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Sample records for 30-day survival rate

  1. Heart failure performance measures: do they have an impact on 30-day readmission rates?

    PubMed

    Mazimba, Sula; Grant, Nakash; Parikh, Analkumar; Mwandia, George; Makola, Diklar; Chilomo, Christine; Redko, Cristina; Hahn, Harvey S

    2013-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) accounts for more health care costs than any other diagnosis. Readmissions contribute to this expenditure. The authors evaluated the relationship between adherence to performance metrics and 30-day readmissions. This was a retrospective study of 6063 patients with CHF between 2001 and 2008. Data were collected for 30-day readmissions and compliance with CHF performance measures at discharge. Rates of readmission for CHF increased from 16.8% in 2002 to 24.8% in 2008. Adherence to performance measures increased concurrently from 95.8% to 99.9%. Except for left ventricular function (LVF) assessment, the 30-day readmission rate was not associated with adherence to performance measures. Readmitted patients had twice the odds of not having their LVF assessed (odds ratio = 2.0; P < .00005; 95% confidence interval = 1.45-2.63). CHF performance measures, except for the LVF assessment, have little relationship to 30-day readmissions. Further studies are needed to identify performance measures that correlate with quality of care. PMID:23110998

  2. The CD14 rs2569190 TT Genotype Is Associated with an Improved 30-Day Survival in Patients with Sepsis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mansur, Ashham; Liese, Benjamin; Steinau, Maximilian; Ghadimi, Michael; Bergmann, Ingo; Tzvetkov, Mladen; Popov, Aron Frederik; Beissbarth, Tim; Bauer, Martin; Hinz, José

    2015-01-01

    According to previous investigations, CD14 is suggested to play a pivotal role in initiating and perpetuating the pro-inflammatory response during sepsis. A functional polymorphism within the CD14 gene, rs2569190, has been shown to impact the pro-inflammatory response upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, a central mediator of inflammation in sepsis. In this study, we hypothesized that the strong pro-inflammatory response induced by the TT genotype of CD14 rs2569190 may have a beneficial effect on survival (30-day) in patients with sepsis. A total of 417 adult patients with sepsis (and of western European descent) were enrolled into this observational study. Blood samples were collected for rs2569190 genotyping. Patients were followed over the course of their stay in the ICU, and the 30-day mortality risk was recorded as the primary outcome parameter. Sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were quantified at sepsis onset and throughout the observational period to monitor organ failure as a secondary variable. Moreover, organ support-free days were evaluated as a secondary outcome parameter. TT-homozygous patients were compared to C-allele carriers. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a higher 30-day mortality risk among C-allele carriers compared with T homozygotes (p = 0.0261). To exclude the effect of potential confounders (age, gender, BMI and type of infection) and covariates that varied at baseline with a p-value < 0.2 (e.g., comorbidities), we performed multivariate Cox regression analysis to examine the survival time. The CD14 rs2569190 C allele remained a significant covariate for the 30-day mortality risk in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.08-4.12; p = 0.0282). The 30-day mortality rate among C allele carriers was 23%, whereas the T homozygotes had a mortality rate of 13%. Additionally, an analysis of organ-specific SOFA scores revealed a significantly higher SOFA-Central nervous system score among patients

  3. Prediction of Hospital Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure 30-Day Mortality Rates Using Publicly Reported Performance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, David S.; Bardach, Naomi S.; Lin, Grace A.; Chattopadhyay, Arpita; Goldman, L. Elizabeth; Dudley, R. Adams

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify an approach to summarizing publicly reported hospital performance data for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or heart failure (HF) that best predicts current year hospital mortality rates. Setting A total of 1,868 U.S. hospitals reporting process and outcome measures for AMI and HF to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) from July 2005 to June 2006 (Year 0) and July 2006 to June 2007 (Year 1). Design Observational cohort study measuring the percentage variation in Year 1 hospital 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rate explained by denominator-based weighted composite scores summarizing hospital Year 0 performance. Data Collection Data were prospectively collected from hospitalcompare.gov. Results Percentage variation in Year 1 mortality was best explained by mortality rate alone in Year 0 over other composites including process performance. If only Year 0 mortality rates were reported, and consumers using hospitals in the highest decile of mortality instead chose hospitals in the lowest decile of mortality rate, the number of deaths at 30 days that potentially could have been avoided was 1.31 per 100 patients for AMI and 2.12 for HF (p < .001). Conclusion Public reports focused on 30-day risk-adjusted mortality rate may more directly address policymakers’ goals of facilitating consumer identification of hospitals with better outcomes. PMID:22093186

  4. Evaluation of a Pharmacist-Specific Intervention on 30-Day Readmission Rates for High-Risk Patients with Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Douglas N.; Pinner, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmacist interventions have been shown to have an impact on reducing readmission rates, however further research is necessary to target resources to high-risk populations and determine the most effective bundle of interventions. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a pharmacist-bundled intervention on 30-day readmission rates for high-risk patients with pneumonia. Methods: A pilot study with a historical control conducted at a community, teaching-affiliated medical center. Up to 65 selected subjects were included if they had pneumonia and any of the following high-risk criteria: admission within 6 months, at least 5 scheduled home medications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or heart failure. A retrospective chart review was conducted to compile the historical control group that received usual care between June and November 2013. Patients admitted from December 2013 through March 2014 were reviewed to receive a bundled intervention. The primary outcome was 30-day readmission rates. Risk factors and reasons for readmission, pharmacist clinical interventions, and the time interval between discharge and readmission were also evaluated. Results: A trend toward a reduced 30-day readmission rate was observed in the intervention group (n = 43) compared to those who received usual care (n = 65) (27.9% vs 40.0%; relative risk [RR], 0.6977; 95% CI, 0.3965–1.2278; P = .2119). The most commonly identified high-risk inclusion criteria were having at least 5 scheduled home medications and COPD. The time interval between discharge and readmission did not considerably differ between groups (10.8 vs 10.6 days). Conclusions: The pharmacist-bundled intervention was associated with a reduced 30-day readmission rate for high-risk patients with pneumonia. PMID:26823619

  5. Decreasing Congestive Heart Failure Readmission Rates Within 30 Days at the Tampa VA.

    PubMed

    Messina, William

    2016-01-01

    High hospital readmission rates contribute to the problem of escalating costs and fragmented quality in the US health care system. This article describes the implementation of a home telehealth (HT) performance improvement project with subsequent cost-avoidance savings. The HT project was designed to potentiate communication between and among patients, clinicians, and administrative staff, in addition to reducing readmissions for patients with congestive heart failure at the James A. Haley Veterans Hospital in Tampa, Florida. Pre- and post-HT implementation comparisons were made of readmission rates, costs, and veteran satisfaction from the same 4-month periods in 2012 and 2013. The application of telehealth and phone care initiatives reduced the congestive heart failure hospital readmission rate by 5%, decreased costs, and improved veteran satisfaction with overall care experience.

  6. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy at a new bariatric surgery centre in Canada: 30-day complication rates using the Clavien–Dindo classification

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Vanessa; Twells, Laurie; Gregory, Deborah; Murphy, Raleen; Smith, Chris; Boone, Darrell; Pace, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has the highest rate of obesity in Canada, prompting the establishment of a bariatric surgery program at the Health Sciences Centre in NL. This retrospective study examined 30-day complication rates in more than 200 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) between May 2011 and February 2014. Methods We performed a chart review and collected data on 30-day postoperative complications. Complications were graded and reported using the Clavien–Dindo classification. Grades I and II were defined as minor and grades III and higher were defined as major complications. Results We reviewed the charts of the first 209 patients to undergo LSG. The mean body mass index was 49.2, 81% were women and the average age was 43 years. Comorbidities included hypertension (55.0%), obstructive sleep apnea (46.4%), dyslipidemia (42.1%), diabetes (37.3%), osteoarthritis (36.4%) and cardiovascular disease with previous cardiac stents (5.3%). Furthermore, 38.3% of patients reported psychiatric diagnoses, such as depression and anxiety. The overall 30-day complication rate was 15.3%. The complication rate for minor complications was 13.4% and for major complications was 1.9% (2 leaks, 1 stricture and 1 fistula). Conclusion Our results support the feasibility of safely performing LSG surgery at bariatric centres completing fewer than 125 procedures annually. PMID:27007089

  7. Preventing 30-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sherri

    2015-03-01

    Preventing 30-day readmissions to hospitals is a top priority in the era of health care reform. New regulations will be costly to health care facilities because of payment guidelines. The most frequently readmitted medical conditions are acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The transition from the hospital and into the home has been classified as a vulnerable time for many patients. During this time of transition patients may fail to fully understand their discharge instructions. Ineffective communication, low health literacy, and compliance issues contribute to readmissions. Telehealth and the use of technology may be used to prevent some readmissions.

  8. Quality measures for total ankle replacement, 30-day readmission and reoperation rates within 1 year of surgery: a data linkage study using the NJR data set

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Razi; Macgregor, Alexander J; Goldberg, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report on the rate of 30-day readmission and the rate of additional or revision surgery within 12 months following total ankle replacement (TAR). Design A data-linkage study of the UK National Joint Registry (NJR) data and Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) database. These two databases were linked in a deterministic fashion. HES episodes 12 months following the index procedure were isolated and analysed. Logistic regression was used to model predictors of reoperation and revision for primary ankle replacement. Participants All patients who underwent primary and revision ankle replacements according to the NJR between February 2008 and February 2013. Results The rate of 30-day readmission following primary and revision ankle replacement was 2.2% and 1.3%, respectively. In the 12 months following primary and revision ankle replacements, the revision rate (where implants needed to be removed) was 1.2% with increased odds in those orthopaedic units preforming <20 ankle replacements per year and patients with a preoperative fixed equinus deformity. The reoperation other than revision (where implants were not removed) in the 12 months following primary and revision TARs was 6.6% and 9.3%, respectively. Rheumatoid arthritis, cemented prosthesis and high ASA grade significantly increased the odds of reoperation. Conclusions TAR has a 30-day readmission rate of 2.2%, which is similar to that of knee replacement but lower than that of total hip replacement. 6.6% of patients undergoing primary TAR require a reoperation within 12 months of the index procedure. Early revision rates are significantly higher in low-volume centres. PMID:27217286

  9. Reducing 30-day Readmission After Joint Replacement.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Monique C; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Anoushiravani, Afshin A; Sayeed, Zain; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-10-01

    Hospital readmission is a focus of quality measures used by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) to evaluate quality of care. Policy changes provide incentives and enforce penalties to decrease 30-day hospital readmissions. CMS implemented the Readmission Penalty Program. Readmission rates are being used to determine reimbursement rates for physicians. The need for readmission is deemed an indication for inadequate quality of care subjected to financial penalties. This reviews identifies risk factors that have been significantly associated with higher readmission rates, addresses approaches to minimize 30-day readmission, and discusses the potential future direction within this area as regulations evolve.

  10. Reducing 30-day Readmission After Joint Replacement.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Monique C; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Anoushiravani, Afshin A; Sayeed, Zain; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-10-01

    Hospital readmission is a focus of quality measures used by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) to evaluate quality of care. Policy changes provide incentives and enforce penalties to decrease 30-day hospital readmissions. CMS implemented the Readmission Penalty Program. Readmission rates are being used to determine reimbursement rates for physicians. The need for readmission is deemed an indication for inadequate quality of care subjected to financial penalties. This reviews identifies risk factors that have been significantly associated with higher readmission rates, addresses approaches to minimize 30-day readmission, and discusses the potential future direction within this area as regulations evolve. PMID:27637653

  11. 75 FR 45121 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request; 30-Day Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request; 30-Day Notice... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human...

  12. Ares I-X 30 Day Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ess, Bob; Smith, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation represents the 30 day report on the Ares I-X test flight. Included in the review is information on the following areas: (1) Ground Systems, (2) Guidance, Navigation and Control, (3) Roll Response, (4) Vehicle Response, (5) Control System Performance, (6) Structural Damping, (7) Thrust Oscillation, (8) Stage Separation, (9) Connector Assessment, (10) USS Splashdown, (11) Data Recorder and (12) FS Hardware Assessment.

  13. Sources of variation in waterfowl survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Barker, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the need to manage hunted populations of waterfowl (Anatidae), biologists have studied many demographic traits of waterfowl by analyzing band recoveries. These analyses have produced the most extensive and best estimates of survival available for any group of birds. Using these data, we examined several factors that might explain variation among annual survival rates to explore large-scale patterns that might be useful in understanding waterfowl population dynamics. We found that geography, body mass, and tribe (i.e. phylogeny) were important in explaining variation in average waterfowl survival rates.

  14. Inpatient Readmissions and Emergency Department Visits within 30 Days of a Hospital Admission

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Jesse J.; Chan, Theodore C.; Killeen, James P.; Castillo, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inpatient hospital readmissions have become a focus for healthcare reform and cost-containment efforts. Initiatives targeting unanticipated readmissions have included care coordination for specific high readmission diseases and patients and health coaching during the post-discharge transition period. However, little research has focused on emergency department (ED) visits following an inpatient admission. The objective of this study was to assess 30-day ED utilization and all-cause readmissions following a hospital admission. Methods This was a retrospective study using inpatient and ED utilization data from two hospitals with a shared patient population in 2011. We assessed the 30-day ED visit rate and 30-day readmission rate and compared patient characteristics among individuals with 30-day inpatient readmissions, 30-day ED discharges, and no 30-day visits. Results There were 13,449 patients who met the criteria of an index visit. Overall, 2,453 (18.2%) patients had an ED visit within 30 days of an inpatient stay. However, only 55.6% (n=1,363) of these patients were admitted at one of these 30-day visits, resulting in a 30-day all-cause readmission rate of 10.1%. Conclusion Approximately one in five patients presented to the ED within 30 days of an inpatient hospitalization and over half of these patients were readmitted. Readmission measures that incorporate ED visits following an inpatient stay might better inform interventions to reduce avoidable readmissions. PMID:26759647

  15. Nursing Home Medical Staff Organization and 30-Day Rehospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Julie C.; Intrator, Orna; Karuza, Jurgis; Wetle, Terrie; Mor, Vincent; Katz, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between features of nursing home (NH) medical staff organization and residents’ 30-day rehospitalizations. Design Cross-sectional study combining primary data collected from a survey of medical directors, NH resident assessment data (minimum data set), Medicare claims, and the Online Survey Certification and Reporting (OSCAR) database. Setting A total of 202 freestanding US nursing homes. Participants Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries who were hospitalized and subsequently admitted to a study nursing home. Measurements Medical staff organization dimensions derived from the survey, NH residents’ characteristics derived from minimum data set data, hospitalizations obtained from Part A Medicare claims, and NH characteristics from the OSCAR database and from www.ltcfocus.org. Study outcome defined within a 30-day window following an index hospitalization: rehospitalized, otherwise died, otherwise survived and not rehospitalized. Results Thirty-day rehospitalizations occurred for 3788 (20.3%) of the 18,680 initial hospitalizations. Death was observed for 884 (4.7%) of residents who were not rehospitalized. Adjusted by hospitalization, resident, and NH characteristics, nursing homes having a more formal appointment process for physicians were less likely to have 30-day rehospitalization (b = −0.43, SE = 0.17), whereas NHs in which a higher proportion of residents were cared for by a single physician were more likely to have rehospitalizations (b = 0.18, SE = 0.08). Conclusion This is the first study to show a direct relationship between features of NH medical staff organization and resident-level process of care. The relationship of a more strict appointment process and rehospitalizations might be a consequence of more formalized and dedicated medical practice with a sense of ownership and accountability. A higher volume of patients per physician does not appear to improve quality of care. PMID:22682694

  16. Effect of feeding in 30-day bioaccumulation assays using Hyalella azteca in fluoranthene-dosed sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Harkey, G.A.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Current protocols for conducting freshwater sediment bioaccumulation tests require that food be added to exposures. To determine effects of adding food, 30-day bioaccumulation assays were conducted with H. azteca exposed to sediment dosed with four concentrations (0.05 to 1,267 nmol/g dry weight) of fluoranthene. Accumulation was significantly greater in fed versus non-fed animals at all dose levels after 96 and 240 hours of exposure and continued to be greater after 30 days in the low dose levels. At sediment concentrations above 634 nmol/g dw, survival of unfed animals dropped to 34% after 30 days, However, after 30 days, reproduction was observed in fed animals exposed to sediment concentrations > 16 times the expected LC50 calculated for fluoranthene in sediment. These data raise questions concerning the interpretation of standard toxicity and bioaccumulation tests when food is routinely added.

  17. Extent of Surgery Does Not Influence 30-Day Mortality in Surgery for Metastatic Bone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Michala Skovlund; Hindsø, Klaus; Hovgaard, Thea Bechmann; Petersen, Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Estimating patient survival has hitherto been the main focus when treating metastatic bone disease (MBD) in the appendicular skeleton. This has been done in an attempt to allocate the patient to a surgical procedure that outlives them. No questions have been addressed as to whether the extent of the surgery and thus the surgical trauma reduces survival in this patient group. We wanted to evaluate if perioperative parameters such as blood loss, extent of bone resection, and duration of surgery were risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients having surgery due to MBD in the appendicular skeleton. We retrospectively identified 270 consecutive patients who underwent joint replacement surgery or intercalary spacing for skeletal metastases in the appendicular skeleton from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013. We collected intraoperative (duration of surgery, extent of bone resection, and blood loss), demographic (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologist score [ASA score], and Karnofsky score), and disease-specific (primary cancer) variables. An association with 30-day mortality was addressed using univariate and multivariable analyses and calculation of odds ratio (OR). All patients were included in the analysis. ASA score 3 + 4 (OR 4.16 [95% confidence interval, CI, 1.80–10.85], P = 0.002) and Karnofsky performance status below 70 (OR 7.34 [95% CI 3.16–19.20], P < 0.001) were associated with increased 30-day mortality in univariate analysis. This did not change in multivariable analysis. No parameters describing the extent of the surgical trauma were found to be associated with 30-day mortality. The 30-day mortality in patients undergoing surgery for MBD is highly dependent on the general health status of the patients as measured by the ASA score and the Karnofsky performance status. The extent of surgery, measured as duration of surgery, blood loss, and degree of bone resection were not associated with 30-day mortality. PMID:27082592

  18. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and 30-day mortality among patients with pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Ghiasi, Farzin; Ahmadpoor, Amin; Amra, Babak

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the most life-threatening form of venous thrombosis which causes the majority of mortalities in this category. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been indicated as one of the risk factors for thromboembolism because of hemostatic alterations. The present study was designed to seek for the relationship between OSA and 30-day mortality of patients with PE. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted among 137 consecutive patients referred to hospital with symptoms of PE and preliminary stable hemodynamic. Confirmation of PE was made by multislice computed tomography pulmonary angiography and in the case of contraindication; V/Q lung scan and Doppler sonography were done. A STOP-Bang Questionnaire was used to determine patients with high- and low-risk of OSA. Patients were followed up for 1-month, and their survivals were recorded. Results: This study showed that there was no relationship between OSA and 30-day mortality (P = 0.389). Chronic kidney disease (P = 0.004), hypertension (P = 0.003), main thrombus (P = 0.004), and segmental thrombus (P = 0.022) were associated with 30-day mortality. In the logistic regression analysis, history of chronic kidney disease was diagnosed as a risk factor for 30-day mortality among the PE patients (P = 0.029, odds ratio = 4.93). Conclusion: Results of this study showed 30-day mortality was not affected by OSA directly. In fact, it was affected by complications of OSA such as hypertension and thrombus. Also, positive history of chronic kidney disease increased the risk of 30-day mortality. PMID:26622255

  19. 78 FR 18373 - Paperwork Reduction Act; 30-Day Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... CONTROL POLICY Paperwork Reduction Act; 30-Day Notice AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ] The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) proposes the collection of information concerning... of the President, Office of National Drug Control Policy, Research & Data Analysis, Washington,...

  20. 75 FR 160 - Paperwork Reduction Act; 30-Day Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY Paperwork Reduction Act; 30-Day Notice AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) proposes the collection of information concerning...

  1. Discharge Outcomes in Seniors Hospitalized for More than 30 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozyrskyj, Anita; Black, Charlyn; Chateau, Dan; Steinbach, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    Hospitalization is a sentinel event that leads to loss of independence for many seniors. This study of long-stay hospitalizations (more than 30 days) in seniors was undertaken to identify risk factors for not going home, to characterize patients with risk factors who did go home and to describe one year outcomes following home discharge. Using…

  2. Incidence and Predictors of 30-Day Readmission Among Patients Hospitalized for Advanced Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    BERMAN, KENNETH; TANDRA, SWETA; FORSSELL, KATE; VUPPALANCHI, RAJ; BURTON, JAMES R.; NGUYEN, JAMES; MULLIS, DEVONNE; KWO, PAUL; CHALASANI, NAGA

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The rate of readmission to the hospital 30 days after discharge (30-day readmission rate) is used as a quality measure for hospitalized patients, but it has not been studied adequately for patients with advanced liver disease. We investigated the incidence and factors that predict this rate and its relationship with mortality at 90 days. METHODS We analyzed data from patients with advanced liver disease who were hospitalized to an inpatient hepatology service at 2 large academic medical centers in 2008. Patients with elective admission and recipients of liver transplants were not included. During the study period, there were 447 patients and a total of 554 eligible admissions. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify variables associated with 30-day readmission and to examine its relationship with mortality at 90 days. RESULTS The 30-day readmission rate was 20%. After adjusting for multiple covariates, readmission within 30 days was associated independently with model for end-stage liver disease scores at discharge (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.09; P = .002), the presence of diabetes (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.07–2.95; P = .027), and male sex (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.03–2.89; P = .038). After adjusting for age, sex, and model for end-stage liver disease score at discharge, the 90-day mortality rate was significantly higher among patients who were readmitted to the hospital within 30 days than those who were not (26.8% vs 9.8%; OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.36 –5.02; P = .004). CONCLUSIONS Patients with advanced liver disease frequently are readmitted to the hospital within 30 days after discharge; these patients have a higher 90-day mortality rate than those who are not readmitted in 30 days. These data might be used to develop strategies to reduce early readmission of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis. PMID:21092762

  3. Half of 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among HIV-Infected Patients Are Potentially Preventable

    PubMed Central

    Kitchell, Ellen; Etherton, Sarah Shelby; Duarte, Piper; Halm, Ethan A.; Jain, Mamta K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirty-day readmission rates, a widely utilized quality metric, are high among HIV-infected individuals. However, it is unknown how many 30-day readmissions are preventable, especially in HIV patients, who have been excluded from prior potentially preventable readmission analyses. We used electronic medical records to identify all readmissions within 30 days of discharge among HIV patients hospitalized at a large urban safety net hospital in 2011. Two independent reviewers assessed whether readmissions were potentially preventable using both published criteria and detailed chart review, how readmissions might have been prevented, and the phase of care deemed suboptimal (inpatient care, discharge planning, post-discharge). Of 1137 index admissions, 213 (19%) resulted in 30-day readmissions. These admissions occurred among 930 unique HIV patients, with 130 individuals (14%) experiencing 30-day readmissions. Of these 130, about half were determined to be potentially preventable using published criteria (53%) or implicit chart review (48%). Not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) greatly increased the odds of a preventable readmission (OR 5.9, CI:2.4–14.8). Most of the preventable causes of readmission were attributed to suboptimal care during the index hospitalization. Half of 30-day readmission in HIV patients are potentially preventable. Increased focus on early ART initiation, adherence counseling, management of chronic conditions, and appropriate timing of discharge may help reduce readmissions in this vulnerable population. PMID:26154066

  4. Associations between Depressive Symptoms and 30-day Hospital Readmission among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berges, Ivonne M.; Amr, Sania; Abraham, Danielle S.; Cannon, Dawn L.; Ostir, Glenn V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hospital readmissions are common and costly. Our goal was to determine the association between depressive symptoms and readmission within 30 days following hospital discharge in older adults. Methods We analyzed data from a study of 789 persons aged 65 years or older admitted to a 20-bed acute care for elders (ACE) hospital unit from May 2009 to July 2011. Depressive symptoms were recorded within 24-hours of admission to the hospital unit, using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies -Depression (CES-D) Scale. The primary outcome was readmission to hospital within 30 days of discharge. Results The mean age was 77 years; 66% were female, 72% were White, and 59% were unmarried. On average, older patients reported 2.6 comorbid conditions. Sixteen percent were classified with high depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16). The readmission rate within 30 days was 15%. Older patients with high depressive symptoms had more than 1.6 times the odds (OR 1.66; 95% CI: 1.01-2.74) of being readmitted within 30-days, as compared to those with low depressive symptoms (CES-D < 16), after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, sex, marital status and comorbid conditions. Conclusion High depressive symptoms increased the risk of hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge after adjusting for relevant covariates. In-hospital screening for depressive symptoms may identify older persons at risk for recurrent hospital admissions. PMID:27134802

  5. Half of 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among HIV-Infected Patients Are Potentially Preventable.

    PubMed

    Nijhawan, Ank E; Kitchell, Ellen; Etherton, Sarah Shelby; Duarte, Piper; Halm, Ethan A; Jain, Mamta K

    2015-09-01

    Thirty-day readmission rates, a widely utilized quality metric, are high among HIV-infected individuals. However, it is unknown how many 30-day readmissions are preventable, especially in HIV patients, who have been excluded from prior potentially preventable readmission analyses. We used electronic medical records to identify all readmissions within 30 days of discharge among HIV patients hospitalized at a large urban safety net hospital in 2011. Two independent reviewers assessed whether readmissions were potentially preventable using both published criteria and detailed chart review, how readmissions might have been prevented, and the phase of care deemed suboptimal (inpatient care, discharge planning, post-discharge). Of 1137 index admissions, 213 (19%) resulted in 30-day readmissions. These admissions occurred among 930 unique HIV patients, with 130 individuals (14%) experiencing 30-day readmissions. Of these 130, about half were determined to be potentially preventable using published criteria (53%) or implicit chart review (48%). Not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) greatly increased the odds of a preventable readmission (OR 5.9, CI:2.4-14.8). Most of the preventable causes of readmission were attributed to suboptimal care during the index hospitalization. Half of 30-day readmission in HIV patients are potentially preventable. Increased focus on early ART initiation, adherence counseling, management of chronic conditions, and appropriate timing of discharge may help reduce readmissions in this vulnerable population.

  6. Impact of the Development of a Regional Collaborative to Reduce 30-Day Heart Failure Readmissions.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Joy; Oliver-McNeil, Sandra; Patel, Shilpa; Mason, Lisa; Baker, Harolyn

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-day heart failure readmissions can be reduced if multiple interventions, such as 7-day postdischarge follow-up, are implemented, but this task is challenging for health systems. Ten hospitals participated in a multisystem collaborative implementing evidence-based strategies. The overall 30-day readmission rate was reduced more in the collaborating hospitals than in the noncollaborating hospitals (from 29.32% to 27.66% vs from 27.66% to 26.03%, P = .008). Regional collaboration between health care systems within a quality improvement project was associated with reduced 30-day readmission.

  7. Survival rates of cervical cancer patients in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir; Adon, Mohd Yusoff; Noh, Mohamed Asyraf; Bakhtiar, Mohammed Faizal; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mahmud, Siti Haniza; Aris, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common malignant cancer of the female reproductive organs worldwide. Currently, cervical cancer can be prevented by vaccination and detected at an early stage via various screening methods. Malaysia, as a developing country faces a heavy disease burden of cervical cancer as it is the second most common cancer among Malaysian women. This population based study was carried out to fulfil the primary aim of determining the survival rates of Malaysian women with cervical cancer and associated factors. Data were obtained from two different sources namely, the Malaysian National Cancer Registry (MNCR) and National Health Informatics Centre (NHIC) from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2005. Kaplan Meier analyses were conducted to identify the overall survival rates and median survival time. Differences in survival among different ethnic and age group were compared using the log-rank test. A total of 5,859 patients were included. The median survival time for cervical cancer in this study was 65.8 months and the 5-year survival rate was 71.1%. The overall observed survival rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 94.1%, 79.3% and 71.1% respectively. The log-rank test finding also showed that there were significant differences in the 5-year survival rate among different ethnic groups. Malays had the lowest survival rate of 59.2% followed by Indians (69.5%) and Chinese (73.8%). The overall 5-year survival rate among patients with cervical cancer in Malaysia is relatively good. Age and ethnic groups remain as significant determining factors for cervical cancer survival rate.

  8. Comment on 'Are survival rates for northern spotted owls biased?'

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, A.B.; Nichols, J.D.; Anthony, R.G.; Burnham, K.P.; White, Gary C.; Forsman, E.D.; Anderson, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Loehle et al. recently estimated survival rates from radio-telemetered northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina (Merriam, 1898)) and suggested that survival rates estimated for this species from capture-recapture studies were negatively biased, which subsequently resulted in the negatively biased estimates of rates of population change (lambda) reported by Anthony et al. (Wildl. Monogr. No. 163, pp. 1-47 (2006)). We argue that their survival estimates were inappropriate for comparison with capture-recapture estimates because (i) the manner in which they censored radio-telemetered individuals had the potential to positively bias their survival estimates, (ii) their estimates of survival were not valid for evaluating bias, and (iii) the size and distribution of their radiotelemetry study areas were sufficiently different from capture-recapture study areas to preclude comparisons. In addition, their inferences of negative bias in rates of population change estimated by Anthony et al. were incorrect and reflected a misunderstanding about those estimators.

  9. Survival rates of children with severe neurologic disabilities: a review.

    PubMed

    Plioplys, Audrius V

    2003-06-01

    Knowledge of accurate survival rates of children with neurologic disabilities is important for third-party insurance payers planning future medical expenses. This is of particular importance to pediatric skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) that depend on financial support from governmental sources. Eyman published survival rate results from California that were extremely pessimistic and not in keeping with our clinical impressions. This led us to conduct a thorough review of our survival rates, which were much better than those reported by Eyman. Since the publication of our study, a large number of reports have appeared from many different countries, as well as further information from California using an expanded database. The survival rate data that we obtained remain consistently better than that in most recent reports. In the California results, 10-year survival rates for the most-disabled group (group 1) were reported to be 32% in 1993 and 45% in 1998, compared with 73% in our study. Eight-year survival rates for group 1 from California were reported to be 38% in 1993 and 63% in 2000, compared with our finding of 73%. The reasons for our better survival rates include the fact that all of our patients were in SNFs, where prompt medical care for acute illnesses was always provided, whereas only 3.5% of the study group was in SNFs in California. Also, the California data contained many methodologic and statistical errors, which are reviewed here. PMID:14572148

  10. Estimating survival rates from banding of adult and juvenile birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1974-01-01

    The restrictive assumptions required by most available methods for estimating survival probabilities render them unsuitable for analyzing real banding data. A model is proposed which allows survival rates and recovery rates to vary with the calendar year, and also allows juveniles to have rates different from adults. In addition to survival rates and recovery rates, the differential vulnerability factors of juveniles relative to adults are estimated. Minimum values of the variances of the estimators are also given. The new procedure is applied to sets of duck and goose data in which reasonably large numbers of adult and juvenile birds were banded. The results are shown to be generally comparable to those procured by other methods, but, in addition, insight into the extent of annual variation is gained. Combining data from adults and juveniles also increases the effective sample size, since the juveniles are assumed to enter the adult age class after surviving their initial year.

  11. 30-Day morbidity after augmentation enterocystoplasty and appendicovesicostomy: a NSQIP pediatric analysis

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, Erin R.; Kurtz, Michael P.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.; Logvinenko, Tanya; Nelson, Caleb P.

    2015-01-01

    -term outcomes for these complex urologic procedures that has not been possible before. Although ACS-NSQIP has been used extensively in the adult surgical literature to identify rates of complications, and to determine predictors of readmission and adverse events, its use in pediatric surgery is new. As in the adult literature, the goal is for standardization of practice and transparency in reporting outcomes that may lead to reduction in morbidity and mortality. Conclusion In this cohort, any 30-day event is seen in almost 30% of the patients undergoing these urologic procedures. Operative time, number of concurrent procedures and higher surgical risk score all are associated with higher odds of the composite 30-day event of complication, readmission and/or reoperation. These data can be useful in counseling patients and families about expectations around surgery and in improving outcomes. PMID:26049255

  12. Survival rates of birds of tropical and temperate forests: will the dogma survive?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Brawn, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Survival rates of tropical forest birds are widely assumed to be high relative to the survival rates of temperate forest birds. Much life-history theory is based on this assumption despite the lack of empirical data to support it. We provide the first detailed comparison of survival rates of tropical and temperate forest birds based on extensive data bases and modern capture-recapture models. We find no support for the conventional wisdom. Because clutch size is only one component of reproductive rate, the frequently assumed, simple association between clutch size and adult survival rates should not necessarily be expected. Our results emphasize the need to consider components of fecundity in addition to clutch size when comparing the life histories of tropical and temperate birds and suggest similar considerations in the development of vertebrate life-history theory.

  13. A quality improvement plan to reduce 30-day readmissions of heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Monica

    2014-01-01

    An evidence-based quality initiative to decrease heart failure 30-day readmissions was implemented at a hospital in Florida. Heart failure education and postdischarge telephone contact were provided to patients determined to be at high risk of readmission using risk stratification tools. The rate during the project decreased 13% as compared to the same time period in the previous year and 8.5% from the 2012 year to date rate.

  14. Utilization of trained volunteers decreases 30-day readmissions for heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sales, Virna L; Ashraf, Muhammad Salman; Lella, Leela K; Huang, Jiaxin; Bhumireddy, Geetha; Lefkowitz, Lance; Feinstein, Mimi; Kamal, Mikail; Caesar, Raqib; Cusick, Elizabeth; Norenberg, Jane; Lee, Jiwon; Brener, Sorin; Sacchi, Terrence J; Heitner, John F

    2014-05-01

    Background: This study evaluated the effectiveness of using trained volunteer staff in reducing 30-day readmissions of congestive heart failure (CHF) patients.Methods: From June 2010 to December 2010, 137 patients (mean age 73 years) hospitalized for CHF were randomly assigned to either: an interventional arm (arm A) receiving dietary and pharmacologic education by a trained volunteer, follow-up telephone calls within 48 hours, and a month of weekly calls; ora control arm (arm B) receiving standard care. Primary outcomes were 30-day readmission rates for CHF and worsening New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification; composite and all-cause mortality were secondary outcomes.Results: Arm A patients had decreased 30-day readmissions (7% vs 19%; P ! .05) with a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 63% and an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 12%. The composite outcome of 30-day readmission, worsening NYHA functional class, and death was decreased in the arm A (24% vs 49%;P ! .05; RRR 51%, ARR 25%). Standard-care treatment and hypertension, age $65 years and hypertension,and cigarette smoking were predictors of increased risk for readmissions, worsening NYHA functional class, and all-cause mortality, respectively, in the multivariable analysis.Conclusions: Utilizing trained volunteer staff to improve patient education and engagement might be an efficient and low-cost intervention to reduce CHF readmissions.

  15. Women are less likely to be admitted to substance abuse treatment within 30 days of assessment.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Borisova, Natalie; Klein, Chris; di Menza, Salvatore; Schuster, Charles R

    2002-01-01

    The information gathered in a centralized intake unit (CIU) allows payers and administrators to examine if there are access issues for their population. For this study, the authors examined whether there were gender differences in the rate at which people are admitted to treatment within 30 days of assessment. Of the 5,004 individuals seeking publicly-funded substance abuse treatment in Detroit for the years 1996-97, 50.3% of those assessed at the CIU actually entered treatment. Women (31% of the people assessed) had a lower rate of admission (45% for women versus 53% for men) a difference that was maintained even after controlling for known risk factors. Women who were given priority for admission (i.e., those who were pregnant, had children, or injected drugs) had a higher rate of admission than other women (73% versus 39%), but only 17% of the women presenting were included in the priority groups. Men who were injecting drugs (a priority group) also had a higher rate of admission than other men (83% versus 49%). In multivariate analysis controlling for priority groups and known risk factors, women were still less likely to be admitted to treatment within 30 days of admission than men. Establishing priorities improves the rate of admission within 30 days of assessment for those groups, but more needs to be done to improve the admission rate for women. These results demonstrate that a CIU allows administrators to monitor for access issues.

  16. READMIT: a clinical risk index to predict 30-day readmission after discharge from acute psychiatric units.

    PubMed

    Vigod, Simone N; Kurdyak, Paul A; Seitz, Dallas; Herrmann, Nathan; Fung, Kinwah; Lin, Elizabeth; Perlman, Christopher; Taylor, Valerie H; Rochon, Paula A; Gruneir, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to create a clinically useful risk index, administered prior to discharge, for determining the probability of psychiatric readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge for general psychiatric inpatients. We used population-level sociodemographic and health administrative data to develop a predictive model for 30-day readmission among adults discharged from an acute psychiatric unit in Ontario, Canada (2008-2011), and converted the final model into a risk index system. We derived the predictive model in one-half of the sample (n = 32,749) and validated it in the other half of the sample (n = 32,750). Variables independently associated with 30-day readmission (forming the mnemonic READMIT) were: (R) Repeat admissions; (E) Emergent admissions (i.e. harm to self/others); (D) Diagnoses (psychosis, bipolar and/or personality disorder), and unplanned Discharge; (M) Medical comorbidity; (I) prior service use Intensity; and (T) Time in hospital. Each 1-point increase in READMIT score (range 0-41) increased the odds of 30-day readmission by 11% (odds ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.10-1.12). The index had moderate discriminative capacity in both derivation (C-statistic = 0.631) and validation (C-statistic = 0.630) datasets. Determining risk of psychiatric readmission for individual patients is a critical step in efforts to address the potentially avoidable high rate of this negative outcome. The READMIT index provides a framework for identifying patients at high risk of 30-day readmission prior to discharge, and for the development, evaluation and delivery of interventions that can assist with optimizing the transition to community care for patients following psychiatric discharge.

  17. Risk Factors for 30-Day Hospital Readmission among General Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kassin, Michael T; Owen, Rachel M; Perez, Sebastian; Leeds, Ira; Cox, James C; Schnier, Kurt; Sadiraj, Vjollca; Sweeney, John F

    2012-01-01

    Background Hospital readmission within 30-days of an index hospitalization is receiving increased scrutiny as a marker of poor quality patient care. This study identifies factors associated with 30-day readmission following General Surgery procedures. Study Design Using standard National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (NSQIP) protocol, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative outcomes were collected on patients undergoing inpatient General Surgery procedures at a single academic center between 2009 and 2011. Data were merged with our institutional clinical data warehouse to identify unplanned 30-day readmissions. Demographics, comorbidities, type of procedure, postoperative complications, and ICD-9 coding data were reviewed for patients who were readmitted. Univariate and multivariate analysis was utilized to identify risk factors associated with 30-day readmission. Results 1442 General Surgery patients were reviewed. 163 (11.3%) were readmitted within 30 days of discharge. The most common reasons for readmission were gastrointestinal complaint/complication (27.6%), surgical infection (22.1%), and failure to thrive/malnutrition (10.4%). Comorbidities associated with risk of readmission included disseminated cancer, dyspnea, and preoperative open wound (p<0.05 for all variables). Surgical procedures associated with higher rates of readmission included pancreatectomy, colectomy, and liver resection. Postoperative occurrences leading to increased risk of readmission were blood transfusion, postoperative pulmonary complication, wound complication, sepsis/shock, urinary tract infection, and vascular complications. Multivariable analysis demonstrates that the most significant independent risk factor for readmission is the occurrence of any postoperative complication (OR 4.20, 95% CI 2.89–6.13). Conclusions Risk factors for readmission after General Surgery procedures are multi-factorial; however, postoperative complications appear to drive readmissions in

  18. Cirrhosis is Associated with an Increased 30-Day Mortality After Venous Thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Montomoli, Jonathan; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with cirrhosis are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but the impact of cirrhosis on the clinical course following VTE is unclear. In a nationwide cohort study, we examined 30-day mortality among patients with cirrhosis and VTE. Methods: We used Danish population-based health-care databases (1994–2011) to identify patients with incident VTE, i.e., deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Among these, we identified 745 patients with cirrhosis and 3647 patients without cirrhosis (matched on gender, year of birth, calendar year of VTE diagnosis and VTE type). We assessed the 30-day mortality risk among VTE patients with and without cirrhosis, and the mortality rate ratios (MRRs), using an adjusted Cox model with 95% confidence interval. We obtained information on immediate cause of death for patients who died within 30 days after VTE. Results: The 30-day mortality risk for DVT was 7% for patients with cirrhosis and 3% for patients without cirrhosis. Corresponding PE-related mortality risks were 35% and 16%, and PVT-related mortality risks were 19% and 15%, respectively. The adjusted 30-day MRRs were 2.17 (1.24–3.79) for DVT, 1.83 (1.30–2.56) for PE, and 1.30 (0.80–2.13) for PVT. Though overall mortality was higher in patients with cirrhosis than patients without cirrhosis, the proportions of deaths due to PE were similar among patients (25% and 24%, respectively). Conclusions: Cirrhosis is a predictor for increased short-term mortality following VTE, with PE as the most frequent cause of death. PMID:26133110

  19. Generalized procedures for testing hypotheses about survival or recovery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Williams, B.K.

    1989-01-01

    Comparisons of survival or recovery rates from different time periods or geographic regions may be difficult to accomplish using the Z-tests suggested by Brownie et al. (1985). We propose a general Chi-square statistic that addresses an unambiguous null hypothesis of homogeneity among several survival or recovery rates. With this statistic, specific hypotheses of differences in rates can be simultaneously tested using contrasts. If necessary, a posteriori multiple comparisons can also be conducted that incorporate an adjustment for Type I error.

  20. Prognostic factors on survival rate of fingers replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Queiroz; Carli, Alberto De; Nakamoto, Hugo Alberto; Bersani, Gustavo; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors that influence the survival rate of replantation and revascularization of the thumb and/or fingers. Methods: We included fifty cases treated in our department from May 2012 to October 2013 with total or partial finger amputations, which had blood perfusion deficit and underwent vascular anastomosis. The parameters evaluated were: age, gender, comorbidities, trauma, time and type of ischemia, mechanism, the injured area, number of anastomosed vessels and use of vein grafts. The results were statistically analyzed and type I error value was set at p <0.05 . Results: Fifty four percent of the 50 performed replantation survived. Of 15 revascularizations performed, the survival rate was 93.3%. The only factor that affected the survival of the amputated limb was the necessity of venous anastomosis. Conclusion: We could not establish contraindications or absolute indications for the replantation and revascularization of finger amputations in this study. Level of Evidence III, Retropective Study. PMID:26327788

  1. Survival rates of some terrestrial microorganisms under simulated space conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.; Koike, K. A.; Taguchi, H.; Tanaka, R.; Nishimura, K.; Miyaji, M.

    1992-10-01

    In connection with planetary quarantine, we have been studying the survival rates of nine species of terrestrial microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions. If common terrestrial microorganisms cannot survive in space even for short periods, we can greatly reduce expenditure for sterilizing space probes. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 k, 4 × 10-6 torr), and protons irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, Tobacco mosaic virus. Bacillus subtilis spores, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82%, 45%, 28%, and 25%, respectively. Furthermore, pathogenic Candida albicans showed 7% survival after irradiation corresponding to about 60 years in space.

  2. Effect of lead poisoning on spectacled elder survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grand, J.B.; Flint, P.L.; Petersen, M.R.; Moran, C.L.

    1998-01-01

    Spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) populations on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta), Alaska, declined rapidly through the 1980s, and low adult female survival was suggested as the likely cause of the decline. We used mark-resighting techniques to study annual survival rates of adult female spectacled eiders at 2 sites on the Y-K Delta during 1993-96. Our data suggest survival rates may differ among sites. However, a model fit to a subset of data on females for which we knew lead levels in blood suggests lead exposure influences survival. Adult females exposed to lead prior to hatching their eggs survived at a much lower rate (0.44 ?? 0.10) each year than females not exposed to lead before hatch (0.78 ?? 0.05). We suggest most mortality from lead exposure occurs over winter, and the related reduction in adult survival may be impeding recovery of local populations. We encourage managers to curtail input of lead shot into the environment.

  3. Influence of psychiatric comorbidity on 30-day readmissions for heart failure, myocardial infarction, and pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmedani, Brian K.; Solberg, Leif I.; Copeland, Laurel; Fang, Ying; Stewart, Christine; Hu, Jianhui; Nerenz, David R.; Williams, L. Keoki; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Waxmonsky, Jeanette; Lu, Christine Y.; Waitzfelder, Beth E.; Owen-Smith, Ashli A.; Coleman, Karen J.; Lynch, Frances L.; Ahmed, Ameena T.; Beck, Arne L.; Rossom, Rebecca C.; Simon, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented a policy in 2012 that penalizes hospitals for ‘excessive’ all-cause hospital readmissions within 30 days after discharge for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and pneumonia. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of psychiatric comorbidities on 30-day all-cause readmissions for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and pneumonia. Methods Longitudinal study from 2009-2011 within 11 Mental Health Research Network (MHRN) affiliated health systems. Data were derived from the HMO Research Network Virtual Data Warehouse. Participants were individuals admitted to the hospital for HF, AMI, and pneumonia. All index inpatient hospitalizations for HF, AMI and pneumonia were captured (n=160,169 patient index admissions). Psychiatric diagnoses were measured for the year prior to admission. All-cause readmissions within 30 days of discharge were the outcome variable. Results Approximately 18% of all individuals with these conditions were readmitted within 30-days. The rate was 5% greater for individuals with a past-year psychiatric comorbidity (21.7%) than for those without (16.5%; p<.001). Depression, anxiety, and dementia were associated with more readmissions for those with index hospitalizations for all three conditions independently and combined (p<.05). Substance use and bipolar disorders were linked with higher readmissions for those with initial HF and pneumonia hospitalizations (p<.05). Readmission rates declined overall from 2009-2011. Conclusions Individuals with HF, AMI, and pneumonia experience high rates of readmission, but psychiatric comorbidities appear to increase that risk. Future readmission interventions should consider adding mental health components. PMID:25642610

  4. Annual survival rates of breeding adult roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of the capture-recapture data on 0 individual roseate terns (Sterna dougallii) trapped from 1978-1987 as breeding adults on nests on Falkner Island, Connecticut, estimate the average annual minimum adult survival rate to be 0.74-0.75. There was weak evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates during the study period. The Jolly-Seber models used to estimate survival rates also generated estimates of population size and capture probabilities. To determine the relative importance of adult mortality and permanent emigration in contribuuting to the estimated annual loss of one-fourth of the breeding population will require further study of intercolony movemnet between all the major colony cities.

  5. Temporal variation in survival and recovery rates of lesser scaup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, Todd W.; Afton, Alan D.; Anteau, Michael J.; Koons, David N.; Nicolai, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Management of lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) has been hindered by access to reliable data on population trajectories and vital rates. We conducted a Bayesian analysis of historical (1951–2011) band-recovery data throughout North America to estimate annual survival and recovery rates for juvenile and adult male and female lesser scaup to determine if increasing harvest or declining survival rates have contributed to population changes and to determine if harvest has been primarily additive or compensatory. Annual recovery rates were low, ranging from 1% to 4% for adults and 2% to 10% for juveniles during most years, with trend models indicating that recovery rates have declined through time for all age–sex classes. Annual survival (mid-Aug to mid-Aug) averaged 0.402 (σ ̂ 0.043) for juvenile males, 0.416 (σ ̂ 0.067) for juvenile females, 0.689 (σ ̂ 0.109) for adult males, and 0.602 (σ ̂ 0.115) for adult females, where σ ̂ represents an estimate of annual process variation in each survival rate. Annual survival rates exhibited no evidence of long-term declines or negative correlations with annual recovery rates (i.e., an index of harvest intensity) for any age–sex class, suggesting that declining fecundity was the most likely explanation for population declines during 1975–2005. We conclude that hunting mortality played a minor role in affecting population dynamics of lesser scaup and waterfowl managers could take a less cautious approach in managing harvest, especially if recruiting or maintaining waterfowl hunters are viewed as important management objectives.

  6. Carotid baroreflex response following 30 days exposure to simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Eckberg, D. L.; Fritsch, J. M.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of the carotid-baroreflex response to weightlessness was investigated in human subjects exposed to simulated microgravity (30 days of 6-day head-down bed rest followed by 5 days of recovery). Baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses were elicited by a complex sequence of pressure changes delivered to a neck chamber device. The shape of the sigmoid baroreceptor-cardiac response curve was examined for alterations and the occurrence of resetting, as well as for a possible association of the impaired baroreflex function with hypotension during the postexposure orthostatic stress. It was found that the exposure to head-down bed rest caused a significant shift on the R-R interval axis, which paralleled reductions and elevations in baseline HR such that the baseline R-R (operational point) remained in the same position on the response curve. This shift in the location of the reflex relation indicates a significant resetting of the carotid baroreceptors, which may represent an appropriate adaptation which contributes to the maintenance of a constant resting arterial blood pressure before, during, and after bed rest, observed in these study.

  7. Comparison of robotic and laparoscopic colorectal resections with respect to 30-day perioperative morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Adina E.; Elnahas, Ahmad; Bashir, Shaheena; Cleghorn, Michelle C.; Quereshy, Fayez A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Robotic surgery has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to traditional laparoscopy. Robotic surgery addresses many of the technical and ergonomic limitations of laparoscopic surgery, but the literature regarding clinical outcomes in colorectal surgery is limited. We sought to compare robotic and laparoscopic colorectal resections with respect to 30-day perioperative outcomes. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to identify all patients who underwent robotic or laparoscopic colorectal surgery in 2013. We performed a logistic regression analysis to compare intraoperative variables and 30-day outcomes. Results There were 8392 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery and 472 patients who underwent robotic colorectal surgery. The robotic cohort had a lower incidence of unplanned intraoperative conversion (9.5% v. 13.7%, p = 0.008). There were no significant differences between robotic and laparoscopic surgery with respect to other intraoperative and postoperative outcomes, such as operative duration, length of stay, postoperative ileus, anastomotic leak, venous thromboembolism, wound infection, cardiac complications and pulmonary complications. On multivariable analysis, robotic surgery was protective for unplanned conversion, while male sex, malignancy, Crohn disease and diverticular disease were all associated with open conversion. Conclusion Robotic colorectal surgery has comparable 30-day perioperative morbidity to laparoscopic surgery and may decrease the rate of intraoperative conversion in select patients. PMID:27240135

  8. The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Kim, Bum-Su; Yun, Pil-Young; Mun, Sang-Un; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jeong, Kyung-In

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to analyze the cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants (Osstem Implant Co., Ltd.) over a seven-year period. Materials and Methods A total of 105 patients who had 467 Osstem implants that were placed at the Section of Dentistry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Seongnam, Korea) from June 2003 through December 2005 were analyzed. The life table method and a cross-tubulation analysis, log rank test were used to evaluate the survival curve and the influence that the prognostic factors. The prognostic factors, i.e., age and gender of patients, diameter and length, type of implants, bone graft history and loading time were determined with a Cox proportional hazard model based on logistic regression analysis. Results The seven-year cumulative survival rate of Osstem implants was 95.37%. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the following factors had a significant influence on survival rate; increased diameter, reduced prosthetic loading period and performance of bone grafting. Conclusion The osstem implants showed satisfactory results over the seven-year study period. PMID:24868503

  9. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage and 30 Day Rehospitalizations: An Analysis of Medicare Data

    PubMed Central

    Kind, Amy JH; Jencks, Steve; Brock, Jane; Yu, Menggang; Bartels, Christie; Ehlenbach, William; Greenberg, Caprice; Smith, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Background Measures of socioeconomic disadvantage may enable improved targeting of programs to prevent rehospitalizations, but obtaining such information directly from patients can be difficult. Measures of US neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage are more readily available, although rarely employed clinically. Objective To evaluate the association between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage at the census block-group level, as measured by Singh’s validated Area Deprivation Index (ADI), and 30-day rehospitalization. Design Retrospective cohort study Setting United States Patients Random 5% national sample of fee-for-service Medicare patients discharged with congestive heart failure, pneumonia or myocardial infarction, 2004–2009 (N = 255,744) Measurements 30-day rehospitalizations. Medicare data were linked to 2000 Census data to construct an ADI for each patient’s census block-group, which were then sorted into percentiles by increasing ADI. Relationships between neighborhood ADI grouping and rehospitalization were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for patient sociodemographics, comorbidities/severity, and index hospital characteristics. Results The 30-day rehospitalization rate did not vary significantly across the least disadvantaged 85% of neighborhoods, which had an average rehospitalization rate=21%. However, within the most disadvantaged 15% of neighborhoods, rehospitalization rates rose from 22% to 27% with worsening ADI. This relationship persisted after full adjustment, with the most disadvantaged neighborhoods having a rehospitalization risk (adjusted risk ratio = 1.09, confidence interval 1.05–1.12) similar to that of chronic pulmonary disease (1.06, 1.04–1.08) and greater than that of diabetes (0.95, 0.94–0.97). Limitations No direct markers of care quality, access Conclusions Residence within a disadvantaged US neighborhood is a rehospitalization predictor of magnitude similar to chronic pulmonary

  10. 30-day Mortality after Bariatric Surgery: Independently Adjudicated Causes of Death in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Mark D.; Patterson, Emma; Wahed, Abdus S.; Belle, Steven H.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Dakin, Gregory F.; Flum, David R.; Machado, Laura; Mitchell, James E.; Pender, John; Pomp, Alfons; Pories, Walter; Ramanathan, Ramesh; Schrope, Beth; Staten, Myrlene; Ude, Akuezunkpa; Wolfe, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mortality following bariatric surgery is a rare event in contemporary series, making it difficult for any single center to draw meaningful conclusions as to cause of death. Nevertheless, much of the published mortality data come from single center case series and reviews of administrative databases. These sources tend to produce lower mortality estimates than those obtained from controlled clinical trials. Furthermore, information about the causes of death and how they were determined is not always available. The aim of the present report is to describe in detail all deaths occurring within 30-days of surgery in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS). Methods LABS is a 10-center observational cohort study of bariatric surgical outcomes. Data were collected prospectively for bariatric surgeries performed between March 2005 and April 2009. All deaths occurring within 30-days of surgery were identified, and cause of death assigned by an independent Adjudication Subcommittee, blinded to operating surgeon and site. Results 6118 patients underwent primary bariatric surgery. 18 deaths (0.3%) occurred within 30-days of surgery. The most common cause of death was sepsis (33% of deaths), followed by cardiac causes (28%) and pulmonary embolism (17%). For one patient cause of death could not be determined despite examination of all available information. Conclusions This study confirms the low 30-day mortality rate following bariatric surgery. The recognized complications of anastomotic leak, cardiac events, and pulmonary emboli accounted for the majority of 30-day deaths. PMID:21866378

  11. CAFFEINE IMPROVES HEART RATE WITHOUT IMPROVING SEPSIS SURVIVAL

    PubMed Central

    Bauzá, Gustavo; Remick, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Caffeine is consumed on a daily basis for its nervous system stimulant properties and is a global adenosine receptor antagonist. Since adenosine receptors have been found to play a major role in regulating the immune response to a septic insult, we investigated if caffeine consumption prior to a septic insult would alter immunological and physiological responses, as well as survival. Methods Two separate experimental designs were employed, both using outbred female ICR mice. In the first experiment mice were administered 20mg/kg of caffeine (equal to 2–3 cups of coffee for a human) or normal saline intraperitoneally at the time of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Immunological parameters including cytokines and local cell recruitment measured. In the second experiment caffeine (10mg/kg/hr) was delivered continuously for 24 hours via a subcutaneous infusion pump placed the day prior to CLP and hemodynamic parameters were examined. In both experiments survival was followed for five days. Results A single dose of caffeine at the initiation of sepsis did not alter survival. This single dose of caffeine did significantly increase in plasma levels of the chemokine KC six hours after the onset of sepsis compared to septic mice given normal saline. There were no changes in IL-6 or IL-10 levels in the caffeine groups. Peritoneal lavages performed 24 hours post-CLP showed no difference in the levels of IL-6, TNF, KC, MIP-1, IL-10 or the IL-1 receptor antagonist between caffeine and normal saline treated mice. Additionally, the lavages yielded similar numbers of cells (4.1×106 vehicle vs. 6.9×106 caffeine) and bacterial colony forming units (CFU, 4.1 million CFU vehicle vs. 2.8 million CFU caffeine). In the infusion group, caffeine also did not alter survival. However, caffeine infusion did increase heart rate prior to CLP, and prevented the decline in heart rate after CLP. Conclusion Caffeine increased heart rate in mice but does not impact cytokine

  12. Use of mortality within 30 days of a COPD hospitalisation as a measure of COPD care in UK hospitals.

    PubMed

    Walker, P P; Thompson, E; Crone, H; Flatt, G; Holton, K; Hill, S L; Pearson, M G

    2013-10-01

    Mortality rate has been proposed as a metric of hospital chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) care in light of variation seen in national COPD audits. Using Hospital Episode Statistics (hospital 'coding') we examined 30-day mortality after COPD hospitalisation in 150 UK hospitals during 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. Mean and median 30-day mortalities were similar each year but the coefficient of variation was >20% and hospitals could change from a low or high quartile to the median by chance. We could not detect any reasons for hospitals being at the extremes. 30-day mortality after COPD hospitalisation is a complex variable and unlikely to be useful as a primary annual COPD metric.

  13. Estimating cancer mortality rates from SEER incidence and survival data.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K C; Horm, J W; Smart, C R

    1990-01-01

    A method to estimate site-specific cancer mortality rates using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program incidence and survival data is proposed, calculated, and validated. This measure, the life table-derived mortality rate (LTM), is the sum of the product of the probability of being alive at the beginning of an interval times the probability of dying of the cancer of interest during the interval times the annual age-adjusted incidence rate for each year that data have been collected. When the LTM is compared to death certificate mortality rates (DCM) for organ sites with no known misclassification problems, the LTM was within 10 percent of the death certificate rates for 13 of 14 organ sites. In the sites that have problems with the death certificate rates, there were major disagreements between the LTM and DCM. The LTM was systematically lower than the DCM for sites if there was overreporting on the death certificates, and the LTM was higher than the DCM for sites if there was underreporting. The limitations and applications of the LTM are detailed. PMID:2106703

  14. Epidemiological Data and Survival Rate of Removable Partial Dentures

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Amália; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Filho, Humberto Gennari; Santos, Emerson Gomes Dos; Sonego, Mariana Vilela; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of removable partial denture (RPD) is considered as low-cost and common treatment option to rehabilitate edentulous areas. Aim This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological data of patients rehabilitated with removable partial denture (RPD) in order to assess treatment survival rate and failures. Materials and Methods Epidemiological data and medical records of patients treated with RPD between 2007 and 2012 at the RPD discipline of a Brazilian University (Aracatuba Dental School- UNESP) were evaluated as well as dental records of patients who underwent RPD treatments (fabrication or repairs) between 2000 and 2010. Factors such as gender, age, presence of systemic disease, main complaint, edentulous arch, period and cause of denture replacement and the prosthesis characteristics were recorded. The chi-square test was used to assess the differences between the variables and the Kaplan Meyer to assess the survival of the RPDs evaluated. Results A total of 324 maxillary RPD and 432 mandibular RPD were fabricated. Most of the patients were women aging 41 to 60-year-old. The number of mandibular RPD Kennedy class I (26%) was statistically higher for the maxillary arch (p<.05). There was no association between main complaint to gender or the presence of systemic disease. The lingual plate was the most common major connector used in the mandible (32%). The main reason for altering the design of replaced RPDs were changes during treatment plan. Conclusion The number of patients who require RPD is large; most of RPDs are Kennedy Class I. A good treatment plan is very important for achieving a positive treatment outcome, and it is strictly related to the survival rate. PMID:27437367

  15. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a) General determination of rate. When VA grants a surviving spouse entitlement to DIC, VA will determine the rate of...

