Versions of the PROMIS Emotional Distress Item Banks in an Australian Adult Sample.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Philip J; Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Calear, Alison L

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the PROMIS depression, anxiety, and anger item banks in a large Australian population-based sample. The study tested for unidimensionality; evaluated invariance across age, gender, and education; assessed local independence; and tested item bank scores as an indicator for clinical criteria. In addition, equivalence of the 7-day time frame against an alternative 30-day time frame was assessed. A sample of 3,175 Australian adults were recruited into the study through online advertising. All three item banks showed strong evidence of unidimensionality and parsimony, with no items showing local dependence. All items were invariant across age, gender, and education. The item banks were accurate in detecting clinical criteria for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder, although legacy measures designed for this purpose sometimes performed marginally better. Responses to the 30-day time frame were highly consistent with the original 7-day time frame. The study provided support for the validity of the PROMIS emotional distress item banks as measures of depression, anxiety, and anger in the Australian population, supporting the generalizability of the measures. The time frame chosen for assessing mental health outcomes using these item banks should be based on pragmatic considerations.

  15. Profile of spontaneous demand for services among infants younger than 30 days old at a children's tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Arbio, Soledad; Brunner, Nicolás; Pierro, Eugenio; Rodríguez, Susana; Fariña, Diana

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, admission of critical newborn infants (NBIs) to the neonatal intensive care unit of Hospital Garrahan (HG) has been limited due to the hospitalization of infants younger than 30 days old through spontaneous demand for services. This is probably a multifactorial situation, and one of its causes is a lack of regionalization, which results in an inadequate use of resources or a distorted use of resources intended for more complex care. To establish the profile of NBIs who make a spontaneous demand for services at HG and to assess the level of care required based on their medical condition. Cross-sectional study. All infants < 30 days old who sought care at HG in a period of 12 months were assessed. The analysis included clinical characteristics of NBIs, prior visits, parental reason for consultation at HG, and whether NBIs could have been seen at a primary or secondary care facility. A total of 307 consultations were analyzed; NBI age was 18 days ± 7.6. Of these, 78% required hospitalization. The most common reason for hospitalization was acute respiratory tract infection. Thirty-five percent had health insurance coverage; 54% had sought care more than once at a different facility. Only 15% of NBIs had a highly complex condition that should have actually been solved at HG. Based on the analysis of NBIs seen at HG through spontaneous demand for services, a high requirement of hospitalization for low and medium complexity pathologies was observed.

  16. [Postoperative hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Olifirova, O S; Trynov, N N

    2015-01-01

    There is a number of factors such as the thyroidectomy and limiting subtotal thyroid resection against the background of euthyroidism and initial hypothyroidism (in any extent of operation) which leads to the prediction of early postoperative hypothyroidism origin during 10 days of the postoperative peri- od. The early postoperative hypothyroidism is accompanied by activation processes of lipid peroxide oxidation and at the same time by reduction of antioxidant protection.

  17. Readmission for Acute Exacerbation within 30 Days of Discharge Is Associated with a Subsequent Progressive Increase in Mortality Risk in COPD Patients: A Long-Term Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Mónica; Crisafulli, Ernesto; Liapikou, Adamantia; Huerta, Arturo; Gabarrús, Albert; Chetta, Alfredo; Soler, Nestor; Torres, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Twenty per cent of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are readmitted for acute exacerbation (AECOPD) within 30 days of discharge. The prognostic significance of early readmission is not fully understood. The objective of our study was to estimate the mortality risk associated with readmission for acute exacerbation within 30 days of discharge in COPD patients. Methods The cohort (n = 378) was divided into patients readmitted (n = 68) and not readmitted (n = 310) within 30 days of discharge. Clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and severity data were evaluated at admission and during hospital stay, and mortality data were recorded at four time points during follow-up: 30 days, 6 months, 1 year and 3 years. Results Patients readmitted within 30 days had poorer lung function, worse dyspnea perception and higher clinical severity. Two or more prior AECOPD (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.51–4.05) was the only variable independently associated with 30-day readmission. The mortality risk during the follow-up period showed a progressive increase in patients readmitted within 30 days in comparison to patients not readmitted; moreover, 30-day readmission was an independent risk factor for mortality at 1 year (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.10–5.59). In patients readmitted within 30 days, the estimated absolute increase in the mortality risk was 4% at 30 days (number needed to harm NNH, 25), 17% at 6-months (NNH, 6), 19% at 1-year (NNH, 6) and 24% at 3 years (NNH, 5). Conclusion In conclusion a readmission for AECOPD within 30 days is associated with a progressive increased long-term risk of death. PMID:26943928