  16. Inferences regarding survival and recovery rates of winter-banded canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Haramis, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Banding and recovery data from 3 populations of winter-banded canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) were analyzed and survival and recovery rates were estimated. Sex-specific differences in these rates were detected in some populations, and lower survival rates were exhibited by females. Some geographic variation in survival rates was evident, suggesting that canvasbacks should not be managed strictly on a continent-wide basis. Evidence of temporal variation in both survival and recovery rates was found. Lower recovery rates were noted during periods of restrictive hunting regulations, but the relationship between survival rates and hunting regulations was not clear-cut.

  17. Evaluation of annual survival and mortality rates and longevity of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at the United States Navy Marine Mammal Program from 2004 through 2013.

    PubMed

    Venn-Watson, Stephanie K; Jensen, Eric D; Smith, Cynthia R; Xitco, Mark; Ridgway, Sam H

    2015-04-15

    Objective-To evaluate annual survival and mortality rates and the longevity of a managed population of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Design-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-103 bottlenose dolphins at the US Navy Marine Mammal Program (MMP). Procedures-Population age structures, annual survival and crude mortality rates, and median age at death for dolphins > 30 days old were determined from 2004 through 2013. Results-During 2004 through 2013, the annual survival rates for MMP dolphins ranged from 0.98 to 1.0, and the annual crude mortality rates ranged from 0% to 5%, with a mean of 2.7%. The median age at death was 30.1 years from 2004 through 2008 and increased to 32 years from 2009 through 2013. The maximum age for a dolphin in the study was 52 years. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results indicated that the annual mortality rates were low and survival rates were high for dolphins in the MMP from 2004 through 2013 and that the median age at death for MMP dolphins during that time was over 10 years greater than that reported in free-ranging dolphins. These findings were likely attributable to the continually improving care and husbandry of managed dolphin populations.

  18. Incidence And Risk Factors For 30-Day Readmissions After Hip Fracture Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Christopher T; Gao, Yubo; Pugely, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Unplanned hospital readmission following orthopedic procedures results in significant expenditures for the Medicare population. In order to reduce expenditures, hospital readmission has become an important quality metric for Medicare patients. The purpose of the present study is to determine the incidence and risk factors for 30-day readmissions after hip fracture surgery. Methods Patients over the age of 18 years who underwent hip fracture surgery, including open reduction internal fixation (ORIF), intramedullary nailing, hemi-arthroplasty, or total hip arthroplasty, between the years 2012 and 2013 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality improvement Program (NSQIP) database. Overall, 17,765 patients were identified. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to determine patient and surgical factors associated with 30-day readmission. Results There were 1503 patients (8.4%) readmitted within 30-days of their index procedure. Of the patients with a reason listed for readmission, 27.4% were for procedurally related reasons, including wound complications (16%), peri-prosthetic fractures (4.5%) and prosthetic dislocations (6%). 72.6% of readmissions were for medical reasons, including sepsis (7%), pneumonia (14%), urinary tract infection (6.3%), myocardial infarction (2.7%), renal failure (2.7%), and stroke (2.3%). In the subsequent multivariate analysis, pre-operative dyspnea, COPD, hypertension, disseminated cancer, a bleeding disorder, pre-operative hematocrit of <36, pre-operative creatinine of >1.2, an ASA class of 3 or 4, and the operative procedure type were each independently associated with readmissions risk (p<0.05 for each). Conclusions The overall rate of readmission following hip fracture surgery was moderate. Surgeons should consider discharge optimization in the at risk cohorts identified here, particularly patients with multiple medical comorbidities or an elevated ASA class, and

  19. Postoperative Morbidity by Procedure and Patient Factors Influencing Major Complications Within 30 Days Following Shoulder Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Edward; Iannuzzi, James C.; Thorsness, Robert; Noyes, Katia; Voloshin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little data are available to prioritize quality improvement initiatives in shoulder surgery. Purpose: To stratify the risk for 30-day postoperative morbidity in commonly performed surgical procedures about the shoulder completed in a hospital setting and to determine patient factors associated with major complications. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This retrospective study utilized the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from the years 2005 to 2010. Using Current Procedural Terminology codes, the database was queried for shoulder cases that were divided into 7 groups: arthroscopy without repair; arthroscopy with repair; arthroplasty; clavicle/acromioclavicular joint (AC) open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF)/repair; ORIF of proximal humeral fracture; open tendon release/repair; and open shoulder stabilization. The primary end point was any major complication, with secondary end points of incisional infection, return to the operating room, and venothromboembolism (VTE), all within 30 days of surgery. Results: Overall, 11,086 cases were analyzed. The overall major complication rate was 2.1% (n = 234). Factors associated with major complications on multivariate analysis included: procedure performed (P < .001), emergency case (P < .001), pulmonary comorbidity (P < .001), preoperative blood transfusion (P = .033), transfer from an outside institution (P = .03), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score (P = .006), wound class (P < .001), dependent functional status (P = .027), and age older than 60 years (P = .01). After risk adjustment, open shoulder stabilization was associated with the greatest risk of major complications relative to arthroscopy without repair (odds ratio [OR], 5.56; P = .001), followed by ORIF of proximal humerus fracture (OR, 4.90; P < .001) and arthroplasty (OR, 4.40; P < .001). These 3 groups generated over 60% of all major complications. Open shoulder

  20. Survival and band recovery rates of sympatric grey ducks and mallards in New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caithness, T.; Williams, M.; Nichols, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    We used band recovery data from grey ducks (Anas superciliosa) and mallards. (A. platyrhynchos) banded sympatrically during 1957-74 to estimate annual survival and recovery rates. Young birds tended to have higher recovery rates and lower survival rates than adults for both species. Both species showed strong evidence of year-to-year variation in annual survival rates. Survival rates of male mallards were higher than those in females, as is typical for this species in North America, but there was no evidence of sex-specific survival differences in grey ducks. Recovery rate estimates for grey ducks were high and were significantly higher than those for mallards. However, survival rates did not differ significantly between the 2 species within any age-sex class. The similar survival rates, when mallard populations were increasing and grey ducks were decreasing, suggest that mallard reproductive rates have been greater than those of grey ducks.

  1. 17 CFR 41.12 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 41.12 Section 41.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION SECURITY FUTURES PRODUCTS Narrow-Based Security Indexes § 41.12 Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of sale...

  2. 78 FR 65695 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    .... ACTION: Correction, notice. SUMMARY: On October 25, 2013 at 78 FR 64146 HUD published a 30 day notice of... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Technical Processing Requirements..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette...

  3. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry..., OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned, or Exported Merchandise § 158.42 Abandonment by importer within 30... written notice of abandonment with the director of the port where the entry was filed within 30 days...

  4. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry..., OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned, or Exported Merchandise § 158.42 Abandonment by importer within 30... written notice of abandonment with the director of the port where the entry was filed within 30 days...

  5. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry..., OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned, or Exported Merchandise § 158.42 Abandonment by importer within 30... written notice of abandonment with the director of the port where the entry was filed within 30 days...

  6. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry..., OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned, or Exported Merchandise § 158.42 Abandonment by importer within 30... written notice of abandonment with the director of the port where the entry was filed within 30 days...

  7. 19 CFR 158.42 - Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment by importer within 30 days after entry..., OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned, or Exported Merchandise § 158.42 Abandonment by importer within 30... which the merchandise being abandoned appears. (b) Application within 30 days. The importer shall...

  8. 77 FR 48160 - Division of Cardiovascular Devices 30-Day Notices and Annual Reports; Public Workshop; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Division of Cardiovascular Devices 30-Day Notices and Annual... following public workshop entitled ``Division of Cardiovascular Devices 30-Day Notices and Annual Reports..., specifically for cardiovascular devices. DATES: Date and Time: The public workshop will be held on August...

  9. Band reporting rates of waterfowl: does individual heterogeneity bias estimated survival rates?

    PubMed Central

    White, Gary C; Cordes, Line S; Arnold, Todd W

    2013-01-01

    In capture–recapture studies, the estimation accuracy of demographic parameters is essential to the efficacy of management of hunted animal populations. Dead recovery models based upon the reporting of rings or bands are often used for estimating survival of waterfowl and other harvested species. However, distance from the ringing site or condition of the bird may introduce substantial individual heterogeneity in the conditional band reporting rates (r), which could cause bias in estimated survival rates (S) or suggest nonexistent individual heterogeneity in S. To explore these hypotheses, we ran two sets of simulations (n = 1000) in MARK using Seber's dead recovery model, allowing time variation on both S and r. This included a series of heterogeneity models, allowing substantial variation on logit(r), and control models with no heterogeneity. We conducted simulations using two different values of S: S = 0.60, which would be typical of dabbling ducks such as mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and S = 0.80, which would be more typical of sea ducks or geese. We chose a mean reporting rate on the logit scale of −1.9459 with SD = 1.5 for the heterogeneity models (producing a back-transformed mean of 0.196 with SD = 0.196, median = 0.125) and a constant reporting rate for the control models of 0.196. Within these sets of simulations, estimation models where σS = 0 and σS > 0 (σS is SD of individual survival rates on the logit scale) were incorporated to investigate whether real heterogeneity in r would induce apparent individual heterogeneity in S. Models where σS = 0 were selected approximately 91% of the time over models where σS > 0. Simulation results showed < 0.05% relative bias in estimating survival rates except for models estimating σS > 0 when true S = 0.8, where relative bias was a modest 0.5%. These results indicate that considerable variation in reporting rates does not cause major bias in estimated survival rates of waterfowl, further highlighting

  10. A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

    2012-07-01

    Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages. PMID:22919897

  11. 78 FR 52007 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Financial Statement of Corporate Applicant for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Financial Statement of Corporate... Information Collection: Financial Statement of Corporate Applicant for Cooperative Housing Mortgage. OMB... information to determine feasibility, mortgagor/contractor acceptability as well as the financial data,...

  12. 78 FR 36561 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: The Housing Counseling Federal Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: The Housing Counseling Federal... Information Collection: The Housing Counseling Federal Advisory Committee Membership Application. OMB Approval... for the information and proposed use: The Housing Counseling Federal Advisory Committee (HCFAC)...

  13. 78 FR 40314 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fair Housing Initiatives Program Grant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fair Housing Initiatives Program..., 2012. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Fair Housing Initiatives... approved information collection used to select applicants for the Fair Housing Initiatives Program...

  14. 78 FR 59046 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards Questionnaire(s...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Federal Labor Standards..., Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street...

  15. 78 FR 39001 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Uniform Physical Standards and Physical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Uniform Physical Standards and Physical Inspection Requirements AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice... Information Collection: Uniform Physical Standards and Physical Inspection Requirements. OMB Approval...

  16. 78 FR 54267 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting..., 2013. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Disaster Recovery Grant... information and proposed use: The Disaster Recovery Grant Reporting (DRGR) System is a grants...

  17. 78 FR 44579 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fellowship Placement Pilot Program Evaluation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Fellowship Placement Pilot Program.... A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Fellowship Placement Pilot.... Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The Fellowship Placement Program places...

  18. The relationship between harvest and survival rates of mallards: A straightforward approach with partitioned data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    We randomly partitioned mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bandings and recoveries from each of a number of selected reference areas into 2 groups and estimated survival and harvest rates for each area and group. This procedure produced independent vectors of survival- and harvest-rate estimates, which were used to test the general hypothesis that mallard survival and harvest rates were inversely related. We used Spearman rank correlation analysis and z-test contrasts between survival rates from years of high vs. low harvest rates. We also conducted computer simulation experiments to gain insight into the ability of these analyses to detect the relationship of interest. The data analyses suggested that survival and harvest rates of young females were inversely related, at least for the 5 areas included in the analysis. However, for young males and adults of both sexes, the analyses provided no evidence of an inverse relationship between survival and harvest rates, except possibly in a few specific areas.

  19. Utility of Socioeconomic Status in Predicting 30-Day Outcomes After Heart Failure Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Eapen, Zubin J.; McCoy, Lisa A.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Yancy, Clyde W.; Miranda, Marie Lynn; Peterson, Eric D.; Califf, Robert M.; Hernandez, Adrian F.

    2015-01-01

    Background An individual's socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with health outcomes and mortality, yet it is unknown whether accounting for SES can improve risk-adjustment models for 30-day outcomes among Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) beneficiaries hospitalized with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results We linked clinical data on hospitalized HF patients in the Get With The Guidelines®-HF™ database (01/2005–12/2011) with CMS claims and county-level SES data from the 2012 Area Health Resources Files. We compared the discriminatory capabilities of multivariable models that adjusted for SES, patient, and/or hospital characteristics to determine whether county-level SES data improved prediction or changed hospital rankings for 30-day all-cause mortality and rehospitalization. After adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, median household income (per $5,000 increase) was inversely associated with odds of 30-day mortality (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95–1.00, p=0.032), and the percentage of persons with at least a high school diploma (per 5 unit increase) was associated with lower odds of 30-day rehospitalization (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91–0.99).After adjustment for county-level SES data, relative to whites, Hispanic ethnicity (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58, 0.83) and black race (OR 0.57, 95% CI: 0.50–0.65) remained significantly associated with lower 30-day mortality, but had similar 30-day rehospitalization. County-level SES did not improve risk adjustment or change hospital rankings for 30-day mortality or rehospitalization. Conclusions County-level SES data are modestly associated with 30-day outcomes for CMS beneficiaries hospitalized with HF, but do not improve risk adjustment models based on patient characteristics alone. PMID:25747700

  20. Predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with spontaneous primary intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Safatli, Diaa A.; Günther, Albrecht; Schlattmann, Peter; Schwarz, Falko; Kalff, Rolf; Ewald, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a life threatening entity, and an early outcome assessment is mandatory for optimizing therapeutic efforts. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 342 patients with spontaneous primary ICH to evaluate possible predictors of 30-day mortality considering clinical, radiological, and therapeutical parameters. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. We also applied three widely accepted outcome grading scoring systems [(ICH score, FUNC score and intracerebral hemorrhage grading scale (ICH-GS)] on our population to evaluate the correlation of these scores with the 30-day mortality in our study. Results: From 342 patients (mean age: 67 years, mean Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] on admission: 9, mean ICH volume: 62.19 ml, most common hematoma location: basal ganglia [43.9%]), 102 received surgical and 240 conservative treatment. The 30-day mortality was 25.15%. In a multivariate analysis, GCS (Odds ratio [OR] =0.726, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.661–0.796, P < 0.001), bleeding volume (OR = 1.012 per ml, 95% CI = 1.007 – 1.017, P < 0.001), and infratentorial hematoma location (OR = 5.381, 95% CI = 2.166-13.356, P = 0.009) were significant predictors for the 30-day mortality. After receiver operating characteristics analysis, we defined a “high-risk group” for an unfavorable short-term outcome with GCS <11 and ICH volume >32 ml supratentorially or 21 ml infratentorially. Using Pearson correlation, we found a correlation of 0.986 between ICH score and 30-day mortality (P < 0.001), 0.853 between FUNC score and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001), and 0.924 between ICH-GS and 30-day mortality (P = 0.001). Conclusions: GCS score on admission together with the baseline volume and localization of the hemorrhage are strong

  1. Nonclinical Factors Associated with 30-Day Mortality after Lung Cancer Resection: An Analysis of 215,000 Patients Using the National Cancer Data Base

    PubMed Central

    Melvan, John N; Sancheti, Manu S; Gillespie, Theresa; Nickleach, Dana C; Liu, Yuan; Higgins, Kristin; Ramalingam, Suresh; Lipscomb, Joseph; Fernandez, Felix G

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical variables associated with 30-day mortality after lung cancer surgery are well known. However, the effects of non-clinical factors, including insurance coverage, household income, education, type of treatment center, and area of residence, on short term survival are less appreciated. We studied the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), a joint endeavor of the Commission on Cancer of the American College of Surgeons and the American Cancer Society, to identify disparities in 30-day mortality after lung cancer resection based on these non-clinical factors. Study Design We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of patients undergoing lung cancer resection from 2003-2011, using the NCDB. Data were analyzed using a multivariable logistic regression model to identify risk factors for 30-day mortality. Results 215,645 patients underwent lung cancer resection during our study period. We found that clinical variables such as age, gender, comorbidity, cancer stage, preoperative radiation, extent of resection, positive surgical margins, and tumor size were associated with 30-day mortality after resection. Non-clinical factors including living in lower income neighborhoods with a lesser proportion of high school graduates, and receiving cancer care at a non-academic medical center were also independently associated with increased 30-day postoperative mortality. Conclusions This study represents the largest analysis of 30-day mortality for lung cancer resection to date from a generalizable national cohort. Our results demonstrate that, in addition to known clinical risk factors, several non-clinical factors are associated with increased 30-day mortality after lung cancer resection. These disparities require further investigation to improve lung cancer patient outcomes. PMID:26206651

  2. The Readmission Risk Flag: Using the Electronic Health Record to Automatically Identify Patients at Risk for 30-day Readmission

    PubMed Central

    Baillie, Charles A.; VanZandbergen, Christine; Tait, Gordon; Hanish, Asaf; Leas, Brian; French, Benjamin; Hanson, C. William; Behta, Maryam; Umscheid, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Identification of patients at high risk for readmission is a crucial step toward improving care and reducing readmissions. The adoption of electronic health records (EHR) may prove important to strategies designed to risk stratify patients and introduce targeted interventions. Objective To develop and implement an automated prediction model integrated into our health system’s EHR that identifies on admission patients at high risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge. Design Retrospective and prospective cohort. Setting Healthcare system consisting of three hospitals. Patients All adult patients admitted from August 2009 to September 2012. Interventions An automated readmission risk flag integrated into the EHR. Measures Thirty-day all-cause and 7-day unplanned healthcare system readmissions. Results Using retrospective data, a single risk factor, ≥2 inpatient admissions in the past 12 months, was found to have the best balance of sensitivity (40%), positive predictive value (31%), and proportion of patients flagged (18%), with a c-statistic of 0.62. Sensitivity (39%), positive predictive value (30%), proportion of patients flagged (18%) and c-statistic (0.61) during the 12-month period after implementation of the risk flag were similar. There was no evidence for an effect of the intervention on 30-day all-cause and 7-day unplanned readmission rates in the 12-month period after implementation. Conclusions An automated prediction model was effectively integrated into an existing EHR and identified patients on admission who were at risk for readmission within 30 days of discharge. PMID:24227707

  3. Extent of Surgery Does Not Influence 30-Day Mortality in Surgery for Metastatic Bone Disease: An Observational Study of a Historical Cohort.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Michala Skovlund; Hindsø, Klaus; Hovgaard, Thea Bechmann; Petersen, Michael Mørk

    2016-04-01

    Estimating patient survival has hitherto been the main focus when treating metastatic bone disease (MBD) in the appendicular skeleton. This has been done in an attempt to allocate the patient to a surgical procedure that outlives them. No questions have been addressed as to whether the extent of the surgery and thus the surgical trauma reduces survival in this patient group. We wanted to evaluate if perioperative parameters such as blood loss, extent of bone resection, and duration of surgery were risk factors for 30-day mortality in patients having surgery due to MBD in the appendicular skeleton. We retrospectively identified 270 consecutive patients who underwent joint replacement surgery or intercalary spacing for skeletal metastases in the appendicular skeleton from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2013. We collected intraoperative (duration of surgery, extent of bone resection, and blood loss), demographic (age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologist score [ASA score], and Karnofsky score), and disease-specific (primary cancer) variables. An association with 30-day mortality was addressed using univariate and multivariable analyses and calculation of odds ratio (OR). All patients were included in the analysis. ASA score 3 + 4 (OR 4.16 [95% confidence interval, CI, 1.80-10.85], P = 0.002) and Karnofsky performance status below 70 (OR 7.34 [95% CI 3.16-19.20], P < 0.001) were associated with increased 30-day mortality in univariate analysis. This did not change in multivariable analysis. No parameters describing the extent of the surgical trauma were found to be associated with 30-day mortality. The 30-day mortality in patients undergoing surgery for MBD is highly dependent on the general health status of the patients as measured by the ASA score and the Karnofsky performance status. The extent of surgery, measured as duration of surgery, blood loss, and degree of bone resection were not associated with 30-day mortality.

  4. Unplanned 30-Day Readmissions in a General Internal Medicine Hospitalist Service at a Comprehensive Cancer Center

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Joanna-Grace M.; Gadiraju, Sahitya; Hiremath, Adarsh; Lin, Heather Yan; Farroni, Jeff; Halm, Josiah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Hospital readmissions are considered by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid as a metric for quality of health care delivery. Robust data on the readmission profile of patients with cancer are currently insufficient to determine whether this measure is applicable to cancer hospitals as well. To address this knowledge gap, we estimated the unplanned readmission rate and identified factors influencing unplanned readmissions in a hospitalist service at a comprehensive cancer center. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed unplanned 30-day readmission of patients discharged from the General Internal Medicine Hospitalist Service at a comprehensive cancer center between April 1, 2012, and September 30, 2012. Multiple independent variables were studied using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models, with generalized estimating equations to identify risk factors associated with readmissions. Results: We observed a readmission rate of 22.6% in our cohort. The median time to unplanned readmission was 10 days. Unplanned readmission was more likely in patients with metastatic cancer and those with three or more comorbidities. Patients discharged to hospice were less likely to be readmitted (all P values < .01). Conclusion: We observed a high unplanned readmission rate among our population of patients with cancer. The risk factors identified appear to be related to severity of illness and open up opportunities for improving coordination with primary care physicians, oncologists, and other specialists to manage comorbidities, or perhaps transition appropriate patients to palliative care. Our findings will be instrumental for developing targeted interventions to help reduce readmissions at our hospital. Our data also provide direction for appropriate application of readmission quality measures in cancer hospitals. PMID:26152375

  5. The effects of hunting on survival rates of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Percival, H.F.

    1988-01-01

    Using data from 10 preseason and 10 winter major reference areas from 1950-83, the authors tested hypotheses regarding the effects of hunting on the survival and recovery rates of the American black duck (Anas rubripes ). Although estimates of the proportion of total annual mortality due to hunting are low (35% for ad and 45% for young) compared to Blandin's (1982) estimates, mean mortality and kill rates have increased since 1982. When hunting regulations were liberalized, recovery rates increased and survival rates decreased in males whereas only recovery rates increased in females. Changes in hunting regulations appeared to affect survival rates of adult males and young American black ducks.

  6. Anastomotic leaks after colorectal anastomosis occurring more than 30 days postoperatively: a single-institution evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Phin; Hong, En Yaw; Phillips, Benjamin; Isenberg, Gerald A; Goldstein, Scott D

    2014-09-01

    National hospital registries only report colorectal anastomotic leaks (ALs) within 30 days postoperatively. The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and significance of ALs that occur beyond 30 days postoperatively. We performed a retrospective review of our prospective database from June 2008 to August 2012. A total of 504 patients were included. These patients were operated on by two surgeons. Any clinical or radiographic abnormalities were considered to be an anastomotic imperfection. A total of 504 patients were reviewed with a total of 18 (3.6%) anastomotic leaks. Six leaks (31.6% of leaks) were diagnosed more than 30 days postoperatively (P < 0.001). Of the 18 leaks, interventional radiology drainage was performed for four cases and 14 patients required reoperation. All six delayed leaks required reoperation. There was one leak that occurred under 30 days, which was discovered on autopsy. The median follow-up was 12 months (range, 1 to 4 months). All the delayed leak patients presented with fistulas, whereas 58 per cent of typical leak patients presented with the triad of leukocytosis, fever, and abdominal pain. Colorectal anastomotic leaks can occur after the 30-day postoperative period. In patients with vague and atypical abdominal findings, anastomotic leak must be suspected. More systematic, prospective studies are required to help us further understand the risk factors and natural history of anastomotic failures in elective colorectal surgery.

  7. Using data linkage to generate 30-day crash-fatality adjustment factors for Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Huei; Huang, Wei-Shin; Chang, Kai-Kuo; Jeng, Ming-Chang; Doong, Ji-Liang

    2006-07-01

    Different countries have their own police reporting time standards for counting the number of fatalities in reported crashes. A rapid estimation method (such as adjustment factor) for the comparison is important. The data-linkage technique was used to combine police-reported crash data and vital registration data, in order to generate 30-day fatality adjustment factors for various reporting time standards, which could also shed light on the fatal injury trend over time. The major findings were as follows. Firstly, a conservative 30-day fatality adjustment factor for the first day (or 24 h) would be 1.54 (or 1.35) in an area with a large motorcycle population, like Taiwan. This produced 20-40% higher 30-day fatalities than UK Transport Research Laboratory predicted, and 15-25% higher fatalities than those in Europe/Japan. Secondly, after excluding motorcycle impacts, the Taiwanese factors suggested 8-14% higher fatalities within 30 days than those in Europe/Japan. Third, motorcycle fatalities influenced the overall 30-day fatality trend within 3 days. In the future, both the police under-reporting problem and the motorcycle/overall fatal injury pattern within 3 days after crashing in developing countries like Taiwan merit further investigation. PMID:16430844

  8. 78 FR 52781 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Disclosure of Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... or speech impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8339. This is not a toll- free number. Copies of available documents submitted to...

  9. Survival rates of female greater sage-grouse in autumn and winter in Southeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Willis, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of 135 female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) on 3 study areas in southeastern Oregon, USA during autumn and winter for 3 years. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to test for differences among study areas and years, investigate the potential influence of weather, and compute estimates of overwinter survival. We found no evidence for differences in survival rates among study areas, which was contrary to our original hypothesis. There also were no declines in survival rates during fallwinter, but survival rates varied among years and time within years. Average survival rate from October through February was 0.456 (SE 0.062). The coefficient of variation for this estimate was 13.6% indicating good precision in our estimates of survival. We found strong evidence for an effect of weather (i.e., mean daily min. temp, extreme min. temp, snow depth) on bi-weekly survival rates of sage-grouse for 2 of the study areas in one year. Extremely low (1,500 m) elevations. In contrast, we found no evidence for an influence of weather on the low-elevation study area or during the winters of 19891990 and 19911992. Extreme weather during winter can cause lower survival of adult female sage-grouse, so managers should be aware of these potential effects and reduce harvest rates accordingly.

  10. Additional comments on the assumption of homogenous survival rates in modern bird banding estimation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Stokes, S.L.; Hines, J.E.; Conroy, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the problem of heterogeneous survival and recovery rates in bird banding estimation models. We suggest that positively correlated subgroup survival and recovery probabilities may result from winter banding operations and that this situation will produce positively biased survival rate estimates. The magnitude of the survival estimate bias depends on the proportion of the population in each subgroup. Power of the suggested goodness-of-fit test to reject the inappropriate model for heterogeneous data sets was low for all situations examined and was poorest for positively related subgroup survival and recovery rates. Despite the magnitude of some of the biases reported and the relative inability to detect heterogeneity, we suggest that levels of heterogeneity normally encountered in real data sets will produce relatively small biases of average survival rates.

  11. Initial weather regimes as predictors of numerical 30-day mean forecast accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colucci, Stephen J.; Baumhefner, David P.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty 30-day mean 500-mb-height anomaly forecasts generated by the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM) for the year 1978 are examined in order to determine if the forecast accuracy can be estimated with the initial conditions. The initial weather regimes were defined in such a way that the regimes could discriminate between the best and the worst 30-day mean forecasts run from the initial fields in this data set. On the basis of the CCM experiments, it is suggested that the accuracy of numerical 30-day mean forecasts may depend upon the accuracy with which the cyclones and their interactions with the planetary scale are predicted early in the forecast cycle, and that this accuracy may depend upon the initial conditions.

  12. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a)...

  13. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a)...

  14. 38 CFR 3.10 - Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compensation rate for a surviving spouse. 3.10 Section 3.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.10 Dependency and indemnity compensation rate for a surviving spouse. (a)...

  15. Estimation of survival rates from band recoveries of mule deer in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.; Bartmann, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the survival rate of mule deer in the White River drainage basin in northwestern Colorado. During five winters, 1972-76, 1923 mule deer were trapped and marked. Survival rates were determined at yearly intervals. A FORTRAN program was used to perform the analysis.

  16. A 30-day forecast experiment with the GISS model and updated sea surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spar, J.; Atlas, R.; Kuo, E.

    1975-01-01

    The GISS model was used to compute two parallel global 30-day forecasts for the month January 1974. In one forecast, climatological January sea surface temperatures were used, while in the other observed sea temperatures were inserted and updated daily. A comparison of the two forecasts indicated no clear-cut beneficial effect of daily updating of sea surface temperatures. Despite the rapid decay of daily predictability, the model produced a 30-day mean forecast for January 1974 that was generally superior to persistence and climatology when evaluated over either the globe or the Northern Hemisphere, but not over smaller regions.

  17. Myelinated fibers of the mouse spinal cord after a 30-day space flight.

    PubMed

    Povysheva, T V; Rezvyakov, P N; Shaimardanova, G F; Nikolskii, E E; Islamov, R R; Chelyshev, Yu A; Grygoryev, A I

    2016-07-01

    Myelinated fibers and myelin-forming cells in the spinal cord at the L3-L5 level were studied in C57BL/6N mice that had spent 30 days in space. Signs of destruction of myelin in different areas of white matter, reduction of the thickness of myelin sheath and axon diameter, decreased number of myelin-forming cells were detected in "flight" mice. The stay of mice in space during 30 days had a negative impact on the structure of myelinated fibers and caused reduced expression of the markers myelin-forming cells. These findings can complement the pathogenetic picture of the development of hypogravity motor syndrome.

  18. Myelinated fibers of the mouse spinal cord after a 30-day space flight.

    PubMed

    Povysheva, T V; Rezvyakov, P N; Shaimardanova, G F; Nikolskii, E E; Islamov, R R; Chelyshev, Yu A; Grygoryev, A I

    2016-07-01

    Myelinated fibers and myelin-forming cells in the spinal cord at the L3-L5 level were studied in C57BL/6N mice that had spent 30 days in space. Signs of destruction of myelin in different areas of white matter, reduction of the thickness of myelin sheath and axon diameter, decreased number of myelin-forming cells were detected in "flight" mice. The stay of mice in space during 30 days had a negative impact on the structure of myelinated fibers and caused reduced expression of the markers myelin-forming cells. These findings can complement the pathogenetic picture of the development of hypogravity motor syndrome. PMID:27595822

  19. Bion M1. Peculiarities of life activities of microbes in 30-day spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viacheslav, Ilyin; Korshunov, Denis; Morozova, Julia; Voeikova, Tatiana; Tyaglov, Boris; Novikova, Liudmila; Krestyanova, Irina; Emelyanova, Lydia

    The aim of this work was to analyze the influence of space flight factors ( SFF) to microorganism strains , exposed inside unmanned spacecraft Bion M-1 during the 30- day space flight. Objectives of the work - the study of the influence of the SFF exchange chromosomal DNA in crosses microorganisms of the genus Streptomyces; the level of spontaneous phage induction of lysogenic strains fS31 from Streptomyces lividans 66 and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) on the biosynthesis of the antibiotic tylosin strain of Streptomyces fradiae; survival electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR- 1 is used in the microbial fuel cell As a result of this work it was found that the SFF affect the exchange of chromosomal DNA by crossing strains of Streptomyces. Was detected polarity crossing , expressed in an advantageous contribution chromosome fragment of one of the parent strains in recombinant offspring. This fact may indicate a more prolonged exposure of cells in microgravity and , as a consequence, the transfer of longer fragments of chromosomal DNA This feature is the transfer of genetic material in microgravity could lead to wider dissemination and horizontal transfer of chromosomal and plasmid DNA of symbiotic microflora astronauts and other strains present in the spacecraft. It was shown no effect on the frequency of recombination PCF and the level of mutation model reversion of auxotrophic markers to prototrophy It was demonstrated that PCF increase the level of induction of cell actinophage fS31 lysogenic strain of S. lividans 66, but did not affect the level of induction of this phage cells S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). It is shown that the lower the level of synthesis PCF antibiotic aktinorodina (actinorhodin) in lysogenic strain S. coelicolor A3 ( 2). 66 Strains of S. lividans and S. coelicolor A3 ( 2 ) can be used as a biosensor for studying the effect on microorganisms PCF It is shown that the effect of the PCF reduces synthesis of tylosin and desmicosyn S. fradiae at

  20. Marked Improvement in 30-Day Mortality among Elderly Inpatients and Outpatients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ruhnke, Gregory W.; Coca-Perraillon, Marcelo; Kitch, Barrett T.; Cutler, David M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Community-acquired pneumonia is the most common infectious cause of death in the United States. Over the last two decades, patient characteristics and clinical care have changed. To understand the impact of these changes, we quantified incidence and mortality trends among elderly adults. METHODS We used Medicare claims to identify episodes of pneumonia, based on a validated combination of diagnosis codes. Comorbidities were ascertained using the diagnosis codes located on a one-year look back. Trends in patient characteristics and site of care were compared. The association between year of pneumonia episode and 30-day mortality was then evaluated by logistic regression, with adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities. RESULTS We identified 2,654,955 cases of pneumonia from 1987–2005. During this period, the proportion treated as inpatients decreased, the proportion aged >= 80 increased, and the frequency of many comorbidities rose. Adjusted incidence increased to 3096 episodes per 100,000 population in 1999, with some decline thereafter. Age/sex-adjusted mortality decreased from 13.5% to 9.7%, a relative reduction of 28.1%. Compared to 1987, the risk of mortality declined through 2005 (adjusted odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 0.47). This result was robust to a restriction on comorbid diagnoses assessing for the results' sensitivity to increased coding. CONCLUSIONS These findings show a marked mortality reduction over time in community-acquired pneumonia patients. We hypothesize that increased pneumococcal and influenza vaccination rates as well as wider use of guideline-concordant antibiotics explain a large portion of this trend. PMID:21295197

  1. Variability in nest survival rates and implications to nesting studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, A.T.; Johnson, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    We used four reasonably large samples (83-213) of Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and Blue-winged Teal (A. discors) nests on an interstate highway right-of-way in southcentral North Dakota to evaluate potential biases in hatch-rate estimates. Twelve consecutive, weekly searches for nests were conducted with a cable-chain drag in 1976 and 1977. Nests were revisited at weekly intervals. Four methods were used to estimate hatch rates for the four data sets: the Traditional Method, the Mayfield Method, and two modifications of the Mayfield Method that are sometimes appropriate when daily mortality rates of nests are not constant. Hatch rates and the average age of nests at discovery declined as the interval between searches decreased, suggesting that mortality rates were not constant in our samples. An analysis of variance indicated that daily mortality rates varied with the age of nests in all four samples. Mortality was generally highest during the early laying period, moderately high during the late laying period, and lowest during incubation. We speculate that this relationship of mortality to nest age might be due to the presence of hens at nests or to differences in the vulnerability of nest sites to predation. A modification of the Mayfield Method that accounts for age-related variation in nest mortality was most appropriate for our samples. We suggest methods for conducting nesting studies and estimating nest success for species possessing similar nesting habits.

  2. 77 FR 37706 - Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Agency Information Collection Activities: 30-Day Notice of Intention To Request Clearance of Collection of Information; Opportunity for Public Comment AGENCY: National Park Service,...

  3. 7 CFR 27.58 - Postponed classification; must be within 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postponed classification; must be within 30 days. 27.58 Section 27.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS...

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    ... this collection in the Federal Register on February 10, 2012, at 77 FR 7236-37 (60-day notice). That... Surface Transportation Board 30-Day Notice of Request for Approval: Statutory Authority To Preserve Rail Service AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY:...

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  6. 78 FR 7436 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... in the Federal Register (77 FR 69865) on November 21, 2012, and allowed 60 days for public comment... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information...

  7. 78 FR 79474 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Father's Day

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ...HUD has submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public...

  8. 78 FR 36198 - Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information Collection: Indian Health Service Medical...

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    ... process has been streamlined and is using information technology to make the application electronically... information technology. Send Requests for Further Information: For the proposed collection, or requests to... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Request for Public Comment: 30-Day Proposed Information...

  9. 76 FR 10035 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

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    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY..., OMB number, to Ed.Calimag@hhs.gov , or call the Reports Clearance Office on (202) 205- 1193. Send... notice directly to the Grants.gov OMB Desk Officer; faxed to OMB at 202-395-6974. Proposed Project:...

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  1. 78 FR 70956 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Assessment of Native American, Alaska Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

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  6. 30-Day Mortality in Acute Pulmonary Embolism: Prognostic Value of Clinical Scores and Anamnestic Features

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Andreas Gunter; Taute, Bettina-Maria; Baasai, Nansalmaa; Wienke, Andreas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Schramm, Dominik; Surov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Identification of high-risk patients with pulmonary embolism is vital. The aim of the present study was to examine clinical scores, their single items, and anamnestic features in their ability to predict 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods A retrospective, single-center study from 06/2005 to 01/2010 was performed. Inclusion criteria were presence of pulmonary embolism, availability of patient records and 30-day follow-up. The following clinical scores were calculated: Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, original and simplified pulmonary embolism severity index, Glasgow Coma Scale, and euroSCORE II. Results In the study group of 365 patients 39 patients (10.7%) died within 30 days due to pulmonary embolism. From all examined scores and parameters the best predictor of 30-day mortality were the Glasgow Coma scale (≤ 10) and parameters of the circulatory system including presence of mechanical ventilation, arterial pH (< 7.335), and systolic blood pressure (< 99 mm Hg). Conclusions Easy to ascertain circulatory parameters have the same or higher prognostic value than the clinical scores that were applied in this study. From all clinical scores studied the Glasgow Coma Scale was the most time- and cost-efficient one. PMID:26866472

  7. 78 FR 36564 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Default Status Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Multifamily Default Status Report..., Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard... Report. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0041. Type of Request: Extension of a currently approved...

  8. 78 FR 39305 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: OSHC Progress Report Template

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: OSHC Progress Report Template AGENCY... Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard at Colette.Pollard... Information Collection Title of Information Collection: OSHC Progress Report Template. OMB Approval...

  9. 78 FR 38070 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing... Marketing (AFHM) Plan. OMB Approval Number: 2529-0013. Type of Request: Extension of a currently approved collection. Form Number: HUD-935.2A Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan (Multifamily),...

  10. [Separate birth 30 days after a premature delivery in a twin pregnancy. A case report].

    PubMed

    Kisoka, R

    1994-01-01

    The author reports an exceptional observation concerning a delayed delivery of a second twin born at 34 weeks' gestation. The first infant was born 30 days before. The "fetal retention" of the second twin seems to improve its vital prognostic, 12 months later, the infant was in full growth and showing a good health. PMID:7995920

  11. 76 FR 40913 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... respondent (in hours) hours Survey Human Resource Manager 3,000 1 30/60 1,500 Focus Group Protocol Employees in All 48 1 1.5 72 Occupations Key Informant Interview Script...... Human Resource Manager 20 1 45/60... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office...

  12. 78 FR 79475 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: The Impact of Housing and Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...HUD has submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public...

  13. 78 FR 56908 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Training Evaluation Form

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Training Evaluation Form AGENCY... Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Training Evaluation Form. OMB Approval Number: 2577... Evaluation Form is currently being used and will be used are: On-site Core Curriculum training in...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Single Family Premium Collection..., 2013. A. Overview of Information Collection Title of Information Collection: Single Family Premium... use: The Single Family Premium Collection Subsystem-Upfront (SFPCS-U) allows the lenders to remit...

  15. 78 FR 75366 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and Utility...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing Energy Audits and... Audits and Utility Allowances. OMB Approval Number: 2577-062. Type of Request: Reinstatement, with change... information and proposed use: 24 CFR 965.301, Subpart C, Energy Audit and Energy Conservation...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  17. 77 FR 29348 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  18. 76 FR 32008 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: RPPR Public Diplomacy Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

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  19. 77 FR 13128 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  1. 78 FR 36565 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Standardized Form for Collecting Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ...HUD has submitted the proposed information collection requirement described below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act. The purpose of this notice is to allow for an additional 30 days of public...

  2. 76 FR 10037 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... written comments and recommendations for the proposed information collections within 30 days of this... ``General Instructions'' section, the following sentence is added as the last sentence: ``In ALL cases total... B Budget Categories'' section, the last sentence is revised as follows: ``For each program,...

  3. Survival rates of adult lake trout in northwestern Lake Michigan, 1983-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Holey, Mark E.; McKee, Patrick C.; Toneys, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The restoration of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Michigan has been an elusive goal of resource management agencies in the Great Lakes region. In this study, we estimated annual survival rates of adult lake trout from an area in northwestern Lake Michigan known as the Clay Banks refuge. We tagged and recaptured fish with gill nets during the fall spawning season (N = 12,175; 1983–1989 and 1991–1993) and with pound nets in the spring (N = 52,035; 1984–1990 and 1992–1993). We fit Cormack–Jolly–Seber models to the two sets of data. We had insufficient data to analyze annual differences in survival rates of fall-tagged fish, but we were able to estimate an overall annual survival rate of 0.67. Annual survival rates of spring-tagged fish varied between 0.53 and 0.88 and increased after 1987–1988. In addition to the mark–recapture studies, we analyzed catch rates of lake trout from gill-net and pound-net surveys to estimate survival rates using catch curve analyses; these annual rates were generally lower than those estimated from mark–recapture analyses of tagged fish. However, survival rates of lake trout from the Clay Banks refuge appeared to meet the minimum rate believed necessary for restoration of this species in Lake Michigan. Furthermore, adult survival rates have been increasing in recent years, and lake trout restoration in Lake Michigan is not hampered by low survival of adult fish. We hypothesize that the recent decrease in abundance of adult lake trout is primarily due to decreases in survival rates of lake trout younger than 6 years.

  4. Survival rate of breast cancer patients in Malaysia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Nor Aini; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Muhammad, Nor Asiah; Ali, Zainudin Mohamad; Ibrahim, Lailanor; Ibrahim Tamim, Nor Saleha; Mustafa, Amal Nasir; Kamaluddin, Muhammad Amir

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Malaysian women. Other than hospital-based results, there are no documented population-based survival rates of Malaysian women for breast cancers. This population- based retrospective cohort study was therefore conducted. Data were obtained from Health Informatics Centre, Ministry of Health Malaysia, National Cancer Registry and National Registration Department for the period from 1st Jan 2000 to 31st December 2005. Cases were captured by ICD-10 and linked to death certificates to identify the status. Only complete data were analysed. Survival time was calculated from the estimated date of diagnosis to the date of death or date of loss to follow-up. Observed survival rates were estimated by Kaplan- Meier method using SPSS Statistical Software version 17. A total of 10,230 complete data sets were analysed. The mean age at diagnosis was 50.6 years old. The overall 5-year survival rate was 49% with median survival time of 68.1 months. Indian women had a higher survival rate of 54% compared to Chinese women (49%) and Malays (45%). The overall 5-year survival rate of breast cancer patient among Malaysian women was still low for the cohort of 2000 to 2005 as compared to survival rates in developed nations. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance the strategies for early detection and intervention.

  5. Trends in 5-year survival rates among breast cancer patients by hormone receptor status and stage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Linden, Hannah M.; Anderson, Benjamin O.; Li, Christopher I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Improvement in breast cancer survival has been observed in recent decades in the U.S., but it is unclear if similar survival gains are consistent across breast cancer subtypes, especially with regards to more advanced stages of the disease. Methods Data were from 13 population-based cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, consisting of women between 20–79 years of age diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2008. 2-year (1992–2008) and 5-year (1992–2006) breast cancer cause-specific survival rates were calculated and stratified by estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status, stage and race. Annual percent changes in survival rates were assessed. Results From 1992 through 1998–1999, 5-year and 2-year cause specific survival rates significantly improved across ER+/PR+, ER−/PR− and ER+/PR− subtypes, with an annual increase ranging from 0.5%–1.0%. From 1998–1999 to 2006, different patterns were observed by ER/PR subtypes with survival rates slightly improving for ER+/PR+, continuing to improve at a rate of 0.5% per year for ER−/PR−, and dropping 0.3% annually for ER+/PR− No significant survival gains were experienced by patients with ER−/PR+ cancer during the study period. In terms of advanced diseases, greatest annual increases in survival rates were seen for patients with stage III–IV ER+/PR+ and ER−/PR− tumors but less progress was observed for advanced ER+/PR− breast cancers. Conclusion Steady improvements in survival rates for breast cancer have been achieved over the past several decades. However, 5-year survival rates for stage IV disease remained dismally below 20% for most ER/PR subtypes. PMID:25164974

  6. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    PubMed

    Rønning, Bernt; Moe, Børge; Berntsen, Henrik H; Noreen, Elin; Bech, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR), as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age) and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (P<0.1). Thus, the effect of BMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  7. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of data from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes, particularly regarding the trade-off between precision and potential bias of parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  8. Monitoring survival rates of Swainson's Thrush Catharus ustulatus at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; McKelvey, K.S.; Hines, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    We estimated survival rates of Swainson's Thrush, a common, neotropical, migratory landbird, at multiple spatial scales, using data collected in the western USA from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship Programme. We evaluated statistical power to detect spatially heterogeneous survival rates and exponentially declining survival rates among spatial scales with simulated populations parameterized from results of the Swainson's Thrush analyses. Models describing survival rates as constant across large spatial scales did not fit the data. The model we chose as most appropriate to describe survival rates of Swainson's Thrush allowed survival rates to vary among Physiographic Provinces, included a separate parameter for the probability that a newly captured bird is a resident individual in the study population, and constrained capture probability to be constant across all stations. Estimated annual survival rates under this model varied from 0.42 to 0.75 among Provinces. The coefficient of variation of survival estimates ranged from 5.8 to 20% among Physiographic Provinces. Statistical power to detect exponentially declining trends was fairly low for small spatial scales, although large annual declines (3% of previous year's rate) were likely to be detected when monitoring was conducted for long periods of time (e.g. 20 years). Although our simulations and field results are based on only four years of date from a limited number and distribution of stations, it is likely that they illustrate genuine difficulties inherent to broadscale efforts to monitor survival rates of territorial landbirds. In particular, our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to sampling schemes of monitoring programmes particularly regarding the trade-off between precison and potential bias o parameter estimates at varying spatial scales.

  9. Effects of leg strength and bicycle ergometry exercise on cardiovascular deconditioning after 30-day head-down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bin; Liu, Yusheng; Sun, Hongyi; Zhao, Dongming; Wang, Yue; Wu, Ping; Ni, Chengzhi

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if the intermittent leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could attenuate cardiovascular deconditioning induced by prolonged -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR). Fifteen male subjects were randomly allocated into group A ( n=5, 30 days HDBR without exercise), group B ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with leg muscular strength exercise) and group C ( n=5, 30 days HDBR with bicycle ergometry exercise). The orthostatic tolerance (OT) was determined by +75°/20 min head-up tilt (HUT) test and the submaximal exercise capacity was determined by bicycle ergometry before and after HDBR. The results were as follows: (1) Compared with that before HDBR, OT time decreased dramatically by 57.6% ( p<0.001) after HDBR in group A, while it decreased by 36.4% ( p=0.084) in group B and by 34.7% ( p=0.062) in group C. (2) Compared with that before HDBR, the submaximal exercise time decreased significantly by 17.7% ( p<0.05) and 21.1% ( p<0.05) in groups A and B, respectively, after HDBR. However, it had no change (+1.3%, p>0.77) in group C. (3) compared with that before HDBR, the changes of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure were slightly improved in group B and C, while deteriorated in group A during orthostatic test and exercise test after HDBR. The results indicate that leg muscular strength exercise and bicycle ergometry exercise could partially attenuate the cardiovascular deconditioning induced by 30 d HDBR, and the latter exercise training could fully provide the protection for the loss of exercise capacity.

  10. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 1 and C. NAVPERS 10360-D. Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    A guide for advancement and training in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman rating for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve is provided in this training manual. The chapters outline the qualifications necessary and the responsibilities of Aircrew Survival Equipmentmen involved in blueprint reading and the development of…

  11. Aircrew Survival Equipmentman 3 & 2; Naval Training Command Rate Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The training manual is one of a series prepared for enlisted personnel of the Regular Navy and the Naval Reserve who are training for performance proficiency and studying for advancement in the Aircrew Survival Equipmentman (PR) rating. The illustrated and indexed manual focuses on the personnel parachute and other related survival equipment.…

  12. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  13. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  14. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  15. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  16. 38 CFR 3.23 - Improved pension rates-Veterans and surviving spouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality of life. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501) Cross References: Improved pension. See § 3.1(w). Child. See...-Veterans and surviving spouses. 3.23 Section 3.23 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....23 Improved pension rates—Veterans and surviving spouses. (a) Maximum annual rates of...

  17. Work capacity during 30 days of bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Trowbridge, T. S.; Wade, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from a study to determine whether or not short-term variable intensity isotonic and intermittent high-intensity isokinetic short-duration leg exercise is effective for the maintenance of peak O2 (VO2) uptake and muscular strength and endurance, respectively, during 30 days of -6 deg head-down bed rest deconditioning. The results show no significant changes in leg peak torque, leg mean total work, arm total peak torque, or arm mean total work for members of the isotonic, isokinetic, and controls groups. Changes are observed, however, in peak VO2 levels. The results suggest that near-peak variabile intensity, isotonic leg excercise maintains peak VO2 during 30 days of bed rest, while peak intermittent, isokinetic leg excercise protocol does not.

  18. Long-term (30 days) toxicity of NiO nanoparticles for adult zebrafish Danio rerio

    PubMed Central

    Kovrižnych, Jevgenij A.; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Rollerová, Eva; Szabová, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Nickel oxide in the form of nanoparticles (NiO NPs) is extensively used in different industrial branches. In a test on adult zebrafish, the acute toxicity of NiO NPs was shown to be low, however longlasting contact with this compound can lead to its accumulation in the tissues and to increased toxicity. In this work we determined the 30-day toxicity of NiO NPs using a static test for zebrafish Danio rerio. We found the 30-day LC50 value to be 45.0 mg/L, LC100 (minimum concentration causing 100% mortality) was 100.0 mg/L, and LC0 (maximum concentration causing no mortality) was 6.25 mg/L for adult individuals of zebrafish. Considering a broad use of Ni in the industry, NiO NPs chronic toxicity may have a negative impact on the population of aquatic organisms and on food web dynamics in aquatic systems. PMID:26038672

  19. Incidence, Causes and Predictors of 30-Day Readmission After Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W; Anthony, Chris A.; Duchman, Kyle R.; Pugely, Andrew J.; Gao, Yubo; Hettrich, Carolyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Service has identified several quality metrics, including unplanned readmission within 30 days of surgery, to assess and compare surgeons and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence, causes and risk factors for unplanned 30-day readmission after total shoulder arthroplasty. Methods We identified patients undergoing primary elective shoulder arthroplasty performed at American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) participating hospitals in 2013. Cases were stratified by readmission status. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to assess patient demographics, comorbidities and operative variables predicting unplanned readmission. Results 2779 patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty were identified, with 74 (2.66%) requiring unplanned readmissions within 30 days of surgery. The most common surgical causes for unplanned readmission were surgical site infections (18.6%), dislocations (16.3%) and venous thromboembolism (14.0%). Medical causes for readmission were responsible for 51% of unplanned readmissions. Multivariate analysis identified patient age >75 (OR 2.62, 95% CI: 1.27 - 5.41), and ASA class of 3 (OR 1.79, 95% CI: 1.01 - 3.18) or 4 (OR 3.63, 95% CI: 1.31 - 10.08) as independent risk factors for unplanned readmission. Predictive modeling estimated that patients with ASA class of 4 and age >75 are 17.4 times more likely (95% CI 1.77-171.09) to be readmitted within 30 days of shoulder arthroplasty. Conclusion Unplanned readmission after shoulder arthroplasty is infrequent and medical complications account for more than 50% of occurrences. The risk of readmission exponentially increases when age and preoperative comorbidity burden are increased. PMID:27528839

  20. The 10-30-day intraseasonal variation of the East Asian winter monsoon: The temperature mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Suxiang; Sun, Qingfei; Huang, Qian; Chu, Peng

    2016-09-01

    East Asia is known for its monsoon characteristics, but little research has been performed on the intraseasonal time scale of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). In this paper, the extended reanalysis (ERA)-Interim sub-daily data are used to study the surface air temperature intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) of the EAWM. The results show that the air temperature (2-m level) of the EAWM has a dominant period of 10-30 days. Lake Baikal and south China are the centers of the air temperature ISO. An anomalous low frequency (10-30-day filtered) anticyclone corresponds to the intraseasonal cold air. The 10-30-day filtered cold air spreads from Novaya Zemlya to Lake Baikal and even to South China. The ISO of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index influences the temperature of the EAWM by stimulating Rossby waves in middle latitude, causing meridional circulation, and eventually leads to the temperature ISO of the EAWM. RegCM4 has good performance for the simulation of the air temperature ISO. The simulated results indicate that the plateau is responsible for the southward propagation of the intraseasonal anticyclone. The anticyclone could not reach South China when there was no plateau in western China and its upper reaches.

  1. Adult survival and population growth rate in Colorado big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Ellison, L.E.; Stanley, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied adult survival and population growth at multiple maternity colonies of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in Fort Collins, Colorado. We investigated hypotheses about survival using information-theoretic methods and mark-recapture analyses based on passive detection of adult females tagged with passive integrated transponders. We constructed a 3-stage life-history matrix model to estimate population growth rate (??) and assessed the relative importance of adult survival and other life-history parameters to population growth through elasticity and sensitivity analysis. Annual adult survival at 5 maternity colonies monitored from 2001 to 2005 was estimated at 0.79 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.77-0.82). Adult survival varied by year and roost, with low survival during an extreme drought year, a finding with negative implications for bat populations because of the likelihood of increasing drought in western North America due to global climate change. Adult survival during winter was higher than in summer, and mean life expectancies calculated from survival estimates were lower than maximum longevity records. We modeled adult survival with recruitment parameter estimates from the same population. The study population was growing (?? = 1.096; 95% CI = 1.057-1.135). Adult survival was the most important demographic parameter for population growth. Growth clearly had the highest elasticity to adult survival, followed by juvenile survival and adult fecundity (approximately equivalent in rank). Elasticity was lowest for fecundity of yearlings. The relative importances of the various life-history parameters for population growth rate are similar to those of large mammals. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  2. Estimating survival rates with time series of standing age-structure data.

    PubMed

    Udevitz, Mark S; Gogan, Peter J P

    2012-04-01

    It has long been recognized that age-structure data contain useful information for assessing the status and dynamics of wildlife populations. For example, age-specific survival rates can be estimated with just a single sample from the age distribution of a stable, stationary population. For a population that is not stable, age-specific survival rates can be estimated using techniques such as inverse methods that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data. However, estimation of survival rates using these methods typically requires numerical optimization, a relatively long time series of data, and smoothing or other constraints to provide useful estimates. We developed general models for possibly unstable populations that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data to provide explicit maximum likelihood estimators of age-specific survival rates with as few as two years of data. As an example, we applied these methods to estimate survival rates for female bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. This approach provides a simple tool for monitoring survival rates based on age-structure data.

  3. Survival Rate of Short, Locking Taper Implants with a Plateau Design: A 5-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Demiralp, Kemal Özgür; Akbulut, Nihat; Kursun, Sebnem; Argun, Didem; Bagis, Nilsun; Orhan, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Short implants have become popular in the reconstruction of jaws, especially in cases with limited bone height. Shorter implants, those with locking tapers and plateau root shapes, tend to have longer survival times. We retrospectively investigated the cumulative survival rates of Bicon short implants (<8 mm) according to patient variables over a 5-year period. Materials and Methods. This study included 111 consecutively treated patients with 371 implants supporting fixed or removable prosthetics. Data were evaluated to acquire cumulative survival rates according to gender, age, tobacco use, surgical procedure, bone quality, and restoration type. Statistics were performed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal Wallis H tests. Results. The survival rate was 97.3% with, on average, 22.8 months of follow-up. Patients older than 60 years had higher failure rate than the other age groups (P < 0.05). Placed region, age, and bone quality had adverse effects on survival rate in the <8 mm implant group with statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Approximately 23-month follow-up data indicate that short implants with locking tapers and plateau-type roots have comparable survival rates as other types of dental implants. However, due to limitations of study, these issues remain to be further investigated in future randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:25961004

  4. Estimating survival rates with time series of standing age-structure data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Udevitz, Mark S.; Gogan, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that age-structure data contain useful information for assessing the status and dynamics of wildlife populations. For example, age-specific survival rates can be estimated with just a single sample from the age distribution of a stable, stationary population. For a population that is not stable, age-specific survival rates can be estimated using techniques such as inverse methods that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data. However, estimation of survival rates using these methods typically requires numerical optimization, a relatively long time series of data, and smoothing or other constraints to provide useful estimates. We developed general models for possibly unstable populations that combine time series of age-structure data with other demographic data to provide explicit maximum likelihood estimators of age-specific survival rates with as few as two years of data. As an example, we applied these methods to estimate survival rates for female bison (Bison bison) in Yellowstone National Park, USA. This approach provides a simple tool for monitoring survival rates based on age-structure data.