  18. Length of hospital stay and 30-day readmission following heart failure hospitalization: insights from the EVEREST trial.

    PubMed

    Khan, Hassan; Greene, Stephen J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas P; Ambrosy, Andrew P; Maggioni, Aldo P; Zannad, Faiez; Konstam, Marvin A; Swedberg, Karl; Yancy, Clyde W; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Butler, Javed

    2015-10-01

    Previous reports have provided conflicting data regarding the relationship between length of stay (LOS) and subsequent readmission risk among patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF). We performed a post-hoc analysis of the Efficacy of Vasopressin Antagonism in Heart Failure Outcome Study with Tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial to evaluate the differences in LOS overall and between geographic regions (North America, South America, Western Europe, and Eastern Europe) in association with all-cause and cause-specific [HF, cardiovascular (CV) non-HF, and non-CV] readmissions within 30 days of discharge after HF hospitalization. The present analysis included 4020 patients enrolled from 20 countries who were alive at discharge. Median [interquartile range (IQR)] LOS was 8 (4-11) days. The 30-day readmission rates were 15.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 14.6-16.8] for all-cause; 5.6% (95% CI 4.9-6.3) for HF; 4.4% (95% CI 3.8-5.1) for CV non-HF; and 5.8% (95% CI 5.1-6.6) for non-CV readmissions. There was a positive correlation between LOS and all-cause readmissions (r = 0.09, 95% CI 0.06-0.12). The adjusted odds ratio for the top (≥14 days) vs. the bottom (≤3 days) quintile for LOS was 1.39 (95% CI 0. 92-2.11) for all-cause readmissions, 0.43 (95% CI 0.24-0.79) for HF, 2.99 (95% CI 1.49-6.02) for CV non-HF, and 1.72 (95% CI 1.05-2.81) for non-CV readmissions. With the exception of Western Europe, these findings remained largely consistent across geographic regions. In this large multinational cohort of hospitalized HF patients, longer LOS was associated with a higher risk for all-cause, CV non-HF, and non-CV readmissions, but a lower risk of HF readmissions within 30 days of discharge. These results may inform strategies to reduce readmissions. © 2015 The Authors European Journal of Heart Failure © 2015 European Society of Cardiology.

  19. What 50 Years of Research Tell Us About Pausing Under Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Henry D; Derenne, Adam; Baron, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Textbooks in learning and behavior commonly describe performance on fixed-ratio schedules as “break and run,” indicating that after reinforcement subjects typically pause and then respond quickly to the next reinforcement. Performance on variable-ratio schedules, on the other hand, is described as steady and fast, with few long pauses. Beginning with Ferster and Skinner's magnum opus, Schedules of Reinforcement (1957), the literature on pausing under ratio schedules has identified the influences on pausing of numerous important variables, in particular ratio size and reinforcement magnitude. As a result, some previously held assumptions have been called into question. For example, research has shown that the length of the pause is controlled not only by the preceding ratio, as Ferster and Skinner and others had assumed (and as implied by the phrase postreinforcement pause), but by the upcoming ratio as well. Similarly, despite the commonly held belief that ratio pausing is unique to the fixed-ratio schedule, there is evidence that pausing also occurs under variable-ratio schedules. If such widely held beliefs are incorrect, then what about other assumptions? This article selectively examines the literature on pausing under ratio schedules over the past 50 years and concludes that although there may indeed be some common patterns, there are also inconsistencies that await future resolution. Several accounts of pausing under ratio schedules are discussed along with the implications of the literature for human performances, most notably the behaviors termed procrastination. PMID:22478501

  20. Cerebellar Nuclear Neurons Use Time and Rate Coding to Transmit Purkinje Neuron Pauses.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Shyam Kumar; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Neurons of the cerebellar nuclei convey the final output of the cerebellum to their targets in various parts of the brain. Within the cerebellum their direct upstream connections originate from inhibitory Purkinje neurons. Purkinje neurons have a complex firing pattern of regular spikes interrupted by intermittent pauses of variable length. How can the cerebellar nucleus process this complex input pattern? In this modeling study, we investigate different forms of Purkinje neuron simple spike pause synchrony and its influence on candidate coding strategies in the cerebellar nuclei. That is, we investigate how different alignments of synchronous pauses in synthetic Purkinje neuron spike trains affect either time-locking or rate-changes in the downstream nuclei. We find that Purkinje neuron synchrony is mainly represented by changes in the firing rate of cerebellar nuclei neurons. Pause beginning synchronization produced a unique effect on nuclei neuron firing, while the effect of pause ending and pause overlapping synchronization could not be distinguished from each other. Pause beginning synchronization produced better time-locking of nuclear neurons for short length pauses. We also characterize the effect of pause length and spike jitter on the nuclear neuron firing. Additionally, we find that the rate of rebound responses in nuclear neurons after a synchronous pause is controlled by the firing rate of Purkinje neurons preceding it.

  1. RETRACTED: Azithromycin 1.5% Ophthalmic Solution for Blepharitis Treatment: Comparison of 14- Versus 30-Day Treatment.

    PubMed

    Altay, Yesim; Demirok, Gulizar; Balta, Ozgur; Bolu, Hulya

    2017-06-05

    The online-ahead-of-print published article, "Azithromycin 1.5% Ophthalmic Solution for Blepharitis Treatment: Comparison of 14- Versus 30-Day Treatment," by Altay Yesim, Demirok Gulizar, Balta Ozgur, and Bolu Hulya (DOI: 10.1089/jop.2015.0099) is being officially retracted from Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (JOPT) due to post-publication authorship disputes and the discovery of simultaneous submission to both JOPT and the International Journal of Ophthalmology, which is a violation of the proper protocols of peer review. Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics and its editorial leadership are committed to maintaining the highest levels of scientific reporting and publishing, and therefore officially retracts the article based on the infringements listed herein.

  2. Can the American College of Surgeons Risk Calculator Predict 30-Day Complications After Knee and Hip Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Adam I; Kwasny, Mary J; Suleiman, Linda I; Khakhkhar, Rishi H; Moore, Michael A; Beal, Matthew D; Manning, David W

    2015-09-01

    Accurate risk stratification of patients undergoing total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty is essential in the highly scrutinized world of pay-for-performance, value-driven healthcare. We assessed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) surgical risk calculator's ability to predict 30-day complications using 1066 publicly-reported Medicare patients undergoing primary THA or TKA. Risk estimates were significantly associated with complications in the categories of any complication (P = .005), cardiac complication (P < .001), pneumonia (P < .001) and discharge to skilled nursing facility (P < .001). However, predictability of complication occurrence was poor for all complications assessed. To facilitate the equitable provision and reimbursement of patient care, further research is needed to develop accurate risk stratification tools in TKA and THA surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alterations of the in vivo torque-velocity relationship of human skeletal muscle following 30 days exposure to simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Duvoisin, Marc; Convertino, Victor A.; Buchanan, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a continuous 30-d-long 6-deg headdown bedrest (BR) on the force output ability of skeletal muscles was investigated in human subjects by measuring peak angle specific torque of the knee extensor (KE) and knee flexor (KF) muscle groups of both limbs during unilateral efforts at four speeds (0.52. 1.74, 2.97, and 4.19 rad/sec) during eccentric action. It was found that, for the KE muscle group, the headdown BR resulted in decreases, by 19 percent on the average, of peak angle specific torque; on the other hand, the strength of the KF muscles was not altered significantly. A post-BR recovery for 30 days was found to restore muscle strength of the KE muscle group to about 92 percent of the pre-BR values. Changes of strength were not affected by the type of speed of muscle action.