  5. Risk Factors and Indications for 30-Day Readmission After Primary Surgery for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    AlHilli, Mariam; Langstraat, Carrie; Tran, Christine; Martin, Janice; Weaver, Amy; McGree, Michaela; Mariani, Andrea; Cliby, William; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify patients at risk for postoperative morbidities, we evaluated indications and factors associated with 30-day readmission after epithelial ovarian cancer surgery. Methods Patients undergoing primary surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer between January 2, 2003, and December 29, 2008, were evaluated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with 30-day readmission. A parsimonious multivariable model was identified using backward and stepwise variable selection. Results In total, 324 (60.2%) patients were stage III and 91 (16.9%) were stage IV. Of all 538 eligible patients, 104 (19.3%) were readmitted within 30 days. Cytoreduction to no residual disease was achieved in 300 (55.8%) patients, and 167 (31.0%) had measurable disease (≤1 cm residual disease). The most common indications for readmission were surgical site infection (SSI; 21.2%), pleural effusion/ascites management (14.4%), and thromboembolic events (12.5%). Multivariate analysis identified American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher (odds ratio, 1.85; 95% confidence interval, 1.18–2.89; P = 0.007), ascites [1.76 (1.11–2.81); P = 0.02], and postoperative complications during initial admission [grade 3–5 vs none, 2.47 (1.19–5.16); grade 1 vs none, 2.19 (0.98–4.85); grade 2 vs none, 1.28 (0.74–2.21); P = 0.048] to be independently associated with 30-day readmission (c-index = 0.625). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the sole predictor of readmission for SSI (odds ratio, 3.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–4.33; P = 0.04). Conclusions Clinically significant risk factors for 30-day readmission include American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or higher, ascites and postoperative complications at initial admission. The SSI and pleural effusions/ascites are common indications for readmission. Systems can be developed to predict patients needing outpatient management, improve care, and reduce

  6. Increased 30-Day Emergency Department Revisits Among Homeless Patients with Mental Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun Nok; Arora, Sanjay; Menchine, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED) as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients’ 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Results Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino). Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds) of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds) of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM) patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3.7% chance of hospital

  7. Risk factors for 30-day readmission following hypoglycemia-related emergency room and inpatient admissions

    PubMed Central

    Emons, M F; Bae, J P; Hoogwerf, B J; Kindermann, S L; Taylor, R J; Nathanson, B H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypoglycemia is a serious complication of diabetes treatment. This retrospective observational study characterized hypoglycemia-related hospital emergency room (ER) and inpatient (in-pt) admissions and identified risk factors for 30-day all-cause and hypoglycemia-related readmission. Research design and methods 4476 hypoglycemia-related ER and in-pt encounters with discharge dates from 1/1/2009 to 3/31/2014 were identified in a large, multicenter electronic health record database. Outcomes were 30-day all-cause ER/hospital readmission and hypoglycemia-related readmission. Multivariable logistic regression methods identified risk factors for both outcomes. Results 1095 (24.5%) encounters had ER/hospital all-cause readmission within 30 days and 158 (14.4%) of these were hypoglycemia-related. Predictors of all-cause 30-day readmission included recent exposure to a hospital/nursing home (NH)/skilled nursing facility (SNF; OR 1.985, p<0.001); age 25–34 and 35–44 (OR 2.334 and 1.996, respectively, compared with age 65–74, both p<0.001); and African-American (AA) race versus all other race categories (OR 1.427, p=0.011). Other factors positively associated with readmission include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, cardiac dysrhythmias, congestive heart disease, hypertension, and mood disorders. Predictors of readmissions attributable to hypoglycemia included recent exposure to a hospital/NH/SNF (OR 2.299, p<0.001), AA race (OR 1.722, p=0.002), age 35–44 (OR 3.484, compared with age 65–74, p<0.001), hypertension (OR 1.891, p=0.019), and delirium/dementia and other cognitive disorders (OR 1.794, p=0.038). Obesity was protective against 30-day hypoglycemia-related readmission (OR 0.505, p=0.017). Conclusions Factors associated with 30-day all-cause and hypoglycemia-related readmission among patients with diabetic hypoglycemia include recent exposure to hospital/SNF/NH, adults <45 years, AAs, and several cardiovascular and

  8. Increased 30-Day Emergency Department Revisits Among Homeless Patients with Mental Health Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Chun Nok; Arora, Sanjay; Menchine, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with mental health conditions frequently use emergency medical services. Many suffer from substance use and homelessness. If they use the emergency department (ED) as their primary source of care, potentially preventable frequent ED revisits and hospital readmissions can worsen an already crowded healthcare system. However, the magnitude to which homelessness affects health service utilization among patients with mental health conditions remains unclear in the medical community. This study assessed the impact of homelessness on 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions among patients presenting with mental health conditions in an urban, safety-net hospital. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of administrative data on all adult ED visits in 2012 in an urban safety-net hospital. Patient demographics, mental health status, homelessness, insurance coverage, level of acuity, and ED disposition per ED visit were analyzed using multilevel modeling to control for multiple visits nested within patients. We performed multivariate logistic regressions to evaluate if homelessness moderated the likelihood of mental health patients’ 30-day ED revisits and hospital readmissions. Results Study included 139,414 adult ED visits from 92,307 unique patients (43.5±15.1 years, 51.3% male, 68.2% Hispanic/Latino). Nearly 8% of patients presented with mental health conditions, while 4.6% were homeless at any time during the study period. Among patients with mental health conditions, being homeless contributed to an additional 28.0% increase in likelihood (4.28 to 5.48 odds) of 30-day ED revisits and 38.2% increase in likelihood (2.04 to 2.82 odds) of hospital readmission, compared to non-homeless, non-mental health (NHNM) patients as the base category. Adjusted predicted probabilities showed that homeless patients presenting with mental health conditions have a 31.1% chance of returning to the ED within 30-day post discharge and a 3.7% chance of hospital

  9. The HOSPITAL score as a predictor of 30 day readmission in a retrospective study at a university affiliated community hospital

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hospital readmissions are common, expensive, and a key target of the Medicare Value Based Purchasing (VBP) program. Risk assessment tools have been developed to identify patients at high risk of hospital readmission so they can be targeted for interventions aimed at reducing the rate of readmission. One such tool is the HOSPITAL score that uses seven readily available clinical variables to predict the risk of readmission within 30 days of discharge. The HOSPITAL score has been internationally validated in large academic medical centers. This study aims to determine if the HOSPITAL score is similarly useful in a moderate sized university affiliated hospital in the midwestern United States. Materials and Methods All adult medical patients discharged from the SIU-SOM Hospitalist service from Memorial Medical Center (MMC) from October 15, 2015 to March 16, 2016, were studied retrospectively to determine if the HOSPITAL score was a significant predictor of hospital readmission within 30 days. Results During the study period, 998 discharges were recorded for the hospitalist service. The analysis includes data for the 931 discharges. Patients who died during the hospital stay, were transferred to another hospital, or left against medical advice were excluded. Of these patients, 109 (12%) were readmitted to the same hospital within 30 days. The patients who were readmitted were more likely to have a length of stay greater than or equal to 5 days (55% vs. 41%, p = 0.005) and were more likely to have been admitted more than once to the hospital within the last year (100% vs. 49%, p < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic evaluation of the HOSPITAL score for this patient population shows a C statistic of 0.77 (95% CI [0.73–0.81]), indicating good discrimination for hospital readmission. The Brier score for the HOSPITAL score in this setting was 0.10, indicating good overall performance. The Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness of fit test shows a χ2 value of 1

  10. The HOSPITAL score as a predictor of 30 day readmission in a retrospective study at a university affiliated community hospital

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hospital readmissions are common, expensive, and a key target of the Medicare Value Based Purchasing (VBP) program. Risk assessment tools have been developed to identify patients at high risk of hospital readmission so they can be targeted for interventions aimed at reducing the rate of readmission. One such tool is the HOSPITAL score that uses seven readily available clinical variables to predict the risk of readmission within 30 days of discharge. The HOSPITAL score has been internationally validated in large academic medical centers. This study aims to determine if the HOSPITAL score is similarly useful in a moderate sized university affiliated hospital in the midwestern United States. Materials and Methods All adult medical patients discharged from the SIU-SOM Hospitalist service from Memorial Medical Center (MMC) from October 15, 2015 to March 16, 2016, were studied retrospectively to determine if the HOSPITAL score was a significant predictor of hospital readmission within 30 days. Results During the study period, 998 discharges were recorded for the hospitalist service. The analysis includes data for the 931 discharges. Patients who died during the hospital stay, were transferred to another hospital, or left against medical advice were excluded. Of these patients, 109 (12%) were readmitted to the same hospital within 30 days. The patients who were readmitted were more likely to have a length of stay greater than or equal to 5 days (55% vs. 41%, p = 0.005) and were more likely to have been admitted more than once to the hospital within the last year (100% vs. 49%, p < 0.001). A receiver operating characteristic evaluation of the HOSPITAL score for this patient population shows a C statistic of 0.77 (95% CI [0.73–0.81]), indicating good discrimination for hospital readmission. The Brier score for the HOSPITAL score in this setting was 0.10, indicating good overall performance. The Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness of fit test shows a χ2 value of 1

  11. TFF3 and survivin expressions associate with a lower survival rate in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jia-Rong; Tang, Hui-Zhong; Zhou, Kai-Zong; Shen, Wu-Hong; Guo, He-Yi

    2013-11-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) and survivin with functions of inhibiting apoptosis are involved in the gastric cancer by overexpression. The purpose of this study is to examine the expression of TFF3 and survivin in patients' tissue samples with gastric cancer and analyze the relationship between the protein expression and the different clinical records. By studying the expressions of TFF3 and survivin in gastric cancer through immunohistochemical staining and examining the survival rate via Kaplan-Meier analysis for gastric cancer patients, we found that the TFF3 and survivin positive expressions have a significant relationship with the lower survival rate comparing to that of negative expressions in the analyzed patients (P < 0.05). And moreover, patients with double positive TFF3 and survivin expressions have the lowest survival rate. TFF3 or survivin positive expression correlates with the lymph node metastasis, metastasis, and TNM stages of gastric cancer. Survival analysis indicates that survival rate has a close relationship with the age, tumor histology, tumor differentiation, degree of infiltration, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stages (P < 0.01). Our data suggest that TFF3 and survivin expressions play a vital role in gastric cancer development, and these two proteins are important markers for prognosis in gastric cancer. Patients with gastric cancer can increase the survival rate through an earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  12. Survival rates, mortality causes, and habitats of Pennsylvania white-tailed deer fawns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vreeland, J.K.; Diefenbach, D.R.; Wallingford, B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of survival and cause-specific mortality of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawns are important to population management. We quantified cause-specific mortality, survival rates, and habitat characteristics related to fawn survival in a forested landscape and an agricultural landscape in central Pennsylvania. We captured and radiocollared neonatal (0.05). Predation accounted for 46.2% (95% Cl = 37.6-56.7%) of 106 mortalities through 34 weeks. We attributed 32.7% (95% Cl = 21.9-48.6%) and 36.7% (95% Cl = 25.5-52.9%) of 49 predation events to black bears (Ursus americanus) and coyotes (Canis latrans], respectively. Natural causes, excluding predation, accounted for 27.4% (95% Cl = 20.1-37.3) of mortalities. Fawn survival in Pennsylvania was comparable to reported survival in forested and agricultural regions in northern portions of the white-tailed deer range. We have no evidence to suggest that the fawn survival rates we observed were preventing population growth. Because white-tailed deer are habitat generalists, home-range-scale habitat characteristics may be unrelated to fawn survival; therefore, future studies should consider landscape-related characteristics on fawn survival.

  13. Effects of habitat disturbance on survival rates of softshell turtles (Apalone spinifera) in an urban stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, M.V.; Krementz, D.G.; Powell, L.A.; Mills, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    We monitored Spiny Softshell Turtles (Apalone spinifera) using mark-recapture during 1994-2005 in Gin Creek, Searcy, Arkansas. In 1997-2000 the creek bed and riparian zone were bulldozed in an effort to remove debris and improve water flow. This disturbance appeared to reduce the quantity and quality of turtle habitat. We tested for the potential effect of this habitat disturbance on the survival rates of marked turtles. We estimated annual survival rates for the population using models that allowed for variation in survival by state of maturation, year, and effects of the disturbance; we evaluated two different models of the disturbance impact. The first disturbance model incorporated a single change in survival rates, following the disturbance, whereas the second disturbance model incorporated three survival rates: pre- and postdisturbance, as well as a short-term decline during the disturbance. We used a state-transition model for our mark-recapture analysis, as softshells transition from juveniles to adults in a variable period of time. Our analysis indicated that survival varied by maturation state and was independent of a time trend or the disturbance. Annual survival rates were lower for juveniles (S?? = 0.717, SE = 0.039) than for adults (S?? = 0.836, SE = 0.025). Despite the dramatic habitat disturbance, we found no negative effects on survival rates. Our results demonstrate that, like a few other freshwater turtle species known to thrive in urban environments, populations of A. spinifera are resilient and can persist in urban environments despite periodic habitat disturbances. Copyright 2008 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  14. Banding reference areas and survival rates of green-winged teal, 1950-1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, D.S.; Nichols, J.D.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    The green-winged teal (Anas crecca carolinensis) is an important harvest species, yet we know relatively little about its population ecology. We investigated aspects of green-winged teal population ecology of potential importance to waterfowl managers. We used recoveries of green-winged teal banded during winter (1950-89) to establish banding reference areas and estimate survival and band recovery rates. We used cluster analysis based on similarities in recovery patterns to group banding degree blocks into 8 minor and 5 major reference areas describing the principal wintering range of green-winged teal in North America. We then estimated survival and recovery rates of green-winged teal banded in these areas. Mean annual survival rate estimates across years and reference areas were similar (P gt 0.05) for males (0.55, cxa SE = 0.022) and females (0.51, cxa SE = 0.057). Mean annual recovery rate estimates were larger for males (0.033, cxa SE = 0.0017) than for females (0.024, cxa SE = 0.0024) (P lt 0.01). There was little evidence of temporal variation in survival or recovery rates for most datasets. There was evidence of geographic variation in survival rates among major reference areas for males (P = 0.04) but not for females (P = 0.30). We recommend that analyses be conducted on greenwinged teal banded during preseason to further investigate possible sex specificity of survival rates and to address questions about the relationship between harvest rates and survival.

  15. Modeling the effect of toe clipping on treefrog survival: Beyond the return rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, J.H.; Rice, K.G.; Mazzotti, F.J.; Percival, H.F.

    2008-01-01

    Some studies have described a negative effect of toe clipping on return rates of marked anurans, but the return rate is limited in that it does not account for heterogeneity of capture probabilities. We used open population mark-recapture models to estimate both apparent survival (ϕ) and the recapture probability (p) of two treefrog species individually marked by clipping 2–4 toes. We used information-theoretic model selection to examine the effect of toe clipping on survival while accounting for variation in capture probability. The model selection results indicate strong support for an effect of toe clipping on survival of Green Treefrogs (Hyla cinerea) and only limited support for an effect of toe clipping on capture probability. We estimate there was a mean absolute decrease in survival of 5.02% and 11.16% for Green Treefrogs with three and four toes removed, respectively, compared to individuals with just two toes removed. Results for Squirrel Treefrogs (Hyla squirella) indicate little support for an effect of toe clipping on survival but may indicate some support for a negative effect on capture probability. We believe that the return rate alone should not be used to examine survival of marked animals because constant capture probability must be assumed, and our examples demonstrate how capture probability may vary over time and among groups. Mark-recapture models provide a method for estimating the effect of toe clipping on anuran survival in situations where unique marks are applied.

  16. Program CONTRAST--A general program for the analysis of several survival or recovery rate estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This manual describes the use of program CONTRAST, which implements a generalized procedure for the comparison of several rate estimates. This method can be used to test both simple and composite hypotheses about rate estimates, and we discuss its application to multiple comparisons of survival rate estimates. Several examples of the use of program CONTRAST are presented. Program CONTRAST will run on IBM-cimpatible computers, and requires estimates of the rates to be tested, along with associated variance and covariance estimates.

  17. Monitoring survival rates of landbirds at varying spatial scales: An application of the MAPS Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, D.K.; DeSante, D.F.; Hines, J.E.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Survivorship is a primary demographic parameter affecting population dynamics, and thus trends in species abundance. The Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program is a cooperative effort designed to monitor landbird demographic parameters. A principle goal of MAPS is to estimate annual survivorship and identify spatial patterns and temporal trends in these rates. We evaluated hypotheses of spatial patterns in survival rates among a collection of neighboring sampling sites, such as within national forests, among biogeographic provinces, and between breeding populations that winter in either Central or South America, and compared these geographic-specific models to a model of a common survival rate among all sampling sites. We used data collected during 1992-1995 from Swainson's Thrush (Cathorus ustulatus) populations in the western region of the United States. We evaluated the ability to detect spatial and temporal patterns of survivorship with simulated data. We found weak evidence of spatial differences in survival rates at the local scale of 'location,' which typically contained 3 mist-netting stations. There was little evidence of differences in survival rates among biogeographic provinces or between populations that winter in either Central or South America. When data were pooled for a regional estimate of survivorship, the percent relative bias due to pooling 'locations' was 12 years of monitoring. Detection of spatial patterns and temporal trends in survival rates from local to regional scales will provide important information for management and future research directed toward conservation of landbirds.

  18. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates of neotropical birds have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses of a multispecies assemblage from Panama by Karr et al. (1990) provided a counterexample to that view. One criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses indicate that these models are indeed useful in modelling the data from Panama. Nonetheless, there is considerable interspecific variation and overall estimates of annual survival rates for understorey birds in Panama remain lower than those from other studies in the Neotropics and well below the rates long assumed for tropical birds (i.e. > 0.80). Therefore, tropical birds may not have systematically higher survival rates than temperate-zone species. Variation in survival rates among tropical species suggests that theory based on a simple tradeoff between clutch size and longevity is inadequate. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to some combination of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding these processes is the challenge for future work.

  19. Changes in size and compliance of the calf after 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Stein, Stewart L.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that reducing muscle compartment by a long-term exposure to microgravity would cause increased leg venous compliance was tested in eight men who were assessed for vascular compliance and for serial circumferences of the calf before and after 30 days of continuous 6-deg head-down bed rest. It was found that head-down bed rest caused decreases in the calculated calf volume and the calf-muscle compartment, as well as increases in calf compliance. The percent increases in calf compliance correlated significantly with decreases in calf muscle compartment.

  20. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data.

    PubMed

    Binbing Yu; Tiwari, Ram C; Feuer, Eric J

    2011-06-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients' main concerns, is sometimes called the 'personal cure' rate. Two approaches of modelling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connection and differences between crude cause-specific survival in the presence of other causes and net survival in the absence of other causes. The mixture survival model is extended to population-based grouped survival data to estimate the personal cure rate. Using the colorectal cancer survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Programme, we estimate the probabilities of dying from colorectal cancer, heart disease, and other causes by age at diagnosis, race and American Joint Committee on Cancer stage.

  1. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates for a multispecies sample of neotropical birds from Panama have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses by Kart et al. (1990. Am. Nat. 136:277-91) contradicted that view, suggesting tropical birds may not have systematically high survival rates. A persistent criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses using these models indicate that, despite some variation among species, overall estimates of survival rates for understory birds in Panama are not strongly affected by adjustments for transients. We also compare estimates of survival rates based on mark-recapture models with observations of colour-marked birds. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to combinations of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding sources of this variation is the challenge for future work.

  2. Differential rates of ischemic cholangiopathy and graft survival associated with induction therapy in DCD liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Halldorson, J B; Bakthavatsalam, R; Montenovo, M; Dick, A; Rayhill, S; Perkins, J; Reyes, J

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation utilizing donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors is associated with ischemic cholangiopathy (IC) and graft loss. The University of Washington (UW) DCD experience totals 89 DCD liver transplants performed between 2003 and 2011. Overall outcome after DCD liver transplantation at UW demonstrates Kaplan-Meier estimated 5-year patient and graft survival rates of 81.6% and 75.6%, respectively, with the great majority of patient and graft losses occurring in the first-year posttransplant from IC. Our program has almost exclusively utilized either anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) or basiliximab induction (86/89) for DCD liver transplantations. Analysis of the differential effect of induction agent on graft survival demonstrated graft survival of 96.9% at 1 year for ATG versus 75.9% for basiliximab (p = 0.013). The improved survival did not appear to be from a lower rate of rejection (21.9% vs. 22.2%) but rather a differential rate of IC, 35.2% for basiliximab versus 12.5% for ATG (p = 0.011). Multivariable analysis demonstrated induction agent to be independently associated with graft survival and IC free graft survival when analyzed against variables including donor age, fWIT, donor cold ischemia time and transplant era. PMID:25534449

  3. Problems in estimating age-specific survival rates from recovery data of birds ringed as young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.

    1985-01-01

    (1) The life table model is frequently employed in the analysis of ringer samples of young in bird populations. The basic model is biologically unrealistic and of little use in making inferences concerning age-specific survival probabilities. (2) This model rests on a number of restrictive assumptions, the failure of which causes serious biases. Several important assumptions are not met with real data and the estimators of age-specific survival are not robust enough to these failures. (3) Five major problems in the use of the life table method are reviewed. Examples are provided to illustrate several of the problems involved in using this method in making inferences about survival rates and its age-specific nature. (4) We conclude that this is an invalid procedure and it should not be used. Furthermore, ringing studies involving only young birds are pointless as regards survival estimation because no valid method exists for estimating age-specific or time-specific survival rates from such data. (5) In our view, inferences about age-specific survival rates are possible only if both young and adult (or young, subadult and adult) age classes are ringed each year for k years (k ≥ 2).

  4. The AFFORD Clinical Decision Aid To Identify Emergency Department Patients With Atrial Fibrillation At Low Risk For 30-Day Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Tyler W.; Storrow, Alan B.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Abraham, Robert L.; Liu, Dandan; Miller, Karen F.; Moser, Kelly M.; Russ, Stephan; Roden, Dan M.; Harrell, Frank E.; Darbar, Dawood

    2015-01-01

    There is wide variation in the management of emergency department (ED) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We aimed to derive and internally validate the first prospective, ED-based clinical decision aid to identify patients with AF at low risk for 30-day adverse events. We performed a prospective cohort study at a university-affiliated, tertiary-care, ED. Patients were enrolled from June 9, 2010 to February 28, 2013 and followed for 30 days. We enrolled a convenience sample of ED patients presenting with symptomatic AF. Candidate predictors were based on ED data available in the first two hours. The decision aid was derived using model approximation (preconditioning) followed by strong bootstrap internal validation. We utilized an ordinal outcome hierarchy defined as the incidence of the most severe adverse event within 30 days of the ED evaluation. Of 497 patients enrolled, stroke and AF-related death occurred in 13 (3%) and 4 (<1%) patients, respectively. The decision aid included the following: age, triage vitals (systolic blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, supplemental oxygen requirement); medical history (heart failure, home sotalol use, prior percutaneous coronary intervention, electrical cardioversion, cardiac ablation, frequency of AF symptoms); ED data (2 hour heart rate, chest radiograph results, hemoglobin, creatinine, and brain natriuretic peptide). The decision aid’s c-statistic in predicting any 30-day adverse event was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.65, 0.76). In conclusion, among ED patients with AF, AFFORD provides the first evidence based decision aid for identifying patients who are at low risk for 30-day adverse events and candidates for safe discharge. PMID:25633190

  5. The Dominance of Warming Rate Over Cooling Rate in the Survival of Mouse Oocytes Subjected to a Vitrification Procedure✰

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The formation of more than trace amounts of ice in cells is lethal. The two contrasting routes to avoiding it are slow equilibrium freezing and vitrification. The cryopreservation of mammalian oocytes by either method continues to be difficult, but there seems a slowly emerging consensus that vitrification procedures are somewhat better for mouse and human oocytes. The approach in these latter procedures is to load cells with high concentrations of glass-inducing solutes and cool them at rates high enough to induce the glassy state. Several devices have been developed to achieve very high cooling rates. Our study has been concerned with the relative influences of warming rate and cooling rate on the survival of mouse oocytes subjected to a vitrification procedure. Oocytes suspended in an ethylene glycol-acetamide-Ficoll-sucrose solution were cooled to −196°C at rates ranging from 37°C/min to 1827°C/min between 20°C and −120°C, and for each cooling rate, warmed at rates ranging from 139°C/min to 2950°C/min between −70°C and −35°C. The results are unambiguous. If the samples were warmed at the highest rate, survivals were >80% over cooling rates of 187°C/min to 1827°C/min. If the samples were warmed at the lowest rate, survivals were near 0% regardless of the cooling rate. We interpret the lethality of slow warming to be a consequence of it allowing time for the growth of small intracellular ice crystals by recrystallization. PMID:19427303

  6. 17 CFR 240.3a55-2 - Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. 240.3a55-2 Section 240.3a55-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Indexes underlying futures contracts trading for fewer than 30 days. (a) An index on which a contract of sale for future delivery is trading on a designated contract market, registered derivatives...

  7. 78 FR 69428 - Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Cancer Trials Support Unit (CTSU) (NCI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Submission for OMB Review; 30-Day Comment Request: Cancer... and Budget (OMB) a request for review and approval of the information collection listed below. This... of this notice is to allow an additional 30 days for public comment. The National Cancer...

  8. 78 FR 65696 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... October 25, 2013 at 78 FR 64145 HUD published a 30 day notice of proposed information collection. This... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk-Sharing... Collection Title of Information Collection: Housing Finance Agency Risk- Sharing Program. OMB Approval...

  9. 76 FR 6794 - 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Program for Health Information Technology, 76 FR 1262 (Jan. 7, 2011) (the ``Permanent Certification... HUMAN SERVICES 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status AGENCY... ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) status. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 300jj-11. DATES: The 30-day...

  10. 78 FR 66040 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate-Sales Contract and Addendums

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... October 25, 2013 at 78 FR 64145, HUD inadvertently published a 30 day notice of proposed information... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: HUD-Owned Real Estate--Sales... Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street SW., Washington, DC 20410; email Colette Pollard at...

  11. Temperature, Larval Diet, and Density Effects on Development Rate and Survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Couret, Jannelle; Dotson, Ellen; Benedict, Mark Q.

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1) diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2) that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature. PMID:24498328

  12. Temperature, larval diet, and density effects on development rate and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Couret, Jannelle; Dotson, Ellen; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-01-01

    Many environmental factors, biotic and abiotic interact to influence organismal development. Given the importance of Aedes aegypti as a vector of human pathogens including dengue and yellow fever, understanding the impact of environmental factors such as temperature, resource availability, and intraspecific competition during development is critical for population control purposes. Despite known associations between developmental traits and factors of diet and density, temperature has been considered the primary driver of development rate and survival. To determine the relative importance of these critical factors, wide gradients of conditions must be considered. We hypothesize that 1) diet and density, as well as temperature influence the variation in development rate and survival, 2) that these factors interact, and this interaction is also necessary to understand variation in developmental traits. Temperature, diet, density, and their two-way interactions are significant factors in explaining development rate variation of the larval stages of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. These factors as well as two and three-way interactions are significantly associated with the development rate from hatch to emergence. Temperature, but not diet or density, significantly impacted juvenile mortality. Development time was heteroskedastic with the highest variation occurring at the extremes of diet and density conditions. All three factors significantly impacted survival curves of experimental larvae that died during development. Complex interactions may contribute to variation in development rate. To better predict variation in development rate and survival in Ae. aegypti, factors of resource availability and intraspecific density must be considered in addition, but never to the exclusion of temperature.

  13. Survival rates and risk factors for mortality in systemic lupus erythematosus patients in a Chinese center.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ge; Jia, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Dan; Zhao, Zhanzheng

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to study the survival and risk factors affecting the long-term prognosis of Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We collected clinical data of 1,072 SLE patients at the time of diagnosis. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the survival rate, and the Cox proportional hazard regression model for the risk factors affecting prognosis. Of the original 1,072 recruited SLE patients, 665 (570 females and 95 males) were successfully followed up. Mean follow-up was 5.47 ± 4.62 years. Mean age of onset was 29.4 ± 13.4 years. Eighty-one patients did not survive during follow-up; infection, followed by cardiovascular disease, renal failure and SLE disease activity were the leading causes of death. The 5- and 10-year survival rates were 91.2 and 79.6 %, respectively. Moreover, the 5-year survival rates of female and male patients were 92.6 and 81.6 % respectively, and the 10-year survival rates were 80.8 and 62.3 %, respectively. Univariate analyses indicated that male gender, older age of onset, hypertension, increased blood creatinine levels, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at the time of diagnosis of SLE were risk factors for all-cause mortality. After adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate analysis, male gender, older age of onset, and high SLEDAI scores at the time of diagnosis were independent risk factors for all-cause mortality in SLE patients. The long-term survival of Chinese SLE patients is comparable to that of other countries. Older age of onset, high disease activity, and decline in renal function are independent risk factors for mortality in patients with SLE.

  14. Spring-summer survival rates of yearling versus adult mallard females

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.E.; Blohm, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the timing, magnitude, and cause of mortality in wildlife populations is imperative for developing management strategies that protect or improve the status of these populations. Age- and sex-specific population parameter estimates provide the most useful information for this purpose. Numerous studies have provided information about survival rates in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but little is known about age-related differences in female survival during the breeding period. We examined band-recovery data for female mallards banded in southern portions of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba during spring and summer 1981-85. We used band-recovery models to test the hypothesis that yearling females would exhibit higher survival compared with that of older females during spring-summer. There was evidence (P = 0.08) that spring-summer survival rates of yearling females (0.728) were higher than that of older females (0.574). These findings support the hypothesis that age-specific differences in nesting behavior (e.g., later nest initiation and fewer nesting attempts by yearlings) influence losses to predators and are responsible for the difference in spring-summer survival. Management treatments that increase nest success, and consequently reduce the need for prolonged nesting, will increase mallard survival during spring-summer.

  15. Age-specificity of black-capped chickadee survival rates: Analysis of capture-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loery, G.; Pollock, K.H.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The ornithological literature indicates a widespread belief in two generalizations about the age-specificity of avian survival rates: (1) survival rates of young birds for some period following fledging are lower than those of adults, and (2) after reaching adulthood survival rates are constant for birds of all ages. There is a growing body of evidence in support of the first generalization, although little is known about how long the survival difference between young and adults lasts. This latter question can be addressed with capture-recapture or band recovery studies based on birds marked in the winter, but the inability to determine age in many species during winter has prevented the use of standard methods. There is very little evidence supporting the second generalization, and we are in need of methods and actual analyses that address this question. In the present paper we restate the two generalizations as hypotheses and test them using data from a wintering Black-capped Chickadee (Parus atricapillus) population in Connecticut, which has been studied by Loery for 26 yr. We use a cohort-based Jolly-Seber approach, which should be useful in other investigations of this nature. We found strong evidence of lower survival rates in 1st-yr birds than in adults, but could not determine whether this was the result of higher mortality rates, higher emigration rates, or a combination of the two. We also found evidence that survival rates of adult birds were not constant with age but decreased at a rate of ? 3.5%/yr. As adult birds are very faithful to their wintering areas, we believe that almost all this decrease can be attributed to an increase in mortality with age. Simulation results suggest that heterogeneity of capture probabilities could not explain the magnitude of the decrease in survival with age. Age-dependent tag loss is also discussed as an alternative explanation, but is dismissed as very unlikely in this situation. This analysis thus provides some of the

  16. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  17. Correspondence between hair cortisol concentrations and 30-day integrated daily salivary and weekly urinary cortisol measures.

    PubMed

    Short, Sarah J; Stalder, Tobias; Marceau, Kristine; Entringer, Sonja; Moog, Nora K; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Buss, Claudia

    2016-09-01

    Characterization of cortisol production, regulation and function is of considerable interest and relevance given its ubiquitous role in virtually all aspects of physiology, health and disease risk. The quantification of cortisol concentration in hair has been proposed as a promising approach for the retrospective assessment of integrated, long-term cortisol production. However, human research is still needed to directly test and validate current assumptions about which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are reflected in hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). Here, we report findings from a validation study in a sample of 17 healthy adults (mean±SD age: 34±8.6 yrs). To determine the extent to which HCC captures cumulative cortisol production, we examined the correspondence of HCC, obtained from the first 1cm scalp-near hair segment, assumed to retrospectively reflect 1-month integrated cortisol secretion, with 30-day average salivary cortisol area-under-the curve (AUC) based on 3 samples collected per day (on awakening, +30min, at bedtime) and the average of 4 weekly 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC) assessments. To further address which aspects of cortisol production and regulation are best reflected in the HCC measure, we also examined components of the salivary measures that represent: (1) production in response to the challenge of awakening (using the cortisol awakening response [CAR]), and (2) chronobiological regulation of cortisol production (using diurnal slope). Finally, we evaluated the test-retest stability of each cortisol measure. Results indicate that HCC was most strongly associated with the prior 30-day integrated cortisol production measure (average salivary cortisol AUC) (r=0.61, p=0.01). There were no significant associations between HCC and the 30-day summary measures using CAR or diurnal slope. The relationship between 1-month integrated 24-h UFC and HCC did not reach statistical significance (r=0.30, p=0.28). Lastly, of all cortisol

  18. [Effects of different transplanting conditions on survival rate and growing status of Anoictochilus roxburghii plantlets].

    PubMed

    Shao, Qing-Song; Zhou, Ai-Cun; Huang, Yu-Qiu; Dong, Ying-Lei; Hu, Bing-Kang; Li, Ming-Yan

    2014-03-01

    The growing status of Anoectochilus roxburghii seedling was observed and the survival rate of seedlings, height, stem diameter and plant fresh weight under the conditions of different transplanting substrate compositions, planting density, shading rate were measured. The results showed that the effects of different transplanting substrates, planting densities, shading rates and nutrient solutions on the growing status of A. roxburghii plantlets varied greatly. A. roxburghii plantlets demonstrated a high survival rate and better growing status under the Following conditions: the ratio of peat and river sand as 2: 1, the planting density as 3 cm x 3 cm, the shading rate as 70%, and the nutrient solution as 1/4MS. The findings of the study provide a solid technical solution for the artificial cultivation of A. roxburghii plantlets.

  19. Human performance profiles for planetary analog extra-vehicular activities: 120 day and 30 day analog missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarmer, Tiffany M.

    Understanding performance factors for future planetary missions is critical for ensuring safe and successful planetary extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). The goal of this study was to gain operational knowledge of analog EVAs and develop biometric profiles for specific EVA types. Data was collected for a 120 and 30 day analog planetary exploration simulation focusing on EVA type, pre and post EVA conditions, and performance ratings. From this five main types of EVAs were performed: maintenance, science, survey/exploratory, public relations, and emergency. Each EVA type has unique characteristics and performance ratings showing specific factors in chronological components, environmental conditions, and EVA systems that have an impact on performance. Pre and post biometrics were collected to heart rate, blood pressure, and SpO2. Additional data about issues and specific EVA difficulties provide some EVA trends illustrating how tasks and suit comfort can negatively affect performance ratings. Performance decreases were noted for 1st quarter and 3rd quarter EVAs, survey/exploratory type EVAs, and EVAs requiring increased fine and gross motor function. Stress during the simulation is typically higher before the EVA and decreases once the crew has returned to the habitat. Stress also decreases as the simulation nears the end with the 3rd and 4th quarters showing a decrease in stress levels. Operational components and studies have numerous variable and components that effect overall performance, by increasing the knowledge available we may be able to better prepare future crews for the extreme environments and exploration of another planet.

  20. Development of Lightweight Material Composites to Insulate Cryogenic Tanks for 30-Day Storage in Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for an MLI system which will meet the design constraints of an ILRV used for 7- to 30-day missions. The ten tasks are briefly described: (1) material survey and procurement, material property tests, and selection of composites to be considered; (2) definition of environmental parameters and tooling requirements, and thermal and structural design verification test definition; (3) definition of tanks and associated hardware to be used, and definition of MLI concepts to be considered; (4) thermal analyses, including purge, evacuation, and reentry repressurization analyses; (5) structural analyses (6) thermal degradation tests of composite and structural tests of fastener; (7) selection of MLI materials and system; (8) definition of a conceptual MLI system design; (9) evaluation of nondestructive inspection techniques and definition of procedures for repair of damaged areas; and (10) preparation of preliminary specifications.

  1. Continuous 30-day measurements utilizing the monkey metabolism pod. [study of weightlessness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    A fiberglass system was previously described, using which quantitative physiological measurements could be made to study the effects of weightlessness on 10 to 14 kg adult monkeys maintained in comfortable restraint under space flight conditions. Recent improvements in the system have made it possible to obtain continuous measurements of respiratory gas exchange, cardiovascular function, and mineral balance for periods of up to 30 days on pig-tailed monkeys. It has also been possible to operate two pods which share one set of instrumentation, thereby permitting simultaneous measurements to be made on two animals by commutating signal outputs from the pods. In principle, more than two pods could be operated in this fashion. The system is compatible with Spacelab design. Representative physiological data from ground tests of the system are presented.

  2. The Gravity of LBNP Exercise: Lessons Learned from Identical Twins in Bed for 30 Days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, Alan R.; Groppo, Eli R.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Watenpaugh, Donald; Schneider, Suzanne; O'Leary, Deborah; Smith, Scott M.; Steinbach, Gregory C.; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Kimura, Shinji; Meyer, R. Scott

    2002-01-01

    Microgravity leads to cardiovascular deconditioning in humans, which is manifested by post-flight reduction of orthostatic tolerance and upright exercise capacity. During upright posture on Earth, blood pressures are greater in the feet than at heart or head levels due to gravity's effects on columns of blood in the body. During exposure to Microgravity, all gravitational blood pressures disappear. Presently, there is no exercise hardware available for space flight to provide gravitational blood pressures to tissues of the lower body. We hypothesized that 40 minutes of supine treadmill running per day in a LBNP chamber at 1.0 to 1.2 body weight (approximately 50 - 60 mm Hg LBNP) with a 5 min resting, nonexercise LBNP exposure at 50 mm Hg after the exercise session will maintain aerobic fitness orthostatic tolerance, and selected parameters of musculoskeletal function during 30 days of bed rest (simulated microgravity). This paper is an interim report of some of our findings on 16 subjects.

  3. Bone metabolism and nutritional status during 30-day head-down-tilt bed rest.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer L L; Zwart, Sara R; Heer, Martina; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ericson, Karen; Smith, Scott M

    2012-11-01

    Bed rest studies provide an important tool for modeling physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. Markers of bone metabolism and nutritional status were evaluated in 12 subjects (8 men, 4 women; ages 25-49 yr) who participated in a 30-day -6° head-down-tilt diet-controlled bed rest study. Blood and urine samples were collected twice before, once a week during, and twice after bed rest. Data were analyzed using a mixed-effects linear regression with a priori contrasts comparing all days to the second week of the pre-bed rest acclimation period. During bed rest, all urinary markers of bone resorption increased ~20% (P < 0.001), and serum parathyroid hormone decreased ~25% (P < 0.001). Unlike longer (>60 days) bed rest studies, neither markers of oxidative damage nor iron status indexes changed over the 30 days of bed rest. Urinary oxalate excretion decreased ~20% during bed rest (P < 0.001) and correlated inversely with urinary calcium (R = -0.18, P < 0.02). These data provide a broad overview of the biochemistry associated with short-duration bed rest studies and provide an impetus for using shorter studies to save time and costs wherever possible. For some effects related to bone biochemistry, short-duration bed rest will fulfill the scientific requirements to simulate spaceflight, but other effects (antioxidants/oxidative damage, iron status) do not manifest until subjects are in bed longer, in which case longer studies or other analogs may be needed. Regardless, maximizing research funding and opportunities will be critical to enable the next steps in space exploration. PMID:22995395

  4. Possible effects of the 2004 and 2005 hurricanes on manatee survival rates and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langtimm, C.A.; Krohn, M.D.; Reid, J.P.; Stith, B.M.; Beck, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Prior research on manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) survival in northwest Florida, based on mark-resighting photo-identification data from 1982-1998, showed that annual adult apparent survival rate was significantly lower during years with extreme storms. Mechanisms that we proposed could have led to lower estimates included stranding, injury from debris, being fatally swept out to sea, or displacement into poorly monitored areas due to storm-generated longshore currents or storm-related loss of habitat. In 2004 and 2005, seven major hurricanes impacted areas of Florida encompassing three regional manatee subpopulations, enabling us to further examine some of these mechanisms. Data from a group of manatees tracked in southwest Florida with satellite transmitters during Hurricanes Charley, Katrina, and Wilma showed that these animals made no significant movement before and during storm passage. Mark-resighting data are being collected to determine if survival rates were lower with the 2004 and 2005 storms. ?? 2006 Estuarine Research Federation.

  5. Long-term survival rate of teeth receiving multidisciplinary endodontic, periodontal and prosthodontic treatments.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, A S; Radafshar, G; Taramsari, M; Darabi, F

    2014-03-01

    Deciding whether to replace or preserve a compromised tooth, even with emerging trends in implant dentistry, is still a common dilemma for practitioners. This study sought to determine the 3- to more than 10-year survival rate of teeth that had undergone endodontic, periodontal and prosthodontic treatments. A total of 245 teeth in 87 patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated. All the teeth had received crown lengthening surgery by a single periodontist. Root canal therapy and prosthodontic procedures were rendered either by specialists or by experienced general dentists. Numbers of lost teeth were recorded and the criteria for hopeless teeth were defined. Survival rate was determined using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Clinical indices including pocket depth (PD), bleeding index (BI), C/R ratio, position of the restoration margin relative to the gingival margin (RM-GM) and the presence of intra-canal post were compared between different survival groups (<3, 3-5, 5-10 and >10 years) using one-way analysis of variance (anova). Potential predictors of failure were determined using the Cox regression model. The mean ± s.d. of 3-, 5-, 10- and 13-year survival rates was 98 ± 1%, 96 ± 1·6%, 83·1 ± 4·5% and 51·9 ± 14·5%, respectively. The mean PD (P < 0·013), as well as C/R ratio in the mesial (P = 0·003) and distal (P = 0·007) surfaces, was significantly higher in the >10-year-survived teeth. Bleeding index and RM-GM showed no significant differences between the groups. C/R ratio and RM-GM position appeared to be the major determinants of tooth loss. The long-term survival rate of multidisciplinary-treated teeth was 83-98% in this specific sample.

  6. Marathon Running Fails to Influence RBC Survival Rates in Iron-Replete Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Irene; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study used radiolabeling to measure red blood cell (RBC) survival rates in six iron-replete female marathon runners, and urinary tests were conducted to search for secondary evidence of RBC damage. The hypothesized RBC fragmentation was not disclosed. (Author/MT)

  7. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Improved pension rates-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation General § 3.24 Improved...

  8. Very low survival rates after non-traumatic lower limb amputation in a consecutive series: what to do?

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Holm, Gitte; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus; Krasheninnikoff, Michael; Gebuhr, Peter

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate factors potentially influencing short- and long-term mortality in patients who had a non-traumatic lower limb amputation in a university hospital. A consecutive series of 93 amputations (16% toe/foot, 33% trans-tibial, 9% through knee and 42% trans-femoral) were studied. Their mean age was 75.8 years; 21 (23%) were admitted from a nursing home and 87 (92%) were amputated due to a vascular disease and/or diabetes. Thirty days and 1-year mortality were 30 and 54%, respectively. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the 30-day mortality was associated with older age (P = 0.01), and the number of co-morbidities (P = 0.04), when adjusted for gender, previous amputations, cause of and amputation level, and residential status. Thus, a patient with 4 or 5 co-morbidities (n = 20) was seven times more likely to die within 30 days, compared with a patient with 1 co-morbidity (n = 16). Further, the risk of not surviving increased with 7% per each additional year the patient got older. Of concern, almost one-third of patients died within 1 month. This may be unavoidable, but a multidisciplinary, optimized, multimodal pre- and postoperative programme should be instituted, trying to improve the outcome.

  9. The effect of chemical weapons incineration on the survival rates of Red-tailed Tropicbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiber, E.A.; Schenk, G.A.; Doherty, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    In 1992, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS) began incinerating U.S. chemical weapons stockpiles on Johnston Atoll (Pacific Ocean) where about 500,000 seabirds breed, including Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda). We hypothesized that survival rates of birds were lower in those nesting downwind of the incinerator smokestack compared to those upwind, and that birds might move away from the area. From 1992 - 2000 we monitored survival and movements between areas upwind and downwind from the JACADS facility. We used a multi-strata mark recapture approach to model survival, probability of recapture and movement. Probability of recapture was significantly higher for birds in downwind areas (owing to greater recapture effort) and thus was an important 'nuisance' parameter to take into account in modeling. We found no differences in survival between birds nesting upwind ( 0.8588) and downwind (0.8550). There was no consistent difference in movement rates between upwind or downwind areas from year to year: differences found may be attributed to differing vegetation growth and human activities between the areas. Our results suggest that JACADS has had no documentable influence on the survival and year to year movement of Red-tailed Tropicbirds.

  10. Relationship of electro-mechanical remodeling to survival rates after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Jawad; Agarwal, Sunil Kumar; Kamireddy, Swapna; Adelstein, Evan; Saba, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy, when added to optimal medical therapy, increases longevity in symptomatic congestive heart failure patients with left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF)≤0.35 and QRS durations>120 ms. Cardiac resynchronization therapy is also associated with electrical and mechanical reverse remodeling. We examined whether reverse remodeling predicts increased survival rates in non-trial settings. Recipients of cardiac resynchronization therapy and defibrillators (n=112; 78 men; mean age, 69±11 yr) underwent repeat echocardiography and electrocardiography at least 90 days after device implantation. Forty patients had mechanical responses of at least 0.05 improvement in absolute LVEF; 56 had electrical responses (any narrowing of biventricular-paced QRS duration compared with the electrocardiogram immediately after therapy). During a mean follow-up period of 3.1±1.7 years, 55 patients died. The average death rate per 100 person-years was lower among mechanical responders than nonresponders (9.2% vs 23.9%; P=0.009); the unadjusted hazard ratio was 0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-0.79). In a multivariate model adjusted for age, sex, baseline LVEF, and QRS duration, mechanical responders had 60% better survival than nonresponders (hazard ratio=0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.79; P=0.008). No difference in survival was observed in electrical response. In our association of absolute change in LVEF over the observed range with death (using restricted cubic splines), we observed a linear relationship with survival. In patients given cardiac resynchronization therapy, mechanical but not electrical remodeling was associated with better survival rates, suggesting that mechanical remodeling underlies this therapy's mechanism of conferring a survival benefit.

  11. Effect of loading time on the survival rate of anodic oxidized implants: prospective multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Gyu; Yun, Pil-Young; Park, Hyun-Sik; Shim, June-Sung; Hwang, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of early loading on survival rate or clinical parameter of anodic oxidized implants during the 12-month postloading period. MATERIALS AND METHODS Total 69 implants were placed in 42 patients. Anodic oxidized implants (GS II, Osstem Cor., Busan, Korea) placed on the posterior mandibles were divided into two groups, according to their prosthetic loading times: test group (2 to 6 weeks), and control group (3 to 4 months). The implant survival rates were determined during one-year postloading period and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. The radiographic peri-implant bone loss and periodontal parameters were also evaluated and statistically analyzed by unpaired t-test. RESULTS Total 69 implants were placed in 42 patients. The cumulative postloading implant survival rates were 88.89% in test group, compared to 100% in control group (P<.05). Periimplant marginal bone loss (T: 0.27±0.54 mm, C: 0.40±0.55 mm) and periodontal parameters showed no significant difference between the groups (P>.05). CONCLUSION Within the limitation of the present study, implant survival was affected by early loading on the anodic oxidized implants placed on posterior mandibles during one-year follow-up. Early implant loading did not influence peri-implant marginal bone loss, and periodontal parameters. PMID:22439096

  12. Effect of thaw rates on survival of buffalo spermatozoa frozen straws.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, K

    1984-07-01

    Eighteen ejaculates from three buffalo bulls of Nili-Ravi breed were tested in a 3 X 6 X 3 factorial experiment. Semen was extended in lactose-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol extender containing penicillin (1000 IU/ml) and streptomycin (1000 micrograms/ml). Semen was frozen in .5-ml polyvinyl chloride straws in liquid nitrogen vapor and stored in liquid nitrogen for 24 h. Straws were thawed at water bath temperatures of 0, 37, or 75 degrees C for 2 min, 15 s, and 9 s, respectively. At thawing bath temperature of 0, 37, or 75 degrees C, percentage of motile spermatozoa averaged 30, 40, and 50%. Differences were significant between thaw rates for initial postthaw motility, postthaw sperm survival at 37 degrees C, and absolute index of survival of spermatozoa. Bulls were also different for initial postthaw motility, postthaw sperm survival at 37 degrees C, and absolute index of survival of spermatozoa. Thaw rate of 75 degrees C for 9 s was superior to other rates.

  13. Analysis of feedbacks between nucleation rate, survival probability and cloud condensation nuclei formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Pierce, J. R.; Adams, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Aerosol nucleation is an important source of particle number in the atmosphere. However, in order to become cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), freshly nucleated particles must undergo significant condensational growth while avoiding coagulational scavenging. In an effort to quantify the contribution of nucleation to CCN, this work uses the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS global aerosol model to calculate changes in CCN concentrations against a broad range of nucleation rates and mechanisms. We then quantify the factors that control CCN formation from nucleation, including daily nucleation rates, growth rates, coagulation sinks, condensation sinks, survival probabilities, and CCN formation rates, in order to examine feedbacks that may limit growth of nucleated particles to CCN. Nucleation rate parameterizations tested in GEOS-Chem-TOMAS include ternary nucleation (with multiple tuning factors), activation nucleation (with two pre-factors), binary nucleation, and ion-mediated nucleation. We find that nucleation makes a significant contribution to boundary layer CCN(0.2%), but this contribution is only modestly sensitive to the choice of nucleation scheme, ranging from 49 to 78% increase in concentrations over a control simulation with no nucleation. Moreover, a two order-of-magnitude increase in the globally averaged nucleation rate (via changes to tuning factors) results in small changes (less than 10%) to global CCN(0.2%) concentrations. To explain this, we present a simple theory showing that survival probability has an exponentially decreasing dependence on the square of the condensation sink. This functional form stems from a negative correlation between condensation sink and growth rate and a positive correlation between condensation sink and coagulational scavenging. Conceptually, with a fixed condensable vapor budget (sulfuric acid and organics), any increase in CCN concentrations due to higher nucleation rates necessarily entails an increased aerosol surface area in the

  14. Survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of an important mesopredator: the northern raccoon.

    PubMed

    Troyer, Elizabeth M; Cameron Devitt, Susan E; Sunquist, Melvin E; Goswami, Varun R; Oli, Madan K

    2014-01-01

    Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores) are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), using Pradel's temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936-0.960) than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893-0.920), while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078-0.106) than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042-0.067). Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996-1.004), indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models.

  15. Survival and recovery rates of mottled ducks banded in Texas and Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haukos, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The Western Gulf Coast population of the mottled duck (Anas fulvigula) is dependent on the Gulf coastal marsh to complete its entire life cycle. Band recovery data can be used to monitor mottled duck populations by estimating annual survival, indexing harvest rate, and assessing movements. Band returns from hunting seasons 1997–2013 were used to evaluate factors influencing annual survival, recovery rates, and movements of mottled ducks in Texas and Louisiana. For banding years of 1997–2013, 58,349 normal, wild mottled ducks were banded and released in Texas and Louisiana. Since 2002, 86% of mottled duck bandings have occurred on the Chenier Plain of Texas and Louisiana. Hunters shot, recovered, and reported 7,061birds with bands during this period. Direct recovery rates were greater for juveniles than adults but changed little since the 1970s. Estimates of annual survival did not differ between Texas and Louisiana, but did among years and between sex and age classes. Adult male and juvenile female mottled ducks had the greatest and lowest annual survival rates, respectively. Recovery of birds banded on the Chenier Plain was four times greater for birds banded in Texas and harvested in Louisiana than banded in Louisiana and harvested in Texas. Much of the current inference of results from banding mottled ducks is limited to the Chenier Plain. To monitor the entire Western Gulf Coast population of mottled ducks, managers can consider expanding operational banding operations with annual quotas, which would improve survival and recovery estimates and allow for inference beyond the Chenier Plain region.

  16. 77 FR 73731 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Application Under the Hague Convention on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... organizations. The purpose of this Notice is to allow 30 days for public comment. DATES: Submit comments directly to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) up to January 10, 2013. ADDRESSES: Direct comments...

  17. 78 FR 65697 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing, Contracting With Resident-Owned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Public Housing, Contracting With...: Colette Pollard, Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451...

  18. Examination of hospital characteristics and patient quality outcomes using four inpatient quality indicators and 30-day all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Carretta, Henry J; Chukmaitov, Askar; Tang, Anqi; Shin, Jihyung

    2013-01-01

    The study objective was to examine hospital mortality outcomes and structure using 2008 patient-level discharges from general community hospitals. Discharges from Florida administrative files were merged to the state mortality registry. A cross-sectional analysis of inpatient mortality was conducted using Inpatient Quality Indicators (IQIs) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, pneumonia, and all-payer 30-day postdischarge mortality. Structural characteristics included bed size, volume, ownership, teaching status, and system affiliation. Outcomes were risk adjusted using 3M APR-DRG. Volume was inversely correlated with AMI, CHF, stroke, and 30-day mortality. Similarities and differences in the direction and magnitude of the relationship of structural characteristics to 30-day postdischarge and IQI mortality measures were observed. Hospital volume was inversely correlated with inpatient mortality outcomes. Other hospital characteristics were associated with some mortality outcomes. Further study is needed to understand the relationship between 30-day postdischarge mortality and hospital quality.

  19. Environmental effects on survival rates: robust regression, recovery planning and endangered Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Bowlby, Heather D; Gibson, A Jamie F

    2015-08-01

    Describing how population-level survival rates are influenced by environmental change becomes necessary during recovery planning to identify threats that should be the focus for future remediation efforts. However, the ways in which data are analyzed have the potential to change our ecological understanding and thus subsequent recommendations for remedial actions to address threats. In regression, distributional assumptions underlying short time series of survival estimates cannot be investigated a priori and data likely contain points that do not follow the general trend (outliers) as well as contain additional variation relative to an assumed distribution (overdispersion). Using juvenile survival data from three endangered Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. populations in response to hydrological variation, four distributions for the response were compared using lognormal and generalized linear models (GLM). The influence of outliers as well as overdispersion was investigated by comparing conclusions from robust regressions with these lognormal models and GLMs. The analyses strongly supported the use of a lognormal distribution for survival estimates (i.e., modeling the instantaneous rate of mortality as the response) and would have led to ambiguity in the identification of significant hydrological predictors as well as low overall confidence in the predicted relationships if only GLMs had been considered. However, using robust regression to evaluate the effect of additional variation and outliers in the data relative to regression assumptions resulted in a better understanding of relationships between hydrological variables and survival that could be used for population-specific recovery planning. This manuscript highlights how a systematic analysis that explicitly considers what monitoring data represent and where variation is likely to come from is required in order to draw meaningful conclusions when analyzing changes in survival relative to environmental

  20. Investigating Rates of Hunting and Survival in Declining European Lapwing Populations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Understanding effects of harvest on population dynamics is of major interest, especially for declining species. European lapwing Vanellus vanellus populations increased from the 1960s until the 1980s and declined strongly thereafter. About 400,000 lapwings are harvested annually and it is thus of high conservation relevance to assess whether hunting was a main cause for the observed changes in lapwing population trends. We developed a multi-event cause-specific mortality model which we applied to a long-term ring-recovery data set (1960–2010) of > 360,000 records to estimate survival and cause-specific mortalities. We found no temporal change in survival over the last 50 years for first-year (FY) and older birds (after first-year; AFY) originating from different ringing areas. Mean survival was high, around 0.60 and 0.80 for FY and AFY individuals, respectively. The proportion of total mortality due to hunting was <0.10 over the study period and the estimated proportion of harvested individuals (kill rate) was <0.05 in each year. Our result of constant survival indicates that demographic processes other than survival were responsible for the pronounced change in lapwing population trends in the 1980s. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that hunting was not a significant contributor to the large-scale decline of lapwing populations. To halt the ongoing decline of European lapwing populations management should focus on life history stages other than survival (e.g. productivity). Further analyses are required to investigate the contribution of other demographic rates to the decline of lapwings and to identify the most efficient conservation actions. PMID:27685660

  1. Population trend of the Yellowstone grizzly bear as estimated from reproductive and survival rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhardt, L. L.; Blanchard, B. M.; Knight, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    The trend of the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population was estimated using reproductive rates calculated from 22 individual females and survival rates from 400 female bear-years. The point estimate of the rate of increase was 4.6%, with 95% confidence limits of 0 and 9%. Caution in interpreting this result is advised because of possible biases in the population parameter estimates. The main prospects for improving present knowledge of the population trend appear to be further study of possible biases in the parameter estimates, and the continued use of radiotelemetry to increase the number of samples on which the estimates are based.

  2. Analysis of rat testicular proteome following 30-day exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field radiation.

    PubMed

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed

    2014-12-01

    The use of electromagnetic field (EMF) generating apparatuses such as cell phones is increasing, and has caused an interest in the investigations of its effects on human health. We analyzed proteome in preparations from the whole testis in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats that were exposed to 900 MHz EMF radiation for 1, 2, or 4 h/day for 30 consecutive days, simulating a range of possible human cell phone use. Subjects were sacrificed immediately after the end of the experiment and testes fractions were solubilized and separated via high-resolution 2D electrophoresis, and gel patterns were scanned, digitized, and processed. Thirteen proteins, which were found only in sham or in exposure groups, were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Among them, heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, peroxiredoxin-1, and other proteins related to misfolding of proteins and/or stress were identified. These results demonstrate significant effects of radio frequency modulated EMFs exposure on proteome, particularly in protein species in the rodent testis, and suggest that a 30-day exposure to EMF radiation induces nonthermal stress in testicular tissue. The functional implication of the identified proteins was discussed.

  3. Annual survival rates of adult and immature eastern population tundra swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Bart, J.; Limpert, R.J.; Sladen, William J. L.; Hines, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus ) of the eastern population were neckbanded in Maryland, North Carolina, and Alaska from 1966 through 1990. These swans were resighted and recaptured during autumn, winter, and spring, 1966-1990. Although the original motivation for this study involved swan movements, we wanted to use the resulting data to test hypotheses about sources of variation in swan survival rates. Recaptures of legbanded and neckbanded swans permitted us to estimate neckband loss rates, which were found to vary with age and sex of swans, and number of years since initial application. Estimates of annual neckband retention rate ranged from about 0.50 for adult male swans greater than or equal to 2 years after initial neckbanding to > 0.96 for immature swans and adult females the first year following neckbanding. This variation in neckband loss rates prevented the simple correction of survival estimates to account for such loss. Consequently, we developed a series of multinomial models parameterized with survival, sighting, and neckband retention probabilities for use with the recapture and resighting data.

  4. Impacts of Bokashi on survival and growth rates of Pinus pseudostrobus in community reforestation projects.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-López, P F; Ramírez, M I; Pérez-Salicrup, D R

    2015-03-01

    Community-based small-scale reforestation practices have been proposed as an alternative to low-efficiency massive reforestations conducted by external agents. These latter conventional reforestations are often carried out in soils that have been seriously degraded and this has indirectly contributed to the introduction of non-native species and/or acceptance of very low seedling survival rates. Bokashi is a fermented soil organic amendment that can be made from almost any available agricultural byproduct, and its beneficial effects in agriculture have been reported in various contexts. Here, we report the results of a community-based small-scale experimental reforestation where the provenance of pine seedlings (local and commercial) and the use of Bokashi as a soil amendment were evaluated. Bokashi was prepared locally by members of a small rural community in central Mexico. Almost two years after the establishment of the trial, survival rates for the unamended and amended local trees were 97-100% while survival of the commercial trees from unamended and amended treatments were 87-93%. Consistently through time, local and commercial seedlings planted in Bokashi-amended soils were significantly taller (x̅ = 152 cm) than those planted in unamended soils (̅x = 86 cm). An unplanned infection by Cronartium quercuum in the first year of the experiment was considered as a covariable. Infected seedlings showed malformations but this did not affect survival and growth rates. Bokashi amendment seems as an inexpensive, locally viable technology to increase seedling survival and growth and to help recover deforested areas where soils have been degraded. This allows local stakeholders to see more rapid results while helping them to maintain their interest in conservation activities. PMID:25460423

  5. Simultaneous use of mark-recapture and radiotelemetry to estimate survival, movement, and capture rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] <2 %) and confidence interval coverage close to nominal, except for survival estimates of banded birds for the 'off study area' stratum, which were negatively biased (RBIAS -7 to -15%) when sample sizes were small (5-10 banded or radioed animals 'released' per time interval). To provide

  6. Temporal and spatial variation in age-specific survival rates of a long-lived mammal, the Hawaiian monk seal.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jason D; Thompson, Paul M

    2007-02-01

    Estimates of variability in pinniped survival rates are generally based on observations at single sites, so it is not certain whether observed rates represent the whole population. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of spatio-temporal variation in age-specific survival rates for endangered Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) based on capture-recapture analyses of more than 85% of the pups weaned in this population over the last two decades. Uniquely, these data have been collected from six subpopulations, encompassing all major breeding sites across its 1800 km long core range. Analyses of individual subpopulations revealed similar patterns in age-specific survival, characterized by the relatively low survival rates from weaning to 2 years of age, intermediate rates to 4 years of age, and then by relatively high 'mature' survival rates until 17 years of age, after which a senescent decline was observed. Juvenile, subadult and adult survival rates all varied significantly over time. Trends in survival among subpopulations were coherent with their relative geographical positions, suggesting regional structuring and connectedness within the archipelago. Survival rates for different age classes tended to be positively correlated, suggesting that similar factors may influence the survival for seals of all ages. PMID:17164205

  7. Effect of 30-day orbital flight BION M1 on excretion of expired endogenous CO in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulagin, Yury; Tatarkin, Sergey; Dyachenko, Alexander

    It is known that increased destruction of hem structures is accompanied by increase of the endogenous carbon monoxide excretion rate with respiration (VCO). Changes VCO preceded the observed changes in the blood composition [D’yachenko A. et al., 2010]. Changes in blood composition, i.e. rise of red blood cells content and reduction of reticulocytes content was detected after a 12-day orbital flight (OF) in mice C57BL/6 [Gridley D.et al., 2003]. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 30-day OF on excretion of endogenous CO. The method and apparatus for simultaneous measurement of VCO, and O2 and CO2 exchange were developed. The research consisted of three parts: 1). Measurement of VCO in five C57BL/6 mice after 30-day OF on the Russian satellite BION M1. 2). Measurement of VCO in six C57BL/6 mice after 30-day ground-based experiment (GBE) with simulated flight telemetry environment of BION M1. 3). Measurement of VCO in seven C57BL/6 mice in vivarium The results: Mice weight after OF was 24.3+-3.3 (mean +-SD) with minimal weight 18.1 g, and maximal weight 29.9 g. Vivarium mice weight was 27.0+-1.8 g. KGE mice weight was 25.0+-1.3 g. Mice age in all three groups was the same. We measured and estimated VCO and total CO excretion (MCO) for two gas mixtures ventilated mouse camera: atmospheric CO-contained air and then CO-free air(30 min). The results showed that the average MCO allocated GBE and vivarium mice did not significantly differ. Average MCO in mice after OF was significantly higher then in vivarium group (T=-2,74; p=0.02). MCO after GBE was between the vivarium and OF groups. MCO in OF and KGE groups did not differ ( T=-1,93; p=0,085). Blood tests in mice after OF was not carried out, because the recovery after the OF was studied in this group. The largest excretion of CO was observed in a mouse N39 after the OF. The weight of this mouse was only 18.1 g, i.e. much less than mean weight. Increase of VCO in food-restricted animal is known

  8. Crossing beef x beef and beef x Brown Swiss: pregnancy rate, calf survival, weaning age and rate.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W L; Bellows, R A; Urick, J J; Knapp, B W

    1986-07-01

    October pregnancy rate, calf survival to weaning, weaning age, weaning rate and actual kg of calf weaned/cow exposed were determined in a 4-yr study involving 880 matings of Angus (A), Hereford (H) and Charolais (C) sires to A, H, C and Brown Swiss (BS) dams. Cows were mated in single-sire herds for 45 or 60 d under pasture conditions; heifers were bred to produce their first calf at 3 yr of age. Pregnancy rate of lactating dams was 9.4% higher (P less than .01) than for non-lactating dams. Pregnancy rates for straightbred matings were 87.5%, 80.6% and 75.4%, respectively, for A, H and C groups (P less than .05). No differences (P greater than .10) due to sire breed were found for any of the traits studied except for calf age at weaning. Calves from C sires were younger (P less than .01) at weaning than calves from H and A sires. Breed-of-dam differences (P less than .05 to P less than .01) were found for all traits studied except calf survival rate. All BS dams produced crossbred calves and had lower pregnancy and weaning rates (both P less than .01), calves were younger at weaning (P less than .05), had lower kg of calf weaned/cow exposed (P less than .05) than for beef-breed dams producing crossbred calves. Crossbred calves from BS dams were 4.9, 11.0 and 3.4 d younger (P less than .05 to P less than .01) at weaning, respectively, than crossbred calves from H, A and C dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Effects of copper and decreased salinity on survival rate and development of Tridacna gigas larvae.