  4. Adding Laboratory Data to Hospital Claims Data to Improve Risk Adjustment of Inpatient/30-Day Postdischarge Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pine, Michael; Fry, Donald E; Hannan, Edward L; Naessens, James M; Whitman, Kay; Reband, Agnes; Qian, Feng; Schindler, Joseph; Sonneborn, Mark; Roland, Jaclyn; Hyde, Linda; Dennison, Barbara A

    Numerical laboratory data at admission have been proposed for enhancement of inpatient predictive modeling from administrative claims. In this study, predictive models for inpatient/30-day postdischarge mortality and for risk-adjusted prolonged length of stay, as a surrogate for severe inpatient complications of care, were designed with administrative data only and with administrative data plus numerical laboratory variables. A comparison of resulting inpatient models for acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, coronary artery bypass grafting, and percutaneous cardiac interventions demonstrated improved discrimination and calibration with administrative data plus laboratory values compared to administrative data only for both mortality and prolonged length of stay. Improved goodness of fit was most apparent in acute myocardial infarction and percutaneous cardiac intervention. The emergence of electronic medical records should make the addition of laboratory variables to administrative data an efficient and practical method to clinically enhance predictive modeling of inpatient outcomes of care.

  5. [Effect of 30-day space flight and subsequent readaptation on the signaling processes in m. longissimus dorsi of mice].

    PubMed

    Mirzoev, T M; Vil'chinskaia, N A; Lomonosova, Iu N; Nemirovskaia, T L; Shenkman, B S

    2014-01-01

    Some steps of anabolic and catabolic signaling pathways were investigated in postural/tonic m. longissimus dorsi of mice following the 30-day orbital flight of biosatellite "Bion-M1" and 8-day recovery. Western blotting was used for determining insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and AMR-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in reciprocal regulation of anabolic and catabolic pathways, as well as E3-ligase MURF-1, and elongation factor eEF2. Functioning of the IGF-1-dependent IRS-1 signaling pathway was activated in the recovery period only. Though the content of ubiquitinligase MURF-1 showed an increase after flight, on completion of the recovery period it did not exceed the pre-flight level unambiguously.

  6. Alterations of the in vivo torque-velocity relationship of human skeletal muscle following 30 days exposure to simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Duvoisin, Marc; Convertino, Victor A.; Buchanan, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a continuous 30-d-long 6-deg headdown bedrest (BR) on the force output ability of skeletal muscles was investigated in human subjects by measuring peak angle specific torque of the knee extensor (KE) and knee flexor (KF) muscle groups of both limbs during unilateral efforts at four speeds (0.52. 1.74, 2.97, and 4.19 rad/sec) during eccentric action. It was found that, for the KE muscle group, the headdown BR resulted in decreases, by 19 percent on the average, of peak angle specific torque; on the other hand, the strength of the KF muscles was not altered significantly. A post-BR recovery for 30 days was found to restore muscle strength of the KE muscle group to about 92 percent of the pre-BR values. Changes of strength were not affected by the type of speed of muscle action.

  7. Effect of a 30-day isolation stress on calcium, phosphorus and other excretory products in an unrestrained chimpanzee.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabbot, I. M.; Mcnew, J. J.; Hoshizaki, T.; Sedgwick, C. J.; Adey, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An unrestrained chimpanzee was studied in an isolation chamber and in his home cage environment. The study consisted of 49 urine collection days (14 days pre-, 5 days post- and 30 days of isolation), and then of 10 days in the home cage. Dietary intake, urine and fecal data were obtained. The effect of isolation on various excretory parameters was studied. Urine samples were analyzed for volume, osmolarity, creatinine, creatine, urea-N, 17-hydroxy corticosteroids, VMA, calcium and inorganic phosphorus. One way analyses of variance performed on the urinary excretion parameters showed all except creatinine excretion to vary significantly during periods of the study. The changes observed in calcium and phosphorus were highly significant. The data suggests that the calcium to phosphorus excretion ratio might serve as a physiological stress indicator of Selye's adaptation syndrome (period of resistance).

  8. Effect of a 30-day isolation stress on calcium, phosphorus and other excretory products in an unrestrained chimpanzee.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabbot, I. M.; Mcnew, J. J.; Hoshizaki, T.; Sedgwick, C. J.; Adey, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An unrestrained chimpanzee was studied in an isolation chamber and in his home cage environment. The study consisted of 49 urine collection days (14 days pre-, 5 days post- and 30 days of isolation), and then of 10 days in the home cage. Dietary intake, urine and fecal data were obtained. The effect of isolation on various excretory parameters was studied. Urine samples were analyzed for volume, osmolarity, creatinine, creatine, urea-N, 17-hydroxy corticosteroids, VMA, calcium and inorganic phosphorus. One way analyses of variance performed on the urinary excretion parameters showed all except creatinine excretion to vary significantly during periods of the study. The changes observed in calcium and phosphorus were highly significant. The data suggests that the calcium to phosphorus excretion ratio might serve as a physiological stress indicator of Selye's adaptation syndrome (period of resistance).

  9. Community Level Association between Home Health and Nursing Home Performance on Quality and Hospital 30-day Readmissions for Medicare Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Pandolfi, Michelle M; Fine, Jonathan; Metersky, Mark L; Wang, Changqin; Ho, Shih-Yieh; Galusha, Deron; Nuti, Sudhakar V; Murugiah, Karthik; Spenard, Ann; Elwell, Timothy; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated whether community-level home health agencies and nursing home performance is associated with community-level hospital 30-day all-cause risk-standardized readmission rates for Medicare patients used data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Service from 2010 to 2012. Our final sample included 2,855 communities that covered 4,140 hospitals with 6,751,713 patients, 13,060 nursing homes with 1,250,648 residents, and 7,613 home health agencies providing services to 35,660 zipcodes. Based on a mixed effect model, we found that increasing nursing home performance by one star for all of its 4 measures and home health performance by 10 points for all of its 6 measures is associated with decreases of 0.25% (95% CI 0.17-0.34) and 0.60% (95% CI 0.33-0.83), respectively, in community-level risk-standardized readmission rates.

  10. Hip Fractures: What Information Does the Evidence Show That Patients and Families Need to Decrease 30-Day Readmission?

    PubMed

    Gardner, Kristin OʼMara

    2015-01-01

    The current bundled payment reimbursement from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services will not cover the additional cost of hospital readmission for the same diagnosis, and patients with hip fractures have one of the highest cost-saving opportunities when compared with other admission reasons. Common reasons for readmission to the hospital after hip fracture include pneumonia, dehydration, and mobility issues. The learning modalities including visual, aural, read/write, and kinesthetic were used to make recommendations on how the education can be incorporated into the instruction of patients with hip fractures and their families. These learning techniques can be used to develop education to decrease possibility of 30-day readmission after hip fracture. Nurses must focus their education to meet the needs of each individual patient, adapting to different types of adult learners to increase the health literacy of patients with hip fractures and their families.

  11. Postoperative Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Marcantonio, Edward R.

    2013-01-01

    Delirium (acute confusion) complicates 15% to 50% of major operations in older adults and is associated with other major postoperative complications, prolonged length of stay, poor functional recovery, institutionalization, dementia, and death. Importantly, delirium may be predictable and preventable through proactive intervention. Yet clinicians fail to recognize and address postoperative delirium in up to 80% of cases. Using the case of Ms R, a 76-year-old woman who developed delirium first after colectomy with complications and again after routine surgery, the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of delirium in the postoperative setting is reviewed. The risk of postoperative delirium can be quantified by the sum of predisposing and precipitating factors. Successful strategies for prevention and treatment of delirium include proactive multifactorial intervention targeted to reversible risk factors, limiting use of sedating medications (especially benzodiazepines), effective management of postoperative pain, and, perhaps, judicious use of antipsychotics. PMID:22669559