    PubMed

    Blidberg, E

    2004-01-01

    Giant clams (Family: Tridacnidae) are endangered species distributed in the Indo-Pacific region. In this study, survival rate and development of Tridacna gigas larvae were studied for three days in ambient water (32 psu), copper (2.5 microg Cu(2+) L(-1)), reduced salinities (25 and 20 psu) and the combination of copper and 25 psu salinity. No significant differences were found in larval development between treatments. The survival rates decreased considerably with reduced salinities although the combination of copper and reduced salinity gave synergistic effects. As a consequence, this could limit population growth of giant clams in coastal areas and could also explain the absence of larval settlement on reefs close to harbours or river mouths. More research is needed to understand the basic requirements and stress tolerance in giant clam larvae for reef restoration and other management actions to be successful.

  10. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Listeria monocytogenes in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (i) evaluate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in a commercially produced yogurt, (ii) determine the survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes during cold storage of yogurt and (iii) to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behavior of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples of yogurt were inoculated with the mixture of three L. monocytogenes strains and stored at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15°C for 16 days. The number of listeriae was determined after 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 14 and 16 days of storage. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto ALOA agar (agar for Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti). It was found that applied temperature and storage time significantly influenced the survival rate of listeriae (p<0.01). The number of L. monocytogenes in all the samples decreased linearly with storage time. The slowest decrease in the number of the bacteria was found in the samples stored at 6°C (D-10 value = 243.9 h), whereas the highest reduction in the number of the bacteria was observed in the samples stored at 15°C (D-10 value = 87.0 h). The number of L. monocytogenes was correlated with the pH value of the samples (p<0.01). The natural logarithm of the mean survival/inactivation rates of L. monocytogenes calculated from the primary model was fitted to two secondary models, namely linear and polynomial. Mathematical equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for the prediction of the survival/inactivation rate of L. monocytogenes in yogurt stored under temperature range from 3 to 15°C, however, the polynomial model gave a better fit to the experimental data. PMID:27487505

  11. Effects on groundwater microbial communities of an engineered 30-day in situ exposure to the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sheridan K; Metge, David W; Fogarty, Lisa R; Meyer, Michael T; Barber, Larry B; Harvey, Ronald W; Leblanc, Denis R; Kolpin, Dana W

    2012-07-17

    Effects upon microbial communities from environmental exposure to concentrations of antibiotics in the μg L(-1) range remain poorly understood. Microbial communities from an oligotrophic aquifer (estimated doubling rates of only once per week) that were previously acclimated (AC) or unacclimated (UAC) to historical sulfamethoxazole (SMX) contamination, and a laboratory-grown Pseudomonas stutzeri strain, were exposed to 240-520 μg L(-1) SMX for 30 days in situ using filter chambers allowing exposure to ambient groundwater, but not to ambient microorganisms. SMX-exposed UAC bacterial communities displayed the greatest mortality and impairment (viable stain assays), the greatest change in sensitivity to SMX (dose-response assays), and the greatest change in community composition (Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism; T-RFLP). The sul1 gene, encoding resistance to SMX at clinically relevant levels, and an element of Class I integrons, was not detected in any community. Changes in microbial community structure and SMX resistance over a short experimental period in previously nonexposed, slow-growing aquifer communities suggest concentrations of antibiotics 2-3 orders of magnitude less than those used in clinical applications may influence ecological function through changes in community composition, and could promote antibiotic resistance through selection of naturally resistant bacteria.

  12. Effects of 30 day simulated microgravity and recovery on fluid homeostasis and renal function in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Bryan J.; Mendonca, Margarida M.

    1995-01-01

    Transition from a normal gravitational environment to that of microgravity eventually results in decreased plasma and blood volumes, increasing with duration of exposure to microgravity. This loss of vascular fluid is presumably due to negative fluid and electrolyte balance and most likely contributes to the orthostatic intolerance associated with the return to gravity. The decrease in plasma volume is presumed to be a reflection of a concurrent decrease in extracellular fluid volume with maintenance of normal plasma-interstitial fluid balance. In addition, the specific alterations in renal function contributing to these changes in fluid and electrolyte homeostasis are potentially responding to neuro-humoral signals that are not consistent with systemic fluid volume status. We have previously demonstrated an early increase in both glomerular filtration rate and extracellular fluid volume and that this decreases towards control values by 7 days of simulated microgravity. However, longer duration studies relating these changes to plasma volume alterations and the response to return to orthostasis have not been fully addressed. Male Wistar rats were chronically cannulated, submitted to 30 days heat-down tilt (HDT) and followed for 7 days after return to orthostasis from HDT. Measurements of renal function and extracellular and blood volumes were performed in the awake rat.

  13. Survival rates of radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Polar bears are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting, polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and hydrocarbon extraction and related human activities such as shipping, road building, and seismic testing. As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, reliable estimates of survivorship of polar bears are needed to predict and manage the impacts of those activities. We used the Kaplan-Meier model to estimate annual survival (with 95% confidence intervals) for radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young that were followed during a 12-year study in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Survival of adult female polar bears was higher than had been previously thought: S = 0.969 (range 0.952-0.983). If human-caused mortalities were deleted, the computed survival rate was 0.996 (0.990-1.002). Survival of young from den exit to weaning was 0.676 (0.634-0.701). Survival during the second year of life, 0.860 (0.751-0.903), was substantially higher than during the first year, 0.651 (0.610-0.675). Shooting by local hunters accounted for 85% of the documented deaths of adult female polar bears. Conversely, 90% of documented losses of young were independent of litter size (P = 0.36), indicating that parental investment in single cubs was not different from investment in litters of two or more. Precise estimates of the survival of independent juveniles and adult males still need to be developed.

  14. Exercise training improves early survival rate in diabetic rats submitted to acute coronary artery ligation.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, A; Rousseau-Migneron, S; Tancrède, G

    1988-09-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the decreased early survival rate of diabetic rats submitted to acute experimental myocardial infarction could be improved by a previous training program. Male Wistar rats (+/- 200 g) were rendered diabetic with the i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) but only those presenting one week later a tail-blood glucose value between 250-400 mg/dl were retained in the protocol. Diabetic and control rats were either kept sedentary or submitted to a progressive 10-week program of treadmill running. The left coronary artery was then ligated under ether anesthesia. Adequate occlusion was confirmed by an elevation of plasma CK-MB levels four hours later or by a toluidine blue injection technique in rats which died earlier. Since the first 20 minutes after such a procedure represents a most critical period for sudden death, the early survival rate was calculated for each group of rats and significance in differences was established with the Fisher's test. While the 27% early survival rate observed in sedentary diabetics was significantly lower (p = 0.02) than the 49% found in sedentary controls, this was completely alleviated by previous training in diabetic animals (50%; p = 0.018 vs sedentary diabetics and 0.623 vs sedentary controls). This beneficial effect of training was not found in nondiabetic animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Price, P. Buford; Sowers, Todd

    2004-01-01

    Our work was motivated by discoveries of prokaryotic communities that survive with little nutrient in ice and permafrost, with implications for past or present microbial life in Martian permafrost and Europan ice. We compared the temperature dependence of metabolic rates of microbial communities in permafrost, ice, snow, clouds, oceans, lakes, marine and freshwater sediments, and subsurface aquifer sediments. Metabolic rates per cell fall into three groupings: (i) a rate, μg(T), for growth, measured in the laboratory at in situ temperatures with minimal disturbance of the medium; (ii) a rate, μm(T), sufficient for maintenance of functions but for a nutrient level too low for growth; and (iii) a rate, μs(T), for survival of communities imprisoned in deep glacial ice, subsurface sediment, or ocean sediment, in which they can repair macromolecular damage but are probably largely dormant. The three groups have metabolic rates consistent with a single activation energy of ≈110 kJ and that scale as μg(T):μm(T):μs(T) ≈ 106:103:1. There is no evidence of a minimum temperature for metabolism. The rate at -40°C in ice corresponds to ≈10 turnovers of cellular carbon per billion years. Microbes in ice and permafrost have metabolic rates similar to those in water, soil, and sediment at the same temperature. This finding supports the view that, far below the freezing point, liquid water inside ice and permafrost is available for metabolism. The rate μs(T) for repairing molecular damage by means of DNA-repair enzymes and protein-repair enzymes such as methyltransferase is found to be comparable to the rate of spontaneous molecular damage. PMID:15070769

  16. Temperature dependence of metabolic rates for microbial growth, maintenance, and survival.

    PubMed

    Price, P Buford; Sowers, Todd

    2004-03-30

    Our work was motivated by discoveries of prokaryotic communities that survive with little nutrient in ice and permafrost, with implications for past or present microbial life in Martian permafrost and Europan ice. We compared the temperature dependence of metabolic rates of microbial communities in permafrost, ice, snow, clouds, oceans, lakes, marine and freshwater sediments, and subsurface aquifer sediments. Metabolic rates per cell fall into three groupings: (i) a rate, microg(T), for growth, measured in the laboratory at in situ temperatures with minimal disturbance of the medium; (ii) a rate, microm(T), sufficient for maintenance of functions but for a nutrient level too low for growth; and (iii) a rate, micros(T), for survival of communities imprisoned in deep glacial ice, subsurface sediment, or ocean sediment, in which they can repair macromolecular damage but are probably largely dormant. The three groups have metabolic rates consistent with a single activation energy of approximately 110 kJ and that scale as microg(T):microm(T):micros(T) approximately 10(6):10(3):1. There is no evidence of a minimum temperature for metabolism. The rate at -40 degrees C in ice corresponds to approximately 10 turnovers of cellular carbon per billion years. Microbes in ice and permafrost have metabolic rates similar to those in water, soil, and sediment at the same temperature. This finding supports the view that, far below the freezing point, liquid water inside ice and permafrost is available for metabolism. The rate micros(T) for repairing molecular damage by means of DNA-repair enzymes and protein-repair enzymes such as methyltransferase is found to be comparable to the rate of spontaneous molecular damage.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Therapy-induced Cancer Drug Resistance: Connecting Cancer Mechanisms to Population Survival Rates

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoqiang; Bao, Jiguang; Shao, Yongzhao

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance significantly limits the long-term effectiveness of targeted therapeutics for cancer patients. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that cancer cell heterogeneity and microenvironment adaptations to targeted therapy play important roles in promoting the rapid acquisition of drug resistance and in increasing cancer metastasis. The systematic development of effective therapeutics to overcome drug resistance mechanisms poses a major challenge. In this study, we used a modeling approach to connect cellular mechanisms underlying cancer drug resistance to population-level patient survival. To predict progression-free survival in cancer patients with metastatic melanoma, we developed a set of stochastic differential equations to describe the dynamics of heterogeneous cell populations while taking into account micro-environment adaptations. Clinical data on survival and circulating tumor cell DNA (ctDNA) concentrations were used to confirm the effectiveness of our model. Moreover, our model predicted distinct patterns of dose-dependent synergy when evaluating a combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors versus a combination of BRAF and PI3K inhibitors. These predictions were consistent with the findings in previously reported studies. The impact of the drug metabolism rate on patient survival was also discussed. The proposed model might facilitate the quantitative evaluation and optimization of combination therapeutics and cancer clinical trial design. PMID:26928089

  18. Estimating annual survival and movement rates of adults within a metapopulation of roseate terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spendelow, J.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Nisbet, I.C.T.; Hays, H.; Cormons, G.D.; Burger, J.; Safina, C.; Hines, J.E.; Gochfeld, M.

    1995-01-01

    Several multistratum capture-recapture models were used to test various hypotheses about possible geographic and temporal variation in survival, movement, and recapture/resighting probabilities of 2399 adult Roseate Terns (Sterna dougallii) color-banded from 1988 to 1992 at the sites of the four largest breeding colonies of this species in the northeastern USA. Linear-logistic ultrastructural models also were developed to investigate possible correlates of geographic variation in movement probabilities. Based on goodness-of-fit tests and comparisons of Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) values, the fully parameterized model (Model A) with time- and location-specific survival, movement, and capture probabilities, was selected as the most appropriate model for this metapopulation structure. With almost all movement accounted for, on average gt 90% of the surviving adults from each colony site returned to the same site the following year. Variations in movement probabilities were more closely associated with the identity of the destination colony site than with either the identity of the colony site of origin or the distance between colony sites. The average annual survival estimates (0.740.84) of terns from all four sites indicate a high rate of annual mortality relative to that of other species of marine birds.

  19. SU-E-T-352: Why Is the Survival Rate Low in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z; Feng, Y; Rasmussen, K; Rice, J; Stephenson, S; Ferreira, Maria C; Liu, T; Yuh, K; Wang, R; Grecula, J; Lo, S; Mayr, N; Yuh, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumors are composed of a large number of clonogens that have the capability of indefinite reproduction. Even when there is complete clinical or radiographic regression of the gross tumor mass after treatment, tumor recurrence can occur if the clonogens are not completely eradicated by radiotherapy. This study was to investigate the colonogen number and its association with the tumor control probability (TCP) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCCA). Methods: A literature search was conducted to collect clinical information of patients with OSCCA, including the prescription dose, tumor volume and survival rate. The linear-quadratic (LQ) model was incorporated into TCP model for clinical data analysis. The total dose ranged from 60 to 70 Gy and tumor volume ranged from 10 to 50 cc. The TCP was calculated for each group according to tumor size and dose. The least χ{sup 2} method was used to fit the TCP calculation to clinical data while other LQ model parameters (α, β) were adopted from the literature, due to the limited patient data. Results: A total of 190 patients with T2–T4 OSCCA were included. The association with HPV was not available for all the patients. The 3-year survival rate was about 82% for T2 squamous cell carcinoma and 40% for advanced tumors. Fitting the TCP model to the survival data, the average clonogen number was 1.56×10{sup 12}. For the prescription dose of 70 Gy, the calculated TCP ranged from 40% to 90% when the tumor volume varied from 10 to 50 cc. Conclusion: Our data suggests variation between the clonogen number and TCP in OSCCA. Tumors with larger colonogen number tend to have lower TCP and therefore dose escalation above 70 Gy may be indicated in order to improve the TCP and survival rate. Our result will require future confirmation with a large number of patients.

  20. Increased survival rate by local release of diclofenac in a murine model of recurrent oral carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Will, Olga Maria; Purcz, Nicolai; Chalaris, Athena; Heneweer, Carola; Boretius, Susann; Purcz, Larissa; Nikkola, Lila; Ashammakhi, Nureddin; Kalthoff, Holger; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Wiltfang, Jörg; Açil, Yahya; Tiwari, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and combination chemotherapy following tumor resection, the 5-year survival rate for patients with head and neck cancer is at best only 50%. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of localized release of diclofenac from electrospun nanofibers generated from poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) polymer. Diclofenac was chosen since anti-inflammatory agents that inhibit cyclooxygenase have shown great potential in their ability to directly inhibit tumor growth as well as suppress inflammation-mediated tumor growth. A mouse resection model of oral carcinoma was developed by establishing tumor growth in the oral cavity by ultrasound-guided injection of 1 million SCC-9 cells in the floor of the mouth. Following resection, mice were allocated into four groups with the following treatment: 1) no treatment, 2) implanted scaffolds without diclofenac, 3) implanted scaffolds loaded with diclofenac, and 4) diclofenac given orally. Small animal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were utilized for longitudinal determination of tumor recurrence. At the end of 7 weeks following tumor resection, 33% of mice with diclofenac-loaded scaffolds had a recurrent tumor, in comparison to 90%–100% of the mice in the other three groups. At this time point, mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds showed 89% survival rate, while the other groups showed survival rates of 10%–25%. Immunohistochemical staining of recurrent tumors revealed a near 10-fold decrease in the proliferation marker Ki-67 in the tumors derived from mice with diclofenac-releasing scaffolds. In summary, the local application of diclofenac in an orthotopic mouse tumor resection model of oral cancer reduced tumor recurrence with significant improvement in survival over a 7-week study period following tumor resection. Local drug release of anti-inflammatory agents should be investigated as a therapeutic option in the prevention of tumor recurrence in oral squamous

  1. The influence of disturbance events on survival and dispersal rates of Florida box turtles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodd, C.K.; Ozgul, A.; Oli, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Disturbances have the potential to cause long-term effects to ecosystem structure and function, and they may affect individual species in different ways. Long-lived vertebrates such as turtles may be at risk from such events, inasmuch as their life histories preclude rapid recovery should extensive mortality occur. We applied capture–mark–recapture models to assess disturbance effects on a population of Florida box turtles (Terrapene carolina bauri) on Egmont Key, Florida, USA. Near the midpoint of the study, a series of physical disturbances affected the island, from salt water overwash associated with several tropical storms to extensive removal of nonindigenous vegetation. These disturbances allowed us to examine demographic responses of the turtle population and to determine if they affected dispersal throughout the island. Adult survival rates did not vary significantly either between sexes or among years of the study. Survival rates did not vary significantly between juvenile and adult turtles, or among years of the study. Furthermore, neither adult nor juvenile survival rates differed significantly between pre- and post-disturbance. However, dispersal rates varied significantly among the four major study sites, and dispersal rates were higher during the pre-disturbance sampling periods compared to post-disturbance. Our results suggest few long-term effects on the demography of the turtle population. Florida box turtles responded to tropical storms and vegetation control by moving to favorable habitats minimally affected by the disturbances and remaining there. As long as turtles and perhaps other long-lived vertebrates can disperse to non-disturbed habitat, and high levels of mortality do not occur in a population, a long life span may allow them to wait out the impact of disturbance with potentially little effect on long-term population processes.

  2. Survival, Recruitment, and Population Growth Rate of an Important Mesopredator: The Northern Raccoon

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Elizabeth M.; Cameron Devitt, Susan E.; Sunquist, Melvin E.; Goswami, Varun R.; Oli, Madan K.

    2014-01-01

    Populations of mesopredators (mid-sized mammalian carnivores) are expanding in size and range amid declining apex predator populations and ever-growing human presence, leading to significant ecological impacts. Despite their obvious importance, population dynamics have scarcely been studied for most mesopredator species. Information on basic population parameters and processes under a range of conditions is necessary for managing these species. Here we investigate survival, recruitment, and population growth rate of a widely distributed and abundant mesopredator, the northern raccoon (Procyon lotor), using Pradel’s temporal symmetry models and >6 years of monthly capture-mark-recapture data collected in a protected area. Monthly apparent survival probability was higher for females (0.949, 95% CI = 0.936–0.960) than for males (0.908, 95% CI = 0.893–0.920), while monthly recruitment rate was higher for males (0.091, 95% CI = 0.078–0.106) than for females (0.054, 95% CI = 0.042–0.067). Finally, monthly realized population growth rate was 1.000 (95% CI = 0.996–1.004), indicating that our study population has reached a stable equilibrium in this relatively undisturbed habitat. There was little evidence for substantial temporal variation in population growth rate or its components. Our study is one of the first to quantify survival, recruitment, and realized population growth rate of raccoons using long-term data and rigorous statistical models. PMID:24901349

  3. North vs south differences in acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage in Croatia: hospitalization incidence trends, clinical features, and 30-day case fatality

    PubMed Central

    Ljubičić, Neven; Pavić, Tajana; Budimir, Ivan; Puljiz, Željko; Bišćanin, Alen; Bratanić, Andre; Nikolić, Marko; Hrabar, Davor; Troskot, Branko

    2014-01-01

    Aim To assess the seven-year trends of hospitalization incidence due to acute peptic ulcer hemorrhage (APUH) and associated risk factors, and examine the differences in these trends between two regions in Croatia. Methods The study collected sociodemographic, clinical, and endoscopic data on 2204 patients with endoscopically confirmed APUH who were admitted to the Clinical Hospital Center “Sestre Milosrdnice,” Zagreb and Clinical Hospital Center Split between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. We determined hospitalization incidence rates, 30-day case fatality rate, clinical outcomes, and incidence-associated factors. Results No differences were observed in APUH hospitalization incidence rates between the regions. Age-standardized one-year cumulative APUH hospitalization incidence rate calculated using the European Standard Population was significantly higher in Zagreb than in Split region (43.2/100 000 vs 29.2/100,000). A significantly higher APUH hospitalization incidence rates were observed in the above 65 years age group. Overall 30-day case fatality rate was 4.9%. Conclusion The hospitalization incidence of APUH in two populations did not change over the observational period and it was significantly higher in the Zagreb region. The incidence of acute duodenal ulcer hemorrhage also remained unchanged, whereas the incidence of acute gastric ulcer hemorrhage increased. The results of this study allow us to monitor epidemiological indicators of APUH and compare data with other countries. PMID:25559836

  4. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, D. Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W.; Teo, Steven L. H.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable—including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  5. Changing central Pacific El Niños reduce stability of North American salmon survival rates.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, D Patrick; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Botsford, Louis W; Teo, Steven L H

    2015-09-01

    Pacific salmon are a dominant component of the northeast Pacific ecosystem. Their status is of concern because salmon abundance is highly variable--including protected stocks, a recently closed fishery, and actively managed fisheries that provide substantial ecosystem services. Variable ocean conditions, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), have influenced these fisheries, while diminished diversity of freshwater habitats have increased variability via the portfolio effect. We address the question of how recent changes in ocean conditions will affect populations of two salmon species. Since the 1980s, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events have been more frequently associated with central tropical Pacific warming (CPW) rather than the canonical eastern Pacific warming ENSO (EPW). CPW is linked to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), whereas EPW is linked to the PDO, different indicators of northeast Pacific Ocean ecosystem productivity. Here we show that both coho and Chinook salmon survival rates along western North America indicate that the NPGO, rather than the PDO, explains salmon survival since the 1980s. The observed increase in NPGO variance in recent decades was accompanied by an increase in coherence of local survival rates of these two species, increasing salmon variability via the portfolio effect. Such increases in coherence among salmon stocks are usually attributed to controllable freshwater influences such as hatcheries and habitat degradation, but the unknown mechanism underlying the ocean climate effect identified here is not directly subject to management actions. PMID:26240365

  6. The evolution of HPV-related anogenital cancers reported in Quebec - incidence rates and survival probabilities.

    PubMed

    Louchini, R; Goggin, P; Steben, M

    2008-01-01

    Non-cervical anogenital cancers (i.e. anal, vulvar, vaginal and penile cancers) associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV), for which HPV is known to be the necessary cause of carcinogenesis, are poorly documented due to their relatively low incidence rate. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence rates of these cancers between 1984 and 2001, and their relative survival probabilities, in Quebec (Canada) between 1984 and 1998. The incidence of these cancers is on the rise, particularly anal cancer in women and, more recently (since 1993-95), vulvar cancer. Between 1984-86 and 1993-95, the 5-year relative survival probability for men with anal cancer decreased from 57% to 46%, while that for penile cancer dropped from 75% to 59%. However, during the same period, the 5-year relative survival probability for women with anal cancer rose from 56% to 65%, and remained stable for cervical and vulvar cancers, at 74% and 82%, respectively. PMID:18341764

  7. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on survival rate and growth performance of Convict Cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, F; Mousavi, S. M.; Ahmadmoradi, E.; Zakeri, M.; Jahedi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Using probiotics can control pathogens by a variety of mechanisms. Probiotics can promote growth performance and have, therefore, become increasingly important in the aquaculture industry. Convict Cichlid belongs to the family of Cichlidae and is known for its rapid development in laboratory conditions and is suitable for behavioral examinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, survival rate and body composition of Convict Cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). One hundred sixty eight Convict Cichlids (mean weight: 2.1 ± 0.12 g and mean length: 2.2 ± 0.05 cm) were fed by commercial diets with different concentrations of S. cerevisiae (0, 0.5%, 1%, 2%). At the end of the experiment, survival rate and growth indices were measured. Based on the results, growth performance significantly increased with probiotic, S. cerevisiae, specially, at the 2% probiotic level of concentration. In the present study, the best FCR (feed conversion rate), SGR (specific growth rate), CF (condition factor) and BWG (body weight gain) values were observed in a 2% concentration of S. cerevisiae. The results suggest that this yeast could improve feed utilization in this fish species. PMID:27175152

  8. [Recurrence and survival rate of advanced gastric cancer after preoperative intraarterial EAP I injection therapy].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Taniguchi, H; Miyata, K; Koyama, H; Tanaka, H; Ueshima, Y; Okano, S; Oguro, A; Itoh, A; Sawai, K

    1993-08-01

    In our department, curative operations were performed for 32 patients with advanced gastric cancer from April 1989 to August 1990. Preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy with etoposide (100 mg), pirarubicin (20 mg) and cisplatin (20 mg) was given 18 patients. Recurrence and survival rate were investigated. The survival rate of patients with preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy 45 months after operation was 59.2%, while that of patients without preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy was 75.8%. There were no significant differences between these two groups. Three lymph node recurrences were seen in patients with preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy (recurrence rate, 16.7%). Four recurrences were observed in patients without preoperative injection therapy (peritoneal dissemination 2, liver 1, local 1; recurrence rate, 28.6%). We earlier reported that preoperative intra-arterial cisplatin (40 or 60 mg) injection therapy may reduce the incidence of lymph node recurrence and liver metastasis but may not be effective to prevent postoperative peritoneal recurrence, while no peritoneal dissemination was observed in patients with preoperative intra-arterial EAP I injection therapy. Thus, it was concluded that further study of combination and dose of anti-cancer drug may improve effectiveness of preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy for gastric cancer.

  9. Analysis of recurrence and survival rates in grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieyu; Jia, Nan; Li, Qing; Wang, Chao; Tao, Xiang; Hua, Keqin; Feng, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine risk factors associated with recurrence and survival in patients with grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (G3EEC). A retrospective analysis of 117 patients with G3EEC, who were admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University between January 2000 and December 2011, was performed. The χ2 test or Fisher's exact test were used for the comparison of categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the prognostic significance of various patient characteristics. In 117 patients, 16 patients (13.7%) had tumor recurrence, of which 6 (37.5%) developed local-regional recurrence and 10 (62.5%) developed distant recurrence. Out of the 16 patients with tumor recurrence, 14 (87.5%) had a recurrence within 3 years of surgery. Statistically significant characteristics affecting RFS, DSS and OS rates were outer half myometrial invasion (MI ≥50%), advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, positive lymph node metastasis (PLNM), lymph vascular space invasion, adnexal involvement and characterization as a high-risk group, according to the Gynecologic Oncology Group 99 stratification algorithm. RFS was associated with the depth of cervical mucosa (stromal) involvement. Furthermore, in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, significant independent adverse factors for RFS and DSS included MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement. For OS, there were no statistically significant prognostic factors. In conclusion, MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement are independent prognostic factors for RFS and DSS in G3EEC patients.

  10. Analysis of recurrence and survival rates in grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jieyu; Jia, Nan; Li, Qing; Wang, Chao; Tao, Xiang; Hua, Keqin; Feng, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine risk factors associated with recurrence and survival in patients with grade 3 endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (G3EEC). A retrospective analysis of 117 patients with G3EEC, who were admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University between January 2000 and December 2011, was performed. The χ2 test or Fisher's exact test were used for the comparison of categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier method was used for estimating recurrence-free survival (RFS), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) rates. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the prognostic significance of various patient characteristics. In 117 patients, 16 patients (13.7%) had tumor recurrence, of which 6 (37.5%) developed local-regional recurrence and 10 (62.5%) developed distant recurrence. Out of the 16 patients with tumor recurrence, 14 (87.5%) had a recurrence within 3 years of surgery. Statistically significant characteristics affecting RFS, DSS and OS rates were outer half myometrial invasion (MI ≥50%), advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, positive lymph node metastasis (PLNM), lymph vascular space invasion, adnexal involvement and characterization as a high-risk group, according to the Gynecologic Oncology Group 99 stratification algorithm. RFS was associated with the depth of cervical mucosa (stromal) involvement. Furthermore, in the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, significant independent adverse factors for RFS and DSS included MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement. For OS, there were no statistically significant prognostic factors. In conclusion, MI ≥50% and adnexal involvement are independent prognostic factors for RFS and DSS in G3EEC patients. PMID:27698871

  11. Metadoxine improves the three- and six-month survival rates in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Higuera-de la Tijera, Fátima; Servín-Caamaño, Alfredo I; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E; Cruz-Herrera, Javier; Pérez-Torres, Eduardo; Abdo-Francis, Juan M; Salas-Gordillo, Francisco; Pérez-Hernández, José L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of metadoxine (MTD) on the 3- and 6-mo survival of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis (AH). METHODS: This study was an open-label clinical trial, performed at the “Hospital General de México, Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”. We randomized 135 patients who met the criteria for severe AH into the following groups: 35 patients received prednisone (PDN) 40 mg/d, 35 patients received PDN+MTD 500 mg three times daily, 33 patients received pentoxifylline (PTX) 400 mg three times daily, and 32 patients received PTX+MTD 500 mg three times daily. The duration of the treatment for all of the groups was 30 d. RESULTS: In the groups treated with the MTD, the survival rate was higher at 3 mo (PTX+MTD 59.4% vs PTX 33.3%, P = 0.04; PDN+MTD 68.6% vs PDN 20%, P = 0.0001) and at 6 mo (PTX+MTD 50% vs PTX 18.2%, P = 0.01; PDN+MTD 48.6% vs PDN 20%, P = 0.003) than in the groups not treated with MTD. A relapse in alcohol intake was the primary independent factor predicting mortality at 6 mo. The patients receiving MTD maintained greater abstinence than those who did not receive it (74.5% vs 59.4%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: MTD improves the 3- and 6-mo survival rates in patients with severe AH. Alcohol abstinence is a key factor for survival in these patients. The patients who received the combination therapy with MTD were more likely to maintain abstinence than those who received monotherapy with either PDN or PTX. PMID:25945012

  12. Study of Survival Rate After Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) in Hospitals of Kermanshah in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Afshin; Jalali, Amir; Almasi, Afshin; Naderipour, Arsalan; Kalhori, Reza Pourmirza; Khodadadi, Amineh

    2015-01-01

    Background: After CPR, the follow-up of survival rate and caused complications are the most important practices of the medical group. This study was performed aimed at determining the follow-up results after CPR in patients of university hospitals in Kermanshah in 2014. Methods: In this prospective study, 320 samples were examined. A purposive sampling method was used, and data was collected using a researcher-made information form with content and face validity and reliability of r= 0.79. Data was analyzed with STATA9 software and statistical tests, including calculation of the success rate, relative risk (RR), chi-square and Fisher at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: The initial success rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation was equal to 15.3%, while the ultimate success rate (discharged alive from the hospital) was as 10.6%. The six-month success rate after resuscitation was 8.78% than those who were discharged alive. There were no significant statistical differences between different age groups regarding the initial success rate of resuscitation (P = 0.14), and the initial resuscitation success rate was higher in patients in morning shift (P = 0.02). Conclusion: By the results of study, it is recommended to increase the medical - nursing knowledge and techniques for personnel in the evening and night shifts. Also, an appropriate dissemination of health care staff in working shifts should be done to increase the success rate of CPR procedure. PMID:25560341

  13. Incorporating dose-rate effects in Markov radiation cell survival models.

    PubMed

    Sachs, R K; Hlatky, L; Hahnfeldt, P; Chen, P L

    1990-11-01

    Markov models for the survival of cells subjected to ionizing radiation take stochastic fluctuations into account more systematically than do non-Markov counterparts. Albright's Markov RMR (repair-misrepair) model (Radiat. Res. 118, 1-20, 1989) and Curtis's Markov LPL (lethal-potentially lethal) model [in Quantitative Mathematical Models in Radiation Biology (J. Kiefer, Ed.), pp. 127-146. Springer, New York, 1989], which assume acute irradiation, are here generalized to finite dose rates. Instead of treating irradiation as an instantaneous event we introduce an irradiation period T and analyze processes during the interval T as well as afterward. Albright's RMR transition matrix is used throughout for computing the time development of repair and misrepair. During irradiation an additional matrix is added to describe the evolving radiation damage. Albright's and Curtis's Markov models are recovered as limiting cases by taking T----0 with total dose fixed; the opposite limit, of low dose rates, is also analyzed. Deviations from Poisson behavior in the statistical distributions of lesions are calculated. Other continuous-time Markov chain models ("compartmental models") are discussed briefly, for example, models which incorporate cell proliferation and saturable repair models. It is found that for low dose rates the Markov RMR and LPL models give lower survivals compared to the original non-Markov versions. For acute irradiation and high doses, the Markov models predict higher survivals. In general, theoretical extrapolations which neglect some random fluctuations have a systematic bias toward overoptimism when damage to irradiated tumors is compared with damage to surrounding tissues. PMID:2247602

  14. Local annual survival and seasonal residency rates of semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) in Puerto rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, S.M.; Collazo, J.A.; Alldredge, M.W.; Harrington, B.A.; Lewis, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    We report seasonal residency and local annual survival rates of migratory Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) at the Cabo Rojo salt flats, Puerto Rico. Residency rate (daily probability of remaining on the flats) was 0.991 ?? 0.001 (x?? ?? SE), yielding a mean length of stay of 110 days. This finding supports the inclusion of the Caribbean as part of the species' winter range. Average estimated percentage of fat was low but increased throughout the season, which suggests that birds replenish some spent fat reserves and strive for energetic maintenance. Local annual survival rate was 0.62 ?? 0.04, within the range of values reported for breeding populations at Manitoba and Alaska (0.53-0.76). The similarity was not unexpected because estimates were obtained annually but at opposite sites of their annual migratory movements. Birds captured at the salt flats appeared to be a mix of birds from various parts of the breeding range, judging from morphology (culmen's coefficient of variation = 9.1, n = 106). This suggested that origin (breeding area) of birds and their proportion in the data should be ascertained and accounted for in analyses to glean the full conservation implications of winter-based annual survival estimates. Those data are needed to unravel the possibility that individuals of distinct populations are affected by differential mortality factors across different migratory routes. Mean length of stay strongly suggested that habitat quality at the salt flats was high. Rainfall and tidal flow combine to increase food availability during fall. The salt flats dry up gradually toward late January, at the onset of the dry season. Semipalmated Sandpipers may move west to other Greater Antilles or south to sites such as coastal Surinam until the onset of spring migration. They are not an oversummering species at the salt flats. Conservation efforts in the Caribbean region require understanding the dynamics of this species throughout winter to protect

  15. Evaluating the Survival Rate and the Secondary Malignancies after Treating Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients with Chemotherapy Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Jalili, Mohamad H; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Efazat, Mehdi; Seghatoleslami, Mohammad; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Mahdipour, Mozhdeh; Valizadeh, Armita

    2014-01-01

    In this study we surveyed the average survival time of the treated Hodgkin's lymphoma patients and also the side effects and malignancies occurring secondary to the treatment. This is a retrospective study of patients referring to Ahwaz's Shafa hospital in a period of 10 years diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma without any age restriction. After gathering all their data, we calculated their survival rate and the chance for a relapse and the secondary malignancies. 389 patients were included in the study with an average age of 27.5 years old and they had received only chemotherapy regimens. 87.9% of them had been treated by ABVD and 12.1 % by Stanford V regimen. 23.1% of them experienced a relapse and 13.1% of all patients, passed away during the study. Secondary malignancies were observed in 11 cases. An overall mean survival time of 295.31 months was resulted. The secondary malignancies after treating Hodgkin's lymphoma patients are different between chemotherapy regimens and chemotherapy – radiotherapy. PMID:24800035

  16. AgeStandardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Daoprasert, Karnchana; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Katruang, Narisara; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15year period studied. PMID:27509991

  17. Correlated growth and survival of juvenile spectacled eiders: Evidence of habitat limitation?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Morse, J.A.; Grand, J.B.; Moran, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the growth and survival of Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) ducklings to 30 days of age along the lower Kashunuk River on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta from 1995 to 2000. We replicated this study at a second site, Kigigak Island, in 1999 and 2000. Age-adjusted estimates of duckling mass and survival at 30 days posthatching were highly variable. Duckling survival was consistently higher on Kigigak Island in 1999 and 2000, averaging 67%, while survival on the Kashunuk River averaged 45% during the same time period. Duckling survival was negatively related to hatching date. At the Kashunuk River site our data supported models that indicated age-adjusted mass varied with habitat type and declined with hatching date. Ducklings from Kashunuk River were heavier in 1999, while ducklings from Kigigak Island were heavier in 2000. However, we found a positive correlation between 30-day duckling survival and age-adjusted mass, suggesting a localized environmental effect on both parameters. We conclude that predation may be the proximate mechanism of mortality, but habitat conditions are likely the ultimate factors influencing duckling survival. Geographic variation in rates of duckling survival and apparent growth suggest that spatial heterogeneity in population vital rates is occurring at multiple levels. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  18. Effectiveness of using thyrocalcitonin for the prevention of a calcium metabolic disorder in the mineralized tissues of rabbits with 30 days hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Shashkov, V. S.; Dmitriyev, B. S.; Yegorov, B. B.; Lobachik, V. I.; Brishin, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    A 30 day hypokinesia in rabbits led to a considerable lag in weight gain for the skeletal bones, reduction in Ca45 uptake, and an increase in isotope resorption rate in the rapidly metabolized fraction of extremity bones. On the other hand, Ca45 content in the teeth and maxillae increased, which may be explained by redistribution of isotope among the various mineralized tissues. Injection of thyrocalcitonin (50 IU/day) produced a distinct normalizing effect on Ca45 uptake and resorption in the mineralized tissues of rabbits kept hypokinetic.

  19. High Survival Rates and Associated Factors Among Ebola Virus Disease Patients Hospitalized at Donka National Hospital, Conakry, Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Adnan I.; Chughtai, Morad; Bah, Elhadj Ibrahima; Barry, Moumié; Béavogui, Kézély; Loua, Tokpagnan Oscar; Malik, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Anecdotal reports suggesting that survival rates among hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in Guinea are higher than the 29.2% rate observed in the current epidemic in West Africa. Methods Survival after symptom onset was determined using Kaplan Meier survival methods among patients with confirmed Ebola virus disease treated in Conakry, Guinea from March 25, 2014, to August 5, 2014. We analyzed the relationship between survival and patient factors, including demographics and clinical features. Results Of the 70 patients analyzed [mean age ± standard deviation (SD), 34 ± 14.1; 44 were men], 42 were discharged alive with a survival rate among hospitalized patients of 60% (95% confidence interval, 41.5–78.5%). The survival rate was 28 (71.8%) among 39 patients under 34 years of age, and 14 (46.7%) among 30 patients aged 35 years or greater (p = 0.034). The rates of myalgia (3 of 42 versus 7 of 28, p = 0.036) and hiccups (1 of 42 versus 5 of 28, p = 0.023) were significantly lower among patients who survived. Conclusions Our results provide insights into a cohort of hospitalized patients with Ebola virus disease in whom survival is prominently higher than seen in other cohorts of hospitalized patients. PMID:25992182

  20. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year ice survival rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, K.; Bitz, C. M.; Hunke, E. C.; Thompson, L.

    2009-12-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi-year (MY) ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first-year (FY) sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. We develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of FY and MY ice control various aspects of the sea-ice system. We demonstrate that Arctic sea-ice area and volume behave approximately as first-order autoregressive processes, which allows for a simple interpretation of September sea-ice in which its mean state, variability, and sensitivity to climate forcing can be described naturally in terms of the average survival rates of FY and MY ice. This model, used in concert with a sea-ice simulation that traces FY and MY ice areas to estimate the survival rates, reveals that small trends in the ice survival rates explain the decline in total Arctic ice area, and the relatively larger loss of MY ice area, over the period 1979-2006. Additionally, our model allows for a calculation of the persistence time scales of September area and volume anomalies. A relatively short memory time scale for ice area (~ 1 year) implies that Arctic ice area is nearly in equilibrium with long-term climate forcing at all times, and therefore observed trends in area are a clear indication of a changing climate. A longer memory time scale for ice volume (~ 5 years) suggests that volume can be out of equilibrium with climate forcing for long periods of time, and therefore trends in ice volume are difficult to distinguish from its natural variability. With our reduced model, we demonstrate the connection between memory time scale and sensitivity to climate forcing, and discuss the implications that a changing memory time scale has on the trajectory of ice area and volume in a warming climate. Our findings indicate that it is unlikely that a “tipping point” in September ice area and volume will be

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  5. Xuebijing Injection Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages and Improves Survival Rate in Septic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Cun; Yao, Feng-Hua; Chai, Yan-Fen; Dong, Ning; Sheng, Zhi-Yong; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Xuebijing (XBJ) injection, a concoction of several Chinese herbs, has been widely used as an immunomodulator for the treatment of severe sepsis in China. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for its efficacy have not been fully elucidated. In our study, we determined the flow cytometry markers (F4/80, CD11c, and CD206), the levels of secreted cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10), and the expression of specific proteins of M2 (Ym1, Fizz1, and Arg1) to assess macrophage polarization. Treatment with XBJ lowered M1 associated cytokine levels and increased the level of M2 associated cytokine level. The percentage of M2 phenotype cells of XBJ group was much higher than that of the control group. Expressions of phosphorylated Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) were markedly enhanced after the administration of XBJ; on the other hand, the M2 associated cytokines and proteins were decreased following treatment with JAK1 or STAT6 inhibitor. In addition, the treatment of XBJ significantly improved the survival rate of septic mice. These studies demonstrate that XBJ can markedly promote M2 polarization and improve the survival rate of septic mice, thereby contributing to therapeutic effect in the treatment of septic complications. PMID:26064161

  6. Effect of Fascioloides magna (Digenea) on fecundity, shell height, and survival rate of Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae).

    PubMed

    Pankrác, Jan; Novobilský, Adam; Rondelaud, Daniel; Leontovyč, Roman; Syrovátka, Vít; Rajský, Dušan; Horák, Petr; Kašný, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Infection with Fascioloides magna (Digenea) causes serious damage to liver tissue in definitive hosts represented by ruminants, especially cervids. The distribution of F. magna includes the indigenous areas in North America, and the areas to which F. magna was introduced-Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and Italy. The North American intermediate host of F. magna, the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae), is an invasive species recorded in South America, the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and west and Southeast Europe. In Europe, Galba truncatula is the snail serving for transmission, but P. columella has potential to become here a new intermediate host of F. magna. Little is known about interactions between F. magna and P. columella. In this study, the susceptibility of P. columella (Oregon, USA) to the infection by a single miracidium of the Czech strain of F. magna and the influence of F. magna on snail fecundity, shell height, and survival were evaluated. The data show that the Oregon strain of P. columella is a highly suitable host for the Czech strain of F. magna, with the infection rate of 74 %. In addition, a negative effect on survival rate of infected snails was recorded only in the late phase of infection. The infection was accompanied by a major reduction in egg mass production and by a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass. The shell height of infected snails did not significantly differ from that in unexposed controls. PMID:27098161

  7. Survival-rate analysis of surface treated dental zirconia (Y-TZP) ceramics.

    PubMed

    Oblak, Cedomir; Verdenik, Ivan; Swain, Michael V; Kosmac, Tomaz

    2014-10-01

    The role of surface preparation, hydrothermal ageing exposure and subsequent cyclic fatigue testing on the biaxial strength of a dental Y-TZP material are investigated. The initial strength and survival rate of a dental Y-TZP ceramic material to fatigue testing was found to be highly dependent upon surface preparation more so than exposure to various hydrothermal exposure conditions. The results suggest that the monoclinic phase generated by either surface damage (especially sandblasting) and to a lesser extent hydrothermal exposure does appear to mitigate strength and fatigue degradation. The results are discussed in terms of the size of defects generated following various surface treatments and the role of cyclic fatigue induced crack growth. A critical ratio is established between the monotonic strength and fatigue stress survival. From the specimens that failed and exhibited reduced strength after cycling a plot of averaged crack growth rate versus max cyclic stress intensity factor was established which closely matched existing results for Y-TZP ceramics.

  8. Effect of hydrogen gas on the survival rate of mice following global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nagatani, Kimihiro; Wada, Kojiro; Takeuchi, Satoru; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Uozumi, Yoichi; Otani, Naoki; Fujita, Masanori; Tachibana, Shoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) often result in high mortality. Free radicals have been reported to play an important role in global cerebral I/R, and therefore, reduction of these might improve the outcome. Here, we investigated the effect of hydrogen gas (H2) (a strong free radical scavenger) on the survival rate of mice following global cerebral I/R. We further examined the histopathological outcome and also the brain water content (as a possible determinant of mortality). Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to global cerebral I/R by means of 45-min bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO). A total of 160 mice were divided into three groups: sham surgery (sham group), BCCAO without H2 (BCCAO group), and BCCAO treated with 1.3% H2 (BCCAO + H2 group). We observed that H2 treatment significantly (P = 0.0232) improved the 7-day survival rate of mice, from 8.3% (BCCAO group, n = 12) to 50% (BCCAO + H2 group, n = 10). Histopathological analysis revealed that H2 treatment significantly attenuated neuronal injury and autophagy in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 sector and also brain edema, after 24 h of reperfusion. The beneficial effects of H2 treatment on brain injury were associated with significantly lower levels of oxidative stress markers (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde) in the brain tissue. Thus, we believe that H2 may be an effective treatment for global cerebral I/R.

  9. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H. L.; Xue, J. M.; Lai, J. N.; Wang, J. Y.; Zhang, W. M.; Miao, Q.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W. J.; He, F.; Gu, H. Y.; Wang, Y. G.

    2006-04-01

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 × 109-1 × 1014 ions/cm2. The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper.

  10. Development and use of an administrative claims measure for profiling hospital-wide performance on 30-day unplanned readmission

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Leora I.; Partovian, Chohreh; Lin, Zhenqiu; Grady, Jacqueline N.; Herrin, Jeph; Conover, Mitchell; Montague, Julia; Dillaway, Chloe; Bartczak, Kathleen; Suter, Lisa G.; Ross, Joseph S.; Bernheim, Susannah M.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Drye, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing publicly-reported readmission measures are condition-specific, representing < 20% of adult hospitalizations. An all-condition measure may better measure quality and promote innovation. Objective To develop an all-condition, hospital-wide readmission measure. Design Measure development Setting 4,821 US hospitals. Patients Medicare Fee for Service (FFS) beneficiaries ≥ 65 years. Measurements Hospital-level, risk-standardized unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge. The measure uses Medicare FFS claims and is a composite of five specialty-based risk-standardized rates for medicine, surgery/gynecology, cardiorespiratory, cardiovascular and neurology cohorts. We randomly split the 2007–2008 admissions for development and validation. Models were adjusted for age, principal diagnosis and comorbidity. We examined calibration in Medicare and all-payer data, and compared hospital rankings in the development and validation samples. Results The development dataset contained 8,018,949 admissions associated with 1,276,165 unplanned readmissions (15.9%). The median hospital risk-standardized unplanned readmission rate was 15.8 (range 11.6–21.9). The five specialty cohort models accurately predicted readmission risk in both Medicare and all-payer datasets for average risk patients but slightly overestimated readmission risk at the extremes. Overall hospital risk-standardized readmission rates did not differ statistically in the split samples (p=0.7 for difference in rank) and 76% of hospitals’ validation set rankings were within two deciles of the development rank (24% >2 deciles). Of hospitals ranking in the top or bottom deciles, 90% remained within two deciles (10% >2 deciles), and 82% remained within one decile (18% > 1 decile). Limitations Risk-adjustment was limited to that available in claims data. Conclusions We developed a claims-based hospital-wide unplanned readmission measure for profiling hospitals that produced reasonably

  11. Modeling the effect of temperature on survival rate of Salmonella Enteritidis in yogurt.

    PubMed

    Szczawiński, J; Szczawińska, M E; Łobacz, A; Jackowska-Tracz, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the inactivation rates of Salmonella Enteritidis in commercially produced yogurt and to generate primary and secondary mathematical models to predict the behaviour of these bacteria during storage at different temperatures. The samples were inoculated with the mixture of three S. Enteritidis strains and stored at 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C for 24 h. The number of salmonellae was determined every two hours. It was found that the number of bacteria decreased linearly with storage time in all samples. Storage temperature and pH of yogurt significantly influenced survival rate of S. Enteritidis (p < 0.05). In samples kept at 5 degrees C the number of salmonellae decreased at the lowest rate, whereas at 25 degrees C the reduction in number of bacteria was the most dynamic. The natural logarithm of mean inactivation rates of Salmonella calculated from primary model was fitted to two secondary models: linear and polynomial. Equations obtained from both secondary models can be applied as a tool for prediction of inactivation rate of Salmonella in yogurt stored under temperature range from 5 to 25 degrees C; however, polynomial model gave the better fit to the experimental data.

  12. Tidal and seasonal effects on survival rates of the endangered California clapper rail: does invasive Spartina facilitate greater survival in a dynamic environment?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Strong, Donald R.; Holyoak, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species frequently degrade habitats, disturb ecosystem processes, and can increase the likelihood of extinction of imperiled populations. However, novel or enhanced functions provided by invading species may reduce the impact of processes that limit populations. It is important to recognize how invasive species benefit endangered species to determine overall effects on sensitive ecosystems. For example, since the 1990s, hybrid Spartina (Spartina foliosa × alterniflora) has expanded throughout South San Francisco Bay, USA, supplanting native vegetation and invading mudflats. The endangered California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) uses the tall, dense hybrid Spartina for cover and nesting, but the effects of hybrid Spartina on clapper rail survival was unknown. We estimated survival rates of 108 radio-marked California clapper rails in South San Francisco Bay from January 2007 to March 2010, a period of extensive hybrid Spartina eradication, with Kaplan–Meier product limit estimators. Clapper rail survival patterns were consistent with hybrid Spartina providing increased refuge cover from predators during tidal extremes which flood native vegetation, particularly during the winter when the vegetation senesces. Model averaged annual survival rates within hybrid Spartina dominated marshes before eradication (Ŝ = 0.466) were greater than the same marshes posttreatment (Ŝ = 0.275) and a marsh dominated by native vegetation (Ŝ = 0.272). However, models with and without marsh treatment as explanatory factor for survival rates had nearly equivalent support in the observed data, lending ambiguity as to whether hybrid Spartina facilitated greater survival rates than native marshland. Conservation actions to aid in recovery of this endangered species should recognize the importance of available of high tide refugia, particularly in light of invasive species eradication programs and projections of future sea-level rise.

  13. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing And 30-Day Readmissions: Are Hospitals Ready?

    PubMed

    Haley, D Rob; Zhao, Mei; Spaulding, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between a hospital's Total Performance Score (TPS) and unplanned readmissions, a multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between hospital TPS and readmission rates for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), and pneumonia (PN). Hospital TPS was significantly and inversely related to AMI, HF, and PN readmission rates. The higher the hospital TPS, the lower the readmission rates for patients with AMI, HF, and PN. Hospitals with higher Medicare and Medicaid patients had higher readmission rates for all three conditions. The TPS methodology will likely evolve to include additional measures or dimensions to assess hospital quality and payment. Policymakers and hospital administrators should consider other structure elements and process measures to assess and improve patient safety and quality.

  14. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing And 30-Day Readmissions: Are Hospitals Ready?

    PubMed

    Haley, D Rob; Zhao, Mei; Spaulding, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between a hospital's Total Performance Score (TPS) and unplanned readmissions, a multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between hospital TPS and readmission rates for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), and pneumonia (PN). Hospital TPS was significantly and inversely related to AMI, HF, and PN readmission rates. The higher the hospital TPS, the lower the readmission rates for patients with AMI, HF, and PN. Hospitals with higher Medicare and Medicaid patients had higher readmission rates for all three conditions. The TPS methodology will likely evolve to include additional measures or dimensions to assess hospital quality and payment. Policymakers and hospital administrators should consider other structure elements and process measures to assess and improve patient safety and quality. PMID:27439247

  15. Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian Far East.

    PubMed

    Altukhov, Alexey V; Andrews, Russel D; Calkins, Donald G; Gelatt, Thomas S; Gurarie, Eliezer D; Loughlin, Thomas R; Mamaev, Evgeny G; Nikulin, Victor S; Permyakov, Peter A; Ryazanov, Sergey D; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Burkanov, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas.

  16. Age Specific Survival Rates of Steller Sea Lions at Rookeries with Divergent Population Trends in the Russian Far East

    PubMed Central

    Altukhov, Alexey V.; Andrews, Russel D.; Calkins, Donald G.; Gelatt, Thomas S.; Gurarie, Eliezer D.; Loughlin, Thomas R.; Mamaev, Evgeny G.; Nikulin, Victor S.; Permyakov, Peter A.; Ryazanov, Sergey D.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Burkanov, Vladimir N.

    2015-01-01

    After a dramatic population decline, Steller sea lions have begun to recover throughout most of their range. However, Steller sea lions in the Western Aleutians and Commander Islands are continuing to decline. Comparing survival rates between regions with different population trends may provide insights into the factors driving the dynamics, but published data on vital rates have been extremely scarce, especially in regions where the populations are still declining. Fortunately, an unprecedented dataset of marked Steller sea lions at rookeries in the Russian Far East is available, allowing us to determine age and sex specific survival in sea lions up to 22 years old. We focused on survival rates in three areas in the Russian range with differing population trends: the Commander Islands (Medny Island rookery), Eastern Kamchatka (Kozlov Cape rookery) and the Kuril Islands (four rookeries). Survival rates differed between these three regions, though not necessarily as predicted by population trends. Pup survival was higher where the populations were declining (Medny Island) or not recovering (Kozlov Cape) than in all Kuril Island rookeries. The lowest adult (> 3 years old) female survival was found on Medny Island and this may be responsible for the continued population decline there. However, the highest adult survival was found at Kozlov Cape, not in the Kuril Islands where the population is increasing, so we suggest that differences in birth rates might be an important driver of these divergent population trends. High pup survival on the Commander Islands and Kamchatka Coast may be a consequence of less frequent (e.g. biennial) reproduction there, which may permit females that skip birth years to invest more in their offspring, leading to higher pup survival, but this hypothesis awaits measurement of birth rates in these areas. PMID:26016772

  17. Size-sex variation in survival rates and abundance of pig frogs, Rana grylio, in northern Florida wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, K.V.; Nichols, J.D.; Percival, H.F.; Hines, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    During 1991-1993, we conducted capture-recapture studies on pig frogs, Rana grylio, in seven study locations in northcentral Florida. Resulting data were used to test hypotheses about variation in survival probability over different size-sex classes of pig frogs. We developed multistate capture-recapture models for the resulting data and used them to estimate survival rates and frog abundance. Tests provided strong evidence of survival differences among size-sex classes, with adult females showing the highest survival probabilities. Adult males and juvenile frogs had lower survival rates that were similar to each other. Adult females were more abundant than adult males in most locations at most sampling occasions. We recommended probabilistic capture-recapture models in general, and multistate models in particular, for robust estimation of demographic parameters in amphibian populations.

  18. Immunocompetence and high metabolic rates enhance overwinter survival in the root vole, Microtus oeconomus.

    PubMed

    Książek, Aneta; Zub, Karol; Szafrańska, Paulina A; Wieczorek, Monika; Konarzewski, Marek

    2014-12-01

    Despite its presumed significance, the association between immune defence, energy expenditures and overwinter survival is rarely studied. We analysed individual variation in immunocompetence quantified as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (N/L), total white blood cells (WBC) and natural antibody levels, along with resting (RMR) and peak metabolic rates (PMR) and mortality during three consecutive winter seasons in a natural population of the root vole, Microtus oeconomus. In early winter, WBC count was negatively correlated with RMR, whereas N/L ratio was negatively correlated with swim-elicited PMR. We suggest that while the first correlation reflected the trade-off between energy allocation in immunocompetence and other metabolically demanding processes, the latter correlation stemmed from stress-induced immunosuppression elicited by the necessity to cope with swimming in frequently flooded habitat. In addition, the analysis carried out during the first year of study characterized by a high population density and prevalence of infestation with a blood parasite--Babesia spp., showed that its intensity was inversely correlated with the N/L ratio. In summary, our results suggest that elevated N/L ratio increases the winter survival of free-ranging rodents by increasing their ability to cope with parasitic infections.

  19. An objective index to estimate the survival rate of primary blast lung injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kihyuck; Yoon, Jungmin; Min, Kyeongran; Lee, Jungchang; Kang, Shinil; Hong, Sung Jun; Yoon, Sung Hoon; Lee, Jong-Shill; Nam, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seok Hyun; Park, Hoonki; Young, Kim In

    2014-01-01

    To supply proper treatments to the primary blast lung injury (PBLI) patients, it is important to estimate the severity of the primary blast lung injury in accordance with the blast conditions. In this study, a blast-induced mechanical parameter (first principal stress) of lung was calculated using a finite element thorax model and the correlation between the survival rate of the subjects with blast-induced lung damage and an objective index that was related to the first principal stress of the lung model. This study propose the objective index for the estimation of the degree of PBLI. The results have a potential clinical application to improve the efficacy of treatment for blast injury patients.