  12. LBNP exercise protects aerobic capacity and sprint speed of female twins during 30 days of bed rest

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Schneider, Suzanne M.; Boda, Wanda L.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Macias, Brandon R.; Meyer, R. Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    We have shown previously that treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNPex) maintains upright exercise capacity (peak oxygen consumption, V̇o2peak) in men after 5, 15, and 30 days of bed rest (BR). We hypothesized that LBNPex protects treadmill V̇o2peak and sprint speed in women during a 30-day BR. Seven sets of female monozygous twins volunteered to participate. Within each twin set, one was randomly assigned to a control group (Con) and performed no countermeasures, and the other was assigned to an exercise group (Ex) and performed a 40-min interval (40–80% pre-BR V̇o2peak) LBNPex (51 ± 5 mmHg) protocol, plus 5 min of static LBNP, 6 days per week. Before and immediately after BR, subjects completed a 30.5-m sprint test and an upright graded treadmill test to volitional fatigue. These results in women were compared with previously reported reductions in V̇o2peak and sprint speed in male twins after BR. In women, sprint speed (−8 ± 2%) and V̇o2peak (−6 ± 2%) were not different after BR in the Ex group. In contrast, both sprint speed (−24 ± 5%) and V̇o2peak (−16 ± 3%) were significantly less after BR in the Con group. The effect of BR on sprint speed and V̇o2peak after BR was not different between women and men. We conclude that treadmill exercise within LBNP protects against BR-induced reductions in V̇o2peak and sprint speed in women and should prove effective during long-duration spaceflight. PMID:19112155

  13. Anabolic and Catabolic Signaling Pathways in mouse Longissimus Dorsi after 30-day BION-M1 Spaceflight and Subsequent Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoev, Timur; Blottner, Dieter; Shenkman, Boris; Lomonosova, Yulia; Vilchinskaya, Natalia; Nemirovskaya, Tatiana; Salanova, Michele

    The aim of the study was to analyze some of the key markers regulating anabolic and catabolic processes in mouse m. longissimus dorsi, an important back muscle system for trunk stabilization, following 30-day spaceflight and 8-day recovery period. C57/black mice were divided into 3 groups: 1) Vivarium Control (n=7), 2) Flight (n=5), 3) Recovery (n=5). The experiment was carried out in accordance with the rules of biomedical ethics certified by the Russian Academy of Sciences Committee on Bioethics. Using Western-blotting analysis we determined the content of IRS-1, p-AMPK, MURF-1 and eEF2 in m. longissimus dorsi. The content of IRS-1 in mice m. longissimus dorsi after the 30-day flight did not differ from the control group, however, in the Recovery group IRS-1 level was 80% higher (p<0.05) as compared to Control. Phospho-AMPK content remained unchanged. In the Recovery group there was an increase of eEF2 by 75% compared to the Control (p<0.05). After spaceflight MuRF-1 content was increased more than 2 times compared to the control animals. Thus, our findings showed that the work of the IRS-1 - dependent signaling pathway is only active in the recovery period. The content of the ubiquitin-ligase MURF-1 that takes parts in degrading myosin heavy chain was increased after the spaceflight, however, after 8-day recovery period MURF-1 level did not exceed the control indicating normalization of protein degradation in m. longissimus dorsi. The work was supported by the program of basic research of RAS and Federal Space Program of Russia for the period of 2006-2015.

  14. Is Profit Status of Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities Independently Associated with 30-day Unplanned Hospital Readmission for Medicare Beneficiaries?

    PubMed

    Li, Chih-Ying; Karmarkar, Amol; Lin, Yu-Li; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Graham, James E

    2017-09-25

    To investigate the effects of facility-level factors on 30-day unplanned risk-adjusted hospital readmission after Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities (IRFs) discharge. We used the 100% Medicare claims data, covering 269,306 discharges from 1,094 IRFs between October 2010 and September 2011. We examined the association between hospital readmission and ten facility-level factors (number of discharges, disproportionate share percentage, profit status, teaching status, freestanding status, accreditation status, census region, stroke belt, location and median household income). Discharge from IRFs PARTICIPANTS: Facilities (IRFs) serving Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries. NA MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Risk Standardized Readmission Rate (RSRR) for 30-day hospital readmission. Profit status was the only IRF provider-level characteristic significantly associated with unplanned readmissions. For-profit IRFs had significantly higher RSRR (13.26 ± 0.51) as compared to non-profit IRFs (13.15 ± 0.47) (p<0.001). After controlling for all other facility characteristics (except for accreditation status due to collinearity), for-profit IRFs remained 0.1% point higher RSRR than non-profit IRFs, and census region was the only significant region-level characteristic, with the South showing the highest RSRR of all regions (p=0.005 for both, type III test). Our findings support the inclusion of profit status on the IRF Compare website (a platform includes IRF comparators to indicate quality of services). For-profit IRFs had higher RSRR than non-profit IRFs for Medicare beneficiaries. The South had higher RSRR than other regions. The RSRR difference between for-profit and non-profit IRFs could be due to the combined effects of organizational and regional factors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Classifying emergency 30-day readmissions in England using routine hospital data 2004–2010: what is the scope for reduction?

    PubMed Central

    Blunt, Ian; Bardsley, Martin; Grove, Amy; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    Background Many health systems across the globe have introduced arrangements to deny payment for patients readmitted to hospital as an emergency. The purpose of this study was to develop an exploratory categorisation based on likely causes of readmission, and then to assess the prevalence of these different types. Methods Retrospective analysis of 82 million routinely collected National Health Service hospital records in England (2004–2010) was undertaken using anonymised linkage of records at person-level. Numbers of 30-day readmissions were calculated. Exploratory categorisation of readmissions was applied using simple rules relating to International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnostic codes for both admission and readmission. Results There were 5 804 472 emergency 30-day readmissions over a 6-year period, equivalent to 7.0% of hospital discharges. Readmissions were grouped into hierarchically exclusive categories: potentially preventable readmission (1 739 519 (30.0% of readmissions)); anticipated but unpredictable readmission (patients with chronic disease or likely to need long-term care; 1 141 987 (19.7%)); preference-related readmission (53 718 (0.9%)); artefact of data collection (16 062 (0.3%)); readmission as a result of accident, coincidence or related to a different body system (1 101 818 (19.0%)); broadly related readmission (readmission related to the same body system (1 751 368 (30.2%)). Conclusions In this exploratory categorisation, a large minority of emergency readmissions (eg, those that are potentially preventable or due to data artefacts) fell into groups potentially amenable to immediate reduction. For other categories, a hospital's ability to reduce emergency readmission is less clear. Reduction strategies and payment incentives must be carefully tailored to achieve stated aims. PMID:24668396

  16. Rockall risk score in predicting 30 days non-variceal upper gastrointestinal rebleeding in a Malaysian population.

    PubMed

    Lip, H T; Heah, H T; Huei, T J; Premaa, S; Sarojah, A

    2016-10-01

    the aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of Rockall score in predicting outcomes of 30 days rebleeding, mortality and need for surgical intervention of bleeding gastric and duodenal ulcers. this is a retrospective cohort study of all the emergency endoscopies performed in Hospital sultan Ismail from January 2009 to October 2014 for indications of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIb). Data was extracted from hospital's electronic database and only non-variceal bleeds were included. Rockall score was calculated and outcomes of 30 days rebleeding, mortality and need for surgery was recorded. For each outcome, calibration was done using the Goodness-of-fit tests and discriminative ability was reflected by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROc). A total of 1323 patients were included with a male preponderance of 64%. the overall rates of rebleeding were 11.2%, mortality rate of 8.7% and need for surgery was 2%. Low AUROc values for rebleeding (0.63), mortality (0.58) and surgery (0.67) showed poor discriminative ability of Rockall score. the Goodness-of-fit test also revealed that the scoring system was poorly calibrated in outcomes of rebleeding (p <0.001), mortality (p = 0.001) and surgery (p = 0.038) with p-value <0.05. Patients with high risk (scores ≥8) displayed highest rebleeding and mortality rates of 20% respectively in comparison to the moderate (score 3-7) and low (score ≤2) risk groups. Rockall score has a poor discriminative ability and is poorly calibrated for rebleeding, mortality and need for surgery in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, it is the best tool we have now to stratify patients into risk groups.