  20. Survival rate and fracture strength of maxillary incisors, restored with different kinds of full veneers.

    PubMed

    Stappert, C F J; Stathopoulou, N; Gerds, T; Strub, J R

    2005-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the survival rate and fracture strength of different kinds of ceramic full veneers, fabricated with a new experimental press ceramic (EPC VP2117/TC2, Ivoclar-Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein). Eighty, caries-free human maxillary central incisors were used as abutments and were randomly divided into one control group and four test-groups of 16 samples each. In group A, unprepared teeth served as control. In the test groups, four different types of full veneer preparations were performed. In test groups B/C, the preparation was maintained in enamel and the contact point was on the tooth/on the veneer, respectively. In test groups D/E, the preparation was extended into dentin and the contact point was on the tooth/on the veneer, respectively. All veneers were adhesively luted using Variolink II (Ivoclar-Vivadent AG). Then, the samples were exposed to the artificial mouth for 1.2 million chewing cycles (49 N). After exposure in the artificial mouth, a survival rate of the abutment teeth of 81-100% was reported among the different groups, but was not significantly different between the groups. However, no failures of the ceramic materials could be recognized. The median fracture strength of group A was 713.3 N, of group B 647.1 N, of group C 594.8 N, of group D 483.8 N and of group E 502.6 N. Among the different groups no significant difference was found. All mean values obtained were within the limits of clinical acceptance, indicating further clinical investigations on full veneers made out of the EPC.

  1. Survival rates of anterior composites in managing tooth wear: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, K E; Murbay, S

    2016-02-01

    The use of composite restorations for patients with tooth wear is considered as a more conservative treatment option. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature investigating the survival rates of anterior composite restorations when used in managing tooth wear in patients. PubMed and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were screened for studies from 1995 to 2015. Cross-referencing was used to further identify articles. Article selection and data extraction were performed in duplication. Languages were restricted to English. A quality appraisal of included studies was carried out using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy system. Six hundred and sixty-six articles were initially identified from which eight articles were full-text reviewed. Six articles involving five studies were selected for inclusion. Three studies were prospective and two retrospective. Included studies involved placement of 772 direct and indirect anterior composite restorations in 100 patients with follow-up periods between 5 months and 10 years. The survival rates of anterior composites were >90% and 50% at 2.5 and 5 years, respectively. Posterior occlusion was re-established in 91% of patients within 18 months. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. The systematic review's overall strength of recommendation was graded B. There is evidence to support the use of anterior composite restorations at an increased vertical dimension of occlusion in the short/medium-term management of tooth wear. Long-term reporting of outcomes remains limited. Further research is needed with standardised study design, detailed reporting of outcomes and long-term review.

  2. Survival rates of anterior composites in managing tooth wear: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, K E; Murbay, S

    2016-02-01

    The use of composite restorations for patients with tooth wear is considered as a more conservative treatment option. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature investigating the survival rates of anterior composite restorations when used in managing tooth wear in patients. PubMed and MEDLINE (Ovid) databases were screened for studies from 1995 to 2015. Cross-referencing was used to further identify articles. Article selection and data extraction were performed in duplication. Languages were restricted to English. A quality appraisal of included studies was carried out using the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy system. Six hundred and sixty-six articles were initially identified from which eight articles were full-text reviewed. Six articles involving five studies were selected for inclusion. Three studies were prospective and two retrospective. Included studies involved placement of 772 direct and indirect anterior composite restorations in 100 patients with follow-up periods between 5 months and 10 years. The survival rates of anterior composites were >90% and 50% at 2.5 and 5 years, respectively. Posterior occlusion was re-established in 91% of patients within 18 months. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. The systematic review's overall strength of recommendation was graded B. There is evidence to support the use of anterior composite restorations at an increased vertical dimension of occlusion in the short/medium-term management of tooth wear. Long-term reporting of outcomes remains limited. Further research is needed with standardised study design, detailed reporting of outcomes and long-term review. PMID:26440584

  3. High survival and homing rate of hand-reared wild-strain mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, F.B.; Kruse, A.D.

    1973-01-01

    In the summer of 1970, 648 (329 males and 319 females) hand-reared wild-strain mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were banded and released at the Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge, Edmunds, North Dakota. The females were also marked with numbered nasal saddles. Liberation was by the gentle release method, and no special effort was made to isolate or condition the ducklings prior to release. Ducklings were placed in an enclosed pond area at 25 to 45 days of age. Altogether, 627 (97 percent) ducklings reached flight age and dispersed gradually into the wild. All had left the release area by 25 November. First-year band recovery reports indicated that 68 (11 percent) of the birds were shot in 15 states. Their migration pattern was similar to that for immature wild mallards banded in North Dakota in 1970.Eighty-nine (33 percent) of a possible 270 marked females returned to Arrowwood Refuge during 1971. When consideration is given to assumed normal natural mortality and crippling loss, an estimated minimum of 43 percent of the surviving females returned to the release area. Returning birds not observed would raise this figure even higher. This potential homing rate is considerably higher than rates reported for other studies using various strains of mallards. Numerous observations of nests and broods indicated that breeding behavior and nesting success were similar to those of wild mallards in the area. The success of this release is attributed to the inherent capability of hand-reared, wild-strain mallards to revert to their wild behavior, and to the high survival to flight age and first fall migration afforded by the gentle release in a sanctuary area. Indications are that releases of this type under the described conditions can be used to increase the breeding population of mallards in a local area.

  4. 30 Days Wild: Development and Evaluation of a Large-Scale Nature Engagement Campaign to Improve Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Miles; Cormack, Adam; McRobert, Lucy; Underhill, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to increase people’s engagement with and connection to nature, both for human well-being and the conservation of nature itself. In order to suggest ways for people to engage with nature and create a wider social context to normalise nature engagement, The Wildlife Trusts developed a mass engagement campaign, 30 Days Wild. The campaign asked people to engage with nature every day for a month. 12,400 people signed up for 30 Days Wild via an online sign-up with an estimated 18,500 taking part overall, resulting in an estimated 300,000 engagements with nature by participants. Samples of those taking part were found to have sustained increases in happiness, health, connection to nature and pro-nature behaviours. With the improvement in health being predicted by the improvement in happiness, this relationship was mediated by the change in connection to nature. PMID:26890891

  5. African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-Resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study During the 2006 NAMMA Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Man-Li C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, extended -range (30 -day) high-resolution simulations with the NASA global mesoscale model are conducted to simulate the initiation and propagation of six consecutive African easterly waves (AEWs) from late August to September 2006 and their association with hurricane formation. It is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and 6th AEWs. Remarkable simulations of a mean African easterly jet (AEJ) are also obtained. Nine additional 30 -day experiments suggest that although land surface processes might contribute to the predictability of the AEJ and AEWs, the initiation and detailed evolution of AEWs still depend on the accurate representation of dynamic and land surface initial conditions and their time -varying nonlinear interactions. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is realistically simulated.

  6. 30 Days Wild: Development and Evaluation of a Large-Scale Nature Engagement Campaign to Improve Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Miles; Cormack, Adam; McRobert, Lucy; Underhill, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to increase people's engagement with and connection to nature, both for human well-being and the conservation of nature itself. In order to suggest ways for people to engage with nature and create a wider social context to normalise nature engagement, The Wildlife Trusts developed a mass engagement campaign, 30 Days Wild. The campaign asked people to engage with nature every day for a month. 12,400 people signed up for 30 Days Wild via an online sign-up with an estimated 18,500 taking part overall, resulting in an estimated 300,000 engagements with nature by participants. Samples of those taking part were found to have sustained increases in happiness, health, connection to nature and pro-nature behaviours. With the improvement in health being predicted by the improvement in happiness, this relationship was mediated by the change in connection to nature. PMID:26890891

  7. 30 Days Wild: Development and Evaluation of a Large-Scale Nature Engagement Campaign to Improve Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Miles; Cormack, Adam; McRobert, Lucy; Underhill, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to increase people's engagement with and connection to nature, both for human well-being and the conservation of nature itself. In order to suggest ways for people to engage with nature and create a wider social context to normalise nature engagement, The Wildlife Trusts developed a mass engagement campaign, 30 Days Wild. The campaign asked people to engage with nature every day for a month. 12,400 people signed up for 30 Days Wild via an online sign-up with an estimated 18,500 taking part overall, resulting in an estimated 300,000 engagements with nature by participants. Samples of those taking part were found to have sustained increases in happiness, health, connection to nature and pro-nature behaviours. With the improvement in health being predicted by the improvement in happiness, this relationship was mediated by the change in connection to nature.

  8. Chloroquine improves survival and hematopoietic recovery following lethal low dose- rate radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang, Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We have previously shown that the anti-malarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hr. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 μg per 17 g of body weight, 24 hrs and 4 hrs before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retro orbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methyl cellulose colony forming assay of whole bone marrow cells as well as FACS analysis of lineage depleted cells was used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results Mice pretreated with chloroquine prior to radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate compared to mice treated with radiation alone (80 vs.31 percent, p=0.0026). Chloroquine administration prior to radiation did not impact the survival of ATM null mice (p=0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after the transplantation (4.2 percent vs. 0.4 percent, p=0.015). Conclusion Chloroquine administration prior to radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect like the in vitro effect is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection against the

  9. Chloroquine Improves Survival and Hematopoietic Recovery After Lethal Low-Dose-Rate Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lim Yiting; Hedayati, Mohammad; Merchant, Akil A.; Zhang Yonggang; Yu, Hsiang-Hsuan M.; Kastan, Michael B.; Matsui, William; DeWeese, Theodore L.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that the antimalarial agent chloroquine can abrogate the lethal cellular effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation in vitro, most likely by activating the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Here, we demonstrate that chloroquine treatment also protects against lethal doses of LDR radiation in vivo. Methods and Materials: C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with a total of 12.8 Gy delivered at 9.4 cGy/hour. ATM null mice from the same background were used to determine the influence of ATM. Chloroquine was administered by two intraperitoneal injections of 59.4 {mu}g per 17 g of body weight, 24 hours and 4 hours before irradiation. Bone marrow cells isolated from tibia, fibula, and vertebral bones were transplanted into lethally irradiated CD45 congenic recipient mice by retroorbital injection. Chimerism was assessed by flow cytometry. In vitro methylcellulose colony-forming assay of whole bone marrow cells and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of lineage depleted cells were used to assess the effect of chloroquine on progenitor cells. Results: Mice pretreated with chloroquine before radiation exhibited a significantly higher survival rate than did mice treated with radiation alone (80% vs. 31%, p = 0.0026). Chloroquine administration before radiation did not affect the survival of ATM null mice (p = 0.86). Chloroquine also had a significant effect on the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from the irradiated donor mice 6 weeks after transplantation (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.015). Conclusion: Chloroquine administration before radiation had a significant effect on the survival of normal but not ATM null mice, strongly suggesting that the in vivo effect, like the in vitro effect, is also ATM dependent. Chloroquine improved the early engraftment of bone marrow cells from LDR-irradiated mice, presumably by protecting the progenitor cells from radiation injury. Chloroquine thus could serve as a very useful drug for protection

  10. Survival rate of salmonella on cooked pig ear pet treats at refrigerated and ambient temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pet treats, including pig ears, have been implicated as vehicles of human salmonellosis, and Salmonella has been isolated on commercially produced pig ears. Therefore, behavior of the pathogen on this very low water activity (aw) pet treat is of interest. The survival of Salmonella serotypes Newport and Typhimurium DT104 was measured on natural (aw 0.256) and smoked (aw 0.306) pig ear pet treat products inoculated at ca. 6.5 log CFU per sample and stored at 4.4 or 22°C for 365 days. Surviving populations of Salmonella were enumerated periodically, and a modified Weibull model was used to fit the inactivation curves for log populations. After 14 days, the decline of Salmonella was significantly (P < 0.05) greater at 22°C than at 4.4°C. By 365 days of storage at 4.4°C, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 declined by 2.19 log on smoked pig ears and 1.14 log on natural pig ears, while Salmonella Newport declined by 4.20 log on smoked pig ears and 2.08 log on natural pig ears. Populations of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on refrigerated natural pig ears rebounded between day 152 (3.21 log CFU per sample) and day 175 (4.79 log CFU per sample) and rose gradually for the duration of the study to 5.28 log CFU per sample. The model fits for survival rate of Salmonella on pig ears at 4.4°C show a rapid initial decline followed by a long tailing effect. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on natural pig ears at 4.4°C had the slowest rate of reduction. At 22°C Salmonella declined nonlinearly by >4.5 log for each combination of serotype and pig ear type at 22°C but remained detectable by enrichment. The model parameter for days to first decimal reduction of Salmonella on pig ears was two to three times higher at 4.4°C compared with 22°C, demonstrating that Salmonella slowly declines on very low aw refrigerated pet treats and more rapidly at room temperature. This information may be useful for pet treat safety assessments. PMID:24405998

  11. Cognitive function, stress hormones, heart rate and nutritional status during simulated captivity in military survival training.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Harris R; Farina, Emily K; Caldwell, John; Williams, Kelly W; Thompson, Lauren A; Niro, Philip J; Grohmann, Kyle A; McClung, James P

    2016-10-15

    Stress influences numerous psychological and physiological processes, and its effects have practical implications in a variety of professions and real-world activities. However, few studies have concurrently assessed multiple behavioral, hormonal, nutritional and heart-rate responses of humans to acute, severe stress. This investigation simultaneously assessed cognitive, affective, hormonal, and heart-rate responses induced by an intensely stressful real-world environment designed to simulate wartime captivity. Sixty males were evaluated during and immediately following participation in U.S. Army Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape (SERE) school, three weeks of intense but standardized training for Soldiers at risk of capture. Simulated captivity and intense mock interrogations degraded grammatical reasoning (p<0.005), sustained-attention (p<0.001), working memory (p<0.05) and all aspects of mood assessed by the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire: Tension/Anxiety, Depression/Dejection, Anger/Hostility, Vigor/Activity, Fatigue/Inertia; Confusion/Bewilderment, and Total Mood Disturbance (p<0.001) It also elevated heart rate (p<0.001); increased serum and salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-s) (p<0.01); elevated serum epinephrine, norepinephrine, and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR) (p<0.01); increased salivary neuropeptide-Y (NPY) (p<0.001); and decreased serum prolactin and serum and salivary testosterone (p<0.001). Partial recovery was observed immediately after training, but stress-induced changes, particularly in body weight and several of the biomarkers, persisted. This study demonstrates that when individuals were exposed to realistic and controlled simulated captivity, cognition, mood, stress hormones, nutritional status and heart rate are simultaneously altered, and each of these subsequently recovers at different rates. PMID:27374427

  12. Tackling 30-Day, All-Cause Readmissions with a Patient-Centered Transitional Care Bundle.

    PubMed

    Rice, Yvonne B; Barnes, Carol Ann; Rastogi, Rahul; Hillstrom, Tami J; Steinkeler, Cara N

    2016-02-01

    In 2008, Kaiser Permanente Northwest identified the transition from hospital to home as a pivotal quality improvement opportunity and used multiple patient-centered data collection methods to identify unmet needs contributing to preventable readmissions. A transitional care bundle that crosses care settings and organizational functions was developed to meet needs expressed by patients. It comprises 5 elements: risk stratification, a specialized phone number for discharged patients, timely postdischarge follow-up, standardized patient discharge instructions and same-day discharge summaries, and pharmacist-supported medication reconciliation. The transitional care bundle has been in place for 6 years. Readmission rates decreased from 12.1% to 10.6%, Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems scores for the discharge instruction composite moved from below the 50(th) to above the 90(th) national percentile, average time to the first postdischarge appointment decreased from 9.7 days to 5.3 days, and error rates on the discharge medication list decreased from 57% to 21% (P<.0001 for all). The program, which continues to evolve to address sustainability challenges and organizational initiatives, suggests the potential of a multicomponent, patient-centered care bundle to address the complex, interrelated drivers of preventable readmissions. PMID:25919315

  13. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased veteran not in the custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved...

  14. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  15. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  16. 38 CFR 3.24 - Improved pension rates-Surviving children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Surviving children. 3.24 Section 3.24 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... rates—Surviving children. (a) General. The provisions of this section apply to children of a deceased.... Children in custody of a surviving spouse who has basic eligibility to receive improved pension do not...

  17. Sensitivity of the Giant LOop Binary LEsion (GLOBLE) cell survival model on parameters characterising dose rate effects.

    PubMed

    Herr, L; Friedrich, T; Durante, M; Scholz, M

    2015-09-01

    The sensitivity of the Giant LOop Binary LEsion model for cell survival probabilities after arbitrary photon irradiation schedules on its parameters is presented. Since these parameters are closely linked to observable features of cell repair, the modelled influence of the parameters on cell survival gives indications about the relation between cell line-specific repair characteristics and the radiation response. To visualise the general findings about the impact of parameter changes on cell survival probabilities, survival curves for an exemplary cell line are shown. Furthermore, the relative change in the effect of radiation after a change in parameter values is investigated over the range of doses and dose rates usually applied in cell survival experiments.

  18. The Rate of Osmotic Downshock Determines the Survival Probability of Bacterial Mechanosensitive Channel Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Bialecka-Fornal, Maja; Lee, Heun Jin

    2014-01-01

    Mechanosensitive (MS) channels allow cells to sense and respond to environmental changes. In bacteria, these channels are believed to protect against an osmotic shock. The physiological function of these channels has been characterized primarily by a standardized assay, where aliquots of batch-cultured cells are rapidly pipetted into a hypotonic medium. Under this method, it has been inferred many types of MS channels (MscS homologs in Escherichia coli) demonstrate limited effectiveness against shock, typically rescuing less than 10% of the cells when expressed at native levels. We introduce a single-cell-based assay which allows us to control how fast the osmolarity changes, over time scales ranging from a fraction of a second to several minutes. We find that the protection provided by MS channels depends strongly on the rate of osmotic change, revealing that, under a slow enough osmotic drop, MscS homologs can lead to survival rates comparable to those found in wild-type strains. Further, after the osmotic downshift, we observe multiple death phenotypes, which are inconsistent with the prevailing paradigm of how cells lyse. Both of these findings require a reevaluation of our basic understanding of the physiology of MS channels. PMID:25349158

  19. Estimating the effect of hunting on annual survival rates of adult mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; White, Gary C.; Anderson, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Management programs for waterfowl populations include rationale for, and establishment of, hunting regulations. These programs rest partially on the results of scientific studies on the effect of harvest rates on annual survival rates. The evidence of this relationship has changed markedly since the mid-1970's, and it is not widely believed that a largely compensatory relationship exists between hunting mortality and other forms of mortality for the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). This paper employs a general probabilistic model formulated to include a parameter (b) representing a continuum between complete compensation (b=0) and total additivity (b=1). Maximum likelihood estimates of this parameter were computer for 47 data sets of adult mallards banded throughout North American before hunting commenced. We found additional evidence of a highly compensatory mortality process for adult male mallards, while the evidence for adults female mallards remains inconclusive. Effective harvest, land acquisition, and land management programs depend upon additional information on the chronology and mechanisms underlying a compensatory mortality process.

  20. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms.

  1. Effects of pond salinization on survival rate of amphibian hosts infected with the chytrid fungus.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Storrie, Lachlan James; Pollard, Carla Jean; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2015-04-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline and extinction of amphibian populations worldwide, but management options are limited. Recent studies show that sodium chloride (NaCl) has fungicidal properties that reduce the mortality rates of infected hosts in captivity. We investigated whether similar results can be obtained by adding salt to water bodies in the field. We increased the salinity of 8 water bodies to 2 or 4 ppt and left an additional 4 water bodies with close to 0 ppt and monitored salinity for 18 months. Captively bred tadpoles of green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea) were released into each water body and their development, levels of B. dendrobatidis infection, and survival were monitored at 1, 4, and 12 months. The effect of salt on the abundance of nontarget organisms was also investigated in before and after style analyses. Salinities remained constant over time with little intervention. Hosts in water bodies with 4 ppt salt had a significantly lower prevalence of chytrid infection and higher survival, following metamorphosis, than hosts in 0 ppt salt. Tadpoles in the 4 ppt group were smaller in length after 1 month in the release site than those in the 0 and 2 ppt groups, but after metamorphosis body size in all water bodies was similar . In water bodies with 4 ppt salt, the abundance of dwarf tree frogs (Litoria fallax), dragonfly larvae, and damselfly larvae was lower than in water bodies with 0 and 2 ppt salt, which could have knock-on effects for community structure. Based on our results, salt may be an effective field-based B. dendrobatidis mitigation tool for lentic amphibians that could contribute to the conservation of numerous susceptible species. However, as in all conservation efforts, these benefits need to be weighed against negative effects on both target and nontarget organisms. PMID:25354647

  2. Abundance and Survival Rates of the Hawai’i Island Associated Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Stock

    PubMed Central

    Tyne, Julian A.; Pollock, Kenneth H.; Johnston, David W.; Bejder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Reliable population estimates are critical to implement effective management strategies. The Hawai’i Island spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) is a genetically distinct stock that displays a rigid daily behavioural pattern, foraging offshore at night and resting in sheltered bays during the day. Consequently, they are exposed to frequent human interactions and disturbance. We estimated population parameters of this spinner dolphin stock using a systematic sampling design and capture–recapture models. From September 2010 to August 2011, boat-based photo-identification surveys were undertaken monthly over 132 days (>1,150 hours of effort; >100,000 dorsal fin images) in the four main resting bays along the Kona Coast, Hawai’i Island. All images were graded according to photographic quality and distinctiveness. Over 32,000 images were included in the analyses, from which 607 distinctive individuals were catalogued and 214 were highly distinctive. Two independent estimates of the proportion of highly distinctive individuals in the population were not significantly different (p = 0.68). Individual heterogeneity and time variation in capture probabilities were strongly indicated for these data; therefore capture–recapture models allowing for these variations were used. The estimated annual apparent survival rate (product of true survival and permanent emigration) was 0.97 SE±0.05. Open and closed capture–recapture models for the highly distinctive individuals photographed at least once each month produced similar abundance estimates. An estimate of 221±4.3 SE highly distinctive spinner dolphins, resulted in a total abundance of 631±60.1 SE, (95% CI 524–761) spinner dolphins in the Hawai’i Island stock, which is lower than previous estimates. When this abundance estimate is considered alongside the rigid daily behavioural pattern, genetic distinctiveness, and the ease of human access to spinner dolphins in their preferred resting habitats, this

  3. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Cameron Aldridge,; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  4. Differences in vitamin D status may account for unexplained disparities in cancer survival rates between African and white Americans

    PubMed Central

    Grant, William B.; Peiris, Alan N.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable disparities in cancer survival rates exist between African Americans (AAs) and white Americans (WAs). Various factors such as differences in socioeconomic status (SES), cancer stage at time of diagnosis, and treatment—which this analysis considers primary explanatory factors—have accounted for many of these differences. An additional factor not usually considered is vitamin D. Previous studies have inversely correlated higher solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) doses and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations with incidence and/or mortality rates for about 20 types of cancer and improved survival rates for eight types of cancer. Because of darker skin pigmentation, AAs have 40% lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations than WAs. This study reviews the literature on disparities in cancer survival between AAs and WAs. The journal literature indicates that there are disparities for 13 types of cancer after consideration of SES, stage at diagnosis and treatment: bladder, breast, colon, endometrial, lung, ovarian, pancreatic, prostate, rectal, testicular, and vaginal cancer; Hodgkin lymphoma and melanoma. Solar UVB doses and/or serum 25(OH)D concentrations have been reported inversely correlated with incidence and/or mortality rates for all of these cancers. This finding suggests that future studies should consider serum 25(OH)D concentrations in addressing cancer survival disparities through both measurements of serum 25(OH)D concentrations and increasing serum 25(OH)D concentrations of those diagnosed with cancer, leading to improved survival rates and reduced disparities. PMID:22928063

  5. [The influence of consecutive application of B-190 preparation and interleukin-1beta on survival rate and bone marrow hematopoiesis of irradiated mice].

    PubMed

    Grebeniuk, A N; Zatsepin, V V; Aksenova, N V; Nazarov, V B; Vlasenko, T N

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of research was the experimental estimation of efficiency of consecutive application of a radioprotector B-190 and means of emergency therapy of radiating injury interleukin-1beta at acute irradiation. An estimation of treatment-and-prophylactic action of the given circuit of introduction of preparations carried out by studying 30 day-survival and average life expectancy of the lost animals, research of bone marrow hemopoiesis. It is established, that consecutive application of a radioprotector B-190 in a doze of 50 mg/kg for 15 mines up to an irradiation and interleukin-1beta in a doze of 50 mkg/kg through 15 mines after irradiating increases survival and prevents decrease in quantity of CFU-S9 at the irradiated mice in the greater degree, than their isolated introduction. PMID:20968059

  6. Survival analysis approach to account for non-exponential decay rate effects in lifetime experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, K. J.; Dewey, M. S.; Huber, M. G.; Huffer, C. R.; Huffman, P. R.; Marley, D. E.; Mumm, H. P.; O`Shaughnessy, C. M.; Schelhammer, K. W.; Thompson, A. K.; Yue, A. T.

    2016-03-01

    In experiments that measure the lifetime of trapped particles, in addition to loss mechanisms with exponential survival probability functions, particles can be lost by mechanisms with non-exponential survival probability functions. Failure to account for such loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in these measurements. In this work, we develop a general competing risks survival analysis method to account for the joint effect of loss mechanisms with either exponential or non-exponential survival probability functions, and a method to quantify the size of systematic effects and associated uncertainties for lifetime estimates. As a case study, we apply our survival analysis formalism and method to the Ultra Cold Neutron lifetime experiment at NIST. In this experiment, neutrons can escape a magnetic trap before they decay due to a wall loss mechanism with an associated non-exponential survival probability function.

  7. Survival Rates of Juvenile Salmonids Passing Through the Bonneville Dam and Spillway in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derrek M.; Deng, Zhiqun; Johnson, Gary E.; Hughes, James S.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Monter, Tyrell J.; Cushing, Aaron W.; Wilberding, Matthew C.; Durham, Robin E.; Townsend, R. L.; Skalski, J. R.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Kim, Jina; Fischer, Eric S.; Meyer, Matthew M.; McComas, Roy L.; Everett, Jason

    2009-12-28

    This report describes a 2008 acoustic telemetry survival study conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Portland District of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The study estimated the survival of juvenile Chinook salmon and steelhead passing Bonneville Dam (BON) and its spillway. Of particular interest was the relative survival of smolts detected passing through end spill bays 1-3 and 16-18, which had deep flow deflectors immediately downstream of spill gates, versus survival of smolts passing middle spill bays 4-15, which had shallow flow deflectors.

  8. Impact of preoperative serum albumin on 30-day mortality following surgery for colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Montomoli, Jonathan; Erichsen, Rune; Antonsen, Sussie; Nilsson, Tove; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2015-01-01

    Objective Surgery is the only potentially curable treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC), but it is hampered by high mortality. Human serum albumin (HSA) below 35 g/L is associated with poor overall prognosis in patients with CRC, but evidence regarding the impact on postoperative mortality is sparse. Methods We performed a population-based cohort study including patients undergoing CRC surgery in North and Central Denmark (1997–2011). We categorised patients according to HSA concentration measured 1–30 days prior to surgery date. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to compute 30-day mortality and Cox regression model to compute HRs as measures of the relative risk of death, controlling for potential confounders. We further stratified patients by preoperative conditions, including cancer stage, comorbidity level, and C reactive protein concentration. Results Of the 9339 patients undergoing first-time CRC surgery with preoperative HSA measurement, 26.4% (n=2464) had HSA below 35 g/L. 30-day mortality increased from 4.9% among patients with HSA 36–40 g/L to 26.9% among patients with HSA equal to or below 25 g/L, compared with 2.0% among patients with HSA above 40 g/L. The corresponding adjusted HRs increased from 1.75 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.45) among patients with HSA 36–40 g/L to 7.59 (95% CI 4.95 to 11.64) among patients with HSA equal to or below 25 g/L, compared with patients with HSA above 40 g/L. The negative impact associated with a decrement of HSA was found in all subgroups. Conclusions A decrement in preoperative HSA concentration was associated with substantial concentration-dependent increased 30-day mortality following CRC surgery. PMID:26462287

  9. Hospital Nursing and 30-Day Readmissions among Medicare Patients with Heart Failure, Acute Myocardial Infarction, and Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Ma, Chenjuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Provisions of the Affordable Care Act that increase hospitals’ financial accountability for preventable readmissions have heightened interest in identifying system-level interventions to reduce readmissions. Objectives To determine the relationship between hospital nursing; i.e. nurse work environment, nurse staffing levels, and nurse education, and 30-day readmissions among Medicare patients with heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and pneumonia. Method and Design Analysis of linked data from California, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania that included information on the organization of hospital nursing (i.e., work environment, patient-to-nurse ratios, and proportion of nurses holding a BSN degree) from a survey of nurses, as well as patient discharge data, and American Hospital Association Annual Survey data. Robust logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between nursing factors and 30-day readmission. Results Nearly one-quarter of heart failure index admissions (23.3% [n=39,954]); 19.1% (n=12,131) of myocardial infarction admissions; and 17.8% (n=25,169) of pneumonia admissions were readmitted within 30-days. Each additional patient per nurse in the average nurse’s workload was associated with a 7% higher odds of readmission for heart failure (OR=1.07, [1.05–1.09]), 6% for pneumonia patients (OR=1.06, [1.03–1.09]), and 9% for myocardial infarction patients (OR=1.09, [1.05–1.13]). Care in a hospital with a good versus poor work environment was associated with odds of readmission that were 7% lower for heart failure (OR = 0.93, [0.89–0.97]); 6% lower for myocardial infarction (OR = 0.94, [0.88–0.98]); and 10% lower for pneumonia (OR = 0.90, [0.85–0.96]) patients. Conclusions Improving nurses’ work environments and staffing may be effective interventions for preventing readmissions. PMID:23151591

  10. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag; Oh, Jae-Wook

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry.

  11. Effect of Coating Method on the Survival Rate of L. plantarum for Chicken Feed

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yoon; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Choi, Mi-Jung; Lee, Boo-Yong; Han, Jong-Kwon; Lim, Jae Kag

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to find the most suitable method and wall material for microencapsulation of the Lactobacillus plantarum to maintain cell viability in different environmental conditions. To improve the stability of L. plantarum, we developed an encapsulation system of L. plantarum, using water-in-oil emulsion system. For the encapsulation of L. plantarum, corn starch and glyceryl monostearate were selected to form gel beads. Then 10% (w/v) of starch was gelatinized by autoclaving to transit gel state, and cooled down at 60ºC and mixed with L. plantarum to encapsulate it. The encapsulated L. plantarum was tested for the tolerance of acidic conditions at different temperatures to investigate the encapsulation ability. The study indicated that the survival rate of the microencapsulated cells in starch matrix was significantly higher than that of free cells in low pH conditions with relatively higher temperature. The results showed that corn starch as a wall material and glycerol monostearate as a gelling agent in encapsulation could play a role in the viability of lactic acid bacteria in extreme conditions. Using the current study, it would be possible to formulate a new water-in-oil system as applied in the protection of L. plantarum from the gastric conditions for the encapsulation system used in chicken feed industry. PMID:26760943

  12. Long-term analysis of survival, fertility, and population growth rate of black bears in North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated survival, fertility, and realized and asymptotic population growth rates from 1981 to 2002 for a protected population of black bears (Ursus americanus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains. We used Akaike's information criterion to assess the time interval for averaging observations that was best for estimating vital rates for our study, given our yearly sample sizes. The temporal symmetry approach allowed us to directly assess population growth and to address all losses and gains to the population by using only capture data, offering an alternative to the logistically intensive collection of reproductive data. Models that averaged survival and fertility across 5- and 7-year time intervals were best supported by our data. Studies of black bear populations with annual sample sizes similar to ours should be of at least 5 years in duration to estimate vital rates reliably, and at least 10 years in duration to evaluate changes in population growth rate (??). We also hypothesized that survival would not track changes in ?? because ?? is influenced by both survival and fertility. The 5-year model supported our hypothesis, but the 7-year model did not. Where long-term dynamics of large, relatively stable bear populations are of interest, monitoring survival is likely to be sufficient for evaluating trends in ??. For rapidly changing, small populations, however, failure to incorporate fertility into assessments of ?? could be misleading. ?? 2005 American Society of Mammalogists.

  13. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  14. A space maintainability experiment aboard the Ben Franklin submersible during the 30-day Gulf Stream drift mission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kappler, J. R.; May, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    In the summer of 1969, a deep submersible drifted for 30 days below the surface of the Gulf Stream, while operated by a six man crew. The main purpose of the mission was oceanographic research. The crew's activities and completely self-contained environment resembled those of a space station such as Skylab. Because of these similarities aspects of onboard vehicle maintenance during the actual conduct of a scientific mission were investigated. The maintainability study was accomplished in six distinct phases. Two useful plots of manpower distribution were developed. A maintenance action summary is presented in a table.

  15. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS); Design and Analysis, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwes, Nick; Petrosky, Charlie; Schaller, Howard

    2002-04-01

    Fisheries agencies and tribes have developed a multi-year program, the Comparative Survival Study (CSS), to obtain information to be used in monitoring and evaluating the impacts of the mitigation measures and actions (e.g., flow augmentation, spill, and transportation) under NMFS' Biological Opinion to recover listed stocks. Through 2001, the CSS has utilized PIT tagged yearling hatchery chinook that were tagged specifically for the CSS and PIT tagged wild chinook from all available marking efforts in the Snake River basin above Lower Granite Dam. We selected hatchery programs that would allow the opportunity to mark sufficient numbers of smolts to give enough returning adult fish that statistically rigorous smolt-to-adult survival rates could be computed. Since the CSS inception, hatchery fish that have consistently been used include spring/summer chinook tagged at McCall, Rapid River, Dworshak, and Lookingglass (Imnaha stock) hatcheries. The CSS has also included a group of spring chinook from Carson Hatchery in the lower Columbia River for planned upstream/downstream comparison. The wild stocks included chinook PIT tagged as parr (summer/fall tagging season) and smolts (spring tagging season) in each major tributary above Lower Granite Dam. Future years will see the CSS add wild and hatchery steelhead in the Snake River basin, hatchery steelhead in the Mid-Columbia River basin, hatchery yearling chinook in the Mid-Columbia River basin, and wild chinook in John Day River in the lower Columbia River. Each PIT (passive integrated transponder) tag has a unique code. The tags are glass encapsulated, 11 mm in length, and implanted into the fish's underbelly by a syringe. All attempts are made to make the PIT tagged fish as representative of their untagged cohorts as possible. At trapping sites, sampling and tagging occur over the entire migration season. At hatcheries, fish to tag are obtained across as wide a set of ponds and raceways as possible to allow effective

  16. Planetary quarantine in the solar system. Survival rates of some terrestrial organisms under simulated space conditions by proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.

    We have been studying the survival rates of some species of terrestrial unicellular and multicellular organism (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions, in connection with planetary quarantine. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 K, 4 × 10 -8 torr), and proton irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, tobacco mosaic virus, Bacillus subtilis spores, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82, 45, 74, 13, 28, and 25%, respectively.

  17. Population ecology of the mallard VIII: Winter distribution patterns and survival rates of winter-banded mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present report we address questions about winter distribution patterns and survival rates of North American mallards Anas platyrhynchos. Inferences are based on analyses of banding and recovery data from both winter and preseason banding period. The primary wintering range of the mallard was dividded into 45 minor reference areas and 15 major reference areas which were used to summarize winter banding data. Descriptive tables and figures on the recovery distributions of winter-banded mallards are presented. Using winter recoveries of preseason-banded mallards, we found apparent differences between recovery distribution of young versus adult birds from the same breeding ground reference areas. However, we found no sex-specific differences in winter recovery distribution patterns. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded birds also provided evidence that mallards exhibited some degree of year-to-year variation in wintering ground location. The age- and sex-specificity of such variation was tested using winter recoveries of winter-banded birds, and results indicated that subadult (first year) birds were less likely to return to the same wintering grounds the following year than adults. Winter recovery distributions of preseason-banded mallards during 1950-58 differed from distributions in 1966-76. These differences could have resulted from either true distributional shifts or geographic changes in hunting pressure. Survival and recovery rates were estimated from winter banding data. We found no evidence of differences in survival or recovery rates between subadult and adult mallards. Thus, the substantial difference between survival rates of preseason-banded young and adult mallards must result almost entirely from higher mortality of young birds during the approximate period, August-January. Male mallards showed higher survival than females, corroborating inferences based on preseason data. Tests with winter banding and band recovery data indicated

  18. Readmission for Acute Exacerbation within 30 Days of Discharge Is Associated with a Subsequent Progressive Increase in Mortality Risk in COPD Patients: A Long-Term Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Mónica; Crisafulli, Ernesto; Liapikou, Adamantia; Huerta, Arturo; Gabarrús, Albert; Chetta, Alfredo; Soler, Nestor; Torres, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Twenty per cent of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are readmitted for acute exacerbation (AECOPD) within 30 days of discharge. The prognostic significance of early readmission is not fully understood. The objective of our study was to estimate the mortality risk associated with readmission for acute exacerbation within 30 days of discharge in COPD patients. Methods The cohort (n = 378) was divided into patients readmitted (n = 68) and not readmitted (n = 310) within 30 days of discharge. Clinical, laboratory, microbiological, and severity data were evaluated at admission and during hospital stay, and mortality data were recorded at four time points during follow-up: 30 days, 6 months, 1 year and 3 years. Results Patients readmitted within 30 days had poorer lung function, worse dyspnea perception and higher clinical severity. Two or more prior AECOPD (HR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.51–4.05) was the only variable independently associated with 30-day readmission. The mortality risk during the follow-up period showed a progressive increase in patients readmitted within 30 days in comparison to patients not readmitted; moreover, 30-day readmission was an independent risk factor for mortality at 1 year (HR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.10–5.59). In patients readmitted within 30 days, the estimated absolute increase in the mortality risk was 4% at 30 days (number needed to harm NNH, 25), 17% at 6-months (NNH, 6), 19% at 1-year (NNH, 6) and 24% at 3 years (NNH, 5). Conclusion In conclusion a readmission for AECOPD within 30 days is associated with a progressive increased long-term risk of death. PMID:26943928

  19. Modulation of HLA-DR in dry eye patients following 30 days of treatment with a lubricant eyedrop solution

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Karen B; Epstein, Seth P; Raynor, Geoffrey S; Sheyman, Alan T; Massingale, Morgan L; Dentone, Peter G; Landegger, Lukas D; Asbell, Penny A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the changes in dry eye disease (DED) severity and the percentage of cells expressing HLA-DR on the ocular surface following treatment with lubricant eyedrops containing polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol (PEG/PG) and the gelling agent hydroxypropyl guar (HP-Guar). Patients and methods Nineteen patients with DED used PEG/PG + HP-Guar eyedrops four times per day for 30 days. Assessments included DED severity (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI], corneal staining, conjunctival staining, tear film break-up time [TFBUT], and Schirmer testing) and impression cytology of the conjunctiva with masked flow cytometry at baseline and at 30 days. Results There was a significant decrease in corneal staining (P<0.01), OSDI (P=0.02), and TFBUT (P<0.01) following treatment with PEG/PG + HP-Guar. Results from flow cytometry revealed a significant decrease in cells expressing HLA-DR (P=0.02). Conclusion Treatment with PEG/PG + HP-Guar eyedrops showed improvement in dry eye severity and reduction in surface inflammation as indicated by a reduction in HLA-DR expression. PMID:26170605

  20. Relationship between prenatal survival rate at 70 days of gestation and morphometric parameters of vagina, uterus and placenta in gilts.

    PubMed

    Vianna, W L; Pinese, M E; de Campos Rosseto, A; Bombonato, P P; Rodrigues, P H M; de Sant'Anna Moretti, A

    2004-12-01

    Swine uterine capacity affects litter size, and it could be used as a selection parameter of reproductive performance. Although there are some controversial results, evidences show that the catheter penetration length is positively correlated with litter size, and it could be used as a tool for predicting selection methods. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is any association between the prenatal survival rate and placental size at 70 days of gestation, the vaginal length [catheter penetration length during artificial insemination (AI)] and the uterine capacity in a homogeneous group of gilts. Sixty-six commercial-line gilts in pre-pubertal phase had their oestrus induced by hormonal treatment [600 UI of Equine Chorionic Gonadtrophin (eCG) i.m. and after a 72-h period 5 mg of luteinizing hormone (LH) i.m.], but only 40 gilts showed cyclicity after induction. The AI catheter penetration length was tested on these 40 gilts at the moment of AI using a calibrated AI catheter. Four gilts returned to oestrus and the other 36 were killed at around day 69 of pregnancy. The uterine length and weight showed a significant and positive correlation with the prenatal survival rate (p <0.05). The catheter penetration length was unable to predict the conceptus survival rate on 70 days of gestation; however, the uterine size influenced the survival rate positively. The mean placental area was positively correlated with the mean placental weight (p <0.0001), and both with the mean foetal weight (p <0.0001 and p <0.001, respectively). The analysis of the results obtained showed that neither did the catheter penetration length measurement during AI, nor the prenatal survival rate on day 70 of pregnancy predict the uterine capacity, but the uterine and placental size had a significant influence on the prenatal survival and foetus weight, respectively.

  1. Moderate progress for ovarian cancer in the last 20 years: prolongation of survival, but no improvement in the cure rate.

    PubMed

    Engel, J; Eckel, R; Schubert-Fritschle, G; Kerr, J; Kuhn, W; Diebold, J; Kimmig, R; Rehbock, J; Hölzel, D

    2002-12-01

    Although ovarian cancer treatment has advanced in the last 20 years, long-term survival remains stable. The purpose of this study was to determine whether survival has improved in line with treatment advances in a population-based prospective cohort of ovarian cancer patients (1978-1997, with a follow-up through to 2000). The 10-year overall survival rate for cancer patients was similar before and after 1988: 32.2% (n=1661) and 34.4% (n=2089). For patients after 1988, a 12-month prolongation of median survival was observed. In terms of stage according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO), only FIGO I and FIGO II patients showed, in addition to a prolongation in survival, an absolute improvement of 12.9 and 12.6% after 5 years and of 13.2 and 8.6% after 10 years. This hardly affected the survival of the total sample. For the most frequent stage FIGO III patients and for FIGO IV patients, a prolongation in survival time, but no improvement in survival rate, was seen after five or 10 years. The progress in FIGO I and II patients may be due to more accurate staging. More effective chemotherapy may also explain some of the improvement. The prolongation in FIGO-stages III-IV may be due to more radical surgery. Patient selection criteria, not only the treatment modalities, may be responsible for the superior results reported in clinical trials. Cancer registries are important for evaluating the quality of healthcare delivery.

  2. Apparent Survival Rates of Forest Birds in Eastern Ecuador Revisited: Improvement in Precision but No Change in Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Blake, John G.; Loiselle, Bette A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae) from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate) was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE) across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02) when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs = −0.72) and recaptures (rs = −0.93, P<0.001 in both cases). Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient. PMID:24312519

  3. Epinephrine, but not vasopressin, improves survival rates in an adult rabbit model of asphyxia cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng-Hua; Xie, Lu; Liu, Tang-Wei; Song, Feng-Qing; He, Tao; Zeng, Zhi-yu; Mo, Shu-Rong

    2007-06-01

    Although vasopressin has been reported to be more effective than epinephrine for cardiopulmonary resuscitation in ventricular fibrillation animal models, its efficacy in asphyxia model remains controversy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of vasopressin vs epinephrine on restoration of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in a rabbit model of asphyxia cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest was induced by clamping endotracheal tube. After 5 minutes of basic life-support cardiopulmonary resuscitation, animals who had no ROSC were randomly assigned to receive either epinephrine alone (epinephrine group; 200 microg/kg) or vasopressin alone (vasopressin group; 0.8 U/kg). The coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated as the difference between the minimal diastolic aortic and simultaneously recorded right atrial pressure. Restoration of spontaneous circulation was defined as an unassisted pulse with a systolic arterial pressure of 60 mm Hg or higher for 5 minutes or longer. We induced arrest in 62 rabbits, 15 of whom had ROSC before drug administration and were excluded from analysis. The remaining 47 rabbits were randomized to epinephrine group (n = 24) and vasopressin group (n = 23). Before and after drug administration, CPP in epinephrine group increased significantly (from -4 +/- 4 to 36 +/- 9 mm Hg at peak value, P = .000), whereas CPP in vasopressin group increased only slightly (from 9 +/- 5 to 18 +/- 6 mm Hg at peak value, P = .20). After drug administration, 13 of 24 epinephrine rabbit had ROSC, and only 2 of 23 vasopressin rabbit had ROSC (P < .01). Consequently, we conclude that epinephrine, but not vasopressin, increases survival rates in this adult rabbit asphyxia model.

  4. Survival and fertility rate of cooled dromedary camel spermatozoa supplemented with catalase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Medan, Mohamed Sabry; Absy, Gamal; Zeidan, Alaa Elsayed; Khalil, Medhat Hussein; Khalifa, Hesham Hussein; Abdel-Salaam, Atef Mahrous; Abdel-Khalek, Tarek Mohammad

    2008-02-01

    The present study was planned to study the effects of addition of different concentrations of catalase enzyme (0, 250, 500 and 1,000 IU/ml) to cooled dromedary camel semen extended with tris-yolk-fructose extender on semen quality during storage at 5 C for up to 5 days. Conception rates of she-camels artificially inseminated with whole fresh or extended cooled dromedary camel semen with or without 500 IU/ml catalase enzyme were also estimated. The results showed that addition of catalase enzyme at concentrations of 250 or 500 IU/ml to extended cooled dromedary camel semen significantly increased (P<0.01) the percentage of sperm motility and significantly decreased (P<0.01) the percentages of dead spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and acrosomal damage. The highest (P<0.01) percentage of sperm motility was recorded with extended cooled dromedary camel semen supplemented with catalase enzyme at a concentration of 500 IU/ml, and the lowest (P<0.01) value was recorded with catalase enzyme at a concentration of 1000 IU/ml. On the other hand, the lowest (P<0.01) percentages of dead spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and acrosomal damage of spermatozoa were recorded with extended cooled dromedary camel semen supplemented with 500 IU/ml, and the highest (P<0.01) values were recorded with catalase enzyme at a concentration of 1,000 IU/ml. Advancement of the storage time at 5 C significantly decreased (P<0.01) the percentage of sperm motility and significantly increased (P<0.01) the percentages of dead spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and acrosomal damage of spermatozoa. Moreover, the conception rates of she-camels artificially inseminated with whole fresh, extended cooled dromedary camel semen free-catalase enzyme and extended cooled dromedary camel semen supplemented with catalase enzyme at a concentration of 500 IU/ml were 46.15, 22.22 and 37.50%, respectively. In conclusion, the results show that addition of catalase enzyme at a concentration of 500 IU/ml to semen extender

  5. Hyperglycemia and survival rate in Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sin, Hye Yeon

    2014-06-01

    Current studies are debating on the association of higher admission blood glucose (BG) and increased mortality of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study evaluated association of mortality between admission BG and BG control in 222 patients with ACS who received coronary intervention in the intensive care unit. This study observed medical records through electronic medical record retrospectively and evaluated all patients who were admitted for the first attack of ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI), non-STEMI, and unstable angina pectoris. Admission BG higher than 220 mg/dl was statistically significantly associated with lower survival in patients; the association was stronger than in patients with admission BG higher than 140 mg/dl to less than 220 mg/dl and patients with admission BG less than 140 mg/dl (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.002). Survival time after admission was also associated with the history of diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients with diabetes had significantly lower survival than those without diabetes (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.028). Survival after ACS was not consistent with each insulin intervention of on admission to 6, 24, and 48 h after admission. There is a statistically significant association between admission BG higher than 220 mg/dl and low survival but each intervention of post admission BG levels were not consistently associated with the mortality. Additionally, history of DM is associated with lower survival in patients with ACS on admission.

  6. Genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival from linear, threshold, and logistic models in a multibreed beef cattle population.

    PubMed

    Guerra, J L L; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C

    2006-12-01

    Generalized mixed linear, threshold, and logistic sire models and Markov chain, Monte Carlo simulation procedures were used to estimate genetic parameters for calving rate and calf survival in a multibreed beef cattle population. Data were obtained from a 5-generation rotational crossbreeding study involving Angus, Brahman, Charolais, and Hereford (1969 to 1995). Gelbvieh and Simmental bulls sired terminal-cross calves from a sample of generation 5 cows. A total of 1,458 cows sired by 158 bulls had a mean calving rate of 78% based on 4,808 calving records. Ninety-one percent of 5,015 calves sired by 260 bulls survived to weaning. Mean heritability estimates and standard deviations for daughter calving rate from posterior distributions were 0.063 +/- 0.024, 0.150 +/- 0.049, and 0.130 +/- 0.047 for linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. For calf survival, mean heritability estimates and standard deviations from posterior distributions were 0.049 +/- 0.022, 0.160 +/- 0.058, and 0.190 +/- 0.078 from linear, threshold, and logistic models, respectively. When transformed to an underlying normal scale, linear sire, mixed model, heritability estimates were similar to threshold and logistic sire mixed model estimates. Posterior density distributions of estimated heritabilities from all models were normal. Spearman rank correlations between sire EPD across statistical models were greater than 0.97 for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. Sire EPD had similar ranges across statistical models for daughter calving rate and for calf survival. PMID:17093211

  7. A Population-Based Study of the Association of Prenatal Diagnosis With Survival Rate for Infants With Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Matthew E.; Kim, Christopher H.; Kusano, Aaron S.; Cragan, Janet D.; Dressler, Paul; Hales, Alice R.; Mahle, William T.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal diagnosis has been shown to improve preoperative morbidity in newborns with congenital heart defects (CHDs), but there are conflicting data as to the association with mortality. We performed a population-based, retrospective, cohort study of infants with prenatally versus postnatally diagnosed CHDs from 1994 to 2005 as ascertained by the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program. Among infants with isolated CHDs, we estimated 1-year Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities for prenatal versus postnatal diagnosis and estimated Cox proportional hazard ratios adjusted for critical CHD status, gestational age, and maternal race/ethnicity. Of 539,519 live births, 4,348 infants had CHDs (411 prenatally diagnosed). Compared with those with noncritical defects, those with critical defects were more likely to be prenatally diagnosed (58% vs 20%, respectively, p <0.001). Of the 3,146 infants with isolated CHDs, 1-year survival rate was 77% for those prenatally diagnosed (n = 207) versus 96% for those postnatally diagnosed (n = 2,939, p <0.001). Comparing 1-year survival rate among those with noncritical CHDs alone (n = 2,455) showed no difference between prenatal and postnatal diagnoses (96% vs 98%, respectively, p = 0.26), whereas among those with critical CHDs (n = 691), prenatally diagnosed infants had significantly lower survival rate (71% vs 86%, respectively, p <0.001). Among infants with critical CHDs, the adjusted hazard ratio for 1-year mortality rate for those prenatally versus postnatally (reference) diagnosed was 2.51 (95% confidence interval 1.72 to 3.66). In conclusion, prenatal diagnosis is associated with lower 1-year survival rate for infants with isolated critical CHDs but shows no change for those with isolated noncritical CHDs. More severe disease among the critical CHD subtypes diagnosed prenatally might explain these findings. PMID:24472597

  8. Esophageal cancer epidemiology in blacks and whites: racial and gender disparities in incidence, mortality, survival rates and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Baquet, Claudia R.; Commiskey, Patricia; Mack, Kelly; Meltzer, Stephen; Mishra, Shiraz I.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer rate disparities are pronounced for blacks and whites. This study presents black-white esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, relative survival rates, histology and trends for two five-year time periods--1991-1995 and 1996-2000--and for the time period 1991-2000. METHODS: The study used data from the National Cancer Institute's population-based Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program with submission dates 1991-2000. Age-adjusted incidence, mortality, relative survival rates and histology for esophageal carcinoma were calculated for nine SEER cancer registries for 1991-2000. Rates were analyzed by race and gender for changes over specified time periods. RESULTS: Esophageal cancer age-adjusted incidence of blacks was about twice that of whites (8.63 vs. 4.39/100,000, p < 0.05). Age-adjusted mortality for blacks, although showing a declining trend, was nearly twice that of whites (7.79 vs. 3.96, p < 0.05). Although survival was poor for all groups, it was significantly poorer in blacks than in whites. Squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly diagnosed in blacks and white females, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common among white males (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in esophageal cancer incidence, mortality, survival and histology exist. Survival rates from this disease have not significantly improved over the decade. These data support the need for advances in prevention, early detection biomarker research and research on new, more effective treatment modalities for this disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:16334494

  9. The influence of printing parameters on cell survival rate and printability in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yang; Mao, Shuangshuang; Sun, Wei; Yao, Rui

    2015-11-02

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell printing technology has provided a versatile methodology to fabricate cell-laden tissue-like constructs and in vitro tissue/pathological models for tissue engineering, drug testing and screening applications. However, it still remains a challenge to print bioinks with high viscoelasticity to achieve long-term stable structure and maintain high cell survival rate after printing at the same time. In this study, we systematically investigated the influence of 3D cell printing parameters, i.e. composition and concentration of bioink, holding temperature and holding time, on the printability and cell survival rate in microextrusion-based 3D cell printing technology. Rheological measurements were utilized to characterize the viscoelasticity of gelatin-based bioinks. Results demonstrated that the bioink viscoelasticity was increased when increasing the bioink concentration, increasing holding time and decreasing holding temperature below gelation temperature. The decline of cell survival rate after 3D cell printing process was observed when increasing the viscoelasticity of the gelatin-based bioinks. However, different process parameter combinations would result in the similar rheological characteristics and thus showed similar cell survival rate after 3D bioprinting process. On the other hand, bioink viscoelasticity should also reach a certain point to ensure good printability and shape fidelity. At last, we proposed a protocol for 3D bioprinting of temperature-sensitive gelatin-based hydrogel bioinks with both high cell survival rate and good printability. This research would be useful for biofabrication researchers to adjust the 3D bioprinting process parameters quickly and as a referable template for designing new bioinks.

  10. The distribution of Yin-Deficient symptoms and their relationship on survival rate in cancer patients with Yin-Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Chuan; Chen, Ming-Feng; Li, Tsai-Chung; Hsieh, Yu-Ho; Liu, Shwu-Jiuan

    2008-01-01

    Yin-Deficiency (YD), representing a status of the human body under lack of nutrition and fluid in traditional Chinese medicine, is commonly seen in late stage of cancer patients. It is not known whether the severity of YD related symptoms/signs can predict the survival rate of cancer patients. This study evaluated the distribution of Yin-deficiency symptoms/signs (YDS) in cancer patients with YD, and investigated whether the severity of YDS can predict the survival rate of cancer patients with YD. From 5 January 2007 to 5 May 2007, we selected 43 cancer patients with diagnosis of YD from hospitalized patients and outpatients. The severity of YD was evaluated by a questionnaire. We further estimated the cumulative probabilities of the survival rates over 4 months since the start of study by the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method, and compared the differences among groups with various severities in each symptom/sign with the use of the log-rank test. The results revealed that, the 3 most common YDS were sleeplessness with annoyance, less or non-coated tongue with or without redness and dry mouth. In the survival rate analysis, only 2 parameters, rapidly small pulse (p = 0.002) and less-or non-coated tongue with paleness (p = 0.017), were found to be related to the decrease of cancer patients with YD. This suggests that, both rapidly small pulse and less-or non-coated tongue without redness may be used as predictors for the estimation of survival rate in cancer patients with YD. PMID:18711763

  11. Risk factors for unplanned readmission within 30 days after pediatric neurosurgery: a nationwide analysis of 9799 procedures from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.

    PubMed

    Sherrod, Brandon A; Johnston, James M; Rocque, Brandon G

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Hospital readmission rate is increasingly used as a quality outcome measure after surgery. The purpose of this study was to establish, using a national database, the baseline readmission rates and risk factors for patient readmission after pediatric neurosurgical procedures. METHODS The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric database was queried for pediatric patients treated by a neurosurgeon between 2012 and 2013. Procedures were categorized by current procedural terminology (CPT) code. Patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, operative variables, and postoperative complications were analyzed via univariate and multivariate techniques to find associations with unplanned readmissions within 30 days of the primary procedure. RESULTS A total of 9799 cases met the inclusion criteria, 1098 (11.2%) of which had an unplanned readmission within 30 days. Readmission occurred 14.0 ± 7.7 days postoperatively (mean ± standard deviation). The 4 procedures with the highest unplanned readmission rates were CSF shunt revision (17.3%; CPT codes 62225 and 62230), repair of myelomeningocele > 5 cm in diameter (15.4%), CSF shunt creation (14.1%), and craniectomy for infratentorial tumor excision (13.9%). The lowest unplanned readmission rates were for spine (6.5%), craniotomy for craniosynostosis (2.1%), and skin lesion (1.0%) procedures. On multivariate regression analysis, the odds of readmission were greatest in patients experiencing postoperative surgical site infection (SSI; deep, organ/space, superficial SSI, and wound disruption: OR > 12 and p < 0.001 for each). Postoperative pneumonia (OR 4.294, p < 0.001), urinary tract infection (OR 4.262, p < 0.001), and sepsis (OR 2.616, p = 0.006) also independently increased the readmission risk. Independent patient risk factors for unplanned readmission included Native American race (OR 2.363, p = 0.019), steroid use > 10 days (OR 1.411, p = 0

  12. Risk factors for unplanned readmission within 30 days after pediatric neurosurgery: a nationwide analysis of 9799 procedures from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.

    PubMed

    Sherrod, Brandon A; Johnston, James M; Rocque, Brandon G

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE Hospital readmission rate is increasingly used as a quality outcome measure after surgery. The purpose of this study was to establish, using a national database, the baseline readmission rates and risk factors for patient readmission after pediatric neurosurgical procedures. METHODS The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program-Pediatric database was queried for pediatric patients treated by a neurosurgeon between 2012 and 2013. Procedures were categorized by current procedural terminology (CPT) code. Patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, operative variables, and postoperative complications were analyzed via univariate and multivariate techniques to find associations with unplanned readmissions within 30 days of the primary procedure. RESULTS A total of 9799 cases met the inclusion criteria, 1098 (11.2%) of which had an unplanned readmission within 30 days. Readmission occurred 14.0 ± 7.7 days postoperatively (mean ± standard deviation). The 4 procedures with the highest unplanned readmission rates were CSF shunt revision (17.3%; CPT codes 62225 and 62230), repair of myelomeningocele > 5 cm in diameter (15.4%), CSF shunt creation (14.1%), and craniectomy for infratentorial tumor excision (13.9%). The lowest unplanned readmission rates were for spine (6.5%), craniotomy for craniosynostosis (2.1%), and skin lesion (1.0%) procedures. On multivariate regression analysis, the odds of readmission were greatest in patients experiencing postoperative surgical site infection (SSI; deep, organ/space, superficial SSI, and wound disruption: OR > 12 and p < 0.001 for each). Postoperative pneumonia (OR 4.294, p < 0.001), urinary tract infection (OR 4.262, p < 0.001), and sepsis (OR 2.616, p = 0.006) also independently increased the readmission risk. Independent patient risk factors for unplanned readmission included Native American race (OR 2.363, p = 0.019), steroid use > 10 days (OR 1.411, p = 0

  13. [Effect of 30-day space flight and subsequent readaptation on the signaling processes in m. longissimus dorsi of mice].

    PubMed

    Mirzoev, T M; Vil'chinskaia, N A; Lomonosova, Iu N; Nemirovskaia, T L; Shenkman, B S

    2014-01-01

    Some steps of anabolic and catabolic signaling pathways were investigated in postural/tonic m. longissimus dorsi of mice following the 30-day orbital flight of biosatellite "Bion-M1" and 8-day recovery. Western blotting was used for determining insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and AMR-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in reciprocal regulation of anabolic and catabolic pathways, as well as E3-ligase MURF-1, and elongation factor eEF2. Functioning of the IGF-1-dependent IRS-1 signaling pathway was activated in the recovery period only. Though the content of ubiquitinligase MURF-1 showed an increase after flight, on completion of the recovery period it did not exceed the pre-flight level unambiguously.