  17. Error sensitivity analysis in 10-30-day extended range forecasting by using a nonlinear cross-prediction error model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Zhiye; Xu, Lisheng; Chen, Hongbin; Wang, Yongqian; Liu, Jinbao; Feng, Wenlan

    2017-06-01

    Extended range forecasting of 10-30 days, which lies between medium-term and climate prediction in terms of timescale, plays a significant role in decision-making processes for the prevention and mitigation of disastrous meteorological events. The sensitivity of initial error, model parameter error, and random error in a nonlinear crossprediction error (NCPE) model, and their stability in the prediction validity period in 10-30-day extended range forecasting, are analyzed quantitatively. The associated sensitivity of precipitable water, temperature, and geopotential height during cases of heavy rain and hurricane is also discussed. The results are summarized as follows. First, the initial error and random error interact. When the ratio of random error to initial error is small (10-6-10-2), minor variation in random error cannot significantly change the dynamic features of a chaotic system, and therefore random error has minimal effect on the prediction. When the ratio is in the range of 10-1-2 (i.e., random error dominates), attention should be paid to the random error instead of only the initial error. When the ratio is around 10-2-10-1, both influences must be considered. Their mutual effects may bring considerable uncertainty to extended range forecasting, and de-noising is therefore necessary. Second, in terms of model parameter error, the embedding dimension m should be determined by the factual nonlinear time series. The dynamic features of a chaotic system cannot be depicted because of the incomplete structure of the attractor when m is small. When m is large, prediction indicators can vanish because of the scarcity of phase points in phase space. A method for overcoming the cut-off effect ( m > 4) is proposed. Third, for heavy rains, precipitable water is more sensitive to the prediction validity period than temperature or geopotential height; however, for hurricanes, geopotential height is most sensitive, followed by precipitable water.

  18. Reduced 30-day gastrostomy placement mortality following the introduction of a multidisciplinary nutrition support team: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hvas, C L; Farrer, K; Blackett, B; Lloyd, H; Paine, P; Lal, S

    2017-09-29

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding allows patients with dysphagia to receive adequate nutritional support, although gastrostomy insertion is associated with mortality. A nutrition support team (NST) may improve a gastrostomy service. The present study aimed to evaluate the introduction of a NST for assessment and follow-up of patients referred for gastrostomy. We included adult inpatients referred for gastrostomy insertion consecutively between 1 October 2010 and 31 March 2013. During the first 6 months, a multidisciplinary NST assessment service was implemented. Patient characteristics, clinical condition, referral appropriateness and follow-up were documented prospectively. We compared the frequencies of appropriate referrals, 30-day mortality and mental capacity/consent assessment time spent between the 6 months implementation phase and 2 years following establishment of the assessment service ('established phase'). In total, 309 patients were referred for gastrostomy insertion and 199 (64%) gastrostomies placed. The percentage of appropriate referrals rose from 72% (61/85) during the implementation phase to 87% (194/224) during the established phase (P = 0.002). Thirty-day mortality reduced from 10% (5/52) to 2% (3/147) (P = 0.01), whereas time allocated to assessment of mental capacity and attainment of informed consent rose from mean 3 days (limits of normal variation 0-7) to mean 6 (0-13) days. The introduction of a NST to assess and select patients referred for gastrostomy placement was associated with a rise in the frequency of appropriate referrals and a decrease in 30-day mortality following gastrostomy insertion. Concomitantly,