  14. Income inequality and 30 day outcomes after acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lagu, Tara; Rothberg, Michael B; Avrunin, Jill; Pekow, Penelope S; Wang, Yongfei; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between income inequality and the risk of mortality and readmission within 30 days of hospitalization. Design Retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries in the United States. Hierarchical, logistic regression models were developed to estimate the association between income inequality (measured at the US state level) and a patient’s risk of mortality and readmission, while sequentially controlling for patient, hospital, other state, and patient socioeconomic characteristics. We considered a 0.05 unit increase in the Gini coefficient as a measure of income inequality. Setting US acute care hospitals. Participants Patients aged 65 years and older, and hospitalized in 2006-08 with a principal diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia. Main outcome measures Risk of death within 30 days of admission or rehospitalization for any cause within 30 days of discharge. The potential number of excess deaths and readmissions associated with higher levels of inequality in US states in the three highest quarters of income inequality were compared with corresponding data in US states in the lowest quarter. Results Mortality analyses included 555 962 admissions (4348 hospitals) for acute myocardial infarction, 1 092 285 (4484) for heart failure, and 1 146 414 (4520); readmission analyses included 553 037 (4262), 1 345 909 (4494), and 1 345 909 (4524) admissions, respectively. In 2006-08, income inequality in US states (as measured by the average Gini coefficient over three years) varied from 0.41 in Utah to 0.50 in New York. Multilevel models showed no significant association between income inequality and mortality within 30 days of admission for patients with acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, or pneumonia. By contrast, income inequality was associated with rehospitalization (acute myocardial infarction, risk ratio 1.09 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.15), heart failure 1

  15. Effect of a 30-day isolation stress on calcium, phosphorus and other excretory products in an unrestrained chimpanzee.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabbot, I. M.; Mcnew, J. J.; Hoshizaki, T.; Sedgwick, C. J.; Adey, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An unrestrained chimpanzee was studied in an isolation chamber and in his home cage environment. The study consisted of 49 urine collection days (14 days pre-, 5 days post- and 30 days of isolation), and then of 10 days in the home cage. Dietary intake, urine and fecal data were obtained. The effect of isolation on various excretory parameters was studied. Urine samples were analyzed for volume, osmolarity, creatinine, creatine, urea-N, 17-hydroxy corticosteroids, VMA, calcium and inorganic phosphorus. One way analyses of variance performed on the urinary excretion parameters showed all except creatinine excretion to vary significantly during periods of the study. The changes observed in calcium and phosphorus were highly significant. The data suggests that the calcium to phosphorus excretion ratio might serve as a physiological stress indicator of Selye's adaptation syndrome (period of resistance).

  16. Can the American College of Surgeons Risk Calculator Predict 30-Day Complications After Knee and Hip Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Adam I; Kwasny, Mary J; Suleiman, Linda I; Khakhkhar, Rishi H; Moore, Michael A; Beal, Matthew D; Manning, David W

    2015-09-01

    Accurate risk stratification of patients undergoing total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) arthroplasty is essential in the highly scrutinized world of pay-for-performance, value-driven healthcare. We assessed the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) surgical risk calculator's ability to predict 30-day complications using 1066 publicly-reported Medicare patients undergoing primary THA or TKA. Risk estimates were significantly associated with complications in the categories of any complication (P = .005), cardiac complication (P < .001), pneumonia (P < .001) and discharge to skilled nursing facility (P < .001). However, predictability of complication occurrence was poor for all complications assessed. To facilitate the equitable provision and reimbursement of patient care, further research is needed to develop accurate risk stratification tools in TKA and THA surgery. PMID:26165953

  17. Alterations of the in vivo torque-velocity relationship of human skeletal muscle following 30 days exposure to simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Gary A.; Duvoisin, Marc; Convertino, Victor A.; Buchanan, Paul

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a continuous 30-d-long 6-deg headdown bedrest (BR) on the force output ability of skeletal muscles was investigated in human subjects by measuring peak angle specific torque of the knee extensor (KE) and knee flexor (KF) muscle groups of both limbs during unilateral efforts at four speeds (0.52. 1.74, 2.97, and 4.19 rad/sec) during eccentric action. It was found that, for the KE muscle group, the headdown BR resulted in decreases, by 19 percent on the average, of peak angle specific torque; on the other hand, the strength of the KF muscles was not altered significantly. A post-BR recovery for 30 days was found to restore muscle strength of the KE muscle group to about 92 percent of the pre-BR values. Changes of strength were not affected by the type of speed of muscle action.

  18. Classifying emergency 30-day readmissions in England using routine hospital data 2004–2010: what is the scope for reduction?

    PubMed Central

    Blunt, Ian; Bardsley, Martin; Grove, Amy; Clarke, Aileen

    2015-01-01

    Background Many health systems across the globe have introduced arrangements to deny payment for patients readmitted to hospital as an emergency. The purpose of this study was to develop an exploratory categorisation based on likely causes of readmission, and then to assess the prevalence of these different types. Methods Retrospective analysis of 82 million routinely collected National Health Service hospital records in England (2004–2010) was undertaken using anonymised linkage of records at person-level. Numbers of 30-day readmissions were calculated. Exploratory categorisation of readmissions was applied using simple rules relating to International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnostic codes for both admission and readmission. Results There were 5 804 472 emergency 30-day readmissions over a 6-year period, equivalent to 7.0% of hospital discharges. Readmissions were grouped into hierarchically exclusive categories: potentially preventable readmission (1 739 519 (30.0% of readmissions)); anticipated but unpredictable readmission (patients with chronic disease or likely to need long-term care; 1 141 987 (19.7%)); preference-related readmission (53 718 (0.9%)); artefact of data collection (16 062 (0.3%)); readmission as a result of accident, coincidence or related to a different body system (1 101 818 (19.0%)); broadly related readmission (readmission related to the same body system (1 751 368 (30.2%)). Conclusions In this exploratory categorisation, a large minority of emergency readmissions (eg, those that are potentially preventable or due to data artefacts) fell into groups potentially amenable to immediate reduction. For other categories, a hospital's ability to reduce emergency readmission is less clear. Reduction strategies and payment incentives must be carefully tailored to achieve stated aims. PMID:24668396

  19. Study on the kinetic characteristics of trace harmful gases for a two-person-30-day integrated CELSS test.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Fei, Jinxue; Xu, Guoxin; Zeng, Gu; Shen, Yunze

    2015-05-01

    A two-person-30-day controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) integrated test was carried out, and more than 30 kinds of trace harmful gases including formaldehyde, benzene, and ammonia were measured and analyzed dynamically. The results showed that the kinds and quantities of the trace harmful gases presented a continuously fluctuating state during the experimental period, but none of them exceed the spacecraft maximum allowable concentration (SMAC). The results of the Pre-Test (with two persons without plants for 3 days) and the Test (with two persons and four kinds of plants for 30 days) showed that there are some notable differences for the compositions of the trace harmful gases; the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as toluene, hexane, and acetamide were searched out in the Pre-Test, but were not found in the Test. Moreover, the concentrations of the trace harmful gases such as acetic benzene, formaldehyde, and ammonia decreased greatly in the Test more than those in the Pre-Test, which means that the plants can purify these gases efficiently. In addition, the VOCs such as carbon monoxide, cyclopentane, and dichloroethylene were checked out in the Test but none in the Pre-Test, which indicates that these materials might be from the crew's metabolites or those devices in the platform. Additionally, the ethylene released specially by plants accumulated in the later period and its concentration reached nearly ten times of 0.05 mg m(-3) (maximum allowed concentration for plant growth, which must have promoted the later withering of plants). We hoped that the work can play a referring function for controlling VOCs effectively so that future more CELSS integrating tests can be implemented smoothly with more crew, longer period, and higher closure. PMID:25483969

  20. Study on the Dynamically Changing Law of Trace Contaminants for the 2-person-30-day Integrated CELSS Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuangsheng

    A 2-person-30-day Integrated CELSS Test was carried out recently, and more than 30 kinds of trace contaminants including formaldehyde, benzene and ammonia were measured and analyzed dynamically. The results showed that the kinds and quantities of trace contaminants presented a continuously fluctuating state during the experimental period, but all of them didn’t exceed the SMAC. The results of the pre-test (with 2 persons without plants for 3 days) and the formal test (with 2 persons and 4 kinds of plants for 30 days) showed that there are some notable differences for the compositions of the trace contaminants; the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as toluene, hexane and acetamide were searched out in the pre-test, but couldn’t be found in the formal test. Moreover, the concentrations of the trace gases such as acetic benzene, formaldehyde and ammonia decreased greatly in the formal test more than them in the pre-test, which means that the plants can purified these gases efficiently. In addition, the VOCs such as carbon monoxide, cyclopentane and dichloroethylene were checked out in the formal test but none in the pre-test, which means that these materials might be from cabin facilities or human metabolites. Additionally, the ethylene released specially by plants accumulated in the later period and its concentration reached nearly 10 times of MAC (50ppb), which must have promoted the earlier wane of plants. It’s hoped that the work can play a referring function for future more CELSS integrating test with more persons, longer time and higher material closure.

  1. Study on the kinetic characteristics of trace harmful gases for a two-person-30-day integrated CELSS test.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Fei, Jinxue; Xu, Guoxin; Zeng, Gu; Shen, Yunze

    2015-05-01

    A two-person-30-day controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) integrated test was carried out, and more than 30 kinds of trace harmful gases including formaldehyde, benzene, and ammonia were measured and analyzed dynamically. The results showed that the kinds and quantities of the trace harmful gases presented a continuously fluctuating state during the experimental period, but none of them exceed the spacecraft maximum allowable concentration (SMAC). The results of the Pre-Test (with two persons without plants for 3 days) and the Test (with two persons and four kinds of plants for 30 days) showed that there are some notable differences for the compositions of the trace harmful gases; the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as toluene, hexane, and acetamide were searched out in the Pre-Test, but were not found in the Test. Moreover, the concentrations of the trace harmful gases such as acetic benzene, formaldehyde, and ammonia decreased greatly in the Test more than those in the Pre-Test, which means that the plants can purify these gases efficiently. In addition, the VOCs such as carbon monoxide, cyclopentane, and dichloroethylene were checked out in the Test but none in the Pre-Test, which indicates that these materials might be from the crew's metabolites or those devices in the platform. Additionally, the ethylene released specially by plants accumulated in the later period and its concentration reached nearly ten times of 0.05 mg m(-3) (maximum allowed concentration for plant growth, which must have promoted the later withering of plants). We hoped that the work can play a referring function for controlling VOCs effectively so that future more CELSS integrating tests can be implemented smoothly with more crew, longer period, and higher closure.

  2. LBNP exercise protects aerobic capacity and sprint speed of female twins during 30 days of bed rest.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stuart M C; Schneider, Suzanne M; Boda, Wanda L; Watenpaugh, Donald E; Macias, Brandon R; Meyer, R Scott; Hargens, Alan R

    2009-03-01

    We have shown previously that treadmill exercise within lower body negative pressure (LBNPex) maintains upright exercise capacity (peak oxygen consumption, Vo(2peak)) in men after 5, 15, and 30 days of bed rest (BR). We hypothesized that LBNPex protects treadmill Vo(2peak) and sprint speed in women during a 30-day BR. Seven sets of female monozygous twins volunteered to participate. Within each twin set, one was randomly assigned to a control group (Con) and performed no countermeasures, and the other was assigned to an exercise group (Ex) and performed a 40-min interval (40-80% pre-BR Vo(2peak)) LBNPex (51 +/- 5 mmHg) protocol, plus 5 min of static LBNP, 6 days per week. Before and immediately after BR, subjects completed a 30.5-m sprint test and an upright graded treadmill test to volitional fatigue. These results in women were compared with previously reported reductions in Vo(2peak) and sprint speed in male twins after BR. In women, sprint speed (-8 +/- 2%) and Vo(2peak) (-6 +/- 2%) were not different after BR in the Ex group. In contrast, both sprint speed (-24 +/- 5%) and Vo(2peak) (-16 +/- 3%) were significantly less after BR in the Con group. The effect of BR on sprint speed and Vo(2peak) after BR was not different between women and men. We conclude that treadmill exercise within LBNP protects against BR-induced reductions in Vo(2peak) and sprint speed in women and should prove effective during long-duration spaceflight.

  3. Factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Marcelo Felipe; Kozak, Ana Carolina Leiroz Ferreira Botelho Maisano; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; de Godoy, Moacyr Fernandes; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Moscardini, Airton Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Left atrioventricular valve regurgitation is the most concerning residual lesion after surgical correction of atrioventricular septal defect. Objective To determine factors associated with moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of surgical repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect. Methods We assessed the results of 51 consecutive patients 14 years-old and younger presenting with incomplete atrioventricular septal defect that were operated on at our practice between 2002 and 2010. The following variables were considered: age, weight, absence of Down syndrome, grade of preoperative left atrioventricular valve regurgitation, abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve and the use of annuloplasty. The median age was 4.1 years; the median weight was 13.4 Kg; 37.2% had Down syndrome. At the time of preoperative evaluation, there were 23 cases with moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (45.1%). Abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve were found in 17.6%; annuloplasty was performed in 21.6%. Results At the time of postoperative evaluation, there were 12 cases with moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (23.5%). The variation between pre- and postoperative grades of left atrioventricular valve regurgitation of patients with atrioventricular valve malformation did not reach significance (P=0.26), unlike patients without such abnormalities (P=0.016). During univariate analysis, only absence of Down syndrome was statistically significant (P=0.02). However, after a multivariate analysis, none of the factors reached significance. Conclusion None of the factors studied was determinant of a moderate or greater left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within the first 30 days of repair of incomplete atrioventricular septal defect in the sample. Patients without abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve benefit more of the operation. PMID:26107451

  4. Anabolic and Catabolic Signaling Pathways in mouse Longissimus Dorsi after 30-day BION-M1 Spaceflight and Subsequent Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzoev, Timur; Blottner, Dieter; Shenkman, Boris; Lomonosova, Yulia; Vilchinskaya, Natalia; Nemirovskaya, Tatiana; Salanova, Michele

    The aim of the study was to analyze some of the key markers regulating anabolic and catabolic processes in mouse m. longissimus dorsi, an important back muscle system for trunk stabilization, following 30-day spaceflight and 8-day recovery period. C57/black mice were divided into 3 groups: 1) Vivarium Control (n=7), 2) Flight (n=5), 3) Recovery (n=5). The experiment was carried out in accordance with the rules of biomedical ethics certified by the Russian Academy of Sciences Committee on Bioethics. Using Western-blotting analysis we determined the content of IRS-1, p-AMPK, MURF-1 and eEF2 in m. longissimus dorsi. The content of IRS-1 in mice m. longissimus dorsi after the 30-day flight did not differ from the control group, however, in the Recovery group IRS-1 level was 80% higher (p<0.05) as compared to Control. Phospho-AMPK content remained unchanged. In the Recovery group there was an increase of eEF2 by 75% compared to the Control (p<0.05). After spaceflight MuRF-1 content was increased more than 2 times compared to the control animals. Thus, our findings showed that the work of the IRS-1 - dependent signaling pathway is only active in the recovery period. The content of the ubiquitin-ligase MURF-1 that takes parts in degrading myosin heavy chain was increased after the spaceflight, however, after 8-day recovery period MURF-1 level did not exceed the control indicating normalization of protein degradation in m. longissimus dorsi. The work was supported by the program of basic research of RAS and Federal Space Program of Russia for the period of 2006-2015.

  5. Long-term survival rates of gravity-assisted, adjustable differential pressure valves in infants with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Gebert, Anna-Felicitas; Schulz, Matthias; Schwarz, Karin; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2016-05-01

    OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment.

  6. Delayed implantation of nigral grafts improves survival of dopamine neurones and rate of functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, S R; Fawcett, J W; Dunnett, S B

    1999-04-26

    In order to test the hypothesis that poor survival of dopaminergic neurones in nigral transplants may be due, at least in part, to acute toxic changes in the host striatum within the first hour after injury, we experimentally evaluated the consequences of imposing a brief delay (20 min, 1 or 3 h) between positioning the injection cannula and extruding the graft tissue. A delay of as little as 1 h resulted in a three-fold increase in survival of dopamine neurones in the grafts and a more rapid abolition of amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry in the host animals. These results suggest that acute but rapidly resolving changes in the host striatal environment induced by the implantation procedure itself can have a significantly deleterious effect on the survival of embryonic nigral grafts. PMID:10363936

  7. High rates of long-term survival of deep-sea infauna in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, James R.

    1990-08-01

    Living bivalves ( Nucula, Thyasira), a gastropod ( Frigidoalvania brychia) and a calcareous foraminiferan ( Laticarinina pauperata), from 775 m depth in the northwest Atlantic, were maintained in the laboratory for 772 days to measure their survival. The organisms, <4 mm in size, were maintained at 1 atm and at 5°C in cups containing sediment and seawater. Over the 772 day period, 46% of all bivalves and one of two gastropods survived. Minimum estimates for survival of L. pauperata in six containers ranged from 0 to 67% for a 1-2 year period. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to maintain continental slope infauna in the laboratory for long periods of time. Such organisms could be used in experiments that examine their mobility, responses to different sediments and foods, and sizes and shapes of biogenic structures produced in sediments.

  8. Growth performance and survival rate of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1979) larvae using different doses of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Habib, Ahasan; Das, Nani Gopal; Hossain, M Belal

    2014-07-01

    The efficiency of probiotics (Ecomarine) in rearing of Macrobrachium rosenbergii larvae was evaluated in a commercial prawn hatchery for five weeks. Stage-1 (zero age) larvae (of length: 2 mm; weight: 0.12 mg) were stocked at the rate of 100 L(-1). The experiment determined the growth rate, survival rate of the larvae for the both treatment and control groups. Final average weight were found 8.39 ± 3.28E-04 and 8.18 ± 2.86E-04 mg and length were found 9.08 ± 0.649 and 9.02 ± 0.081 mm for treatment and control group respectively. Comparatively higher growth performance was observed in treatment than control. Post Larvae (PL) was first observed 20th days of culture in treatment tanks whereas PL in control tanks was found 24th days of culture. Survival rate was found 58 and 46% in treatment and control group respectively. There was significant (p < 0.05) survival rate between two experiment groups. This study revealed that probiotics could be better in quality seed production of M. rosenbergii while significant changes were not noticed in the physic-chemical parameters i.e., water temperature, salinity, DO, pH, nitrate-NO2, hardness and alkalinity observed in both the treatments.

  9. A comparison of injectable fluorescent marks in two genera of darters: Effects on survival and retention rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, J.H.; Angermeier, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Visible implant elastomer (VIE) and injectable photonic dye (IPD), two types of injectable fluorescent marks, have shown promise in previous applications in a variety of fishes but have not been extensively tested on darters. We marked a species from each of two genera of darters, Percina and Etheostoma, in a laboratory experiment to determine the influence of VIE and IPD marks on survival and the influences of mark type, location, and color on mark retention. Short-term (???80-d) survival was similar between marked and control specimens for both marks in both species. Over the long term (200-240 d), however, the survival rate for IPD-marked Roanoke darters P. roanoka was significantly lower than that for controls (50% versus 80%), whereas VIE-marked Roanoke darters had a survival rate (88%) similar to that of controls. Long-term survival of riverweed darters E. podostemone did not differ among groups. In Roanoke darters, the mark retention rate for IPD was significantly lower than that for VIE by day 80 of the experiment (80% versus 94%), and ventral IPD marks were retained with greater frequency than were dorsal IPD marks. In riverweed darters, retention was similar for VIE and IPD (79% versus 83%) in all body locations through day 240. In both species, yellow IPD marks exhibited higher retention rates than did green IPD marks, whereas the reverse was true for yellow and green VIE marks. Overall, VIE was a superior mark in the Percina representative but performed similarly to IPD in Etheostoma. Because of interspecific and intraspecific variability in mark performance, we recommend a pilot study before initiating field use of injectable marks in untested species.

  10. Precise calculation of a bond percolation transition and survival rates of nodes in a complex network.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition.

  11. Precise Calculation of a Bond Percolation Transition and Survival Rates of Nodes in a Complex Network

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Hirokazu; Takayasu, Hideki; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft; Takayasu, Misako

    2015-01-01

    Through precise numerical analysis, we reveal a new type of universal loopless percolation transition in randomly removed complex networks. As an example of a real-world network, we apply our analysis to a business relation network consisting of approximately 3,000,000 links among 300,000 firms and observe the transition with critical exponents close to the mean-field values taking into account the finite size effect. We focus on the largest cluster at the critical point, and introduce survival probability as a new measure characterizing the robustness of each node. We also discuss the relation between survival probability and k-shell decomposition. PMID:25885791

  12. Comparison of in vivo and in vitro survival and fecundity rates of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Arkle, S; George, D R; Guy, J H; Sparagano, O A E

    2010-04-01

    To assist in the testing of possible antigens in developing a vaccine against the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer), a rapid and reliable in vitro screening method is critical. This short paper describes how D. gallinae survival and fecundity rates in an in vivo feeding device compared to that of mites fed using an in vitro method. Results showed that survival of fed D. gallinae females and mites overall was greater in vitro, although there was no difference between male survival and fecundity between in vivo and in vitro designs. The in vitro feeding device described therefore has the potential to provide reliable results, comparable to those obtained by in vivo testing, to allow for the rapid screening of D. gallinae antigens.

  13. Smolt Monitoring Program Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian; Carmichael, Richard

    2003-05-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2001 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2002. We tagged 20,998 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,920 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 21 March 2002 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 17 April 2002. We tagged 20,973 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,796 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning 1 April 2001 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the ponds were forced out on 15 April 2001. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2002, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Imnaha River stock and Lostine River stock survival rates were similar and were higher than the survival rate of Catherine Creek stock. We PIT-tagged 20,950 BY 2001 Imnaha River stock and 20,820 BY 2001 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny in October 2002 as part of the CSS for MY 2003. At the time the fish were transferred from Lookingglass Hatchery to the acclimation site, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.14% and 0.06%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.57% and 0.31%, respectively. There was slightly elevated mortality, primarily from BKD, in one raceway of Catherine Creek stock at Lookingglass Hatchery for BY 2001.

  14. Contemporary phase III clinical trial endpoints in advanced ovarian cancer: assessing the pros and cons of objective response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival.

    PubMed

    Tate Thigpen, J

    2015-01-01

    Among gynecologic cancers, ovarian cancer provides the greatest challenge because 75% to 80% of patients present with stage III/IV disease. Over the last 40 years, a series of large trials conducted by the Gynecologic Oncology Group and other cooperative groups has produced striking improvements in patient outcome; but the majority still dies of their disease. Further research in both the laboratory and the clinic is essential to continued improvement in patient management. Clinical trials, however, have become a major challenge because of issues with trial endpoints. Historically, overall survival (OS) has been regarded as the "gold standard" of endpoints. Lack of effective treatment for patients who progressed on or recurred after front-line therapy allowed trials to avoid obfuscation of OS by post-progression therapy. More recently, studies have identified over 20 agents active against ovarian cancer. Reasonable evidence shows that effective post-progression therapy with multiple lines of active agents can render the survival endpoint uninterpretable. Two other endpoints avoid this problem. The objective response rate, assessed by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), is an accepted endpoint for accelerated approval in ovarian cancer. More importantly, progression-free survival (PFS), measured from study entry to progression of disease, avoids post-progression therapy completely. Without effective post-progression therapy (prior to 1990), data show that PFS is a surrogate for OS. Recent experience with 4 large trials of bevacizumab shows that PFS can be accurately assessed if progression is clearly defined and if timing of assessments is consistent in all study arms. Acceptance of PFS as the optimal endpoint for ovarian cancer trials by investigators and regulatory agencies is crucial to further advances in management because effective post-progression therapy has rendered differences in OS virtually impossible to assess reliably.

  15. [Recurrence and survival rate of advanced gastric cancer after preoperative EAP-II intra-arterial infusion therapy].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, M; Taniguchi, H; Takeuchi, K; Miyata, K; Koyama, H; Tanaka, H; Higashida, T; Koishi, Y; Mugitani, T; Yamaguchi, T

    1994-09-01

    Ninety-eight patients with advanced gastric cancers underwent gastrectomy from Jan. 1989 to Dec. 1991. For these patients, preoperative intra-arterial injection therapy using EAP-II (etoposide 100 mg, epirubicin 20 mg, carboplatin 100 mg) was given to 24 patients. In this report, the recurrence and survival rate of these patients were investigated. After curative resection, the survival rate of patients with EAP-II 36 months after operation was 76.9%, while that of patients without EAP-II was 78.6%. There were no significant differences between these two groups. Two peritoneal carcinomatoses and two liver metastases were seen in patients with EAP-II (recurrence rate, 30.7%). Eight recurrences were observed in patients without preoperative injection therapy (peritoneal dissemination, 4; local recurrence, 3; lymph node recurrence, 1). Previously, we reported that drugs were remarkably accumulated in gastric cancer tissue and regional lymph nodes after EAP-II intra-arterial injection therapy. This high accumulation might cause no local or lymph node recurrence was seen in patient with EAP-II. Thus, it was concluded that preoperative EAP-II intra-arterial injection may prevent local and lymph node recurrences, and that further study of the combination and dose of anti-cancer drug needed to improve the postoperative survival rate in advanced gastric cancer patients.

  16. Survival Rate of Resin and Ceramic Inlays, Onlays, and Overlays: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Rebello de Sampaio, F B W; Braga, M M; Sesma, N; Özcan, M

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the survival rate of ceramic and resin inlays, onlays, and overlays and to identify the complication types associated with the main clinical outcomes. Two reviewers searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published between 1983 through April 2015, conforming to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. Clinical studies meeting the following criteria were included: 1) studies related to resin and ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays; 2) prospective, retrospective, or randomized controlled trials conducted in humans; 3) studies with a dropout rate of less than 30%; and 4) studies with a follow-up longer than 5 y. Of 1,389 articles, 14 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-regression indicated that the type of ceramic material (feldspathic porcelain vs. glass-ceramic), study design (retrospective vs. prospective), follow-up time (5 vs. 10 y), and study setting (university vs. private clinic) did not affect the survival rate. Estimated survival rates for glass-ceramics and feldspathic porcelain were between 92% and 95% at 5 y (n = 5,811 restorations) and were 91% at 10 y (n = 2,154 restorations). Failures were related to fractures/chipping (4%), followed by endodontic complications (3%), secondary caries (1%), debonding (1%), and severe marginal staining (0%). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.19 (0.04 to 0.96) and 0.54 (0.17 to 1.69) for pulp vitality and type of tooth involved (premolars vs. molars), respectively. Ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays showed high survival rates at 5 y and 10 y, and fractures were the most frequent cause of failure.

  17. Survival Rate of Resin and Ceramic Inlays, Onlays, and Overlays: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, S; Rebello de Sampaio, F B W; Braga, M M; Sesma, N; Özcan, M

    2016-08-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the survival rate of ceramic and resin inlays, onlays, and overlays and to identify the complication types associated with the main clinical outcomes. Two reviewers searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for articles published between 1983 through April 2015, conforming to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines for systematic reviews. Clinical studies meeting the following criteria were included: 1) studies related to resin and ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays; 2) prospective, retrospective, or randomized controlled trials conducted in humans; 3) studies with a dropout rate of less than 30%; and 4) studies with a follow-up longer than 5 y. Of 1,389 articles, 14 met the inclusion criteria. The meta-regression indicated that the type of ceramic material (feldspathic porcelain vs. glass-ceramic), study design (retrospective vs. prospective), follow-up time (5 vs. 10 y), and study setting (university vs. private clinic) did not affect the survival rate. Estimated survival rates for glass-ceramics and feldspathic porcelain were between 92% and 95% at 5 y (n = 5,811 restorations) and were 91% at 10 y (n = 2,154 restorations). Failures were related to fractures/chipping (4%), followed by endodontic complications (3%), secondary caries (1%), debonding (1%), and severe marginal staining (0%). Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.19 (0.04 to 0.96) and 0.54 (0.17 to 1.69) for pulp vitality and type of tooth involved (premolars vs. molars), respectively. Ceramic inlays, onlays, and overlays showed high survival rates at 5 y and 10 y, and fractures were the most frequent cause of failure. PMID:27287305

  18. Scoring Systems to Estimate Intracerebral Control and Survival Rates of Patients Irradiated for Brain Metastases;Brain metastases; Radiation therapy; Local control; Survival; Prognostic scores

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Dziggel, Liesa; Haatanen, Tiina; Veninga, Theo; Lohynska, Radka; Dunst, Juergen; Schild, Steven E.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To create and validate scoring systems for intracerebral control (IC) and overall survival (OS) of patients irradiated for brain metastases. Methods and Materials: In this study, 1,797 patients were randomly assigned to the test (n = 1,198) or the validation group (n = 599). Two scoring systems were developed, one for IC and another for OS. The scores included prognostic factors found significant on multivariate analyses. Age, performance status, extracerebral metastases, interval tumor diagnosis to RT, and number of brain metastases were associated with OS. Tumor type, performance status, interval, and number of brain metastases were associated with IC. The score for each factor was determined by dividing the 6-month IC or OS rate (given in percent) by 10. The total score represented the sum of the scores for each factor. The score groups of the test group were compared with the corresponding score groups of the validation group. Results: In the test group, 6-month IC rates were 17% for 14-18 points, 49% for 19-23 points, and 77% for 24-27 points (p < 0.0001). IC rates in the validation group were 19%, 52%, and 77%, respectively (p < 0.0001). In the test group, 6-month OS rates were 9% for 15-19 points, 41% for 20-25 points, and 78% for 26-30 points (p < 0.0001). OS rates in the validation group were 7%, 39%, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Patients irradiated for brain metastases can be given scores to estimate OS and IC. IC and OS rates of the validation group were similar to the test group demonstrating the validity and reproducibility of both scores.

  19. Utility of models to predict 28-day or 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions: an updated systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Huaqiong; Della, Phillip R; Roberts, Pamela; Goh, Louise; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update previous systematic review of predictive models for 28-day or 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions. Design Systematic review. Setting/data source CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE from 2011 to 2015. Participants All studies of 28-day and 30-day readmission predictive model. Outcome measures Characteristics of the included studies, performance of the identified predictive models and key predictive variables included in the models. Results Of 7310 records, a total of 60 studies with 73 unique predictive models met the inclusion criteria. The utilisation outcome of the models included all-cause readmissions, cardiovascular disease including pneumonia, medical conditions, surgical conditions and mental health condition-related readmissions. Overall, a wide-range C-statistic was reported in 56/60 studies (0.21–0.88). 11 of 13 predictive models for medical condition-related readmissions were found to have consistent moderate discrimination ability (C-statistic ≥0.7). Only two models were designed for the potentially preventable/avoidable readmissions and had C-statistic >0.8. The variables ‘comorbidities’, ‘length of stay’ and ‘previous admissions’ were frequently cited across 73 models. The variables ‘laboratory tests’ and ‘medication’ had more weight in the models for cardiovascular disease and medical condition-related readmissions. Conclusions The predictive models which focused on general medical condition-related unplanned hospital readmissions reported moderate discriminative ability. Two models for potentially preventable/avoidable readmissions showed high discriminative ability. This updated systematic review, however, found inconsistent performance across the included unique 73 risk predictive models. It is critical to define clearly the utilisation outcomes and the type of accessible data source before the selection of the predictive model. Rigorous validation of the predictive models with moderate-to-high discriminative

  20. Immunohistochemical study of motoneurons in lumbar spinal cord of c57black/6 mice after 30-days space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyapkina, Oksana; Islamov, Rustem; Nurullin, Leniz; Petrov, Konstantin.; Rezvyakov, Pavel; Nikolsky, Evgeny

    To investigate mechanisms of hypogravity motor syndrome development the immunoexpression of heat shock proteins (Hsp27 and Hsp70), proteins of synaptic transmission (Synaptophysin and PSD95) and neuroprotective proteins (VEGF and Flt-1) in motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in c57black/6 control mice (n=2) and after 30-days space flight (n=2) was studied. For a quantitative assessment of target proteins level in motoneurons frozen cross sections of lumbar spinal cord were underwent to immunohistochemical staining. Primary antibodies against VEGF, Flt-1, Hsp27 and Hsp70 (SantaCruz Biotechnology, inc. USA), against Synaptophysin and PSD95 (Abcam plc, UK) were visualized by streptavidin-biotin method. Images of spinal cords were received using OlympusBX51WI microscope with AxioCamMRm camera (CarlZeiss, Germany) and the AxioVisionRel. 4.6.3 software (CarlZeiss, Germany). The digitized data were analyzed using ImageJ 1.43 software (NIH, the USA). Quantitively, protein level in motoneurons was estimated by the density of immunoprecipitation. Results of research have not revealed any reliable changes in the immunnoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its Flt-1 receptor in motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in control and in mice after 30-day space flight. Studying of heat shock proteins, such as Hsp27 and Hsp70, revealed the decrease in level of these proteins immunoexpression in motoneurons of mice from flight group by 15% and 10%, respectively. Some decrease in level of immunnoexpression of presynaptic membrane proteins (synaptophysin, by 21%) and proteins of postsynaptic area (PSD95, by 55%) was observed after space flight. The data obtained testify to possible changes in a functional state (synaptic activity and stress resistance) of motoneurons of lumbar spinal cord in mice after space flight. Thus, we obtained new data on involvement of motoneurons innervating skeletal muscles in development of hypogravity motor syndrome. Research was supported

  1. Controls on Arctic sea ice from first-year and multi-year survival rates

    SciTech Connect

    Hunke, Jes

    2009-01-01

    The recent decrease in Arctic sea ice cover has transpired with a significant loss of multi year ice. The transition to an Arctic that is populated by thinner first year sea ice has important implications for future trends in area and volume. Here we develop a reduced model for Arctic sea ice with which we investigate how the survivability of first year and multi year ice control the mean state, variability, and trends in ice area and volume.

  2. Effect of Hospital Use of Oral Nutritional Supplementation on Length of Stay, Hospital Cost, and 30-Day Readmissions Among Medicare Patients With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Snider, Julia Thornton; Linthicum, Mark T.; Hegazi, Refaat A.; Partridge, Jamie S.; LaVallee, Chris; Lakdawalla, Darius N.; Wischmeyer, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Patients with COPD are at a high risk of nutritional deficiency, which is associated with declines in respiratory function, lean body mass and strength, and immune function. Although oral nutritional supplementation (ONS) has been associated with improvements in some of these domains, the impact of hospital ONS on readmission risk, length of stay (LOS), and cost among hospitalized patients is unknown. METHODS: Using the Premier Research Database, we first identified Medicare patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of COPD. We then identified hospitalizations in which ONS was provided, and used propensity-score matching to compare LOS, hospitalization cost, and 30-day readmission rates in a one-to-one matched sample of ONS and non-ONS hospitalizations. To further address selection bias among patients prescribed ONS, we also used instrumental variables analysis to study the association of ONS with study outcomes. Model covariates included patient and provider characteristics and a time trend. RESULTS: Out of 10,322 ONS hospitalizations and 368,097 non-ONS hospitalizations, a one-to-one matched sample was created (N = 14,326). In unadjusted comparisons in the matched sample, ONS use was associated with longer LOS (8.7 days vs 6.9 days, P < .0001), higher hospitalization cost ($14,223 vs $9,340, P < .0001), and lower readmission rates (24.8% vs 26.6%, P = .0116). However, in instrumental variables analysis, ONS use was associated with a 1.9-day (21.5%) decrease in LOS, from 8.8 to 6.9 days (P < .01); a hospitalization cost reduction of $1,570 (12.5%), from $12,523 to $10,953 (P < .01); and a 13.1% decrease in probability of 30-day readmission, from 0.34 to 0.29 (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: ONS may be associated with reduced LOS, hospitalization cost, and readmission risk in hospitalized Medicare patients with COPD. PMID:25357165

  3. Effects of Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the survival, feeding, respiratory rate and ionic regulation of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Gong, Qiyang; Li, Yanwei; Dan, Xueming; Sun, Peng; Gao, Quanxin; Shi, Zhaohong; Peng, Shiming; Li, Anxing

    2014-02-01

    To clarify the effects of a Cryptocaryon irritans infection on the physiological functions of the marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus, this study utilized C. irritans at concentrations of 2500; 5000; 7500; 10,000; 20,000; and 30,000 theronts/fish to infect marbled rockfish weighing 45 ± 3 g. The survival rate, food intake, respiratory rate, serum ion concentrations and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity were determined. With the increase of the infection concentration and the passage of time, the survival rate of the rockfish gradually decreased. The groups infected with more than 5000 theronts/fish had stopped feeding within 4 days. The respiratory rates of the fish in the groups infected with 2500 and 5000 theronts/fish initially increased and then decreased. In contrast, the respiratory rate of the fish in the groups infected with more than 7500 theronts/fish was elevated to levels significantly higher than the control group after 12 h. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity and serum Na+ and Cl- concentrations increased with increasing infection concentration. In conclusion, the physiological functions of the fish infected with low concentrations of C. irritans can be effectively restored, whereas a high concentration infection induced severe stress. The declined food intake and accelerated respiratory rate could be useful for an early warning system as important indicators.

  4. Increased in vivo glucose utilization in 30-day-old obese Zucker rat: Role of white adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Krief, S.; Bazin, R.; Dupuy, F.; Lavau, M. )

    1988-03-01

    In vivo whole-body glucose utilization and uptake in multiple individual tissues were investigated in conscious 30-day-old Zucker rats, which when obese are hyperphagic, hyperinsulinemic, and normoglycemic. Whole-body glucose metabolism (assessed by (3-{sup 3}H)glucose) was 40% higher in obese (fa/fa) than in lean (Fa/fa) rats, suggesting that obese rats were quite responsive to their hyperinsulinemia. In obese compared with lean rats, tissue glucose uptake was increased by 15, 12, and 6 times in dorsal, inguinal, perigonadal white depots, respectively; multiplied by 2.5 in brown adipose tissue; increased by 50% in skin from inguinal region but not in that from cranial, thoracic, or dorsal area; and increased twofold in diaphragm but similar in heart in proximal intestine, and in total muscular mass of limbs. The data establish that in young obese rats the hypertrophied white adipose tissue was a major glucose-utilizing tissue whose capacity for glucose disposal compared with that of half the muscular mass. Adipose tissue could therefore play an important role in the homeostasis of glucose in obese rats in the face of their increased carbohydrate intake.

  5. Factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Marcelo Felipe; Kozak, Ana Carolina Leiroz Ferreira Botelho Maisano; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; Hassem Sobrinho Junior, Sirio; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; Moscardini, Airton Camacho

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Left atrioventricular valve regurgitation is the most concerning residual lesion after surgical correction of atrioventricular septal defects. Objective To determine factors associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation within 30 days of surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect. Methods We assessed the results of 53 consecutive patients 3 years-old and younger presenting with complete atrioventricular septal defect that were operated on at our practice between 2002 and 2010. The following variables were considered: age, weight, absence of Down syndrome, grade of preoperative atrioventricular valve regurgitation, abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve and the use of annuloplasty. Median age was 6.7 months; median weight was 5.3 Kg; 86.8% had Down syndrome. At the time of preoperative evaluation, there were 26 cases with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (49.1%). Abnormalities on the left atrioventricular valve were found in 11.3%; annuloplasty was performed in 34% of the patients. Results At the time of postoperative evaluation, there were 21 cases with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (39.6%). After performing a multivariate analysis, the only significant factor associated with moderate or severe left atrioventricular valve regurgitation was the absence of Down syndrome (P=0.03). Conclusion Absence of Down syndrome was associated with moderate or severe postoperative left atrioventricular valve regurgitation after surgical repair of complete atrioventricular septal defect at our practice. PMID:26313720

  6. The migraine generator revisited: continuous scanning of the migraine cycle over 30 days and three spontaneous attacks.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Laura H; May, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Functional imaging using positron emission tomography and later functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed a particular brainstem area that is believed to be specifically activated in migraine during, but not outside of the attack, and consequently has been coined the 'migraine generator'. However, the pathophysiological concept behind this term is not undisputed and typical migraine premonitory symptoms such as fatigue and yawning, but also a typical association of attacks to circadian and menstrual cycles, all make the hypothalamus a possible regulating region of migraine attacks. Neuroimaging studies investigating native human migraine attacks however are scarce and for methodological but also clinical reasons there are currently no studies investigating the last 24 h before headache onset. Here we report a migraine patient who had magnetic resonance imaging every day for 30 days, always in the morning, to cover, using functional imaging, a whole month and three complete, untreated migraine attacks. We found that hypothalamic activity as a response to trigeminal nociceptive stimulation is altered during the 24 h prior to pain onset, i.e. increases towards the next migraine attack. More importantly, the hypothalamus shows altered functional coupling with the spinal trigeminal nuclei and the region of the migraine generator, i.e. the dorsal rostral pons during the preictal day and the pain phase of native human migraine attacks. These data suggest that although the brainstem is highly linked to the migraine biology, the real driver of attacks might be the functional changes in hypothalamo-brainstem connectivity.

  7. Comparison of drug survival rates for tumor necrosis factor antagonists in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Santana, Virginia; González-Sarmiento, E; Calleja-Hernández, MA; Sánchez-Sánchez, T

    2013-01-01

    Background Persistence of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an overall marker of treatment success. Objective To assess the survival of anti-TNF treatment and to define the potential predictors of drug discontinuation in RA, in order to verify the adequacy of current practices. Design An observational, descriptive, longitudinal, retrospective study. Setting The Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain. Patients RA patients treated with anti-TNF therapy between January 2011 and January 2012. Measurements Demographic information and therapy assessments were gathered from medical and pharmaceutical records. Data is expressed as means (standard deviations) for quantitative variables and frequency distribution for qualitative variables. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was used to assess persistence, and Cox multivariate regression models were used to assess potential predictors of treatment discontinuation. Results In total, 126 treatment series with infliximab (n = 53), etanercept (n = 51) or adalimumab (n = 22) were administered to 91 patients. Infliximab has mostly been used as a first-line treatment, but it was the drug with the shortest time until a change of treatment. Significant predictors of drug survival were: age; the anti-TNF agent; and the previous response to an anti-TNF drug. Limitation The small sample size. Conclusion The overall efficacy of anti-TNF drugs diminishes with time, with infliximab having the shortest time until a change of treatment. The management of biologic therapy in patients with RA should be reconsidered in order to achieve disease control with a reduction in costs. PMID:24023512

  8. Predictors of long time survival after lung cancer surgery: A retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Kjetil; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund; Hatlen, Elisabeth; Sørensen, Karina Søvik; Hole, Torstein; Haaverstad, Rune

    2008-01-01

    Background There have been few reports regarding long time survival after lung cancer surgery. The influence of age and pulmonary function on long time survival is still not fully discovered. Some reports suggest that hospitals with a high surgical volume have better results. The aim of this study was to evaluate lung cancer surgery performed in a county hospital in terms of 30 days mortality, complications and predictors of long time survival. Methods All patients operated with non-small cell lung cancer in the period 1993–2006 were reviewed, and 148 patients were included in the study. 30 days mortality and complications were analyzed by univariate analysis. Kaplan Meier plots were performed to display some of the univariate variables. Cox regression analysis was performed to find Hazard Ratios (HR) that predicted long time survival in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results The overall 30 days mortality rate was 2.7%, whereas 36.3% had one or more complications after surgery. The median survival time was 3.4 years. In multivariate Cox regression analysis advanced preoperative stage predicted reduced long time survival with HR (95%CI) 1.63 (0.92, 2.89) and 4.16 (1.92, 9.05) for patients in stage IB and II-IV respectively, when compared to patients in stage IA. Age ≥ 70 years and FEV1<80% predicted reduced long time survival with HR (95%CI) 2.23 (1.41, 3.54) and 1.93 (1.14, 3.28) respectively, compared to age<70 years and FEV1 ≥ 80%. Conclusion Thirty days mortality and complication rate showed that lung cancer surgery can be performed safely in a county hospital with experienced thoracic surgeons. Early preoperative stage, age below 70 years and normal pulmonary function predicted long time survival. PMID:18954454

  9. Survival thresholds and mortality rates in adaptive dynamics: conciliating deterministic and stochastic simulations.

    PubMed

    Perthame, Benoît; Gauduchon, Mathias

    2010-09-01

    Deterministic population models for adaptive dynamics are derived mathematically from individual-centred stochastic models in the limit of large populations. However, it is common that numerical simulations of both models fit poorly and give rather different behaviours in terms of evolution speeds and branching patterns. Stochastic simulations involve extinction phenomenon operating through demographic stochasticity, when the number of individual 'units' is small. Focusing on the class of integro-differential adaptive models, we include a similar notion in the deterministic formulations, a survival threshold, which allows phenotypical traits in the population to vanish when represented by few 'individuals'. Based on numerical simulations, we show that the survival threshold changes drastically the solution; (i) the evolution speed is much slower, (ii) the branching patterns are reduced continuously and (iii) these patterns are comparable to those obtained with stochastic simulations. The rescaled models can also be analysed theoretically. One can recover the concentration phenomena on well-separated Dirac masses through the constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the limit of small mutations and large observation times. PMID:19734200

  10. EVALUATION OF THE MORTALITY RATE ONE YEAR AFTER HIP FRACTURE AND FACTORS RELATING TO DIMINISHED SURVIVAL AMONG ELDERLY PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Guilherme; Longaray, Maurício Portal; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Neto, Ary da Silva Ungaretti; Manente, Marislei; Barbosa, Luíza Barbosa Horta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the mortality rate after one year and correlated preoperative factors, among patients with hip fractures. Methods: We prospectively studied 202 out of a total of 376 patients with a diagnosis of hip fracture who were admitted to the Hospital Cristo Redentor, between October 2007 and March 2009. The database with the epidemiological analysis was set up during their hospitalization, and follow–up data were obtained preferentially by phone. Results: The overall mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7% or 58 deaths, among which 11 (5.45%) occurred during hospitalization. Fractures were more prevalent among women (71.3%) and rare among blacks (5%). Among the comorbidities, dementia and depression showed a statistically significant reduction in survival (p = 0.018 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusion: The mortality rate after one year of follow-up was 28.7%. Dementia and depression increased this rate. PMID:27042638

  11. Evaluation of ultrastructure and random effects band recovery models for estimating relationships between survival and harvest rates in exploited populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otis, D.L.; White, Gary C.

    2004-01-01

    Increased population survival rate after an episode of seasonal exploitation is considered a type of compensatory population response. Lack of an increase is interpreted as evidence that exploitation results in added annual mortality in the population. Despite its importance to management of exploited species, there are limited statistical techniques for comparing relative support for these two alternative models. For exploited bird species, the most common technique is to use a fixed effect, deterministic ultrastructure model incorporated into band recovery models to estimate the relationship between harvest and survival rate. We present a new likelihood-based technique within a framework that assumes that survival and harvest are random effects that covary through time. We conducted a Monte Carlo simulation study under this framework to evaluate the performance of these two techniques. The ultrastructure models performed poorly in all simulated scenarios, due mainly to pathological distributional properties. The random effects estimators and their associated estimators of precision had relatively small negative bias under most scenarios, and profile likelihood intervals achieved nominal coverage. We suggest that the random effects estimation method approach has many advantages compared to the ultrastructure models, and that evaluation of robustness and generalization to more complex population structures are topics for additional research. ?? 2004 Museu de Cie??ncies Naturals.

  12. A Public-Private Partnership Develops and Externally Validates a 30-Day Hospital Readmission Risk Prediction Model

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Shahid A.; Li, Jing; Davis, Darcy; Erdmann, Cole; Sikka, Rishi; Sutariya, Bharat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Preventing the occurrence of hospital readmissions is needed to improve quality of care and foster population health across the care continuum. Hospitals are being held accountable for improving transitions of care to avert unnecessary readmissions. Advocate Health Care in Chicago and Cerner (ACC) collaborated to develop all-cause, 30-day hospital readmission risk prediction models to identify patients that need interventional resources. Ideally, prediction models should encompass several qualities: they should have high predictive ability; use reliable and clinically relevant data; use vigorous performance metrics to assess the models; be validated in populations where they are applied; and be scalable in heterogeneous populations. However, a systematic review of prediction models for hospital readmission risk determined that most performed poorly (average C-statistic of 0.66) and efforts to improve their performance are needed for widespread usage. Methods: The ACC team incorporated electronic health record data, utilized a mixed-method approach to evaluate risk factors, and externally validated their prediction models for generalizability. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied on the patient cohort and then split for derivation and internal validation. Stepwise logistic regression was performed to develop two predictive models: one for admission and one for discharge. The prediction models were assessed for discrimination ability, calibration, overall performance, and then externally validated. Results: The ACC Admission and Discharge Models demonstrated modest discrimination ability during derivation, internal and external validation post-recalibration (C-statistic of 0.76 and 0.78, respectively), and reasonable model fit during external validation for utility in heterogeneous populations. Conclusions: The ACC Admission and Discharge Models embody the design qualities of ideal prediction models. The ACC plans to continue its partnership to

  13. A contemporary risk model for predicting 30-day mortality following percutaneous coronary intervention in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Katherine S.L.; Ludman, Peter F.; Hulme, William; de Belder, Mark A.; Stables, Rodney; Chowdhary, Saqib; Mamas, Mamas A.; Sperrin, Matthew; Buchan, Iain E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The current risk model for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the UK is based on outcomes of patients treated in a different era of interventional cardiology. This study aimed to create a new model, based on a contemporary cohort of PCI treated patients, which would: predict 30 day mortality; provide good discrimination; and be well calibrated across a broad risk-spectrum. Methods and results The model was derived from a training dataset of 336,433 PCI cases carried out between 2007 and 2011 in England and Wales, with 30 day mortality provided by record linkage. Candidate variables were selected on the basis of clinical consensus and data quality. Procedures in 2012 were used to perform temporal validation of the model. The strongest predictors of 30-day mortality were: cardiogenic shock; dialysis; and the indication for PCI and the degree of urgency with which it was performed. The model had an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.85 on the training data and 0.86 on validation. Calibration plots indicated a good model fit on development which was maintained on validation. Conclusion We have created a contemporary model for PCI that encompasses a range of clinical risk, from stable elective PCI to emergency primary PCI and cardiogenic shock. The model is easy to apply and based on data reported in national registries. It has a high degree of discrimination and is well calibrated across the risk spectrum. The examination of key outcomes in PCI audit can be improved with this risk-adjusted model. PMID:26942330

  14. The statistical extended-range (10-30-day) forecast of summer rainfall anomalies over the entire China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The extended-range (10-30-day) rainfall forecast over the entire China was carried out using spatial-temporal projection models (STPMs). Using a rotated empirical orthogonal function analysis of intraseasonal (10-80-day) rainfall anomalies, China is divided into ten sub-regions. Different predictability sources were selected for each of the ten regions. The forecast skills are ranked for each region. Based on temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) and Gerrity skill score, useful skills are found for most parts of China at a 20-25-day lead. The southern China and the mid-lower reaches of Yangtze River Valley show the highest predictive skills, whereas southwestern China and Huang-Huai region have the lowest predictive skills. By combining forecast results from ten regional STPMs, the TCC distribution of 8-year (2003-2010) independent forecast for the entire China is investigated. The combined forecast results from ten STPMs show significantly higher skills than the forecast with just one single STPM for the entire China. Independent forecast examples of summer rainfall anomalies around the period of Beijing Olympic Games in 2008 and Shanghai World Expo in 2010 are presented. The result shows that the current model is able to reproduce the gross pattern of the summer intraseasonal rainfall over China at a 20-day lead. The present study provides, for the first time, a guide on the statistical extended-range forecast of summer rainfall anomalies for the entire China. It is anticipated that the ideas and methods proposed here will facilitate the extended-range forecast in China.

  15. Inclusion of Dynamic Clinical Data Improves the Predictive Performance of a 30-Day Readmission Risk Model in Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Taber, David J; Palanisamy, Arun P; Srinivas, Titte R; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Odeghe, John; Chavin, Kenneth D; Egede, Leonard E; Baliga, Prabhakar K

    2015-01-01

    Background 30-day readmissions (30DRA) are a highly scrutinized measure of healthcare quality and relatively frequent among kidney transplants (KTX). Development of predictive risk models are critical to reducing 30DRA and improving outcomes. Current approaches rely on fixed variables derived from administrative data. These models may not capture clinical evolution that is critical to predicting outcomes. Methods We directed a retrospective analysis towards: 1) developing parsimonious risk models for 30DRA and 2) comparing efficiency of models based on the use of immutable versus dynamic data. Baseline and in-hospital clinical and outcomes data were collected from adult KTX recipients between 2005 – 12. Risk models were developed using backward logistic regression and compared for predictive efficacy using ROC Curves. Results Of 1,147 KTX patients, 123 had 30DRA. Risk factors for 30DRA included recipient comorbidities, transplant factors, and index hospitalization patient level clinical data. The initial fixed variable model included 9 risk factors and was modestly predictive (AUC 0.64, 95% CI 0.58–0.69). The model was parsimoniously reduced to 6 risks, which remained modestly predictive (AUC 0.63, 95% CI 0.58–0.69). The initial predictive model using 13 fixed and dynamic variables was significantly predictive (AUC 0.73, 95% CI 0.67–0.80), with parsimonious reduction to 9 variables maintaining predictive efficacy (AUC 0.73, 95% CI 0.67–0.79). The final model using dynamically evolving clinical data outperformed the model using static variables (p=0.009). Internal validation demonstrated the final model was stable with minimal bias. Conclusion We demonstrate that modeling dynamic clinical data outperformed models utilizing immutable data in predicting 30DRA. PMID:25594549

  16. Bladder Preservation for Localized Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: The Survival Impact of Local Utilization Rates of Definitive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, Kevin R.; Hamidi, Maryam; Manning, Matthew; Moody, John S.

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: This study examines the management and outcomes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in the United States. Methods and Materials: Patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2006 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients were classified according to three mutually exclusive treatment categories based on the primary initial treatment: no local management, radiotherapy, or surgery. Overall survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox models based on multiple factors including treatment utilization patterns. Results: The study population consisted of 26,851 patients. Age, sex, race, tumor grade, histology, and geographic location were associated with differences in treatment (all p < 0.01). Patients receiving definitive radiotherapy tended to be older and have less differentiated tumors than patients undergoing surgery (RT, median age 78 years old and 90.6% grade 3/4 tumors; surgery, median age 71 years old and 77.1% grade 3/4 tumors). No large shifts in treatment were seen over time, with most patients managed with surgical resection (86.3% for overall study population). Significant survival differences were observed according to initial treatment: median survival, 14 months with no definitive local treatment; 17 months with radiotherapy; and 43 months for surgery. On multivariate analysis, differences in local utilization rates of definitive radiotherapy did not demonstrate a significant effect on overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.002; 95% confidence interval, 0.999-1.005). Conclusions: Multiple factors influence the initial treatment strategy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer, but definitive radiotherapy continues to be used infrequently. Although patients who undergo surgery fare better, a multivariable model that accounted for patient and tumor characteristics found no survival detriment to the utilization of definitive radiotherapy. These results support continued

  17. Estimating Survival Rates in Engineering for Community College Transfer Students Using Grades in Calculus and Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugerman, Marcia; Shelley, Mack; Rover, Diane; Mickelson, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a unique synthesized set of data for community college students transferring to engineering by combining several cohorts of longitudinal data along with transcript-level data, from both the Community College and the University, to measure success rates in engineering. The success rates are calculated by developing Kaplan-Meier…

  18. Estimation of Flattened Musk Turtle (Sternotherus depressus) survival, recapture, and recovery rate during and after a disease outbreak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fonnesbeck, C.J.; Dodd, C.K., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    We estimated survivorship, recapture probabilities and recovery rates in a threatened population of Flattened Musk Turtles (Sternotherus depressus) through a disease outbreak in Alabama in 1985. We evaluated a set of models for the demographic effects of disease by analyzing recaptures and recoveries simultaneously. Multiple-model inference suggested survival was temporally dynamic, whereas recapture probability was sex- and age-specifc. Biweekly survivorship declined from 98-99% before to 82-88% during the outbreak. Live recapture was twice as likely for male turtles relative to juveniles or females, whereas dead recoveries varied only slightly by sex and age. Our results suggest modest reduction in survival over a relatively short time period may severely affect population status.

  19. Effective Treatment for Improving the Survival Rate of Raccoon Dogs Infected with Sarcoptes scabiei

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; OMIYA, Tomoko; KAMEGAYA, Chihiro; WADA, Yuko; TAKAHASHI, Maya; YAMAMOTO, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sarcoptes scabiei is one of the important external parasites. Although ivermectin is the recommended treatment, many raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) that were rescued and brought to the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Yokohama, Japan) have died because of S. scabiei, even after receiving single ivermectin treatment. Therefore, supportive treatment should be required. The present study revealed the number of animals that survived was greater after the administration of ivermectin along with an antibiotic for all raccoon dogs, as well as following the administration of fluid therapy to the debilitated raccoon dogs infected with S. scabiei, immediately after the rescue. During the initial period, treatment to improve the general clinical condition was required prior to deworming treatment for S. scabiei. PMID:24813465

  20. Effective treatment for improving the survival rate of raccoon dogs infected with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Omiya, Tomoko; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2014-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei is one of the important external parasites. Although ivermectin is the recommended treatment, many raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) that were rescued and brought to the Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Yokohama, Japan) have died because of S. scabiei, even after receiving single ivermectin treatment. Therefore, supportive treatment should be required. The present study revealed the number of animals that survived was greater after the administration of ivermectin along with an antibiotic for all raccoon dogs, as well as following the administration of fluid therapy to the debilitated raccoon dogs infected with S. scabiei, immediately after the rescue. During the initial period, treatment to improve the general clinical condition was required prior to deworming treatment for S. scabiei.

  1. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Design Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Setting and participants Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts—Cohort I 1890–1919; Cohort II 1920–1959—and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Results Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). Conclusions This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. PMID:27091824

  2. Migratory behaviour and survival rates of wild northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar post-smolts: Effects of environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidsen, J.G.; Rikardsen, A.H.; Halttunen, E.; Thorstad, E.B.; Okland, F.; Letcher, B.H.; Skarhamar, J.; Naesje, T.F.

    2009-01-01

    To study smolt behaviour and survival of a northern Atlantic salmon Salmo salar population during river descent, sea entry and fjord migration, 120 wild S. salar were tagged with acoustic tags and registered at four automatic listening station arrays in the mouth of the north Norwegian River Alta and throughout the Alta Fjord. An estimated 75% of the post-smolts survived from the river mouth, through the estuary and the first 17 km of the fjord. Survival rates in the fjord varied with fork length (LF), and ranged from 97??0 to 99??5% km-1. On average, the post-smolts spent 1??5 days (36 h, range 11-365 h) travelling from the river mouth to the last fjord array, 31 km from the river mouth. The migratory speed was slower (1??8 LF s-1) in the first 4 km after sea entry compared with the next 27 km (3??0 LF s-1). Post-smolts entered the fjord more often during the high or ebbing tide (70%). There was no clear diurnal migration pattern within the river and fjord, but most of the post-smolts entered the fjord at night (66%, 2000-0800 hours), despite the 24 h daylight at this latitude. The tidal cycle, wind-induced currents and the smolts' own movements seemed to influence migratory speeds and routes in different parts of the fjord. A large variation in migration patterns, both in the river and fjord, might indicate that individuals in stochastic estuarine and marine environments are exposed to highly variable selection regimes, resulting in different responses to environmental factors on both temporal and spatial scales. Post-smolts in the northern Alta Fjord had similar early marine survival rates to those observed previously in southern fjords; however, fjord residency in the north was shorter. ?? 2009 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. The survival rate of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Bacteroides forsythus following 4 randomized treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Shiloah, J; Patters, M R; Dean, J W; Bland, P; Toledo, G

    1997-08-01

    The overall goal of this clinical study was to determine the short-term anti-infective effects of four randomized treatment modalities on Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), and Bacteroides forsythus (Bf) and determine the effects of bacterial survival on treatment outcomes in patients with adult periodontitis. Twelve adult patients requiring therapy for moderate periodontitis were selected for this study. All patients had at least one tooth in each quadrant that had an inflamed pocket of probing depth > or =5 mm with probing attachment loss that harbored at least one of the following three periodontal pathogens: Aa, Pg, or Bf. The number of target organisms per site was determined pre-operatively, at 1 week, and 1 month and 3 months postoperatively utilizing DNA probes. One quadrant in each patient was randomly assigned to each one of the following four treatment groups: 1) scaling and root planing (SRP group); 2) pocket reduction through osseous surgery and apically-positioned flap (OS group); 3) modified Widman flap (MWF group); and 4) modified Widman flap and topical application of saturated citric acid at pH 1 for 3 minutes (CA group). The 4 treatment modalities were performed in one appointment. No postoperative antibiotics were used. Patients were instructed to supplement their daily oral hygiene with chlorohexidine oral rinse during the study. The results of this investigation indicated that: 1) none of the treatment modalities was effective in eliminating the target species; 2) the incidence of infected sites for all groups was 100% preoperatively; 62.5%, 33.3%, and 31.3% at 1 week, and 1 and 3 months postoperatively, respectively; 3) these infected sites lost 1.1 +/- 0.4 mm of probing attachment compared to gain of 0.0 +/- 0.3 mm for uninfected sites; 4) the infected sites had higher plaque and bleeding on probing 0.9 +/- 0.3, 73 +/- 12%, respectively, compared to 0.3 +/- 0.1 and 30 +/- 8% for the uninfected sites

  4. Possible natural hybridization of two morphologically distinct species of Acropora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) in the Pacific: fertilization and larval survival rates.

    PubMed

    Isomura, Naoko; Iwao, Kenji; Fukami, Hironobu

    2013-01-01

    Natural hybridization of corals in the Indo-Pacific has been considered rather rare. However, field studies have observed many corals with intermediate interspecific or unusual morphologies. Given that the existence of F1 hybrids with intermediate interspecific morphologies has been proven in the Caribbean, hybrids may also inhabit the Indo-Pacific and occur more frequently than expected. In this study, we focused on two morphologically different species, Acropora florida and A. intermedia, and performed crossing experiments at Akajima Island, Japan. Results showed that these species could hybridize in both directions via eggs and sperm, but that fertilization rates significantly differed according to which species provided eggs. These results are similar to those reported from the Caribbean. Although all embryos developed normally to the planular larval stage, the developmental processes of some hybrid embryos were delayed by approximately 1 h compared with conspecific embryos, suggesting that fertilization occurred 1 h later in interspecific crosses than in intraspecific crosses. More successful hybridization could occur under conditions with low numbers of conspecific colonies. Additionally, a comparison of survival rates between hybrid and intraspecific larvae revealed that intra- and interspecific larvae produced from eggs of A. florida survived for significantly longer than those produced from eggs of A. intermedia. Considering these data, under specific conditions, hybrids can be expected to be produced and survive in nature in the Pacific. Furthermore, we identified one colony with intermediate morphology between A. florida and A. intermedia in the field. This colony was fertilized only by eggs of A. florida, with high fertilization rates, suggesting that this colony would be a hybrid of these two species and might be backcrossed.

  5. Survival and success rates of immediately and early loaded implants: 12-month results from a multicentric randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Tommaso; Garuti, Giovanna; Guazzi, Paolo; Tarabini, Luciano; Forabosco, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Our objective was to compare survival and peri-implant bone levels of immediately nonocclusally vs early loaded implants in partially edentulous patients up to 12 months after implant placement. Eighty patients (inclusion criteria: general good health, good oral hygiene, 30-65 years old; exclusion criteria: head and neck irradiation/cancer, pregnancy, uncontrolled diabetes, substance abuse, bruxism, lack of opposing occluding dentition, smokers >10 cigarettes/day, need for bone augmentation procedures) were selected in 5 Italian study centers and randomized into 2 groups: 40 patients in the immediately loaded group (minimal insertion torque 30 Ncm) and 40 patients in the early loaded group. Immediately loaded implants were provided with nonoccluding temporary restorations. Final restorations were provided 2 months later. Early loaded implants were provided with a definitive restoration after 2 months. Peri-implant bone resorption was evaluated radiographically with software (ImageJ 1.42). No dropout occurred. Both groups gradually lost peri-implant bone. After 12 months, patients of both groups lost an average of 0.4 mm of peri-implant bone. There were no statistically significant differences (evaluated with t test) between the 2 loading strategies for peri-implant bone level changes at 2 (P = .6730), 6 (P = .6613) and 12 (P = .5957) months or for survival rates (100% in both groups). If adequate primary stability is achieved, immediate loading of dental implants can provide similar success rates, survival rates, and peri-implant bone resorption as compared with early loading, as evaluated in the present study. PMID:21480777

  6. Survival rates and lifetime reproduction of breeding male Cooper’s Hawks in Wisconsin, 1980-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Booms, Travis L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on annual survival and no reports of lifetime reproduction for breeding Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Breeding males (n  =  105) in central and southeastern Wisconsin had an annual mortality rate of 19%, or a survival rate of 81% for birds ≤10 years of age. We did not detect significant differences in mortality rates between urban and rural habitats, nor between the earlier 13 years and later 13 years of this study. Male Cooper's Hawks produced from zero to 32 nestlings during their lifetimes. Body mass or size appeared unrelated to annual survivorship and lifetime reproduction, although lifetime reproduction was correlated strongly with longevity of breeding males. Fifteen of 66 males (23%) produced most (53%) of the nestlings. Our studies occurred in an area where breeding populations may be increasing with some of the highest reported productivity indices and nesting densities for this species. Habitat used for nesting on our Wisconsin study areas may be less important for survivorship and lifetime reproduction than acquisition of a nesting area in which a male will breed throughout his life.

  7. Sulfide toxicity: Mechanical ventilation and hypotension determine survival rate and brain necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Baldelli, R.J.; Green, F.H.Y.; Auer, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide is one of the leading causes of sudden death in the workplace, especially in the oil and gas industry. High-dose exposure causes immediate neurogenic apnea and death; lower doses cause [open quotes]knockdown[close quotes] (transient loss of consciousness, with apnea). Because permanent neurological sequelae have been reported, the authors sought to determine whether sulfide can directly kill central nervous system neurons. Ventilated and unventilated rats were studied to allow administration of higher doses of sulfide and to facilitate physiological monitoring. It was extremely difficult to produce cerebral necrosis with sulfide. Only one of eight surviving unventilated rats given high-dose sulfide (a dose that was lethal in [ge]50% of animals) showed cerebral necrosis. Mechanical ventilation shifted the dose that was lethal in 50% of the animals to 190 mg/kg from 94 mg/kg in the unventilated rats. Sulfide was found to potently depress blood pressure. Cerebral necrosis was absent in the ventilated rats (n = 11), except in one rat that showed profound and sustained hypotension to [le]35 Torr. Electroencephalogram activity ceased during exposure but recovered when the animals regained consciousness. The authors conclude that very-high-dose sulfide is incapable of producing cerebral necrosis by a direct histotoxic effect. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Using multiple household food inventories to measure food availability in the home over 30 days: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The consumption of foods, especially by children, may be determined by the types of foods that are available in the home. Because most studies use a single point of data collection to determine the types of foods in the home, which can miss the change in availability when resources are not available, the primary objective of this study was to determine the extent to which the weekly availability of household food items changed over one month by 1) developing the methodology for the direct observation of the presence and amount of food items in the home; 2) conducting five in-home household food inventories over a thirty-day period in a small convenience sample; and 3) determining the frequency that food items were present in the participating households. Methods After the development and pre-testing of the 251-item home observation guide that used direct observation to determine the presence and amount of food items in the home (refrigerator, freezer, pantry, elsewhere), two trained researchers recruited a convenience sample of 9 households (44.4% minority); administered a baseline questionnaire (personal info, shopping habits, food resources, and food security); and conducted 5 in-home assessments (7-day interval) over a 30-day period. Each in-home assessment included food-related activities since the last assessment, and an observational survey of types and amounts of foods present. Results Complete data were collected from all 9 women (32.8 y ± 6.0; 3 married; 4 ± 1.6 adults/children in household; 4 received food assistance; and 6 had very low food security) and their households. Weekly grocery purchases (place, amount, and purpose) varied from once (n = 1) to every week (n = 5); 4 used fast food 2-3 times/wk for 4 weeks. The weekly presence and amounts of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables and dairy varied. Conclusions The feasibility of conducting multiple in-home assessments was confirmed with 100% retention of participants through 5 in

  9. Daily survival rates for nests of Black Skimmers from a core breeding area of the Southeastern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the reproductive success of Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of undisturbed beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rates (DSR) of nests were examined at three nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR), South Carolina, USA, 2009–2010. The percent of successful nests (n  =  346 nests) ranged from 42–69% among colony sites when data were pooled across both years. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, predation risk, height of high tide, and clutch size. Predation and overwash were the principal causes of identifiable nest loss, each accounting for ∼33% of nest failures during the two study years. Because of the challenges of resighting skimmer chicks, we were not able to measure chick survival effectively and therefore accurate measures of productivity remain elusive. High variability in nest success among sites within close proximity to each other (<20 km) suggests factors at local scales such as disturbance, predation, and overwash events strongly influenced nest success of Black Skimmers during these 2 years as opposed to more region-wide stressors such as tropical storms or food availability. Although time-intensive techniques to control predators do exist, management options to limit flooding and overwash are far more limited. Conservation of Black Skimmers in the southeastern USA would benefit from coordinated, multi-state efforts to measure nest and chick survival.

  10. Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival, Development, and Oviposition Rates of the Pupal Parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    PubMed

    Skovgård, Henrik; Nachman, Gösta

    2016-08-01

    The combined effect of temperature and age on development, survival, attack rate, and oviposition of the parasitoid Spalangia cameroni (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) exploiting house fly pupae was investigated by conducting life-table experiments at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. Temperature had a pronounced effect on survival and development of the immature stages. Survival was highest at 25°C, where 88.5% of the parasitized host pupae resulted in adult parasitoids, and lowest at 35°C when only 3.78% emerged. Females constituted between 50% (at 20°C) and 100% (at 35°C) of the surviving immatures. Males developed faster than females, with the shortest developmental times at 30°C (18.18 d for males and 19.41 d for females). Longevity of adult females decreased with temperature from 80 d at 15°C to 18 d at 35°C. Total attack rate of female parasitoids was highest at 20°C (106 hosts per female), and life-time reproduction highest at 20°C and 25°C (about 60 offspring per female). Sex ratio was female biased (65% females). A generic model was used to estimate and predict the temperature effect on the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), the net reproduction rate (R0), and the generation time (G). The model predicted that rm peaks at 33.5°C (rm = 0.182 d(-1)), that maximum R0 is reached at 27.2°C (R0 = 50.2), and that the shortest generation time occurs at 34.5°C (G = 21.1 d). Doubling time was 4.19 d at 33°C. In the temperature range between 20°C and 30°C, S. cameroni has the potential to be an efficient control agent against nuisance flies. PMID:27298392

  11. Correlations of survival with progression-free survival, response rate, and disease control rate in advanced biliary tract cancer: a meta-analysis of randomised trials of first-line chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Toshikazu; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Gosho, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sugaya, Akinori; Yamada, Takeshi; Endo, Shinji; Hyodo, Ichinosuke

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need to promote novel drug development for advanced biliary tract cancer (ABTC) has emphasised the importance of determining whether various efficacy end points can act as surrogates for overall survival (OS). Methods: We conducted a literature search of randomised trials of first-line chemotherapy for ABTC and investigated correlations between efficacy end points and OS using weighted linear regression analysis. The ratios of the median OS, median progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and disease control rate in each trial were used to summarise treatment effects. The surrogate threshold effect (STE), which was the minimum treatment effect on PFS required to predict a non-zero treatment effect on OS, was calculated. Results: Seventeen randomised trials with 36 treatment arms were identified, and a sample size of 2148 patients with 19 paired arms was analysed. The strongest correlation between all evaluated efficacy end points was observed between median OS and median PFS ratios (r2=0.66). In trials with gemcitabine-containing therapies and targeted agents, the r2-values were 0.78. The STE was estimated at 0.83 for all trials and 0.81 for trials with gemcitabine-containing therapies, and was not calculated for trials with targeted agents. Conclusions: The median PFS ratio correlated well with the median OS ratio, and may be useful for planning a clinical trial for novel drug development. PMID:27031848

  12. Structure of cortical cytoskeleton in fibers of mouse muscle cells after being exposed to a 30-day space flight on board the BION-M1 biosatellite.

    PubMed

    Ogneva, I V; Maximova, M V; Larina, I M

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the work was to analyze changes in the organization of the cortical cytoskeleton in fibers of the mouse soleus muscle, tibialis anterior muscle and left ventricular cardiomyocytes after completion of a 30-day space flight on board the BION-M1 biosatellite (Russia, 2013). The transversal stiffness of the cortical cytoskeleton of the cardiomyocytes and fibers of the skeletal muscles did not differ significantly within the study groups compared with the vivarium control group. The content of beta- and gamma-actin in the membranous fraction of proteins in the left ventricular cardiomyocytes did not differ significantly within all study groups and correlated with the transversal stiffness. A similar situation was revealed in fibers of the soleus muscle and tibialis anterior muscle. At the same time, the content of beta-actin in the cytoplasmic fraction of proteins was found to be decreased in all types of studied tissues compared with the control levels in the postflight group, with lowered beta-actin gene expression rates in the postflight group. After completion of the space flight, the content of alpha-actinin-4 was found to be reduced in the membranous fraction of proteins from the mouse cardiomyocytes, while its content in the cytoplasmic fraction of proteins did not change significantly. Furthermore, gene expression rates of this protein were decreased at the time of dissection (it was started after 13 h after landing). At the same time, the content of alpha-actinin-1 decreased in the membranous fraction and increased in the cytoplasmic fraction of proteins from the soleus muscle fibers.

  13. Early Detection, Curative Treatment, and Survival Rates for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance in Patients with Cirrhosis: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Amit G.; Pillai, Anjana; Tiro, Jasmin

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has level I evidence among patients with hepatitis B but only level II evidence in patients with cirrhosis. This lack of randomized data has spurred questions regarding the utility of HCC surveillance in this patient population; however, lack of randomized data does not equate to a lack of data supporting the efficacy of surveillance. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of HCC surveillance on early stage tumor detection, receipt of curative therapy, and overall survival in patients with cirrhosis. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic literature review using Medline from January 1990 through January 2014 and a search of national meeting abstracts from 2009–2012. Two investigators identified studies that reported rates of early stage tumor detection, curative treatment receipt, or survival, stratified by HCC surveillance status, among patients with cirrhosis. Both investigators independently extracted data on patient populations, study methods, and results using standardized forms. Pooled odds ratios, according to HCC surveillance status, were calculated for each outcome using the DerSimonian and Laird method for a random effects model. We identified 47 studies with 15,158 patients, of whom 6,284 (41.4%) had HCC detected by surveillance. HCC surveillance was associated with improved early stage detection (odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 95% CI 1.80–2.37) and curative treatment rates (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.99–2.52). HCC surveillance was associated with significantly prolonged survival (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.67–2.17), which remained significant in the subset of studies adjusting for lead-time bias. Limitations of current data included many studies having insufficient duration of follow-up to assess survival and the majority not adjusting for liver function or lead-time bias. Conclusions HCC surveillance is associated with significant improvements in early tumor detection, receipt of curative

  14. Does Habitat Heterogeneity in a Multi-Use Landscape Influence Survival Rates and Density of a Native Mesocarnivore?

    PubMed Central

    Gese, Eric M.; Thompson, Craig M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between predators, prey, and habitat have long been of interest to applied and basic ecologists. As a native Great Plains mesocarnivore of North America, swift foxes (Vulpes velox) depended on the historic disturbance regime to maintain open grassland habitat. With a decline in native grasslands and subsequent impacts to prairie specialists, notably the swift fox, understanding the influence of habitat on native predators is paramount to future management efforts. From 2001 to 2004, we investigated the influence of vegetation structure on swift fox population ecology (survival and density) on and around the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, southeastern Colorado, USA. We monitored 109 foxes on 6 study sites exposed to 3 different disturbance regimes (military training, grazing, unused). On each site we evaluated vegetation structure based on shrub density, basal coverage, vegetation height, and litter. Across all sites, annual fox survival rates ranged from 0.50 to 0.92 for adults and 0.27 to 0.78 for juveniles. Among sites, population estimates ranged from 1 to 7 foxes per 10 km transect. Fox density or survival was not related to the relative abundance of prey. A robust model estimating fox population size and incorporating both shrub density and percent basal cover as explanatory variables far outperformed all other models. Our results supported the idea that, in our region, swift foxes were shortgrass prairie specialists and also indicated a relationship between habitat quality and landscape heterogeneity. We suggest the regulation of swift fox populations may be based on habitat quality through landscape-mediated survival, and managers may effectively use disturbance regimes to create or maintain habitat for this native mesocarnivore. PMID:24963713

  15. Sex difference in the survival rate of wild brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) experimentally challenged with bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rouco, Carlos; Richardson, Kyle S; Buddle, Bryce M; French, Nigel P; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2016-08-01

    The main wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in New Zealand is the introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), with spillover of infection from possums to livestock being regarded as the largest barrier to eradicating TB from the country. Past studies have experimentally challenged possums with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of TB) to quantify infection parameters. However, the challenge models used are invariably non-representative of natural infection due to their resulting in much faster rates, and different clinical patterns of disease progression. We monitored the survival of 16 wild free-living possums, fitted with VHF mortality collars and experimentally challenged with a new model, out to six months post-challenge. The aim was to assess whether the new model does indeed result in an ongoing pathogenesis trajectory that is more reflective of natural TB in possums. The mean survival period of challenged possums (~4.6months) did not differ from that estimated for wild free-living possums with naturally acquired TB. In addition, and unexpectedly, infected males survived on average for five weeks longer than females. This significant difference has not been previously observed in experimental trials with other TB/possum challenge models. If this is reflective of natural disease (as is the survival period produced by the percutaneous challenge model), TB infected males in the wild may be generating more secondary cases of infection than infected females. This insight has important implications for understanding the dynamics of, and managing, the disease in its New Zealand wildlife reservoir. PMID:27473982

  16. Causes and consequences of increase in child survival rates: ethnoepidemiology among the Hmong of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunstadter, P; Kunstadter, S L; Leepreecha, P; Podhisita, C; Laoyang, M; Thao, C S; Thao, R S; Yang, W S

    1992-12-01

    The Hmong "hill tribe" minority in Thailand has much higher exposure to factors usually associated with risk of child mortality (high fertility, low status of women, low education, less use of modern medical care for births, exposure to warfare, economic and physical disruption, and poor hygienic conditions) than the rural ethnic Thai population. Nonetheless, infant mortality has declined from over 120 per 1000 to under 50 per 1000 live births among both these populations in the past 30 years. The reason for the rapid increase in child survival among the Hmong appears to be better access to and more use of modern curative and preventive medical care associated with road construction rather than major changes in social or hygienic conditions. Conventional wisdom suggests that high fertility is both a cause and a consequence of high infant and child mortality and that parents will not reduce fertility until they see that mortality has declined. Most Hmong parents recognize the decline in child mortality and attribute it to better access to modern medical care. Most Hmong parents also say that, if they were starting to have children now, they would want to have fewer children. Fear of child death is infrequently mentioned as a motive for having more children, and the perceived decline in child mortality is rarely mentioned as a reason for reduced fertility. Most Hmong parents explain their desired family size in terms of economic conditions rather than perceived risk of child mortality. Results of this study suggest that fertility and child mortality can vary independently of one another and that major reductions in child mortality can be accomplished without waiting for major social changes (e.g., improved education or status of women) or major reductions in fertility.

  17. A cure rate survival model under a hybrid latent activation scheme.

    PubMed

    Borges, Patrick; Rodrigues, Josemar; Louzada, Francisco; Balakrishnan, Narayanaswamy

    2016-04-01

    In lifetimes studies, the occurrence of an event (such as tumor detection or death) might be caused by one of many competing causes. Moreover, both the number of causes and the time-to-event associated with each cause are not usually observable. The number of causes can be zero, corresponding to a cure fraction. In this article, we propose a method of estimating the numerical characteristics of unobservable stages (such as initiation, promotion and progression) of carcinogenesis from data on tumor size at detection in the presence of latent competing causes. To this end, a general survival model for spontaneous carcinogenesis under a hybrid latent activation scheme has been developed to allow for a simple pattern of the dynamics of tumor growth. It is assumed that a tumor becomes detectable when its size attains some threshold level (proliferation of tumorais cells (or descendants) generated by the malignant cell), which is treated as a random variable. We assume the number of initiated cells and the number of malignant cells (competing causes) both to follow weighted Poisson distributions. The advantage of this model is that it incorporates into the analysis characteristics of the stage of tumor progression as well as the proportion of initiated cells that had been 'promoted' to the malignant ones and the proportion of malignant cells that die before tumor induction. The lifetimes corresponding to each competing cause are assumed to follow a Weibull distribution. Parameter estimation of the proposed model is discussed through the maximum likelihood estimation method. A simulation study has been carried out in order to examine the coverage probabilities of the confidence intervals. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of the proposed model by applying it to a real data involving malignant melanoma.

  18. Survival rate of sealed, refurbished and repaired defective restorations: 4-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Eduardo M; Martin, Javier A; Angel, Pablo A; Mjör, Ivar A; Gordan, Valeria V; Moncada, Gustavo A

    2011-01-01

    The most common treatment in general dental practice is the replacement of restorations affected by secondary caries or marginal deficiencies. Alternative treatments to replacement of defective restorations, such as marginal sealing, refurbishment and repair, have demonstrated improvement of their clinical properties with minimal intervention. The aim of this clinical study was to estimate the median survival time (MST) of marginal sealing, repair and refurbishment of amalgam and resin-based composite restorations with localized defects as a treatment to increase the restoration longevity. A cohort of 66 patients, with 271 class I and II restorations clinically diagnosed with localized defects was longitudinally assessed. Each restoration was assigned to one of the following 5 groups: Marginal Sealing (n=48), Refurbishment (n=73), Repair (n=27), Replacement (n=42), and Untreated (n=81). Two calibrated examiners assessed the restorations at baseline and annually during 4 years, using the modified Ryge criteria: marginal adaptation, anatomic form, roughness, secondary caries and luster. Fifty-two patients with 208 restorations were assessed after 4 years; the distribution of restorations in the groups was as follows: Marginal Sealing (n=36), Refurbishment (n=63), Repair (n=21), Replacement (n=28) and Untreated (n=60). Kaplan Meier test indicated that the Sealed margins group showed the lowest MST while the Repair group showed the highest MST for restorations examined after 4 years of follow up. Defective amalgam and resin-based composite restorations treated by sealing of marginal gaps, refurbishment of anatomic form, luster or roughness, and repair of secondary caries lesions, had their longevity increased.

  19. Causes and consequences of increase in child survival rates: ethnoepidemiology among the Hmong of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunstadter, P; Kunstadter, S L; Leepreecha, P; Podhisita, C; Laoyang, M; Thao, C S; Thao, R S; Yang, W S

    1992-12-01

    The Hmong "hill tribe" minority in Thailand has much higher exposure to factors usually associated with risk of child mortality (high fertility, low status of women, low education, less use of modern medical care for births, exposure to warfare, economic and physical disruption, and poor hygienic conditions) than the rural ethnic Thai population. Nonetheless, infant mortality has declined from over 120 per 1000 to under 50 per 1000 live births among both these populations in the past 30 years. The reason for the rapid increase in child survival among the Hmong appears to be better access to and more use of modern curative and preventive medical care associated with road construction rather than major changes in social or hygienic conditions. Conventional wisdom suggests that high fertility is both a cause and a consequence of high infant and child mortality and that parents will not reduce fertility until they see that mortality has declined. Most Hmong parents recognize the decline in child mortality and attribute it to better access to modern medical care. Most Hmong parents also say that, if they were starting to have children now, they would want to have fewer children. Fear of child death is infrequently mentioned as a motive for having more children, and the perceived decline in child mortality is rarely mentioned as a reason for reduced fertility. Most Hmong parents explain their desired family size in terms of economic conditions rather than perceived risk of child mortality. Results of this study suggest that fertility and child mortality can vary independently of one another and that major reductions in child mortality can be accomplished without waiting for major social changes (e.g., improved education or status of women) or major reductions in fertility. PMID:1427741

  20. Racial Disparities in Survival Among Injured Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Haskins, Amy E.; Clark, David E.; Travis, Lori L.

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies on racial and ethnic disparities in survival after motor vehicle crashes have examined only population-based death rates or have been restricted to hospitalized patients. In the current study, we examined 3 components of crash survival by race/ethnicity: survival overall, survival to reach a hospital, and survival among those hospitalized. Nine years of data (from 2000 through 2008) from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used to examine white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, and Hispanic drivers aged ≥15 years with serious injuries (injury severity scores of ≥9). By using multivariable logistic regression, we found that a driver's race/ethnicity was not significantly associated with overall survival after being injured in a crash (for blacks, odds ratio (OR) = 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.36, 1.32; for Hispanics, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.59, 1.72), and blacks and Hispanics were equally likely to survive to be treated at a hospital compared with whites (for blacks, OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.93; for Hispanics, OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.71, 1.79). However, among patients who were treated at a hospital, blacks were 50% less likely to survive 30 days compared with whites (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.76). The disparity in survival after serious traffic injuries among blacks appears to occur after hospitalization, not in prehospital survival. PMID:23371352

  1. Comparison of Survival Rates, Tumor Stages, and Localization in between Obese and Nonobese Patients with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Hakan; Oguz, Basak; Ocak Serin, Sibel; Okuturlar, Yildiz; Gunaldi, Meral; Erismis, Betul; Ozdemir, Bahar; Tural, Deniz; Hursitoglu, Mehmet; Harmankaya, Ozlem; Kumbasar, Abdulbaki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. In this study we tried to determine the association between body-mass index (BMI), survival rate, and the stage of tumor at the time of diagnosis in patients with gastric cancer. Methods. A total of 270 gastric cancer patients' hospital records were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were grouped according to their BMI at the time of tumor diagnosis. Tumor stages at admission were compared according to their BMI values. Results. There were no differences in OS among BMI subgroups (p = 0.230). The percent of patients with stage III tumor was significantly higher in nonobese while the percent of stage IV tumor was surprisingly higher in obese patients (p was 0.011 and 0.004, resp.). Percent of patients who did not have any surgical intervention was significantly lower in overweight and obese patients than normal and/or underweight patients. Conclusions. At the time of diagnosis, obese patients had significantly higher percent of stage IV tumor than nonobese patients. Despite of that, there were no differences in survival rates among BMI subgroups. Our study results are consistent with “obesity paradox” in gastric cancer patients. We also did not find any relationship between BMI and localization of gastric tumor. PMID:27418926

  2. Survival Rate and Hematological Responses with Temperature Changes of Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Kim, Kyong Min; Son, Maeng Hyun; Park, Jae Min; Kang, Hee Woong

    2016-06-01

    The effect of sudden changes of water temperature (WT) on the survival rate and physiological responses of the red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) were examined by manipulating WT control system for 9 days. Experimental condition was divided in two different regimes at low (from 10°C to 4°C, decreased 1℃/d) and high (from 28°C to 34°C, increased 1°C/d) WT. Survival rate of experimental fishes were observed, and determined the changes of hematological characteristics by analyzing plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, total protein, and electrolytes (Na(+), Cl-, K(+)). No mortality was observed until low WT 6°C (144 h) and high WT 32°C (96 h), and 100% mortality was observed at low WT 4°C (216 h) and high WT 35°C (171 h). Plasma levels of cortisol and glucose increased rapidly as decreasing WT, and the loss of swimming ability and respiration response was observed at low WT 7°C and high WT 34°C conditions. PMID:27660825

  3. Survival Rate and Hematological Responses with Temperature Changes of Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Kim, Kyong Min; Son, Maeng Hyun; Park, Jae Min; Kang, Hee Woong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sudden changes of water temperature (WT) on the survival rate and physiological responses of the red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) were examined by manipulating WT control system for 9 days. Experimental condition was divided in two different regimes at low (from 10°C to 4°C, decreased 1℃/d) and high (from 28°C to 34°C, increased 1°C/d) WT. Survival rate of experimental fishes were observed, and determined the changes of hematological characteristics by analyzing plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, total protein, and electrolytes (Na+, Cl–, K+). No mortality was observed until low WT 6°C (144 h) and high WT 32°C (96 h), and 100% mortality was observed at low WT 4°C (216 h) and high WT 35°C (171 h). Plasma levels of cortisol and glucose increased rapidly as decreasing WT, and the loss of swimming ability and respiration response was observed at low WT 7°C and high WT 34°C conditions.

  4. IMPLANTS INSERTED IN POST EXTRACTIVE SOCKETS HAVE SURVIVAL RATES SIMILAR TO FIXTURES INSERTED IN HEALED BONE: A CASE SERIES STUDY.

    PubMed

    Corradini, G; Delle Donne, U; Boni, W; Tettamanti, L; Tagliabue, A

    2015-01-01

    Post-extractive implants (i.e. PEIs) are widely used to reduce surgical steps and improve patient compliance. The aim of this study is to perform a retrospective study on 2,273 PEIs to evaluate their survival rate. In the period between January 2008 and December 2013, 877 patients (498 females and 379 males) were operated at the BDD private Practice Clinic (Milan, Italy). The mean post-surgical follow-up was 30±17 months (max – min, 84 – 1). Two thousand two hundred and seventy-three PEIs (EDIERRE Implant System SpA, Genoa, Italy) were evaluated in the present study. All patients underwent the same surgical protocol and agreed to participate in a post-operative check-up program. SPSS program was used for statistical analysis. Survival rate (SVR) was 97.7% since only 53 fixtures were lost from a total of 2,273 implants. Cross-tabulation between failures and timing of loading demonstrated a statistically significant higher risk of failures in case of immediate loading (p= 0.013). There were 26 failures out of 761 immediate loaded implants against 27 lost fixtures out of 1,485 delayed loaded implants. PEIs is a reliable procedure, however surgeons should carefully select those cases which can be immediately loaded.

  5. Survival Rate and Hematological Responses with Temperature Changes of Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Kim, Kyong Min; Son, Maeng Hyun; Park, Jae Min; Kang, Hee Woong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sudden changes of water temperature (WT) on the survival rate and physiological responses of the red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) were examined by manipulating WT control system for 9 days. Experimental condition was divided in two different regimes at low (from 10°C to 4°C, decreased 1℃/d) and high (from 28°C to 34°C, increased 1°C/d) WT. Survival rate of experimental fishes were observed, and determined the changes of hematological characteristics by analyzing plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, total protein, and electrolytes (Na+, Cl–, K+). No mortality was observed until low WT 6°C (144 h) and high WT 32°C (96 h), and 100% mortality was observed at low WT 4°C (216 h) and high WT 35°C (171 h). Plasma levels of cortisol and glucose increased rapidly as decreasing WT, and the loss of swimming ability and respiration response was observed at low WT 7°C and high WT 34°C conditions. PMID:27660825

  6. Metabolic and protein interaction sub-networks controlling the proliferation rate of cancer cells and their impact on patient survival.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Amir; Bordel, Sergio

    2013-10-24

    Cancer cells can have a broad scope of proliferation rates. Here we aim to identify the molecular mechanisms that allow some cancer cell lines to grow up to 4 times faster than other cell lines. The correlation of gene expression profiles with the growth rate in 60 different cell lines has been analyzed using several genome-scale biological networks and new algorithms. New possible regulatory feedback loops have been suggested and the known roles of several cell cycle related transcription factors have been confirmed. Over 100 growth-correlated metabolic sub-networks have been identified, suggesting a key role of simultaneous lipid synthesis and degradation in the energy supply of the cancer cells growth. Many metabolic sub-networks involved in cell line proliferation appeared also to correlate negatively with the survival expectancy of colon cancer patients.

  7. Dose-rate models for human survival after exposure to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Young, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews new estimates of the L/sub 50/ in man by Mole and by Rotblat, the biological processes contributing to hematologic death, the collection of animal experiments dealing with hematologic death, and the use of regression analysis to make new estimates of human mortality based on all relevant animal studies. Regression analysis of animal mortality data has shown that mortality is dependent strongly on dose rate, species, body weight, and time interval over which the exposure is delivered. The model has predicted human LD/sub 50/s of 194, 250, 310, and 360 rad to marrow when the exposure time is a minute, an hour, a day, and a week, respectively.

  8. Treatment of the edentulous atrophic maxilla using zygomatic implants: evaluation of survival rates over 5-10 years.

    PubMed

    Yates, J M; Brook, I M; Patel, R R; Wragg, P F; Atkins, S A; El-Awa, A; Bakri, I; Bolt, R

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective observational cohort study was to analyse and report the 5-10-year survival rates of endosseous zygomatic implants used in the rehabilitation of the atrophic maxilla. Forty-three consecutive zygomatic implant placements in 25 patients were evaluated over a 5-10-year period. All zygomatic implant surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia. Nobel Biocare zygomatic machined-surface implants were used, and placement was undertaken using the modified sinus slot method. The main outcome measures and determinants for success were survival of the restored implants and the proportion of originally planned prostheses delivered to patients. Of the 25 patients treated, 12 were male and 13 were female; 19 were non-smokers, and the mean age at time of surgery was 64 years. Patients were treatment-planned for implant-retained bridgework, a removable prosthesis retained by fixed cast gold or milled titanium beams, or magnet-retained removable prostheses. A combination of zygomatic and conventional implants was used in all but one patient. In this study it was shown that the overall success rate for zygomatic implants was 86%, with six of the implants either failing to integrate or requiring removal due to persistent infection associated with the maxillary sinus. All patients received their planned prosthesis, although in six cases the method of retention required modification. This study illustrates that zygomatic implants are a successful and important treatment option when trying to restore the atrophic maxilla, with the potential to avoid additional augmentation/grafting procedures and resulting in a high long-term success rate. PMID:24120903

  9. Hypoglycemia: a factor associated with low survival rate of neonatal piglets infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Drolet, R; Morin, M; Fontaine, M

    1984-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to study changes in the balance of fluids, electrolytes and blood metabolites in neonatal piglets with severe transmissible gastroenteritis. Six two day old conventional piglets were infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus while six others were used as normal controls. Blood samples were collected in heparin when the infected piglets were moribund. The following variables were measured: packed red cell volume, total plasma protein and bicarbonate, blood pH, blood urea nitrogen and plasma glucose, creatinine, chloride, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium. Vomiting and diarrhea appeared 12 to 24 hours postinoculation in the infected piglets and they were moribund one or two days later. Before becoming moribund, most of the piglets fell rapidly into a lethargic and comatose state. The most evident changes in their blood variables were an increase in packed cell volume, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium levels and a decrease in pH and bicarbonate concentration as well as a severe hypoglycemia. The results suggest that severe hypoglycemia coupled with metabolic acidosis and dehydration might be an important factor contributing to the high mortality rates caused by transmissible gastroenteritis in neonatal piglets. The hypoglycemia results from a combination of the inadequate glucose metabolism inherent to neonatal piglets and the acute maldigestion and malabsorption resulting from the diffuse and severe villous atrophy induced by the virus. PMID:6478297

  10. Reactive oxygen species in plasma against E. coli cells survival rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ren-Wu; Zhang, Xian-Hui; Zong, Zi-Chao; Li, Jun-Xiong; Yang, Zhou-Bin; Liu, Dong-Ping; Yang, Si-Ze

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we report on the contrastive analysis of inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution with different disinfection methods. Compared with the hydrogen peroxide solution and the ozone gas, the atmospheric-pressure He plasma can completely kill the E. coli cells in the shortest time. The inactivation efficiency of E. coli cells in solution can be well described by using the chemical reaction rate model. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows that the C-O or C=O content of the inactivated E. coli cell surface by plasma is predominantly increased, indicating the quantity of oxygen-containing species in plasma is more than those of two other methods, and then the C-C or C-H bonds can be broken, leading to the etching of organic compounds. Analysis also indicates that plasma-generated species can play a crucial role in the inactivation process by their direct reactions or the decompositions of reactive species, such as ozone into OH radicals in water, then reacting with E. coli cells. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Fujian Province, China (Grant No. 2014J01025), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11275261), and the Funds from the Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Plasma and Magnetic Resonance, China.

  11. Rapid wetland expansion during European settlement and its implication for marsh survival under modern sediment delivery rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Murray, A. Brad; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea-level rise rates are thought to dominate the formation and evolution of coastal wetlands. Here we demonstrate a contrasting scenario in which land-use-related changes in sediment delivery rates drive the formation of expansive marshland, and vegetation feedbacks maintain their morphology despite recent sediment supply reduction. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon dating in the Plum Island Estuary (Massachusetts, United States) suggest that salt marshes expanded rapidly during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries due to increased rates of sediment delivery following deforestation associated with European settlement. Numerical modeling coupled with the stratigraphic observations suggests that existing marshland could survive, but not form under the low suspended sediment concentrations observed in the estuary today. These results suggest that many of the expansive marshes that characterize the modern North American coast are metastable relicts of high nineteenth century sediment delivery rates, and that recent observations of degradation may represent a slow return to pre-settlement marsh extent. In contrast to ecosystem management practices in which restoring pre-anthropogenic conditions is seen as a way to increase ecosystem services, our results suggest that widespread efforts to restore valuable coastal wetlands actually prevent some systems from returning to a natural state.

  12. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation. PMID:22590639

  13. Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation.

  14. Sodium Chloride Inhibits the Growth and Infective Capacity of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus and Increases Host Survival Rates

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0–5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1–4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation. PMID:22590639

  15. 75 FR 77901 - 30-Day Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on U.S. Nominations to the World Heritage List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... in the Federal Register on July 27, 2006 (FR 71, 144:42664-42665). The National Park Service Office... National Park Service 30-Day Notice of Opportunity for Public Comment on U.S. Nominations to the World Heritage List and Potential Additions to the U.S. World Heritage Tentative List AGENCY: National...

  16. Model-based estimates of annual survival rate are preferable to observed maximum lifespan statistics for use in comparative life-history studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, D.G.; Sauer, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    Estimates of longevity are available for many animals, and are commonly used in comparative life-history analyses. We suggest that annual survival rate is more appropriate life history parameter for most comparative life history analyses. Observed maximum longevities were not correlated with the annual survival rate estimates and appear to be unstable over time. We recommend that observed maximum lifespans not be used in life history analyses.

  17. Uptake of a Consumer-Focused mHealth Application for the Assessment and Prevention of Heart Disease: The <30 Days Study

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Plinio P; Picton, Peter; Seto, Emily; Zbib, Ahmad; Cafazzo, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle behavior modification can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, one of the leading causes of death worldwide, by up to 80%. We hypothesized that a dynamic risk assessment and behavior change tool delivered as a mobile app, hosted by a reputable nonprofit organization, would promote uptake among community members. We also predicted that the uptake would be influenced by incentives offered for downloading the mobile app. Objective The primary objective of our study was to evaluate the engagement levels of participants using the novel risk management app. The secondary aim was to assess the effect of incentives on the overall uptake and usage behaviors. Methods We publicly launched the app through the iTunes App Store and collected usage data over 5 months. Aggregate information included population-level data on download rates, use, risk factors, and user demographics. We used descriptive statistics to identify usage patterns, t tests, and analysis of variance to compare group means. Correlation and regression analyses determined the relationship between usage and demographic variables. Results We captured detailed mobile usage data from 69,952 users over a 5-month period, of whom 23,727 (33.92%) were registered during a 1-month AIR MILES promotion. Of those who completed the risk assessment, 73.92% (42,380/57,330) were female, and 59.38% (34,042/57,330) were <30 years old. While the older demographic had significantly lower uptake than the younger demographic, with only 8.97% of users aged ≥51 years old downloading the app, the older demographic completed more challenges than their younger counterparts (F 8, 52,422 = 55.10, P<.001). In terms of engagement levels, 84.94% (44,537/52,431) of users completed 1–14 challenges over a 30-day period, and 10.03% (5,259/52,431) of users completed >22 challenges. On average, users in the incentives group completed slightly more challenges during the first 30 days of the intervention (mean 7.9, SD 0

  18. Clopidogrel use After Myocardial Revascularization: Prevalence, Predictors, and One-Year Survival Rate

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Paulo Roberto L.; Williams, Judson B.; Mehta, Rajendra H.; Stevens, Susanna R.; Thomas, Laine; Smith, Peter K.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kalil, Renato A. K.; Alexander, John H.; Lopes, Renato D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antiplatelet therapy after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) has been used. Little is known about the predictors and efficacy of clopidogrel in this scenario. Objective Identify predictors of clopidogrel following CABG. Methods We evaluated 5404 patients who underwent CABG between 2000 and 2009 at Duke University Medical Center. We excluded patients undergoing concomitant valve surgery, those who had postoperative bleeding or death before discharge. Postoperative clopidogrel was left to the discretion of the attending physician. Adjusted risk for 1-year mortality was compared between patients receiving and not receiving clopidogrel during hospitalization after undergoing CABG. Results At hospital discharge, 931 (17.2%) patients were receiving clopidogrel. Comparing patients not receiving clopidogrel at discharge, users had more comorbidities, including hyperlipidemia, hypertension, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease and cerebrovascular disease. Patients who received aspirin during hospitalization were less likely to receive clopidogrel at discharge (P≤0.0001). Clopidogrel was associated with similar 1-year mortality compared with those who did not use clopidogrel (4.4% vs. 4.5%, P=0.72). There was, however, an interaction between the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and clopidogrel, with lower 1-year mortality in patients undergoing off-pump CABG who received clopidogrel, but not those undergoing conventional CABG (2.6% vs 5.6%, P Interaction = 0.032). Conclusion Clopidogrel was used in nearly one-fifth of patients after CABG. Its use was not associated with lower mortality after 1 year in general, but lower mortality rate in those undergoing off-pump CABG. Randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the benefit of routine use of clopidogrel in CABG. PMID:27556308

  19. Effect of Clearcutting Operations on the Survival Rate of a Small Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Martín A. H.; Uribe, Sandra V.; Chiappe, Romina; Estades, Cristián F.

    2015-01-01

    Clearcutting is a common timber harvesting technique that represents a significant and abrupt change in habitat conditions for wildlife living in industrial forests. Most research on this type of impact has focused on comparing populations or communities in mature forests/plantations and the resulting clearcut stands. However, this approach does not separate the effect of changes in habitat attributes from direct mortality produced by the intensive use of heavy machinery required for cutting down trees and dragging them to a road. Because knowing the fate of individuals after a disturbance is important for modelling landscape-scale population dynamics in industrial forests, we conducted a study in South-Central Chile to understand the short-term response to clearcutting operations of the long-haired Akodont (Abrothrix longipillis), a forest specialist mouse. Between 2009 and 2013 we radiotracked a total of 51 adult male Akodonts, before, during and after the clearcutting of the pine plantations in which they lived. A minimum of 52.4% of the individuals died as a direct cause of the timbering operations, being crushed by vehicles or logs during logging operations. Our observations suggest that, instead of fleeing the area, the response of long-haired Akodonts to the approaching machinery is to hide under the forest litter or in burrows, which exposes them to a serious risk of death. The real mortality rate associated to clearcutting may be higher than that estimated by us because of some methodological biases (i.e. individuals with crushed radiotransmitters not recorded) and the fact that additional mortality sources may affect the population in the weeks following logging operations (e.g. higher exposure to predation, effects of site preparation for the new plantation, etc). PMID:25748217

  20. Inverted teats (Mammillae invertitae) in gilts - effect on piglet survival and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Chalkias, H; Ekman, E; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Jacobson, M

    2014-06-01

    In the modern pig industry, the increasing number of piglets born per litter augments the importance of the number of functional teats in the sow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and importance of inverted teats during nursing and to analyze structural and functional differences between the mammary glands of inverted teats versus normal teats. Nine farrowing gilts (8 purebred Swedish Yorkshire gilts and 1 cross between Swedish Yorkshire and Norwegian Landrace) and 94 piglets (59 piglets suckling normal teats, 32 piglets suckling protruded teats [i.e., previously inverted], 2 piglets suckling inverted teats, and 3 piglets suckling considerably smaller teats) were included in the study. Teat fidelity (keeping the same teat between the nursings) was registered, excluding the first 48 h postpartum. Piglet weight was recorded daily during the first week of life and thereafter once a week until weaning at 4 wk of age. Weight and growth rate were analyzed using repeated observation mixed-model analysis of variance. The 2 piglets that suckled the inverted teats were not able to emerge the teats and they were euthanized 4 and 8 d after birth, respectively, due to loss of BW. The average weight at weaning (28 d of age) was 8.1 kg (range 3.2-13.8 kg). In the normal teats (n = 53), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue at necropsy was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.33, P < 0.05), 3 (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), and 4 (r = 0.47, P < 0.001). In the protruded teats (n = 32), the weight of the corresponding mammary gland tissue was positively correlated to the piglet average daily weight gain during wk 2 (r = 0.63, P < 0.001) and 3 (r = 0.43, P < 0.05). Among the piglets nursing normal teats, 82% kept fidelity to its teat and the corresponding percent for the protruded teats was 26%. In 7 of the 9 sows, the weaning weight of the piglets suckling protruded teats was numerically lower compared to the

  1. Enhanced cardiac TBC1D10C expression lowers heart rate and enhances exercise capacity and survival

    PubMed Central

    Volland, Cornelia; Bremer, Sebastian; Hellenkamp, Kristian; Hartmann, Nico; Dybkova, Nataliya; Khadjeh, Sara; Kutschenko, Anna; Liebetanz, David; Wagner, Stefan; Unsöld, Bernhard; Didié, Michael; Toischer, Karl; Sossalla, Samuel; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Seidler, Tim

    2016-01-01

    TBC1D10C is a protein previously demonstrated to bind and inhibit Ras and Calcineurin. In cardiomyocytes, also CaMKII is inhibited and all three targeted enzymes are known to promote maladaptive cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Here, in accordance with lack of Calcineurin inhibition in vivo, we did not observe a relevant anti-hypertrophic effect despite inhibition of Ras and CaMKII. However, cardiomyocyte-specific TBC1D10C overexpressing transgenic mice exhibited enhanced longevity. Ejection fraction and exercise capacity were enhanced in transgenic mice, but shortening of isolated cardiomyocytes was not increased. This suggests longevity resulted from enhanced cardiac performance but independent of cardiomyocyte contractile force. In further search for mechanisms, a transcriptome-wide analysis revealed expressional changes in several genes pertinent to control of heart rate (HR) including Hcn4, Scn10a, Sema3a and Cacna2d2. Indeed, telemetric holter recordings demonstrated slower atrial conduction and significantly lower HR. Pharmacological reduction of HR was previously demonstrated to enhance survival in mice. Thus, in addition to inhibition of stress signaling, TBC1D10C economizes generation of cardiac output via HR reduction, enhancing exercise capacity and survival. TBC1D10C may be a new target for HR reduction and longevity. PMID:27667030

  2. Mandible-Powered Escape Jumps in Trap-Jaw Ants Increase Survival Rates during Predator-Prey Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Larabee, Fredrick J.; Suarez, Andrew V.

    2015-01-01

    Animals use a variety of escape mechanisms to increase the probability of surviving predatory attacks. Antipredator defenses can be elaborate, making their evolutionary origin unclear. Trap-jaw ants are known for their rapid and powerful predatory mandible strikes, and some species have been observed to direct those strikes at the substrate, thereby launching themselves into the air away from a potential threat. This potential escape mechanism has never been examined in a natural context. We studied the use of mandible-powered jumping in Odontomachus brunneus during their interactions with a common ant predator: pit-building antlions. We observed that while trap-jaw ant workers escaped from antlion pits by running in about half of interactions, in 15% of interactions they escaped by mandible-powered jumping. To test whether escape jumps improved individual survival, we experimentally prevented workers from jumping and measured their escape rate. Workers with unrestrained mandibles escaped from antlion pits significantly more frequently than workers with restrained mandibles. Our results indicate that some trap-jaw ant species can use mandible-powered jumps to escape from common predators. These results also provide a charismatic example of evolutionary co-option, where a trait that evolved for one function (predation) has been co-opted for another (defense). PMID:25970637

  3. [Bion-M1. Biological activities of microorganisms under the conditions of a 30-day space flight].

    PubMed

    Voeĭkova, T A; Tiaglov, B V; Novikova, L M; Krest'ianova, I N; Emel'ianova, L K; Korshunov, D V; Morozova, Iu A; Il'in, V K

    2014-01-01

    It was stated that spaceflight factors (SFF) affect the chromosomal DNA interchange during Streptomyces crossing. Cross polarity and primary input of a parent chromosome fragment in recombinant generation imply a more lasting cells contact in microgravity and a broader horizontal transport of genetic material. SFF had no effect on recombination frequency and mutation in a model of parental auxotrophic markers reversion to prototrophism. It was demonstrated that SFF boosted the fC31 phage exit from S. lividans 66 (fC31) and did not influence phage induction in S. coelicolor A3(2) (fC31). SFF inhibited synthesis of antiobiotic actinorhodin in lisogenic S. coelicolor A3(2), and tylosin and desmicosin in S. fradiae. Survivability of electrogenic bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in space flight was higher compared with the synchronous control experiment. The reduction activity of S. oneidensis MR-1 as an indicator of electron generation effectiveness was identical in flight and laboratory samples.

  4. Tropical 40-50- and 25-30-day oscillations appearing in realistic and idealized GFDL climate models and the ECMWF dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Y.; Golder, D.G. )

    1993-02-01

    To clarify differences between the tropical 40-50- and 25-30-day oscillations and to evaluate simulations and various theories, space-time spectrum and filter analyses were performed on a nine-year dataset taken from the nine-level R30 spectral general circulation model and the nine-year (1979-1987) ECMWF four-dimensional analysis dataset. The 40-level SKYHI model was analyzed to examine the effect of increased vertical resolution, while an ocean-surface perpetual January R30 model was analyzed to examine the effects of the absence of geographical and seasonal variations. The R30 model results indicate that the relative amplitude of the wavenumber-one component of the 40-50- and 25-30-day oscillations varies greatly from year to year. The SKYHI model indicates that 25-30-day oscillations still appear too strong, although this model reveals a longer vertical wavelength, a higher penetration of the 25-30-day amplitude above the level of convective heating, and a slightly greater height of the convective-heating amplitude, which cannot be detected in the R30 model. The ocean-surface perpetual January R30 model indicates that not only the 25-30-day mode but also the 40-50-day mode can be simulated in the absence of geographical and seasonal modulations, while the wave-CISK and evaporation-wind feedback theories cannot explain the 40-50-day mode. Both R30 models indicate that daily precipitation is usuallys associated with upward motion. A comparison between the two R30 models suggests that the sea surface temperature geographically modules the intrinsically eastward-moving wavenumber-one precipitation oscillations, resulting in their major Pacific and minor Atlantic local amplitudes. This causes planetary-scale eastward-moving zonal-velocity oscillations and standing geopotential oscillations. 121 refs., 26 figs.

  5. Factors relating to poor survival rates of aged cervical cancer patients: a population-based study with the relative survival model in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    Poor survival of older cervical cancer patients has been reported; however, related factors, such as the extent of disease and the competitive risk by aging have not been well evaluated. We applied the relative survival model developed by Dickman et al to resolve this issue. Study subjects were cervical cancer patients retrieved from the Osaka Cancer Registry. They were limited to the 10,048 reported cases diagnosed from 1975 to 1999, based on the quality of data collection on vital status. Age at diagnosis was categorized into <30, 30-54, 55-64, and > or = 65 years. The impact of prognostic factors on 5-year survival was evaluated with the relative survival model, incorporating patients' expected survival in multivariate analysis. The age-specific relative excess risk (RER) of death was significantly higher for older groups as compared with women aged 30-54 years (RER, 1.58 at 55-64 and 2.51 at > or = 65 years). The RER was decreased by 64.8% among the 55-64 year olds as an effect of cancer stage at diagnosis, and by 43.4% among those 65 years old and over. After adding adjustment for treatment modalities, the RER was no longer significantly higher among 55-64 year olds; however, it was still higher among 65 year olds and over. Advanced stage at diagnosis was the main determinant of poor survival among the aged cervical cancer patients, although other factors such as limitations on the combination of treatment were also suggested to have an influence in those aged 65 years and over.

  6. Long Cut Straw Provides Stable the Rates of Survival, Pregnancy and Live Birth for Vitrification of Human Blasotcysts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Woo; Cha, Jeong-Ho; Shin, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Seul-Ki; Cha, Hye-Jin; Kim, Ji-Hae; Ahn, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Hye-Young; Pak, Kyung-Ah; Yoon, Ji-Sung; Park, Seo-Young; Park, Choon-keun

    2016-01-01

    Most of the commercial devices for vitrification are directly immersed into the warming solution (WS) for increasing of warming rate. However, the previous modified cut standard straw (MCS) which has reported is difficult to immerse into the WS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long cut straw (LCS) could be useful as a stable tool for vitrified-warmed human blastocysts. A total of 138 vitrified-warmed cycles were performed between November 2013 and November 2014 (exclusion criteria: women ≥38 years old, poor responder, surgical retrieval sperm, and severe male factor). The artificial shrinkage was conducted using 29-gauge needles. Ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide (7.5% and 15% (v/v)) were used as cryoprotectants. Freezing and warming were conducted using the LCS tool. The cap of LCS was removed using the forceps in the liquid nitrogen (LN2) and then directly immersed into the first WS for 1 min at 37℃ (1 M sucrose). Only re-expanded blastocysts were transferred after it was cultured in sequential media for 18-20 h. A total of 294 blastocysts were warmed, and all were recovered (100%). Two hundred eighty-five embryos were survived (96.9%). The vitrifiedwarmed blastocysts of all patients were transferred without any cancellation. We were able to achieve a reasonable implantation (24.2%), following by clinical pregnancy (36.2%), which then continued to ongoing pregnancy (36.2%), and live birth (31.2%). Using LCS is achieved the acceptable rates of survival, pregnancy and live birth. Therefore, the LCS could be considered as a stable and simple tool for human embryo vitrificaton. PMID:27796003

  7. Effect of Warming Rate on the Survival of Vitrified Mouse Oocytes and on the Recrystallization of Intracellular Ice1

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Shinsuke; Mazur, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Successful cryopreservation demands there be little or no intracellular ice. One procedure is classical slow equilibrium freezing, and it has been successful in many cases. However, for some important cell types, including some mammalian oocytes, it has not. For the latter, there are increasing attempts to cryopreserve them by vitrification. However, even if intracellular ice formation (IIF) is prevented during cooling, it can still occur during the warming of a vitrified sample. Here, we examine two aspects of this occurrence in mouse oocytes. One took place in oocytes that were partly dehydrated by an initial hold for 12 min at −25°C. They were then cooled rapidly to −70°C and warmed slowly, or they were warmed rapidly to intermediate temperatures and held. These oocytes underwent no IIF during cooling but blackened from IIF during warming. The blackening rate increased about 5-fold for each five-degree rise in temperature. Upon thawing, they were dead. The second aspect involved oocytes that had been vitrified by cooling to −196°C while suspended in a concentrated solution of cryoprotectants and warmed at rates ranging from 140°C/min to 3300°C/min. Survivals after warming at 140°C/min and 250°C/min were low (<30%). Survivals after warming at ≥2200°C/min were high (80%). When warmed slowly, they were killed, apparently by the recrystallization of previously formed small internal ice crystals. The similarities and differences in the consequences of the two types of freezing are discussed. PMID:18562703

  8. Polymorphism at the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor locus: associations with birth weight, growth rate, carcass composition and cold survival.

    PubMed

    Forrest, R H; Hickford, J G H; Hogan, A; Frampton, C

    2003-02-01

    The beta3-adrenergic receptors (ADRB3s) are predominantly found on the surface of adipocytes and are the major mediators of the lipolytic and thermogenic effects of high catecholamine concentrations. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis of part of the ovine beta3-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB3) intron was used to screen 12 large Merino half-sib families for sequence variation. Six different alleles that segregated in a Mendelian fashion were observed. The genetic basis for the allelic differences were identified by sequencing the ADRB3 (coding and non-coding regions) from animals that were homozygous for each of the alleles. Five sire lines (two Merino x Merino, two Merino x Coopworth, one Dorset Down x Coopworth) provided phenotypic and genotypic data used to ascertain the effects of allelic variation at the ADRB3 locus on birth weight, weaning weight, growth rate (up until weaning), carcass composition at 63 days post-weaning and cold survival. Statistical analyses within each half-sib family showed that in some sire lines (S13, S15, and S17) the inheritance of a particular allele was associated with increased birth weights and/or increased growth rates up until weaning. The inheritance of a particular sire allele was associated with fatter carcasses in sire line S16. Chi-squared analysis revealed the association of the E allele with cold survival and the D allele with cold-related mortality in sire line S14. Such associations support the hypothesis that ADRB3s are involved in energy homeostasis. With more research, the variation detected at the ADRB3 locus may assist in the genetic selection for desirable animal production traits.

  9. Novel brachytherapy treatment planning system utilizing dose rate dependent average cell survival, CT-simulator, and dose-volume histogram

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, R.; Fong, W.; Frankel, T.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes a new brachytherapy planning program that provides an evaluation of a given low or high dose rate treatment taking into account spatial dose heterogeneity and cell response to radiation. This brachytherapy scheme uses the images from a CT-Simulator (AcQSim, Picker International, Cleveland, Ohio) to simultaneously localize the seed positions and to axially scan the patient. This procedure helps to ensure accurate registration of the putative seed positions with the patient tissues and organs. The seed positions are determined by back-projecting positions of seeds or dummy seeds from the CT-Simulator setup scout images. Physicians delineate the tissues of interest on the axial slices. Dose is computed after assigning activity (low dose rate) of dwell times (high dose rate) to the Ir{sup 192} or I{sup 125} seed. The planar isodose distribution is superimposed onto axial cuts of the tissues and onto coronal or sagital views of the tissues following image reconstruction. Areal or volumetric calculations of the dose distribution within a given tissue are computed from the tissue outlines. The treatment plan computes (1) volume differential and cummulative dose histograms of the dose delivered to individual tissues, (2) the average, standard deviation, and coefficient of skewness of the dose distribution delivered to the individual tissues, (3) the average survival probability for a given radiation treatment.

  10. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort Methods This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. Results After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). Conclusion In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better

  11. Mechanical properties of non-sarcomeric cytoskeleton of mice cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibers after 30-day spaceflight biosatellite BION-M1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogneva, Irina; Maximova, Maria; Larina, Irina

    The aim of this study was to determine transversal stiffness of the cortical cytoskeleton and cytoskeletal protein desmin content of the left ventricle cardiomyocytes, soleus and tibialis anterior muscle fibers of the mice after 30-days space flight biosatellite «BION-M1» (Russia, 2013). The dissection was made after 13-16.5 hours after landing. Transversal stiffness was measured in relaxed and calcium activated state by atomic force microscope. Desmin content was estimated by using western-blot, expression level of the gene, coding desmin, - by real time PCR. The transversal stiffness of the cortical cytoskeleton of the cardiomyocytes and fibers of the skeletal muscles (as measured using the atomic force microscopy) did not differ significantly within the study groups in comparison to the vivarium control group, except for its slight increase in tibialis anterior fibers muscle in the post-flight group of animals. The content of beta- and gamma-actin in the membranous fraction of proteins in the left ventricular cardiomyocytes (as detected using the western blot technique) did not differ significantly within all study groups and correlated with the transversal stiffness. Similar situation was revealed in fibers of the soleus muscle and tibialis anterior muscle, as well as correlation with the transversal stiffness of their cortical cytoskeleton was noted. At the same time, the content of beta-actin in the cytoplasmic fraction of proteins was found to be decreased in all types of studied tissues in comparison to the control levels in the post-flight group, as well as lowered beta-actin gene expression rates in the post-flight group of animals (as detected using the RT-PCR technique). After completion of the space flight, content of alpha-actinin-4 was found to be reduced in the membranous fraction of proteins of mouse cardiomyocytes, while its content in the cytoplasmic fraction of proteins did not change significantly. Furthermore, gene expression rates of this

  12. Population-based study of ovarian cancer in Côte d'Or: prognostic factors and trends in relative survival rates over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this population-based study was to assess independent prognostic factors in ovarian cancer using relative survival (RS) and to investigate changes in RS rates from 1982 to 2005. Methods Data on 748 patients with ovarian cancer were provided by the Côte d'Or gynaecologic cancer registry. The RS was estimated using a generalized linear model with a Poisson error structure. Relative survival and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were described at the following specific time points 1, 3 and 5 years. The effect of prognostic factors on survival was assessed with multivariate analyses of RS. Results The median follow-up was 12 years. The RS rates at 1, 3 and 5 years were 81%, 55% and 44%, respectively. As compared with the period 1982-1989, an improvement in survival was found for the period 1998-2005: HR = 0.52[0.40-0.67]. Women who lived in urban areas had better RS: HR = 0.82[0.67-0.99]. Patients with epithelial types of ovarian cancer other than mucinous or endometrioid cancer had worse RS than those with serous histology. Age ≥ 70 years was associated with lower survival. Conclusions Period of diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, histology, place of residence and age were independent prognostic factors for survival in ovarian cancer. An improvement in the survival rate was observed after 1998 but a significant improvement was limited to advanced stage cancers. PMID:21067600

  13. A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Roshni; Myles, Puja R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cholesterol lowering drugs HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and PPARα activators (fibrates) have been shown to reduce host inflammation via non-disease specific immunomodulatory mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that commonly prescribed drugs in general practice, statins and fibrates, may be beneficial in influenza-like illness related mortality. This retrospective cohort study examines the association between two lipid lowering drugs, statins and fibrates, and all-cause 30-day mortality following a medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI). Methods. Primary care patient data were retrospectively extracted from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database. The sample comprised 201,179 adults aged 30 years or older experiencing a MAARI episode. Patient exposure to statins or fibrates was coded as separate dichotomous variables and deemed current if the most recent GP prescription was issued in the 30 days prior to MAARI diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression were used for analyses. Adjustment was carried out for chronic lung disease, heart failure, metformin and glitazones, comorbidity burden, socio-demographic and lifestyle variables such as smoking status and body mass index (BMI). Statistical interaction tests were carried out to check for effect modification by gender, body mass index, smoking status and comorbidity. Results. A total of 1,096 (5%) patients died within the 30-day follow up period. Of this group, 213 (19.4%) were statin users and 4 (0.4%) were fibrate users. After adjustment, a significant 35% reduction in odds [adj OR; 0.65 (95% CI [0.52–0.80])] and a 33% reduction in the hazard [adj HR: 0.67 (95% CI [0.55–0.83])] of all-cause 30-day mortality following MAARI was observed in statin users. A significant effect modification by comorbidity burden was observed for the association between statin use and MAARI-related mortality. Fibrate use was associated with a non

  14. A UK general practice population cohort study investigating the association between lipid lowering drugs and 30-day mortality following medically attended acute respiratory illness.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Roshni; Venkatesan, Sudhir; Myles, Puja R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cholesterol lowering drugs HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and PPARα activators (fibrates) have been shown to reduce host inflammation via non-disease specific immunomodulatory mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that commonly prescribed drugs in general practice, statins and fibrates, may be beneficial in influenza-like illness related mortality. This retrospective cohort study examines the association between two lipid lowering drugs, statins and fibrates, and all-cause 30-day mortality following a medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI). Methods. Primary care patient data were retrospectively extracted from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) database. The sample comprised 201,179 adults aged 30 years or older experiencing a MAARI episode. Patient exposure to statins or fibrates was coded as separate dichotomous variables and deemed current if the most recent GP prescription was issued in the 30 days prior to MAARI diagnosis. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox regression were used for analyses. Adjustment was carried out for chronic lung disease, heart failure, metformin and glitazones, comorbidity burden, socio-demographic and lifestyle variables such as smoking status and body mass index (BMI). Statistical interaction tests were carried out to check for effect modification by gender, body mass index, smoking status and comorbidity. Results. A total of 1,096 (5%) patients died within the 30-day follow up period. Of this group, 213 (19.4%) were statin users and 4 (0.4%) were fibrate users. After adjustment, a significant 35% reduction in odds [adj OR; 0.65 (95% CI [0.52-0.80])] and a 33% reduction in the hazard [adj HR: 0.67 (95% CI [0.55-0.83])] of all-cause 30-day mortality following MAARI was observed in statin users. A significant effect modification by comorbidity burden was observed for the association between statin use and MAARI-related mortality. Fibrate use was associated with a non

  15. The Efficacy of a Condensed "Seeking Safety" Intervention for Women in Residential Chemical Dependence Treatment at 30 Days Posttreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash Ghee, Anna; Bolling, Lanny C.; Johnson, Candace S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a condensed version of the "Seeking Safety" intervention in the reduction of trauma-related symptoms and improved drug abstinence rates among women in residential chemical dependence treatment. One hundred and four women were randomly assigned to treatment including a condensed (six session) "Seeking Safety"…

  16. Functioning survival rate of fixtures and superstructures of osseointegrated implants: ten years of progress in Tokyo Dental College Hospital (second report).

    PubMed

    Yoshida, K; Takamatsu, Y; Adachi, Y; Kishi, M; Sekine, H; Shigematsu, T

    1996-05-01

    Osseointegrated implant bridges (OIB) have shown excellent results in the majority of cases. Since 1983, 1,022 fixtures has been applied to 241 superstructures in Tokyo Dental College Hospital. The aim of present study was to examine their functioning survival rate during recent ten years. The functioning survival rate of the superstructure of OIB has been almost 100% in both maxilla and mandible. Although 13.0% of these fixtures had to be removed in maxillary complete cases, only 3.3% of fixtures were removed in other cases. In maxillary complete cases, the functioning survival rate of OIB fixtures gradually decreases from 91% to 74% (91%, less than 3 years; 84%, between 3 and 7 years; 74%, more than 7 years), but it remained at about 97% for all periods in other cases. Apparently, the functioning survival rate of OIB fixture is generally determined within the period of one year, so almost the same rate is maintained thereafter. It is suggested that if more fixture numbers in the superstructure were applied to maxillary complete cases, the functional survival rate might improve.

  17. Daily survival rate for nests and chicks of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) at natural nest sites in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Gillian L.; Sanders, Felicia J.; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2013-01-01

    Although a species of conservation concern, little is known about the reproductive success of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of natural beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests and chicks was examined at four natural nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, 2009–2010. Measures of nest success (n = 257 nests) ranged from 0–93% among colony sites. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, but year and estimates of predation risk also were related to DSR. Predation was the principal cause of identifiable nest loss, accounting for 47% of nest failures when the two years of data were pooled. The probability (± SE) of a chick surviving from hatching to fledging = 0.449 ± 0.01 (n = 92 chicks). DSR of chicks was negatively related to tide height and rainfall. Therefore, productivity of Least Terns is being lost during both the nesting and chick stage through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors that may prove difficult to fully mitigate or manage. Although natural nesting sites within Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge intermittently produce successful nests, the consistency of productivity over the long term is still unknown. Given that the long term availability of anthropogenic nest sites (e.g., rooftops, dredge-spoil islands) for Least Terns is questionable, further research is required both locally and throughout the region to assess the extent to which natural sites act as population sources or sinks.

  18. Are weekend inpatient rehabilitation services value for money? An economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial with a 30 day follow up

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing additional Saturday rehabilitation can improve functional independence and health related quality of life at discharge and it may reduce patient length of stay, yet the economic implications are not known. The aim of this study was to determine from a health service perspective if the provision of rehabilitation to inpatients on a Saturday in addition to Monday to Friday was cost effective compared to Monday to Friday rehabilitation alone. Methods Cost utility and cost effectiveness analyses were undertaken alongside a multi-center, single-blind randomized controlled trial with a 30-day follow up after discharge. Participants were adults admitted for inpatient rehabilitation in two publicly funded metropolitan rehabilitation facilities. The control group received usual care rehabilitation services from Monday to Friday and the intervention group received usual care plus an additional rehabilitation service on Saturday. Incremental cost utility ratio was reported as cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained and an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was reported as cost for a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in functional independence. Results 996 patients (mean age 74 (standard deviation 13) years) were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 496) or the control group (n = 500). Mean difference in cost of AUD$1,673 (95% confidence interval (CI) -271 to 3,618) was a saving in favor of the intervention group. The incremental cost utility ratio found a saving of AUD$41,825 (95% CI -2,817 to 74,620) per QALY gained for the intervention group. The ICER found a saving of AUD$16,003 (95% CI -3,074 to 87,361) in achieving a MCID in functional independence for the intervention group. If the willingness to pay per QALY gained or for a MCID in functional independence was zero dollars the probability of the intervention being cost effective was 96% and 95%, respectively. A sensitivity analysis removing Saturday

  19. [STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF THE LYMPH TISSUE OF MICE LYMPHATIC NODES FOLLOWING THE 30-DAY FLIGHT ONBOARD SPACECRAFT BION-M1].

    PubMed

    Bulekbaeva, L E; Demchenko, G A; Ilyin, E A; Erofeeva, L M

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the results of studying the lymph tissue of mesenteric and cervical lymphatic nodes in C57BL/6N mice after the 30-day orbital flight onboard biosatellite Bion-M1. Histological and morphometric investigations revealed changes in the ratio of the nodes structural-functional zones and microstructure. Reductions in reticular cells, plasmocytes, macrophages and blasts in the nodes point to degradation of both humoral and cellular immunity.

  20. Influence of second- and third-degree heart block on 30-day outcome following acute myocardial infarction in the drug-eluting stent era.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Seo, Jae-Bin; Chung, Woo-Young; Zo, Joo-Hee; Kim, Myung-A; Park, Kyung-Woo; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Chae, In-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju; Cho, Myeong-Chan; Kim, Young-Jo; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prognostic value of heart block among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated with drug-eluting stents. A total of 13,862 patients with AMI, registered in the nation-wide AMI database from January 2005 to June 2013, were analyzed. Second- (Mobitz type I or II) and third-degree atrioventricular block were considered as heart block in this study. Thirty-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including all causes of death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and revascularization were evaluated. Percutaneous coronary intervention with implantation of drug-eluting stent was performed in 89.8% of the patients. Heart block occurred in 378 patients (2.7%). Thirty-day MACE occurred in 1,144 patients (8.2%). Patients with heart block showed worse clinical parameters at initial admission, and the presence of heart block was associated with 30-day MACE in univariate analyses. However, the prognostic impact of heart block was not significant after adjustment of potential confounders (p = 0.489). Among patients with heart block, patients with a culprit in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery had worse clinical outcomes than those of patients with a culprit in the left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD culprit was a significant risk factor for 30-day MACE even after controlling for confounders (odds ratio 5.28, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 22.81, p = 0.026). In conclusion, despite differences in clinical parameters at the initial admission, heart block was not an independent risk factor for 30-day MACE in adjusted analyses. However, a LAD culprit was an independent risk factor for 30-day MACE among patients with heart block.

  1. [STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF THE LYMPH TISSUE OF MICE LYMPHATIC NODES FOLLOWING THE 30-DAY FLIGHT ONBOARD SPACECRAFT BION-M1].

    PubMed

    Bulekbaeva, L E; Demchenko, G A; Ilyin, E A; Erofeeva, L M

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the results of studying the lymph tissue of mesenteric and cervical lymphatic nodes in C57BL/6N mice after the 30-day orbital flight onboard biosatellite Bion-M1. Histological and morphometric investigations revealed changes in the ratio of the nodes structural-functional zones and microstructure. Reductions in reticular cells, plasmocytes, macrophages and blasts in the nodes point to degradation of both humoral and cellular immunity. PMID:26554128

  2. The Social Work Role in Reducing 30-Day Readmissions: The Effectiveness of the Bridge Model of Transitional Care.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Renae; Ginsburg, Jacob; Grabowski, Jessica; Post, Sharon; Rosenberg, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The hospital experience is taxing and confusing for patients and their families, particularly those with limited economic and social resources. This complexity often leads to disengagement, poor adherence to the plan of care, and high readmission rates. Novel approaches to addressing the complexities of transitional care are emerging as possible solutions. The Bridge Model is a person-centered, social work-led, interdisciplinary transitional care intervention that helps older adults safely transition from the hospital back to their homes and communities. The Bridge Model combines 3 key components-care coordination, case management, and patient engagement-which provide a seamless transition during this stressful time and improve the overall quality of transitional care for older adults, including reducing hospital readmissions. The post Affordable Care Act (ACA) and managed care environment's emphasis on value and quality support further development and expansion of transitional care strategies, such as the Bridge Model, which offer promising avenues to fulfil the triple aim by improving the quality of individual patient care while also impacting population health and controlling per capita costs.

  3. The Social Work Role in Reducing 30-Day Readmissions: The Effectiveness of the Bridge Model of Transitional Care.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Renae; Ginsburg, Jacob; Grabowski, Jessica; Post, Sharon; Rosenberg, Walter

    2016-04-01

    The hospital experience is taxing and confusing for patients and their families, particularly those with limited economic and social resources. This complexity often leads to disengagement, poor adherence to the plan of care, and high readmission rates. Novel approaches to addressing the complexities of transitional care are emerging as possible solutions. The Bridge Model is a person-centered, social work-led, interdisciplinary transitional care intervention that helps older adults safely transition from the hospital back to their homes and communities. The Bridge Model combines 3 key components-care coordination, case management, and patient engagement-which provide a seamless transition during this stressful time and improve the overall quality of transitional care for older adults, including reducing hospital readmissions. The post Affordable Care Act (ACA) and managed care environment's emphasis on value and quality support further development and expansion of transitional care strategies, such as the Bridge Model, which offer promising avenues to fulfil the triple aim by improving the quality of individual patient care while also impacting population health and controlling per capita costs. PMID:27276523

  4. Reproductive rates, birth weight, calving ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-breed diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Comerford, J W; Bertrand, J K; Benyshek, L L; Johnson, M H

    1987-01-01

    Calving and weaning rates, birth weight, calving ease, and 24-h calf survival were evaluated in a four-breed diallel of Simmental (S), Limousin (L), Polled Hereford (H) and Brahman (B) beef cattle in five calf crops. Limousin dams tended to have the highest calving and weaning rates because they were able to have heavier calves with less calving difficulty and higher survival rates. Brahman-sired calves were the heaviest at birth (P less than .05) and B dams produced the lightest calves (P less than .001). Lower birth weights tended to be the limiting factor on survival of these calves. A linear comparison among means to evaluate purebred, additive, maternal and specific combining ability effects showed most of the reduction in birth weight from B dams was due to maternal effects. Breed of dam accounted for a higher proportion of variation in calving ease than did sire breed. Simmental sires had significantly heavier calves at birth and S and H dams tended to have more calving difficulty and lower survival rates. Heterosis for these traits was generally not significant. Correlations were generally positive and significant for birth weight and calving ease, but were more variable for birth weight and survival. Linear regressions of calving ease on birth weight both within years and within dam-breed-year subclasses were very similar in that the association of these two traits was reduced as dam age increased. PMID:3818492

  5. Route-Specific Passage Proportions and Survival Rates for Fish Passing through John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Ploskey, Gene R.; Weiland, Mark A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2012-06-04

    This report fulfills a request of the U.S. Army Engineer District, Portland, Oregon, to produce an interim report of estimates of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates for lower Columbia River dams in 2010 and 2011. The estimates are needed to update the Compass Model for the Columbia River Treaty and the new Biological Opinion before detail technical reports are published in late 2012. This report tabulates route-specific fish-passage proportions and survival rates for steelhead and Chinook salmon smolts passing through various sampled routes at John Day Dam, The Dalles Dam, and Bonneville Dam in 2010 and 2011. Results were compiled from analyses of data acquired in spring 2010 and 2011 studies that were specifically designed to estimate dam-passage and forebay-to-tailrace survival rates, travel time metrics, and spill passage efficiency, as stipulated by the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion and the Columbia Basin Fish Accords. The study designs allowed for estimation of route-specific fish passage proportions and survival rates as well as estimation of forebay-passage survival, all of which are summarized herein.

  6. Effects of hydroperiod duration on survival, developmental rate, and size at metamorphosis in boreal chorus frog tadpoles (Pseudacris maculata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amburgey, Staci; Funk, W. Chris; Murphy, Melanie; Muths, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between climate-driven habitat conditions and survival is key to preserving biodiversity in the face of rapid climate change. Hydroperiod—the length of time water is in a wetland—is a critical limiting habitat variable for amphibians as larvae must metamorphose before ponds dry. Changes in precipitation and temperature patterns are affecting hydroperiod globally, but the impact of these changes on amphibian persistence is poorly understood. We studied the responses of Boreal Chorus Frog (Pseudacris maculata) tadpoles to simulated hydroperiods (i.e., water level reductions) in the laboratory using individuals collected from ponds spanning a range of natural hydroperiods (Colorado Front Range, USA). To assess the effects of experimental hydroperiod reduction, we measured mortality, time to metamorphosis, and size at metamorphosis. We found that tadpoles grew at rates reflecting the hydroperiods of their native ponds, regardless of experimental treatment. Tadpoles from permanent ponds metamorphosed faster than those from ephemeral ponds across all experimental treatments, a pattern which may represent a predation selection gradient or countergradient variation in developmental rates. Size at metamorphosis did not vary across experimental treatments. Mortality was low overall but varied with pond of origin. Our results suggest that adaptation to local hydroperiod and/or predation and temperature conditions is important in P. maculata. Moreover, the lack of a plastic response to reduced hydroperiods suggests that P. maculata may not be able to metamorphose quickly enough to escape drying ponds. These results have important implications for amphibian persistence in ponds predicted to dry more quickly due to rapid climate change.

  7. Computed Tomography-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Safety, Efficacy, and Effect on Survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mohnike, Konrad; Wieners, Gero; Schwartz, Franziska; Seidensticker, Max; Pech, Maciej; Ruehl, Ricarda; Wust, Peter; Lopez-Haenninen, Enrique; Gademann, Guenther; Peters, Nils; Berg, Thomas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Ricke, Jens

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the saftety and efficacy of computed tomography (CT)-guided brachytherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: A total of 83 patients were recruited, presenting with 140 HCC- lesions. Treatment was performed by CT-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy with an iridium-192 source. The primary endpoint was time to progression; secondary endpoints included local tumor control and overall survival (OS). A matched-pair analysis with patients not receiving brachytherapy was performed. Match criteria included the Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score, alpha-fetoprotein, presence, and extent of multifocal disease. For statistical analysis, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were performed. Results: Mean and median cumulative TTP for all patients (n = 75) were 17.7 and 10.4 months. Five local recurrences were observed. The OS after inclusion reached median times of 19.4 months (all patients), 46.3 months (CLIP score, 0), 20.6 months (CLIP score, 1) 12.7 months, (CLIP score, 2), and 8.3 months (CLIP score, {>=}3). The 1- and 3-year OS were 94% and 65% (CLIP score, 0), 69% and 12% (CLIP score, 1), and 48% and 19% (CLIP score, 2), respectively. Nine complications requiring intervention were encountered in 124 interventions. Matched-pair analysis revealed a significantly longer OS for patients undergoing CT-guided brachytherapy. Conclusion: Based on our results the study treatment could be safely performed. The study treatment had a beneficial effect on OS in patients with advanced HCC, with respect to (and depending on) the CLIP score and compared with OS in a historical control group. A high rate of local control was also observed, regardless of applied dose in a range of 15 to 25 Gy.

  8. Active Smoking May Negatively Affect Response Rate, Progression-Free Survival, and Overall Survival of Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Keizman, Daniel; Gottfried, Maya; Ish-Shalom, Maya; Maimon, Natalie; Peer, Avivit; Neumann, Avivit; Hammers, Hans; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Sinibaldi, Victoria; Pili, Roberto; Hayat, Henry; Kovel, Svetlana; Sella, Avishay; Boursi, Ben; Weitzen, Rony; Mermershtain, Wilmosh; Rouvinov, Keren; Berger, Raanan; Carducci, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes are risk factors for renal cell carcinoma development. Their presence has been associated with a worse outcome in various cancers. We sought to determine their association with outcome of sunitinib treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Methods. An international multicenter retrospective study of sunitinib-treated mRCC patients was performed. Multivariate analyses were performed to determine the association between outcome and the pretreatment status of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, and other known prognostic factors. Results. Between 2004 and 2013, 278 mRCC patients were treated with sunitinib: 59 were active smokers, 67 were obese, 73 were diabetic, and 165 had pretreatment hypertension. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9 months, and overall survival (OS) was 22 months. Factors associated with PFS were smoking status (past and active smokers: hazard ratio [HR]: 1.17, p = .39; never smokers: HR: 2.94, p < .0001), non-clear cell histology (HR: 1.62, p = .011), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 3.51, p < .0001), use of angiotensin system inhibitors (HR: 0.63, p = .01), sunitinib dose reduction or treatment interruption (HR: 0.72, p = .045), and Heng risk (good and intermediate risk: HR: 1.07, p = .77; poor risk: HR: 1.87, p = .046). Factors associated with OS were smoking status (past and active smokers: HR: 1.25, p = .29; never smokers: HR: 2.7, p < .0001), pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio >3 (HR: 2.95, p < .0001), and sunitinib-induced hypertension (HR: 0.57, p = .002). Conclusion. Active smoking may negatively affect the PFS and OS of sunitinib-treated mRCC. Clinicians should consider advising patients to quit smoking at initiation of sunitinib treatment for mRCC. PMID:24309979

  9. Factors influencing coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) seasonal survival rates: A spatially continuous approach within stream networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, A.M.; Gresswell, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Mark-recapture methods were used to examine watershed-scale survival of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) from two headwater stream networks. A total of 1725 individuals (???100 mm, fork length) were individually marked and monitored seasonally over a 3-year period. Differences in survival were compared among spatial (stream segment, subwatershed, and watershed) and temporal (season and year) analytical scales, and the effects of abiotic (discharge, temperature, and cover) and biotic (length, growth, condition, density, movement, and relative fish abundance) factors were evaluated. Seasonal survival was consistently lowest and least variable (years combined) during autumn (16 September - 15 December), and evidence suggested that survival was negatively associated with periods of low stream discharge. In addition, relatively low (-) and high (+) water temperatures, fish length (-), and boulder cover (+) were weakly associated with survival. Seasonal abiotic conditions affected the adult cutthroat trout population in these watersheds, and low-discharge periods (e.g., autumn) were annual survival bottlenecks. Results emphasize the importance of watershed-scale processes to the understanding of population-level survival.

  10. Repeat Procedures Within 30 days in Patients Stented for Malignant Distal Biliary Strictures: Experience of 508 Patients at a Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Michael F; Chan, Calvin HY; Branch, Malcolm S; Jowell, Paul S; Baillie, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Stent related occlusion and migration remains a problem despite attempts to improve stent design over this time period. Flanged polyethylene plastic stents (FPS) remains the stent of choice in most centers. Early failure of stents placed for malignant extrahepatic biliary strictures (MEBS) has not previously been studied in detail. We set out to determine the incidence and reasons for biliary stent change within 30 days of the index procedure in a large tertiary center population during a period where (FPS) was the sole plastic stent used. Methods Retrospective analysis of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) was undertaken in patients who were stented for presumed or known MEBS between 1993 and 2001. Patients who required repeat stenting within 30 days were identified. Results All 508 patients were stented for MEBS. 5.7% of patients had a total of 34 repeat stenting procedures within 30 days of the index procedure; 27of 29 index stents were plastic, 2 were self-expandable metal stents (SEMS), 20 (3.9%) patients had stent failure as the reason for a stent exchange (plastic stent occlusion n = 15, mean time to stent change 14 ± 8.3 days; metal stent occlusion n = 2, mean time to stent change 24.5 ± 7.8 days; plastic stent migration n = 3, mean time to stent change 25 ± 5.3 days). There was a statistically significant difference in the time to stent change between the occluded plastic stent and migrated plastic stent cases (P = 0.045, 95% CI -21.7 to -0.29). 6 patients spent at least 2 additional days in hospital as a result of stent failure. Conclusions Early stent failure is an uncommon problem, especially in patients with SEMS. Early plastic stent failure appears to occur sooner with stent occlusion than with stent migration. Early stent failure is associated with significant morbidity and bears an economic impact in additional procedures and hospital stay.

  11. Length of stay, wait time to surgery and 30-day mortality for patients with hip fractures after the opening of a dedicated orthopedic weekend trauma room

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michel; Hopman, Wilma; Yach, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Background In September 2011, Kingston General Hospital (KGH) opened a dedicated orthopedic weekend trauma room. Previously, 1 weekend operating room (OR) was used by all surgical services. We assessed the impact this dedicated weekend trauma room had on hospital length of stay (LOS), time to surgery and 30-day mortality for patients with hip fractures. Methods Patients admitted between Oct. 1, 2009, and Sept. 30, 2012, were identified through our trauma registry, representing the 2 years before and 1 year after the opening of the orthopedic weekend trauma room. We documented type of fracture, mode of fixation, age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, time to OR, LOS, discharge disposition and 30-day mortality. We excluded patients with multiple fractures, open fractures and those requiring trauma team activation. Results Our study included 609 patients (405 pre- and 204 post–trauma room opening). Mean LOS decreased from 11.6 to 9.4 days (p = 0.005) and there was a decreasing trend in mean time to OR from 31.5 to 28.5 hours (p = 0.16). There was no difference in 30-day mortality (p = 0.24). The LOS decreased by an average of 2 days following opening of the weekend trauma room (p = 0.031) and by an average of 2.2 additional days if the patient was admitted on the weekend versus during the week (p = 0.024). Conclusion The weekend trauma OR at KGH significantly decreased the LOS and appears to have decreased wait times to surgery. Further analysis is needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the current strategy, the long-term outcome of this patient population and the impact the additional orthopedic weekend trauma room has had on other surgical services (i.e., general surgery) and their patients. PMID:27668332

  12. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 4: Appendix, costs, and data management requirements of the dedicated 30-day laboratory. [carry-on laboratory for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results of the updated 30-day life sciences dedicated laboratory scheduling and costing activities are documented, and the 'low cost' methodology used to establish individual equipment item costs is explained in terms of its allowances for equipment that is commerical off-the-shelf, modified commercial, and laboratory prototype; a method which significantly lowers program costs. The costs generated include estimates for non-recurring development, recurring production, and recurring operations costs. A cost for a biomedical emphasis laboratory and a Delta cost to provide a bioscience and technology laboratory were also generated. All cost reported are commensurate with the design and schedule definitions available.

  13. The effects of ambient temperature and mixing time of glass ionomer cement material on the survival rate of proximal ART restorations in primary molars

    PubMed Central

    Kemoli, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Temperature fluctuations and material mixing times are likely to affect the consistency and integrity of the material mixture, and hence the restoration made out of it. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of the ambient temperature and the mixing time of glass ionomer cement (GIC) restorative material on the survival rate of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations placed in primary molars. Materials and Methods: A total of 804 restorations were placed in the primary molars of 6-8-year-olds using the ART approach. The restorations were then followed for a period of 2 years and evaluated at given intervals. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS computer statistical program, and the results tested and compared using the Chi-square, Kaplan Meier survival analysis and Cox Proportional hazard statistical tests. Results: The cumulative survival rate of the restorations dropped from the initial 94.4% to 30.8% at the end of 2 years. The higher survival rate of the restorations was associated with the experienced operators and assistants when using the rubber dam isolation method. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the survival rate of the restorations when related to the room temperature and the mixing time of the GIC materials used in spite of the variations in the temperature recoded and the methods used in mixing the materials. Conclusion: The ambient temperature and mixing time of GIC did not have a significant effect on the survival of the proximal ART restorations. PMID:24808692

  14. Hydrophobic Surfaces of Spacecraft Components Enhance the Aggregation of Microorganisms and May Lead to Higher Survival Rates on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuerger, A. C.; Kern, R. G.

    2003-01-01

    In order to minimize the forward contamination of Mars, spacecraft are assembled under clean-room conditions that often require several procedures to clean and sterilize components. Surface characteristics of spacecraft materials may contribute to microbial survival by protecting spores from sterilizing agents, including UV irradiation on the surface of Mars. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of surface characteristics of several spacecraft materials on the survival of Bacillus subtilis spores under simulated Martian conditions.

  15. Changes in survival rate of multiple myeloma after the introduction of bortezomib: a single institutional experience over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Manabu; Suehara, Yasuhito; Fukumoto, Kota; Takeuchi, Masami; Matsue, Kosei

    2016-01-01

    The data of factors on the changes in survival before and after the introduction of bortezomib in unselected multiple myeloma (MM) patients is scarce in Asian population. We analyzed the clinical features and treatment outcomes of 270 consecutive MM patients admitted to our hospital between January 1995 and August 2014. The patients were divided into two groups, 1995–2005 (n=106) and 2006–2014 (n=164), based on bortezomib availability. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the groups, except age and percentage of patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT). The proportion of patients obtaining ≥very good partial response (VGPR) was higher in the recent cohort, which was translated as better overall survival in both younger and older patients (36.1 vs. 79.8 months, P=0.024, and 40.0 vs. 110.7 months, respectively). Patients receiving bortezomib early after diagnosis showed significantly better survival. However, there was no difference in survival between patients obtaining ≥VGPR in the two groups. On multivariate analysis, age ≥75 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) >normal were associated with shorter survival, while early bortezomib use and auto-SCT were associated with longer survival. On Cox regression analysis, International Staging System (ISS) stage III, LDH, and treatment response survival. Our observations indicated marked improvement of survival in MM patients diagnosed from 2006 to 2014 mainly due to the availability of bortezomib in Japan.

  16. Linking reproduction and survival can improve model estimates of vital rates derived from limited time-series counts of pinnipeds and other species.

    PubMed

    Battaile, Brian C; Trites, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to model the physiological link between somatic survival and reproductive output that reduces the number of parameters that need to be estimated by models designed to determine combinations of birth and death rates that produce historic counts of animal populations. We applied our Reproduction and Somatic Survival Linked (RSSL) method to the population counts of three species of North Pacific pinnipeds (harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardii (Gray, 1864); northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (L., 1758); and Steller sea lions, Eumetopias jubatus (Schreber, 1776))--and found our model outperformed traditional models when fitting vital rates to common types of limited datasets, such as those from counts of pups and adults. However, our model did not perform as well when these basic counts of animals were augmented with additional observations of ratios of juveniles to total non-pups. In this case, the failure of the ratios to improve model performance may indicate that the relationship between survival and reproduction is redefined or disassociated as populations change over time or that the ratio of juveniles to total non-pups is not a meaningful index of vital rates. Overall, our RSSL models show advantages to linking survival and reproduction within models to estimate the vital rates of pinnipeds and other species that have limited time-series of counts. PMID:24324541

  17. Effects of Some Natural Immunomodulatory Compounds in Combination with Thalidomide on Survival Rate and Tumor Size in Fibrosarcoma-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aghebati Maleki, Reza; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Sadigh Eteghad, Saeed; Zarredar, Habib; Zare Shahneh, Fatemeh; Aghebati Maleki, Leili; Samavati, Mehrnosh; Asadi, Hamed; Mosavi, Seyed Ehsan; Habibzadeh, Afshin; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Baradaran, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite significant advances have been achieved in cancer therapy, response to conventional treatments like surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy varies among individuals. Immunotherapy is known to be an effective strategy for patients who are resistant to the currently available interventions. Methods: Ninety-six male Balb/c mice (aged 6-8 weeks) were selected and divided into twelve groups of eight. Approximately, 1×106of WEHI-164 cells were injected to each mouse for tumor genesis. Five immunotherapy treatments were considered in this study, including Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), Bifidobacterium, Immuno-Modulator Drug (IMOD) and Thalidomide. After tumor formation, the groups were treated with one or more of these therapies. Tumor size and survival rate was regularly monitored. Results: Depending on the treatment group, tumor sizes were different. In some groups, combined treatments demonstrated more inhibitory effects on tumor growth rate. The mice in group (IMOD+ Thalidomide) had the lowest survival rate but group (BCG+ HSP+ Thalidomide) survived until the end of the experiment. Conclusion: The (HSP+ BCG+ Thalidomide) group exhibited satisfactory outcomes and two third of the mice in this group went into complete remission. Some combination therapies in test groups had significant impacts on survival and tumor growth rate. PMID:25364664

  18. Influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sodium, and Compound 48/80 on the survival rates after intestinal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zi-qing, Hei; Xiao-liang, Gan; Pin-jie, Huang; Jing, Wei; Ning, Shen; Wan-ling, Gao

    2008-01-01

    Background Mast cells were associated with intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury, the study was to observe the influence of Ketotifen, Cromolyn Sdium(CS), and Compound 48/80(CP) on the survival rates on the third day after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Methods 120 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, Sham-operated group (group S), model group (group M), group K, group C and group CP. Intestinal damage was triggered by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 75 minutes, group K, C, and CP were treated with kotifen 1 mg·kg-1, CS 50 mg·kg-1, and CP 0.75 mg·kg-1 i.v. at 5 min before reperfusion and once daily for three days following reperfusion respectively. Survival rate in each group was recorded during the three days after reperfusion. All the surviving rats were killed for determining the concentration of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase(AST), glutamic pyruvic transaminase(ALT), the ratio of AST compare ALT(S/L), total protein(TP), albumin(ALB), globulin(GLB), the ratio of ALB compare GLB(A/G), phosphocreatine kinase(CK), lactate dehydrogenase(LDH), urea nitrogen(BUN) and creatinine(CRE) at the 3rd day after reperfusion. And ultrastructure of IMMC, Chiu's score, lung histology, IMMC counts, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 of the small intestine were detected at the same time. Results Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury reduced the survival rate. The concentrations of TP, ALB and level of IL-10 in intestine in group M decreased significantly while the concentrations of S/L, LDH and the levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestine increased significantly compared with group S (P < 0.05). Treatment with Ketotifen and CS increased the survival rate compared with group M (P < 0.05), attenuated the down-regulation or up-regulation of the above index (P < 0.05). Treatment with CP decreased the survival rate on the 3rd day after reperfusion compared with group M(P < 0.05). Group K and C had better

  19. Comparative Survival [Rate] Study (CSS) of Hatchery PIT-tagged Chinook; Migration Years 1996-1998 Mark/Recapture Activities, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, Thomas J.; Basham, Larry R.

    2000-10-01

    The Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) is a multi-year program of the fishery agencies and tribes to measure the smolt-to-adult survival rates of hatchery spring and summer chinook at major production hatcheries in the Snake River basin and at selected hatcheries in the lower Columbia River. The CSS also compares the smolt-to-adult survival rates for Snake River basin chinook that were transported versus those that migrated in-river to below Bonneville Dam. Estimates of smolt-to-adult survival rates will be made both from Lower Granite Dam back to Lower Granite Dam (upriver stocks) and from the hatchery back to the hatchery (upriver and downriver stocks). This status report covers the first three migration years, 1996 to 1998, of the study. Study fish were implanted with a PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) tag which allows unique identification of individual fish. Beginning in 1997, a predetermined proportion of the PIT tagged study fish in the collection/bypass channel at the transportation sites, such as Lower Granite and Little Goose dams, was purposely routed to the raceways for transportation and the rest was routed back to the river. Two categories of in-river migrating fish are used in this study. The in-river group most representative of the non-tagged fish are fish that migrate past Lower Granite, Little Goose, and Lower Monumental dams undetected in the bypass systems. This is because all non-tagged fish collected at these three dams are currently being transported. The other in-river group contains those fish remaining in-river below Lower Monumental Dam that had previously been detected at one or more dams. The number of fish starting at Lower Granite dam that are destined to one of these two in-river groups must be estimated. The Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methodology was used for that purpose. Adult (including jacks) study fish returning to the hatcheries in the Snake River basin were sampled at the Lower Granite Dam adult trap. There the PIT

  20. Does the use of vaginal-implant transmitters affect neonate survival rate of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, C.C.; Jenks, J.A.; DePerno, C.S.; Klaver, R.W.; Osborn, R.G.; Tardiff, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    We compared survival of neonate white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus captured using vaginal-implant transmitters (VITs) and traditional ground searches to determine if capture method affects neonate survival. During winter 2003, 14 adult female radio-collared deer were fitted with VITs to aid in the spring capture of neonates; neonates were captured using VITs (N = 14) and traditional ground searches (N = 7). Of the VITs, seven (50%) resulted in the location of birth sites and the capture of 14 neonates. However, seven (50%) VITs were prematurely expelled prior to parturition. Predation accounted for seven neonate mortalities, and of these, five were neonates captured using VITs. During summer 2003, survival for neonates captured using VITs one. two, and three months post capture was 0.76 (SE = 0.05; N = 14). 0.64 (SE = 0.07; N = 11) and 0.64 (SE = 0.08; N = 9), respectively. Neonate survival one, two and three months post capture for neonates captured using ground searches was 0.71 (SE = 0.11 N = 7), 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5) and 0.71 (SE = 0.15; N = 5), respectively. Although 71% of neonates that died were captured <24 hours after birth using VITs, survival did not differ between capture methods. Therefore, use of VITs to capture neonate white-tailed deer did not influence neonate survival. VITs enabled us to capture neonates in dense habitats which would have been difficult to locate using traditional ground searches. ?? Wildlife Biology (2008).

  1. Implant survival rates, marginal bone level changes, and complications in full-mouth rehabilitation with flapless computer-guided surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Velloso, G; Luz, D; Barboza, E Porto

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review evaluated the implant survival rate, changes in marginal bone level, and complications associated with guided surgery for the treatment of fully edentulous patients followed up for longer than 1 year. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to retrieve studies published up until July 2014 that met predefined eligibility criteria. Thirteen studies were included. In studies on the guided surgery technique, a survival rate of 97.2% and a mean marginal bone loss of 1.45 mm were found during 1-4 years of follow-up. However, associated complications, such as implant loss, prosthesis or surgical guide fractures, and low primary stability, were often found, and there is a learning curve to achieve treatment success. Further longitudinal comparative studies should improve the technique and its success rate.

  2. Clinical evaluation of osseointegrated implants in Tokyo Dental College Hospital (third report): long-term observation of functioning survival rate of fixtures.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Yuko; Arataki, Tomohiko; Nomura, Takao; Suzuki, Hiroki; Atsuta, Syunichi; Hotta, Hiromi; Shimamura, Ichiro; Adachi, Yasushi; Kishi, Masataka

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this report was to review 365 cases of Brånemark Implant Bridge including 1,444 fixtures in patients of Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital. The term of implantation was divided into several phases; less than 1 year, from 1 year to 3 years, from 3 years to 5 years, from 5 years to 7 years, from 7 years to 10 years, more than 10 years, and the survival rate was calculated for each phase. The removal rate of fixture after connecting the superstructure was 13% in maxillary cases and 2% in mandibular cases. The functioning survival rate in maxillary cases slightly decreased from 91% in less than 1 year to 87% after more than 10 years; however, the functioning survival rate in mandibular cases was about 99% in all periods. The removal rate of fixtures per patient was 23% in maxillary cases and 6% in mandibular ones. The average removal number of fixtures was 1.8 in maxillary cases and 1.2 in mandibular ones. The removal of the fixture occurred most frequently at less than 1 year in maxillary cases, but there was no tendency for a pattern of removal of fixture in mandibular cases.

  3. Prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction based on gender in Isfahan, Iran (2000-2009)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadian, Mahdi; Hosseini, Shidokht; Salehiniya, Hamid; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Khazaei, Salman; Soltani, Shahin; Sarrafkia, Ali; Golshahi, Jafar; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Determinant prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) based on gender in teen year’s period in Isfahan, Iran, was the aim of this study. METHODS This study is a prospective hospital-based study that consisted, all patients with AMI admitted to all hospitals (private and universal hospitals) in Isfahan and Najafabad (Iran) during 2000-2009. To determinant the prognostic factors of 28 days survival rate in patients based on gender, analysis conducted separately for male and female. In analysis, we use of t-test, log Rank tests, Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate Cox regression model. RESULTS Short-term (28 days) survival rate was 92.5% in male and 86.7% in female (P < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of death for age group 80 years and older was 12.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.14-31.3] in male and 8.78 (95% CI: 1.2-63.1) in female. HR for acute transmural MI of the unspecified site in male was 8.9 (95% CI: 4.68-16.97) and in female 9.33 (95% CI: 4.42-19.7). HR for receive of streptokinase in male was 1.11 (95% CI: 0.94-1.31) and in female was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.56-0.84). CONCLUSION Short-term survival rate in male was a higher than female. In male age, anatomic location of MI and hospital status and in female streptokinase use and anatomic location of MI was the most important prognostic factors of survival in-patient with AMI in Isfahan. PMID:26862341

  4. Repeated freeze-thaw cycles reduce the survival rate of osteocytes in bone-tendon constructs without affecting the mechanical properties of tendons.

    PubMed

    Suto, Kaori; Urabe, Ken; Naruse, Kouji; Uchida, Kentaro; Matsuura, Terumasa; Mikuni-Takagaki, Yuko; Suto, Mitsutoshi; Nemoto, Noriko; Kamiya, Kentaro; Itoman, Moritoshi

    2012-03-01

    Frozen bone-patellar tendon bone allografts are useful in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as the freezing procedure kills tissue cells, thereby reducing immunogenicity of the grafts. However, a small portion of cells in human femoral heads treated by standard bone-bank freezing procedures survive, thus limiting the effectiveness of allografts. Here, we characterized the survival rates and mechanisms of cells isolated from rat bones and tendons that were subjected to freeze-thaw treatments, and evaluated the influence of these treatments on the mechanical properties of tendons. After a single freeze-thaw cycle, most cells isolated from frozen bone appeared morphologically as osteocytes and expressed both osteoblast- and osteocyte-related genes. Transmission electron microscopic observation of frozen cells using freeze-substitution revealed that a small number of osteocytes maintained large nuclei with intact double membranes, indicating that these osteocytes in bone matrix were resistant to ice crystal formation. We found that tendon cells were completely killed by a single freeze-thaw cycle, whereas bone cells exhibited a relatively high survival rate, although survival was significantly reduced after three freeze-thaw cycles. In patella tendons, the ultimate stress, Young's modulus, and strain at failure showed no significant differences between untreated tendons and those subjected to five freeze-thaw cycles. In conclusion, we identified that cells surviving after freeze-thaw treatment of rat bones were predominantly osteocytes. We propose that repeated freeze-thaw cycles could be applied for processing bone-tendon constructs prior to grafting as the treatment did not affect the mechanical property of tendons and drastically reduced surviving osteocytes, thereby potentially decreasing allograft immunogenecity.

  5. Characteristics and preliminary observations of the influence of electromyostimulation on the size and function of human skeletal muscle during 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvoisin, Marc R.; Convertino, Victor A.; Buchanan, Paul; Gollnick, Philip A.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of transcutaneous electromyostimulation (EMS) on the development of atrophy and the loss of strength in lower limb musculature in humans exposed to microgravity was determined in three subjects who received EMS twice daily in a 3-d on/1-d off cycle on their dominant leg during 30 days of bedrest. The output waveform from the stimulator was sequenced to the knee extensors, knee flexors, ankle extensors, and ankle flexors, and caused three isometric contractions of each muscle group per minute. It was found that, in the dominant leg, EMS acted to attenuate the changes caused by bedrest, such as reductions in the leg volume, muscle compartment size, cross-sectional area of slow- and fast-twitch fibers, strength, and aerobic enzyme activities, and an increase in leg compliance.

  6. Lowering GTP level increases survival of amino acid starvation but slows growth rate for Bacillus subtilis cells lacking (p)ppGpp.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Alycia N; Kriel, Allison; Wang, Jue D

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial cells sense external nutrient availability to regulate macromolecular synthesis and consequently their growth. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the starvation-inducible nucleotide (p)ppGpp negatively regulates GTP levels, both to resist nutritional stress and to maintain GTP homeostasis during growth. Here, we quantitatively investigated the relationship between GTP level, survival of amino acid starvation, and growth rate when GTP synthesis is uncoupled from its major homeostatic regulator, (p)ppGpp. We analyzed growth and nucleotide levels in cells that lack (p)ppGpp and found that their survival of treatment with a nonfunctional amino acid analog negatively correlates with both growth rate and GTP level. Manipulation of GTP levels modulates the exponential growth rate of these cells in a positive dose-dependent manner, such that increasing the GTP level increases growth rate. However, accumulation of GTP levels above a threshold inhibits growth, suggesting a toxic effect. Strikingly, adenine counteracts GTP stress by preventing GTP accumulation in cells lacking (p)ppGpp. Our results emphasize the importance of maintaining appropriate levels of GTP to maximize growth: cells can survive amino acid starvation by decreasing GTP level, which comes at a cost to growth, while (p)ppGpp enables rapid adjustment to nutritional stress by adjusting GTP level, thus maximizing fitness.

  7. Evaluation of survival and success rates of dental implants reported in longitudinal studies with a follow-up period of at least 10 years: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Poubel, L A da C; Ferreira, V F; Barboza, E dos S P

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the survival and success rates of osseointegrated implants determined in longitudinal studies that conducted a follow-up of at least 10 years. A broad electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for relevant publications in indexed journals, evaluating the clinical performance of dental implants. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, two reviewers analyzed titles, abstracts, and complete articles, prioritizing studies of the randomized clinical trial type. A total of 23 articles were included in this review. Ten prospective studies, nine retrospective studies, and four randomized clinical trials, which evaluated 7711 implants, were selected. The mean follow-up time of the studies included was 13.4 years. All of the studies reported survival rates and mean marginal bone resorption values, with cumulative mean values of 94.6% and 1.3mm, respectively. Fourteen studies related success rates. Taking into consideration the disparate outcome measures employed to assess dental implant performance and within the limitations of this systematic review, we may affirm that osseointegrated implants are safe and present high survival rates and minimal marginal bone resorption in the long term.

  8. Exposure to microgravity for 30 days onboard Bion M1 caused muscle atrophy and decreased regeneration in the mouse femoral Quadriceps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora; Radugina, Elena A.; Almeida, Eduardo; Blaber, Elizabeth; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Markitantova, Yulia

    Mechanical unloading of muscle during spaceflight in microgravity is known to cause muscular atrophy, changes in muscle fiber type composition, gene expression, and reductions in regenerative muscle growth. Although limited data exists for long-term effects of microgravity in human muscle, these processes have mostly been studied in rodents for short periods of time, up to two weeks of spaceflight. Here we report on how 30-day, long-term, mechanical unloading in microgravity affects mouse muscle of the femoral Quadriceps group. To conduct these studies we used muscle tissue from 6 mice from the NASA Biospecimen Sharing Program conducted in collaboration with the Institute for Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, during the Russian Bion M1 biosatellite mission in 2013. Muscle morphology observed in histological sections shows signs of extensive atrophy and regenerative hypoplasia. Specifically, we observed a two-fold decrease in the number of myonuclei and low density of myofibrils, their separation and fragmentation. Despite obvious atrophy, muscle regeneration nevertheless appears to have continued after 30 days in microgravity as evidenced by thin and short newly formed muscle fibers. Many of them however showed evidence of apoptosis and degradation of synthesized fibrils, suggesting long-term unloading in microgravity affects late stages of myofiber differentiation. Ground asynchronous and vivarium control animals showed normal, well-developed tissue structure with sufficient blood and nerve supply and evidence of regenerative formation of new muscle fibers free of apoptotic nuclei. Myofiber nuclei stress responses in spaceflight animals was detected by positive nuclear immunolocalization of c-jun and c-myc proteins. Regenerative activity of satellite cells in muscle was localized with pax-7, MyoD and MCad immunostaining, and did not appear altered in microgravity. In summary, long-term spaceflight in microgravity causes significant atrophy

  9. The effect of interactions between dietary egg white protein and zinc on body weight, bone growth and tissue trace metals in the 30-day-old rat.

    PubMed

    Wallwork, J C; Johnson, L K; Milne, D B; Sandstead, H H

    1983-07-01

    Nine groups of 30-day-old rats were fed different diets, which contained 8, 15 or 20% egg white (equivalent to 6.0, 11.3 and 15.0% protein, respectively) each at 3 levels of zinc (6, 12 and 18 ppm zinc) for 30 days. The rats consuming the 6.0% protein, regardless of zinc intake, gained less weight than the groups fed 11.3 or 15.0% protein. Plasma zinc was not influenced by dietary egg white protein content, whereas, plasma zinc levels were lower in the rats fed 6 ppm dietary zinc compared to those fed 12 or 18 ppm zinc. Of the liver trace metals measured, only iron appeared to be influenced by an egg white protein-zinc interaction. Increasing dietary egg white protein led to increased concentrations of liver zinc and magnesium. Dietary zinc levels had no effect on the concentration of these metals in the liver. Liver calcium and copper concentrations were not significantly influenced by either dietary zinc or egg white protein. Femur weights and lengths were lower in the rats fed 6.0% than in those fed 11.3 or 15.0% protein diet but were unaffected by dietary zinc. Femur width was related to dietary protein and zinc. Dietary protein and zinc were interrelated in their affect on femur zinc levels. Femur zinc concentrations increased with increasing dietary zinc levels. Also femur zinc levels decreased with increasing dietary protein content. Other femur metal (copper, iron and calcium) concentrations were higher in rats fed the low level versus the higher levels of protein, but were not influenced by dietary zinc. These results show that dietary zinc and egg white protein are interrelated with regard to their effect on body and femur growth and tissue trace metal content.

  10. Immunotoxicological Evaluation of Corn Genetically Modified with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ah Gene by a 30-Day Feeding Study in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yan; Liang, Chunlai; Wang, Wei; Fang, Jin; Sun, Nana; Jia, Xudong; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    This study was to investigate the immunotoxicological potential of corn genetically modified (GM) with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ah gene in BALB/c mice. Female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: the negative control group, the parental corn group, the GM corn group and the positive control group with 10 mice per group. Mice in the GM corn group and the parental corn group were fed with diets containing 70% corresponding corn for 30 days. Mice in the negative control group and the positive control group were fed with AIN93G diet, administered with saline or 200 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY) via intraperitoneal injection 24 h before the termination of the study, respectively. At the end of the study, the immunotoxicological effects of the GM corn were evaluated through immunopathology parameters including body and organ weights, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, histological examination, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotype; humoral immunity including antibody plaque-forming cell, serum immunoglobulin, cytokine and half hemolysis value; cellular immunity such as mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte reaction, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction; non-specific immunity including phagocytic activities of phagocytes, natural killer cell activity. A single dose of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg bw) was found to have significant adverse effects on immunopathology, cellular immunity, and humoral immunity in mice. The corn genetically modified with Bt Cry1Ah gene is considered consistent with the parental corn in terms of immunopathology, humoral immunity, cellular immunity and non-specific immunity. No adverse immunotoxicological effects of GM corn with Bt Cry1Ah gene were found when feeding mice for 30 days. PMID:24520311

  11. Immunotoxicological evaluation of corn genetically modified with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ah gene by a 30-day feeding study in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Yan; Liang, Chunlai; Wang, Wei; Fang, Jin; Sun, Nana; Jia, Xudong; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    This study was to investigate the immunotoxicological potential of corn genetically modified (GM) with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ah gene in BALB/c mice. Female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: the negative control group, the parental corn group, the GM corn group and the positive control group with 10 mice per group. Mice in the GM corn group and the parental corn group were fed with diets containing 70% corresponding corn for 30 days. Mice in the negative control group and the positive control group were fed with AIN93G diet, administered with saline or 200 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide (CY) via intraperitoneal injection 24 h before the termination of the study, respectively. At the end of the study, the immunotoxicological effects of the GM corn were evaluated through immunopathology parameters including body and organ weights, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, histological examination, peripheral blood lymphocytes phenotype; humoral immunity including antibody plaque-forming cell, serum immunoglobulin, cytokine and half hemolysis value; cellular immunity such as mitogen-induced splenocyte proliferation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte reaction, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction; non-specific immunity including phagocytic activities of phagocytes, natural killer cell activity. A single dose of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg bw) was found to have significant adverse effects on immunopathology, cellular immunity, and humoral immunity in mice. The corn genetically modified with Bt Cry1Ah gene is considered consistent with the parental corn in terms of immunopathology, humoral immunity, cellular immunity and non-specific immunity. No adverse immunotoxicological effects of GM corn with Bt Cry1Ah gene were found when feeding mice for 30 days.

  12. Nasopharyngeal cancer: a review of 1605 patients treated radically with cobalt 60. [5- and 10-year survival rates and complications of radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.C.

    1980-04-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 1605 patients with histologically proven and radically treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. All were followed for a minimum of five years; 833 patients had a minimum follow-up period of ten years. Treatment results were reviewed according to: (1) size of primary tumor; (2) base of skull invasion; (3) cranial nerve involvement; (4) cervical node metastases; and (5) distant spread. An appropriate staging system was developed that reflected these prognostic factors. The evidence presented indicates that in this series of patients, base of skull involvement was less ominous than cranial nerve involvement. Unilteral lymph node involvement carried a better prognosis than bilateral neck nodes, this was the poorest sign of all since it predicted distant metastases. The average 5-year survival rate for 1605 patients in all stages, was 529/1605(32.1%); the 10-year survival rate for 833 patients in all stages was 20.2%.

  13. Robust estimates of environmental effects on population vital rates: an integrated capture-recapture model of seasonal brook trout growth, survival and movement in a stream network.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Benjamin H; Schueller, Paul; Bassar, Ronald D; Nislow, Keith H; Coombs, Jason A; Sakrejda, Krzysztof; Morrissey, Michael; Sigourney, Douglas B; Whiteley, Andrew R; O'Donnell, Matthew J; Dubreuil, Todd L

    2015-03-01

    Modelling the effects of environmental change on populations is a key challenge for ecologists, particularly as the pace of change increases. Currently, modelling efforts are limited by difficulties in establishing robust relationships between environmental drivers and population responses. We developed an integrated capture-recapture state-space model to estimate the effects of two key environmental drivers (stream flow and temperature) on demographic rates (body growth, movement and survival) using a long-term (11 years), high-resolution (individually tagged, sampled seasonally) data set of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from four sites in a stream network. Our integrated model provides an effective context within which to estimate environmental driver effects because it takes full advantage of data by estimating (latent) state values for missing observations, because it propagates uncertainty among model components and because it accounts for the major demographic rates and interactions that contribute to annual survival. We found that stream flow and temperature had strong effects on brook trout demography. Some effects, such as reduction in survival associated with low stream flow and high temperature during the summer season, were consistent across sites and age classes, suggesting that they may serve as robust indicators of vulnerability to environmental change. Other survival effects varied across ages, sites and seasons, indicating that flow and temperature may not be the primary drivers of survival in those cases. Flow and temperature also affected body growth rates; these responses were consistent across sites but differed dramatically between age classes and seasons. Finally, we found that tributary and mainstem sites responded differently to variation in flow and temperature. Annual survival (combination of survival and body growth across seasons) was insensitive to body growth and was most sensitive to flow (positive) and temperature (negative

  14. Estimating movement and survival rates of a small saltwater fish using autonomous antenna receiver arrays and passive integrated transponder tags

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rudershausen, Paul J.; Buckel, Jeffery A.; Dubreuil, Todd; O'Donnell, Matthew J.; Hightower, Joseph E.; Poland, Steven J.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of small (12.5 mm long) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and custom detection antennas for obtaining fine-scale movement and demographic data of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus in a salt marsh creek. Apparent survival and detection probability were estimated using a Cormack Jolly Seber (CJS) model fitted to detection data collected by an array of 3 vertical antennas from November 2010 to March 2011 and by a single horizontal antenna from April to August 2011. Movement of mummichogs was monitored during the period when the array of vertical antennas was used. Antenna performance was examined in situ using tags placed in wooden dowels (drones) and in live mummichogs. Of the 44 tagged fish, 42 were resighted over the 9 mo monitoring period. The in situ detection probabilities of the drone and live mummichogs were high (~80-100%) when the ambient water depth was less than ~0.8 m. Upstream and downstream movement of mummichogs was related to hourly water depth and direction of tidal current in a way that maximized time periods over which mummichogs utilized the intertidal vegetated marsh. Apparent survival was lower during periods of colder water temperatures in December 2010 and early January 2011 (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.979) than during other periods of the study (median estimate of daily apparent survival = 0.992). During late fall and winter, temperature had a positive effect on the CJS detection probability of a tagged mummichog, likely due to greater fish activity over warmer periods. During the spring and summer, this pattern reversed possibly due to mummichogs having reduced activity during the hottest periods. This study demonstrates the utility of PIT tags and continuously operating autonomous detection systems for tracking fish at fine temporal scales, and improving estimates of demographic parameters in salt marsh creeks that are difficult or impractical to sample with active fishing gear.

  15. Genotypic variation in spike fertility traits and ovary size as determinants of floret and grain survival rate in wheat.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zifeng; Slafer, Gustavo A; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    Spike fertility traits are critical attributes for grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we examine the genotypic variation in three important traits: maximum number of floret primordia, number of fertile florets, and number of grains. We determine their relationship in determining spike fertility in 30 genotypes grown under two contrasting conditions: field and greenhouse. The maximum number of floret primordia per spikelet (MFS), fertile florets per spikelet (FFS), and number of grains per spikelet (GS) not only exhibited large genotypic variation in both growth conditions and across all spikelet positions studied, but also displayed moderate levels of heritability. FFS was closely associated with floret survival and only weakly related to MFS. We also found that the post-anthesis process of grain set/abortion was important in determining genotypic variation in GS; an increase in GS was mainly associated with improved grain survival. Ovary size at anthesis was associated with both floret survival (pre-anthesis) and grain survival (post-anthesis), and was thus believed to 'connect' the two traits. In this work, proximal florets (i.e. the first three florets from the base of a spikelet: F1, F2, and F3) produced fertile florets and set grains in most cases. The ovary size of more distal florets (F4 and beyond) seemed to act as a decisive factor for grain setting and effectively reflected pre-anthesis floret development. In both growth conditions, GS positively correlated with ovary size of florets in the distal position (F4), suggesting that assimilates allocated to distal florets may play a critical role in regulating grain set. PMID:27279276

  16. Impact of competitor species composition on predicting diameter growth and survival rates of Douglas-fir trees in southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bravo, Felipe; Hann, D.W.; Maguire, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Mixed conifer and hardwood stands in southwestern Oregon were studied to explore the hypothesis that competition effects on individual-tree growth and survival will differ according to the species comprising the competition measure. Likewise, it was hypothesized that competition measures should extrapolate best if crown-based surrogates are given preference over diameter-based (basal area based) surrogates. Diameter growth and probability of survival were modeled for individual Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees growing in pure stands. Alternative models expressing one-sided and two-sided competition as a function of either basal area or crown structure were then applied to other plots in which Douglas-fir was mixed with other conifers and (or) hardwood species. Crown-based variables outperformed basal area based variables as surrogates for one-sided competition in both diameter growth and survival probability, regardless of species composition. In contrast, two-sided competition was best represented by total basal area of competing trees. Surrogates reflecting differences in crown morphology among species relate more closely to the mechanics of competition for light and, hence, facilitate extrapolation to species combinations for which no observations are available.

  17. A flexible cure rate model for spatially correlated survival data based on generalized extreme value distribution and Gaussian process priors.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Wang, Xia; Dey, Dipak K

    2016-09-01

    Our present work proposes a new